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Sample records for reductase inhibitors reduce

  1. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change

  2. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, other lipid-lowering medication, antiplatelet therapy, and the risk of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramcharan, A.S.; van Stralen, K.J.; Snoep, J.D.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, A.K.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2009-01-01

    Background: Statins [3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] and antiplatelet therapy reduce the risk of atherosclerotic disease. Besides a reduction of lipid levels, statins might also have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties, and anti-platelet

  3. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... and improvement in objective parameters for bladder outflow obstruction. Approximately 30 to 50% of patients will respond to treatment with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. The definitive role of pharmacological treatment in symptomatic BPH remains to be established, although it seems that patients unfit...

  4. Dietary sources of aldose reductase inhibitors: prospects for alleviating diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Megha; Muthenna, P; Suryanarayana, P; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2008-01-01

    Activation of polyol pathway due to increased aldose reductase activity is one of the several mechanisms that have been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Though numerous synthetic aldose reductase inhibitors have been tested, these have not been very successful clinically. Therefore, a number of common plant/ natural products used in Indian culinary have been evaluated for their aldose reductase inhibitory potential in the present study. The aqueous extracts of 22 plant-derived materials were prepared and evaluated for the inhibitory property against rat lens and human recombinant aldose reductase. Specificity of these extracts towards aldose reductase was established by testing their ability to inhibit a closely related enzyme viz, aldehyde reductase. The ex vivo incubation of erythrocytes in high glucose containing medium was used to underscore the significance in terms of prevention of intracellular sorbitol accumulation. Among the 22 dietary sources tested, 10 showed considerable inhibitory potential against both rat lens and human recombinant aldose reductase. Prominent inhibitory property was found in spinach, cumin, fennel, lemon, basil and black pepper with an approximate IC50 of 0.2 mg/mL with an excellent selectivity towards aldose reductase. As against this, 10 to 20 times higher concentrations were required for 50% inhibition of aldehyde reductase. Reduction in the accumulation of intracellular sorbitol by the dietary extracts further substantiated their in vivo efficacy. The findings reported here indicate the scope of adapting life-style modifications in the form of inclusion of certain common sources in the diet for the management of diabetic complications.

  5. Identification of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Active Compound in Medicinal Forest Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Rahmania

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death worldwide, hypercholesterolemia is one of the causes. Three medicinal forest plants are potential natural resources to be developed as cholesterol-reducing herbal product, but scientific informations on their mechanism is still limited. The objective of this research is to explore the potency of the leaf of Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia, Jabon (Antocephalus macrophyllus, and Mindi (Melia azedarach as inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR, a key enzyme in the regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis. Samples were macerated in ethanol 96% and the filtrate was partitioned using n-hexane and chloroform to obtain the ethanolic flavonoid extract. The effect of each extracts on the HMG-CoA reductase activity were analyzed using HMGR assay kit. At concentration of 10 ppm the G.ulmifolia ethanolic extract showed the highest inhibitory activity as well as pravastatin control inhibitor.  The phenolic content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 11.00, 34.83, and 13.67 mg gallic acid AE/g dried leaves, respectively. The flavonoid content of the ethanolic extracts of G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach were: 0.22, 0.64, and 0.78 mg QE/g dried leaves, respectively. Interestingly, G.ulmifolia extract the lowest concentration of phenolic and flavonoid content. HPLC analysis showed that all samples contain quercetin at similiar small concentrations (6.7%, 6.6%, and 7.0% for G.ulmifolia, A.macrophyllus, and M.azedarach, respectively. This indicating other active compounds may play some roles in this inhibitory action on HMG-CoA reductase activity. Further identification using LC-MS/MS showed that G.ulmifolia flavonoid extract contained an unidetified coumpound with molecural weight of 380.0723 Da.  

  6. Pichia stipitis xylose reductase helps detoxifying lignocellulosic hydrolysate by reducing 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural (HMF

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    Röder Anja

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia stipitis xylose reductase (Ps-XR has been used to design Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that are able to ferment xylose. One example is the industrial S. cerevisiae xylose-consuming strain TMB3400, which was constructed by expression of P. stipitis xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase and overexpression of endogenous xylulose kinase in the industrial S. cerevisiae strain USM21. Results In this study, we demonstrate that strain TMB3400 not only converts xylose, but also displays higher tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate during anaerobic batch fermentation as well as 3 times higher in vitro HMF and furfural reduction activity than the control strain USM21. Using laboratory strains producing various levels of Ps-XR, we confirm that Ps-XR is able to reduce HMF both in vitro and in vivo. Ps-XR overexpression increases the in vivo HMF conversion rate by approximately 20%, thereby improving yeast tolerance towards HMF. Further purification of Ps-XR shows that HMF is a substrate inhibitor of the enzyme. Conclusion We demonstrate for the first time that xylose reductase is also able to reduce the furaldehyde compounds that are present in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Possible implications of this newly characterized activity of Ps-XR on lignocellulosic hydrolysate fermentation are discussed.

  7. Synthesis and Activity of a New Series of(Z-3-Phenyl-2-benzoylpropenoic Acid Derivatives as Aldose Reductase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Jie Wang

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available During the course of studies directed towards the discovery of novel aldose reductase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetic complications, we synthesized a series of new (Z-3-phenyl-2-benzoylpropenoic acid derivatives and tested their in vitro inhibitory activities on rat lens aldose reductase. Of these compounds, (Z-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-(4-methylbenzoylpropenoicacid(3k was identified as the most potent inhibitor, with an IC50 of 0.49μM. The theoretical binding mode of 3k was obtained by simulation of its docking into the active site of the human aldose reductase crystal structure.

  8. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and prostatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F H

    1994-08-01

    5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors are a new class of substances with very specific effects on type I and type II 5 alpha R which may be of use in the treatment of skin disease, such as male pattern baldness, male acne and hirsutism, as well as prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. At least two types of 5 alpha R inhibitors with a different pH optimum have been described. cDNA encoding for both the type I and the type II enzyme has been cloned. Most of the orally effective 5 alpha R inhibitors belong to the class of 4-azasteroids. The radical substituted in the 17 position of the steroid ring seems to be related to species specific variations and to the types of 5 alpha R enzymes in different species and organ systems. 5 alpha R inhibitors lead to a decrease of plasma DHT by about 65% while there is a slight rise in plasma testosterone. The decrease of tissue DHT in the ventral prostate of the intact rat, the dog and in humans is more pronounced and amounts to about 85%. There is a reciprocal rise of tissue T in these systems. The application of an inhibitor of 5 alpha R type II leads to a shrinkage of BPH in men by about 30%. In the rat a similar shrinkage accompanied by a significant decrease of total organ DNA occurs. This decrease, however, is not as pronounced as can be achieved with castration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors did not increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng-Fu Hsieh

    Full Text Available This nationwide population-based study investigated the risk of cardiovascular diseases after 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD in Taiwan.In total, 1,486 adult patients newly diagnosed with BPH and who used 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors were recruited as the study cohort, along with 9,995 subjects who did not use 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors as a comparison cohort from 2003 to 2008. Each patient was monitored for 5 years, and those who subsequently had cardiovascular diseases were identified. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the risk of cardiovascular diseases between the study and comparison cohorts after adjusting for possible confounding risk factors.The patients who received 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy had a lower cumulative rate of cardiovascular diseases than those who did not receive 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy during the 5-year follow-up period (8.4% vs. 11.2%, P=0.003. In subgroup analysis, the 5-year cardiovascular event hazard ratio (HR was lower among the patients older than 65 years with 91 to 365 cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor use (HR=0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.42 to 0.92; P=0.018, however there was no difference among the patients with 28 to 90 and more than 365 cDDD 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor use (HR=1.14, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.68; P=0.518 and HR=0.83, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.20; P=0.310, respectively.5-alpha-reductase inhibitor therapy did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in the BPH patients in 5 years of follow-up. Further mechanistic research is needed.

  10. 5,6-Dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine potentiates the anti-HIV-1 activity of ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Jonathan M.; Heineman, Richard H.; Beach, Lauren B.; Martin, Jessica L.; Schnettler, Erica K.; Dapp, Michael J.; Patterson, Steven E.; Mansky, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The nucleoside analog 5,6-dihydro-5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (KP-1212) has been investigated as a first-in-class lethal mutagen of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Since a prodrug monotherapy did not reduce viral loads in Phase II clinical trials, we tested if ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors (RNRIs) combined with KP-1212 would improve antiviral activity. KP-1212 potentiated the activity of gemcitabine and resveratrol and simultaneously increased the viral mutant frequency. G-to-C ...

  11. Discovery of Fungal Denitrification Inhibitors by Targeting Copper Nitrite Reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masaki; Kumar, Ashutosh; Muddassar, Muhammad; Matsuyama, Akihisa; Yoshida, Minoru; Zhang, Kam Y J

    2017-02-27

    The efficient application of nitrogenous fertilizers is urgently required, as their excessive and inefficient use is causing substantial economic loss and environmental pollution. A significant amount of applied nitrogen in agricultural soils is lost as nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in the environment due to the microbial denitrification process. The widely distributed fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a major denitrifier in agricultural soils and its denitrification activity could be targeted to reduce nitrogen loss in the form of N 2 O from agricultural soils. Here, we report the discovery of first small molecule inhibitors of copper nitrite reductase (NirK) from F. oxysporum, which is a key enzyme in the fungal denitrification process. The inhibitors were discovered by a hierarchical in silico screening approach consisting of pharmacophore modeling and molecular docking. In vitro evaluation of F. oxysporum NirK activity revealed several pyrimidone and triazinone based compounds with potency in the low micromolar range. Some of these compounds suppressed the fungal denitrification in vivo as well. The compounds reported here could be used as starting points for the development of nitrogenous fertilizer supplements and coatings as a means to prevent nitrogen loss by targeting fungal denitrification.

  12. Statins: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors demonstrate anti-atherosclerotic character due to their antioxidant capacity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Puttananjaiah, M.H.; Dhale, M.A.; Gaonkar, V.; Keni, S.

    inhibitors (commonly known as statins) are widely used in cardiovascular disease prevention to lower the cholesterol. The antioxidant activity of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors was studied by lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, DPPH, and hydroxyl radical...

  13. Crystallographic investigation of the cooperative interaction between trimethoprim, reduced cofactor and dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champness, J.N.; Stammers, D.K.; Beddell, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of the complex between E. coli form I dihydrofolate reductase, the antibacterial trimethoprim and NADPH has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The inhibitor and cofactor are in mutual contact. A flexible chain segment which includes Met 20 is in contact with the inhibitor in the presence of NADPH, but more distant in its absence. By contrast, the inhibitor conformation is little changed with NADPH present. The authors discuss these observations with regard to the mutually cooperative binding of these ligands to the protein, and to the associated enhancement of inhibitory selectivity shown by trimethoprim for bacterial as opposed to vertebrate enzyme. (Auth.)

  14. Systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics of N-4-benzoylaminophenylsulfonylglycine (BAPSG), a novel aldose reductase inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Ayalasomayajula, Surya P.; Rao, Cheruku S.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; DeRuiter, Jack; Kompella, Uday B.

    2004-01-01

    To better develop N-[4-(benzoylamino)phenylsulfonyl]glycine (BAPSG), a potent and selective aldose reductase inhibitor capable of delaying the progression of ocular diabetic complications, the objective of this study was to assess its pharmacokinetics. The plasma pharmacokinetics of BASPG was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes of administration and its distribution to various tissues including those of the eye was studied following intr...

  15. Cyclohex-1-ene carboxylic acids: synthesis and biological evaluation of novel inhibitors of human 5 alpha reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Eckhard; Salem, Ola I A; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2003-03-01

    In search of novel nonsteroidal mimics of steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha reductase, 4-(2-phenylethyl)cyclohex-1-ene carboxylic acids 1-5 were synthesized with different substituents in para position of the phenyl ring (1: N, N-diisopropylcarbamoyl, 2: phenyl, 3: phenoxy, 4: benzoyl, and 5: benzyl). The principal synthetic approach for the desired compounds consisted of a Wittig olefination between 1, 4-dioxaspiro [4.5]-decane-8-carbaldehyde (4g and the appropriate phosphonium salts. The compounds were tested for inhibition of human 5 alpha reductase isozymes 1 and 2 using DU 145 cells and preparations from prostatic tissue, respectively. They turned out to be good inhibitors of the prostatic isozyme 2 with compound 1 being the most potent one (IC(50) = 760 nM). Isozyme 1 was only slightly inhibited. It is concluded that the novel structures are appropriate for being further optimized, aiming at the development of a novel drug for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  16. 5α-reductases in human physiology: an unfolding story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2012-01-01

    5α-reductases are a family of isozymes expressed in a wide host of tissues including the central nervous system (CNS) and play a pivotal role in male sexual differentiation, development and physiology. A comprehensive literature search from 1970 to 2011 was made through PubMed and the relevant information was summarized. 5α reductases convert testosterone, progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, aldosterone and corticosterone into their respective 5α-dihydro-derivatives, which serve as substrates for 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. The latter transforms these 5α-reduced metabolites into a subclass of neuroactive steroid hormones with distinct physiological functions. The neuroactive steroid hormones modulate a multitude of functions in human physiology encompassing regulation of sexual differentiation, neuroprotection, memory enhancement, anxiety, sleep and stress, among others. In addition, 5α -reductase type 3 is also implicated in the N-glycosylation of proteins via formation of dolichol phosphate. The family of 5α-reductases was targeted for drug development to treat pathophysiological conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. While the clinical use of 5α-reductase inhibitors was well established, the scope and the magnitude of the adverse side effects of such drugs, especially on the CNS, is still unrecognized due to lack of knowledge of the various physiological functions of this family of enzymes, especially in the CNS. There is an urgent need to better understand the function of 5α-reductases and the role of neuroactive steroids in human physiology in order to minimize the potential adverse side effects of inhibitors targeting 5α-reductases to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia.

  17. Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase from Candida parapsilosis: purification and characterization as a conjugated polyketone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, H; Shimizu, S; Hattori, S; Yamada, H

    1989-02-24

    Ketopantoyl-lactone reductase (2-dehydropantoyl-lactone reductase, EC 1.1.1.168) was purified and crystallized from cells of Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The enzyme was found to be homogeneous on ultracentrifugation, high-performance gel-permeation liquid chromatography and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The relative molecular mass of the native and SDS-treated enzyme is approximately 40,000. The isoelectric point of the enzyme is 6.3. The enzyme was found to catalyze specifically the reduction of a variety of natural and unnatural polyketones and quinones other than ketopantoyl lactone in the presence of NADPH. Isatin and 5-methylisatin are rapidly reduced by the enzyme, the Km and Vmax values for isatin being 14 microM and 306 mumol/min per mg protein, respectively. Ketopantoyl lactone is also a good substrate (Km = 333 microM and Vmax = 481 mumol/min per mg protein). Reverse reaction was not detected with pantoyl lactone and NADP+. The enzyme is inhibited by quercetin, several polyketones and SH-reagents. 3,4-Dihydroxy-3-cyclobutene-1,2-dione, cyclohexenediol-1,2,3,4-tetraone and parabanic acid are uncompetitive inhibitors for the enzyme, the Ki values being 1.4, 0.2 and 3140 microM, respectively, with isatin as substrate. Comparison of the enzyme with the conjugated polyketone reductase of Mucor ambiguus (S. Shimizu, H. Hattori, H. Hata and H. Yamada (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 174, 37-44) and ketopantoyl-lactone reductase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggested that ketopantoyl-lactone reductase is a kind of conjugated polyketone reductase.

  18. Manumycin A Is a Potent Inhibitor of Mammalian Thioredoxin Reductase-1 (TrxR-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuladhar, Anupama; Rein, Kathleen S

    2018-04-12

    The anticancer effect of manumycin A (Man A) has been attributed to the inhibition of farnesyl transferase (FTase), an enzyme that is responsible for post-translational modification of Ras proteins. However, we have discovered that Man A inhibits mammalian cytosolic thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR-1) in a time-dependent manner, with an IC 50 of 272 nM with preincubation and 1586 nM without preincubation. The inhibition of TrxR-1 by Man A is irreversible and is the result of a covalent interaction between Man A and TrxR-1. Evidence presented herein demonstrates that Man A forms a Michael adduct with the selenocysteine residue, which is located in the C-terminal redox center of TrxR-1. Inhibitors of TrxR-1, which act through this mechanism, convert TrxR-1 into a SecTRAP, which utilizes NADPH to reduce oxygen to superoxide radical anion (O 2 -• ).

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of steroid 5 alpha-reductase of rat liver and prostate microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.; Cheung, A.H.; Reynolds, G.F.; Rasmusson, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    21-Diazo-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (Diazo-MAPD) inhibits steroid 5 alpha-reductase in liver microsomes of female rats with a K/sub i/ value of 8.7 +/- 1.7 nM, and the inhibition is competitive with testosterone. It also inhibits the binding of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, [ 3 H] 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([ 3 H]4-MA), to the enzyme in liver microsomes. The inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity and of inhibitor binding activity by diazo-MAPD becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. [1,2- 3 H]Diazo-MAPD binds to a single high affinity site in liver microsomes of female rats, and this binding requires NADPH. Without UV irradiation, this binding is reversible, and it becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. Both the initial reversible binding and the subsequent irreversible conjugation after UV irradiation are inhibited by inhibitors (diazo-MAPD and 4-MA) and substrates (progesterone and testosterone) of 5 alpha-reductase, but they are not inhibited by 5 alpha-reduced steroids. Photoaffinity labeled liver microsomes of female rats were solubilized and fractionated by high performance gel filtration. The radioactive conjugate eluted in one major peak at Mr 50,000

  20. Reduced bone mass and muscle strength in male 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara H Windahl

    Full Text Available Androgens are important regulators of bone mass but the relative importance of testosterone (T versus dihydrotestosterone (DHT for the activation of the androgen receptor (AR in bone is unknown. 5α-reductase is responsible for the irreversible conversion of T to the more potent AR activator DHT. There are two well established isoenzymes of 5α-reductase (type 1 and type 2, encoded by separate genes (Srd5a1 and Srd5a2. 5α-reductase type 2 is predominantly expressed in male reproductive tissues whereas 5α-reductase type 1 is highly expressed in liver and moderately expressed in several other tissues including bone. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of 5α-reductase type 1 for bone mass using Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Four-month-old male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had reduced trabecular bone mineral density (-36%, p<0.05 and cortical bone mineral content (-15%, p<0.05 but unchanged serum androgen levels compared with wild type (WT mice. The cortical bone dimensions were reduced in the male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice as a result of a reduced cortical periosteal circumference compared with WT mice. T treatment increased the cortical periosteal circumference (p<0.05 in orchidectomized WT mice but not in orchidectomized Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice. Male Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice demonstrated a reduced forelimb muscle grip strength compared with WT mice (p<0.05. Female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice had slightly increased cortical bone mass associated with elevated circulating levels of androgens. In conclusion, 5α-reductase type 1 inactivated male mice have reduced bone mass and forelimb muscle grip strength and we propose that these effects are due to lack of 5α-reductase type 1 expression in bone and muscle. In contrast, the increased cortical bone mass in female Srd5a1⁻/⁻ mice, is an indirect effect mediated by elevated circulating androgen levels.

  1. Fragment Discovery for the Design of Nitrogen Heterocycles as Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelke, Rupesh U; Degani, Mariam S; Raju, Archana; Ray, Mukti Kanta; Rajan, Mysore G R

    2016-08-01

    Fragment-based drug design was used to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) inhibitors. Screening of ligands against the Mtb DHFR enzyme resulted in the identification of multiple fragment hits with IC50 values in the range of 38-90 μM versus Mtb DHFR and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 31.5-125 μg/mL. These fragment scaffolds would be useful for anti-tubercular drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Protects against Hyperglycemic Stress by Activating Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kirtikar; Pal, Pabitra Bikash; Sonowal, Himangshu; Srivastava, Satish K; Ramana, Kota V

    2017-01-01

    We have shown earlier that pretreatment of cultured cells with aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors prevents hyperglycemia-induced mitogenic and proinflammatory responses. However, the effects of AR inhibitors on Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory responses have not been elucidated yet. We have investigated how AR inhibitor fidarestat protects high glucose- (HG-) induced cell viability changes by increasing the expression of Nrf2 and its dependent phase II antioxidant enzymes. Fidarestat pretreatment prevents HG (25 mM)-induced Thp1 monocyte viability. Further, treatment of Thp1 monocytes with fidarestat caused a time-dependent increase in the expression as well as the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2. In addition, fidarestat augmented the HG-induced Nrf2 expression and activity and also upregulated the expression of Nrf2-dependent proteins such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1) and NQO1 in Thp1 cells. Similarly, treatment with AR inhibitor also induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO1 in STZ-induced diabetic mice heart and kidney tissues. Further, AR inhibition increased the HG-induced expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and activation of AMPK- α 1 in Thp1 cells. Our results thus suggest that pretreatment with AR inhibitor prepares the monocytes against hyperglycemic stress by overexpressing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative proteins.

  3. Thermodynamic and Structure Guided Design of Statin Based Inhibitors of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarver, Ronald W.; Bills, Elizabeth; Bolton, Gary; Bratton, Larry D.; Caspers, Nicole L.; Dunbar, James B.; Harris, Melissa S.; Hutchings, Richard H.; Kennedy, Robert M.; Larsen, Scott D.; Pavlovsky, Alexander; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A.; Bainbridge, Graeme (Pfizer)

    2008-10-02

    Clinical studies have demonstrated that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) inhibitors, are effective at lowering mortality levels associated with cardiovascular disease; however, 2--7% of patients may experience statin-induced myalgia that limits compliance with a treatment regimen. High resolution crystal structures, thermodynamic binding parameters, and biochemical data were used to design statin inhibitors with improved HMGR affinity and therapeutic index relative to statin-induced myalgia. These studies facilitated the identification of imidazole 1 as a potent (IC{sub 50} = 7.9 nM) inhibitor with excellent hepatoselectivity (>1000-fold) and good in vivo efficacy. The binding of 1 to HMGR was found to be enthalpically driven with a {Delta}H of -17.7 kcal/M. Additionally, a second novel series of bicyclic pyrrole-based inhibitors was identified that induced order in a protein flap of HMGR. Similar ordering was detected in a substrate complex, but has not been reported in previous statin inhibitor complexes with HMGR.

  4. Brevetoxin-2, is a unique inhibitor of the C-terminal redox center of mammalian thioredoxin reductase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Tuladhar, Anupama; Rolle, Shantelle; Lai, Yanhao; Rodriguez Del Rey, Freddy; Zavala, Cristian E; Liu, Yuan; Rein, Kathleen S

    2017-08-15

    Karenia brevis, the Florida red tide dinoflagellate produces a suite of neurotoxins known as the brevetoxins. The most abundant of the brevetoxins PbTx-2, was found to inhibit the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, whereas the PbTx-3 has no effect on this system. On the other hand, PbTx-2 activates the reduction of small disulfides such as 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) by thioredoxin reductase. PbTx-2 has an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety which functions as an efficient electrophile and selenocysteine conjugates are readily formed. PbTx-2 blocks the inhibition of TrxR by the inhibitor curcumin, whereas curcumin blocks PbTx-2 activation of TrxR. It is proposed that the mechanism of inhibition of thioredoxin reduction is via the formation of a Michael adduct between selenocysteine and the α, β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety of PbTx-2. PbTx-2 had no effect on the rates of reactions catalyzed by related enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase or glutaredoxin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rational Design of Novel Allosteric Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors Showing Antibacterial Effects on Drug-Resistant Escherichia coli Escape Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Rodrigues, João V; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Shakhnovich, Eugene; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2017-07-21

    In drug discovery, systematic variations of substituents on a common scaffold and bioisosteric replacements are often used to generate diversity and obtain molecules with better biological effects. However, this could saturate the small-molecule diversity pool resulting in drug resistance. On the other hand, conventional drug discovery relies on targeting known pockets on protein surfaces leading to drug resistance by mutations of critical pocket residues. Here, we present a two-pronged strategy of designing novel drugs that target unique pockets on a protein's surface to overcome the above problems. Dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR, is a critical enzyme involved in thymidine and purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Several classes of compounds that are structural analogues of the substrate dihydrofolate have been explored for their antifolate activity. Here, we describe 10 novel small-molecule inhibitors of Escherichia coli DHFR, EcDHFR, belonging to the stilbenoid, deoxybenzoin, and chalcone family of compounds discovered by a combination of pocket-based virtual ligand screening and systematic scaffold hopping. These inhibitors show a unique uncompetitive or noncompetitive inhibition mechanism, distinct from those reported for all known inhibitors of DHFR, indicative of binding to a unique pocket distinct from either substrate or cofactor-binding pockets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that rescue mutants of EcDHFR, with reduced affinity to all known classes of DHFR inhibitors, are inhibited at the same concentration as the wild-type. These compounds also exhibit antibacterial activity against E. coli harboring the drug-resistant variant of DHFR. This discovery is the first report on a novel class of inhibitors targeting a unique pocket on EcDHFR.

  6. Symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: the role of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors in the prevention of acute urinary retention and surgical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Marigliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a disease that affects over 50% of males aged 50 years or older. In men aged >80 years, the incidence is 90%. BPH occurs in 9-25% of males aged 40 to 79 years. Fifty percent of patients with BPH are symptomatic. The symptoms include reduced urinary flow, nocturia, defective bladder emptying, urinary hesitancy, and dysuria. Disease progression can be associated with acute urinary retention (AUR. Prostatic obstruction includes mechanical and dynamic components, the latter mediated by alpha-muscarinic receptors. Treatment with alpha-1-blockers (alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin leads to rapid amelioration of symptoms and urinary flow, usually within one or two weeks. The 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs are “disease-modifying drugs.” They control the growth of the prostate by blocking the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT. Finasteride is a 5–ARI that is selective for type 2 receptors. Dutasteride is a powerful inhibitor of both 5- alpha reductase isoforms (type 1 and 2 and produces more complete suppression of DHT synthesis than finasteride. Dutasteride also has a much longer half-life than finasteride (five weeks versus five to six hours. The authors review the results of clinical trials involving finasteride and dutasteride, with and without alpha-1-blockers, highlighting the important role of dutasteride in improving acute urinary retention and eliminating the need for surgical therapy.

  7. Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Protects against Hyperglycemic Stress by Activating Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtikar Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have shown earlier that pretreatment of cultured cells with aldose reductase (AR inhibitors prevents hyperglycemia-induced mitogenic and proinflammatory responses. However, the effects of AR inhibitors on Nrf2-mediated anti-inflammatory responses have not been elucidated yet. We have investigated how AR inhibitor fidarestat protects high glucose- (HG- induced cell viability changes by increasing the expression of Nrf2 and its dependent phase II antioxidant enzymes. Fidarestat pretreatment prevents HG (25 mM-induced Thp1 monocyte viability. Further, treatment of Thp1 monocytes with fidarestat caused a time-dependent increase in the expression as well as the DNA-binding activity of Nrf2. In addition, fidarestat augmented the HG-induced Nrf2 expression and activity and also upregulated the expression of Nrf2-dependent proteins such as hemeoxygenase-1 (HO1 and NQO1 in Thp1 cells. Similarly, treatment with AR inhibitor also induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO1 in STZ-induced diabetic mice heart and kidney tissues. Further, AR inhibition increased the HG-induced expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and catalase and activation of AMPK-α1 in Thp1 cells. Our results thus suggest that pretreatment with AR inhibitor prepares the monocytes against hyperglycemic stress by overexpressing the Nrf2-dependent antioxidative proteins.

  8. Aldose reductase inhibitors from the leaves of Myrciaria dubia (H. B. & K.) McVaugh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kuroiwa, E; Tachibana, Y; Kawanishi, K; Ayala, F; Moriyasu, M

    2004-11-01

    Ellagic acid (1) and its two derivatives, 4-O-methylellagic acid (2) and 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid (3) were isolated as inhibitors of aldose reductase (AR) from Myrciaria dubia (H. B. & K.) McVaugh. Compound 2 was the first isolated from the nature. Compound 3 showed the strongest inhibition against human recombinant AR (HRAR) and rat lens AR (RLAR). Inhibitory activity of compound 3 against HRAR (IC50 value = 4.1 x 10(-8) M) was 60 times more than that of quercetin (2.5 x 10(-6) M). The type of inhibition against HRAR was uncompetitive.

  9. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin SH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shih-Hung Lin,1 Kao-Jean Huang,1,2 Ching-Feng Weng,1 David Shiuan1 1Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Development Center of Biotechnology, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR. The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening. Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, virtual screening, curcumin, salvianolic acid C

  10. Exploration of natural product ingredients as inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase through structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Hung; Huang, Kao-Jean; Weng, Ching-Feng; Shiuan, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol plays an important role in living cells. However, a very high level of cholesterol may lead to atherosclerosis. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase is the key enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, and the statin-like drugs are inhibitors of human HMG-CoA reductase (hHMGR). The present study aimed to virtually screen for potential hHMGR inhibitors from natural product to discover hypolipidemic drug candidates with fewer side effects and lesser toxicities. We used the 3D structure 1HWK from the PDB (Protein Data Bank) database of hHMGR as the target to screen for the strongly bound compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database. Many interesting molecules including polyphenolic compounds, polisubstituted heterocyclics, and linear lipophilic alcohols were identified and their ADMET (absorption, disrtibution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) properties were predicted. Finally, four compounds were obtained for the in vitro validation experiments. The results indicated that curcumin and salvianolic acid C can effectively inhibit hHMGR, with IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values of 4.3 µM and 8 µM, respectively. The present study also demonstrated the feasibility of discovering new drug candidates through structure-based virtual screening.

  11. Negative Impact of Testosterone Deficiency and 5α-Reductase Inhibitors Therapy on Metabolic and Sexual Function in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M

    2017-01-01

    elevated activities of liver function enzymes concomitant with reduction in circulating T levels, worsening erectile dysfunction (ED), and reduced quality of life.Although we have attempted to summarize the current literature pertaining to this critical topic "androgen deficiency" and its impact on men's health and quality of life, there remain many gaps in the knowledge regarding the biochemical pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of androgen deficiency. We wish to clearly state that there are areas of controversies, including whether age-related androgen deficiency (functional hypogonadism) merits treatment and whether T therapy provided real proven benefits. Finally, considerable debate exists with respect to the potential and purported cardiovascular (CV) risks of treating TD with exogenous T. For brevity sake, we will not discuss in detail the benefits of T therapy in men with TD since this topic is comprehensively covered by Dr. F. Saad's chapter in this book, entitled "Testosterone Therapy and Glucose Homeostasis in Men with Testosterone Deficiency (Hypogonadism)."We have made a concerted effort to address the controversy of T therapy in men with TD in the discussion. However, we wish to acknowledge that these issues will remain a matter of debate for some time to come. Only with advances in fundamental basic science and clinical research, some of these controversial issues may be laid to rest. Nevertheless, we believe that there is considerable body of credible evidence to suggest that T therapy of men with TD is safe and effective and provides a host of health benefits and therefore merits considerations in men with TD, irrespective of the underlying cause or etiology. An additional aspect of androgen deficiency is the drug-induced reduction in 5α-DHT levels by the use of 5α-reductase inhibitors. We also believe that physicians prescribing 5α-reductase inhibitors (i.e., finasteride or dutasteride) for relief of BPH symptoms or treatment of

  12. Epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, in diabetic neuropathy: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of diabetic patients with diabetic neuropathy, in India, were treated with epalrestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor. In this study, more than 2000 patients with diabetic neuropathy, who were treated with epalrestat for 3-12 months, were analyzed to assess the efficacy and the adverse reactions of the drug. Method: We analyzed the subjective symptoms (spontaneous pain, numbness, coldness and hypoesthesia and the nerve function tests (motor nerve conduction velocity, sensory nerve conduction velocity and vibration threshold. Result: The improvement rate of the subjective symptoms was 75% (slightly improved or better and that of the nerve function tests 36%. Adverse drug reactions were encountered in 52 (2.5% of the 2190 patients, none of which was severe. Conclusion: Although data are limited, it is strongly suggested that epalrestat is a highly effective and safe agent for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  13. Anti-neuroinflammatory efficacy of the aldose reductase inhibitor FMHM via phospholipase C/protein kinase C-dependent NF-κB and MAPK pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Jun [Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China); Dong, Xin; Wang, Ying-Hong; Ma, Zhi-Zhong; Jiang, Yong; Jin, Hong-Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Tu, Peng-Fei, E-mail: pengfeitu@vip.163.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) has a key role in several inflammatory diseases: diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, AR inhibition seems to be a useful strategy for anti-inflammation therapy. In the central nervous system (CNS), microglial over-activation is considered to be a central event in neuroinflammation. However, the effects of AR inhibition in CNS inflammation and its underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In the present study, we found that FMHM (a naturally derived AR inhibitor from the roots of Polygala tricornis Gagnep.) showed potent anti-neuroinflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting microglial activation and expression of inflammatory mediators. Mechanistic studies showed that FMHM suppressed the activity of AR-dependent phospholipase C/protein kinase C signaling, which further resulted in downstream inactivation of the IκB kinase/IκB/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. Therefore, AR inhibition-dependent NF-κB inactivation negatively regulated the transcription and expression of various inflammatory genes. AR inhibition by FMHM exerted neuroprotective effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuron–microglia co-cultures. These findings suggested that AR is a potential target for neuroinflammation inhibition and that FMHM could be an effective agent for treating or preventing neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • FMHM is a natural-derived aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor. • FMHM inhibits various neuroinflammatory mediator productions in vitro and in vivo. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent NF-κB pathway. • FMHM inhibits neuroinflammation via aldose reductase/PLC/PKC-dependent MAPK pathway. • FMHM protects neurons against inflammatory injury in microglia-neuron co-cultures.

  14. Relationships between HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin) use and strength, balance and falls in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerer, W; Delbaere, K; Bartlett, H; Lord, S R; Rowland, J

    2012-12-01

    To investigate associations between HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) use and muscle strength, balance, mobility and falls in older people. Five hundred community-dwelling people aged 70-90 years provided information about their medication use and undertook tests of lower limb strength, postural sway, leaning balance (maximal balance range and coordinated stability tests) and functional mobility. Participants were then followed up for 12 months with respect to falls. After adjusting for general health in analyses of covariance procedures, statin users had poorer maximal balance range than non-statin users (P = 0.017). Statin and non-statin users did not differ with respect to strength, postural sway, mobility or falls experienced in the follow-up year. In a sample of healthy older people, statin use was not associated with muscle weakness, postural sway, reduced mobility or falls. Statin users, however, had poorer leaning balance which may potentially increase fall risk in this group. © 2011 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Molecular structure, spectroscopic and docking analysis of 1,3-diphenylpyrazole-4-propionic acid: A good prostaglandin reductase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, T.; Velraj, G.

    2018-03-01

    The molecule 1,3-diphenylpyrazole-4-propionic acid (DPPA) was optimized to its minimum energy level using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The vibrational frequencies of DPPA were calculated along with their potential energy distribution (PED) and the obtained values are validated with the help of experimental calculations. The reactivity nature of the molecule was investigated with the aid of various DFT methods such as global reactivity descriptors, local reactivity descriptors, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), natural bond orbitals (NBOs), etc. The prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) result forecast that, DPPA can be more active as a prostaglandin (PG) reductase inhibitor. The PGs are biologically synthesized by the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme which exists in COX1 and COX2 forms. The PGs produced by COX2 enzyme induces inflammation and fungal infections and hence the inhibition of COX2 enzyme is indispensable in anti-inflammation and anti-fungal activities. The docking analysis of DPPA with COX enzymes (both COX1 and COX2) were carried out and eventually, it was found that DPPA can selectively inhibit COX2 enzyme and can serve as a PG reductase inhibitor thereby acting as a lead compound for the treatment of inflammation and fungal diseases.

  16. A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds β-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Rendina, Alan R; Williams, Shawn P; Moore, Michael L; Wang, Liping; Krueger, Julie A; Plant, Ramona N; Totoritis, Rachel D; Zhang, Guofeng; Briand, Jacques; Burkhart, William A; Brown, Kristin K; Parrish, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a complex, multifunctional enzyme that is solely responsible for the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acids. hFAS is highly expressed in a number of cancers, with low expression observed in most normal tissues. Although normal tissues tend to obtain fatty acids from the diet, tumor tissues rely on de novo fatty acid synthesis, making hFAS an attractive metabolic target for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the identification of GSK2194069, a potent and specific inhibitor of the β-ketoacyl reductase (KR) activity of hFAS; the characterization of its enzymatic and cellular mechanism of action; and its inhibition of human tumor cell growth. We also present the design of a new protein construct suitable for crystallography, which resulted in what is to our knowledge the first co-crystal structure of the human KR domain and includes a bound inhibitor.

  17. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar

    2010-08-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent membrane protein 5alpha-reductase irreversibly catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II. Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions. Clinical studies of SPE have been equivocal, with some showing significant results and others not. These inconsistent results may be due, in part, to varying bioactivities of the SPE used in the studies. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system. On the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5alpha-reduced product 5alpha-androstanedione, the inhibitory potency was measured and compared to those of finasteride, an approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor. SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL). The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II. SPET-085 effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is very low compared to data reported for other extracts. It can be concluded from data in the literature that SPET-085 is as effective as a hexane extract of saw palmetto that exhibited the highest levels of bioactivity, and is more effective than other SPEs tested. This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to

  18. Synthesis of organic nitrates of luteolin as a novel class of potent aldose reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi-Qin; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Peng, Sheng-Ming; Zou, Xiao-Qing

    2013-07-15

    Aldose reductase (AR) plays an important role in the design of drugs that prevent and treat diabetic complications. Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) have received significant attentions as potent therapeutic drugs. Based on combination principles, three series of luteolin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated for their AR inhibitory activity and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing capacity in vitro. Eighteen compounds were found to be potent ARIs with IC50 values ranging from (0.099±0.008) μM to (2.833±0.102) μM. O(7)-Nitrooxyethyl-O(3'),O(4')-ethylidene luteolin (La1) showed the most potent AR inhibitory activity [IC50=(0.099±0.008) μM]. All organic nitrate derivatives released low concentrations of NO in the presence of l-cysteine. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that introduction of an NO donor, protection of the catechol structure, and the ether chain of a 2-carbon spacer as a coupling chain on the luteolin scaffold all help increase the AR inhibitory activity of the resulting compound. This class of NO-donor luteolin derivatives as efficient ARIs offer a new concept for the development and design of new drug for preventive and therapeutic drugs for diabetic complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Antony

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR, the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger, Curcuma longa (turmeric Allium sativum (garlic and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek. Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  20. Identification of Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitors from Spices: A Molecular Docking and Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients results in a diverse range of complications such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases. The role of aldose reductase (AR), the key enzyme in the polyol pathway, in these complications is well established. Due to notable side-effects of several drugs, phytochemicals as an alternative has gained considerable importance for the treatment of several ailments. In order to evaluate the inhibitory effects of dietary spices on AR, a collection of phytochemicals were identified from Zingiber officinale (ginger), Curcuma longa (turmeric) Allium sativum (garlic) and Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek). Molecular docking was performed for lead identification and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dynamic behaviour of these protein-ligand interactions. Gingerenones A, B and C, lariciresinol, quercetin and calebin A from these spices exhibited high docking score, binding affinity and sustained protein-ligand interactions. Rescoring of protein ligand interactions at the end of MD simulations produced binding scores that were better than the initially docked conformations. Docking results, ligand interactions and ADMET properties of these molecules were significantly better than commercially available AR inhibitors like epalrestat, sorbinil and ranirestat. Thus, these natural molecules could be potent AR inhibitors.

  1. Evaluation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase Inhibitors as Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum-Quenching Reagents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Sternberg, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for a wide range of infections. Production of virulence factors and biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa are partly regulated by cell-to-cell communication quorum-sensing systems. Identification of quorum-quenching reagents...... which block the quorum-sensing process can facilitate development of novel treatment strategies for P. aeruginosa infections. We have used molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies to elucidate the efficiencies of two potential quorum-quenching reagents, triclosan and green tea...... epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which both function as inhibitors of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (ENR) from the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis pathway. Our studies suggest that EGCG has a higher binding affinity towards ENR of P. aeruginosa and is an efficient quorum-quenching reagent...

  2. In vivo assay for conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone by rat prostatic steroid 5 alpha-reductase and comparison of two inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toomey, R.E.; Goode, R.L.; Petrow, V.; Neubauer, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    An in vivo assay for steroid 5 alpha-reductase in rat ventral prostate has been developed and used to compare the inhibitory activity of N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5 alpha-androstane-17 beta-carboxamide (4-MA) and 6-methylene-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (LY207320). Immature rats (70-80 g) received test compounds 30 min prior to s.c. injection of [3H]-T. The rats were sacrificed 30 min later and the ventral prostates were analyzed for [3H]-T metabolites. Intraprostatic [3H]-T and [3H]-DHT reached peak levels within 5 min after injection of [3H]-T and declined to about 25% of peak levels after 2 hr. 4-MA was a very potent inhibitor of [3H]-DHT formation with an estimated IC50 of 0.2 mg/kg. LY207320, an inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase in vitro, was weakly active in vivo and did not achieve greater than 45% inhibition at high doses (greater than 200 mg/kg, s.c.). Tissue uptake of [3H]-T was also inhibited by LY207320, which may contribute to its inhibitory activity on accessory sex organ growth in the rat

  3. Dihydroquinazolines as a novel class of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase inhibitors: discovery, synthesis, and characterization of their binding mode by protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Stephen; Alphey, Magnus S; Jones, Deuan C; Shanks, Emma J; Street, Ian P; Frearson, Julie A; Wyatt, Paul G; Gilbert, Ian H; Fairlamb, Alan H

    2011-10-13

    Trypanothione reductase (TryR) is a genetically validated drug target in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei , the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis. Here we report the discovery, synthesis, and development of a novel series of TryR inhibitors based on a 3,4-dihydroquinazoline scaffold. In addition, a high resolution crystal structure of TryR, alone and in complex with substrates and inhibitors from this series, is presented. This represents the first report of a high resolution complex between a noncovalent ligand and this enzyme. Structural studies revealed that upon ligand binding the enzyme undergoes a conformational change to create a new subpocket which is occupied by an aryl group on the ligand. Therefore, the inhibitor, in effect, creates its own small binding pocket within the otherwise large, solvent exposed active site. The TryR-ligand structure was subsequently used to guide the synthesis of inhibitors, including analogues that challenged the induced subpocket. This resulted in the development of inhibitors with improved potency against both TryR and T. brucei parasites in a whole cell assay.

  4. In silico docking studies of aldose reductase inhibitory activity of commercially available flavonoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Madeswaran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to investigate the aldose reductase inhibitory activity of flavonoids using in silico docking studies. In this perspective, flavonoids like biochanin, butein, esculatin, fisetin and herbacetin were selected. Epalrestat, a known aldose reductase inhibitor was used as the standard. In silico docking studies were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. The results showed that all the selected flavonoids showed binding energy ranging between -9.33 kcal/mol to -7.23 kcal/mol when compared with that of the standard (-8.73 kcal/mol. Inhibition constant (144.13 µM to 4.98 µM and intermolecular energy (-11.42 kcal/mol to -7.83 kcal/mol of the flavonoids also coincide with the binding energy. All the selected flavonoids contributed aldose reductase inhibitory activity because of its structural properties. These molecular docking analyses could lead to the further development of potent aldose reductase inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes.

  5. Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitors: A New Look at an Old Target for Radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Tobias R.; Kinsella, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis and repair of DNA, has been studied as a target for inhibition in the treatment of cancer for many years. While some researchers have focused on RR inhibitors as chemotherapeutic agents, particularly in hematologic malignancies, some of the most promising data has been generated in the field of radiosensitization. Early pre-clinical studies demonstrated that the addition of the first of these drugs, hydroxyurea, to ionizing radiation (IR) produced a synergistic effect in vitro, leading to a large number of clinical studies in the 1970–1980s. These studies, mainly in cervical cancer, initially produced a great deal of interest, leading to the incorporation of hydroxyurea in the treatment protocols of many institutions. However, over time, the conclusions from these studies have been called into question and hydroxyurea has been replaced in the standard of care of cervical cancer. Over the last 10 years, a number of well-done pre-clinical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of RR as a target. Those advances include the elucidation of the role of p53R2 and our understanding of the temporal relationship between the delivery of IR and the response of RR. At the same time, new inhibitors with increased potency and improved binding characteristics have been discovered, and pre-clinical and early clinical data look promising. Here we present a comprehensive review of the pre-clinical and clinical data in the field to date and provide some discussion of future areas of research.

  6. Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitors: A New Look at an Old Target for Radiosensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Tobias R. [Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Kinsella, Timothy J., E-mail: tkinsella@lifespan.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI (United States)

    2012-01-04

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR), the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis and repair of DNA, has been studied as a target for inhibition in the treatment of cancer for many years. While some researchers have focused on RR inhibitors as chemotherapeutic agents, particularly in hematologic malignancies, some of the most promising data has been generated in the field of radiosensitization. Early pre-clinical studies demonstrated that the addition of the first of these drugs, hydroxyurea, to ionizing radiation (IR) produced a synergistic effect in vitro, leading to a large number of clinical studies in the 1970–1980s. These studies, mainly in cervical cancer, initially produced a great deal of interest, leading to the incorporation of hydroxyurea in the treatment protocols of many institutions. However, over time, the conclusions from these studies have been called into question and hydroxyurea has been replaced in the standard of care of cervical cancer. Over the last 10 years, a number of well-done pre-clinical studies have greatly advanced our understanding of RR as a target. Those advances include the elucidation of the role of p53R2 and our understanding of the temporal relationship between the delivery of IR and the response of RR. At the same time, new inhibitors with increased potency and improved binding characteristics have been discovered, and pre-clinical and early clinical data look promising. Here we present a comprehensive review of the pre-clinical and clinical data in the field to date and provide some discussion of future areas of research.

  7. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: mark.petrash@ucdenver.edu

    2016-04-29

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1{sup GFP} mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR{sup WT} background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. - Highlights: • AR inhibition prevents retinal microglial activation. • Endotoxin-induced ocular cytokine production is reduced in AR null mice. • Overexpression of AR spontaneously induces retinal microglial activation.

  8. Aldose reductase mediates retinal microglia activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kun-Che; Shieh, Biehuoy; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Retinal microglia (RMG) are one of the major immune cells in charge of surveillance of inflammatory responses in the eye. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus, RMG reside predominately in the ganglion layer and inner or outer plexiform layers. However, under stress RMG become activated and migrate into the inner nuclear layer (INL) or outer nuclear layer (ONL). Activated RMG in cell culture secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in a manner sensitive to downregulation by aldose reductase inhibitors. In this study, we utilized CX3CR1"G"F"P mice carrying AR mutant alleles to evaluate the role of AR on RMG activation and migration in vivo. When tested on an AR"W"T background, IP injection of LPS induced RMG activation and migration into the INL and ONL. However, this phenomenon was largely prevented by AR inhibitors or in AR null mice, or was exacerbated in transgenic mice that over-express AR. LPS-induced increases in ocular levels of TNF-α and CX3CL-1 in WT mice were substantially lower in AR null mice or were reduced by AR inhibitor treatment. These studies demonstrate that AR expression in RMG may contribute to the proinflammatory phenotypes common to various eye diseases such as uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. - Highlights: • AR inhibition prevents retinal microglial activation. • Endotoxin-induced ocular cytokine production is reduced in AR null mice. • Overexpression of AR spontaneously induces retinal microglial activation.

  9. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Cicero, Nicola; D'Angelo, Valeria; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Circosta, Clara

    2018-02-07

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The binding sites on human heme oxygenase-1 for cytochrome p450 reductase and biliverdin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz

    2003-05-30

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The biliverdin is subsequently reduced to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Earlier kinetic studies suggested that biliverdin reductase facilitates the release of biliverdin from hHO-1 (Liu, Y., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 5297-5307). We have investigated the binding of P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase to truncated, soluble hHO-1 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer and site-specific mutagenesis. P450 reductase and biliverdin reductase bind to truncated hHO-1 with Kd = 0.4 +/- 0.1 and 0.2 +/- 0.1 microm, respectively. FRET experiments indicate that biliverdin reductase and P450 reductase compete for binding to truncated hHO-1. Mutation of surface ionic residues shows that hHO-1 residues Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, Arg198, Glu19, Glu127, and Glu190 contribute to the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. The mutagenesis results and a computational analysis of the protein surfaces partially define the binding site for P450 reductase. An overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 is similarly defined for biliverdin reductase. These results confirm the binding of biliverdin reductase to hHO-1 and define binding sites of the two reductases.

  11. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol biosynthesis by oxylanosterols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panini, S.R.; Sexton, R.C.; Gupta, A.K.; Parish, E.J.; Chitrakorn, S.; Rudney, H.

    1986-11-01

    Treatment of rat intestinal epithelial cell cultures with the oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitor, 3 beta-(2-(diethylamino)-ethoxy)androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A), resulted in an accumulation of squalene 2,3:22,23-dioxide (SDO). When U18666A was withdrawn and the cells were treated with the sterol 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor, ketoconazole, SDO was metabolized to a product identified as 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol. To test the biological effects and cellular metabolism of this compound, we prepared 24(RS),25-epoxylanosterol by chemical synthesis. The epimeric mixture of 24,25-epoxylanosterols could be resolved by high performance liquid chromatography on a wide-pore, non-endcapped, reverse phase column. Both epimers were effective suppressors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity of IEC-6 cells. The suppressive action of the natural epimer, 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol, but not that of 24(R),25-epoxylanosterol could be completely prevented by ketoconazole. IEC-6 cells could efficiently metabolize biosynthetic 24(S),25-epoxy(/sup 3/H)anosterol mainly to the known reductase-suppressor 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol. This metabolism was substantially reduced by ketoconazole. These data support the conclusion that 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol per se is not a suppressor of HMG-CoA reductase activity but is a precursor to a regulatory oxysterol(s). It has recently been reported that 25-hydroxycholesterol can occur naturally in cultured cells in amounts sufficient to effect regulation of HMG-CoA reductase. In order to investigate the biological effects of possible precursors of 25-hydroxycholesterol, we chemically synthesized 25-hydroxylanosterol and 25-hydroxylanostene-3-one. Both oxylanosterol derivatives suppressed cellular sterol synthesis at the level of HMG-CoA reductase. (Abstract Truncated)

  12. Regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and cholesterol biosynthesis by oxylanosterols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, S.R.; Sexton, R.C.; Gupta, A.K.; Parish, E.J.; Chitrakorn, S.; Rudney, H.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of rat intestinal epithelial cell cultures with the oxidosqualene cyclase inhibitor, 3 beta-[2-(diethylamino)-ethoxy]androst-5-en-17-one (U18666A), resulted in an accumulation of squalene 2,3:22,23-dioxide (SDO). When U18666A was withdrawn and the cells were treated with the sterol 14 alpha-demethylase inhibitor, ketoconazole, SDO was metabolized to a product identified as 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol. To test the biological effects and cellular metabolism of this compound, we prepared 24(RS),25-epoxylanosterol by chemical synthesis. The epimeric mixture of 24,25-epoxylanosterols could be resolved by high performance liquid chromatography on a wide-pore, non-endcapped, reverse phase column. Both epimers were effective suppressors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity of IEC-6 cells. The suppressive action of the natural epimer, 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol, but not that of 24(R),25-epoxylanosterol could be completely prevented by ketoconazole. IEC-6 cells could efficiently metabolize biosynthetic 24(S),25-epoxy[ 3 H]anosterol mainly to the known reductase-suppressor 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol. This metabolism was substantially reduced by ketoconazole. These data support the conclusion that 24(S),25-epoxylanosterol per se is not a suppressor of HMG-CoA reductase activity but is a precursor to a regulatory oxysterol(s). It has recently been reported that 25-hydroxycholesterol can occur naturally in cultured cells in amounts sufficient to effect regulation of HMG-CoA reductase. In order to investigate the biological effects of possible precursors of 25-hydroxycholesterol, we chemically synthesized 25-hydroxylanosterol and 25-hydroxylanostene-3-one. Both oxylanosterol derivatives suppressed cellular sterol synthesis at the level of HMG-CoA reductase. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Inhibition of human anthracycline reductases by emodin — A possible remedy for anthracycline resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Seliger, Jan Moritz; Hofman, Jakub; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Wsol, Vladimir; Maser, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    The clinical application of anthracyclines, like daunorubicin and doxorubicin, is limited by two factors: dose-related cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. Both have been linked to reductive metabolism of the parent drug to their metabolites daunorubicinol and doxorubicinol, respectively. These metabolites show significantly less anti-neoplastic properties as their parent drugs and accumulate in cardiac tissue leading to chronic cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel and potent natural inhibitors for anthracycline reductases, which enhance the anticancer effect of anthracyclines by preventing the development of anthracycline resistance. Human enzymes responsible for the reductive metabolism of daunorubicin were tested for their sensitivity towards anthrachinones, in particular emodin and anthraflavic acid. Intense inhibition kinetic data for the most effective daunorubicin reductases, including IC 50 - and K i -values, the mode of inhibition, as well as molecular docking, were compiled. Subsequently, a cytotoxicity profile and the ability of emodin to reverse daunorubicin resistance were determined using multiresistant A549 lung cancer and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Emodin potently inhibited the four main human daunorubicin reductases in vitro. Further, we could demonstrate that emodin is able to synergistically sensitize human cancer cells towards daunorubicin at clinically relevant concentrations. Therefore, emodin may yield the potential to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of anthracyclines by preventing anthracycline resistance via inhibition of the anthracycline reductases. In symphony with its known pharmacological properties, emodin might be a compound of particular interest in the management of anthracycline chemotherapy efficacy and their adverse effects. - Highlights: • Natural and synthetic compounds were identified as inhibitors for human daunorubicin reductases. • Emodin is a potent inhibitor for human daunorubicin reductases.

  14. Nitrate reductase gene involvement in hexachlorobiphenyl dechlorination by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, Supriyo; Perkins, Michael; Dutta, Sisir K.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) degradation usually occurs through reductive dechlorination under anaerobic conditions and phenolic ring cleavage under aerobic conditions. In this paper, we provide evidence of nitrate reductase (NaR) mediated dechlorination of hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) in Phanerochaete chrysosporium under non-ligninolytic condition and the gene involved. The NaR enzyme and its cofactor, molybdenum (Mo), were found to mediate reductive dechlorination of PCBs even in aerobic condition. Tungsten (W), a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme, was found to suppress this dechlorination. Chlorine release assay provided further evidence of this nitrate reductase mediated dechlorination. Commercially available pure NaR enzyme from Aspergillus was used to confirm these results. Through homology search using TBLASTN program, NaR gene was identified, primers were designed and the RT-PCR product was sequenced. The NaR gene was then annotated in the P. chrysosporium genome (GenBank accession no. AY700576). This is the first report regarding the presence of nitrate reductase gene in this fungus with the explanation why this fungus can dechlorinate PCBs even in aerobic condition. These fungal inoculums are used commercially as pellets in sawdust for enhanced bioremediation of PCBs at the risk of depleting soil nitrates. Hence, the addition of nitrates to the pellets will reduce this risk as well as enhance its activity

  15. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of resveratrol analogues as aromatase and quinone reductase 2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Bin; Hoshino, Juma; Jermihov, Katie; Marler, Laura; Pezzuto, John M.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Cushman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    A series of new resveratrol analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibitory activities against aromatase were evaluated. The crystal structure of human aromatase (PDB 3eqm) was used to rationalize the mechanism of action of the aromatase inhibitor 32 (IC 50 0.59 μM) through docking, molecular mechanics energy minimization, and computer graphics molecular modeling, and the information was utilized to design several very potent inhibitors, including compounds 82 (IC 50 70 nM) and 84 (IC 50 36 nM). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds are much more potent than that for the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC 50 of 80 μM. In addition to aromatase inhibitory activity, compounds 32 and 44 also displayed potent QR2 inhibitory activity (IC 50 1.7 μM and 0.27 μM, respectively) and the high-resolution X-ray structures of QR2 in complex with these two compounds provide insight into their mechanism of QR2 inhibition. The aromatase and quinone reductase inhibitors resulting from these studies have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  16. Oxygen and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeptar, A.R.; Scheerens, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen reductase and xenobiotic reductase activities of cytochrome P450 (P450) are reviewed. During the oxygen reductase activity of P450, molecular oxygen is reduced to superoxide anion radicals (O

  17. A novel class of α-glucosidase and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors from Ganoderma leucocontextum and the anti-diabetic properties of ganomycin I in KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Bao, Li; Ma, Ke; Zhang, Jinjin; Chen, Baosong; Han, Junjie; Ren, Jinwei; Luo, Huajun; Liu, Hongwei

    2017-02-15

    Three new meroterpenoids, ganoleucin A-C (1-3), together with five known meroterpenoids (4-8), were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma leucocontextum. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and chemical transformation. The inhibitory effects of 1-8 on HMG-CoA reductase and α-glucosidase were tested in vitro. Ganomycin I (4), 5, and 8 showed stronger inhibitory activity against HMG-CoA reductase than the positive control atorvastatin. Compounds 1, and 3-8 presented potent noncompetitive inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase from both yeast and rat small intestinal mucosa. Ganomycin I (4), the most potent inhibitor against both α-glucosidase and HMG-CoA reductase, was synthesized and evaluated for its in vivo bioactivity. Pharmacological results showed that ganomycin I (4) exerted potent and efficacious hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and insulin-sensitizing effects in KK-A y mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Discovery and quantitative structure-activity relationship study of lepidopteran HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors as selective insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yang-Yang; Li, Yuan-Mei; Yin, Yue; Chen, Shan-Shan; Kai, Zhen-Peng

    2017-09-01

    In a previous study we have demonstrated that insect 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) can be a potential selective insecticide target. Three series of inhibitors were designed on the basis of the difference in HMGR structures from Homo sapiens and Manduca sexta, with the aim of discovering potent selective insecticide candidates. An in vitro bioassay showed that gem-difluoromethylenated statin analogues have potent effects on JH biosynthesis of M. sexta and high selectivity between H. sapiens and M. sexta. All series II compounds {1,3,5-trisubstituted [4-tert-butyl 2-(5,5-difluoro-2,2-dimethyl-6-vinyl-4-yl) acetate] pyrazoles} have some effect on JH biosynthesis, whereas most of them are inactive on human HMGR. In particular, the IC 50 value of compound II-12 (37.8 nm) is lower than that of lovastatin (99.5 nm) and similar to that of rosuvastatin (24.2 nm). An in vivo bioassay showed that I-1, I-2, I-3 and II-12 are potential selective insecticides, especially for lepidopteran pest control. A predictable and statistically meaningful CoMFA model of 23 inhibitors (20 as training sets and three as test sets) was obtained with a value of q 2 and r 2 of 0.66 and 0.996 respectively. The final model suggested that a potent insect HMGR inhibitor should contain suitable small and non-electronegative groups in the ring part, and electronegative groups in the side chain. Four analogues were discovered as potent selective lepidopteran HMGR inhibitors, which can specifically be used for lepidopteran pest control. The CoMFA model will be useful for the design of new selective insect HMGR inhibitors that are structurally related to the training set compounds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Inhibition of human anthracycline reductases by emodin — A possible remedy for anthracycline resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintzpeter, Jan, E-mail: hintzpeter@toxi.uni-kiel.de [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Seliger, Jan Moritz [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Hofman, Jakub [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Martin, Hans-Joerg [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Wsol, Vladimir [Department of Biochemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, 50005 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Maser, Edmund [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Str. 10, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The clinical application of anthracyclines, like daunorubicin and doxorubicin, is limited by two factors: dose-related cardiotoxicity and drug resistance. Both have been linked to reductive metabolism of the parent drug to their metabolites daunorubicinol and doxorubicinol, respectively. These metabolites show significantly less anti-neoplastic properties as their parent drugs and accumulate in cardiac tissue leading to chronic cardiotoxicity. Therefore, we aimed to identify novel and potent natural inhibitors for anthracycline reductases, which enhance the anticancer effect of anthracyclines by preventing the development of anthracycline resistance. Human enzymes responsible for the reductive metabolism of daunorubicin were tested for their sensitivity towards anthrachinones, in particular emodin and anthraflavic acid. Intense inhibition kinetic data for the most effective daunorubicin reductases, including IC{sub 50}- and K{sub i}-values, the mode of inhibition, as well as molecular docking, were compiled. Subsequently, a cytotoxicity profile and the ability of emodin to reverse daunorubicin resistance were determined using multiresistant A549 lung cancer and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Emodin potently inhibited the four main human daunorubicin reductases in vitro. Further, we could demonstrate that emodin is able to synergistically sensitize human cancer cells towards daunorubicin at clinically relevant concentrations. Therefore, emodin may yield the potential to enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of anthracyclines by preventing anthracycline resistance via inhibition of the anthracycline reductases. In symphony with its known pharmacological properties, emodin might be a compound of particular interest in the management of anthracycline chemotherapy efficacy and their adverse effects. - Highlights: • Natural and synthetic compounds were identified as inhibitors for human daunorubicin reductases. • Emodin is a potent inhibitor for human daunorubicin

  20. The potential behavioral and economic impacts of widespread HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendle, Mathew H

    2016-12-01

    Dyslipidemia is a common pathology throughout the industrialized world, and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are often administered to treat elevated lipid levels. Substantial concern has been raised regarding the aggressive clinical lowering of cholesterol, particularly in light of a growing body of research linking low circulating lipid levels with negative behavioral outcomes in both human samples and non-human primate models. In 2009, Goldstein and colleagues tentatively speculated that the greed, impulsiveness, and lack of foresight that lead to the worldwide economic collapse in 2007-2008 could have been caused (in part) by depressed population cholesterol levels resulting from the widespread use of statins by workers in the financial services industry. This paper reviews the literature that links low circulating lipid levels with neurobehavioral dysfunction, develops Goldstein and colleagues' initial speculation into a formal hypothesis, and proposes several specific studies that could rigorously empirically evaluate this hypothesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Light Sensitivity of Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas

    The thioredoxin system has evolved in all kingdoms of life acting as a key antioxidant system in the defense against oxidative stress. The thioredoxin system utilizes reducing equivalents from NADPH to reduce protein disulfide targets. The reducing equivalents are shuttled via a flavin and redox...... active dithiol motif in thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) to reduce the small ubiquitous thioredoxin (Trx). Trx in turn regulates the protein dithiol/disulfide balance by reduction of protein disulfide targets in e.g. ribonucleotide reductase, peroxiredoxins and methionine sulfoxide reductase. The glutathione......, thus expected to rely mainly on the Trx system for thiol-disulfide control. L. lactis is an important industrial microorganism used as starter culture in the dairy production of cheese, buttermilk etc. and known to be sensitive to oxidative stress. The L. lactis TrxR (LlTrxR) is a homodimeric...

  2. Regulation of schistosome egg production by HMG CoA reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VandeWaa, E.A.; Bennett, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG CoA reductase) catalyzes the conversion of HMG CoA to mevalonate in the synthesis of steroids, isoprenoids and terpenes. Mevinolin, an inhibitor of this enzyme, decreased egg production in Schistosoma mansoni during in vitro incubations. This was associated with a reduction in the incorporation of 14 C-acetate into polyisoprenoids and a reduction in the formation of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide. In vivo, mevinolin in daily doses of 50 mg/kg (p.o., from days 30-48 post-infection) caused no change in gross liver pathology in S. mansoni infected mice. However, when parasites exposed to mevinolin or its vehicle in vivo were cultured in vitro, worms from mevinolin-treated mice produced six times more eggs than control parasites. When infected mice were dosed with 250 mg/kg mevinolin daily (p.o., from days 35-45 post-infection), liver pathology was reduced in comparison to control mice. Thus, during in vivo exposure to a high dose of the drug egg production is decreased, while at a lower dose it appears unaffected until the parasites are cultured in a drug-free in vitro system wherein egg production is stimulated to extraordinarily high levels. It may be that at low doses mevinolin, by inhibiting the enzyme, is blocking the formation of a product (such as an isoprenoid) which normally acts to down-regulate enzyme synthesis, resulting in enzyme induction. Induction of HMG CoA reductase is then expressed as increased egg production when the worms are removed from the drug. These data suggest that HMG CoA reductase plays a role in schistosome egg production

  3. Prospecting for novel plant-derived molecules of Rauvolfia serpentina as inhibitors of Aldose Reductase, a potent drug target for diabetes and its complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivalika Pathania

    Full Text Available Aldose Reductase (AR is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects.

  4. Prospecting for novel plant-derived molecules of Rauvolfia serpentina as inhibitors of Aldose Reductase, a potent drug target for diabetes and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Shivalika; Randhawa, Vinay; Bagler, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Aldose Reductase (AR) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes, providing an interesting target for therapeutic intervention. Extracts of Rauvolfia serpentina, a medicinal plant endemic to the Himalayan mountain range, have been known to be effective in alleviating diabetes and its complications. In this study, we aim to prospect for novel plant-derived inhibitors from R. serpentina and to understand structural basis of their interactions. An extensive library of R. serpentina molecules was compiled and computationally screened for inhibitory action against AR. The stability of complexes, with docked leads, was verified using molecular dynamics simulations. Two structurally distinct plant-derived leads were identified as inhibitors: indobine and indobinine. Further, using these two leads as templates, 16 more leads were identified through ligand-based screening of their structural analogs, from a small molecules database. Thus, we obtained plant-derived indole alkaloids, and their structural analogs, as potential AR inhibitors from a manually curated dataset of R. serpentina molecules. Indole alkaloids reported herein, as a novel structural class unreported hitherto, may provide better insights for designing potential AR inhibitors with improved efficacy and fewer side effects.

  5. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    Progesterone has long been linked to breast cancer but its actual role as a cancer promoter has remained in dispute. Previous in vitro studies have shown that progesterone is converted to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) in breast tissue and human breast cell lines by the action of 5α-reductase, and that 5αP acts as a cancer-promoter hormone. Also studies with human breast cell lines in which the conversion of progesterone to 5αP is blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor, have shown that the in vitro stimulation in cell proliferation with progesterone treatments are not due to progesterone itself but to the metabolite 5αP. No similar in vivo study has been previously reported. The objective of the current studies was to determine in an in vivo mouse model if the presumptive progesterone-induced mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5αP. BALB/c mice were challenged with C4HD murine mammary cells, which have been shown to form tumors when treated with progesterone or the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate. Cells and mice were treated with various doses and combinations of progesterone, 5αP and/or the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, and the effects on cell proliferation and induction and growth of tumors were monitored. Hormone levels in serum and tumors were measured by specific RIA and ELISA tests. Proliferation of C4HD cells and induction and growth of tumors was stimulated by treatment with either progesterone or 5αP. The progesterone-induced stimulation was blocked by finasteride and reinstated by concomitant treatment with 5αP. The 5αP-induced tumors expressed high levels of ER, PR and ErbB-2. Hormone measurements showed significantly higher levels of 5αP in serum from mice with tumors than from mice without tumors, regardless of treatments, and 5αP levels were significantly higher (about 4-fold) in tumors than in respective sera, while progesterone levels did not differ between the compartments. The results indicate that

  6. Cell death by SecTRAPs: thioredoxin reductase as a prooxidant killer of cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Anestål

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SecTRAPs (selenium compromised thioredoxin reductase-derived apoptotic proteins can be formed from the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR by targeting of its selenocysteine (Sec residue with electrophiles, or by its removal through C-terminal truncation. SecTRAPs are devoid of thioredoxin reductase activity but can induce rapid cell death in cultured cancer cell lines by a gain of function. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both human and rat SecTRAPs killed human A549 and HeLa cells. The cell death displayed both apoptotic and necrotic features. It did not require novel protein synthesis nor did it show extensive nuclear fragmentation, but it was attenuated by use of caspase inhibitors. The redox active disulfide/dithiol motif in the N-terminal domain of TrxR had to be maintained for manifestation of SecTRAP cytotoxicity. Stopped-flow kinetics showed that NADPH can reduce the FAD moiety in SecTRAPs at similar rates as in native TrxR and purified SecTRAPs could maintain NADPH oxidase activity, which was accelerated by low molecular weight substrates such as juglone. In a cellular context, SecTRAPs triggered extensive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequently antioxidants could protect against the cell killing by SecTRAPs. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that formation of SecTRAPs could contribute to the cytotoxicity seen upon exposure of cells to electrophilic agents targeting TrxR. SecTRAPs are prooxidant killers of cells, triggering mechanisms beyond those of a mere loss of thioredoxin reductase activity.

  7. Trypanocidal Activity of Quinoxaline 1,4 Di-N-oxide Derivatives as Trypanothione Reductase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Fabiola Chacón-Vargas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a worldwide public health problem. In this work, we evaluated 26 new propyl and isopropyl quinoxaline-7-carboxylate 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as potential trypanocidal agents. Additionally, molecular docking and enzymatic assays on trypanothione reductase (TR were performed to provide a basis for their potential mechanism of action. Seven compounds showed better trypanocidal activity on epimastigotes than the reference drugs, and only four displayed activity on trypomastigotes; T-085 was the lead compound with an IC50 = 59.9 and 73.02 µM on NINOA and INC-5 strain, respectively. An in silico analysis proposed compound T-085 as a potential TR inhibitor with better affinity than the natural substrate. Enzymatic analysis revealed that T-085 inhibits parasite TR non-competitively. Compound T-085 carries a carbonyl, a CF3, and an isopropyl carboxylate group at 2-, 3- and 7-position, respectively. These results suggest the chemical structure of this compound as a good starting point for the design and synthesis of novel trypanocidal derivatives with higher TR inhibitory potency and lower toxicity.

  8. 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shift Assignments and Conformational Analysis for the Two Diastereomers of the Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Inhibitor Brodifacoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cort, John R.; Cho, Herman M.

    2009-01-01

    Proton and 13C NMR chemical shift assignments and 1H-1H scalar couplings for the two diastereomers of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) inhibitor brodifacoum have been determined from acetone solutions containing both diastereomers. Data were obtained from homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra acquired at 1H frequencies of 750 and 900 MHz over a 268-303 K temperature range. Conformations inferred from scalar coupling and 1-D NOE measurements exhibit large differences between the diastereomers. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  9. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE) for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Pilar; Villar, Agustí; Rull, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen - 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive - some have shown significant results, and others have not - possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE), an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 μg/mL), SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%-75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The bioactivity of SPSE corresponds favorably to that reported for the hexane extract used in a large number of positive BPH clinical trials, as well as to finasteride

  10. Inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and correlation of this inhibition with the occurrence of energy-coupling site 1 in various organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity of the respiratory chains of several organisms was inhibited by the carboxyl-modifying reagent N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). This inhibition correlated with the presence of an energy-transducing site in this segment of the respiratory chain. Where the NADH-quinone reductase segment involved an energy-coupling site (e.g., in bovine heart and rat liver mitochondria, and in Paracoccus denitrificans, Escherichia coli, and Thermus thermophilus HB-8 membranes), DCCD acted as an inhibitor of ubiquinone reduction by NADH. By contrast, where energy-coupling site 1 was absent (e.g., in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria and BacilLus subtilis membranes), there was no inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity by DCCD. In the bovine and P. denitrificans systems, DCCD inhibition was pseudo first order with respect to incubation time, and reaction order with respect to inhibitor concentration was close to unity, indicating that inhibition resulted from the binding of one inhibitor molecule per active unit of NADH-ubiquinone reductase. In the bovine NADH-ubiquinone reductase complex (complex I), [ 14 C]DCCD was preferentially incorporated into two subunits of molecular weight 49,000 and 29,000. The time course of labeling of the 29,000 molecular weight subunit with [ 14 C]DCCD paralleled the time course of inhibition of NADH-ubiquinone reductase activity

  11. X-ray structural studies of quinone reductase 2 nanomolar range inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegan, Scott D.; Sturdy, Megan; Ferry, Gilles; Delagrange, Philippe; Boutin, Jean A.; Mesecar, Andrew D. (IdRS); (Purdue); (Colorado); (UIC)

    2011-09-06

    Quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is one of two members comprising the mammalian quinone reductase family of enzymes responsible for performing FAD mediated reductions of quinone substrates. In contrast to quinone reductase 1 (QR1) which uses NAD(P)H as its co-substrate, QR2 utilizes a rare group of hydride donors, N-methyl or N-ribosyl nicotinamide. Several studies have linked QR2 to the generation of quinone free radicals, several neuronal degenerative diseases, and cancer. QR2 has been also identified as the third melatonin receptor (MT3) through in cellulo and in vitro inhibition of QR2 by traditional MT3 ligands, and through recent X-ray structures of human QR2 (hQR2) in complex with melatonin and 2-iodomelatonin. Several MT3 specific ligands have been developed that exhibit both potent in cellulo inhibition of hQR2 nanomolar, affinity for MT3. The potency of these ligands suggest their use as molecular probes for hQR2. However, no definitive correlation between traditionally obtained MT3 ligand affinity and hQR2 inhibition exists limiting our understanding of how these ligands are accommodated in the hQR2 active site. To obtain a clearer relationship between the structures of developed MT3 ligands and their inhibitory properties, in cellulo and in vitro IC{sub 50} values were determined for a representative set of MT3 ligands (MCA-NAT, 2-I-MCANAT, prazosin, S26695, S32797, and S29434). Furthermore, X-ray structures for each of these ligands in complex with hQR2 were determined allowing for a structural evaluation of the binding modes of these ligands in relation to the potency of MT3 ligands.

  12. Inhibitory effect of rhetsinine isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa on aldose reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A; Yasuko, H; Goto, H; Hollinshead, J; Nash, R J; Adachi, I

    2009-03-01

    Aldose reductase inhibitors have considerable potential for the treatment of diabetic complications, without increased risk of hypoglycemia. Search for components inhibiting aldose reductase led to the discovery of active compounds contained in Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham (Rutaceae), which is the one of the component of Kampo-herbal medicine. The hot water extract from the E. rutaecarpa was subjected to distribution or gel filtration chromatography to give an active compound, N2-(2-methylaminobenzoyl)tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-1-one (rhetsinine). It inhibited aldose reductase with IC(50) values of 24.1 microM. Furthermore, rhetsinine inhibited sorbitol accumulation by 79.3% at 100 microM. These results suggested that the E. rutaecarpa derived component, rhetsinine, would be potentially useful in the treatment of diabetic complications.

  13. Homology modeling of dissimilatory APS reductases (AprBA of sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing prokaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Meyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS reductase (cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD, and two [4Fe-4S] centers catalyzes the transformation of APS to sulfite and AMP in sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP; in sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB it has been suggested to operate in the reverse direction. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the Archaeoglobus fulgidus enzyme has been determined in different catalytically relevant states providing insights into its reaction cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Full-length AprBA sequences from 20 phylogenetically distinct SRP and SOB species were used for homology modeling. In general, the average accuracy of the calculated models was sufficiently good to allow a structural and functional comparison between the beta- and alpha-subunit structures (78.8-99.3% and 89.5-96.8% of the AprB and AprA main chain atoms, respectively, had root mean square deviations below 1 A with respect to the template structures. Besides their overall conformity, the SRP- and SOB-derived models revealed the existence of individual adaptations at the electron-transferring AprB protein surface presumably resulting from docking to different electron donor/acceptor proteins. These structural alterations correlated with the protein phylogeny (three major phylogenetic lineages: (1 SRP including LGT-affected Archaeoglobi and SOB of Apr lineage II, (2 crenarchaeal SRP Caldivirga and Pyrobaculum, and (3 SOB of the distinct Apr lineage I and the presence of potential APS reductase-interacting redox complexes. The almost identical protein matrices surrounding both [4Fe-4S] clusters, the FAD cofactor, the active site channel and center within the AprB/A models of SRP and SOB point to a highly similar catalytic process of APS reduction/sulfite oxidation independent of the metabolism type the APS reductase is involved in and the species it has been originated from. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the comparative

  14. Determination of the potency of a novel saw palmetto supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE for 5α-reductase isoform II inhibition using a cell-free in vitro test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pais P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pilar Pais, Agustí Villar, Santiago Rull Euromed, Barcelona, Spain Background: The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent membrane protein 5α-reductase catalyses the conversion of testosterone to the most potent androgen – 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Two 5α-reductase isoenzymes are expressed in humans: type I and type II. The latter is found primarily in prostate tissue. Saw palmetto extract (SPE has been used extensively in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. The pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5α-reductase, as well as anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects. Clinical studies of SPE have been inconclusive – some have shown significant results, and others have not – possibly the result of varying bioactivities of the SPEs used in the studies. Purpose: To determine the in vitro potency in a cell-free test system of a novel SP supercritical CO2 extract (SPSE, an inhibitor of the 5α-reductase isoenzyme type II. Materials and methods: The inhibitory potency of SPSE was compared to that of finasteride, an approved 5α-reductase inhibitor, on the basis of the enzymatic conversion of the substrate androstenedione to the 5α-reduced product 5α-androstanedione. Results: By concentration-dependent inhibition of 5α-reductase type II in vitro (half-maximal inhibitory concentration 3.58±0.05 µg/mL, SPSE demonstrated competitive binding toward the active site of the enzyme. Finasteride, the approved 5α-reductase inhibitor tested as positive control, led to 63%–75% inhibition of 5α-reductase type II. Conclusion: SPSE effectively inhibits the enzyme that has been linked to BPH, and the amount of extract required for activity is comparatively low. It can be confirmed from the results of this study that SPSE has bioactivity that promotes prostate health at a level that is superior to that of many other phytotherapeutic extracts. The

  15. 5α-Reductase inhibitor is less effective in men with small prostate volume and low serum prostatic specific antigen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Victor C; Liao, Chun-Hou; Wang, Chung-Cheng; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2015-09-01

    Large total prostate volumes (TPVs) or high serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels indicate high-risk clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia. This prospective study investigated the treatment outcome of combined 5α-reductase inhibitor and α-blocker in patients with and without large TPVs or high PSA levels. Men aged ≥ 45 years with International Prostate Symptom scores (IPSS) ≥ 8, TPV ≥ 20 mL, and maximum flow rate ≤ 15 mL/s received a combination therapy (dutasteride plus doxaben) for 2 years. Patients with baseline PSA ≥ 4 ng/mL underwent prostatic biopsy for excluding malignancy. The changes in the parameters from baseline to 24 months after combination therapy were compared in those with and without TPV ≥ 40 mL or PSA levels ≥ 1.5 ng/mL. A total of 285 patients (mean age 72 ± 9 years) completed the study. Combination therapy resulted in significant continuous improvement in IPSS, quality of life index, maximum flow rate, and postvoid residual (all p < 0.0001) regardless of baseline TPV or PSA levels. However, only patients with baseline TPV ≥ 40 mL had significant improvements in IPSS-storage subscore, voided volume, reduction in TPV, transitional zone index, and PSA levels. In addition, patients with baseline TPV < 40 mL and PSA < 1.5 ng/mL had neither a reduction in TPV nor a decrease in serum PSA level. A high TPV indicates more outlet resistance, whereas elevated serum PSA level reflects glandular proliferation. Thus, patients with TPV<40 mL and low PSA levels has less benefit from 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy. The therapeutic effect of combined treatment may arise mainly from the α-blocker in these patients. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The levels of mutant K-RAS and mutant N-RAS are rapidly reduced in a Beclin1 / ATG5 -dependent fashion by the irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L; Poklepovic, Andrew; Kirkwood, John; Sander, Cindy; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler, Richard E; Lalani, Alshad S; Dent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    The FDA approved irreversible inhibitor of ERBB1/2/4, neratinib, was recently shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET and mutant K-RAS via autophagic degradation. In the present studies, in a dose-dependent fashion, neratinib reduced the expression levels of mutant K-RAS or of mutant N-RAS, which was augmented in an additive to greater than additive fashion by the HDAC inhibitors sodium valproate and AR42. Neratinib could reduce PDGFRα levels in GBM cells, that was enhanced by sodium valproate. Knock down of Beclin1 or of ATG5 prevented neratinib and neratinib combined with sodium valproate / AR42 from reducing the expression of mutant N-RAS in established PDX and fresh PDX models of ovarian cancer and melanoma, respectively. Neratinib and the drug combinations caused the co-localization of mutant RAS proteins and ERBB2 with Beclin1 and cathepsin B. The drug combination activated the AMP-dependent protein kinase that was causal in enhancing HMG Co A reductase phosphorylation. Collectively, our data reinforce the concept that the irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib has the potential for use in the treatment of tumors expressing mutant RAS proteins.

  17. Cloning and nitrate induction of nitrate reductase mRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Dewdney, Julia; Kleinhofs, Andris; Goodman, Howard M.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrate is the major source of nitrogen taken from the soil by higher plants but requires reduction to ammonia prior to incorporation into amino acids. The first enzyme in the reducing pathway is a nitrate-inducible enzyme, nitrate reductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A specific polyclonal antiserum raised against purified barley nitrate reductase has been used to immunoprecipitate in vivo labeled protein and in vitro translation products, demonstrating that nitrate induction increases nitrate reductase p...

  18. The structure of apo and holo forms of xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase from Candida tenuis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Klimacek, Mario; Nidetzky, Bernd; Wilson, David K

    2002-07-16

    Xylose reductase is a homodimeric oxidoreductase dependent on NADPH or NADH and belongs to the largely monomeric aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins. It catalyzes the first step in the assimilation of xylose, an aldose found to be a major constituent monosaccharide of renewable plant hemicellulosic material, into yeast metabolic pathways. It does this by reducing open chain xylose to xylitol, which is reoxidized to xylulose by xylitol dehydrogenase and metabolically integrated via the pentose phosphate pathway. No structure has yet been determined for a xylose reductase, a dimeric aldo-keto reductase or a family 2 aldo-keto reductase. The structures of the Candida tenuis xylose reductase apo- and holoenzyme, which crystallize in spacegroup C2 with different unit cells, have been determined to 2.2 A resolution and an R-factor of 17.9 and 20.8%, respectively. Residues responsible for mediating the novel dimeric interface include Asp-178, Arg-181, Lys-202, Phe-206, Trp-313, and Pro-319. Alignments with other superfamily members indicate that these interactions are conserved in other dimeric xylose reductases but not throughout the remainder of the oligomeric aldo-keto reductases, predicting alternate modes of oligomerization for other families. An arrangement of side chains in a catalytic triad shows that Tyr-52 has a conserved function as a general acid. The loop that folds over the NAD(P)H cosubstrate is disordered in the apo form but becomes ordered upon cosubstrate binding. A slow conformational isomerization of this loop probably accounts for the observed rate-limiting step involving release of cosubstrate. Xylose binding (K(m) = 87 mM) is mediated by interactions with a binding pocket that is more polar than a typical aldo-keto reductase. Modeling of xylose into the active site of the holoenzyme using ordered waters as a guide for sugar hydroxyls suggests a convincing mode of substrate binding.

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Nidhi; Mandal, P. K.; Gautham, Namasivayam; Chadha, Anju

    2013-01-01

    The expression, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies on C. parapsilosis carbonyl reductase are reported. The NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis ATCC 7330 catalyses the asymmetric reduction of ethyl 4-phenyl-2-oxobutanoate to ethyl (R)-4-phenyl-2-hydroxybutanoate, a precursor of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors such as Cilazapril and Benazepril. The carbonyl reductase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by GST-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffracted to 1.86 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of carbonyl reductase, with a solvent content of 48%. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a search model

  20. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity and phytocomponent investigation of Basella alba leaf extract as a treatment for hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskaran G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunasekaran Baskaran,1 Shamala Salvamani,1 Siti Aqlima Ahmad,1 Noor Azmi Shaharuddin,1 Parveen Devi Pattiram,2 Mohd Yunus Shukor1 1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, 2Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase is the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that produces cholesterol. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver. Synthetic drugs, statins, are commonly used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Due to the side effects of statins, natural HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors of plant origin are needed. In this study, 25 medicinal plant methanol extracts were screened for anti-HMG-CoA reductase activity. Basella alba leaf extract showed the highest inhibitory effect at about 74%. Thus, B. alba was examined in order to investigate its phytochemical components. Gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenol 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl, 1-heptatriacotanol, oleic acid, eicosyl ester, naringin, apigenin, luteolin, ascorbic acid, and a-tocopherol, which have been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic effects. Further investigation of in vivo models should be performed in order to confirm its potential as an alternative treatment for hypercholesterolemia and related cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase, Basella alba, phytochemical, GC-MS/MS, RP-HPLC, hypercholesterolemia

  1. Structure and mechanism of dimethylsulfoxide reductase, a molybdopterin-containing enzyme of DMSO reductase family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.G.; Ridge, J.P.; McDevitt, C.A.; Hanson, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Apart from nitrogenase, enzymes containing molybdenum are members of a superfamily, the molybdopterin-containing enzymes. Most of these enzymes catalyse an oxygen atom transfer and two electron transfer reaction. During catalysis the Mo at the active site cycles between the Mo(VI) and Mo(IV) states. The DMSO reductase family of molybdopterin-containing enzymes all contain a bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide)Mo cofactor and over thirty examples have now been described. Over the last five years crystal structures of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) reductase and four other enzymes of the DMSO reductase family have revealed that enzymes of this family have a similar tertiary structure. The Mo atom at the active site is coordinated by four thiolate ligands provided by the dithiolene side chains of the two MGD molecules of the bis(MGD)Mo cofactor as well as a ligand provided by an amino acid side chain. In addition, an oxygen atom in the form of an oxo, hydroxo or aqua group is also coordinated to the Mo atom. In the case of dimethylsulfoxide reductase X-ray crystallography of the product-reduced species and Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated that the enzyme contains a single exchangeable oxo group that is H-bonded to W116

  2. Hepatocyte Hyperproliferation upon Liver-Specific Co-disruption of Thioredoxin-1, Thioredoxin Reductase-1, and Glutathione Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin R. Prigge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Energetic nutrients are oxidized to sustain high intracellular NADPH/NADP+ ratios. NADPH-dependent reduction of thioredoxin-1 (Trx1 disulfide and glutathione disulfide by thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1 and glutathione reductase (Gsr, respectively, fuels antioxidant systems and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Mouse livers lacking both TrxR1 and Gsr sustain these essential activities using an NADPH-independent methionine-consuming pathway; however, it remains unclear how this reducing power is distributed. Here, we show that liver-specific co-disruption of the genes encoding Trx1, TrxR1, and Gsr (triple-null causes dramatic hepatocyte hyperproliferation. Thus, even in the absence of Trx1, methionine-fueled glutathione production supports hepatocyte S phase deoxyribonucleotide production. Also, Trx1 in the absence of TrxR1 provides a survival advantage to cells under hyperglycemic stress, suggesting that glutathione, likely via glutaredoxins, can reduce Trx1 disulfide in vivo. In triple-null livers like in many cancers, deoxyribonucleotide synthesis places a critical yet relatively low-volume demand on these reductase systems, thereby favoring high hepatocyte turnover over sustained hepatocyte integrity.

  3. Association of Cognitive Impairment in Patients on 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl-Glutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Satyajeet; Weinstock, Joshua Louis; Ishino, Allyse Sachiko; Benites, Jefferson Felix; Pop, Samantha Rachel; Perez, Christopher David; Gumbs, Edvard Adrian; Rosenbaum, Jennifer Ann; Roccato, Mary Kate; Shah, Hely; Contino, Gabriela; Hunter, Krystal

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. A reduction in cholesterol with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statin) significantly reduces mortality and morbidity. Statins may be associated with cognitive impairment or dementia. Our aim was to study the association of cognitive impairment or dementia in patients who were on a statin. Electronic medical records of 3,500 adult patients in our suburban internal medicine office were reviewed. There were 720 (20.6%) patients in the statin treatment group. Dementia or cognitive impairment was an associated comorbid condition in 7.9% patients in the statin treatment group compared to 3.1% patients in the non-statin group (P impairment or dementia showed that among the age ranges of 51 years through 100 years, the patients in the statin treatment group had a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment or dementia compared to the non-statin group. In the statin treatment group, we found significantly higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia (86.3%), hypertension (69.6%), diabetes mellitus (36.0%), osteoarthritis (31.5%), coronary artery disease (26.1%), hypothyroidism (21.5%) and depression (19.3%) compared to the non-statin group (P impairment were on statin therapy compared to 18.9% patients who had no dementia or cognitive impairment and were on statin therapy (P impairment with each year increase in age (1.3 times), in women (2.2 times), African American race (2.7 times), non-consumption of moderate amount of alcohol (two times), diabetes mellitus (1.6 times), hypothyroidism (1.7 times), cerebrovascular accident (3.2 times), and other rheumatological diseases (1.8 times). The association of dementia or cognitive impairment was significantly higher in the patients who were on statin therapy compared to the patients who were not on a statin.

  4. Ketopantoyl lactone reductase is a conjugated polyketone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, H; Shimizu, S; Hattori, S; Yamada, H

    1989-03-01

    Ketopantoyl lactone reductase (EC 1.1.1.168) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to catalyze the reduction of a variety of natural and unnatural conjugated polyketone compounds and quinones, such as isatin, ninhydrin, camphorquinone and beta-naphthoquinone in the presence of NADPH. 5-Bromoisatin is the best substrate for the enzyme (Km = 3.1 mM; Vmax = 650 mumol/min/mg). The enzyme is inhibited by quercetin, and several polyketones. These results suggest that ketopantoyl lactone reductase is a carbonyl reductase which specifically catalyzes the reduction of conjugated polyketones.

  5. Inhibition of steroid 5 alpha-reductase by specific aliphatic unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, T; Liao, S

    1992-01-01

    Human or rat microsomal 5 alpha-reductase activity, as measured by enzymic conversion of testosterone into 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or by binding of a competitive inhibitor, [3H]17 beta-NN-diethulcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([3H]4-MA) to the reductase, is inhibited by low concentrations (less than 10 microM) of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The relative inhibitory potencies of unsaturated fatty acids are, in decreasing order: gamma-linolenic acid greater than cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid = cis-6,9,12,15-octatetraenoic acid = arachidonic acid = alpha-linolenic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than palmitoleic acid greater than oleic acid greater than myristoleic acid. Other unsaturated fatty acids such as undecylenic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid, are inactive. The methyl esters and alcohol analogues of these compounds, glycerols, phospholipids, saturated fatty acids, retinoids and carotenes were inactive even at 0.2 mM. The results of the binding assay and the enzymic assay correlated well except for elaidic acid and linolelaidic acid, the trans isomers of oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively, which were much less active than their cis isomers in the binding assay but were as potent in the enzymic assay. gamma-Linolenic acid had no effect on the activities of two other rat liver microsomal enzymes: NADH:menadione reductase and glucuronosyl transferase. gamma-Linolenic acid, the most potent inhibitor tested, decreased the Vmax. and increased Km values of substrates, NADPH and testosterone, and promoted dissociation of [3H]4-MA from the microsomal reductase. gamma-Linolenic acid, but not the corresponding saturated fatty acid (stearic acid), inhibited the 5 alpha-reductase activity, but not the 17 beta-dehydrogenase activity, of human prostate cancer cells in culture. These results suggest that unsaturated fatty acids may play an important role in regulating androgen action in target cells. PMID:1637346

  6. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT-Reductase in Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. Methods The fresh frozen tissue sections (8m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. Results  The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. Conclusion The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  7. Enzyme structure and interaction with inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This article reviews some of the results of studies on the 13 C-labeled enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in combination with isotopic labeling to learn about the structure and dynamics of this enzyme. 13 C-labeling is used for the purpose of studying enzyme/substrate and enzyme/inhibitor interactions. A second set of studies with DHFR was designed to investigate the basis for the high affinity between the inhibitor methotrexate and DHFR. The label was placed on the inhibitor, rather than the enzyme

  8. Sex hormones reduce NNK detoxification through inhibition of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and aldo-keto reductases in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeld, Claudia; Maser, Edmund

    2017-10-01

    Carbonyl reduction is an important metabolic pathway for endogenous and xenobiotic substances. The tobacco specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK, nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone) is classified as carcinogenic to humans (IARC, Group 1) and considered to play the most important role in tobacco-related lung carcinogenesis. Detoxification of NNK through carbonyl reduction is catalyzed by members of the AKR- and the SDR-superfamilies which include AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C4, 11β-HSD1 and CBR1. Because some reductases are also involved in steroid metabolism, five different hormones were tested for their inhibitory effect on NNK carbonyl reduction. Two of those hormones were estrogens (estradiol and ethinylestradiol), another two hormones belong to the gestagen group (progesterone and drospirenone) and the last tested hormone was an androgen (testosterone). Furthermore, one of the estrogens (ethinylestradiol) and one of the gestagens (drospirenone) are synthetic hormones, used as hormonal contraceptives. Five of six NNK reducing enzymes (AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C4 and 11β-HSD1) were significantly inhibited by the tested sex hormones. Only NNK reduction catalyzed by CBR1 was not significantly impaired. In the case of the other five reductases, gestagens had remarkably stronger inhibitory effects at a concentration of 25 μM (progesterone: 66-88% inhibition; drospirenone: 26-87% inhibition) in comparison to estrogens (estradiol: 17-51% inhibition; ethinylestradiol: 14-79% inhibition) and androgens (14-78% inhibition). Moreover, in most cases the synthetic hormones showed a greater ability to inhibit NNK reduction than the physiologic derivatives. These results demonstrate that male and female sex hormones have different inhibitory potentials, thus indicating that there is a varying detoxification capacity of NNK in men and women which could result in a different risk for developing lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Cancer cell death induced by phosphine gold(I) compounds targeting thioredoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandin, Valentina; Fernandes, Aristi Potamitou; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Dani, Barbara; Sorrentino, Francesca; Tisato, Francesco; Björnstedt, Mikael; Bindoli, Alberto; Sturaro, Alberto; Rella, Rocco; Marzano, Cristina

    2010-01-15

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), thioredoxin (Trx), and NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate), plays a central role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis and signaling pathways. TrxR, overexpressed in many tumor cells and contributing to drug resistance, has emerged as a new target for anticancer drugs. Gold complexes have been validated as potent TrxR inhibitors in vitro in the nanomolar range. In order to obtain potent and selective TrxR inhibitors, we have synthesized a series of linear, 'auranofin-like' gold(I) complexes all containing the [Au(PEt(3))](+) synthon and the ligands: Cl(-), Br(-), cyanate, thiocyanate, ethylxanthate, diethyldithiocarbamate and thiourea. Phosphine gold(I) complexes efficiently inhibited cytosolic and mitochondrial TrxR at concentrations that did not affect the two related oxidoreductases glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The inhibitory effect of the redox proteins was also observed intracellularly in cancer cells pretreated with gold(I) complexes. Gold(I) compounds were found to induce antiproliferative effects towards several human cancer cells some of which endowed with cisplatin or multidrug resistance. In addition, they were able to activate caspase-3 and induce apoptosis observed as nucleosome formation and sub-G1 cell accumulation. The complexes with thiocyanate and xanthate ligands were particularly effective in inhibiting thioredoxin reductase and inducing apoptosis. Pharmacodynamic studies in human ovarian cancer cells allowed for the correlation of intracellular drug accumulation with TrxR inhibition that leads to the induction of apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway.

  10. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies of some structurally diverse flavonoids and design of new aldose reductase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Chandra De

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase (AR plays an important role in the development of several long-term diabetic complications. Inhibition of AR activities is a strategy for controlling complications arising from chronic diabetes. Several AR inhibitors have been reported in the literature. Flavonoid type compounds are shown to have significant AR inhibition. The objective of this study was to perform a computational work to get an idea about structural insight of flavonoid type compounds for developing as well as for searching new flavonoid based AR inhibitors. The data-set comprising 68 flavones along with their pIC 50 values ranging from 0.44 to 4.59 have been collected from literature. Structure of all the flavonoids were drawn in Chembiodraw Ultra 11.0, converted into corresponding three-dimensional structure, saved as mole file and then imported to maestro project table. Imported ligands were prepared using LigPrep option of maestro 9.6 version. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships and docking studies were performed with appropriate options of maestro 9.6 version installed in HP Z820 workstation with CentOS 6.3 (Linux. A model with partial least squares factor 5, standard deviation 0.2482, R 2 = 0.9502 and variance ratio of regression 122 has been found as the best statistical model.

  11. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity of Compounds from  Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jin Kyu; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kang, Il Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have a considerable therapeutic potential against diabetes complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of an EtOH extract of the kernel from purple corn (Zea mays L.), 7 nonanthocyanin phenolic compounds (compound 1–7) and 5 anthocyanins (compound 8–12) were isolated. These compounds were investigated by rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) inhibitory assays. Kinetic analyses of recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) were performed, and intracellular galactitol levels were measured. Hirsutrin, one of 12 isolated compounds, showed the most potent RLAR inhibitory activity (IC50, 4.78 μM). In the kinetic analyses using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/substrate concentration, hirsutrin showed competitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, hirsutrin inhibited galactitol formation in rat lens and erythrocytes sample incubated with a high concentration of galactose; this finding indicates that hirsutrin may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Therefore, hirsutrin derived from Zea mays L. may be a potential therapeutic agent against diabetes complications. PMID:23586057

  12. Prostate cancer cells differ in testosterone accumulation, dihydrotestosterone conversion, and androgen receptor signaling response to steroid 5α-reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Godoy, Alejandro; Azzouni, Faris; Wilton, John H; Ip, Clement; Mohler, James L

    2013-09-01

    Blocking 5α-reductase-mediated testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with finasteride or dutasteride is the driving hypothesis behind two prostate cancer prevention trials. Factors affecting intracellular androgen levels and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis need to be examined systematically in order to fully understand the outcome of interventions using these drugs. The expression of three 5α-reductase isozymes, as determined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, was studied in five human prostate cancer cell lines. Intracellular testosterone and DHT were analyzed using mass spectrometry. A luciferase reporter assay and AR-regulated genes were used to evaluate the modulation of AR activity. Prostate cancer cells were capable of accumulating testosterone to a level 15-50 times higher than that in the medium. The profile and expression of 5α-reductase isozymes did not predict the capacity to convert testosterone to DHT. Finasteride and dutasteride were able to depress testosterone uptake in addition to lowering intracellular DHT. The inhibition of AR activity following drug treatment often exceeded the expected response due to reduced availability of DHT. The ability to maintain high intracellular testosterone might compensate for the shortage of DHT. The biological effect of finasteride or dutasteride appears to be complex and may depend on the interplay of several factors, which include testosterone turnover, enzymology of DHT production, ability to use testosterone and DHT interchangeably, and propensity of cells for off-target AR inhibitory effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Identification of Multiple Soluble Fe(III Reductases in Gram-Positive Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter indiensis BSB-33

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    Subrata Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoanaerobacter indiensis BSB-33 has been earlier shown to reduce Fe(III and Cr(VI anaerobically at 60°C optimally. Further, the Gram-positive thermophilic bacterium contains Cr(VI reduction activity in both the membrane and cytoplasm. The soluble fraction prepared from T. indiensis cells grown at 60°C was found to contain the majority of Fe(III reduction activity of the microorganism and produced four distinct bands in nondenaturing Fe(III reductase activity gel. Proteins from each of these bands were partially purified by chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry (MS with the help of T. indiensis proteome sequences. Two paralogous dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenases (LPDs, thioredoxin reductase (Trx, NADP(H-nitrite reductase (Ntr, and thioredoxin disulfide reductase (Tdr were determined to be responsible for Fe(III reductase activity. Amino acid sequence and three-dimensional (3D structural similarity analyses of the T. indiensis Fe(III reductases were carried out with Cr(VI reducing proteins from other bacteria. The two LPDs and Tdr showed very significant sequence and structural identity, respectively, with Cr(VI reducing dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase from Thermus scotoductus and thioredoxin disulfide reductase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. It appears that in addition to their iron reducing activity T. indiensis LPDs and Tdr are possibly involved in Cr(VI reduction as well.

  14. Characterization of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase from C. elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacey, Brian M.; Hondal, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the catalytic disulfide bond of thioredoxin. In mammals and other higher eukaryotes, thioredoxin reductases contain the rare amino acid selenocysteine at the active site. The mitochondrial enzyme from Caenorhabditis elegans, however, contains a cysteine residue in place of selenocysteine. The mitochondrial C. elegans thioredoxin reductase was cloned from an expressed sequence tag and then produced in Escherichia coli as an intein-fusion protein. The purified recombinant enzyme has a k cat of 610 min -1 and a K m of 610 μM using E. coli thioredoxin as substrate. The reported k cat is 25% of the k cat of the mammalian enzyme and is 43-fold higher than a cysteine mutant of mammalian thioredoxin reductase. The enzyme would reduce selenocysteine, but not hydrogen peroxide or insulin. The flanking glycine residues of the GCCG motif were mutated to serine. The mutants improved substrate binding, but decreased the catalytic rate

  15. Thioredoxin Inhibitors Attenuate Platelet Function and Thrombus Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Clive; Ramasubramoni, Anjana; Pula, Giordano; Harper, Matthew T; Mundell, Stuart J; Coxon, Carmen H

    2016-01-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12) to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase). In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb). This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.

  16. Thioredoxin Inhibitors Attenuate Platelet Function and Thrombus Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Metcalfe

    Full Text Available Thioredoxin (Trx is an oxidoreductase with important physiological function. Imbalances in the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system are associated with a number of pathologies, particularly cancer, and a number of clinical trials for thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase inhibitors have been carried out or are underway. Due to the emerging role and importance of oxidoreductases for haemostasis and the current interest in developing inhibitors for clinical use, we thought it pertinent to assess whether inhibition of the NADPH/thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system affects platelet function and thrombosis. We used small molecule inhibitors of Trx (PMX 464 and PX-12 to determine whether Trx activity influences platelet function, as well as an unbiased proteomics approach to identify potential Trx substrates on the surface of platelets that might contribute to platelet reactivity and function. Using LC-MS/MS we found that PMX 464 and PX-12 affected the oxidation state of thiols in a number of cell surface proteins. Key surface receptors for platelet adhesion and activation were affected, including the collagen receptor GPVI and the von Willebrand factor receptor, GPIb. To experimentally validate these findings we assessed platelet function in the presence of PMX 464, PX-12, and rutin (a selective inhibitor of the related protein disulphide isomerase. In agreement with the proteomics data, small molecule inhibitors of thioredoxin selectively inhibited GPVI-mediated platelet activation, and attenuated ristocetin-induced GPIb-vWF-mediated platelet agglutination, thus validating the findings of the proteomics study. These data reveal a novel role for thioredoxin in regulating platelet reactivity via proteins required for early platelet responses at sites of vessel injury (GPVI and GPIb. This work also highlights a potential opportunity for repurposing of PMX 464 and PX-12 as antiplatelet agents.

  17. Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and risk of fracture among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K A; Andrade, S E; Boles, M; Buist, D S; Chase, G A; Donahue, J G; Goodman, M J; Gurwitz, J H; LaCroix, A Z; Platt, R

    2000-06-24

    Inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (statins) increase new bone formation in rodents and in human cells in vitro. Statin use is associated with increased bone mineral density of the femoral neck. We undertook a population-based case-control study at six health-maintenance organisations in the USA to investigate further the relation between statin use and fracture risk among older women. We investigated women aged 60 years or older. Exposure, outcome, and confounder information was obtained from automated claims and pharmacy data from October, 1994, to September, 1997. Cases had an incident diagnosis of non-pathological fracture of the hip, humerus, distal tibia, wrist, or vertebrae between October, 1996, and September, 1997. Controls had no fracture during this period. We excluded women with records of dispensing of drugs to treat osteoporosis. There were 928 cases and 2747 controls. Compared with women who had no record of statin dispensing during the previous 2 years, women with 13 or more statin dispensings during this period had a decreased risk of non-pathological fracture (odds ratio 0.48 [95% CI 0.27-0.83]) after adjustment for age, number of hospital admissions during the previous year, chronic disease score, and use of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs. No association was found between fracture risk and fewer than 13 dispensings of statins or between fracture risk and use of non-statin lipid-lowering drugs. Statins seem to be protective against non-pathological fracture among older women. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that statins increase bone mineral density in human beings and thereby decrease the risk of osteoporotic fractures.

  18. Dynamics of antifolate transport via the reduced folate carrier and the membrane folate receptor in murine leukaemia cells in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauritz, Robert; Peters, Godefridus; Kathmann, Ietje; Teshale, Habte; Noordhuis, Paul; Comijn, Elizabeth; Pinedo, Herbert; Jansen, Gerrit

    Murine L1210 leukaemia cells expressing either the reduced folate carrier (RFC) or the membrane folate receptor (MFR) were studied in vitro and in vivo to assess the dynamics of membrane transport of two categories antifolates; folate-based inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (methotrexate,

  19. A Rational Approach to Identify Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chhabria, M. T.; Parmar, K. B.; Brahmkshatriya, Pathik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2013), s. 3878-3883 ISSN 1381-6128 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mycobacterium tuberculosis * enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase * pharmacophore modeling * molecular docking * binding interactions Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.288, year: 2013

  20. Inhibition of thioredoxin reductase but not of glutathione reductase by the major classes of alkylating and platinum-containing anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Anne-Barbara; Anestål, Karin; Jerremalm, Elin; Ehrsson, Hans; Arnér, Elias S J

    2005-09-01

    Mammalian thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is important for cell proliferation, antioxidant defense, and redox signaling. Together with glutathione reductase (GR) it is the main enzyme providing reducing equivalents to many cellular processes. GR and TrxR are flavoproteins of the same enzyme family, but only the latter is a selenoprotein. With the active site containing selenocysteine, TrxR may catalyze reduction of a wide range of substrates, but can at the same time easily be targeted by electrophilic compounds due to the extraordinarily high reactivity of a selenolate moiety. Here we addressed the inhibition of the enzyme by major anticancer alkylating agents and platinum-containing compounds and we compared it to that of GR. We confirmed prior studies suggesting that the nitrosourea carmustine can inhibit both GR and TrxR. We next found, however, that nitrogen mustards (chlorambucil and melphalan) and alkyl sulfonates (busulfan) efficiently inhibited TrxR while these compounds, surprisingly, did not inhibit GR. Inhibitions were concentration and time dependent and apparently irreversible. Anticancer anthracyclines (daunorubicin and doxorubicin) were, in contrast to the alkylating agents, not inhibitors but poor substrates of TrxR. We also found that TrxR, but not GR, was efficiently inhibited by both cisplatin, its monohydrated complex, and oxaliplatin. Carboplatin, in contrast, could not inhibit any of the two enzymes. These findings lead us to conclude that representative compounds of the major classes of clinically used anticancer alkylating agents and most platinum compounds may easily target TrxR, but not GR. The TrxR inhibition should thereby be considered as a factor that may contribute to the cytotoxicity seen upon clinical use of these drugs.

  1. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO.The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001, 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001 and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001. Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins.Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent and merits further evaluation.

  2. Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Pantazis, Panayotis; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001), 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001). Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. Conclusions Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent

  3. Reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione reductase activity in various rat tissues after the administration of some radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulpanova, J.; Kovarova, H.; Ledvina, M.

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of glutathione reductase were investigated in rat liver, kidney and spleen after intraperitoneal administration of cystamine (50 mg/kg), mexamine (10 mg/kg), or a mixture of cystamine with mexamine (20 + 10 mg/kg). The GSH concentration increased after the administration of cystamine in the liver (maximum between the 20th and 30th min), in the kidney and spleen (maximum after 60 min). The cystamine + mexamine mixture also caused a significant increase of the GSH concentration in all the organs investigated; however, the values increased at earlier intervals as after the cystamine administration. No substantial effect was shown in the case of the mexamine administration, only 30 min after the administration the values were higher. The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly lower over the entire period examined. This was found in the liver and kidney as after the administration of cystamine, as after the radioprotective mixture. There was also a less pronounced inhibition of the enzyme activity in the spleen. Mexamine as a single radioprotector had practically no influence on the activity. (author)

  4. Characterization of a cultured human T-cell line with genetically altered ribonucleotide reductase activity. Model for immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, D; Ullman, B

    1983-04-10

    From human CCRF-CEM T-cells growing in continuous culture, we have selected, isolated, and characterized a clonal cell line, APHID-D2, with altered ribonucleotide reductase activity. In comparative growth rate experiments, the APHID-D2 cell line is less sensitive than the parental cell line to growth inhibition by deoxyadenosine in the presence of 10 microM erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine, an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. The APHID-D2 cell line has elevated levels of all four dNTPs. The resistance of the APHID-D2 cell line to growth inhibition by deoxyadenosine and the abnormal dNTP levels can be explained by the fact that the APHID-D2 ribonucleotide reductase, unlike the parental ribonucleotide reductase, is not normally sensitive to inhibition by dATP. These results suggest that the allosteric site of ribonucleotide reductase which binds both dATP and ATP is altered in the APHID-D2 line. The isolation of a mutant clone of human T-cells which contains a ribonucleotide reductase that has lost its normal sensitivity to dATP and which is resistant to deoxyadenosine-mediated growth inhibition suggests that a primary pathogenic target of accumulated dATP in lymphocytes from patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency may be the cellular ribonucleotide reductase.

  5. 3,5-Dioxopyrazolidines, Novel Inhibitors of UDP-N- Acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine Reductase (MurB) with Activity against Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Youjun; Severin, Anatoly; Chopra, Rajiv; Krishnamurthy, Girija; Singh, Guy; Hu, William; Keeney, David; Svenson, Kristine; Petersen, Peter J.; Labthavikul, Pornpen; Shlaes, David M.; Rasmussen, Beth A.; Failli, Amedeo A.; Shumsky, Jay S.; Kutterer, Kristina M. K.; Gilbert, Adam; Mansour, Tarek S.

    2006-01-01

    A series of 3,5-dioxopyrazolidines was identified as novel inhibitors of UDP-N-acetylenolpyruvylglucosamine reductase (MurB). Compounds 1 to 3, which are 1,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine-4-carboxamides, inhibited Escherichia coli MurB, Staphyloccocus aureus MurB, and E. coli MurA with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the range of 4.1 to 6.8 μM, 4.3 to 10.3 μM, and 6.8 to 29.4 μM, respectively. Compound 4, a C-4-unsubstituted 1,2-bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,5-dioxopyrazolidine, showed moderate inhibitory activity against E. coli MurB, S. aureus MurB, and E. coli MurC (IC50s, 24.5 to 35 μM). A fluorescence-binding assay indicated tight binding of compound 3 with E. coli MurB, giving a dissociation constant of 260 nM. Structural characterization of E. coli MurB was undertaken, and the crystal structure of a complex with compound 4 was obtained at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal structure indicated the binding of a compound at the active site of MurB and specific interactions with active-site residues and the bound flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis studies using a strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis revealed reduced peptidoglycan biosynthesis upon incubation with 3,5-dioxopyrazolidines, with IC50s of 0.39 to 11.1 μM. Antibacterial activity was observed for compounds 1 to 3 (MICs, 0.25 to 16 μg/ml) and 4 (MICs, 4 to 8 μg/ml) against gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:16436710

  6. Research progress on the roles of aldose reductase in diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhe Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aldose reductase(ARbelonging to nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH-dependent aldehyde-keto reductase superfamily, is the key rate-limiting enzyme in the polyol pathway which plays an important role in the body's high-sugar metabolism. AR is widely present in the kidneys, blood vessels, lens, retina, heart, skeletal muscle and other tissues and organs, converts glucose to sorbitol which easy permeability of cell membranes, cause cell swelling, degeneration, necrosis, and have a close relationship with the development of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy(DRis a multifactorial disease, the exact cause is currently unknown, but polyol pathway has been demonstrated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of DR. Clinical risk factors such as blood sugar control, blood pressure and other treatments for DR only play a part effect of remission or invalid, if we can find out DR genes associated with the disease, this will contribute to a better understanding of the pathological mechanisms and contribute to the development of new treatments and drugs. The current research progress of AR, AR gene polymorphism, Aldose reductase inhibitors to DR was reviewed in this article.

  7. Comparative modelling and molecular docking of nitrate reductase from Bacillus weihenstephanensis (DS45

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    R. Seenivasagan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductase catalyses the oxidation of NAD(PH and the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. NR serves as a central point for the integration of metabolic pathways by governing the flux of reduced nitrogen through several regulatory mechanisms in plants, algae and fungi. Bacteria express nitrate reductases that convert nitrate to nitrite, but mammals lack these specific enzymes. The microbial nitrate reductase reduces toxic compounds to nontoxic compounds with the help of NAD(PH. In the present study, our results revealed that Bacillus weihenstephanensis expresses a nitrate reductase enzyme, which was made to generate the 3D structure of the enzyme. Six different modelling servers, namely Phyre2, RaptorX, M4T Server, HHpred, SWISS MODEL and Mod Web, were used for comparative modelling of the structure. The model was validated with standard parameters (PROCHECK and Verify 3D. This study will be useful in the functional characterization of the nitrate reductase enzyme and its docking with nitrate molecules, as well as for use with autodocking.

  8. BIOLOGICAL ROLE OF ALDO-KETO REDUCTASES IN RETINOIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS AND SIGNALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier eRuiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Several aldo-keto reductase (AKR enzymes from subfamilies 1B and 1C show retinaldehyde reductase activity, having low Km and kcat values. Only AKR1B10 and 1B12, with all-trans-retinaldehyde, and AKR1C3, with 9-cis-retinaldehyde, display high catalytic efficiency. Major structural determinants for retinaldehyde isomer specificity are located in the external loops (A and C for AKR1B10, and B for AKR1C3, as assessed by site-directed mutagenesis and molecular dynamics. Cellular models have shown that AKR1B and 1C enzymes are well suited to work in vivo as retinaldehyde reductases and to regulate retinoic acid (RA biosynthesis at hormone pre-receptor level. An additional physiological role for the retinaldehyde reductase activity of these enzymes, consistent with their tissue localization, is their participation in β-carotene absorption. Retinaldehyde metabolism may be subjected to subcellular compartmentalization, based on enzyme localization. While retinaldehyde oxidation to RA takes place in the cytosol, reduction to retinol could take place in the cytosol by AKRs or in the membranes of endoplasmic reticulum by microsomal retinaldehyde reductases. Upregulation of some AKR1 enzymes in different cancer types may be linked to their induction by oxidative stress and to their participation in different signaling pathways related to cell proliferation. AKR1B10 and AKR1C3, through their retinaldehyde reductase activity, trigger a decrease in the RA biosynthesis flow, resulting in RA deprivation and consequently lower differentiation, with an increased cancer risk in target tissues. Rational design of selective AKR inhibitors could lead to development of novel drugs for cancer treatment as well as reduction of chemotherapeutic drug resistance.

  9. Systemic and ocular pharmacokinetics of N-4-benzoylaminophenylsulfonylglycine (BAPSG), a novel aldose reductase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Gangadhar; Ayalasomayajula, Surya P.; Rao, Cheruku S.; Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; DeRuiter, Jack; Kompella, Uday B.

    2015-01-01

    To better develop N-[4-(benzoylamino)phenylsulfonyl]glycine (BAPSG), a potent and selective aldose reductase inhibitor capable of delaying the progression of ocular diabetic complications, the objective of this study was to assess its pharmacokinetics. The plasma pharmacokinetics of BASPG was assessed in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes of administration and its distribution to various tissues including those of the eye was studied following intraperitoneal administration. In addition, rat plasma protein binding of BAPSG was studied using ultracentrifugation method and its ocular tissue disposition was assessed following topical administration in rabbits. Plasma and tissue levels of BAPSG were analysed using an HPLC assay. BAPSG exhibited dose-proportionate AUC0→∞ (area under the plasma concentration–time curve) following both intravenous and intraperitoneal administration over the dose range (5–50 mg kg−1) studied and an erratic oral absorption profile with low oral bioavailability. The fraction bioavailability following oral and intraperitoneal administration was 0.06 and 0.7–1, respectively. BAPSG exhibited short plasma elimination half-lives in the range 0.5–1.5 h. BAPSG was bound to rat plasma proteins and the percent protein binding ranged from 83 to 99.8%. BAPSG was better distributed to cornea, lens and retina than to brain, following intraperitoneal administration in rats. However, the distribution was lower compared with kidney and liver. Following topical administration in rabbits, BAPSG delivery to the surface ocular tissues, cornea and conjunctiva was higher compared with intraocular tissues, aqueous humour, iris-ciliary body and lens. Thus, BAPSG was distributed to ocular tissues following systemic and topical modes of administration. PMID:15025860

  10. Everolimus with reduced calcineurin inhibitor in thoracic transplant recipients with renal dysfunction: a multicenter, randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestad, Lars; Iversen, Martin; Mortensen, Svend-Aage

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation signal inhibitor everolimus offers the potential to reduce calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure and alleviate CNI-related nephrotoxicity. Randomized trials in maintenance thoracic transplant patients are lacking.......The proliferation signal inhibitor everolimus offers the potential to reduce calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) exposure and alleviate CNI-related nephrotoxicity. Randomized trials in maintenance thoracic transplant patients are lacking....

  11. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...

  12. Caracemide, a site-specific irreversible inhibitor of protein R1 of Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, I. K.; Cornett, Claus; Karlsson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The anticancer drug caracemide, N-acetyl-N,O-di(methylcarbamoyl)hydroxylamine, and one of its degradation products, N-acetyl-O-methylcarbamoyl-hydroxylamine, were found to inhibit the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli by specific interaction with its larger component protein R1....

  13. Boletus edulis Nitrite Reductase Reduces Nitrite Content of Pickles and Mitigates Intoxication in Nitrite-intoxicated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Tian, Guoting; Feng, Shanshan; Wong, Jack Ho; Zhao, Yongchang; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-10-08

    Pickles are popular in China and exhibits health-promoting effects. However, nitrite produced during fermentation adversely affects health due to formation of methemoglobin and conversion to carcinogenic nitrosamine. Fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus edulis were capable of inhibiting nitrite production during pickle fermentation. A 90-kDa nitrite reductase (NiR), demonstrating peptide sequence homology to fungal nitrite reductase, was isolated from B. edulis fruiting bodies. The optimum temperature and pH of the enzyme was 45 °C and 6.8, respectively. B. edulis NiR was capable of prolonging the lifespan of nitrite-intoxicated mice, indicating that it had the action of an antidote. The enzyme could also eliminate nitrite from blood after intragastric administration of sodium nitrite, and after packaging into capsule, this nitrite-eliminating activity could persist for at least 120 minutes thus avoiding immediate gastric degradation. B. edulis NiR represents the first nitrite reductase purified from mushrooms and may facilitate subsequent applications.

  14. Mitochondrial fumarate reductase as a target of chemotherapy: from parasites to cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Chika; Tomitsuka, Eriko; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Recent research on respiratory chain of the parasitic helminth, Ascaris suum has shown that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system (fumarate respiration), which is composed of complex I (NADH-rhodoquinone reductase), rhodoquinone and complex II (rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase) plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult parasites inhabiting hosts. The enzymes in these parasite-specific pathways are potential target for chemotherapy. We isolated a novel compound, nafuredin, from Aspergillus niger, which inhibits NADH-fumarate reductase in helminth mitochondria at nM order. It competes for the quinone-binding site in complex I and shows high selective toxicity to the helminth enzyme. Moreover, nafuredin exerts anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus in in vivo trials with sheep indicating that mitochondrial complex I is a promising target for chemotherapy. In addition to complex I, complex II is a good target because its catalytic direction is reverse of succinate-ubiquionone reductase in the host complex II. Furthermore, we found atpenin and flutolanil strongly and specifically inhibit mitochondrial complex II. Interestingly, fumarate respiration was found not only in the parasites but also in some types of human cancer cells. Analysis of the mitochondria from the cancer cells identified an anthelminthic as a specific inhibitor of the fumarate respiration. Role of isoforms of human complex II in the hypoxic condition of cancer cells and fetal tissues is a challenge. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Mitochondria, Life and Intervention 2010. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunocytochemical localization of APS reductase and bisulfite reductase in three Desulfovibrio species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, D.R.; Veenhuis, M.; Fauque, G.; Peck Jr., H.D.; LeGall, J.; Lampreia, J.; Moura, J.J.G.; Hansen, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    The localization of APS reductase and bisulfite reductase in Desulfovibrio gigas, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and D. thermophilus was studied by immunoelectron microscopy. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the purified enzymes from each strain. Cells fixed with formaldehyde/glutaraldehyde were

  16. The use of dimethylsulfoxide as a solvent in enzyme inhibition studies: the case of aldose reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misuri, Livia; Cappiello, Mario; Balestri, Francesco; Moschini, Roberta; Barracco, Vito; Mura, Umberto; Del-Corso, Antonella

    2017-12-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) is an enzyme devoted to cell detoxification and at the same time is strongly involved in the aetiology of secondary diabetic complications and the amplification of inflammatory phenomena. AR is subjected to intense inhibition studies and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is often present in the assay mixture to keep the inhibitors in solution. DMSO was revealed to act as a weak but well detectable AR differential inhibitor, acting as a competitive inhibitor of the L-idose reduction, as a mixed type of non-competitive inhibitor of HNE reduction and being inactive towards 3-glutathionyl-4-hydroxynonanal transformation. A kinetic model of DMSO action with respect to differently acting inhibitors was analysed. Three AR inhibitors, namely the flavonoids neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, rutin and phloretin, were used to evaluate the effects of DMSO on the inhibition studies on the reduction of L-idose and HNE.

  17. The role of biliverdin reductase in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the effects of biliverdin and bilirubin have been studied extensively, and an inhibitory effect of bile pigments in cancer progression has been proposed. In this study we focused on the effects of biliverdin reductase, the enzyme that converts biliverdin to bilirubin, in colorectal cancer. For in vitro experiments we used a human colorectal carcinoma cell line and transfected it with an expression construct of shRNA specific for biliverdin reductase, to create cells with stable knock-down of enzyme expression. Cell proliferation was analyzed using the CASY model TT cell counting device. Western blot protein analysis was performed to study intracellular signaling cascades. Samples of human colorectal cancer were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. We were able to confirm the antiproliferative effects of bile pigments on cancer cells in vitro. However, this effect was attenuated in biliverdin reductase knock down cells. ERK and Akt activation seen under biliverdin and bilirubin treatment was also reduced in biliverdin reductase deficient cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples from patients with colorectal cancer showed elevated biliverdin reductase levels. High enzyme expression was associated with lower overall and disease free patient survival. We conclude that BVR is required for bile pigment mediated effects regarding cancer cell proliferation and modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. The role of BVR overexpression in vivo and its exact influence on cancer progression and patient survival need to be further investigated. (author) [de

  18. Aqueous Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the M. tuberculosis Enoyl-ACP Reductase-NADH System and Its Complex with a Substrate Mimic or Diphenyl Ethers Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Henrique da Silva Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics (MD simulations of 12 aqueous systems of the NADH-dependent enoyl-ACP reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (InhA were carried out for up to 20–40 ns using the GROMACS 4.5 package. Simulations of the holoenzyme, holoenzyme-substrate, and 10 holoenzyme-inhibitor complexes were conducted in order to gain more insight about the secondary structure motifs of the InhA substrate-binding pocket. We monitored the lifetime of the main intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic contacts. Our MD simulations demonstrate the importance of evaluating the conformational changes that occur close to the active site of the enzyme-cofactor complex before and after binding of the ligand and the influence of the water molecules. Moreover, the protein-inhibitor total steric (ELJ and electrostatic (EC interaction energies, related to Gly96 and Tyr158, are able to explain 80% of the biological response variance according to the best linear equation, pKi = 7.772 − 0.1885 × Gly96 + 0.0517 × Tyr158 (R2 = 0.80; n = 10, where interactions with Gly96, mainly electrostatic, increase the biological response, while those with Tyr158 decrease. These results will help to understand the structure-activity relationships and to design new and more potent anti-TB drugs.

  19. Role of aldose reductase C-106T polymorphism among diabetic Egyptian patients with different microvascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Hossam Zakaria

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aldose reductase pathway proves that elevated blood glucose promotes cellular dysfunction. The polyol pathway converts excess intracellular glucose into alcohols via activity of the aldose reductase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of glucose to sorbitol which triggers variety of intracellular changes in the tissues. Among diabetes, activity is drastically increased in association with three main consequences inside the cells. The aim of this study was to detect the association of the C-106 T polymorphism of the aldose reductase gene and its frequency among a sample of 150 Egyptian adults with type 2 diabetic patients having diabetic microvascular. The detection of the aldose reductase C-106 T polymorphism gene was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The genotype distribution of the C-106 T polymorphism showed that CC genotype was statistically significantly higher among patients with retinopathy compared to nephropathy. Patients with nephropathy had significant association with the TT genotype when compared with diabetic retinopathy patients. Follow up study after the genotype detection among recently diagnosed diabetic patients in order to give a prophylactic aldose reductase inhibitors; studying the microvascular complications and its relation to the genotype polymorphisms. The study may include multiple gene polymorphisms to make the relation between the gene and the occurrence of these complications more evident.

  20. Gene cloning and overexpression of two conjugated polyketone reductases, novel aldo-keto reductase family enzymes, of Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, M; Delacruz-Hidalgo, A-R G; Akond, M A; Sakuradani, E; Kita, K; Shimizu, S

    2004-04-01

    The genes encoding two conjugated polyketone reductases (CPR-C1, CPR-C2) of Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 were cloned and sequenced. The genes encoded a total of 304 and 307 amino acid residues for CPR-C1 and CPR-C2, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two enzymes showed high similarity to each other and to several proteins of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, several amino acid residues in putative active sites of AKRs were not conserved in CPR-C1 and CPR-C2. The two CPR genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The E. coli transformant bearing the CPR-C2 gene almost stoichiometrically reduced 30 mg ketopantoyl lactone/ml to D-pantoyl lactone.

  1. Effects of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Statins On Bone Mineral Density and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehir Samancı

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins have been shown to have effects on bone metabolism in laboratory studies. While early clinic studies have showed lower risk for osteoporotic fractures among statin users than nonusers, subsequent studies have found mixed results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of statins on bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism. Thirty-five consecutive postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women who were treated for at least last 6 months with statins were included in the study. Seventy-five normocholesterolemic age-matched postmenopausal women were in the control group. Subjects with a history of any diseases and used drugs that may affect calcium or bone metabolism were excluded from the study. Age, associated illness, years since menopause, and body mass index (BMI were obtained from all the patients including the control group. Besides, serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphates, parathyroid hormone, 25 hydroxy D3, osteocalcin, and urinary calcium excretion were measured. BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at femoral neck and 3rd lomber spine. Mean duration of statin use was 28.17±21.17 months. BMI was found to be statistically higher in statin users than nonusers (27.47±3.67kg/m2 and 25.46±3.91 kg/m2, respectively. The markers of bone metabolism used in the study were found to be similar between the groups. BMD was not different in statin users and nonusers at femoral neck and lomber spine. As conclusion, statin use did not affect BMD and bone metabolism in this study. In our opinion large randomised, controlled, prospective clinical trials are needed to accurately determine the role of statins in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  2. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Cindy [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Mueller, Uwe [Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Lianli [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Zhao, Yu [Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-12-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222 1 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å

  4. Fragment-based design of symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles as selective inhibitors of the trimethoprim-resistant, type II R67 dihydrofolate reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Dominic; Ebert, Maximilian C C J C; Forge, Delphine; Toulouse, Jacynthe; Kadnikova, Natalia; Perron, Florent; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Pelletier, Joelle N

    2012-04-12

    The continuously increasing use of trimethoprim as a common antibiotic for medical use and for prophylactic application in terrestrial and aquatic animal farming has increased its prevalence in the environment. This has been accompanied by increased drug resistance, generally in the form of alterations in the drug target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The most highly resistant variants of DHFR are known as type II DHFR, among which R67 DHFR is the most broadly studied variant. We report the first attempt at designing specific inhibitors to this emerging drug target by fragment-based design. The detection of inhibition in R67 DHFR was accompanied by parallel monitoring of the human DHFR, as an assessment of compound selectivity. By those means, small aromatic molecules of 150-250 g/mol (fragments) inhibiting R67 DHFR selectively in the low millimolar range were identified. More complex, symmetrical bis-benzimidazoles and a bis-carboxyphenyl were then assayed as fragment-based leads, which procured selective inhibition of the target in the low micromolar range (K(i) = 2-4 μM). The putative mode of inhibition is discussed according to molecular modeling supported by in vitro tests. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of human dihydrofolate reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendergast, N.J.; Delcamp, T.J.; Smith, P.L.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-05-17

    A procaryotic high-level expression vector for human dihydrofolate reductase has been constructed and the protein characterized as a first step toward structure-function studies of this enzyme. A vector bearing the tac promoter, four synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, and a restriction fragment from the dihydrofolate reductase cDNA were ligated in a manner which optimized the transcriptional and translational frequency of the enzyme mRNA. The reductase, comprising ca. 17% of the total soluble protein in the host bacteria, was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized by amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequence, and steady-sate kinetic analysis. This expression vector has been used as a template for double-stranded plasmid DNA site-specific mutagenesis. Functional studies on a Cys-6 ..-->.. Ser-6 mutant enzyme support the contention that Cys-6 is obligatory for organomercurial activation of human dihydrofolate reductase. The Ser-6 mutant enzyme was not activated to any extent following a 24-h incubation with p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH), whereas the k/sub cat/ for Cys-6 reductase increased 2-fold under identical conditions. The specific activities of the Cys-6 and Ser-6 enzymes were virtually identical as determined by methotrexate titration as were the K/sub m/ values for both dihydrofolate and NADPH. The Ser-6 mutant showed a decreased temperature stability and was more sensitive to inactivation by ..cap alpha..-chymotrypsin when compared to the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that the Ser-6 mutant reductase is conformationally altered relative to the Cys-6 native enzyme.

  6. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of human dihydrofolate reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, N.J.; Delcamp, T.J.; Smith, P.L.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    A procaryotic high-level expression vector for human dihydrofolate reductase has been constructed and the protein characterized as a first step toward structure-function studies of this enzyme. A vector bearing the tac promoter, four synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, and a restriction fragment from the dihydrofolate reductase cDNA were ligated in a manner which optimized the transcriptional and translational frequency of the enzyme mRNA. The reductase, comprising ca. 17% of the total soluble protein in the host bacteria, was purified to apparent homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and characterized by amino acid composition, partial amino acid sequence, and steady-sate kinetic analysis. This expression vector has been used as a template for double-stranded plasmid DNA site-specific mutagenesis. Functional studies on a Cys-6 → Ser-6 mutant enzyme support the contention that Cys-6 is obligatory for organomercurial activation of human dihydrofolate reductase. The Ser-6 mutant enzyme was not activated to any extent following a 24-h incubation with p-(hydroxymercuri)benzoate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH), whereas the k/sub cat/ for Cys-6 reductase increased 2-fold under identical conditions. The specific activities of the Cys-6 and Ser-6 enzymes were virtually identical as determined by methotrexate titration as were the K/sub m/ values for both dihydrofolate and NADPH. The Ser-6 mutant showed a decreased temperature stability and was more sensitive to inactivation by α-chymotrypsin when compared to the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that the Ser-6 mutant reductase is conformationally altered relative to the Cys-6 native enzyme

  7. Downregulation of monocytic differentiation via modulation of CD147 by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manda V Sasidhar

    Full Text Available CD147 is an activation induced glycoprotein that promotes the secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and is upregulated during the differentiation of macrophages. Interestingly, some of the molecular functions of CD147 rely on its glycosylation status: the highly glycosylated forms of CD147 induce MMPs whereas the lowly glycosylated forms inhibit MMP activation. Statins are hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that block the synthesis of mevalonate, thereby inhibiting all mevalonate-dependent pathways, including isoprenylation, N-glycosylation and cholesterol synthesis. In this study, we investigated the role of statins in the inhibition of macrophage differentiation and the associated process of MMP secretion through modulation of CD147. We observed that differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 to a macrophage phenotype led to upregulation of CD147 and CD14 and that this effect was inhibited by statins. At the molecular level, statins altered CD147 expression, structure and function by inhibiting isoprenylation and N-glycosylation. In addition, statins induced a shift of CD147 from its highly glycosylated form to its lowly glycosylated form. This shift in N-glycosylation status was accompanied by a decrease in the production and functional activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, these findings describe a novel molecular mechanism of immune regulation by statins, making them interesting candidates for autoimmune disease therapy.

  8. Downregulation of monocytic differentiation via modulation of CD147 by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhar, Manda V; Chevooru, Sai Krishnaveni; Eickelberg, Oliver; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Neuhaus, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    CD147 is an activation induced glycoprotein that promotes the secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and is upregulated during the differentiation of macrophages. Interestingly, some of the molecular functions of CD147 rely on its glycosylation status: the highly glycosylated forms of CD147 induce MMPs whereas the lowly glycosylated forms inhibit MMP activation. Statins are hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that block the synthesis of mevalonate, thereby inhibiting all mevalonate-dependent pathways, including isoprenylation, N-glycosylation and cholesterol synthesis. In this study, we investigated the role of statins in the inhibition of macrophage differentiation and the associated process of MMP secretion through modulation of CD147. We observed that differentiation of the human monocytic cell line THP-1 to a macrophage phenotype led to upregulation of CD147 and CD14 and that this effect was inhibited by statins. At the molecular level, statins altered CD147 expression, structure and function by inhibiting isoprenylation and N-glycosylation. In addition, statins induced a shift of CD147 from its highly glycosylated form to its lowly glycosylated form. This shift in N-glycosylation status was accompanied by a decrease in the production and functional activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. In conclusion, these findings describe a novel molecular mechanism of immune regulation by statins, making them interesting candidates for autoimmune disease therapy.

  9. [Comparison of Physico-chemical Aspects between E. coli and Human Dihydrofolate Reductase: an Equilibrium Unfolding Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Charu; Jain, Neha; Chaudhuri, Pratima

    2015-01-01

    A protein, differing in origin, may exhibit variable physicochemical behaviour, difference in sequence homology, fold and function. Thus studying structure-function relationship of proteins from altered sources is meaningful in the sense that it may give rise to comparative aspects of their sequence-structure-function relationship. Dihydrofolate reductase is an enzyme involved in cell cycle regulation. It is a significant enzyme as.a target for developing anticancer drugs. Hence, detailed understanding of structure-function relationships of wide variants of the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase would be important for developing an inhibitor or an antagonist against the enzyme involved in the cellular developmental processes. In this communication, we have reported the comparative structure-function relationship between E. coli and human dihydrofolate reductase. The differences in the unfolding behaviour of these two proteins have been investigated to understand various properties of these two proteins like relative' stability differences and variation in conformational changes under identical denaturing conditions. The equilibrium unfolding mechanism of dihydrofolate reductase proteins using guanidine hydrochloride as a denaturant in the presence of various types of osmolytes has been monitored using loss in enzymatic activity, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and an extrinsic fluorophore 8-anilino-1-naphthalene-sulfonic acid as probes. It has been observed that osmolytes, such as 1M sucrose, and 30% glycerol, provided enhanced stability to both variants of dihydrofolate reductase. Their level of stabilisation has been observed to be dependent on intrinsic protein stability. It was observed that 100 mM proline does not show any 'significant stabilisation to either of dihydrofolate reductases. In the present study, it has been observed that the human protein is relatively less stable than the E.coli counterpart.

  10. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-12-25

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼ 40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18-60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase, HdRed, from the Pacific Abalone Haliotis discus hannai, Which Reduces Alginate-derived 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid to 2-Keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Shogo; Nishiyama, Ryuji; Inoue, Akira; Ojima, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Abalone feeds on brown seaweeds and digests seaweeds' alginate with alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3). However, it has been unclear whether the end product of alginate lyases (i.e. unsaturated monouronate-derived 4-deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH)) is assimilated by abalone itself, because DEH cannot be metabolized via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway of animals. Under these circumstances, we recently noticed the occurrence of an NADPH-dependent reductase, which reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate, in hepatopancreas extract of the pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai. In the present study, we characterized this enzyme to some extent. The DEH reductase, named HdRed in the present study, could be purified from the acetone-dried powder of hepatopancreas by ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by conventional column chromatographies. HdRed showed a single band of ∼40 kDa on SDS-PAGE and reduced DEH to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate with an optimal temperature and pH at around 50 °C and 7.0, respectively. HdRed exhibited no appreciable activity toward 28 authentic compounds, including aldehyde, aldose, ketose, α-keto-acid, uronic acid, deoxy sugar, sugar alcohol, carboxylic acid, ketone, and ester. The amino acid sequence of 371 residues of HdRed deduced from the cDNA showed 18–60% identities to those of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily enzymes, such as human aldose reductase, halophilic bacterium reductase, and sea hare norsolorinic acid (a polyketide derivative) reductase-like protein. Catalytic residues and cofactor binding residues known in AKR superfamily enzymes were fairly well conserved in HdRed. Phylogenetic analysis for HdRed and AKR superfamily enzymes indicated that HdRed is an AKR belonging to a novel family. PMID:26555267

  12. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic soybean expressing the Arabidopsis ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marta; Eckert, Helene; Arahana, Venancio; Graef, George; Grusak, Michael A; Clemente, Tom

    2006-10-01

    Soybean (Glycine max Merr.) production is reduced under iron-limiting calcareous soils throughout the upper Midwest regions of the US. Like other dicotyledonous plants, soybean responds to iron-limiting environments by induction of an active proton pump, a ferric iron reductase and an iron transporter. Here we demonstrate that heterologous expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana ferric chelate reductase gene, FRO2, in transgenic soybean significantly enhances Fe(+3) reduction in roots and leaves. Root ferric reductase activity was up to tenfold higher in transgenic plants and was not subjected to post-transcriptional regulation. In leaves, reductase activity was threefold higher in the transgenic plants when compared to control. The enhanced ferric reductase activity led to reduced chlorosis, increased chlorophyll concentration and a lessening in biomass loss in the transgenic events between Fe treatments as compared to control plants grown under hydroponics that mimicked Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient soil environments. However, the data indicate that constitutive FRO2 expression under non-iron stress conditions may lead to a decrease in plant productivity as reflected by reduced biomass accumulation in the transgenic events under non-iron stress conditions. When grown at Fe(III)-EDDHA levels greater than 10 microM, iron concentration in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly higher than control. The same observation was found in the roots in plants grown at iron levels higher than 32 microM Fe(III)-EDDHA. These results suggest that heterologous expression of an iron chelate reductase in soybean can provide a route to alleviate iron deficiency chlorosis.

  13. Association of aldose reductase gene Z+2 polymorphism with reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Caucasian Type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Mathilde; Tarnow, L; Fleckner, Jan

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: The Z-2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether this polymorph......AIMS: The Z-2 allele of the (AC)n polymorphism in the aldose reductase gene (ALR2) confers increased risk of microvascular diabetic complications, whereas the Z+2 allele has been proposed to be a marker of protection. However data are conflicting. Therefore, we investigated whether...... this polymorphism is associated with diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus in a large case-control study and a family-based analysis. METHODS: A total of 431 Type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and 468 patients with longstanding Type 1 diabetes and persistent...... of the ALR2 promoter polymorphism is associated with a reduced susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Danish Type 1 diabetic patients, suggesting a minor role for the polyol pathway in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. No association of the ALR2 polymorphism with diabetic retinopathy was found....

  14. Mechanistic studies with solubilized rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase: Elucidation of the kinetic mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.A.; Brandt, M.; Greway, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    A solubilized preparation of steroid 5 alpha-reductase from rat liver has been used in studies focused toward an understanding of the kinetic mechanism associated with enzyme catalysis. From the results of analyses with product and dead-end inhibitors, a preferentially ordered binding of substrates and release of products from the surface of the enzyme is proposed. The observations from these experiments were identical with those using the steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity associated with rat liver microsomes. The primary isotope effects on steady-state kinetic parameters when [4S-2H]NADPH was used also were consistent with an ordered kinetic mechanism. Normal isotope effects were observed for all three kinetic parameters (Vm/Km for both testosterone and NADPH and Vm) at all substrate concentrations used experimentally. Upon extrapolation to infinite concentration of testosterone, the isotope effect on Vm/Km for NADPH approached unity, indicating that the nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate is the first substrate binding to and the second product released from the enzyme. The isotope effects on Vm/Km for testosterone at infinite concentration of cofactor and on Vm were 3.8 +/- 0.5 and 3.3 +/- 0.4, respectively. Data from the pH profiles of these three steady-state parameters and the inhibition constants (1/Ki) of competitive inhibitors versus both substrates indicate that the binding of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate involves coordination of its anionic 2'-phosphate to a protonated enzyme-associated base with an apparent pK near 8.0. From these results, relative limits have been placed on several of the internal rate constants used to describe the ordered mechanism of the rat liver steroid 5 alpha-reductase

  15. Structure of the Francisella tularensis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) in complex with NAD+ and triclosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehboob, Shahila; Truong, Kent; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Structure of the ternary complex of F. tularensis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase reveals the structure of the substrate binding loop whose electron density was missing in an earlier structure, and demonstrates a shift in the position of the NAD + cofactor. Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) catalyzes the last rate-limiting step in the elongation cycle of the fatty-acid biosynthesis pathway and has been validated as a potential antimicrobial drug target in Francisella tularensis. The development of new antibiotic therapies is important both to combat potential drug-resistant bioweapons and to address the broader societal problem of increasing antibiotic resistance among many pathogenic bacteria. The crystal structure of FabI from F. tularensis (FtuFabI) in complex with the inhibitor triclosan and the cofactor NAD + has been solved to a resolution of 2.1 Å. Triclosan is known to effectively inhibit FabI from different organisms. Precise characterization of the mode of triclosan binding is required to develop highly specific inhibitors. Comparison of our structure with the previously determined FtuFabI structure which is bound to only NAD + reveals the conformation of the substrate-binding loop, electron density for which was missing in the earlier structure, and demonstrates a shift in the conformation of the NAD + cofactor. This shift in the position of the phosphate groups allows more room in the active site for substrate or inhibitor to bind and be better accommodated. This information will be crucial for virtual screening studies to identify novel scaffolds for development into new active inhibitors

  16. Carotenoid inhibitors reduce strigolactone production and Striga hermonthica infection in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Verstappen, Francel; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2010-12-01

    The strigolactones are internal and rhizosphere signalling molecules in plants that are biosynthesised through carotenoid cleavage. They are secreted by host roots into the rhizosphere where they signal host-presence to the symbiotic arbuscular mycrorrhizal (AM) fungi and the parasitic plants of the Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga genera. The seeds of these parasitic plants germinate after perceiving these signalling molecules. After attachment to the host root, the parasite negatively affects the host plant by withdrawing water, nutrients and assimilates through a direct connection with the host xylem. In many areas of the world these parasites are a threat to agriculture but so far very limited success has been achieved to minimize losses due to these parasitic weeds. Considering the carotenoid origin of the strigolactones, in the present study we investigated the possibilities to reduce strigolactone production in the roots of plants by blocking carotenoid biosynthesis using carotenoid inhibitors. Hereto the carotenoid inhibitors fluridone, norflurazon, clomazone and amitrole were applied to rice either through irrigation or through foliar spray. Irrigation application of all carotenoid inhibitors and spray application of amitrole significantly decreased strigolactone production, Striga hermonthica germination and Striga infection, also in concentrations too low to affect growth and development of the host plant. Hence, we demonstrate that the application of carotenoid inhibitors to plants can affect S. hermonthica germination and attachment indirectly by reducing the strigolactone concentration in the rhizosphere. This finding is useful for further studies on the relevance of the strigolactones in rhizosphere signalling. Since these inhibitors are available and accessible, they may represent an efficient technology for farmers, including poor subsistence farmers in the African continent, to control these harmful parasitic weeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc

  17. Reduced incidence of new-onset diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitors (statins).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, G V Ramesh; Kim, S Joseph; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Fenton, Stanley S A; Cattran, Daniel C; Cole, Edward H; Cardella, Carl J

    2004-11-01

    Statins have anti-inflammatory effects, modify endothelial function and improve peripheral insulin resistance. We hypothesized that statins influence the development of new-onset diabetes mellitus in renal transplant recipients. The records of all previously non-diabetic adults who received an allograft in Toronto between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2001 were reviewed with follow-up through December 31, 2002. All patients receiving cyclosporine or tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone were included. New-onset diabetes was diagnosed by the Canadian Diabetic Association criteria: fasting plasma glucose > or =7.0 mmol/L or 2-h postprandial glucose > or =11.1 mmol/L on more than two occasions. Statin use prior to diabetes development was recorded along with other variables. Cox proportional hazards models analyzing statin use as a time-dependent covariate were performed. Three hundred fourteen recipients met study criteria, of whom 129 received statins. New-onset diabetes incidence was 16% (n = 49). Statins (p = 0.0004, HR 0.238[0.109-0.524]) and ACE inhibitors/ARB (p = 0.01, HR 0.309[0.127-0.750]) were associated with decreased risk. Prednisone dose (p = 0.0001, HR 1.007[1.003-1.010] per 1 mg/d at 3 months), weight at transplant (p = 0.02, HR 1.022[1.003-1.042] per 1 kg), black ethnicity (p = 0.02, HR 1.230[1.023-1.480]) and age > or =45 years (p = 0.01, HR 2.226[1.162-4.261]) were associated with increased diabetes. Statin use is associated with reduced new-onset diabetes development after renal transplantation.

  18. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase from Populus trichocarpa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs contribute to poplar defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcripts of PA biosynthetic genes accumulated rapidly in response to infection by the fungus Marssonina brunnea f.sp. multigermtubi, treatments of salicylic acid (SA and wounding, resulting in PA accumulation in poplar leaves. Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR are two key enzymes of the PA biosynthesis that produce the main subunits: (+-catechin and (--epicatechin required for formation of PA polymers. In Populus, ANR and LAR are encoded by at least two and three highly related genes, respectively. In this study, we isolated and functionally characterized genes PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 from P. trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Populus ANR1 and LAR1 occurr in two distinct phylogenetic lineages, but both genes have little difference in their tissue distribution, preferentially expressed in roots. Overexpression of PtrANR1 in poplar resulted in a significant increase in PA levels but no impact on catechin levels. Antisense down-regulation of PtrANR1 showed reduced PA accumulation in transgenic lines, but increased levels of anthocyanin content. Ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulated the biosynthesis of PAs, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol was significantly reduced (P<0.05 in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that both PtrANR1 and PtrLAR1 contribute to PA biosynthesis in Populus.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Feng, Lingling; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jie; Wan, Jian; Hu, Xiaopeng

    2010-01-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Class II 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductases are potential targets for novel antibiotic development. In order to obtain a precise structural model for use in virtual screening and inhibitor design, HMG-CoA reductase of Streptococcus pneumoniae was cloned, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity using Ni–NTA affinity chromatography. Crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. A complete data set was collected from a single frozen crystal on a home X-ray source. The crystal diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 773.4836, b = 90.3055, c = 160.5592 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content was estimated to be 54.1% (V M = 2.68 Å 3 Da −1 )

  20. In Silico Screening, Synthesis and In Vitro Evaluation of Some Quinazolinone and Pyridine Derivatives as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors for Anticancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Nerkar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR is the important target for anticancer drugs belonging to the class of antimetabolites as the enzyme plays important role in the de novo purine synthesis. We here report the in silico screening to obtain best fit molecules as DHFR inhibitors, synthesis of some ʻbest fitʼ quinazolinone from 2-phenyl-3-(substituted-benzilidine-amino quinazolinones (Quinazolinone Shiff's bases QSB1-5 and pyridine-4-carbohydrazide Shiff's bases (ISB1-5 derivatives and their in vitro anticancer assay. Synthesis of the molecules was performed using microwave assisted synthesis. The structures of these molecules were elucidated by IR and 1H-NMR. These compounds were then subjected for in vitro anticancer evaluation against five human cancer cell-lines for anticancer cyto-toxicity assay. Methotrexate (MTX was used as standard for this evaluation to give a comparable inhibition of the cell proliferation by DHFR inhibition. Placlitaxel, adriamycin and 5-fluoro-uracil were also used as standard to give a comparable activity of these compounds with other mechanism of anticancer activity. ISB3 (4-(N, N-dimethyl-amino-phenyl Schiff''s base derivative of pyridine carbohydrazide showed equipotent activity with the standards used in in vitro anticancer assay as per the NCI (National Cancer Institute guidelines.

  1. Protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract through the inhibition of aldose reductase activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, YanLi; Zhao, Yongxia; Sui, YaNan; Lei, XiaoJun

    2018-04-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Aldose reductase is a key enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway, which plays a major role in the development of diabetic cataract. Rats were divided into five groups as normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control treated with different concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts. Presence of major constituents in Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract was performed by qualitative analysis. Body weight changes, blood glucose, blood insulin, and reduced glutathione (GSH) and aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were determined. Rat body weight gain was noted following treatment with bark extracts. The blood glucose was reduced up to 36% following treatment with bark extracts. The blood insulin and tissue GSH contents were substantially increased more than 100% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. Aldose reductase activity was reduced up to 79.3% in diabetic rats following treatment with extracts. V max , K m , and K i of aldose reductase were reduced in the lens tissue homogenate compared to the diabetic control. Aldose reductase mRNA and protein expression were reduced more than 50% following treatment with extracts. Treatment with Pterocarpus marsupium bark was able to normalize these levels. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the use of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts could be the potential therapeutic approach for the reduction of aldose reductase against diabetic cataract.

  2. Risk of Fractures and Falls during and after 5-α Reductase Inhibitor Use: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David; Garmo, Hans; Stattin, Pär; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms are common among older men and 5-α reductase inhibitors (5-ARI) are a group of drugs recommended in treating these symptoms. The effect on prostate volume is mediated by a reduction in dihydrotestosterone; however, this reduction is counterbalanced by a 25% rise in serum testosterone levels. Therefore, 5-ARI use might have systemic effects and differentially affect bone mineral density, muscular mass and strength, as well as falls, all of which are major determinants of fractures in older men. We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all Swedish men who used 5-ARI by comparing their risk of hip fracture, any type of fracture and of falls with matched control men randomly selected from the population and unexposed to 5-ARI. During 1 417 673 person-years of follow-up, 10 418 men had a hip fracture, 19 570 any type of fracture and 46 755 a fall requiring hospital care. Compared with unexposed men, current users of 5-ARI had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.96 (95% CI 0.91-1.02) for hip fracture, an HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.98) for all fracture and an HR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.02) for falls. Former users had an increased risk of hip fractures (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19). 5-ARI is safe from a bone health perspective with an unaltered risk of fractures and falls during periods of use. After discontinuation of 5-ARI, there is a modest increase in the rate of fractures and falls.

  3. Risk of Fractures and Falls during and after 5-α Reductase Inhibitor Use: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robinson

    Full Text Available Lower urinary tract symptoms are common among older men and 5-α reductase inhibitors (5-ARI are a group of drugs recommended in treating these symptoms. The effect on prostate volume is mediated by a reduction in dihydrotestosterone; however, this reduction is counterbalanced by a 25% rise in serum testosterone levels. Therefore, 5-ARI use might have systemic effects and differentially affect bone mineral density, muscular mass and strength, as well as falls, all of which are major determinants of fractures in older men.We conducted a nationwide cohort study of all Swedish men who used 5-ARI by comparing their risk of hip fracture, any type of fracture and of falls with matched control men randomly selected from the population and unexposed to 5-ARI.During 1 417 673 person-years of follow-up, 10 418 men had a hip fracture, 19 570 any type of fracture and 46 755 a fall requiring hospital care. Compared with unexposed men, current users of 5-ARI had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR of 0.96 (95% CI 0.91-1.02 for hip fracture, an HR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.90-0.98 for all fracture and an HR of 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.02 for falls. Former users had an increased risk of hip fractures (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19.5-ARI is safe from a bone health perspective with an unaltered risk of fractures and falls during periods of use. After discontinuation of 5-ARI, there is a modest increase in the rate of fractures and falls.

  4. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  5. Tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella thyphimurium: a molybdenum containing enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinojosa-Leon, M.; Dubourdieu, M.; Sanchez-Crispin, J.A.; Chippaux, M.

    1986-01-01

    Use of radioactive molybdenum demonstrates that the tetrathionate reductase of Salmonella typhimurium is a molydenum containing enzyme. It is proposed that this enzyme shares with other molybdo-proteins, such as nitrate reductase, a common molybdenum containing cofactor the defect of which leads to the loss of the tetrathionate reductase and nitrate reductase activities

  6. Persistent erectile dysfunction in men exposed to the 5α-reductase inhibitors, finasteride, or dutasteride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kiguradze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Importance Case reports describe persistent erectile dysfunction (PED associated with exposure to 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs. Clinical trial reports and the manufacturers’ full prescribing information (FPI for finasteride and dutasteride state that risk of sexual adverse effects is not increased by longer duration of 5α-RI exposure and that sexual adverse effects of 5α-RIs resolve in men who discontinue exposure. Objective Our chief objective was to assess whether longer duration of 5α-RI exposure increases risk of PED, independent of age and other known risk factors. Men with shorter 5α-RI exposure served as a comparison control group for those with longer exposure. Design We used a single-group study design and classification tree analysis (CTA to model PED (lasting ≥90 days after stopping 5α-RI. Covariates included subject attributes, diseases, and drug exposures associated with sexual dysfunction. Setting Our data source was the electronic medical record data repository for Northwestern Medicine. Subjects The analysis cohorts comprised all men exposed to finasteride or dutasteride or combination products containing one of these drugs, and the subgroup of men 16–42 years old and exposed to finasteride ≤1.25 mg/day. Main outcome and measures Our main outcome measure was diagnosis of PED beginning after first 5α-RI exposure, continuing for at least 90 days after stopping 5α-RI, and with contemporaneous treatment with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I. Other outcome measures were erectile dysfunction (ED and low libido. PED was determined by manual review of medical narratives for all subjects with ED. Risk of an adverse effect was expressed as number needed to harm (NNH. Results Among men with 5α-RI exposure, 167 of 11,909 (1.4% developed PED (persistence median 1,348 days after stopping 5α-RI, interquartile range (IQR 631.5–2320.5 days; the multivariable model predicting PED had four variables: prostate disease

  7. Identification and functional evaluation of the reductases and dehydrogenases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in vanillin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinning; Liang, Zhenzhen; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Vanillin, a type of phenolic released during the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials, is toxic to microorganisms and therefore its presence inhibits the fermentation. The vanillin can be reduced to vanillyl alcohol, which is much less toxic, by the ethanol producer Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reducing capacity of S. cerevisiae and its vanillin resistance are strongly correlated. However, the specific enzymes and their contribution to the vanillin reduction are not extensively studied. In our previous work, an evolved vanillin-resistant strain showed an increased vanillin reduction capacity compared with its parent strain. The transcriptome analysis suggested the reductases and dehydrogenases of this vanillin resistant strain were up-regulated. Using this as a starting point, 11 significantly regulated reductases and dehydrogenases were selected in the present work for further study. The roles of these reductases and dehydrogenases in the vanillin tolerance and detoxification abilities of S. cerevisiae are described. Among the candidate genes, the overexpression of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene ADH6, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene ALD6, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase gene ZWF1, NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase gene YNL134C, and aldo-keto reductase gene YJR096W increased 177, 25, 6, 15, and 18 % of the strain μmax in the medium containing 1 g L(-1) vanillin. The in vitro detected vanillin reductase activities of strain overexpressing ADH6, YNL134C and YJR096W were notably higher than control. The vanillin specific reduction rate increased by 8 times in ADH6 overexpressed strain but not in YNL134C and YJR096W overexpressed strain. This suggested that the enzymes encoded by YNL134C and YJR096W might prefer other substrate and/or could not show their effects on vanillin on the high background of Adh6p in vivo. Overexpressing ALD6 and ZWF1 mainly increased the [NADPH]/[NADP(+)] and [GSH]/[GSSG] ratios but not the vanillin reductase activities. Their

  8. Reduced-Amide Inhibitor of Pin1 Binds in a Conformation Resembling a Twisted-Amide Transition State†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G.; Zhang, Yan; Mercedes-Camacho, Ana Y.; Etzkorn, Felicia A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), Pin1, was investigated using reduced-amide inhibitors designed to mimic the twisted-amide transition state. Inhibitors, R–pSer–Ψ[CH2N]–Pro–2-(indol-3-yl)-ethylamine, 1 (R = fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl, Fmoc), and 2 (R = Ac), of Pin1 were synthesized and bioassayed. Inhibitor 1 had an IC50 value of 6.3 μM, which is 4.5-fold better inhibition for Pin1 than our comparable ground state analogue, a cis-amide alkene isostere containing inhibitor. The change of Fmoc to Ac in 2 improved aqueous solubility for structural determination, and resulted in an IC50 value of 12 μM. The X-ray structure of the complex of 2 bound to Pin1 was determined to 1.76 Å resolution. The structure revealed that the reduced amide adopted a conformation similar to the proposed twisted-amide transition state of Pin1, with a trans-pyrrolidine conformation of the prolyl ring. A similar conformation of substrate would be destabilized relative to the planar amide conformation. Three additional reduced amides, with Thr replacing Ser, and l- or d-pipecolate (Pip) replacing Pro, were slightly weaker inhibitors of Pin1. PMID:21980916

  9. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors reduce evening home blood pressure in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Tsuneo; Kishimoto, Miyako; Ohta, Mari; Tomonaga, Osamu; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2017-05-01

    The effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors on home blood pressure were examined in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy. The patients with diabetic nephropathy were screened from medical records in our hospitals. Among them, 52 patients who measured home blood pressure and started to take sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors were selected. Clinical parameters including estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria and home blood pressure for 6 months were analysed. Sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors (luseogliflozin 5 mg/day or canagliflozin 100 mg/day) reduced body weight, HbA1c, albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate and office blood pressure. Although sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors did not alter morning blood pressure, it reduced evening systolic blood pressure. Regression analyses revealed that decreases in evening blood pressure predicted decrements in albuminuria. The present data suggest that sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors suppress sodium overload during daytime to reduce evening blood pressure and albuminuria.

  10. Hsp90 inhibitors reduce influenza virus replication in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, Geoffrey; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Leung, B.W.; Mayer, Daniel; Schwemmle, Martin; Brownlee, George

    2008-01-01

    The viral RNA polymerase complex of influenza A virus consists of three subunits PB1, PB2 and PA. Recently, the cellular chaperone Hsp90 was shown to play a role in nuclear import and assembly of the trimeric polymerase complex by binding to PB1 and PB2. Here we show that Hsp90 inhibitors, geldanamycin or its derivative 17-AAG, delay the growth of influenza virus in cell culture resulting in a 1-2 log reduction in viral titre early in infection. We suggest that this is caused by the reduced half-life of PB1 and PB2 and inhibition of nuclear import of PB1 and PA which lead to reduction in viral RNP assembly. Hsp90 inhibitors may represent a new class of antiviral compounds against influenza viruses

  11. Purification and kinetic analysis of cytosolic and mitochondrial thioredoxin glutathione reductase extracted from Taenia solium cysticerci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancarte, Agustin; Nava, Gabriela

    2015-02-01

    Thioredoxin glutathione reductases (TGRs) (EC 1.8.1.9) were purified to homogeneity from the cytosolic (cTsTGR) and mitochondrial (mTsTGR) fractions of Taenia solium, the agent responsible for neurocysticercosis, one of the major central nervous system parasitic diseases in humans. TsTGRs had a relative molecular weight of 132,000, while the corresponding value per subunit obtained under denaturing conditions, was of 62,000. Specific activities for thioredoxin reductase and glutathione reductase substrates for both TGRs explored were in the range or lower than values obtained for other platyhelminths and mammalian TGRs. cTsTGR and mTsTGR also showed hydroperoxide reductase activity using hydroperoxide as substrate. Km(DTNB) and Kcat(DTNB) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (88 µM and 1.9 s(-1); 45 µM and 12.6 s(-1), respectively) and Km(GSSG) and Kcat(GSSG) values for cTsTGR and mTsTGR (6.3 µM and 0.96 s(-1); 4 µM and 1.62 s(-1), respectively) were similar to or lower than those reported for mammalian TGRs. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that 12 peptides from cTsTGR and seven from mTsTGR were a match for gi|29825896 thioredoxin glutathione reductase [Echinococcus granulosus], confirming that both enzymes are TGRs. Both T. solium TGRs were inhibited by the gold compound auranofin, a selective inhibitor of thiol-dependent flavoreductases (I₅₀ = 3.25, 2.29 nM for DTNB and GSSG substrates, respectively for cTsTGR; I₅₀ = 5.6, 25.4 nM for mTsTGR toward the same substrates in the described order). Glutathione reductase activity of cTsTGR and mTsTGR exhibited hysteretic behavior with moderate to high concentrations of GSSG; this result was not observed either with thioredoxin, DTNB or NADPH. However, the observed hysteretic kinetics was suppressed with increasing amounts of both parasitic TGRs. These data suggest the existence of an effective substitute which may account for the lack of the detoxification enzymes glutathione reductase

  12. Skeletal muscle-specific HMG-CoA reductase knockout mice exhibit rhabdomyolysis: A model for statin-induced myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoshinori; Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Miyahara, Shoko; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Ohashi, Ken; Ishibashi, Shun; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2015-10-23

    HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonic acid (MVA); this is the rate-limiting enzyme of the mevalonate pathway that synthesizes cholesterol. Statins, HMGCR inhibitors, are widely used as cholesterol-reducing drugs. However, statin-induced myopathy is the most adverse side effect of statins. To eludicate the mechanisms underlying statin the myotoxicity and HMGCR function in the skeletal muscle, we developed the skeletal muscle-specific HMGCR knockout mice. Knockout mice exhibited postnatal myopathy with elevated serum creatine kinase levels and necrosis. Myopathy in knockout mice was completely rescued by the oral administration of MVA. These results suggest that skeletal muscle toxicity caused by statins is dependent on the deficiencies of HMGCR enzyme activity and downstream metabolites of the mevalonate pathway in skeletal muscles rather than the liver or other organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Silencing of flavanone-3-hydroxylase in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) leads to accumulation of flavanones, but not to reduced fire blight susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Richter, Klaus; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Szankowski, Iris; Gosch, Christian; Stich, Karl; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-02-01

    Transgenic antisense flavanone-3-hydroxylase apple plants were produced to mimic the effect of the agrochemical prohexadione-Ca on apple leaves. This enzyme inhibitor for 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases is used as a growth retardant and for control of secondary fire blight of leaves. Like using the agent, silencing of flavanone-3-hydroxylase leads to an accumulation of flavanones in leaves, but in contrast not to the formation of 3-deoxyflavonoids. In prohexadione-Ca treated leaves the 3-deoxyflavonoid luteoforol is formed from accumulating flavanones, acting as an antimicrobial compound against the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Seemingly, the silencing of just one of the 2-oxoglutarate dependent dioxygenases (in apple also flavonol synthase and anthocyanidin synthase take part downstream in the pathway) does not provide a sufficiently high ratio of flavanones to dihydroflavonols. This seems to be needed to let the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase/flavanone-4-reductase enzyme reduce flavanones to luteoforol, and to let this be reduced by the leucoanthocyanidin-4-reductase/3-deoxyleucoanthocyanidin-4-reductase, each acting with their respective weak secondary activities. Accordingly, also the intended inducible resistance to fire blight by prohexadione-Ca is not observed with the antisense flavanone-3-hydroxylase apple plants. On the other hand, for most transgenic lines with strong flavanone-4-reductase down-regulation, up-regulation of gene expression for the other flavonoid genes was found. This provides further evidence for the feedback regulation of flavonoid gene expression having been previously reported for the prohexadione-Ca inhibited apple plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The NADPH thioredoxin reductase C functions as an electron donor to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueoka, Keigo; Yamazaki, Teruaki; Hiyama, Tetsuo; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    An NADPH thioredoxin reductase C was co-purified with a 2-Cys peroxiredoxin by the combination of anion exchange chromatography and electroelution from gel slices after native PAGE from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus as an NAD(P)H oxidase complex induced by oxidative stress. The result provided a strong evidence that the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C interacts with the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in vivo. An in vitro reconstitution assay with purified recombinant proteins revealed that both proteins were essential for an NADPH-dependent reduction of H 2 O 2 . These results suggest that the reductase transfers the reducing power from NADPH to the peroxiredoxin, which reduces peroxides in the cyanobacterium under oxidative stress. In contrast with other NADPH thioredoxin reductases, the NADPH thioredoxin reductase C contains a thioredoxin-like domain in addition to an NADPH thioredoxin reductase domain in the same polypeptide. Each domain contains a conserved CXYC motif. A point mutation at the CXYC motif in the NADPH thioredoxin reductase domain resulted in loss of the NADPH oxidation activity, while a mutation at the CXYC motif in the thioredoxin-like domain did not affect the electron transfer, indicating that this motif is not essential in the electron transport from NADPH to the 2-Cys peroxiredoxin.

  15. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  16. Radiation-induced G/sub 2/-arrest is reduced by inhibitors of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.

    1985-01-01

    Experiments are in progress to test whether poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthesis is required for the induction of G/sub 2/-arrest in growing mammalian cells following X-irradiation. A variety of poly(ADPR) synthetase inhibitors have been tested to determine: 1) whether addition of an inhibitor to X-irradiated CHO cells reduces G/sub 2/-arrest; 2) whether compounds structurally similar to poly-(ADPR) synthetase inhibitors but inactive against this enzyme affect radiation-induced G/sub 2/-arrest and 3) whether the concentration dependence for poly(ADPR) synthetase inhibition matches that for G/sub 2/-arrest reduction. G/sub 2/-arrest was measured in X-irradiated (1.5 Gy) CHO cells using the mitotic cell selection technique. Poly(ADPR) synthetase activity was measured in permeabilized cells by /sup 3/H-NAD incorporation. The synthetase inhibitors used were 3-aminobenzamide, benzamide, nicotinamide, 4-acetyl pyridine, caffeine and theophylline. The inactive compounds used were 3-aminobenzoic acid, benzoic acid, nicotinic acid, adenine, adenosine and 3'-deoxyadenosine. Inhibitors of poly(ADPR) synthetase reduced G/sub 2/-arrest while related compounds which produced no enzyme inhibition did not. The concentration dependencies for G/sub 2/-arrest reduction and enzyme inhibition were similar only for methyl xanthines. Further analysis awaits the determination of intracellular drug concentrations

  17. Effect of cystamine on rat tissue GSH level and glutathione reductase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarova, H.; Pulpanova, J.

    1979-01-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) level and glutathione reductase activity were determined by means of the spectrophotometric method in various rat tissues after i.p. administration of cystamine (50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg). GSH amount dropped in the spleen and kidney at 10 and 20 min; following this interval, an increase of GSH level was observed in the liver at 20-30 min, in the spleen and kidney at 60 min after the treatment with a radioprotective cystamine dose (50 mg/kg). The changes in GSH level induced by a non-radioprotective cystamine dose (20 mg/kg) had an opposite tendency. The activity of glutathione reductase was decreased in all tissues studied. As to the mechanism of the radioprotective action, both the inactivation of glutathione reductase activity and the changes in GSH level seem to be the factors contributing to the radioprotective effect of cystamine by strengthening the cellular radioresistance. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RKD [de

  18. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors in Older Persons with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evidence for an Age–Statin Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, JoAnne Micale; Rathore, Saif S.; Galusha, Deron; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Havranek, Edward P.; Radford, Martha J.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To characterize the relationship between hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and outcomes in older persons with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). DESIGN Observational study. SETTING Acute care hospitals in the United States from April 1998 to June 2001. PARTICIPANTS Medicare patients aged 65 and older with a principal discharge diagnosis of AMI (N = 65,020) who did and did not receive a discharge prescription for statins. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome of interest was all-cause mortality at 3 years after discharge. RESULTS Of 23,013 patients with AMI assessed, 5,513 (24.0%) were receiving a statin at discharge. Nearly 40% of eligible patients (n =8,452) were aged 80 and older, of whom 1,310 (15.5%) were receiving a statin at discharge. In a multivariable model taking into account demographic, clinical, physician and hospital characteristics, and propensity score, discharge statin therapy was associated with significantly lower 3-year mortality (hazard ratio (HR) =0.89 (95% confidence interval (CI) =0.83–0.96)). In an analysis stratified by age, discharge statins were associated with lower mortality in patients younger than 80 (HR =0.84, 95% CI =0.76–0.92) but not in those aged 80 and older (HR =0.97, 95% CI =0.87–1.09). CONCLUSION Statin therapy is associated with lower mortality in older patients with AMI younger than 80 but not in those aged 80 and older, as a group. This finding questions whether statin efficacy data in younger patients can be broadly applied to the very old and indicates the need for further study of this group. PMID:16551308

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å. PMID:17142919

  20. Effect of specific enzyme inhibitors on replication, total genome DNA repair and on gene-specific DNA repair after UV irradiation in CHO cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.C.; Stevsner, Tinna; Bohr, Vilhelm A. (National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (USA). Division of Cancer Treatment, Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology); Mattern, M.R. (Smith Kline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA (USA). Department of Biomolecular Discovery)

    1991-09-01

    The effects were studied of some specific enzyme inhibitors on DNA repair and replication after UV damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The DNA repair was studied at the level of the average, overall genome and also in the active dihydrofolate reductase gene. Replication was measured in the overall genome. The inhibitors were tested of DNA poly-merase {alpha} and {delta} (aphidicolin), of poly(ADPr) polymerase (3-aminobenzamide), of ribonucleotide reductase (hydroxyurea), of topo-isomerase I (camptothecin), and of topoisomerase II (merbarone, VP-16). In addition, the effects were tested of the potential topoisomerase I activator, {beta}-lapachone. All of these compounds inhibited genome replication and all topoisomerase inhibitors affected the overall genome repair; {beta}-lapachone stimulated it. None of these compounds had any effect on the gene-specific repair. (author). 36 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  1. Hydroxyurea-Mediated Cytotoxicity Without Inhibition of Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Li Phing; Lim, Zun Yi; Cohen, Matan; Kong, Ziqing; Marjavaara, Lisette; Chabes, Andrei; Bell, Stephen D

    2016-11-01

    In many organisms, hydroxyurea (HU) inhibits class I ribonucleotide reductase, leading to lowered cellular pools of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The reduced levels for DNA precursors is believed to cause replication fork stalling. Upon treatment of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus with HU, we observe dose-dependent cell cycle arrest, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks, stalled replication forks, and elevated levels of recombination structures. However, Sulfolobus has a HU-insensitive class II ribonucleotide reductase, and we reveal that HU treatment does not significantly impact cellular DNA precursor pools. Profiling of protein and transcript levels reveals modulation of a specific subset of replication initiation and cell division genes. Notably, the selective loss of the regulatory subunit of the primase correlates with cessation of replication initiation and stalling of replication forks. Furthermore, we find evidence for a detoxification response induced by HU treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating thermodynamic integration performance of the new amber molecular dynamics package and assess potential halogen bonds of enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) benzimidazole inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Pin-Chih; Johnson, Michael E

    2016-04-05

    Thermodynamic integration (TI) can provide accurate binding free energy insights in a lead optimization program, but its high computational expense has limited its usage. In the effort of developing an efficient and accurate TI protocol for FabI inhibitors lead optimization program, we carefully compared TI with different Amber molecular dynamics (MD) engines (sander and pmemd), MD simulation lengths, the number of intermediate states and transformation steps, and the Lennard-Jones and Coulomb Softcore potentials parameters in the one-step TI, using eleven benzimidazole inhibitors in complex with Francisella tularensis enoyl acyl reductase (FtFabI). To our knowledge, this is the first study to extensively test the new AMBER MD engine, pmemd, on TI and compare the parameters of the Softcore potentials in the one-step TI in a protein-ligand binding system. The best performing model, the one-step pmemd TI, using 6 intermediate states and 1 ns MD simulations, provides better agreement with experimental results (RMSD = 0.52 kcal/mol) than the best performing implicit solvent method, QM/MM-GBSA from our previous study (RMSD = 3.00 kcal/mol), while maintaining similar efficiency. Briefly, we show the optimized TI protocol to be highly accurate and affordable for the FtFabI system. This approach can be implemented in a larger scale benzimidazole scaffold lead optimization against FtFabI. Lastly, the TI results here also provide structure-activity relationship insights, and suggest the parahalogen in benzimidazole compounds might form a weak halogen bond with FabI, which is a well-known halogen bond favoring enzyme. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A reduced-amide inhibitor of Pin1 binds in a conformation resembling a twisted-amide transition state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoyan G; Zhang, Yan; Mercedes-Camacho, Ana Y; Etzkorn, Felicia A

    2011-11-08

    The mechanism of the cell cycle regulatory peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase), Pin1, was investigated using reduced-amide inhibitors designed to mimic the twisted-amide transition state. Inhibitors, R-pSer-Ψ[CH(2)N]-Pro-2-(indol-3-yl)ethylamine, 1 [R = fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)] and 2 (R = Ac), of Pin1 were synthesized and bioassayed. Inhibitor 1 had an IC(50) value of 6.3 μM, which is 4.5-fold better for Pin1 than our comparable ground-state analogue, a cis-amide alkene isostere-containing inhibitor. The change of Fmoc to Ac in 2 improved aqueous solubility for structural determination and resulted in an IC(50) value of 12 μM. The X-ray structure of the complex of 2 bound to Pin1 was determined to 1.76 Å resolution. The structure revealed that the reduced amide adopted a conformation similar to the proposed twisted-amide transition state of Pin1, with a trans-pyrrolidine conformation of the prolyl ring. A similar conformation of substrate would be destabilized relative to the planar amide conformation. Three additional reduced amides, with Thr replacing Ser and l- or d-pipecolate (Pip) replacing Pro, were slightly weaker inhibitors of Pin1.

  4. A new synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor reduces human mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B Bosco

    Full Text Available Development of adipose tissue requires the differentiation of less specialized cells, such as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs, into adipocytes. Since matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs play critical roles in the cell differentiation process, we conducted investigations to determine if a novel mercaptosulfonamide-based MMP inhibitor (MMPI, YHJ-7-52, could affect hMSC adipogenic differentiation and lipid accumulation. Enzyme inhibition assays, adipogenic differentiation experiments, and quantitative PCR methods were employed to characterize this inhibitor and determine its effect upon adipogenesis. YHJ-7-52 reduced lipid accumulation in differentiated cells by comparable amounts as a potent hydroxamate MMPI, GM6001. However, YHJ-7-82, a non-inhibitory structural analog of YHJ-7-52, in which the zinc-binding thiol group is replaced by a hydroxyl group, had no effect on adipogenesis. The two MMPIs (YHJ-7-52 and GM6001 were also as effective in reducing lipid accumulation in differentiated cells as T0070907, an antagonist of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma, at a similar concentration. PPAR-gamma is a typical adipogenic marker and a key regulatory protein for the transition of preadiopocyte to adipocyte. Moreover, MMP inhibition was able to suppress lipid accumulation in cells co-treated with Troglitazone, a PPAR-gamma agonist. Our results indicate that MMP inhibitors may be used as molecular tools for adipogenesis and obesity treatment research.

  5. Inhibitors of the proteasome reduce the accelerated proteolysis in atrophying rat skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, N E; Odessey, R; Goldberg, A L

    1997-07-01

    Several observations have suggested that the enhanced proteolysis and atrophy of skeletal muscle in various pathological states is due primarily to activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To test this idea, we investigated whether peptide aldehyde inhibitors of the proteasome, N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (LLN), or the more potent CBZ-leucyl-leucyl-leucinal (MG132) suppressed proteolysis in incubated rat skeletal muscles. These agents (e.g., MG132 at 10 microM) inhibited nonlysosomal protein breakdown by up to 50% (P protein synthesis or amino acid pools, but improved overall protein balance in the muscle. Upon treatment with MG132, ubiquitin-conjugated proteins accumulated in the muscle. The inhibition of muscle proteolysis correlated with efficacy against the proteasome, although these agents could also inhibit calpain-dependent proteolysis induced with Ca2+. These inhibitors had much larger effects on proteolysis in atrophying muscles than in controls. In the denervated soleus undergoing atrophy, the increase in ATP-dependent proteolysis was reduced 70% by MG132 (P muscle proteolysis induced by administering thyroid hormones was reduced 40-70% by the inhibitors. Finally, in rats made septic by cecal puncture, the increase in muscle proteolysis was completely blocked by MG132. Thus, the enhanced proteolysis in many catabolic states (including denervation, hyperthyroidism, and sepsis) is due to a proteasome-dependent pathway, and inhibition of proteasome function may be a useful approach to reduce muscle wasting.

  6. Overexpression of Soybean Isoflavone Reductase (GmIFR) Enhances Resistance to Phytophthora sojae in Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qun; Li, Ninghui; Dong, Lidong; Zhang, Dayong; Fan, Sujie; Jiang, Liangyu; Wang, Xin; Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of isoflavonoid phytoalexin in plants. IFRs are unique to the plant kingdom and are considered to have crucial roles in plant response to various biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of a novel member of the soybean isoflavone reductase gene family GmIFR. Overexpression of GmIFR transgenic soybean exhibited enhanced resistance to Phytophthora sojae. Following stress treatments, GmIFR was significantly induced by P. sojae, ethephon (ET), abscisic acid (placeCityABA), salicylic acid (SA). It is located in the cytoplasm when transiently expressed in soybean protoplasts. The daidzein levels reduced greatly for the seeds of transgenic plants, while the relative content of glyceollins in transgenic plants was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic plants. Furthermore, we found that the relative expression levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of transgenic soybean plants were significantly lower than those of non-transgenic plants after incubation with P. sojae, suggesting an important role of GmIFR might function as an antioxidant to reduce ROS in soybean. The enzyme activity assay suggested that GmIFR has isoflavone reductase activity.

  7. Combining Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors with Incorporation Reduces Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Increases Corn Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Craig F; Yang, Xueming; Reynolds, W Dan; Calder, Wayne; Oloya, Tom O; Woodley, Alex L

    2017-09-01

    Less than 50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically recovered by corn ( L.) due to climatic constraints, soil degradation, overapplication, and losses to air and water. Two application methods, two N sources, and two inhibitors were evaluated to reduce N losses and enhance crop uptake. The treatments included broadcast urea (BrUrea), BrUrea with a urease inhibitor (BrUrea+UI), BrUrea with a urease and a nitrification inhibitor (BrUrea+UI+NI), injection of urea ammonium nitrate (InjUAN), and injected with one or both inhibitors (InjUAN+UI, InjUAN+UI+NI), and a control. The BrUrea treatment lost 50% (64.4 kg N ha) of the applied N due to ammonia volatilization, but losses were reduced by 64% with BrUrea+UI+NI (23.0 kg N ha) and by 60% with InjUAN (26.1 kg N ha). Ammonia losses were lower and crop yields were greater in 2014 than 2013 as a result of the more favorable weather when N was applied in 2014. When ammonia volatilization was reduced by adding a urease inhibitor, NO emissions were increased by 30 to 31% with BrUrea+UI and InjUAN+UI compared with BrUrea and InjUAN, respectively. Pollution swapping was avoided when both inhibitors were used (BrUrea+UI+NI, InjUAN+UI+NI) as both ammonia volatilization and NO emissions were reduced, and corn grain yields increased by 5% with BrUrea+UI+NI and by 7% with InjUAN+UI+NI compared with BrUrea and InjUAN, respectively. The combination of two N management strategies (InjUAN+UI+NI) increased yields by 19% (12.9 t ha) compared with BrUrea (10.8 t ha). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Recombinant pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase, recombinant dirigent protein, and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki; Gang, David R.; Sarkanen, Simo; Ford, Joshua D.

    2001-04-03

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Treatment with Ranirestat, a Potent Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, on Diabetic Cataract and Neuropathy in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayumi Ota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated ranirestat, an aldose reductase inhibitor, in diabetic cataract and neuropathy (DN in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT rats compared with epalrestat, the positive control. Animals were divided into groups and treated once daily with oral ranirestat (0.1, 1.0, 10 mg/kg or epalrestat (100 mg/kg for 40 weeks, normal Sprague-Dawley rats, and untreated SDT rats. Lens opacification was scored from 0 (normal to 3 (mature cataract. The combined scores (0–6 from both lenses represented the total for each animal. DN was assessed by measuring the motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV in the sciatic nerve. Sorbitol and fructose levels were measured in the lens and sciatic nerve 40 weeks after diabetes onset. Cataracts developed more in untreated rats than normal rats (P<0.01. Ranirestat significantly (P<0.01 inhibited rapid cataract development; epalrestat did not. Ranirestat significantly reversed the MNCV decrease (40.7 ± 0.6 m/s in SDT rats dose-dependently (P<0.01. Epalrestat also reversed the prevented MNCV decrease (P<0.05. Sorbitol levels in the sciatic nerve increased significantly in SDT rats (2.05 ± 0.10 nmol/g, which ranirestat significantly suppressed dose-dependently, (P<0.05, <0.01, and <0.01; epalrestat did not. Ranirestat prevents DN and cataract; epalrestat prevents DN only.

  10. Curcuma aeruginosa, a novel botanically derived 5α-reductase inhibitor in the treatment of male-pattern baldness: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumthong, Ganniga; Asawanonda, Pravit; Varothai, Supenya; Jariyasethavong, Vorapicha; Triwongwaranat, Daranporn; Suthipinittharm, Puan; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Leelapornpisit, Pimporn; Waranuch, Neti

    2012-10-01

    Several botanically derived agents are available for the treatment of male-pattern baldness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa, a botanically derived inhibitor of 5α-reductase and 5% minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Eighty-seven men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were randomized to receive 5% Curcuma aeruginosa, 5% minoxidil, combination formulation (5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa + 5% minoxidil) or placebo, twice daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by target area hair count, global photographic review as well as patients' subjective assessments of hair regrowth and hair shedding. There were statistically significant improvements in global photographic review (p < 0.001), subjects' overall assessments of hair regrowth (p = 0.008), and hair shedding (p = 0.004) when the combination formulation was compared with placebo. Similarly, treatment with 5% minoxidil and 5% C. aeruginosa extract also led to some degrees of hair regrowth. There were no serious adverse events during and after the study. In men with hair loss in the vertex area of the scalp, the combination of 5% hexane extract of C. aeruginosa and 5% minoxidil slowed hair loss and increased hair growth.

  11. 6-Substituted 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids: synthesis and structure-activity studies in a novel class of human 5alpha reductase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston, Eckhard; Salem, Ola I A; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2002-10-01

    Novel 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids were synthesized and evaluated for 5alpha reductase inhibitory activity. This enzyme exists in two isoforms and is a pharmacological target for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, male pattern baldness and acne. In the present study non-steroidal compounds capable of mimicking the transition state of the steroidal substrates were prepared. The synthetic strategy for the preparation of compounds 1-6 consisted of triflation followed by subsequent Heck-type carboxylation or methoxy carbonylation for 6-phenyl-3,4-dihydronaphthalen-2(1H)-one 1c. A Negishi-type coupling reaction between 6-(trifluoro-methanesulfonyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester 7b and various aryl bromides led, after further transformations, to 6-substituted 3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids 7-15. In a similar way the corresponding naphthalene-2-carboxylic acids 16 and 17 were obtained. The DU 145 cell line and prostate homogenates served as enzyme sources for the human type 1 and type 2 isozymes, whereas ventral prostate was employed to evaluate rat isozyme inhibitory potency. The most active inhibitors identified in this study were 6-[4-(N,N-dicyclohexylaminocarbonyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (3) (IC50 = 0.09 microM, rat type 1), 6-[3-(N,N-dicyclohexylaminocarbonyl)phenyl]-3,4-dihydro-naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (13) (IC50 = 0.75 microM, human type 2; IC50 = 0.81 microM, human type 1) and 6-[4-(N,N-diisopropylamino-carbonyl)phenyl]naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (16) (IC50 = 0.2 microM, human type 2). The latter compound was shown to deactivate the enzyme in an uncompetitive manner (Ki = 90 nM; Km, Testosterone = 0.8-1.0 microM) similar to the steroidal inhibitor Epristeride. Select inhibitors (13 and 16) were tested in vivo using testosterone propionate-treated, juvenile, orchiectomized SD-rats. None of the compounds was active at a dose of 25 mg/kg. This result might in part be

  12. Bioinformatics approach of three partial polyprenol reductase genes in Kandelia obovata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.; Sagami, H.; Oku, H.; Baba, S.

    2018-03-01

    This present study describesthe bioinformatics approach to analyze three partial polyprenol reductase genes from mangrove plant, Kandeliaobovataas well aspredictedphysical and chemical properties, potential peptide, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic. The diversity was noted in the physical and chemical properties of three partial polyprenol reductase genes. The values of chloroplast were relatively high, showed that chloroplast transit peptide occurred in mangrove polyprenol reductase. The target peptide value of mitochondria varied from 0.088 to 0.198 indicated it was possible to be present. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity of physicochemical properties of the different amino acids in polyprenol reductase. The subcellular localization of two partial genes located in the plasma membrane. To confirm the homology among the polyprenol reductase in the database, a dendrogram was drawn. The phylogenetic tree depicts that there are three clusters, the partial genes of K. obovata joined the largest one: C23157 was close to Ricinus communis polyprenol reductase. Whereas, C23901 and C24171 were grouped with Ipomoea nil polyprenol reductase, suggested that these polyprenol reductase genes form distinct separation into tropical habitat plants.

  13. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake: reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the Nr activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which reflects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling

  14. Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic effects of aldose reductase inhibitor and vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Keita

    1997-01-01

    Twenty normal volunteers (C group) and 56 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who did not have ischemic heart diseases (DM group), were evaluated by means of iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. The uptake ratio between the cardiac muscle and the upper mediastinum was calculated. The ratio determined from the initial I-123-MIBG scintigraphy image was expressed as HMi, and that determined from the delayed image was expressed as HMd. The washout rate percentage (%WR) was calculated. At least one instance of either the HMi, the HMd, or %WR was outside the mean±1 standard deviation of C group in 34 DM group patients. Aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) was administered to 17 of the 34 patients and Vitamin B 12 (VB 12 ) to the remaining 17 patients, for 3 to 5 months. Before and after treatment, scintigraphic studies with I-123-MIBG were carried out, and the HMi, HMd, and %WR were calculated. There were no significant differences found in FBG, HbA1c, or 1.5-AG levels after treatment with either drug, when compared to the pretreatment values. Both HMi and HMd in the DM group were significantly lower, and %WR was significantly higher than in the C group. The changes in HMi, HMd, and %WR after treatment with ARI were not significant. After treatment with VB 12 , the HMi and HMd levels were significantly increased (p 12 was shown to be effective for improvement of HMi and HMd in NIDDM. (author)

  15. Characterisation of a desmosterol reductase involved in phytosterol dealkylation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora F Ciufo

    Full Text Available Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C(29 and C(28 yielding cholesterol (C(27. The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735. Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD-dependent reaction.Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250 kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation.

  16. Characterisation of a Desmosterol Reductase Involved in Phytosterol Dealkylation in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciufo, Leonora F.; Murray, Patricia A.; Thompson, Anu; Rigden, Daniel J.; Rees, Huw H.

    2011-01-01

    Most species of invertebrate animals cannot synthesise sterols de novo and many that feed on plants dealkylate phytosterols (mostly C29 and C28) yielding cholesterol (C27). The final step of this dealkylation pathway involves desmosterol reductase (DHCR24)-catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol. We now report the molecular characterisation in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, of such a desmosterol reductase involved in production of cholesterol from phytosterol, rather than in de novo synthesis of cholesterol. Phylogenomic analysis of putative desmosterol reductases revealed the occurrence of various clades that allowed for the identification of a strong reductase candidate gene in Bombyx mori (BGIBMGA 005735). Following PCR-based cloning of the cDNA (1.6 kb) and its heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisae, the recombinant protein catalysed reduction of desmosterol to cholesterol in an NADH- and FAD- dependent reaction. Conceptual translation of the cDNA, that encodes a 58.9 kDa protein, and database searching, revealed that the enzyme belongs to an FAD-dependent oxidoreductase family. Western blotting revealed reductase protein expression exclusively in the microsomal subcellular fraction and primarily in the gut. The protein is peripherally associated with microsomal membranes. 2D-native gel and PAGE analysis revealed that the reductase is part of a large complex with molecular weight approximately 250kDa. The protein occurs in midgut microsomes at a fairly constant level throughout development in the last two instars, but is drastically reduced during the wandering stage in preparation for metamorphosis. Putative Broad Complex transcription factor-binding sites detectable upstream of the DHCR24 gene may play a role in this down-regulation. PMID:21738635

  17. Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Chiaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Yamada, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Noguchi, Kohji [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome

  18. Recominant Pinoresino-Lariciresinol Reductase, Recombinant Dirigent Protein And Methods Of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; Fujita, Masayuki , Gang; David R. , Sarkanen; Simo , Ford; Joshua D.

    2003-10-21

    Dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases have been isolated, together with cDNAs encoding dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences are provided from source species Forsythia intermedia, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, Eucommia ulmoides, Linum usitatissimum, and Schisandra chinensis, which code for the expression of dirigent proteins and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases. In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for dirigent proteins or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding dirigent protein or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of dirigent proteins and/or pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductases.

  19. Ebselen: A thioredoxin reductase-dependent catalyst for α-tocopherol quinone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianguo; Zhong Liangwei; Zhao Rong; Holmgren, Arne

    2005-01-01

    The thioredoxin system, composed of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), and NADPH, is a powerful protein disulfide reductase system with a broad substrate specificity. Recently the selenazol drug ebselen was shown to be a substrate for both mammalian TrxR and Trx. We examined if α-tocopherol quinone (TQ), a product of α-tocopherol oxidation, is reduced by ebselen in the presence of TrxR, since TQ was not a substrate for the enzyme itself. Ebselen reduction of TQ in the presence of TrxR was caused by ebselen selenol, generated from fast reduction of ebselen by the enzyme. TQ has no intrinsic antioxidant activity, while the product of reduction of TQ, α-tocopherolhydroquinone (TQH 2 ), is a potent antioxidant. The thioredoxin system dependence of ebselen to catalyze reduction of other oxidized species, such as hydrogen peroxide, dehydroascorbate, and peroxynitrite, is discussed. The ability of ebselen to reduce TQ via the thioredoxin system is a novel mechanism to explain the effects of the drug as an antioxidant in vivo

  20. Binding of Fidarestat Stereoisomers with Aldose Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Sil Lee

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The stereospecificity in binding to aldose reductase (ALR2 of two fidarestat {6-fluoro-2',5'-dioxospiro[chroman-4,4'-imidazolidine]-2-carboxamide} stereoisomers [(2S,4Sand (2R,4S] has been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations using freeenergy integration techniques. The difference in the free energy of binding was found to be2.0 ± 1.7 kJ/mol in favour of the (2S,4S-form, in agreement with the experimentalinhibition data. The relative mobilities of the fidarestats complexed with ALR2 indicate alarger entropic penalty for hydrophobic binding of (2R,4S-fidarestat compared to (2S,4S-fidarestat, partially explaining its lower binding affinity. The two stereoisomers differmainly in the orientation of the carbamoyl moiety with respect to the active site and rotationof the bond joining the carbamoyl substituent to the ring. The detailed structural andenergetic insights obtained from out simulations allow for a better understanding of thefactors determining stereospecific inhibitor-ALR2 binding in the EPF charges model.

  1. Update on the use of dutasteride in the management of benign prostatic hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Miller

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Joe Miller, Thomas H TarterDivision of Urology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield, IL, USAAbstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is a frequent cause of lower urinary symptoms, with a prevalence of 50% by the sixth decade of life. Hyperplasia of stromal and epithelial prostatic elements that surround the urethra cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, urinary tract infection, and acute urinary retention. Medical treatments of symptomatic BPH include; 1 the 5α-reductase inhibitors, 2 the α1-adrenergic antagonists, and 3 the combination of a 5α-reductase inhibitor and a α1-adrenergic antagonist. Selective α1-adrenergic antagonists relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck without affecting the detrussor muscle of the bladder wall, thus decreasing the resistance to urine flow without compromising bladder contractility. Clinical trials have shown that α1-adrenergic antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Inhibitors of 5α-reductase decrease production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate resulting in decreased prostate volumes, increased peak urinary flow rates, improvement of symptoms, and decreased risk of acute urinary retention and need for surgical intervention. The combination of a 5α-reductase inhibitor and a α1-adrenergic antagonist reduces the clinical progression of BPH over either class of drug alone.Keywords: prostatic hyperplasia, 5α-reductase, dutasteride

  2. Cell death in response to antimetabolites directed at ribonucleotide reductase and thymidylate synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuncion Valenzuela, Malyn M; Castro, Imilce; Gonda, Amber; Diaz Osterman, Carlos J; Jutzy, Jessica M; Aspe, Jonathan R; Khan, Salma; Neidigh, Jonathan W; Wall, Nathan R

    2015-01-01

    New agent development, mechanistic understanding, and combinatorial partnerships with known and novel modalities continue to be important in the study of pancreatic cancer and its improved treatment. In this study, known antimetabolite drugs such as gemcitabine (ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor) and 5-fluorouracil (thymidylate synthase inhibitor) were compared with novel members of these two drug families in the treatment of a chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1. Cellular survival data, along with protein and messenger ribonucleic acid expression for survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, were compared from both the cell cytoplasm and from exosomes after single modality treatment. While all antimetabolite drugs killed PANC-1 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, neither family significantly altered the cytosolic protein level of the four inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) investigated. Survivin, XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 were found localized to exosomes where no significant difference in expression was recorded. This inability for significant and long-lasting expression may be a reason why pancreatic cancer lacks responsiveness to these and other cancer-killing agents. Continued investigation is required to determine the responsibilities of these IAPs in their role in chemoresistance in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:25767396

  3. Differential expression of 5-alpha reductase isozymes in the prostate and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of human benign or malignant prostatic diseases is closely associated with androgens, primarily testosterone (T and dihydrotestosterone (DHT. T is converted to DHT by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR isozymes. Differential expression of 5-AR isozymes is observed in both human benign and malignant prostatic tissues. 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARI are commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH and were once promoted as chemopreventive agents for prostate cancer (PCa. This review discusses the role of the differential expression of 5-AR in the normal development of the human prostate and in the pathogenesis and progression of BPH and PCa.

  4. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N; Kristensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    can replace light in eliciting an increase of nitrate reductase mRNA accumulation in dark-adapted green Arabidopsis plants. We show further that sucrose alone is sufficient for the full expression of nitrate reductase genes in etiolated Arabidopsis plants. Finally, using a reporter gene, we show......Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression....... Located in the cytosol, nitrate reductase obtains its reductant not from photosynthesis but from carbohydrate catabolism. This relationship prompted us to investigate the indirect role that light might play, via photosynthesis, in the regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression. We show that sucrose...

  5. Proanthocyanidin synthesis in Theobroma cacao: genes encoding anthocyanidin synthase, anthocyanidin reductase, and leucoanthocyanidin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Shi, Zi; Maximova, Siela; Payne, Mark J; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2013-12-05

    The proanthocyanidins (PAs), a subgroup of flavonoids, accumulate to levels of approximately 10% total dry weight of cacao seeds. PAs have been associated with human health benefits and also play important roles in pest and disease defense throughout the plant. To dissect the genetic basis of PA biosynthetic pathway in cacao (Theobroma cacao), we have isolated three genes encoding key PA synthesis enzymes, anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR). We measured the expression levels of TcANR, TcANS and TcLAR and PA content in cacao leaves, flowers, pod exocarp and seeds. In all tissues examined, all three genes were abundantly expressed and well correlated with PA accumulation levels, suggesting their active roles in PA synthesis. Overexpression of TcANR in an Arabidopsis ban mutant complemented the PA deficient phenotype in seeds and resulted in reduced anthocyanidin levels in hypocotyls. Overexpression of TcANS in tobacco resulted in increased content of both anthocyanidins and PAs in flower petals. Overexpression of TcANS in an Arabidopsis ldox mutant complemented its PA deficient phenotype in seeds. Recombinant TcLAR protein converted leucoanthocyanidin to catechin in vitro. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing TcLAR had decreased amounts of anthocyanidins and increased PAs. Overexpressing TcLAR in Arabidopsis ldox mutant also resulted in elevated synthesis of not only catechin but also epicatechin. Our results confirm the in vivo function of cacao ANS and ANR predicted based on sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes from other species. In addition, our results provide a clear functional analysis of a LAR gene in vivo.

  6. Economic Evaluation of PCSK9 Inhibitors in Reducing Cardiovascular Risk from Health System and Private Payer Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Arrieta

    Full Text Available The introduction of Proprotein covertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 inhibitors has been heralded as a major advancement in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by nearly 50%. However, concerns have been raised on the added value to the health care system in terms of their costs and benefits. We assess the cost-effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors based on a decision-analytic model with existing clinical evidence. The model compares a lipid-lowering therapy based on statin plus PCSK9 inhibitor treatment with statin treatment only (standard therapy. From health system perspective, incremental cost per quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained are presented. From a private payer perspective, return-on-investment and net present values over patient lifespan are presented. At the current annual cost of $14,000 to $15,000, PCSK9 inhibitors are not cost-effective at an incremental cost of about $350,000 per QALY. Moreover, for every dollar invested in PCSK9 inhibitors, the private payer loses $1.98. Our study suggests that the annual treatment price should be set at $4,250 at a societal willingness-to-pay of $100,000 per QALY. However, we estimate the breakeven price for private payer is only $600 per annual treatment. At current prices, our study suggests that PCSK9 inhibitors do not add value to the U.S. health system and their provision is not profitable for private payers. To be the breakthrough drug in the fight against cardiovascular disease, the current price of PCSK9 inhibitors must be reduced by more than 70%.

  7. Abscisic acid regulates pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase gene expression and secoisolariciresinol accumulation in developing flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Corbin, Cyrielle; Lopez, Tatiana; Montguillon, Josiane; Gutierrez, Laurent; Lamblin, Frédéric; Lainé, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), the main phytoestrogenic lignan of Linum usitatissimum, is accumulated in the seed coat of flax during its development and pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR) is a key enzyme in flax for its synthesis. The promoter of LuPLR1, a flax gene encoding a pinoresinol lariciresinol reductase, contains putative regulatory boxes related to transcription activation by abscisic acid (ABA). Gel mobility shift experiments evidenced an interaction of nuclear proteins extracted from immature flax seed coat with a putative cis-acting element involved in ABA response. As ABA regulates a number of physiological events during seed development and maturation we have investigated its involvement in the regulation of this lignan synthesis by different means. ABA and SDG accumulation time courses in the seed as well as LuPLR1 expression were first determined in natural conditions. These results showed that ABA timing and localization of accumulation in the flax seed coat could be correlated with the LuPLR1 gene expression and SDG biosynthesis. Experimental modulations of ABA levels were performed by exogenous application of ABA or fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis. When submitted to exogenous ABA, immature seeds synthesized 3-times more SDG, whereas synthesis of SDG was reduced in immature seeds treated with fluridone. Similarly, the expression of LuPLR1 gene in the seed coat was up-regulated by exogenous ABA and down-regulated when fluridone was applied. These results demonstrate that SDG biosynthesis in the flax seed coat is positively controlled by ABA through the transcriptional regulation of LuPLR1 gene.

  8. Structural basis for target protein recognition by the protein disulfide reductase thioredoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeda, Kenji; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Thioredoxin is ubiquitous and regulates various target proteins through disulfide bond reduction. We report the structure of thioredoxin (HvTrxh2 from barley) in a reaction intermediate complex with a protein substrate, barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI). The crystal structure...... of this mixed disulfide shows a conserved hydrophobic motif in thioredoxin interacting with a sequence of residues from BASI through van der Waals contacts and backbone-backbone hydrogen bonds. The observed structural complementarity suggests that the recognition of features around protein disulfides plays...... a major role in the specificity and protein disulfide reductase activity of thioredoxin. This novel insight into the function of thioredoxin constitutes a basis for comprehensive understanding of its biological role. Moreover, comparison with structurally related proteins shows that thioredoxin shares...

  9. The structure of Lactococcus lactis thioredoxin reductase reveals molecular features of photo-oxidative damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bang, Maria Blanner; Rykær, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent homodimeric flavoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) provides reducing equivalents to thioredoxin, a key regulator of various cellular redox processes. Crystal structures of photo-inactivated thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis have...... been determined. These structures reveal novel molecular features that provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the sensitivity of this enzyme toward visible light. We propose that a pocket on the si-face of the isoalloxazine ring accommodates oxygen that reacts with photo-excited FAD...... thus be a widespread feature among bacterial TrxR with the described characteristics, which affords applications in clinical photo-therapy of drug-resistant bacteria....

  10. Lactococcus lactis Thioredoxin Reductase Is Sensitive to Light Inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Viennet, Thibault; Skjoldager, Nicklas

    2015-01-01

    Thioredoxin, involved in numerous redox pathways, is maintained in the dithiol state by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent flavoprotein thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). Here, TrxR from Lactococcus lactis is compared with the well-characterized TrxR from Escherichia coli. The two...... enzymes belong to the same class of low-molecular weight thioredoxin reductases and display similar kcat values (∼25 s-1) with their cognate thioredoxin. Remarkably, however, the L. lactis enzyme is inactivated by visible light and furthermore reduces molecular oxygen 10 times faster than E. coli Trx......-resolution mass spectrometric analysis of heat-extracted FAD from light-damaged TrxR revealed a mass increment of 13.979 Da, relative to that of unmodified FAD, corresponding to the addition of one oxygen atom and the loss of two hydrogen atoms. Tandem mass spectrometry confined the increase in mass...

  11. 5α-reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-01-01

    We measured the 5 α-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of [ 3 H] dihydrotestosterone from [ 3 H] testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5α-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10 -8 M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5α-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5α-reductase activity in each tissue studied

  12. An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misselbrook, T H; Cardenas, L M; Camp, V; Thorman, R E; Williams, J R; Rollett, A J; Chambers, B J

    2014-01-01

    A trial was conducted consisting of 14 experiments across sites in England of contrasting soil type and annual rainfall to assess the effectiveness of nitrification inhibitors (predominantly dicyandiamide (DCD) but limited assessment also of 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a commercial product containing two pyrazole derivatives) in reducing direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from fertilizer nitrogen (N), cattle urine and cattle slurry applications to land. Measurements were also made of the impact on ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization, nitrate (NO 3 − ) leaching, crop yield and crop N offtake. DCD proved to be very effective in reducing direct N 2 O emissions following fertilizer and cattle urine applications, with mean reduction efficiencies of 39, 69 and 70% for ammonium nitrate, urea and cattle urine, respectively. When included with cattle slurry a mean, non-significant reduction of 56% was observed. There were no N 2 O emission reductions observed from the limited assessments of the other nitrification inhibitors. Generally, there were no impacts of the nitrification inhibitors on NH 3 volatilization, NO 3 − leaching, crop yield or crop N offtake. Use of DCD could give up to 20% reduction in N 2 O emissions from UK agriculture, but cost-effective delivery mechanisms are required to encourage adoption by the sector. Direct N 2 O emissions from the studied sources were substantially lower than IPCC default values and development of UK country-specific emission factors for use in inventory compilation is warranted. (paper)

  13. Structure of octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens in a complex with phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofimov, A. A.; Polyakov, K. M., E-mail: kostya@eimb.relarn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology (Russian Federation); Boiko, K. M.; Filimonenkov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Dorovatovskii, P. V. [Kurchatov Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology (Russian Federation); Tikhonova, T. V.; Popov, V. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Koval' chuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    Octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens (TvNiR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia. The structures of the free enzyme and of the enzyme in complexes with the substrate (nitrite ion) and the inhibitor (azide ion) have been solved previously. In this study we report the structures of the oxidized complex of TvNiR with phosphate and of this complex reduced by europium(II) chloride (1.8- and 2.0-A resolution, the R factors are 15.9 and 16.7%, respectively) and the structure of the enzyme in the complex with cyanide (1.76-A resolution, the R factor is 16.5%), which was prepared by soaking a crystal of the oxidized phosphate complex of TvNiR. In the active site of the enzyme, the phosphate ion binds to the iron ion of the catalytic heme and to the side chains of the catalytic residues Arg131, Tyr303, and His361. The cyanide ion is coordinated to the heme-iron ion and is hydrogen bonded to the residue His361. In the structure of reduced TvNiR, the phosphate ion is bound in the same manner as in the structure of oxidized TvNiR, and the nine{sub c}oordinated europium ion is located on the surface of one of the crystallographically independent monomers of the enzyme.

  14. Structure of octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens in a complex with phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, A. A.; Polyakov, K. M.; Boiko, K. M.; Filimonenkov, A. A.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Popov, V. O.; Koval'chuk, M. V.

    2010-01-01

    Octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens (TvNiR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia. The structures of the free enzyme and of the enzyme in complexes with the substrate (nitrite ion) and the inhibitor (azide ion) have been solved previously. In this study we report the structures of the oxidized complex of TvNiR with phosphate and of this complex reduced by europium(II) chloride (1.8- and 2.0-A resolution, the R factors are 15.9 and 16.7%, respectively) and the structure of the enzyme in the complex with cyanide (1.76-A resolution, the R factor is 16.5%), which was prepared by soaking a crystal of the oxidized phosphate complex of TvNiR. In the active site of the enzyme, the phosphate ion binds to the iron ion of the catalytic heme and to the side chains of the catalytic residues Arg131, Tyr303, and His361. The cyanide ion is coordinated to the heme-iron ion and is hydrogen bonded to the residue His361. In the structure of reduced TvNiR, the phosphate ion is bound in the same manner as in the structure of oxidized TvNiR, and the nine c oordinated europium ion is located on the surface of one of the crystallographically independent monomers of the enzyme.

  15. Biliverdin reductase: more than a namesake - the reductase, its Peptide fragments, and biliverdin regulate activity of the three classes of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter E M; Tudor, Cicerone; Maines, Mahin D

    2012-01-01

    The expanse of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) functions in the cells is arguably unmatched by any single protein. hBVR is a Ser/Thr/Tyr-kinase, a scaffold protein, a transcription factor, and an intracellular transporter of gene regulators. hBVR is an upstream activator of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway and of protein kinase C (PKC) kinases in the two major arms of the pathway. In addition, it is the sole means for generating the antioxidant bilirubin-IXα. hBVR is essential for activation of ERK1/2 kinases by upstream MAPKK-MEK and by PKCδ, as well as the nuclear import and export of ERK1/2. Small fragments of hBVR are potent activators and inhibitors of the ERK kinases and PKCs: as such, they suggest the potential application of BVR-based technology in therapeutic settings. Presently, we have reviewed the function of hBVR in cell signaling with an emphasis on regulation of PKCδ activity.

  16. Identification of the iron-sulfur center of spinach ferredoxin-nitrite reductase as a tetranuclear center, and preliminary EPR studies of mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, J R; Vega, J M; Kamin, H; Orme-Johnson, N R; Orme-Johnson, W H; Krueger, R J; Siegel, L M

    1979-02-25

    EPR spectroscopic and chemical analyses of spinach nitrite reductase show that the enzyme contains one reducible iron-sulfur center, and one site for binding either cyanide or nitrite, per siroheme. The heme is nearly all in the high spin ferric state in the enzyme as isolated. The extinction coefficient of the enzyme has been revised to E386 = 7.6 X 10(4) cm-1 (M heme)-1. The iron-sulfur center is reduced with difficulty by agents such as reduced methyl viologen (equilibrated with 1 atm of H2 at pH 7.7 in the presence of hydrogenase) or dithionite. Complexation of the enzyme with CO (a known ligand for nitrite reductase heme) markedly increases the reducibility of the iron-sulfur center. New chemical analyses and reinterpretation of previous data show that the enzyme contains 6 mol of iron and 4 mol of acid-labile S2-/mol of siroheme. The EPR spectrum of reduced nitrite reductase in 80% dimethyl sulfoxide establishes clearly that the enzyme contains a tetranuclear iron-sulfur (Fe4S4) center. The ferriheme and Fe4S4 centers are reduced at similar rates (k = 3 to 4 s-1) by dithionite. The dithionite-reduced Fe4S4 center is rapidly (k = 100 s-1) reoxidized by nitrite. These results indicate a role for the Fe4S4 center in catalysis.

  17. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of thioredoxin reductase from Streptomyces coelicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koháryová, Michaela; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kollárová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    Thioredoxin reductase from S. coelicolor was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution. Thioredoxin reductases are homodimeric flavoenzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxidized thioredoxin substrate. Bacterial thioredoxin reductases represent a promising target for the development of new antibiotics. Recombinant thioredoxin reductase TrxB from Streptomyces coelicolor was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals to 2.4 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the primitive monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 82.9, b = 60.6, c = 135.4 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 96.5°

  18. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake:reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time, the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the NR activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which relfects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling. Thus, considering the sampling time as a point of reference, the former is a measure of the past and the latter is a measure of the future

  19. Enhanced mutagenicity of low doses of alkylating agents and UV-light by inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, D.

    1986-01-01

    Monofunctional alkylating agents and UV-light are potent inducers of gene mutations in mammalian cells. Most data on these agent are supporting the idea that 0/sup 6/-alkylguanine is the dominating lesion responsible for the mutations induced by the alkylating agents and thymine-dimers in the case of UV-light. However, little is known about the mutagenic fate of these lesions during the replicative process. This is an essential issue to investigate not the least because of quantitative aspects. By investigating the factors affecting the mutagenic yield of these lesions, they hope to get further information on the mechanisms(s) involved. To study this, a system was applied which involves synchronized V79 Chinese hamster cells and inhibitors of the replication process. By applying hydroxyurea (HU), as inhibitor of the ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) step in DNA synthesis, the effect of nucleotide pool imbalance has been studied at the HGPRT-locus using V79 Chinese hamster cells

  20. Oligo-carrageenan kappa-induced reducing redox status and activation of TRR/TRX system increase the level of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellin A3 and trans-zeatin in Eucalyptus globulus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alberto; Contreras, Rodrigo A; Zúiga, Gustavo; Moenne, Alejandra

    2014-08-20

    Eucalyptus globulus trees treated with oligo-carrageenan (OC) kappa showed an increase in NADPH, ascorbate and glutathione levels and activation of the thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) system which enhance photosynthesis, basal metabolism and growth. In order to analyze whether the reducing redox status and the activation of thioredoxin reductase (TRR)/thioredoxin (TRX) increased the level of growth-promoting hormones, trees were treated with water (control), with OC kappa, or with inhibitors of ascorbate synthesis, lycorine, glutathione synthesis, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), NADPH synthesis, CHS-828, and thioredoxin reductase activity, auranofine, and with OC kappa, and cultivated for four additional months. Eucalyptus trees treated with OC kappa showed an increase in the levels of the auxin indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A3 (GA3) and the cytokinin trans-zeatin (t-Z) as well as a decrease in the level of the brassinosteroid epi-brassinolide (EB). In addition, treatment with lycorine, BSO, CHS-828 and auranofine inhibited the increase in IAA, GA3 and t-Z as well as the decrease in EB levels. Thus, the reducing redox status and the activation of TRR/TRX system induced by OC kappa increased the levels of IAA, GA3 and t-Z levels determining, at least in part, the stimulation of growth in Eucalyptus trees.

  1. Biliverdin Reductase: More than a Namesake – The Reductase, Its Peptide Fragments, and Biliverdin Regulate Activity of the Three Classes of Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Peter E. M.; Tudor, Cicerone; Maines, Mahin. D.

    2012-01-01

    The expanse of human biliverdin reductase (hBVR) functions in the cells is arguably unmatched by any single protein. hBVR is a Ser/Thr/Tyr-kinase, a scaffold protein, a transcription factor, and an intracellular transporter of gene regulators. hBVR is an upstream activator of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway and of protein kinase C (PKC) kinases in the two major arms of the pathway. In addition, it is the sole means for generating the antioxidant bilirubin-IXα. hBVR is essential for activation of ERK1/2 kinases by upstream MAPKK-MEK and by PKCδ, as well as the nuclear import and export of ERK1/2. Small fragments of hBVR are potent activators and inhibitors of the ERK kinases and PKCs: as such, they suggest the potential application of BVR-based technology in therapeutic settings. Presently, we have reviewed the function of hBVR in cell signaling with an emphasis on regulation of PKCδ activity. PMID:22419908

  2. Evidence that steroid 5alpha-reductase isozyme genes are differentially methylated in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Dorantes, M; Lizano-Soberón, M; Camacho-Arroyo, I; Calzada-León, R; Morimoto, S; Téllez-Ascencio, N; Cerbón, M A

    2002-03-01

    The synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is catalyzed by steroid 5alpha-reductase isozymes 1 and 2, and this function determines the development of the male phenotype during embriogenesis and the growth of androgen sensitive tissues during puberty. The aim of this study was to determine the cytosine methylation status of 5alpha-reductase isozymes types 1 and 2 genes in normal and in 5alpha-reductase deficient men. Genomic DNA was obtained from lymphocytes of both normal subjects and patients with primary 5alpha-reductase deficiency due to point mutations in 5alpha-reductase 2 gene. Southern blot analysis of 5alpha-reductase types 1 and 2 genes from DNA samples digested with HpaII presented a different cytosine methylation pattern compared to that observed with its isoschizomer MspI, indicating that both genes are methylated in CCGG sequences. The analysis of 5alpha-reductase 1 gene from DNA samples digested with Sau3AI and its isoschizomer MboI which recognize methylation in GATC sequences showed an identical methylation pattern. In contrast, 5alpha-reductase 2 gene digested with Sau3AI presented a different methylation pattern to that of the samples digested with MboI, indicating that steroid 5alpha-reductase 2 gene possess methylated cytosines in GATC sequences. Analysis of exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene after metabisulfite PCR showed that normal and deficient subjects present a different methylation pattern, being more methylated in patients with 5alpha-reductase 2 mutated gene. The overall results suggest that 5alpha-reductase genes 1 and 2 are differentially methylated in lymphocytes from normal and 5alpha-reductase deficient patients. Moreover, the extensive cytosine methylation pattern observed in exon 4 of 5alpha-reductase 2 gene in deficient patients, points out to an increased rate of mutations in this gene.

  3. Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus and High Blood Glucose With HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors Using a Postmarketing Surveillance Database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Takahashi, Daichi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-20

    To investigate whether 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) use is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia, we performed a nested case-control study using a postmarketing surveillance database in Japan. The database cohort included 26,849 cases of statin use and 5308 cases of other lipid-lowering drug use in patients with hyperlipidemia. Participants received at least 1 type of statin, had a clear medication history of statin use, and had no complications of diabetes mellitus. Cases were defined as onset of diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia during statin intake. For each case, 20 controls were randomly selected and matched by time point. The factors associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia during statin intake examined included sex, age, body mass index, statin use duration, complications, concomitant medication, and clinical laboratory tests. Statin-associated diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia was identified based on abnormal elevation of blood glucose concentrations beyond the reference range. A total of 19,868 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 24 were patients in the case group. Two complicating factors, fatty liver (adjusted odds ratio 16.10) and hyperuricemia (adjusted odds ratio 28.96), were extracted for onset of diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver was associated with diabetes mellitus, obesity, and insulin resistance, and hyperuricemia was associated with lifestyle. This study suggested that the onset of diabetes mellitus or hyperglycemia might be increased with statin use in patients with complications of fatty liver and hyperuricemia. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Kinetics of carbonyl reductase from human brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Bohren, K M; von Wartburg, J P; Wermuth, B

    1987-01-01

    Initial-rate analysis of the carbonyl reductase-catalysed reduction of menadione by NADPH gave families of straight lines in double-reciprocal plots consistent with a sequential mechanism being obeyed. The fluorescence of NADPH was increased up to 7-fold with a concomitant shift of the emission maximum towards lower wavelength in the presence of carbonyl reductase, and both NADPH and NADP+ caused quenching of the enzyme fluorescence, indicating formation of a binary enzyme-coenzyme complex. D...

  5. Respiratory arsenate reductase as a bidirectional enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, C.; Chovanec, P.; Hoeft, S.E.; Oremland, R.S.; Basu, P.; Stolz, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    The haloalkaliphilic bacterium Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii is capable of anaerobic chemolithoautotrophic growth by coupling the oxidation of arsenite (As(III)) to the reduction of nitrate and carbon dioxide. Analysis of its complete genome indicates that it lacks a conventional arsenite oxidase (Aox), but instead possesses two operons that each encode a putative respiratory arsenate reductase (Arr). Here we show that one homolog is expressed under chemolithoautotrophic conditions and exhibits both arsenite oxidase and arsenate reductase activity. We also demonstrate that Arr from two arsenate respiring bacteria, Alkaliphilus oremlandii and Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3, is also biochemically reversible. Thus Arr can function as a reductase or oxidase. Its physiological role in a specific organism, however, may depend on the electron potentials of the molybdenum center and [Fe–S] clusters, additional subunits, or constitution of the electron transfer chain. This versatility further underscores the ubiquity and antiquity of microbial arsenic metabolism.

  6. Identification of danthron as an isoform-specific inhibitor of HEME OXYGENASE-1/cytochrome P450 reductase interaction with anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yi-Tai; Hsu, Fu-Fei; Hu, Dun-Yao; Chen, Ying-Chih; Hsu, Yuan-Hao; Hsu, John T-A; Chau, Lee-Young

    2018-01-23

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes NADPH-dependent degradation of heme to liberate iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The interaction between HO and cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR), an electron donor, is essential for HO activity. HO-1 is a stress-inducible isoform whereas HO-2 is constitutively expressed. HO-1 induction is commonly seen in cancers and impacts disease progression, supporting the possibility of targeting HO-1 for cancer therapy. We employed a cell-based bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assay to screen compounds with ability to inhibit HO-1/CPR interaction. The effect of the identified compound on HO-1/CPR interaction was confirmed by pull down assay. Moreover, the anti-tumorigenic activity of the identified compound on HO-1-enhanced tumor growth and migration was assessed by trypan blue exclusion method and wound healing assay. Danthron was identified as an effective small molecule able to interfere with the interaction between HO-1 and CPR but not HO-2 and CPR. Additional experiments with structural analogues of danthron revealed that the positions of hydroxyl moieties significantly affected the potency of inhibition on HO-1/CPR interaction. Pull-down assay confirmed that danthron inhibited the interaction of CPR with HO-1 but not HO-2. Danthron suppressed growth and migration of HeLa cells with stable HO-1 overexpression but not mock cells. In contrast, anthrarufin, a structural analog with no ability to interfere HO-1/CPR interaction, exhibited no significant effect on HO-1-overexpressing HeLa cells. These findings demonstrate that danthron is an isoform-specific inhibitor for HO-1/CPR interaction and may serve as a lead compound for novel anticancer drug.

  7. Iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic effects of aldose reductase inhibitor and vitamin B{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, Keita [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1997-12-01

    Twenty normal volunteers (C group) and 56 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who did not have ischemic heart diseases (DM group), were evaluated by means of iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. The uptake ratio between the cardiac muscle and the upper mediastinum was calculated. The ratio determined from the initial I-123-MIBG scintigraphy image was expressed as HMi, and that determined from the delayed image was expressed as HMd. The washout rate percentage (%WR) was calculated. At least one instance of either the HMi, the HMd, or %WR was outside the mean{+-}1 standard deviation of C group in 34 DM group patients. Aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) was administered to 17 of the 34 patients and Vitamin B{sub 12} (VB{sub 12}) to the remaining 17 patients, for 3 to 5 months. Before and after treatment, scintigraphic studies with I-123-MIBG were carried out, and the HMi, HMd, and %WR were calculated. There were no significant differences found in FBG, HbA1c, or 1.5-AG levels after treatment with either drug, when compared to the pretreatment values. Both HMi and HMd in the DM group were significantly lower, and %WR was significantly higher than in the C group. The changes in HMi, HMd, and %WR after treatment with ARI were not significant. After treatment with VB{sub 12}, the HMi and HMd levels were significantly increased (p<0.01). Thus, measurement of myocardial MIBG accumulation is a promising new method to detect cardiac sympathetic denervation in diabetic patients. With these changes in treatment, VB{sub 12} was shown to be effective for improvement of HMi and HMd in NIDDM. (author)

  8. Ebselen and analogs as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis thioredoxin reductase and bactericidal antibacterials targeting Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Tomas N; Osman, Harer; Werngren, Jim; Hoffner, Sven; Engman, Lars; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease associated with a very high mortality rate in its invasive forms. We studied a number of ebselen analogs as inhibitors of B. anthracis thioredoxin reductase and their antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most potent compounds in the series gave IC(50) values down to 70 nM for the pure enzyme and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) down to 0.4 μM (0.12 μg/ml) for B. subtilis, 1.5 μM (0.64 μg/ml) for S. aureus, 2 μM (0.86 μg/ml) for B. cereus and 10 μg/ml for M. tuberculosis. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were found at 1-1.5 times the MIC, indicating a general, class-dependent, bactericidal mode of action. The combined bacteriological and enzymological data were used to construct a preliminary structure-activity-relationship for the benzoisoselenazol class of compounds. When S. aureus and B. subtilis were exposed to ebselen, we were unable to isolate resistant mutants on both solid and in liquid medium suggesting a high resistance barrier. These results suggest that ebselen and analogs thereof could be developed into a novel antibiotic class, useful for the treatment of infections caused by B. anthracis, S. aureus, M. tuberculosis and other clinically important bacteria. Furthermore, the high barrier against resistance development is encouraging for further drug development. We have characterized the thioredoxin system from B. anthracis as a novel drug target and ebselen and analogs thereof as a potential new class of antibiotics targeting several important human pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Avicequinone C Isolated from Avicennia marina Exhibits 5α-Reductase-Type 1 Inhibitory Activity Using an Androgenic Alopecia Relevant Cell-Based Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchy Jain

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Avicennia marina (AM exhibits various biological activities and has been traditionally used in Egypt to cure skin diseases. In this study, the methanolic heartwood extract of AM was evaluated for inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase (5α-R [E.C.1.3.99.5], the enzyme responsible for the over-production of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT causing androgenic alopecia (AGA. An AGA-relevant cell-based assay was developed using human hair dermal papilla cells (HHDPCs, the main regulator of hair growth and the only cells within the hair follicle that are the direct site of 5α-DHT action, combined with a non-radioactive thin layer chromatography (TLC detection technique. The results revealed that AM is a potent 5α-R type 1 (5α-R1 inhibitor, reducing the 5α-DHT production by 52% at the final concentration of 10 µg/mL. Activity-guided fractionation has led to the identification of avicequinone C, a furanonaphthaquinone, as a 5α-R1 inhibitor with an IC50 of 9.94 ± 0.33 µg/mL or 38.8 ± 1.29 µM. This paper is the first to report anti-androgenic activity through 5α-R1 inhibition of AM and avicequinone C.

  10. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshifumi Tezuka

    Full Text Available Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp. IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.

  11. IMD-4690, a novel specific inhibitor for plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduces allergic airway remodeling in a mouse model of chronic asthma via regulating angiogenesis and remodeling-related mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Toshifumi; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Azuma, Masahiko; Goto, Hisatsugu; Uehara, Hisanori; Aono, Yoshinori; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yoichi; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is the principal inhibitor of plasminogen activators, and is responsible for the degradation of fibrin and extracellular matrix. IMD-4690 is a newly synthesized inhibitor for PAI-1, whereas the effect on allergic airway inflammation and remodeling is still unclear. We examined the in vivo effects by using a chronic allergen exposure model of bronchial asthma in mice. The model was generated by an immune challenge for 8 weeks with house dust mite antigen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp). IMD-4690 was intraperitoneally administered during the challenge. Lung histopathology, hyperresponsiveness and the concentrations of mediators in lung homogenates were analyzed. The amount of active PAI-1 in the lungs was increased in mice treated with Dp. Administration with IMD-4690 reduced an active/total PAI-1 ratio. IMD-4690 also reduced the number of bronchial eosinophils in accordance with the decreased expressions of Th2 cytokines in the lung homogenates. Airway remodeling was inhibited by reducing subepithelial collagen deposition, smooth muscle hypertrophy, and angiogenesis. The effects of IMD-4690 were partly mediated by the regulation of TGF-β, HGF and matrix metalloproteinase. These results suggest that PAI-1 plays crucial roles in airway inflammation and remodeling, and IMD-4690, a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, may have therapeutic potential for patients with refractory asthma due to airway remodeling.

  12. Nitrate reductase activity and its relationship with applied nitrogen in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Wenting; Jin Xijun; Ma Chunmei; Dong Shoukun; Gong Zhenping; Zhang Lei

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to study the nitrate reductase activity and its relationship to nitrogen by using frame tests (pot without bottom), sand culture and 15 N-urea at transplanting in soybean variety Suinong 14. Results showed that the activity of nitrate reductase in leaf changed as a signal peak curve with the soybean growth, lower in vegetative growth phase, higher in reproductive growth period and reached the peak in blooming period, then decreased gradually. Nitrogen application showed obvious effect on the nitrate reductase activity. The activities of nitrate reductase in leaves followed the order of N 135 > N 90 > N 45 > N 0 in vegetative growth stage, no clear regularity was found during the whole reproductive growth period. The activities of nitrate reductase in leaves were accorded with the order of upper leaves > mid leaves > lower leaves, and it was very significant differences (P 15 N labeling method during beginning seed stage and full seed stage shown that 15 N abundance in various organs at different node position also followed the same order, suggesting that high level of nitrate reductase activity at upper leaves of soybean promoted the assimilation of NO 3 - . (authors)

  13. Differential expression of disulfide reductase enzymes in a free-living platyhelminth (Dugesia dorotocephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Guevara-Flores

    Full Text Available A search of the disulfide reductase activities expressed in the adult stage of the free-living platyhelminth Dugesia dorotocephala was carried out. Using GSSG or DTNB as substrates, it was possible to obtain a purified fraction containing both GSSG and DTNB reductase activities. Through the purification procedure, both disulfide reductase activities were obtained in the same chromatographic peak. By mass spectrometry analysis of peptide fragments obtained after tryptic digestion of the purified fraction, the presence of glutathione reductase (GR, thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR, and a putative thioredoxin reductase (TrxR was detected. Using the gold compound auranofin to selectively inhibit the GSSG reductase activity of TGR, it was found that barely 5% of the total GR activity in the D. dorotocephala extract can be assigned to GR. Such strategy did allow us to determine the kinetic parameters for both GR and TGR. Although It was not possible to discriminate DTNB reductase activity due to TrxR from that of TGR, a chromatofocusing experiment with a D. dorotocephala extract resulted in the obtention of a minor protein fraction enriched in TrxR, strongly suggesting its presence as a functional protein. Thus, unlike its parasitic counterparts, in the free-living platyhelminth lineage the three disulfide reductases are present as functional proteins, albeit TGR is still the major disulfide reductase involved in the reduction of both Trx and GSSG. This fact suggests the development of TGR in parasitic flatworms was not linked to a parasitic mode of life.

  14. Ferric reductase genes involved in high-affinity iron uptake are differentially regulated in yeast and hyphae of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeves, Rose E; Mason, Robert P; Woodacre, Alexandra; Cashmore, Annette M

    2011-09-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans possesses a reductive iron uptake system which is active in iron-restricted conditions. The sequestration of iron by this mechanism initially requires the reduction of free iron to the soluble ferrous form, which is catalysed by ferric reductase proteins. Reduced iron is then taken up into the cell by a complex of a multicopper oxidase protein and an iron transport protein. Multicopper oxidase proteins require copper to function and so reductive iron and copper uptake are inextricably linked. It has previously been established that Fre10 is the major cell surface ferric reductase in C. albicans and that transcription of FRE10 is regulated in response to iron levels. We demonstrate here that Fre10 is also a cupric reductase and that Fre7 also makes a significant contribution to cell surface ferric and cupric reductase activity. It is also shown, for the first time, that transcription of FRE10 and FRE7 is lower in hyphae compared to yeast and that this leads to a corresponding decrease in cell surface ferric, but not cupric, reductase activity. This demonstrates that the regulation of two virulence determinants, the reductive iron uptake system and the morphological form of C. albicans, are linked. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The cannabinoid transporter inhibitor OMDM-2 reduces social interaction: Further evidence for transporter-mediated endocannabinoid release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that the transport of endocannabinoids might work bi-directionally. Accordingly, it is possible that pharmacological blockade of the latter affects not only the re-uptake, but also the release of endocannabinoids, thus preventing them from stimulating CB 1 receptors. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and behavioral approaches to investigate the effects of the transporter inhibitor OMDM-2 on social interaction, a behavioral assay that requires activation of CB 1 receptors. The underlying mechanisms of OMDM-2 were compared with those of the Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597. Systemic administration of OMDM-2 reduced social interaction, but in contrast to URB597-induced social deficit, this effect was not reversed by the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. The CB 1 antagonist AM251, which did not affect URB597-induced social withdrawal, exacerbated OMDM-2 effect. In addition, the potent CB 1 agonist CP55,940 reversed OMDM-2-, but not URB597-, induced social withdrawal. Blockade of CB 1 receptor by AM251 reduced social interaction and the cholecystokinin CCK2 antagonist LY225910 reversed this effect. Similarly, OMDM-2-induced social withdrawal was reversed by LY225910, whereas URB597 effect was not. Elevation of endocannabinoid levels by URB597 or JZL184, an inhibitor of 2-AG degradation, failed to reverse OMDM-2-induced social withdrawal, and did not show additive effects on cannabinoid measurements when co-administered with OMDM-2. Taken together, these findings indicate that OMDM-2 impaired social interaction in a manner that is consistent with reduced activation of presynaptic CB 1 receptors. As cannabinoid reuptake inhibitors may impair endocannabinoid release, caution should be taken when using these drugs to enhance endocannabinoid tone in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of the Canine Anthracycline-Metabolizing Enzyme Carbonyl Reductase 1 (cbr1) and the Functional Isoform cbr1 V218.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel C; Cheng, Qiuying; Blanco, Javier G

    2015-07-01

    The anthracyclines doxorubicin and daunorubicin are used in the treatment of various human and canine cancers, but anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity limits their clinical utility. The formation of anthracycline C-13 alcohol metabolites (e.g., doxorubicinol and daunorubicinol) contributes to the development of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. The enzymes responsible for the synthesis of anthracycline C-13 alcohol metabolites in canines remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that canine carbonyl reductase 1 (cbr1), the homolog of the prominent anthracycline reductase human CBR1, would have anthracycline reductase activity. Recombinant canine cbr1 (molecular weight: 32.8 kDa) was purified from Escherichia coli. The enzyme kinetics of "wild-type" canine cbr1 (cbr1 D218) and a variant isoform (cbr1 V218) were characterized with the substrates daunorubicin and menadione, as well as the flavonoid inhibitor rutin. Canine cbr1 catalyzes the reduction of daunorubicin to daunorubicinol, with cbr1 D218 and cbr1 V218 displaying different kinetic parameters (cbr1 D218 Km: 188 ± 144 μM versus cbr1 V218 Km: 527 ± 136 μM, P < 0.05, and cbr1 D218 Vmax: 6446 ± 3615 nmol/min per milligram versus cbr1 V218 Vmax: 15539 ± 2623 nmol/min per milligram, P < 0.01). Canine cbr1 also metabolized menadione (cbr1 D218 Km: 104 ± 50 μM, Vmax: 2034 ± 307 nmol/min per milligram). Rutin acted as a competitive inhibitor for the reduction of daunorubicin (cbr1 D218 Ki: 1.84 ± 1.02 μM, cbr1 V218 Ki: 1.38 ± 0.47 μM). These studies show that canine cbr1 metabolizes daunorubicin and provide the necessary foundation to characterize the role of cbr1 in the variable pharmacodynamics of anthracyclines in canine cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  18. Purification and properties of a mitochondrial lipoprotein inhibitor of sterol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhosingh, C.; Migicovsky, B.B.; Starratt, A.N.

    1976-01-01

    A lipoprotein inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (EC 1.1.1.34) and of cholesterol synthesis by rat liver homogenates, was isolated from the mitochondria of starved rats' livers. The isolated lipoprotein complex contained a low molecular weight protein and fatty acids. The fatty acids identified were arachidonic, linoleic, oleic, stearic and palmitic. The saturated fatty acids and oleic acid did not inhibit. Inhibition of the enzyme was to a large extent related to the degree of fatty acid unsaturation. (auth.)

  19. Risk of gynecomastia and breast cancer associated with the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Divan, Hozefa A; Fang, Shona C; Nickel, J Curtis; Jick, Susan S

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinical trial results suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may increase the risk of gynecomastia and male breast cancer, but epidemiological studies have been limited. Patients and methods We conducted a cohort study with nested case–control analyses using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified men diagnosed with BPH who were free from Klinefelter syndrome, prostate, genital or urinary cancer, prostatectomy or orchiectomy, or evidence of gynecomastia or breast cancer. Patients entered the cohort at age ≥40 years and at least 3 years after the start of their electronic medical record. We classified exposure as 5ARIs (alone or in combination with alpha blockers [ABs]), AB only, or unexposed to 5ARIs and ABs. Cases were men who had a first-time diagnosis of gynecomastia or breast cancer. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the gynecomastia analysis and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in both analyses were calculated. Results Compared to no exposure, gynecomastia risk was elevated for users of 5ARIs (alone or in combination with ABs) in both the cohort (IRR=3.55, 95% CI 3.05–4.14) and case–control analyses (OR=3.31, 95% CI 2.66–4.10), whereas the risk was null for users of AB only. The increased risk of gynecomastia with the use of 5ARIs persisted regardless of the number of prescriptions, exposure timing, and presence or absence of concomitant prescriptions for drugs known to be associated with gynecomastia. The risk was higher for dutasteride than for finasteride. 5ARI users did not have an increased risk of breast cancer compared to unexposed men (OR=1.52, 95% CI 0.61–3.80). Conclusion In men with BPH, 5ARIs significantly increased the risk of gynecomastia, but not breast cancer, compared to AB use and no exposure. PMID:28228662

  20. Atomic Structure of Salutaridine Reductase from the Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Kutchan, Toni M.; Smith, Thomas J. (Danforth)

    2011-11-18

    The opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) is one of the oldest known medicinal plants. In the biosynthetic pathway for morphine and codeine, salutaridine is reduced to salutaridinol by salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) using NADPH as coenzyme. Here, we report the atomic structure of SalR to a resolution of {approx}1.9 {angstrom} in the presence of NADPH. The core structure is highly homologous to other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The major difference is that the nicotinamide moiety and the substrate-binding pocket are covered by a loop (residues 265-279), on top of which lies a large 'flap'-like domain (residues 105-140). This configuration appears to be a combination of the two common structural themes found in other members of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. Previous modeling studies suggested that substrate inhibition is due to mutually exclusive productive and nonproductive modes of substrate binding in the active site. This model was tested via site-directed mutagenesis, and a number of these mutations abrogated substrate inhibition. However, the atomic structure of SalR shows that these mutated residues are instead distributed over a wide area of the enzyme, and many are not in the active site. To explain how residues distal to the active site might affect catalysis, a model is presented whereby SalR may undergo significant conformational changes during catalytic turnover.

  1. Regulation of Small Mitochondrial DNA Replicative Advantage by Ribonucleotide Reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Bradshaw

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Small mitochondrial genomes can behave as selfish elements by displacing wild-type genomes regardless of their detriment to the host organism. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, small hypersuppressive mtDNA transiently coexist with wild-type in a state of heteroplasmy, wherein the replicative advantage of the small mtDNA outcompetes wild-type and produces offspring without respiratory capacity in >95% of colonies. The cytosolic enzyme ribonucleotide reductase (RNR catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and its inhibition has been correlated with increased petite colony formation, reflecting loss of respiratory function. Here, we used heteroplasmic diploids containing wild-type (rho+ and suppressive (rho− or hypersuppressive (HS rho− mitochondrial genomes to explore the effects of RNR activity on mtDNA heteroplasmy in offspring. We found that the proportion of rho+ offspring was significantly increased by RNR overexpression or deletion of its inhibitor, SML1, while reducing RNR activity via SML1 overexpression produced the opposite effects. In addition, using Ex Taq and KOD Dash polymerases, we observed a replicative advantage for small over large template DNA in vitro, but only at low dNTP concentrations. These results suggest that dNTP insufficiency contributes to the replicative advantage of small mtDNA over wild-type and cytosolic dNTP synthesis by RNR is an important regulator of heteroplasmy involving small mtDNA molecules in yeast.

  2. Sulfite-oxido-reductase is involved in the oxidation of sulfite in Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens during disproportionation of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Trine-Maria; Finster, Kai

    2003-06-01

    The enzymatic pathways of elemental sulfur and thiosulfate disproportionation were investigated using cell-free extract of Desulfocapsa sulfoexigens. Sulfite was observed to be an intermediate in the metabolism of both compounds. Two distinct pathways for the oxidation of sulfite have been identified. One pathway involves APS reductase and ATP sulfurylase and can be described as the reversion of the initial steps of the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. The second pathway is the direct oxidation of sulfite to sulfate by sulfite oxidoreductase. This enzyme has not been reported from sulfate reducers before. Thiosulfate reductase, which cleaves thiosulfate into sulfite and sulfide, was only present in cell-free extract from thiosulfate disproportionating cultures. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes the first step in thiosulfate disproportionation. The initial step in sulfur disproportionation was not identified. Dissimilatory sulfite reductase was present in sulfur and thiosulfate disproportionating cultures. The metabolic function of this enzyme in relation to elemental sulfur or thiosulfate disproportionation was not identified. The presence of the uncouplers HQNO and CCCP in growing cultures had negative effects on both thiosulfate and sulfur disproportionation. CCCP totally inhibited sulfur disproportionation and reduced thiosulfate disproportionation by 80% compared to an unamended control. HQNO reduced thiosulfate disproportionation by 80% and sulfur disproportionation by 90%.

  3. In vivo photoinactivation of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside reductase by near-ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some experimental work is described showing that near-U.V. irradiation of E.coli cells selectively destroys RDP-reductase (ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) activity in vivo are providing evidence relating the loss of RDP-reductase to loss of cellular visibility and the inactivity of irrdiated cells to support the replication of DNA phages. The data are consistent with the interpretation that the principal cause in the killing of exponentially growing E.coli cells by near-U.V., and the loss of ability of irradiated host cells to support the replication of DNA phages, is the photoinactivation of the RDP-reductase complex. (U.K.)

  4. In vivo photoinactivation of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside reductase by near-ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1977-06-09

    Some experimental work is described showing that near-uv irradiation of E.coli cells selectively destroys RDP-reductase (ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) activity in vivo are providing evidence relating the loss of RDP-reductase to loss of cellular visibility and the inactivity of irrdiated cells to support the replication of DNA phages. The data are consistent with the interpretation that the principal cause in the killing of exponentially growing E.coli cells by near-uv, and the loss of ability of irradiated host cells to support the replication of DNA phages, is the photoinactivation of the RDP-reductase complex.

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation on reducing the several inhibitors in codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, F. A.

    2008-01-01

    The medium for Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L) was sterilized using ionizing radiation (0, 5, 15 and 25 KGy) or heat (cooking for 40 minutes.). inhibitors were also added either on the top of the diet or by mixing it with the diet. The results showed that all Codling moth larvae in the ionizing radiation sterilized diet died before reaching the 4th larval instar. Results of using both radiation and cooking for sterilizing the diet gave variable results; those treated with 15 KGy gave significantly more moths with higher weight and more fecundity. The results also showed that increasing the amount of microbial inhibitors in diet negatively affected the number of produced moth and their biological characteristics. Consequently irradiation could be a mean for reducing the amount of chemical inhibitors added to the diet. (author)

  6. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) fatty acid synthase complex: enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Thuillier, Irene; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Garcés, Rafael; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the enoyl-[ACP]-reductase, which reduces the dehydrated product of β-hydroxyacyl-[ACP] dehydrase using NADPH or NADH. To determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds, two enoyl-[ACP]-reductase genes have been identified and cloned from developing seeds with 75 % identity: HaENR1 (GenBank HM021137) and HaENR2 (HM021138). The two genes belong to the ENRA and ENRB families in dicotyledons, respectively. The genetic duplication most likely originated after the separation of di- and monocotyledons. RT-qPCR revealed distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. Highest expression of HaENR1 was in roots, stems and developing cotyledons whereas that of H a ENR2 was in leaves and early stages of seed development. Genomic DNA gel blot analyses suggest that both are single-copy genes. In vivo activity of the ENR enzymes was tested by complementation experiments with the JP1111 fabI(ts) E. coli strain. Both enzymes were functional demonstrating that they interacted with the bacterial FAS components. That different fatty acid profiles resulted infers that the two Helianthus proteins have different structures, substrate specificities and/or reaction rates. The latter possibility was confirmed by in vitro analysis with affinity-purified heterologous-expressed enzymes that reduced the crotonyl-CoA substrate using NADH with different V max.

  7. Bee Venom Promotes Hair Growth in Association with Inhibiting 5α-Reductase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seeun; Erdogan, Sedef; Hwang, Dahyun; Hwang, Seonwook; Han, Eun Hye; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-06-01

    Alopecia is an important issue that can occur in people of all ages. Recent studies show that bee venom can be used to treat certain diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, neuralgia, and multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of bee venom on alopecia, which was measured by applying bee venom (0.001, 0.005, 0.01%) or minoxidil (2%) as a positive control to the dorsal skin of female C57BL/6 mice for 19 d. Growth factors responsible for hair growth were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis using mice skins and human dermal papilla cells (hDPCs). Bee venom promoted hair growth and inhibited transition from the anagen to catagen phase. In both anagen phase mice and dexamethasone-induced catagen phase mice, hair growth was increased dose dependently compared with controls. Bee venom inhibited the expression of SRD5A2, which encodes a type II 5α-reductase that plays a major role in the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. Moreover, bee venom stimulated proliferation of hDPCs and several growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and 7) in bee venom-treated hDPCs dose dependently compared with the control group. In conclusion, bee venom is a potentially potent 5α-reductase inhibitor and hair growth promoter.

  8. Crystal structure of conjugated polyketone reductase (CPR-C1) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 complexed with NADPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui-Min; Yamamura, Akihiro; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase (CPR-C1) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 is a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and reduces ketopantoyl lactone to d-pantoyl lactone in a NADPH-dependent and stereospecific manner. We determined the crystal structure of CPR-C1.NADPH complex at 2.20 Å resolution. CPR-C1 adopted a triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold at the core of the structure in which Thr25 and Lys26 of the GXGTX motif bind uniquely to the adenosine 2'-phosphate group of NADPH. This finding provides a novel structural basis for NADPH binding of the AKR superfamily. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 1H, 15N and 13C NMR Assignments of Mouse Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Åshild S.; Aachmann, Finn L.; Sal, Lena S.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Del Conte, Rebecca; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Dikiy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A recombinant mouse methionine-r-sulfoxide reductase 2 (MsrB2ΔS) isotopically labeled with 15N and 15N/13C was generated. We report here the 1H, 15N and 13C NMR assignments of the reduced form of this protein. PMID:19636904

  10. Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphism and risk of ischemic stroke in North Indian population: A hospital based case–control study. Amit Kumar, Shubham Misra, Anjali Hazarika, Pradeep Kumar, Ram Sagar, Abhishek Pathak, Kamalesh Chakravarty, Kameshwar ...

  11. The effect of ionic and non-ionic surfactants on the growth, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activities of Spirodela polyrrhiza (L. Schleiden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Buczek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion into the medium of 5 mg•dm-3 of non-ionic (ENF or ionic (DBST surfactant caused 50-60% inhibition of nitrite reductase MR activity in S. polyrrhiza. At the same time, increased accumulation of NO2- in the plant tissues and lowering of the total and soluble protein contents were found. DBST also lowered the nitrate reductase (NR activity and the dry mass of the plants.

  12. High-resolution neutron protein crystallography with radically small crystal volumes: Application of perdeuteration to human aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazemann, I.; Dauvergne, M.T.; Blakeley, M.P.; Meilleur, Flora; Haertlein, M.; Van Dorsselaer, A.; Mitschler, A.; Myles, Dean A.A.; Podjarny, A.

    2005-01-01

    Neutron diffraction data have been collected to 2.2 (angstrom) resolution from a small (0.15 mm 3 ) crystal of perdeuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR; MW = 36 kDa) in order to help to determine the protonation state of the enzyme. h-AR belongs to the aldo-keto reductase family and is implicated in diabetic complications. Its ternary complexes (h-AR-coenzyme NADPH-selected inhibitor) provide a good model to study both the enzymatic mechanism and inhibition. Here, the successful production of fully deuterated human aldose reductase (h-AR(D)), subsequent crystallization of the ternary complex h-AR(D)-NADPH-IDD594 and neutron Laue data collection at the LADI instrument at ILL using a crystal volume of just 0.15 mm 3 are reported. Neutron data were recorded to 2 (angstrom) resolution, with subsequent data analysis using data to 2.2 (angstrom). This is the first fully deuterated enzyme of this size (36 kDa) to be solved by neutron diffraction and represents a milestone in the field, as the crystal volume is at least one order of magnitude smaller than those usually required for other high-resolution neutron structures determined to date. This illustrates the significant increase in the signal-to-noise ratio of data collected from perdeuterated crystals and demonstrates that good-quality neutron data can now be collected from more typical protein crystal volumes. Indeed, the signal-to-noise ratio is then dominated by other sources of instrument background, the nature of which is under investigation. This is important for the design of future instruments, which should take maximum advantage of the reduction in the intrinsic diffraction pattern background from fully deuterated samples.

  13. Solution structure of an arsenate reductase-related protein, YffB, from Brucella melitensis, the etiological agent responsible for brucellosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchko, Garry W.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Napuli, Alberto J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Myler, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    B. melitensis is a NIAID Category B microorganism that is responsible for brucellosis and is a potential agent for biological warfare. Here, the solution structure of the 116-residue arsenate reductase-related protein Bm-YffB (BR0369) from this organism is reported. Brucella melitensis is the etiological agent responsible for brucellosis. Present in the B. melitensis genome is a 116-residue protein related to arsenate reductases (Bm-YffB; BR0369). Arsenate reductases (ArsC) convert arsenate ion (H 2 AsO 4 − ), a compound that is toxic to bacteria, to arsenite ion (AsO 2 − ), a product that may be efficiently exported out of the cell. Consequently, Bm-YffB is a potential drug target because if arsenate reduction is the protein’s major biological function then disabling the cell’s ability to reduce arsenate would make these cells more sensitive to the deleterious effects of arsenate. Size-exclusion chromatography and NMR spectroscopy indicate that Bm-YffB is a monomer in solution. The solution structure of Bm-YffB shows that the protein consists of two domains: a four-stranded mixed β-sheet flanked by two α-helices on one side and an α-helical bundle. The α/β domain is characteristic of the fold of thioredoxin-like proteins and the overall structure is generally similar to those of known arsenate reductases despite the marginal sequence similarity. Chemical shift perturbation studies with 15 N-labeled Bm-YffB show that the protein binds reduced glutathione at a site adjacent to a region similar to the HX 3 CX 3 R catalytic sequence motif that is important for arsenic detoxification activity in the classical arsenate-reductase family of proteins. The latter observation supports the hypothesis that the ArsC-YffB family of proteins may function as glutathione-dependent thiol reductases. However, comparison of the structure of Bm-YffB with the structures of proteins from the classical ArsC family suggest that the mechanism and possibly the function of Bm

  14. Identification of the 7-Hydroxymethyl Chlorophyll a Reductase of the Chlorophyll Cycle in Arabidopsis[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Miki; Ito, Hisashi; Takabayashi, Atsushi; Tanaka, Ryouichi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2011-01-01

    The interconversion of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, referred to as the chlorophyll cycle, plays a crucial role in the processes of greening, acclimation to light intensity, and senescence. The chlorophyll cycle consists of three reactions: the conversions of chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b by chlorophyllide a oxygenase, chlorophyll b to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by chlorophyll b reductase, and 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase. We identified 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase, which is the last remaining unidentified enzyme of the chlorophyll cycle, from Arabidopsis thaliana by genetic and biochemical methods. Recombinant 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase converted 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a to chlorophyll a using ferredoxin. Both sequence and biochemical analyses showed that 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase contains flavin adenine dinucleotide and an iron-sulfur center. In addition, a phylogenetic analysis elucidated the evolution of 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase from divinyl chlorophyllide vinyl reductase. A mutant lacking 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase was found to accumulate 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a and pheophorbide a. Furthermore, this accumulation of pheophorbide a in the mutant was rescued by the inactivation of the chlorophyll b reductase gene. The downregulation of pheophorbide a oxygenase activity is discussed in relation to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a accumulation. PMID:21934147

  15. Production of xylitol by a Coniochaeta ligniaria strain tolerant of inhibitors and defective in growth on xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nancy N; Saha, Badal C

    2016-05-01

    In conversion of biomass to fuels or chemicals, inhibitory compounds arising from physical-chemical pretreatment of the feedstock can interfere with fermentation of the sugars to product. Fungal strain Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 metabolizes the furan aldehydes furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, as well as a number of aromatic and aliphatic acids and aldehydes. Use of NRRL30616 to condition biomass sugars by metabolizing the inhibitors improves their fermentability. Wild-type C. ligniaria has the ability to grow on xylose as sole source of carbon and energy, with no accumulation of xylitol. Mutants of C. ligniaria unable to grow on xylose were constructed. Xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities were reduced by approximately two thirds in mutant C8100. The mutant retained ability to metabolize inhibitors in biomass hydrolysates. Although C. ligniaria C8100 did not grow on xylose, the strain converted a portion of xylose to xylitol, producing 0.59 g xylitol/g xylose in rich medium and 0.48 g xylitol/g xylose in corn stover dilute acid hydrolysate. 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2016 © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:606-612, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. The thioredoxin reductase--Thioredoxin redox system cleaves the interchain disulphide bond of botulinum neurotoxins on the cytosolic surface of synaptic vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, Marco; Azarnia Tehran, Domenico; Zanetti, Giulia; Lista, Florigio; Binz, Thomas; Shone, Clifford C; Rossetto, Ornella; Montecucco, Cesare

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are Janus toxins, as they are at the same time the most deadly substances known and one of the safest drugs used in human therapy. They specifically block neurotransmission at peripheral nerves through the proteolysis of SNARE proteins, i.e. the essential proteins which are the core of the neuroexocytosis machinery. Even if BoNTs are traditionally known as seven main serotypes, their actual number is much higher as each serotype exists in many different subtypes, with individual biological properties and little antigenic relations. Since BoNTs can be used as biological weapons, and the only currently available therapy is based on immunological approaches, the existence of so many different subtypes is a major safety problem. Nevertheless, all BoNT isoforms are structurally similar and intoxicate peripheral nerve endings via a conserved mechanism. They consist of two chains linked by a unique disulphide bond which must be reduced to enable their toxicity. We found that thioredoxin 1 and its reductase compose the cell redox system responsible for this reduction, and its inhibition via specific chemicals significantly reduces BoNTs activity, in vitro as well as in vivo. Such molecules can be considered as lead compounds for the development of pan-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dabrafenib, an inhibitor of RIP3 kinase-dependent necroptosis, reduces ischemic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly A Cruz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic brain injury triggers neuronal cell death by apoptosis via caspase activation and by necroptosis through activation of the receptor-interacting protein kinases (RIPK associated with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α/death receptor. Recent evidence shows RIPK inhibitors are neuroprotective and alleviate ischemic brain injury in a number of animal models, however, most have not yet undergone clinical trials and safety in humans remains in question. Dabrafenib, originally identified as a B-raf inhibitor that is currently used to treat melanoma, was later revealed to be a potent RIPK3 inhibitor at micromolar concentrations. Here, we investigated whether Dabrafenib would show a similar neuroprotective effect in mice subjected to ischemic brain injury by photothrombosis. Dabrafenib administered intraperitoneally at 10 mg/kg one hour after photothrombosis-induced focal ischemic injury significantly reduced infarct lesion size in C57BL6 mice the following day, accompanied by a markedly attenuated upregulation of TNF-α. However, subsequent lower doses (5 mg/kg/day failed to sustain this neuroprotective effect after 4 days. Dabrafenib blocked lipopolysaccharides-induced activation of TNF-α in bone marrow-derived macrophages, suggesting that Dabrafenib may attenuate TNF-α-induced necroptotic pathway after ischemic brain injury. Since Dabrafenib is already in clinical use for the treatment of melanoma, it might be repurposed for stroke therapy.

  18. Cyclophosphamide as a potent inhibitor of tumor thioredoxin reductase in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xufang; Zhang Jinsong; Xu Tongwen

    2007-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is in the nitrogen mustard group of alkylating antineoplastic chemotherapeutic agents. It is one of the most frequently used antitumor agents for the treatment of a broad spectrum of human cancers. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) catalyze the NADPH-dependent reduction of thioredoxin and play an important role in multiple cellular events related to carcinogenesis including cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell signaling. This enzyme represents a promising target for the development of cytostatic agents. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CTX could target TrxR in vivo. Lewis lung carcinoma and solid H22 hepatoma treated with 50-250 mg/kg CTX for 3 h lost TrxR activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 75% and 95% of TrxR activity was lost at the dose of 250 mg/kg. There was, however, a recovery of TrxR activity such that it attained normal levels by 120 h after a dose of 250 mg/kg. In addition, we found that CTX caused a preferential TrxR inhibition over other antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. We also used ascites H22 cells to investigate cancer cells response after TrxR was inhibited by CTX in vivo since CTX is needed to be activated by liver cytochrome P450 enzymes. The time course and dose-dependent changes of cellular TrxR activity were similar with those in tumor tissue. CTX caused a dose-dependent cellular proliferation inhibition which was positively correlated with TrxR inhibition at 3 h. Furthermore, when 3 h CTX-treated cells with various TrxR backgrounds, harvested from ascites-bearing mice, were implanted into mice, the proliferations of these cells were again proportionally dependent on TrxR activity. The TrxR inhibition could thereby be considered as a crucial mechanism contributing to anticancer effect seen upon clinical use of CTX

  19. Genome sequence analysis of predicted polyprenol reductase gene from mangrove plant kandelia obovata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Sagami, H.; Baba, S.; Oku, H.

    2018-03-01

    It has been previously reported that dolichols but not polyprenols were predominated in mangrove leaves and roots. Therefore, the occurrence of larger amounts of dolichol in leaves of mangrove plants implies that polyprenol reductase is responsible for the conversion of polyprenol to dolichol may be active in mangrove leaves. Here we report the early assessment of probably polyprenol reductase gene from genome sequence of mangrove plant Kandelia obovata. The functional assignment of the gene was based on a homology search of the sequences against the non-redundant (nr) peptide database of NCBI using Blastx. The degree of sequence identity between DNA sequence and known polyprenol reductase was confirmed using the Blastx probability E-value, total score, and identity. The genome sequence data resulted in three partial sequences, termed c23157 (700 bp), c23901 (960 bp), and c24171 (531 bp). The c23157 gene showed the highest similarity (61%) to predicted polyprenol reductase 2- like from Gossypium raimondii with E-value 2e-100. The second gene was c23901 to exhibit high similarity (78%) to the steroid 5-alpha-reductase Det2 from J. curcas with E-value 2e-140. Furthermore, the c24171 gene depicted highest similarity (79%) to the polyprenol reductase 2 isoform X1 from Jatropha curcas with E- value 7e-21.The present study suggested that the c23157, c23901, and c24171, genes may encode predicted polyprenol reductase. The c23157, c23901, c24171 are therefore the new type of predicted polyprenol reductase from K. obovata.

  20. Efficacy and safety of aldose reductase inhibitor for the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs can block the metabolism of the polyol pathway, and have been used to slow or reverse the progression of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN. The purpose of this study was to review the effectiveness and safety of ARIs in the treatment of DCAN as determined by five cardiac autonomic neuropathy function tests. METHODS: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus databases (inception to May 2012 were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs and non-randomized controlled trials (non-RCTs investigating ARIs for the treatment of DCAN with an English-language restriction. The data were analyzed using RevMan 5.0, and the heterogeneity between the trials was evaluated using the Cochrane's Q-test as well as the I² test. The type of model (random or fixed used for analysis was based on heterogeneity. Weighted mean differences (WMD with 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed for the five cardiac automatic neuropathy function tests to evaluate the effects. RESULTS: Ten articles met the prerequisites for this review. Analysis of the results showed that ARIs significantly improved function in at least three of the five automatic neuropathy tests, including the resting heart rate variation coefficients (WMD = 0.25, 95%CI 0.02 to 0.48, P = 0.040; the 30∶15 ratio (WMD = 0.06, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.10, P = 0.010 and the postural systolic blood pressure change (WMD = -5.94, 95%CI -7.31 to -4.57, P = 0.001. The expiration/inspiration ratio showed a marginally significant benefit (WMD = 0.05, 95%CI 0.00 to 0.09, P = 0.040. Glycaemic control was not significantly affected by ARIs. Adverse effects of ARIs except for Tolerestat were minimal. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, we conclude that ARIs could ameliorate cardiac automatic neuropathy especially mild or asymptomatic DCAN but need further investigation.

  1. Sucrose mimics the light induction of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chi-Lien; Acedo, Gregoria N; Kristensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate reductase, the first enzyme in nitrate assimilation, is located at the crossroad of two energy-consuming pathways: nitrate assimilation and carbon fixation. Light, which regulates the expression of many higher-plant carbon fixation genes, also regulates nitrate reductase gene expression. ...

  2. The 5 Alpha-Reductase Isozyme Family: A Review of Basic Biology and Their Role in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Azzouni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the discovery of 5 alpha-reduction as an enzymatic step in steroid metabolism in 1951, and the discovery that dihydrotestosterone is more potent than testosterone in 1968, the significance of 5 alpha-reduced steroids in human diseases was not appreciated until the discovery of 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency in 1974. Affected males are born with ambiguous external genitalia, despite normal internal genitalia. The prostate is hypoplastic, nonpalpable on rectal examination and approximately 1/10th the size of age-matched normal glands. Benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer does not develop in these patients. At puberty, the external genitalia virilize partially, however, secondary sexual hair remains sparse and male pattern baldness and acne develop rarely. Several compounds have been developed to inhibit the 5 alpha-reductase isozymes and they play an important role in the prevention and treatment of many common diseases. This review describes the basic biochemical properties, functions, tissue distribution, chromosomal location, and clinical significance of the 5 alpha-reductase isozyme family.

  3. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-04-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(∗)a(∗)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages.

  4. Bioinformatics analysis of the predicted polyprenol reductase genes in higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.

    2018-03-01

    The present study evaluates the bioinformatics methods to analyze twenty-four predicted polyprenol reductase genes from higher plants on GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, similarity, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic. The physicochemical properties of plant polyprenol showed diversity among the observed genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of plant polyprenol genes followed the ratio order of α helix > random coil > extended chain structure. The values of chloroplast but not signal peptide were too low, indicated that few chloroplast transit peptide in plant polyprenol reductase genes. The possibility of the potential transit peptide showed variation among the plant polyprenol reductase, suggested the importance of understanding the variety of peptide components of plant polyprenol genes. To clarify this finding, a phylogenetic tree was drawn. The phylogenetic tree shows several branches in the tree, suggested that plant polyprenol reductase genes grouped into divergent clusters in the tree.

  5. Glycation inhibitors extend yeast chronological lifespan by reducing advanced glycation end products and by back regulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Rubina S; Banarjee, Reema M; Deshmukh, Arati B; Patil, Gouri V; Jagadeeshaprasad, Mashanipalya G; Kulkarni, Mahesh J

    2017-03-06

    Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) are implicated in aging process. Thus, reducing AGEs by using glycation inhibitors may help in attenuating the aging process. In this study using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast system, we show that Aminoguanidine (AMG), a well-known glycation inhibitor, decreases the AGE modification of proteins in non-calorie restriction (NR) (2% glucose) and extends chronological lifespan (CLS) similar to that of calorie restriction (CR) condition (0.5% glucose). Proteomic analysis revealed that AMG back regulates the expression of differentially expressed proteins especially those involved in mitochondrial respiration in NR condition, suggesting that it switches metabolism from fermentation to respiration, mimicking CR. AMG induced back regulation of differentially expressed proteins could be possibly due to its chemical effect or indirectly by glycation inhibition. To delineate this, Metformin (MET), a structural analog of AMG and a mild glycation inhibitor and Hydralazine (HYD), another potent glycation inhibitor but not structural analog of AMG were used. HYD was more effective than MET in mimicking AMG suggesting that glycation inhibition was responsible for restoration of differentially expressed proteins. Thus glycation inhibitors particularly AMG, HYD and MET extend yeast CLS by reducing AGEs, modulating the expression of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and possibly by scavenging glucose. This study reports the role of glycation in aging process. In the non-caloric restriction condition, carbohydrates such as glucose promote protein glycation and reduce CLS. While, the inhibitors of glycation such as AMG, HYD, MET mimic the caloric restriction condition by back regulating deregulated proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration which could facilitate shift of metabolism from fermentation to respiration and extend yeast CLS. These findings suggest that glycation inhibitors can be potential molecules that can be used

  6. Triple aldose reductase/α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution profiling combined with high-performance liquid chromatography – high-resolution mass spectrometry – solid-phase extraction – nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for identification of antidiabetic constituents in crude, extract of Radix Scutellariae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahtah, Yousof; Kongstad, Kenneth Thermann; Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew

    2015-01-01

    high-performance liquid chromatography – high-resolution mass spectrometry – solid-phase extraction – nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The only α-glucosidase inhibitor was baicalein, whereas main aldose reductase inhibitors in the crude extract were baicalein and skullcapflavone II, and main....../α-glucosidase/radical scavenging high-resolution inhibition profile - allowing proof of concept with Radix Scutellariae crude extract as a polypharmacological herbal drug. The triple bioactivity high-resolution profiles were used to pinpoint bioactive compounds, and subsequent structure elucidation was performed with hyphenated...

  7. A random-sequential mechanism for nitrite binding and active site reduction in copper-containing nitrite reductase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijma, HJ; Jeuken, LJC; Verbeet, MP; Armstrong, FA; Canters, GW

    2006-01-01

    The homotrimeric copper-containing nitrite reductase ( NiR) contains one type-1 and one type-2 copper center per monomer. Electrons enter through the type-1 site and are shuttled to the type-2 site where nitrite is reduced to nitric oxide. To investigate the catalytic mechanism of NiR the effects of

  8. Streptococcus sanguinis Class Ib Ribonucleotide Reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlynets, Olga; Boal, Amie K.; Rhodes, DeLacy V.; Kitten, Todd; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Stubbe, JoAnne

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a causative agent of infective endocarditis. Deletion of SsaB, a manganese transporter, drastically reduces S. sanguinis virulence. Many pathogenic organisms require class Ib ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) to catalyze the conversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides under aerobic conditions, and recent studies demonstrate that this enzyme uses a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (MnIII2-Y•) cofactor in vivo. The proteins required for S. sanguinis ribonucleotide reduction (NrdE and NrdF, α and β subunits of RNR; NrdH and TrxR, a glutaredoxin-like thioredoxin and a thioredoxin reductase; and NrdI, a flavodoxin essential for assembly of the RNR metallo-cofactor) have been identified and characterized. Apo-NrdF with FeII and O2 can self-assemble a diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) cofactor (1.2 Y•/β2) and with the help of NrdI can assemble a MnIII2-Y• cofactor (0.9 Y•/β2). The activity of RNR with its endogenous reductants, NrdH and TrxR, is 5,000 and 1,500 units/mg for the Mn- and Fe-NrdFs (Fe-loaded NrdF), respectively. X-ray structures of S. sanguinis NrdIox and MnII2-NrdF are reported and provide a possible rationale for the weak affinity (2.9 μm) between them. These streptococcal proteins form a structurally distinct subclass relative to other Ib proteins with unique features likely important in cluster assembly, including a long and negatively charged loop near the NrdI flavin and a bulky residue (Thr) at a constriction in the oxidant channel to the NrdI interface. These studies set the stage for identifying the active form of S. sanguinis class Ib RNR in an animal model for infective endocarditis and establishing whether the manganese requirement for pathogenesis is associated with RNR. PMID:24381172

  9. Inhibition of aldose reductase by Gentiana lutea extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  10. Protective Role of Aldose Reductase Deletion in an Animal Model of Oxygen-Induced Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Fu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a common disease occurred in premature babies. Both vascular abnormality and neural dysfunction of the retina were reported, and oxidative stress was involved. Previously, it has been showed that deficiency of aldose reductase (AR, the rate-limiting enzyme in polyol pathway, lowered oxidative stress. Here, the effect of AR deletion on neonatal retinal injury was investigated by using a mouse model of ROP (oxygen-induced retinopathy, OIR. Seven-day-old pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and then returned to room air. The vascular changes and neuronal/glial responses were examined and compared between wild-type and AR-deficient OIR mice. Significantly reduced vaso-obliterated area, blood vessel leakage, and early revascularization were observed in AR-deficient OIR mice. Moreover, reduced amacrine cells and less distorted strata were observed in AR-deficient OIR mice. Less astrocytic immunoreactivity and reduced Müller cell gliosis were also observed in AR-deficient mice. After OIR, nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity and poly (ADP-ribose (PAR translocation, which are two oxidative stress markers, were decreased in AR-deficient mice. Significant decrease in VEGF, pho-Erk1/2, pho-Akt, and pho-I?B expression was found in AR-deficient OIR retinae. Thus, these observations suggest that the deficiency of aldose reductase may protect the retina in the OIR model.

  11. Reduction of azo dyes by flavin reductase from Citrobacter freundii A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Firdaus Abdul-Wahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter freundii A1 isolated from a sewage treatment facility was demonstrated to be able to effectively decolorize azo dyes as pure and mixed culture. This study reports on the investigation on the enzymatic systems involved. An assay performed suggested the possible involvement of flavin reductase (Fre as an azo reductase. A heterologouslyexpressed recombinant Fre from C. freundii A1 was used to investigate its involvement in the azo reduction process. Three model dyes were used, namely Acid Red 27 (AR27, Direct Blue 15 (DB15 and Reactive Black 5 (RB5. AR27 was found to be reduced the fastest by Fre, followed by RB5, and lastly DB15. Redox mediators nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and riboflavin enhance the reduction, suggesting the redox activity of the enzyme. The rate and extent of reduction of the model dyes correlate well with the reduction potentials (Ep. The data presented here strongly suggest that Fre is one of the enzymes responsible for azo reduction in C. freundii A1, acting via an oxidation-reduction reaction.

  12. NMR evaluation of total statin content and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in red yeast rice (Monascus spp. food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red yeast rice (i.e., rice fermented with Monascus spp., as a food supplement, is claimed to be blood cholesterol-lowering. The red yeast rice constituent monacolin K, also known as lovastatin, is an inhibitor of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase. This article aims to develop a sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method to determine the total statin content of red yeast rice products. Methods The total statin content was determined by a 400 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic method, based on the integration of the multiplet at δ 5.37-5.32 ppm of a hydrogen at the hexahydronaphthalene moiety in comparison to an external calibration with lovastatin. The activity of HMG-CoA reductase was measured by a commercial spectrophotometric assay kit. Results The NMR detection limit for total statins was 6 mg/L (equivalent to 0.3 mg/capsule, if two capsules are dissolved in 50 mL ethanol. The relative standard deviations were consistently lower than 11%. The total statin concentrations of five red yeast rice supplements were between 1.5 and 25.2 mg per specified daily dose. A dose-dependent inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity by the red yeast rice products was demonstrated. Conclusion A simple and direct NMR assay was developed to determine the total statin content in red yeast rice. The assay can be applied for the determination of statin content for the regulatory control of red yeast rice products.

  13. Human carbonyl reductase 1 participating in intestinal first-pass drug metabolism is inhibited by fatty acids and acyl-CoAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Akira; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Miura, Takeshi; Nishinaka, Toru; Terada, Tomoyuki

    2017-08-15

    Human carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, reduces a variety of carbonyl compounds including endogenous isatin, prostaglandin E 2 and 4-oxo-2-nonenal. It is also a major non-cytochrome P450 enzyme in the phase I metabolism of carbonyl-containing drugs, and is highly expressed in the intestine. In this study, we found that long-chain fatty acids and their CoA ester derivatives inhibit CBR1. Among saturated fatty acids, myristic, palmitic and stearic acids were inhibitory, and stearic acid was the most potent (IC 50 9µM). Unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, elaidic, γ-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids) and acyl-CoAs (palmitoyl-, stearoyl- and oleoyl-CoAs) were more potent inhibitors (IC 50 1.0-2.5µM), and showed high inhibitory selectivity to CBR1 over its isozyme CBR3 and other SDR superfamily enzymes (DCXR and DHRS4) with CBR activity. The inhibition by these fatty acids and acyl-CoAs was competitive with respect to the substrate, showing the K i values of 0.49-1.2µM. Site-directed mutagenesis of the substrate-binding residues of CBR1 suggested that the interactions between the fatty acyl chain and the enzyme's Met141 and Trp229 are important for the inhibitory selectivity. We also examined CBR1 inhibition by oleic acid in cellular levels: The fatty acid effectively inhibited CBR1-mediated 4-oxo-2-nonenal metabolism in colon cancer DLD1 cells and increased sensitivity to doxorubicin in the drug-resistant gastric cancer MKN45 cells that highly express CBR1. The results suggest a possible new food-drug interaction through inhibition of CBR1-mediated intestinal first-pass drug metabolism by dietary fatty acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Peptidase inhibitors reduce opiate narcotic withdrawal signs, including seizure activity, in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, C; Dua, A K; LaBella, F S

    1982-07-15

    Narcotic withdrawal was precipitated by administration of naloxone in a low dose at 2 h after the final dose of morphine in a 9-day dependency-inducing schedule. Withdrawal was characterized by leaps, increased nocifensor activity and by cerebral cortical epileptiform activity, the latter not generally reported to be prominent in narcotic withdrawal. Single large doses of morphine did not provoke epileptiform activity at 2 h postinjection but did induce an acute opioid dependency wherein a moderately high dose of naloxone, ineffective in non-dependent rats, provoked upward leaping and electrocortical epileptiform activity. Pretreatment of the 9-day dependent rats with peptidase inhibitors, administered intracerebroventricularly, significantly reduced withdrawal severity including the epileptiform activity. We propose that peptidase inhibitors protect certain species of endogenous opioids and/or other neuropeptides that tend to suppress expression of the narcotic withdrawal syndrome. Furthermore, our findings suggest that epileptiform activity is a nascent form of cerebral activity hitherto largely unnoticed in narcotic withdrawal and that neuropeptides may be involved in certain epileptic states.

  15. Identification of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi de Souza, Lucilene; Paradis, Manon; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile; Price, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia X in dogs is a noninflammatory alopecia that may be caused by a hormonal dysfunction. It may be similar to androgenic alopecia in men that is caused by the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The 5α-reductase isoenzymes, 5αR1 and 5αR2, and a recently described 5αR3, are responsible for the conversion of testosterone into DHT. However, which 5α-reductases are present in canine skin has not yet been described. The main objective of this study was to determine the pattern of expression of 5α-reductase genes in canine skin. Skin biopsies were obtained from healthy, intact young-mature beagles (three males, four females) at three anatomical sites normally affected by alopecia X (dorsal neck, back of thighs and base of tail) and two sites generally unaffected (dorsal head and ventral thorax). Prostate samples (n = 3) were collected as positive controls for 5α-reductase mRNA abundance measurement by real-time PCR. We detected mRNA encoding 5αR1 and 5αR3 but not 5αR2. There were no significant differences in 5αR1 and 5αR3 mRNA levels between the different anatomical sites, irrespective of gender (P > 0.05). Moreover, the mean mRNA abundance in each anatomical site did not differ between males and females (P > 0.05). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the expression of 5α-reductases in canine skin and the expression of 5αR3 in this tissue. These results may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of alopecia X and to determine more appropriate treatments for this disorder. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  16. The mechano-gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4 reduces the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P

    2016-02-01

    Mechanical and metabolic stimuli from contracting muscles evoke reflex increases in blood pressure, heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity. Little is known, however, about the nature of the mechano-gated channels on the thin fibre muscle afferents that contribute to evoke this reflex, termed the exercise pressor reflex. We determined the effect of GsMTx4, an inhibitor of mechano-gated Piezo channels, on the exercise pressor reflex evoked by intermittent contraction of the triceps surae muscles in decerebrated, unanaesthetized rats. GsMTx4 reduced the pressor, cardioaccelerator and renal sympathetic nerve responses to intermittent contraction but did not reduce the pressor responses to femoral arterial injection of compounds that stimulate the metabolically-sensitive thin fibre muscle afferents. Expression levels of Piezo2 channels were greater than Piezo1 channels in rat dorsal root ganglia. Our findings suggest that mechanically-sensitive Piezo proteins contribute to the generation of the mechanical component of the exercise pressor reflex in rats. Mechanical and metabolic stimuli within contracting skeletal muscles evoke reflex autonomic and cardiovascular adjustments. In cats and rats, gadolinium has been used to investigate the role played by the mechanical component of this reflex, termed the exercise pressor reflex. Gadolinium, however, has poor selectivity for mechano-gated channels and exerts multiple off-target effects. We tested the hypothesis that GsMTX4, a more selective mechano-gated channel inhibitor than gadolinium and a particularly potent inhibitor of mechano-gated Piezo channels, reduced the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats. Injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the peak pressor (control: 24 ± 5, GsMTx4: 12 ± 5 mmHg, P acid. Moreover, injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the peak pressor (control: 24 ± 2, GsMTx4: 14 ± 3 mmHg, P reflex in

  17. Treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces increased albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M P; Vasselli, J R; Neuman, R G; Witt, J

    1995-10-01

    1. We examined the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Treatment with acarbose for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes prevented the significant increase in UAE observed in untreated diabetic rats relative to nondiabetic controls. 3. Acarbose significantly reduced integrated glycemia, which correlated with albumin excretion rates, and exerts a salutary effect on diabetic renal dysfunction.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Cong; Seo, Kyung Hye; Kim, Hye Lim; Zhuang, Ningning; Park, Young Shik; Lee, Kon Ho

    2008-01-01

    The dihydropteridine reductase from D. discoideum has been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected from a rectangular-shaped crystal to 2.16 Å resolution. Dihydropteridine reductase from Dictyostelium discoideum (dicDHPR) can produce d-threo-BH 4 [6R-(1′R,2′R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin], a stereoisomer of l-erythro-BH 4 , in the last step of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4 ) recycling. In this reaction, DHPR uses NADH as a cofactor to reduce quinonoid dihydrobiopterin back to BH 4 . To date, the enzyme has been purified to homogeneity from many sources. In this report, the dicDHPR–NAD complex has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with PEG 3350 as a precipitant. Rectangular-shaped crystals were obtained. Crystals grew to maximum dimensions of 0.4 × 0.6 × 0.1 mm. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 49.81, b = 129.90, c = 78.76 Å, β = 100.00°, and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit, forming two closely interacting dicDHPR–NAD dimers. Diffraction data were collected to 2.16 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure has been determined using the molecular-replacement method

  19. Reduced Airway Hyperresponsiveness by Phosphodiesterase 3 and 4 Inhibitors in Guinea-Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nöella Germain

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE 3, 4 and 5 inhibitors on antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea-pigs. When the sensitized guinea-pigs were orally pre-treated with the selective PDE4 inhibitor, Ro 20-1724 (30 mg/kg, and studied 48 h after OA, a significant reduction (p<0.01 of the leftward shift of the dose-response curve to ACh was noted, whereas it was ineffective at the lower dose (10 mg/kg. Administration of the selective PDE3 inhibitor, milrinone (30 mg/kg also elicited a significant reduction (p<0.01 of the airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas the PDE5 inhibitor zaprinast (30 mg/kg was ineffective. These results show that both PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors are able to inhibit the antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea-pigs and support the potential utility of selective PDE inhibitors in the treatment of asthma.

  20. Gamma-irradiation activates biochemical systems: induction of nitrate reductase activity in plant callus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K N; Sabharwal, P S

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation induced high levels of nitrate reductase activity (NADH:nitrate oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.6.1) in callus of Haworthia mirabilis Haworth. Subcultures of gamma-irradiated tissues showed autonomous growth on minimal medium. We were able to mimic the effects of gamma-irradiation by inducing nitrate reductase activity in unirradiated callus with exogenous auxin and kinetin. These results revealed that induction of nitrate reductase activity by gamma-irradiation is mediated through i...

  1. Inhibition of aldose reductase prevents experimental allergic airway inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh C S Yadav

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The bronchial asthma, a clinical complication of persistent inflammation of the airway and subsequent airway hyper-responsiveness, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress plays a key role in initiation as well as amplification of inflammation in airways. However, still there are no good anti-oxidant strategies available for therapeutic intervention in asthma pathogenesis. Most recent studies suggest that polyol pathway enzyme, aldose reductase (AR, contributes to the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-induced inflammation by affecting the NF-kappaB-dependent expression of cytokines and chemokines and therefore inhibitors of AR could be anti-inflammatory. Since inhibitors of AR have already gone through phase-III clinical studies for diabetic complications and found to be safe, our hypothesis is that AR inhibitors could be novel therapeutic drugs for the prevention and treatment of asthma. Hence, we investigated the efficacy of AR inhibition in the prevention of allergic responses to a common natural airborne allergen, ragweed pollen that leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in a murine model of asthma.Primary Human Small Airway Epithelial Cells (SAEC were used to investigate the in vitro effects of AR inhibition on ragweed pollen extract (RWE-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals. Our results indicate that inhibition of AR prevents RWE -induced apoptotic cell death as measured by annexin-v staining, increase in the activation of NF-kappaB and expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cycloxygenase (COX-2, Prostaglandin (PG E(2, IL-6 and IL-8. Further, BALB/c mice were sensitized with endotoxin-free RWE in the absence and presence of AR inhibitor and followed by evaluation of perivascular and peribronchial inflammation, mucin production, eosinophils infiltration and airway hyperresponsiveness. Our results

  2. Exclusion of aldose reductase as a mediator of ERG deficits in a mouse model of diabetic eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Ivy S; Lee, Chieh-Allen; Petrash, J Mark; Peachey, Neal S; Kern, Timothy S

    2012-11-01

    Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes is associated with reductions in the electrical response of the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to light. Aldose reductase (AR) is the first enzyme required in the polyol-mediated metabolism of glucose, and AR inhibitors have been shown to improve diabetes-induced electroretinogram (ERG) defects. Here, we used control and AR -/- mice to determine if genetic inactivation of this enzyme likewise inhibits retinal electrophysiological defects observed in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. STZ was used to induce hyperglycemia and type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and age-matched nondiabetic controls of each genotype were maintained for 22 weeks, after which ERGs were used to measure the light-evoked components of the RPE (dc-ERG) and the neural retina (a-wave, b-wave). In comparison to their nondiabetic controls, wildtype (WT) and AR -/- diabetic mice displayed significant decreases in the c-wave, fast oscillation, and off response components of the dc-ERG but not in the light peak response. Nondiabetic AR -/- mice displayed larger ERG component amplitudes than did nondiabetic WT mice; however, the amplitude of dc-ERG components in diabetic AR -/- animals were similar to WT diabetics. ERG a-wave amplitudes were not reduced in either diabetic group, but b-wave amplitudes were lower in WT and AR -/-diabetic mice. These findings demonstrate that the light-induced responses of the RPE and outer retina are disrupted in diabetic mice, but these defects are not due to photoreceptor dysfunction, nor are they ameliorated by deletion of AR. This latter finding suggests that benefits observed in other studies utilizing pharmacological inhibitors of AR might have been secondary to off-target effects of the drugs.

  3. Sexual dysfunction in subjects treated with inhibitors of 5α-reductase for benign prostatic hyperplasia: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, G; Tirabassi, G; Santi, D; Maseroli, E; Gacci, M; Dicuio, M; Sforza, A; Mannucci, E; Maggi, M

    2017-07-01

    Despite their efficacy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, the popularity of inhibitors of 5α-reductase (5ARIs) is limited by their association with adverse sexual side effects. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze currently available randomized clinical trials evaluating the rate of sexual side effects in men treated with 5ARIs. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: 'finasteride', 'dutasteride', 'benign prostatic hyperplasia'. Only placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of 5ARI in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia were considered. Of 383 retrieved articles, 17 were included in this study. Randomized clinical trials enrolled 24,463 in the active and 22,270 patients in the placebo arms, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 99 weeks and mean age of 64.0 years. No difference was observed between trials using finasteride or dutasteride as the active arm considering age, trial duration, prostate volume or International Prostatic Symptoms Score at enrollment. Overall, 5ARIs determined an increased risk of hypoactive sexual desire [OR = 1.54 (1.29; 1.82); p dysfunction [OR = 1.47 (1.29; 1.68); p sexual desire and erectile dysfunction was observed. Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of hypoactive sexual desire and erectile dysfunction was higher in subjects with lower Q max at enrollment and decreased as a function of trial follow-up. Conversely, no effect of age, low urinary tract symptom or prostate volume at enrollment as well as Q max at end-point was observed. In conclusion, present data show that the use of 5ARI significantly increases the risk of erectile dysfunction and hypoactive sexual desire in subjects with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Patients should be adequately informed before 5ARIs are prescribed. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Transcripts of Anthocyanidin Reductase and Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase and Measurement of Catechin and Epicatechin in Tartary Buckwheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR play an important role in the monomeric units biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs such as catechin and epicatechin in several plants. The aim of this study was to clone ANR and LAR genes involved in PAs biosynthesis and examine the expression of these two genes in different organs under different growth conditions in two tartary buckwheat cultivars, Hokkai T8 and T10. Gene expression was carried out by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, and catechin and epicatechin content was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression pattern of ANR and LAR did not match the accumulation pattern of PAs in different organs of two cultivars. Epicatechin content was the highest in the flowers of both cultivars and it was affected by light in only Hokkai T8 sprouts. ANR and LAR levels in tartary buckwheat might be regulated by different mechanisms for catechin and epicatechin biosynthesis under light and dark conditions.

  5. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Scott J; Howden, Colin W

    2017-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with a variety of adverse events, although the level of evidence for many of these is weak at best. Recently, one national regulatory authority has mandated a change to the labeling of one PPI based on reports of possible associated rhabdomyolysis. Thus, in this review we summarize the available evidence linking PPI use with rhabdomyolysis. The level of evidence is insufficient to establish a causal relationship and is largely based on sporadic case reports. In general, patients with suspected PPI-associated rhabdomyolysis have not been re-challenged with a PPI after recovery. The mechanism whereby PPIs might have been associated with rhabdomyolysis is unclear but possibly related to interaction with concomitantly administered drugs such as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). For patients with rhabdomyolysis, a careful search must be made for possible etiological factors. In patients who recover from an episode of possible PPI-related rhabdomyolysis but do not have a genuine requirement for PPI treatment, the PPI should not be re-introduced. For those with a definite indication for ongoing PPI treatment, the PPI can be re-introduced but should preferably not be administered with a statin.

  6. Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase I (FabI) Is Essential for the Intracellular Growth of Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Megan E.; Frank, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase catalyzes the last step in each elongation cycle of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is a key regulatory protein in bacterial fatty acid synthesis. Genes of the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes encode two functional enoyl-acyl carrier protein isoforms based on their ability to complement the temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of Escherichia coli strain JP1111 [fabI(Ts)]. The FabI isoform was inactivated by the FabI selective inhibitor AFN-1252, but the FabK isoform was not affected by the drug, as expected. Inhibition of FabI by AFN-1252 decreased endogenous fatty acid synthesis by 80% and lowered the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in laboratory medium. Robust exogenous fatty acid incorporation was not detected in L. monocytogenes unless the pathway was partially inactivated by AFN-1252 treatment. However, supplementation with exogenous fatty acids did not restore normal growth in the presence of AFN-1252. FabI inactivation prevented the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes, showing that neither FabK nor the incorporation of host cellular fatty acids was sufficient to support the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes. Our results show that FabI is the primary enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase of type II bacterial fatty acid synthesis and is essential for the intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes. PMID:27736774

  7. Glutathione reductase: solvent equilibrium and kinetic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.K.; Vanoni, M.A.; Blanchard, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Glutathione reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The kinetic mechanism is ping-pong, and we have investigated the rate-limiting nature of proton-transfer steps in the reactions catalyzed by the spinach, yeast, and human erythrocyte glutathione reductases using a combination of alternate substrate and solvent kinetic isotope effects. With NADPH or GSSG as the variable substrate, at a fixed, saturating concentration of the other substrate, solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed on V but not V/K. Plots of Vm vs mole fraction of D 2 O (proton inventories) were linear in both cases for the yeast, spinach, and human erythrocyte enzymes. When solvent kinetic isotope effect studies were performed with DTNB instead of GSSG as an alternate substrate, a solvent kinetic isotope effect of 1.0 was observed. Solvent kinetic isotope effect measurements were also performed on the asymmetric disulfides GSSNB and GSSNP by using human erythrocyte glutathione reductase. The Km values for GSSNB and GSSNP were 70 microM and 13 microM, respectively, and V values were 62 and 57% of the one calculated for GSSG, respectively. Both of these substrates yield solvent kinetic isotope effects greater than 1.0 on both V and V/K and linear proton inventories, indicating that a single proton-transfer step is still rate limiting. These data are discussed in relationship to the chemical mechanism of GSSG reduction and the identity of the proton-transfer step whose rate is sensitive to solvent isotopic composition. Finally, the solvent equilibrium isotope effect measured with yeast glutathione reductase is 4.98, which allows us to calculate a fractionation factor for the thiol moiety of GSH of 0.456

  8. The Thioredoxin Domain of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae PilB can use Electrons from DsbD to Reduce Downstream Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brot,N.; Collet, J.; Johnson, L.; Jonsson, T.; Weissbach, H.; Lowther, W.

    2006-01-01

    The PilB protein from Neisseria gonorrhoeae is located in the periplasm and made up of three domains. The N-terminal, thioredoxin-like domain (NT domain) is fused to tandem methionine sulfoxide reductase A and B domains (MsrA/B). We show that the {alpha} domain of Escherichia coli DsbD is able to reduce the oxidized NT domain, which suggests that DsbD in Neisseria can transfer electrons from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin to the periplasm for the reduction of the MsrA/B domains. An analysis of the available complete genomes provides further evidence for this proposition in other bacteria where DsbD/CcdA, Trx, MsrA, and MsrB gene homologs are all located in a gene cluster with a common transcriptional direction. An examination of wild-type PilB and a panel of Cys to Ser mutants of the full-length protein and the individually expressed domains have also shown that the NT domain more efficiently reduces the MsrA/B domains when in the polyprotein context. Within this framework there does not appear to be a preference for the NT domain to reduce the proximal MsrA domain over MsrB domain. Finally, we report the 1.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the NT domain. This structure confirms the presence of a surface loop that makes it different from other membrane-tethered, Trx-like molecules including TlpA, CcmG and ResA. Subtle differences are observed in this loop when compared to the N. meningitidis NT domain structure. The data taken together supports the formation of specific NT domain interactions with the MsrA/B domains and its in vivo recycling partner, DsbD.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of salutaridine reductase from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiro; Smith, Thomas J.; Jez, Joseph M.; Kutchan, Toni M.

    2010-01-01

    Recombinant P. somniferum salutaridine reductase (SalR) was purified and crystallized with NADPH using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Crystals of the SalR–NADPH complex diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The opium poppy Papaver somniferum is the source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine. Salutaridine reductase (SalR; EC 1.1.1.248) reduces the C-7 keto group of salutaridine to the C-7 (S)-hydroxyl group of salutaridinol in the biosynthetic pathway that leads to morphine in the opium poppy plant. P. somniferum SalR was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified using cobalt-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography. Hexagonal crystals belonging to space group P6 4 22 or P6 2 22 were obtained using ammonium sulfate as precipitant and diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å

  10. Corynebacterium diphtheriae methionine sulfoxide reductase a exploits a unique mycothiol redox relay mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Maria-Armineh; Pedre, Brandán; Wahni, Khadija; Erdogan, Huriye; Vertommen, Didier; Van Molle, Inge; Messens, Joris

    2015-05-01

    Methionine sulfoxide reductases are conserved enzymes that reduce oxidized methionines in proteins and play a pivotal role in cellular redox signaling. We have unraveled the redox relay mechanisms of methionine sulfoxide reductase A of the pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae (Cd-MsrA) and shown that this enzyme is coupled to two independent redox relay pathways. Steady-state kinetics combined with mass spectrometry of Cd-MsrA mutants give a view of the essential cysteine residues for catalysis. Cd-MsrA combines a nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction with an intramolecular disulfide bond cascade linked to the thioredoxin pathway. Within this cascade, the oxidative equivalents are transferred to the surface of the protein while releasing the reduced substrate. Alternatively, MsrA catalyzes methionine sulfoxide reduction linked to the mycothiol/mycoredoxin-1 pathway. After the nucleophilic cysteine sulfenylation reaction, MsrA forms a mixed disulfide with mycothiol, which is transferred via a thiol disulfide relay mechanism to a second cysteine for reduction by mycoredoxin-1. With x-ray crystallography, we visualize two essential intermediates of the thioredoxin relay mechanism and a cacodylate molecule mimicking the substrate interactions in the active site. The interplay of both redox pathways in redox signaling regulation forms the basis for further research into the oxidative stress response of this pathogen. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. TNF-α inhibitors reduce the pathological Th1 -Th17 /Th2 imbalance in cutaneous mesenchymal stem cells of psoriasis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanati, Anna; Orciani, Monia; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Ganzetti, Giulia; Consales, Veronica; Sorgentoni, Giulia; Di Primio, Roberto; Offidani, Annamaria

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a disease characterized by an imbalance between Th 1 and Th 17 and Th 2 inflammatory axes, in which cutaneous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are early involved, as they show a greater relative expression of several genes encoding for Th 1 and Th 17 cytokines. Therapeutic implications of TNF-α inhibitors on differentiated skin cells have been largely described in psoriasis; however, their effects on MSCs derived from patients with psoriasis have been only partially described. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of TNF-α inhibitors on cytokine milieu expressed by MSCs isolated from the skin of patients with psoriasis. Resident MSCs from skin of patients with psoriasis and healthy subjects have been isolated, characterized and profiled by PCR and ELISA for the expression of 22 cytokines involved in Th 1 , Th 2 and Th 17 pathways, both before and after 12 weeks therapy with TNF-α inhibitors. The administration of TNF-α inhibitors for 12-weeks acts on MSCs as follows: it reduces the expression of several Th 1 -Th 17 cytokines whose levels are elevated at baseline (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IL-23A, IFN-γ, TNF-α, CCL2, CCL20, CXCL2, CXCL5, IL-17A, IL-17C, IL-17F, IL-21, G-CSF). Similarly, it enhances the expression of several Th 2 cytokines which are underexpressed at baseline (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5), reducing the expression of those overexpressed at baseline (TGF-β and IL-13). TNF-α inhibitors could contribute to reduce the pathological imbalance between the Th 1 -Th 17 vs Th 2 axis in MSCs of patients with psoriasis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Clostridium species strain BOH3 tolerates and transforms inhibitors from horticulture waste hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yu; He, Jianzhong

    2017-08-01

    Conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysate to biofuels is impeded by the toxic effects of inhibitors that are generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis processes. Here we describe a wild-type Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 with high tolerance to the lignocellulose-derived inhibitors and its capability to transform these inhibitors. Strain BOH3 is capable of tolerating over 60 mM furfural, 60 mM hydroxymethylfurfural, and 6.6 mM vanillin, respectively, and is able to convert 53.74 ± 0.37 mM furfural into furfuryl alcohol within 90 h. The high furfural tolerance and its biotransformation by strain BOH3, which is correlated to the high transcription levels of two short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases, enable strain BOH3 to produce 5.15 ± 0.52 g/L butanol from dilute sulfuric acid pretreated horticultural waste hydrolysate (HWH) that bypassed the detoxification step. The capability of strain BOH3 to produce butanol from un-detoxified HWH lays the foundation of cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic materials.

  13. Role of a novel dual flavin reductase (NR1) and an associated histidine triad protein (DCS-1) in menadione-induced cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Vincent, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzes the one-electron transfer from NADPH via FAD and FMN to various electron acceptors, such as cytochrome P450s or to some anti-cancer quinone drugs. This results in generation of free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites, which can contribute to the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Recently, a cytosolic NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, NR1, has been described which is highly homologous to the microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we show that over-expression of NR1 in human embryonic kidney cells enhances the cytotoxic action of the model quinone, menadione. Furthermore, we show that a novel human histidine triad protein DCS-1, which is expressed together with NR1 in many tissues, can significantly reduce menadione-induced cytotoxicity in these cells. We also show that DCS-1 binds NF1 and directly modulates its activity. These results suggest that NR1 may play a role in carcinogenicity and cell death associated with one-electron reductions

  14. YKL071W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel aldehyde reductase for detoxification of glycolaldehyde and furfural derived from lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanyu; Ouyang, Yidan; Zhou, Chang; Xiao, Difan; Guo, Yaping; Wu, Lan; Li, Xi; Gu, Yunfu; Xiang, Quanju; Zhao, Ke; Yu, Xiumei; Zou, Likou; Ma, Menggen

    2017-12-01

    Aldehydes generated as by-products during the pretreatment of lignocellulose are the key inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is considered as the most promising microorganism for industrial production of biofuel, xylitol as well as other special chemicals from lignocellulose. S. cerevisiae has the inherent ability to in situ detoxify aldehydes to corresponding alcohols by multiple aldehyde reductases. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized open reading frame YKL071W from S. cerevisiae encodes a novel "classical" short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein with NADH-dependent enzymatic activities for reduction of furfural (FF), glycolaldehyde (GA), formaldehyde (FA), and benzaldehyde (BZA). This enzyme showed much better specific activities for reduction of GA and FF than FA and BZA, and displayed much higher Km and Kcat/Km but lower Vmax and Kcat for reduction of GA than FF. For this enzyme, the optimum pH was 5.5 and 6.0 for reduction of GA and FF, and the optimum temperature was 30 °C for reduction of GA and FF. Both pH and temperature affected stability of this enzyme in a similar trend for reduction of GA and FF. Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ had severe inhibition effects on enzyme activities of Ykl071wp for reduction of GA and FF. Transcription of YKL071W in S. cerevisiae was significantly upregulated under GA and FF stress conditions, and its transcription is most probably regulated by transcription factor genes of YAP1, CAD1, PDR3, and STB5. This research provides guidelines to identify more uncharacterized genes with reductase activities for detoxification of aldehydes derived from lignocellulose in S. cerevisiae.

  15. Skin cancer associated with commonly prescribed drugs: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and statins -weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Beatrice; Orrell, Kelsey A; Vakharia, Paras P; West, Dennis P

    2018-02-01

    Skin cancers, including both malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the US. The incidence of both MM and NMSC continues to rise. Areas covered: Current evidence for an association between four of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs in the U.S. and risk for MM and NMSC is reported. Medline was searched (January 2000 to May 2017) for each drug in the classes and for 'basal cell carcinoma', 'squamous cell carcinoma', 'non-melanoma skin cancer', 'skin cancer' and 'melanoma'. Skin cancer risk information was reported for: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitors (statins). Expert opinion: Since skin cancer risk is associated with all four classes of these commonly prescribed drugs that represent nearly 20% of the Top 100 drugs in the U.S., these important findings warrant enhanced education, especially for prescribers and those patients at high risk for skin cancer.

  16. Substrate and cofactor binding to nitrile reductase : A mass spectrometry based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gjonaj, L.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Fernandez Fueyo, E.; Hollmann, F.; Hanefeld, U.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrile reductases catalyse a two-step reduction of nitriles to amines. This requires the binding of two NADPH molecules during one catalytic cycle. For the nitrile reductase from E. coli (EcoNR) mass spectrometry studies of the catalytic mechanism were performed. EcoNR is dimeric and has no Rossman

  17. Discovery of natural mouse serum derived HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, M; Chen, Y; Xi, J; Ru, S; Ji, M; Zhang, D; Fang, Q; Tang, B

    Among rationally designed human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) inhibitors, diverse natural factors have showed as potent anti-HIV activity in human blood. We have discovered that the boiled supernatant of healthy mouse serum could suppress HIV-1 entry, and exhibited reduced inhibitory activity after trypsin digestion. Further analysis demonstrated that only the fraction containing 10-25 K proteins could inhibit HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These results suggest that the 10-25 K protein(s) is novel natural HIV-1 entry inhibitor(s). Our findings provide important information about novel natural HIV entry inhibitors in mouse serum.

  18. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  19. The oral histone deacetylase inhibitor ITF2357 reduces cytokines and protects islet ß cells in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Eli C; Blaabjerg, Lykke; Størling, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    of histone deacetylases (HDAC) are used commonly in humans but also possess antiinflammatory and cytokine-suppressing properties. Here we show that oral administration of the HDAC inhibitor ITF2357 to mice normalized streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia at the clinically relevant doses of 1.25-2.5 mg...... production and decreased apoptosis rates from 14.3% (vehicle) to 2.6% (ITF2357). Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels decreased in association with reduced islet-derived nitrite levels. In peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes, ITF2357 inhibited the production of nitrite, as well as that of TNFa...... and IFN¿ at an IC(50) of 25-50 nmol/L. In the insulin-producing INS cells challenged with the combination of IL-1ß plus IFN¿, apoptosis was reduced by 50% (P orally active HDAC inhibitor ITF2357 favors ß-cell survival during inflammatory conditions....

  20. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  1. N-terminus determines activity and specificity of styrene monooxygenase reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas; Scholtissek, Anika; Westphal, Adrie H; van Berkel, Willem J H; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    Styrene monooxygenases (SMOs) are two-enzyme systems that catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene to (S)-styrene oxide. The FADH 2 co-substrate of the epoxidase component (StyA) is supplied by an NADH-dependent flavin reductase (StyB). The genome of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP encodes two SMO systems. One system, which we define as E1-type, displays homology to the SMO from Pseudomonas taiwanensis VLB120. The other system, originally reported as a fused system (RoStyA2B), is defined as E2-type. Here we found that E1-type RoStyB is inhibited by FMN, while RoStyA2B is known to be active with FMN. To rationalize the observed specificity of RoStyB for FAD, we generated an artificial reductase, designated as RoStyBart, in which the first 22 amino acid residues of RoStyB were joined to the reductase part of RoStyA2B, while the oxygenase part (A2) was removed. RoStyBart mainly purified as apo-protein and mimicked RoStyB in being inhibited by FMN. Pre-incubation with FAD yielded a turnover number at 30°C of 133.9±3.5s -1 , one of the highest rates observed for StyB reductases. RoStyBart holo-enzyme switches to a ping-pong mechanism and fluorescence analysis indicated for unproductive binding of FMN to the second (co-substrate) binding site. In summary, it is shown for the first time that optimization of the N-termini of StyB reductases allows the evolution of their activity and specificity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. S-phenylpiracetam, a selective DAT inhibitor, reduces body weight gain without influencing locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvejniece, Liga; Svalbe, Baiba; Vavers, Edijs; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Liepins, Vilnis; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-01

    S-phenylpiracetam is an optical isomer of phenotropil, which is a clinically used nootropic drug that improves physical condition and cognition. Recently, it was shown that S-phenylpiracetam is a selective dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor that does not influence norepinephrine (NE) or serotonin (5-HT) receptors. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of S-phenylpiracetam treatment on body weight gain, blood glucose and leptin levels, and locomotor activity. Western diet (WD)-fed mice and obese Zucker rats were treated daily with peroral administration of S-phenylpiracetam for 8 and 12weeks, respectively. Weight gain and plasma metabolites reflecting glucose metabolism were measured. Locomotor activity was detected in an open-field test. S-phenylpiracetam treatment significantly decreased body weight gain and fat mass increase in the obese Zucker rats and in the WD-fed mice. In addition, S-phenylpiracetam reduced the plasma glucose and leptin concentration and lowered hyperglycemia in a glucose tolerance test in both the mice and the rats. S-phenylpiracetam did not influence locomotor activity in the obese Zucker rats or in the WD-fed mice. The results demonstrate that S-phenylpiracetam reduces body weight gain and improves adaptation to hyperglycemia without stimulating locomotor activity. Our findings suggest that selective DAT inhibitors, such as S-phenylpiracetam, could be potentially useful for treating obesity in patients with metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse health consequences compared to other anorectic agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) are enzymes involve in folate regulation in human. The C to T transition of the cSHMT and MTHFR genes at the 1420 as well as 677 nucleotides both carries TT genotype respectively. These enzymes have direct and ...

  4. Combination therapy with dutasteride and tamsulosin for the treatment of symptomatic enlarged prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Tarter, TH

    2009-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a frequent cause of lower urinary symptoms, with a prevalence of 50% by the sixth decade of life. Hyperplasia of stromal and epithelial prostatic elements that surround the urethra cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urinary tract infection and acute urinary retention. Medical treatments of symptomatic BPH include; 1) the 5α-reductase inhibitors, 2) the α1-adrenergic antagonists, and 3) the combination of a 5α-reductase inhibitor and a α1-adrenergic antagonist. Selective α1-adrenergic antagonists relax the smooth muscle of the prostate and bladder neck without affecting the detrussor muscle of the bladder wall, thus decreasing the resistance to urine flow without compromising bladder contractility. Clinical trials have shown that α1-adrenergic antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention. Inhibitors of 5α-reductase decrease production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate resulting in decreased prostate volumes, increased peak urinary flow rates, improvement of symptoms, and decreased risk of acute urinary retention and need for surgical intervention. Interim results of the ongoing Combination of Avodart and Tamsulosin (CombAt) study have shown combination therapy with the 5α-reductase inhibitor dutasteride and the α1-adrenergic antagonist tamsulosin offer significant improvements from baseline compared with either drug alone. PMID:19554096

  5. Effects of aldose reductase inhibitor and vitamin B12 on myocardial uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Keita; Narabayashi, Isamu; Tamura, Koji; Nakatani, Yuko; Saika, Yoshinori; Onishi, Satoshi; Kariyone, Shigeo

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of aldose reductase inhibitor (ARI) and vitamin B 12 (VB12) on myocardial uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in patients with diabetic autonomic disorder. Myocardial scintigraphy using 123 I-MIBG was performed on 20 healthy volunteers (controls) and 56 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), in order to obtain the heart/mediastinum ratio in the initial (HMi) and the delayed images (HMd), and the washout rate (%WR). Thirty-four of the 56 NIDDM patients could be diagnosed as having diabetic autonomic disorder by evaluating their scintigraphic findings in comparison with the controls. Seventeen of these 34 patients received 150 mg/day of epalrestat (ARI group) in three divided doses before meals, and the other 17 received 1.5 mg/day of mecobalamin (VB12 group) in three divided doses after meals, for 3-5 months. According to the presence or absence of clinical symptoms of autonomic or peripheral somatic nerve disorder, the patients were subclassified into four groups. group 1=patients, with autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the ARI group; group 2=patients without autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the ARI group; group 3=patients with autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the VB12 group; and group 4=patients without autonomic symptoms or somatosensory disorder in the VB12 group. After completion of the treatment, myocardial scintigraphy was performed again. Comparing the results obtained before and after the treatment, it was seen that ARI improved only the HMi in group 1 (P=0.046), whereas VB12 significantly improved HMi in the group 3 (P=0.018) and HMi, HMd and %WR in group 4 (P=0.043, P=0.018 and P=0.043, respectively). We conclude that VB12 is more efficacious than ARI in the treatment of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic disorder. (orig.)

  6. Enzyme kinetics, inhibitors, mutagenesis and electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of dual-affinity nitrate reductase in unicellular N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tung-Hei; Chen, Yung-Han; Huang, Jine-Yung; Liu, Kang-Cheng; Ke, Shyue-Chu; Chu, Hsiu-An

    2011-11-01

    The assimilatory nitrate reductase (NarB) of N(2)-fixing cyanobacterium Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 is a monomeric enzyme with dual affinity for substrate nitrate. We purified the recombinant NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 and further investigated it by enzyme kinetics analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitor kinetics analysis, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The NarB showed 2 kinetic regimes at pH 10.5 or 8 and electron-donor conditions methyl viologen or ferredoxin (Fd). Fd-dependent NR assay revealed NarB with very high affinity for nitrate (K(m)1, ∼1μM; K(m)2, ∼270μM). Metal analysis and EPR results showed that NarB contains a Mo cofactor and a [4Fe-4S] cluster. In addition, the R352A mutation on the proposed nitrate-binding site of NarB greatly altered both high- and low-affinity kinetic components. Furthermore, the effect of azide on the NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 was more complex than that on the NarB of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 with its single kinetic regime. With 1mM azide, the kinetics of the wild-type NarB was transformed from 2 kinetic regimes to hyperbolic kinetics, and its activity was enhanced significantly under medium nitrate concentrations. Moreover, EPR results also suggested a structural difference between the two NarBs. Taken together, our results show that the NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 contains only a single Mo-catalytic center, and we rule out that the enzyme has 2 independent, distinct catalytic sites. In addition, the NarB of Cyanothece sp. PCC 8801 may have a regulatory nitrate-binding site. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibitory effect on in vitro LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity of the liquid-liquid partitioned fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (lion's mane mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.

  8. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence......Hb reductase activity in fish offsets their higher Hb autoxidation and higher likelihood of encountering elevated nitrite. Deoxygenation significantly raised the rates of RBC metHb reduction, and more so in rainbow trout than in carp. The temperature sensitivity of metHb reduction in rainbow trout RBCs...

  9. Homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T polymorphism in relation to muscle mass and strength, physical performance and postural sway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, K. M. A.; Enneman, A. W.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; van Dijk, S. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Ham, A. C.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van der Velde, N.; Brug, J.; van Meurs, J. B. J.; de Groot, L. C. P. G. M.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Lips, P.; van Schoor, N. M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been linked to reduced mobility and muscle functioning in the elderly. The relation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C-->T polymorphism with these associations has not yet been studied. This study aimed to investigate (1) the association of plasma

  10. Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and tumor promotion involving mammalian ribonucleotide reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choy, B.B.K.

    1991-01-01

    Mammalian ribonucleotide reductase is a highly regulated, rate-limiting activity responsible for converting ribonucleoside diphosphates to the deoxyribonucleotide precursors of DNA. The enzyme consists of two nonidentical proteins called M1 and M2, both of which are required for activity. Hydroxyurea is an antitumor agent which inhibits ribonucleotide reductase by interacting with the M2 component specifically at a unique tyrosyl free radical. Studies were conducted on a series of drug resistant mouse cell lines, selected by a step-wise procedure for increasing levels of resistance to the cytotoxic effects of hydroxyurea. Each successive drug selection step leading to the isolation of highly resistant cells was accompanied by stable elevations in cellular resistance and ribonucleotide reductase activity. The drug resistant cell lines exhibited gene amplification of the M2 gene, elevated M2 mRNA, and M2 protein. In addition to M2 gene amplification, posttranscriptional modulation also occurred during the drug selection. Studies of the biosynthesis rates with exogenously added iron suggest a role for iron in regulating the level of M2 protein when cells are cultured in the presence of hydroxyurea. The hydroxyurea-inactivated ribonucleotide reductase protein M2 has a destabilized iron centre, which readily releases iron. Altered expression of ferritin appears to be required for the development of hydroxyurea resistance in nammalian cells. The results show an interesting relationship between the expressions of ribonucleotide reductase and ferritin. The phorbol ester tumor promoter, TPA, is also able to alter the expression of M2. TPA was able to induce M2 mRNA levels transiently up to 18-fold within 1/2 hour. This rapid and large elevation of ribonucleotide reductase suggests that the enzyme may play a role in tumor promotion. Studies of the M2 promoter region were undertaken to better understand the mechanism of TPA induction of M2.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of the alkanesulfonate FMN reductase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Benlian; Bertrand, Adam; Boles, William H.; Ellis, Holly R.; Mallett, T. Conn

    2005-01-01

    Crystallization of the native and SeMet FMN reductase protein of the E. coli alkanesulfonate monooxygenase two-component enzyme system is reported. The alkanesulfonate FMN reductase (SsuE) from Escherichia coli catalyzes the reduction of FMN by NADPH to provide reduced flavin for the monooxygenase (SsuD) enzyme. The vapor-diffusion technique yielded single crystals that grow as hexagonal rods and diffract to 2.9 Å resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation. The protein crystallizes in the primitive hexagonal space group P622. The SsuE protein lacks any cysteine or methionine residues owing to the role of the SsuE enzyme in the acquisition of sulfur during sulfate starvation. Therefore, substitution of two leucine residues (Leu114 and Leu165) to methionine was performed to obtain selenomethionine-containing SsuE for MAD phasing. The selenomethionine derivative of SsuE has been expressed and purified and crystals of the protein have been obtained with and without bound FMN. These preliminary studies should lead to the structure solution of SsuE. It is anticipated that this new protein structure will provide detailed structural information on specific active-site regions of the protein and insight into the mechanism of flavin reduction and transfer of reduced flavin

  12. Role of Quinone Reductase 2 in the Antimalarial Properties of Indolone-Type Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure-Estelle Cassagnes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolone-N-oxides have antiplasmodial properties against Plasmodium falciparum at the erythrocytic stage, with IC50 values in the nanomolar range. The mechanism of action of indolone derivatives involves the production of free radicals, which follows their bioreduction by an unknown mechanism. In this study, we hypothesized that human quinone reductase 2 (hQR2, known to act as a flavin redox switch upon binding to the broadly used antimalarial chloroquine, could be involved in the activity of the redox-active indolone derivatives. Therefore, we investigated the role of hQR2 in the reduction of indolone derivatives. We analyzed the interaction between hQR2 and several indolone-type derivatives by examining enzymatic kinetics, the substrate/protein complex structure with X-ray diffraction analysis, and the production of free radicals with electron paramagnetic resonance. The reduction of each compound in cells overexpressing hQR2 was compared to its reduction in naïve cells. This process could be inhibited by the specific hQR2 inhibitor, S29434. These results confirmed that the anti-malarial activity of indolone-type derivatives was linked to their ability to serve as hQR2 substrates and not as hQR2 inhibitors as reported for chloroquine, leading to the possibility that substrate of hQR2 could be considered as a new avenue for the design of new antimalarial compounds.

  13. Evidence for a Ustilago maydis Steroid 5α-Reductase by Functional Expression in Arabidopsis det2-1 Mutants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, Christoph W.; Kerschbamer, Christine; Brustmann, Markus; Altmann, Thomas; Kahmann, Regine

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a gene (udh1) in the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis that is induced during the parasitic interaction with its host plant maize (Zea mays). udh1 encodes a protein with high similarity to mammalian and plant 5α-steroid reductases. Udh1 differs from those of known 5α-steroid reductases by six additional domains, partially predicted to be membrane-spanning. A fusion protein of Udh1 and the green fluorescent protein provided evidence for endoplasmic reticulum localization in U. maydis. The function of the Udh1 protein was demonstrated by complementing Arabidopsis det2-1 mutants, which display a dwarf phenotype due to a mutation in the 5α-steroid reductase encoding DET2 gene. det2-1 mutant plants expressing either the udh1 or the DET2 gene controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter differed from wild-type Columbia plants by accelerated stem growth, flower and seed development and a reduction in size and number of rosette leaves. The accelerated growth phenotype of udh1 transgenic plants was stably inherited and was favored under reduced light conditions. Truncation of the N-terminal 70 amino acids of the Udh1 protein abolished the ability to restore growth in det2-1 plants. Our results demonstrate the existence of a 5α-steroid reductase encoding gene in fungi and suggest a common ancestor between fungal, plant, and mammalian proteins. PMID:12068114

  14. Two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Cryptosporidium hominis reveal protein–ligand interactions including a structural basis for observed antifolate resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Amy C., E-mail: aca@dartmouth.edu [Dartmouth College, Department of Chemistry, Burke Laboratories, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2005-03-01

    An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of DHFR-TS from C. hominis reveals a possible structural basis for observed antifolate resistance in C. hominis DHFR. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals residue substitutions that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors. Cryptosporidium hominis is a protozoan parasite that causes acute gastrointestinal illness. There are no effective therapies for cryptosporidiosis, highlighting the need for new drug-lead discovery. An analysis of the protein–ligand interactions in two crystal structures of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) from C. hominis, determined at 2.8 and 2.87 Å resolution, reveals that the interactions of residues Ile29, Thr58 and Cys113 in the active site of C. hominis DHFR provide a possible structural basis for the observed antifolate resistance. A comparison with the structure of human DHFR reveals active-site differences that may be exploited for the design of species-selective inhibitors.

  15. Characterization of the surfaceome of the metal-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum reducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eDalla Vecchia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Desulfotomaculum reducens strain MI-1 is a Gram-positive, sulfate-reducing bacterium also capable of reducing Fe(III. Metal reduction in Gram-positive bacteria is poorly understood. Here, we investigated Fe(III reduction with lactate, a non-fermentable substrate, as the electron donor. Lactate consumption is concomitant to Fe(III reduction, but does not support significant growth, suggesting that little energy can be conserved from this process and that it may occur fortuitously. D. reducens can reduce both soluble (Fe(III-citrate and insoluble (hydrous ferric oxide, HFO Fe(III. Because physically inaccessible HFO was not reduced, we concluded that reduction requires direct contact under these experimental conditions. This implies the presence of a surface exposed reductase capable of transferring electrons from the cell to the extracellular electron acceptor. With the goal of characterizing the role of surface proteins in D. reducens and of identifying candidate Fe(III reductases, we carried out an investigation of the surface proteome (surfaceome of D. reducens. Cell surface exposed proteins were extracted by trypsin cell shaving or by lysozyme treatment, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This investigation revealed that the surfaceome fulfills many functions, including solute transport, protein export, maturation and hydrolysis, peptidoglycan synthesis and modification, and chemotaxis. Furthermore, a few redox-active proteins were identified. Among these, three are putatively involved in Fe(III reduction, i.e., a membrane-bound hydrogenase 4Fe-4S cluster subunit (Dred_0462, a heterodisulfide reductase subunit A (Dred_0143 and a protein annotated as alkyl hydroperoxide reductase but likely functioning as a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase (Dred_1533.

  16. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 1. Photoaffinity labeling of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase and amino acid sequence of the binding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.M.; Smith, P.L.; Klein, T.E.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    N/sup α/-(4-Amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroyl)-N/sup epsilon/-(4-azido-5-[ 125 I]iodosalicylyl)-L-lysine, a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate, is only 2-fold less potent than methotrexate in the inhibition of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase. Irradiation of the enzyme in the presence of an equimolar concentration of the 125 I-labeled analogue ultimately leads to an 8% incorporation of the photoprobe. A 100-fold molar excess of methotrexate essentially blocks this incorporation. Cyanogen bromide digestion of the labeled enzyme, followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography purification of the generated peptides, indicates that greater than 85% of the total radioactivity is incorporated into a single cyanogen bromide peptide. Sequence analysis revealed this peptide to be residues 53-111, with a majority of the radioactivity centered around residues 63-65 (Lys-Asn-Arg). These data demonstrate that the photoaffinity analogue specifically binds to dihydrofolate reductase and covalently modifies the enzyme following irradiation and is therefore a photolabeling agent useful for probing the inhibitor binding domain of the enzyme

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyota, Eduardo [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Sousa, Sylvia Morais de [Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genética, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil); Menossi, Marcelo [Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Yunes, José Andrés [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Centro Infantil Boldrini, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Aparicio, Ricardo, E-mail: aparicio@iqm.unicamp.br [Laboratório de Biologia Estrutural, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, CP 6154, 13083-970 Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of maize aldose reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyota, Eduardo; Sousa, Sylvia Morais de; Santos, Marcelo Leite dos; Costa Lima, Aline da; Menossi, Marcelo; Yunes, José Andrés; Aparicio, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of apo maize aldose reductase at 2.0 Å resolution are reported. Maize aldose reductase (AR) is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. In contrast to human AR, maize AR seems to prefer the conversion of sorbitol into glucose. The apoenzyme was crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.2, b = 54.5, c = 100.6 Å and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction data were collected and a final resolution limit of 2.0 Å was obtained after data reduction. Phasing was carried out by an automated molecular-replacement procedure and structural refinement is currently in progress. The refined structure is expected to shed light on the functional/enzymatic mechanism and the unusual activities of maize AR

  19. Structure of conjugated polyketone reductase from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 reveals conformational changes for substrate recognition upon NADPH binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui-Min; Yamamura, Akihiro; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Nagai, Takahiro; Kitamura, Nahoko; Urano, Nobuyuki; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase C2 (CPR-C2) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708, identified as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent ketopantoyl lactone reductase, belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. This enzyme reduces ketopantoyl lactone to D-pantoyl lactone in a strictly stereospecific manner. To elucidate the structural basis of the substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of the apo CPR-C2 and CPR-C2/NADPH complex at 1.70 and 1.80 Å resolutions, respectively. CPR-C2 adopted a triose-phosphate isomerase barrel fold at the core of the structure. Binding with the cofactor NADPH induced conformational changes in which Thr27 and Lys28 moved 15 and 5.0 Å, respectively, in the close vicinity of the adenosine 2'-phosphate group of NADPH to form hydrogen bonds. Based on the comparison of the CPR-C2/NADPH structure with 3-α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and mutation analyses, we constructed substrate binding models with ketopantoyl lactone, which provided insight into the substrate specificity by the cofactor-induced structure. The results will be useful for the rational design of CPR-C2 mutants targeted for use in the industrial manufacture of ketopantoyl lactone.

  20. Purification of nitrate reductase from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia by affinity chromatography using 5'AMP-sepharose and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureaux, T; Leydecker, M T; Meyer, C

    1989-02-15

    Nitrate reductase was purified from leaves of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia using either 5'AMP-Sepharose chromatography or two steps of immunoaffinity chromatography involving monoclonal antibodies directed against nitrate reductase from maize and against ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from N. plumbaginifolia. Nitrate reductase obtained by the first method was purified 1000-fold to a specific activity of 9 units/mg protein. The second method produced an homogenous enzyme, purified 21,000-fold to a specific activity of 80 units/mg protein. SDS/PAGE of nitrate reductase always resulted in two bands of 107 and 99.5 kDa. The 107-kDa band was the nitrate reductase subunit of N. plumbaginifolia; the smaller one of 99.5 kDa is thought, as commonly reported, to result from proteolysis of the larger protein. The molecular mass of 107 kDa is close to the values calculated from the coding sequences of the two nitrate reductase genes recently cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi).

  1. Constitutive non-inducible expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana Nia 2 gene in two nitrate reductase mutants of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, C; Crawford, N M; Malmberg, R L

    1997-04-01

    We have isolated a haploid cell line of N. plumbaginifolia, hNP 588, that is constitutive and not inducible for nitrate reductase. Nitrate reductase mutants were isolated from hNP 588 protoplasts upon UV irradiation. Two of these nitrate reductase-deficient cell lines, nia 3 and nia 25, neither of which contained any detectable nitrate reductase activity, were selected for complementation studies. A cloned Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductase gene Nia 2 was introduced into each of the two mutants resulting in 56 independent kanamycin-resistant cell lines. Thirty of the 56 kanamycin-resistant cell lines were able to grow on nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Eight of these were further analyzed for nitrate reductase enzyme activity and nitrate reductase mRNA production. All eight lines had detectable nitrate reductase activity ranging from 7% to 150% of wild-type hNP 588 callus. The enzyme activity levels were not influenced by the nitrogen source in the medium. The eight lines examined expressed a constitutive, non-inducible 3.2 kb mRNA species that was not present in untransformed controls.

  2. Overexpression of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase in Arabidopsis enhances leaf growth and elucidates in-vivo function of reductase and thioredoxin domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouni eToivola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant chloroplasts have versatile thioredoxin systems including two thioredoxin reductases and multiple types of thioredoxins. Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase (NTRC contains both reductase (NTRd and thioredoxin (TRXd domains in a single polypeptide and forms homodimers. To study the action of NTRC and NTRC domains in vivo, we have complemented the ntrc knockout line of Arabidopsis with the wild type and full-length NTRC genes, in which 2-Cys motifs either in NTRd, or in TRXd were inactivated. The ntrc line was also transformed either with the truncated NTRd or TRXd alone. Overexpression of wild-type NTRC promoted plant growth by increasing leaf size and biomass yield of the rosettes. Complementation of the ntrc line with the full-length NTRC gene containing an active reductase but an inactive thioredoxin domain, or vice versa, recovered wild-type chloroplast phenotype and, partly, rosette biomass production, indicating that the NTRC domains are capable of interacting with other chloroplast thioredoxin systems. Overexpression of truncated NTRd or TRXd in ntrc background did not restore wild-type phenotype. Modelling of the 3-dimensional structure of the NTRC dimer indicates extensive interactions between the NTR domains and the TRX domains further stabilize the dimeric structure. The long linker region between the NTRd and TRXd, however, allows flexibility for the position of the TRXd in the dimer. Supplementation of the TRXd in the NTRC homodimer model by free chloroplast thioredoxins indicated that TRXf is the most likely partner to interact with NTRC. We propose that overexpression of NTRC promotes plant biomass yield both directly by stimulation of chloroplast biosynthetic and protected pathways controlled by NTRC and indirectly via free chloroplast thioredoxins. Our data indicate that overexpression of chloroplast thiol redox-regulator has a potential to increase biofuel yield in plant and algal species suitable for

  3. Atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reduces seizure-induced respiratory arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Haiting; Feng, Hua-Jun

    2017-08-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a devastating epilepsy complication, and no effective preventive strategies are currently available for this fatal disorder. Clinical and animal studies of SUDEP demonstrate that seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) is the primary event leading to death after generalized seizures in many cases. Enhancing brain levels of serotonin reduces S-IRA in animal models relevant to SUDEP, including the DBA/1 mouse. Given that serotonin in the brain plays an important role in modulating respiration and arousal, these findings suggest that deficits in respiration and/or arousal may contribute to S-IRA. It is well known that norepinephrine is an important neurotransmitter that modulates respiration and arousal in the brain as well. Therefore, we hypothesized that enhancing noradrenergic neurotransmission suppresses S-IRA. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of atomoxetine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI), on S-IRA evoked by either acoustic stimulation or pentylenetetrazole in DBA/1 mice. We report the original observation that atomoxetine specifically suppresses S-IRA without altering the susceptibility to seizures evoked by acoustic stimulation, and atomoxetine also reduces S-IRA evoked by pentylenetetrazole in DBA/1 mice. Our data suggest that the noradrenergic signaling is importantly involved in S-IRA, and that atomoxetine, a medication widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is potentially useful to prevent SUDEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A selective phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor reduces l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Goichi; Maehara, Shunsuke; Chang, Phat Ly; Papa, Stella M

    2018-03-06

    Phosphodiesterase 10A is a member of the phosphodiesterase family whose brain expression is restricted to the striatum. Phosphodiesterase 10A regulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which mediate responses to dopamine receptor activation, and the levels of these cyclic nucleotides are decreased in experimental models of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The elevation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels by phosphodiesterase 10A inhibition may thus be targeted to reduce l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The present study was aimed at determining the potential antidyskinetic effects of phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitors in a primate model of Parkinson's disease (PD). The experiments performed in this model were also intended to provide translational data for the design of future clinical trials. Five MPTP-treated macaques with advanced parkinsonism and reproducible l-dopa-induced dyskinesia were used. MR1916, a selective phosphodiesterase 10A inhibitor, at doses 0.0015 to 0.05 mg/kg, subcutaneously, or its vehicle (control test) was coadministered with l-dopa methyl ester acutely (predetermined optimal and suboptimal subcutaneous doses) and oral l-dopa chronically as daily treatment for 5 weeks. Standardized scales were used to assess motor disability and l-dopa-induced dyskinesia by blinded examiners. Pharmacokinetics was also examined. MR1916 consistently reduced l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in acute tests of l-dopa optimal and suboptimal doses. Significant effects were present with every MR1916 dose tested, but the most effective was 0.015 mg/kg. None of the MR1916 doses tested affected the antiparkinsonian action of l-dopa at the optimal dose. The anti-l-dopa-induced dyskinesia effect of MR1916 (0.015 mg/kg, subcutaneously) was sustained with chronic administration, indicating that tolerance did not develop over the 5-week treatment. No adverse effects were observed after MR1916 administration acutely or

  5. Antitubercular drugs for an old target: GSK693 as a promising InhA direct inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-Hoyos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being one of the first antitubercular agents identified, isoniazid (INH is still the most prescribed drug for prophylaxis and tuberculosis (TB treatment and, together with rifampicin, the pillars of current chemotherapy. A high percentage of isoniazid resistance is linked to mutations in the pro-drug activating enzyme KatG, so the discovery of direct inhibitors (DI of the enoyl-ACP reductase (InhA has been pursued by many groups leading to the identification of different enzyme inhibitors, active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, but with poor physicochemical properties to be considered as preclinical candidates. Here, we present a series of InhA DI active against multidrug (MDR and extensively (XDR drug-resistant clinical isolates as well as in TB murine models when orally dosed that can be a promising foundation for a future treatment.

  6. Capsaicin, a novel inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump, reduces the intracellular invasion of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Nitin Pal; Mahajan, Priya; Mehra, Rukmankesh; Nargotra, Amit; Sharma, Jai Parkash; Koul, Surrinder; Khan, Inshad Ali

    2012-10-01

    To delineate the role of capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) as an inhibitor of the NorA efflux pump and its impact on invasion of macrophages by Staphylococcus aureus. Capsaicin in combination with ciprofloxacin was tested for activity against S. aureus SA-1199B (NorA overproducing), SA-1199 (wild-type) and SA-K1758 (norA knockout). The role of NorA in the intracellular invasion of S. aureus and the ability of capsaicin to inhibit this invasion was established in J774 macrophage cell lines. The three-dimensional structure of NorA was predicted using an in silico approach and docking studies of capsaicin were performed. Capsaicin significantly reduced the MIC of ciprofloxacin for S. aureus SA-1199 and SA-1199B. Furthermore, capsaicin also extended the post-antibiotic effect of ciprofloxacin by 1.1 h at MIC concentration. There was a decrease in mutation prevention concentration of ciprofloxacin when combined with capsaicin. Inhibition of ethidium bromide efflux by NorA-overproducing S. aureus SA-1199B confirmed the role of capsaicin as a NorA efflux pump inhibitor (EPI). The most significant finding of this study was the ability of capsaicin to reduce the intracellular invasion of S. aureus SA-1199B (NorA overproducing) in J774 macrophage cell lines by 2 log(10). This study, for the first time, has shown that capsaicin, a novel EPI, not only inhibits the NorA efflux pump of S. aureus but also reduces the invasiveness of S. aureus, thereby reducing its virulence.

  7. Characterization and regulation of Leishmania major 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalvetti, A; Pena Diaz, Javier; Hurtado, R

    2000-01-01

    In eukaryotes the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase catalyses the synthesis of mevalonic acid, a common precursor to all isoprenoid compounds. Here we report the isolation and overexpression of the gene coding for HMG-CoA reductase from Leishmania major. The protein from L...

  8. Reduced mitochondrial coenzyme Q10 levels in HepG2 cells treated with high-dose simvastatin: A possible role in statin-induced hepatotoxicity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavintharan, S.; Ong, C.N.; Jeyaseelan, K.; Sivakumar, M.; Lim, S.C.; Sum, C.F.

    2007-01-01

    Lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is well achieved by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). Statins inhibit the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a precursor for cholesterol and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ 10 ). In HepG2 cells, simvastatin decreased mitochondrial CoQ 10 levels, and at higher concentrations was associated with a moderately higher degree of cell death, increased DNA oxidative damage and a reduction in ATP synthesis. Supplementation of CoQ 10 , reduced cell death and DNA oxidative stress, and increased ATP synthesis. It is suggested that CoQ 10 deficiency plays an important role in statin-induced hepatopathy, and that CoQ 10 supplementation protects HepG2 cells from this complication

  9. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism in type 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients with type-I diabetes mellitus folate deficiency is associated with endothelial dysfunction. So, polymorphism in genes involved in folate metabolism may have a role in vascular disease. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism ...

  10. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-09-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes.

  11. The roles of H2S and H2O2 in regulating AsA-GSH cycle in the leaves of wheat seedlings under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Changjuan; Zhang, Shengli; Ou, Xingqi

    2018-01-25

    This paper investigated the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and the possible relationship between them in regulating the AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves under drought stress (DS). Results showed that DS markedly increased the production of H 2 S and H 2 O 2 , the transcript levels and activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR); malondialdehyde (MDA) content; and electrolyte leakage (EL). Meanwhile, DS markedly reduced plant height and biomass. Above increases induced by drought stress except MDA content and EL were all suppressed by pretreatments with H 2 S synthesis inhibitor aminooxyaceticacid (AOA) and H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI). Besides, pretreatments with AOA and DPI further significantly increased MDA content and EL and significantly reduced plant height and biomass under DS. DPI reduced the production of H 2 O 2 and H 2 S induced by DS. AOA also reduced the production of H 2 S and H 2 O 2 induced by DS. Pretreatments with NaHS + AOA and H 2 O 2 + DPI reversed above effects of AOA and DPI. Our results suggested that H 2 S and H 2 O 2 all participated in the up-regulation of AsA-GSH cycle in wheat leaves by DS and possibly affected each other.

  12. Characterization of human warfarin reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolová, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Simona Sokolová Supervisor: PharmDr. Petra Malátková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Characterization of human warfarin reductase Warfarin is widely used anticoagulant drug. Considering the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin, it is important to fully understand its metabolism in human body. Oxidative, reductive and conjugation reactions are involved in warfarin metabolism. Howev...

  13. Modeling and Proposed Molecular Mechanism of Hydroxyurea Through Docking and Molecular Dynamic Simulation to Curtail the Action of Ribonucleotide Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, Maryam; Khansefid, Zeynab; Davood, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleotide Reductase (RNR) is an important anticancer chemotherapy target. It has main key role in DNA synthesis and cell growth. Therefore several RNR inhibitors, such as hydroxyurea, have entered the clinical trials. Based on our proposed mechanism, radical site of RNR protein reacts with hydroxyurea in which hydroxyurea is converted into its oxidized form compound III, and whereby the tyrosyl radical is converted into a normal tyrosine residue. In this study, docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used for proposed molecular mechanism of hydroxyurea in RNR inhibition as anticancer agent. The binding affinity of hydroxyurea and compound III to RNR was studied by docking method. The docking study was performed for the crystal structure of human RNR with the radical scavenger Hydroxyurea and its oxidized form to inhibit the human RNR. hydroxyurea and compound III bind at the active site with Tyr-176, which are essential for free radical formation. This helps to understand the functional aspects and also aids in the development of novel inhibitors for the human RNR2. To confirm the binding mode of inhibitors, the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using GROMACS 4.5.5, based upon the docked conformation of inhibitors. Both of the studied compounds stayed in the active site. The results of MD simulations confirmed the binding mode of ligands, accuracy of docking and the reliability of active conformations which were obtained by AutoDock. MD studies confirm our proposed mechanism in which compound III reacts with the active site residues specially Tyr-176, and inhibits the radical generation and subsequently inhibits the RNR enzyme.

  14. Catalase as a sulfide-sulfur oxido-reductase: An ancient (and modern?) regulator of reactive sulfur species (RSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Kenneth R; Gao, Yan; DeLeon, Eric R; Arif, Maaz; Arif, Faihaan; Arora, Nitin; Straub, Karl D

    2017-08-01

    Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O 2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS). Here we examine catalase metabolism of H 2 S n , the sulfur analog of H 2 O 2 , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H 2 S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H 2 S n ; SSP4) and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF). Catalase eliminated H 2 S n , but did not anaerobically generate H 2 S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H 2 S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P 50 of 20mmHg. H 2 O 2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H 2 S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az), H 2 O 2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H 2 S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H 2 O 2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H 2 S from dithiothreitol (DTT) in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H 2 S in the presence of O 2 . H 2 S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H 2 S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears

  15. Bioavailability assessment of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor utilizing pulsatile drug delivery system: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ehab I

    2016-09-01

    Chronotherapy or pulsatile drug delivery system could be achieved by increasing drug plasma concentration exactly at the time of disease incidence. Cholesterol synthesis shows a circadian rhythm being high at late night and early in the morning. Simvastatin (SIM) inhibits hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, which is responsible for cholesterol synthesis. In this study, SIM lipid-based formulation filled in gelatin capsules and coated with aqueous Eudragit® S100 dispersion was prepared for chronotherapeutic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. The pharmacokinetic parameters of SIM capsules were studied in human volunteers after a single oral dose and compared with that of Zocor® tablets as a reference in a randomized cross-over study. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC 0-∞ , C max , T max , t 1/2 and elimination rate constant were determined from plasma concentration-time profile for both formulations. The tested formulation had the ability to delay drug absorption and provide higher drug concentrations from 3 up to 10 h after oral administration compared to that of commercial tablets. The data in this study revealed that the prepared formulation could be effective in chronotherapeutic treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the tested formulation was found to enhance SIM bioavailability by 29% over the reference tablets.

  16. Reducing conditions are the key for efficient production of active ribonuclease inhibitor in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic RNase ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitors (RI are a protein group distinguished by a unique structure - they are composed of hydrophobic leucine-rich repeat motifs (LRR and contain a high amount of reduced cysteine residues. The members of this group are difficult to produce in E. coli and other recombinant hosts due to their high aggregation tendency. Results In this work dithiothreitol (DTT was successfully applied for improving the yield of correctly folded ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor in E. coli K12 periplasmic and cytoplasmic compartments. The feasibility of the in vivo folding concepts for cytoplasmic and periplasmic production were demonstrated at batch and fed-batch cultivation modes in shake flasks and at the bioreactor scale. Firstly, the best secretion conditions of RI in the periplasmic space were evaluated by using a high throughput multifactorial screening approach of a vector library, directly with the Enbase fed-batch production mode in 96-well plates. Secondly, the effect of the redox environment was evaluated in isogenic dsbA+ and dsbA- strains at the various cultivation conditions with reducing agents in the cultivation medium. Despite the fusion to the signal peptide, highest activities were found in the cytoplasmic fraction. Thus by removing the signal peptide the positive effect of the reducing agent DTT was clearly proven also for the cytoplasmic compartment. Finally, optimal periplasmic and cytoplasmic RI fed-batch production processes involving externally added DTT were developed in shake flasks and scaled up to the bioreactor scale. Conclusions DTT highly improved both, periplasmic and cytoplasmic accumulation and activity of RI at low synthesis rate, i.e. in constructs harbouring weak recombinant synthesis rate stipulating genetic elements together with cultivation at low temperature. In a stirred bioreactor environment RI folding was strongly improved by repeated pulse addition

  17. Ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor, kills Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B and T cells and reduces the percentage of EBV-infected cells in the blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Amber; Ali, Mir A; Chavez, Mayra; Dowdell, Kennichi; Lee, Min-Jung; Tomita, Yusuke; El-Hariry, Iman; Trepel, Jane B; Proia, David A; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2017-04-01

    HSP90 inhibitors have been shown to kill Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells by reducing the level of EBV EBNA-1 and/or LMP1. We treated virus-infected cells with ganetespib, an HSP90 inhibitor currently being evaluated in multiple clinical trials for cancer and found that the drug killed EBV-positive B and T cells and reduced the level of both EBV EBNA-1 and LMP1. Treatment of cells with ganetespib also reduced the level of pAkt. Ganetespib delayed the onset of EBV-positive lymphomas and prolonged survival in SCID mice inoculated with one EBV-transformed B-cell line, but not another B-cell line. The former cell line showed lower levels of EBNA-1 after treatment with ganetespib in vitro. Treatment of a patient with T-cell chronic active EBV with ganetespib reduced the percentage of EBV-positive cells in the peripheral blood. These data indicate that HSP90 inhibitors may have a role in the therapy of certain EBV-associated diseases.

  18. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7375 Glutathione...

  19. Effects of direct-to-consumer advertising of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase inhibitors on attainment of LDL-C goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, W David; Kleit, Andrew N; Nietert, Paul J; Ornstein, Steven

    2006-12-01

    Although highly controversial, directto-consumer (DTC) television advertising for prescription drugs is an established practice in the US health care industry. While the US Food and Drug Administration is currently reexamining its regulatory stance, little evidence exists regarding the impact of DTC advertising on patient health outcomes. The objective of this research was to study the relationship between heavy television promotion of 3 major hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins") and the frequency with which patients are able to attain low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) blood-level goals after treatment with any statin. We used logistic regression to determine achievement of LDL-C goals at 6 months after statin treatment, using electronic medical record extract data from patients from geographically dispersed primary care practices in the United States. We identified LDL-C blood levels as being at or less than goal, as defined by risk-adjusted guidelines published by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute from the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) data. A total of 50,741 patients, identified from 88 practices, were diagnosed with hyperlipidemia and had begun therapy with any statin medication during the 1998-2004 time period. In addition, total dollars spent each month on television advertising at the national and local levels for atorvastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin were obtained. DTC advertising data were merged by local media market where the physician practice was located and by the month in which the patient was first prescribed a statin. The models were run for all patients who initiated therapy, and also on a subsample of patients who continued to receive prescriptions for the drugs for at least 6 months. Logistic regressions were used to predict the likelihood that each patient attained the ATP III LDL-C blood-level goals as a function of DTC advertising and other factors. High levels of national DTC

  20. Aldose reductase regulates acrolein-induced cytotoxicity in human small airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh C S; Ramana, K V; Srivastava, Satish K

    2013-12-01

    Aldose reductase (AR), a glucose-metabolizing enzyme, reduces lipid aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates with more than 1000-fold efficiency (Km aldehydes 5-30 µM) relative to glucose. Acrolein, a major endogenous lipid peroxidation product as well as a component of environmental pollutants and cigarette smoke, is known to be involved in various pathologies including atherosclerosis, airway inflammation, COPD, and age-related disorders, but the mechanism of acrolein-induced cytotoxicity is not clearly understood. We have investigated the role of AR in acrolein-induced cytotoxicity in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs). Exposure of SAECs to varying concentrations of acrolein caused cell death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. AR inhibition by fidarestat prevented the low-dose (5-10 µM) but not the high-dose (>10 µM) acrolein-induced SAEC death. AR inhibition protected SAECs from low-dose (5 µM) acrolein-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of acrolein-induced apoptosis by fidarestat was confirmed by decreased condensation of nuclear chromatin, DNA fragmentation, comet tail moment, and annexin V fluorescence. Further, fidarestat inhibited acrolein-induced translocation of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bad from the cytosol to the mitochondria and that of Bcl2 and BclXL from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Acrolein-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria was also prevented by AR inhibition. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, and p38MAPK, and c-Jun were transiently activated in airway epithelial cells by acrolein in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion, which was significantly prevented by AR inhibition. These results suggest that AR inhibitors could prevent acrolein-induced cytotoxicity in the lung epithelial cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Aldose reductase regulates acrolein-induced cytotoxicity in human small airway epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Umesh CS; Ramana, KV; Srivastava, SK

    2013-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR), a glucose metabolizing enzyme, reduces lipid aldehydes and their glutathione conjugates with more than 1000-fold efficiency (Km aldehydes 5-30μM) than glucose. Acrolein, a major endogenous lipid peroxidation product as well as component of environmental pollutant and cigarette smoke, is known to be involved in various pathologies including atherosclerosis, airway inflammation, COPD, and age-related disorders but the mechanism of acrolein-induced cytotoxicity is not clearly understood. We have investigated the role of AR in acrolein-induced cytotoxicity in primary human small airway epithelial cells SAECs. Exposure of SAECs to varying concentrations of acrolein caused cell-death in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. AR inhibition by fidarestat prevented the low (5 to 10 μM) but not high (>10 μM) concentrations of acrolein-induced SAECs cell death. AR inhibition protected SAECs from low dose (5 μM) acrolein-induced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Inhibition of acrolein-induced apoptosis by fidarestat was confirmed by decreased condensation of nuclear chromatin, DNA fragmentation, comet tail-moment, and annexin-V fluorescence. Further, fidarestat inhibited acrolein-induced translocation of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad from cytosol to the mitochondria, and that of Bcl2 and BclXL from mitochondria to cytosol. Acrolein-induced cytochrome c release from mitochondria was also prevented by AR inhibition. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), stress-activated protein kinases/c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (SAPK/JNK) and p38MAPK, and c-jun were transiently activated in airway epithelial cells by acrolein in a concentration and time-dependent fashion, which were significantly prevented by AR inhibition. These results suggest that AR inhibitors could prevent acrolein-induced cytotoxicity in the lung epithelial cells. PMID:23770200

  2. Thioredoxin reductase deficiency potentiates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in dopaminergic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Lopert

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are considered major generators of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS which are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. We have recently shown that isolated mitochondria consume hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂ in a substrate- and respiration-dependent manner predominantly via the thioredoxin/peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx system. The goal of this study was to determine the role of Trx/Prx system in dopaminergic cell death. We asked if pharmacological and lentiviral inhibition of the Trx/Prx system sensitized dopaminergic cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased steady-state H₂O₂ levels and death in response to toxicants implicated in PD. Incubation of N27 dopaminergic cells or primary rat mesencephalic cultures with the Trx reductase (TrxR inhibitor auranofin in the presence of sub-toxic concentrations of parkinsonian toxicants paraquat; PQ or 6-hydroxydopamine; 6OHDA (for N27 cells resulted in a synergistic increase in H₂O₂ levels and subsequent cell death. shRNA targeting the mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (TrxR2 in N27 cells confirmed the effects of pharmacological inhibition. A synergistic decrease in maximal and reserve respiratory capacity was observed in auranofin treated cells and TrxR2 deficient cells following incubation with PQ or 6OHDA. Additionally, TrxR2 deficient cells showed decreased basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. These data demonstrate that inhibition of the mitochondrial Trx/Prx system sensitizes dopaminergic cells to mitochondrial dysfunction, increased steady-state H₂O₂, and cell death. Therefore, in addition to their role in the production of cellular H₂O₂ the mitochondrial Trx/Prx system serve as a major sink for cellular H₂O₂ and its disruption may contribute to dopaminergic pathology associated with PD.

  3. dNTP deficiency induced by HU via inhibiting ribonucleotide reductase affects neural tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Zhen; Wang, Xiuwei; Dong, Yanting; Xu, Lin; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Murine NTDs were successfully induced by means of hydroxyurea (HU). • The impairment of dNTP was induced via inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. • dNTP deficiency induced by HU caused defective DNA synthesis and repair. • Abnormal apoptosis and proliferation induced by HU affected neural tube development. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental toxic chemicals in utero during the neural tube development period can cause developmental disorders. To evaluate the disruption of neural tube development programming, the murine neural tube defects (NTDs) model was induced by interrupting folate metabolism using methotrexate in our previous study. The present study aimed to examine the effects of dNTP deficiency induced by hydroxyurea (HU), a specific ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibitor, during murine neural tube development. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with various doses of HU on gestation day (GD) 7.5, and the embryos were checked on GD 11.5. RNR activity and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) levels were measured in the optimal dose. Additionally, DNA damage was examined by comet analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular behaviors in NTDs embryos were evaluated with phosphorylation of histone H3 (PH-3) and caspase-3 using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results showed that NTDs were observed mostly with HU treatment at an optimal dose of 225 mg/kg b/w. RNR activity was inhibited and dNTP levels were decreased in HU-treated embryos with NTDs. Additionally, increased DNA damage, decreased proliferation, and increased caspase-3 were significant in NTDs embryos compared to the controls. Results indicated that HU induced murine NTDs model by disturbing dNTP metabolism and further led to the abnormal cell balance between proliferation and apoptosis

  4. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  5. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  6. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation......Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial...

  7. The mechano-gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4 reduces the exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Steven W; Kim, Joyce S; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Kaufman, Marc P

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical and metabolic stimuli arising from contracting muscles evoke the exercise pressor reflex. This reflex is greater in a rat model of simulated peripheral arterial disease in which a femoral artery is chronically ligated than it is in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. The role played by the mechanically sensitive component of the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex in ligated rats is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the mechano-gated channel inhibitor GsMTx4, a relatively selective inhibitor of mechano-gated Piezo channels, reduces the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with ligated femoral arteries. Injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the pressor response to Achilles tendon stretch (a purely mechanical stimulus) but had no effect on the pressor responses to intra-arterial injection of α,β-methylene ATP or lactic acid (purely metabolic stimuli). Moreover, injection of 10 μg of GsMTx4 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced both the integrated pressor area (control 535 ± 21, GsMTx4 218 ± 24 mmHg·s; P reflex contributes to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex during intermittent hindlimb muscle contractions in rats with ligated femoral arteries. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Aldose Reductase Inhibitory and Antiglycation Activities of Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldose Reductase Inhibitory and Antiglycation Activities of Four Medicinal Plant Standardized Extracts and Their Main Constituents for the Prevention of ... levels in galactosemic condition by using reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC) was determined.

  9. Xylose reductase from the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Xylose reductase is involved in the first step of the fungal pentose catabolic pathway. The gene .... proteins with reversed coenzyme preference from NADPH to NADH ..... 399–404. Hasper A A, Visser J and de Graaff L H 2000 The Aspergillus.

  10. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Persoon (Lion’s Mane Mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Azizur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM, hexane (HEX, dichloromethane (DCM, ethyl acetate (EA, and aqueous residue (AQ. The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins for the formation of conjugated diene (CD at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91% the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases.

  11. JS-K, a Nitric Oxide Prodrug, Has Enhanced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cells with Knockdown of Thioredoxin Reductase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edes, Kornelia; Cassidy, Pamela; Shami, Paul J.; Moos, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase 1 has a complex role relating to cell growth. It is induced as a component of the cellular response to potentially mutagenic oxidants, but also appears to provide growth advantages to transformed cells by inhibiting apoptosis. In addition, selenocysteine-deficient or alkylated forms of thioredoxin reductase 1 have also demonstrated oxidative, pro-apoptotic activity. Therefore, a greater understanding of the role of thioredoxin reductase in redox initiated apoptotic processes is warranted. Methodology The role of thioredoxin reductase 1 in RKO cells was evaluated by attenuating endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1 expression with siRNA and then either inducing a selenium-deficient thioredoxin reductase or treatment with distinct redox challenges including, hydrogen peroxide, an oxidized lipid, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenol, and a nitric oxide donating prodrug. Thioredoxin redox status, cellular viability, and effector caspase activity were measured. Conclusions/Significance In cells with attenuated endogenous thioredoxin reductase 1, a stably integrated selenocysteine-deficient form of the enzyme was induced but did not alter either the thioredoxin redox status or the cellular growth kinetics. The oxidized lipid and the nitric oxide donor demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity when thioredoxin reductase 1 was knocked-down; however, the effect was more pronounced with the nitric oxide prodrug. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that attenuation of the thioredoxin-system can promote apoptosis in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. PMID:20098717

  12. Cellular growth kinetics distinguish a cyclophilin inhibitor from an HSP90 inhibitor as a selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf K F Beran

    Full Text Available During antiviral drug discovery, it is critical to distinguish molecules that selectively interrupt viral replication from those that reduce virus replication by adversely affecting host cell viability. In this report we investigate the selectivity of inhibitors of the host chaperone proteins cyclophilin A (CypA and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90 which have each been reported to inhibit replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV. By comparing the toxicity of the HSP90 inhibitor, 17-(Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG to two known cytostatic compounds, colchicine and gemcitabine, we provide evidence that 17-AAG exerts its antiviral effects indirectly through slowing cell growth. In contrast, a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA, exhibited selective antiviral activity without slowing cell proliferation. Furthermore, we observed that 17-AAG had little antiviral effect in a non-dividing cell-culture model of HCV replication, while CsA reduced HCV titer by more than two orders of magnitude in the same model. The assays we describe here are useful for discriminating selective antivirals from compounds that indirectly affect virus replication by reducing host cell viability or slowing cell growth.

  13. Statins reduce the expressions of Tim-3 on NK cells and NKT cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Min; Liu, Ru-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Chun-Lin; Yue, Long-Tao; Li, Heng; Li, Yong-Kang; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2018-02-15

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have an immuno-regulatory effect in addition to lowing-lipids. Accumulated evidence showed that the expressions of T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) on natural killer (NK) cells increased in atherosclerotic patients and animal models. In this study, 14 patients treated with rosuvastatin and 12 patients with atorvastatin for more than 3 months were included and 20 patients without statins treatment as control. Both statins treatment reduced the expressions of Tim-3 on NK cells and their subtypes, natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD3 + T cells, and increased the proportions of NKT cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells, accompanied by the decreased levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and increased ratios of high density lipoprotein to cholesterol. These may contribute to the functions of statins in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cloning and sequence of the human adrenodoxin reductase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Dong; Shi, Y.; Miller, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Adrenodoxin reductase is a flavoprotein mediating electron transport to all mitochondrial forms of cytochrome P450. The authors cloned the human adrenodoxin reductase gene and characterized it by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. The entire gene is approximately 12 kilobases long and consists of 12 exons. The first exon encodes the first 26 of the 32 amino acids of the signal peptide, and the second exon encodes the remainder of signal peptide and the apparent FAD binding site. The remaining 10 exons are clustered in a region of only 4.3 kilobases, separated from the first two exons by a large intron of about 5.6 kilobases. Two forms of human adrenodoxin reductase mRNA, differing by the presence or absence of 18 bases in the middle of the sequence, arise from alternate splicing at the 5' end of exon 7. This alternately spliced region is directly adjacent to the NADPH binding site, which is entirely contained in exon 6. The immediate 5' flanking region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes; however, this region is rich in G+C and contains six copies of the sequence GGGCGGG, resembling promoter sequences of housekeeping genes. RNase protection experiments show that transcription is initiated from multiple sites in the 5' flanking region, located about 21-91 base pairs upstream from the AUG translational initiation codon

  15. Structural and biochemical properties of cloned and expressed human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Russell, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme steroid 5α-reductase is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. In man, this steroid acts on a variety of androgen-responsive target tissues to mediate such diverse endocrine processes as male sexual differentiation in the fetus and prostatic growth in men. Here we describe the isolation, structure, and expression of a cDNA encoding the human steroid 5α-reductase. A rat cDNA was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human prostate cDNA library. A 2.1-kilobase cDNA was identified and DNA sequence analysis indicated that the human steroid 5α-reductase was a hydrophobic protein of 259 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 29,462. A comparison of the human and rat protein sequences revealed a 60% identity. Transfection of expression vectors containing the human and rat cDNAs into simian COS cells resulted in the synthesis of high levels of steroid 5α-reductase enzyme activity. Both enzymes expressed in COS cells showed similar substrate specificities for naturally occurring steroid hormones. However, synthetic 4-azasteroids demonstrated marked differences in their abilities to inhibit the human and rat steroid 5α-reductases

  16. Overview of Catalytic Properties of Fungal Xylose Reductases and Molecular Engineering Approaches for Improved Xylose Utilisation in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Amir Hossain

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Xylose reductases belong to the aldo-keto reductase family of enzymes, which catalyse the conversion of xylose to xylitol. Yeast xylose reductases have been intensively studied in the last two decades due to their significance in biotechnological production of ethanol and xylitol from xylose. Due to its GRAS status and pronounced tolerance to harsh conditions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the ideal organism for industrial production of both xylitol and ethanol. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to use xylose as the sole carbon source due to the lack of xylose specific transporters and insufficient activity of metabolic pathways for xylose utilisation. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of attempts in increasing biotechnological potential of xylose reductases and to highlight the prospective of this application. Results and Conclusion: In order to create strains with improved xylose utilization, different approaches were attempted including simultaneous overexpression of xylitol dehydrogenase, xylose reductase and pentose phosphate pathway enzymes, heterologous expression of putative xylose transporters or heterologous expression of genes coding for enzymes included in the xylose metabolism, respectively. Furthermore, number of attempts to genetically modify different xylose reductases is increasing. This review presents current knowledge about yeast xylose reductases and the different approaches applied in order to improve xylose metabolism in yeast.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

  17. Dopamine D2 receptor function is compromised in the brain of the methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Oien, Derek B.; Ortiz, Andrea N.; Rittel, Alexander G.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Johnson, Michael A.; Levant, Beth; Fowler, Stephen C.; Moskovitz, Jackob

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that brain oxidative stress and altered rodent locomotor behavior are linked. We observed bio-behavioral changes in methionine sulfoxide reductase A knockout mice associated with abnormal dopamine signaling. Compromised ability of these knockout mice to reduce methionine sulfoxide enhances accumulation of sulfoxides in proteins. We examined the dopamine D2-receptor function and expression, which has an atypical arrangement and quantity of methionine residues. Indeed...

  18. Hyperglycemia Promotes Schwann Cell De-differentiation and De-myelination via Sorbitol Accumulation and Igf1 Protein Down-regulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wu; Tashiro, Syoichi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Tando, Toshimi; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Amizuka, Norio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression. In vivo DM models exhibited significantly reduced nerve function and conduction, Schwann cell de-differentiation, peripheral nerve de-myelination, and all conditions were significantly rescued by aldose reductase inhibitor or vitamin D3 administration. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying pathological changes in Schwann cells seen in DM and suggest ways to treat neurological conditions associated with this condition. PMID:25998127

  19. YNL134C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity for detoxification of furfural derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xianxian; Tang, Juan; Wang, Xu; Yang, Ruoheng; Zhang, Xiaoping; Gu, Yunfu; Li, Xi; Ma, Menggen

    2015-05-01

    Furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are the two main aldehyde compounds derived from pentoses and hexoses, respectively, during lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. These two compounds inhibit microbial growth and interfere with subsequent alcohol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has the in situ ability to detoxify furfural and HMF to the less toxic 2-furanmethanol (FM) and furan-2,5-dimethanol (FDM), respectively. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized gene, YNL134C, was highly up-regulated under furfural or HMF stress and Yap1p and Msn2/4p transcription factors likely controlled its up-regulated expression. Enzyme activity assays showed that YNL134C is an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which plays a role in detoxification of furfural to FM. However, no NADH- or NADPH-dependent enzyme activity was observed for detoxification of HMF to FDM. This enzyme did not catalyse the reverse reaction of FM to furfural or FDM to HMF. Further studies showed that YNL134C is a broad-substrate aldehyde reductase, which can reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Although YNL134C is grouped into the quinone oxidoreductase family, no quinone reductase activity was observed using 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as a substrate, and phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is genetically distant to quinone reductases. Proteins similar to YNL134C in sequence from S. cerevisiae and other microorganisms were phylogenetically analysed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Plasmid-encoded diacetyl (acetoin) reductase in Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattray, Fergal P; Myling-Petersen, Dorte; Larsen, Dianna

    2003-01-01

    A plasmid-borne diacetyl (acetoin) reductase (butA) from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides CHCC2114 was sequenced and cloned. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 257 amino acids which had high identity at the amino acid level to diacetyl (acetoin...

  1. X-Ray crystal structure of GarR—tartronate semialdehyde reductase from Salmonella typhimurium

    OpenAIRE

    Osipiuk, J.; Zhou, M.; Moy, S.; Collart, F.; Joachimiak, A.

    2009-01-01

    Tartronate semialdehyde reductases (TSRs), also known as 2-hydroxy-3-oxopropionate reductases, catalyze the reduction of tartronate semialdehyde using NAD as cofactor in the final stage of D-glycerate biosynthesis. These enzymes belong to family of structurally and mechanically related β-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases which differ in substrate specificity and catalyze reactions in specific metabolic pathways. Here, we present the crystal structure of GarR a TSR from Salmonella typhimurium determi...

  2. Detoxification of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. uses a reductase with specificity for dihydrolipoamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Abhipsa; Krishnan, Chandraraj

    2016-02-01

    Leucobacter sp. belongs to the metal stressed community and possesses higher tolerance to metals including chromium and can detoxify toxic hexavalent chromium by reduction to less toxic trivalent chromium. But, the mechanism of reduction of hexavalent chromium by Leucobacter sp. has not been studied. Understanding the enzyme catalyzing reduction of chromium is important to improve the species for application in bioremediation. Hence, a soluble reductase catalyzing the reduction of hexavalent chromium was purified from a Leucobacter sp. and characterized. The pure chromate reductase was obtained from the cell-free extract through hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration column chromatographic methods. It was a monomeric enzyme and showed similar molecular weights in both gel filtration (∼68 KDa) and SDS-PAGE (64 KDa). It reduced Cr(VI) using both NADH and NADPH as the electron donor, but exhibited higher activity with NADH. The optimal activity was found at pH 5.5 and 30 °C. The K(m) and V(max) for Cr(VI) reduction with NADH were 46.57 μM and 0.37 μmol min(-1) (mg protein) (-1), respectively. The activity was inhibited by p-hydroxy mercury benzoate, Ag(2+) and Hg(2+) indicating the role of thiol groups in the catalysis. The spectrophotometric analysis of the purified enzyme showed the absence of bound flavin in the enzyme. The N-terminal amino acid sequence and LC/MS analysis of trypsin digested purified enzyme showed similarity to dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. The purified enzyme had dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity with dihydrolipoamide as the substrate, which suggested that Leucobacter sp. uses reductase with multiple substrate specificity for reduction of Cr(VI) detoxification. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. In vitro effects of myricetin, morin, apigenin, (+)-taxifolin, (+)-catechin, (−)-epicatechin, naringenin and naringin on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Haydar; Koşar, Müberra; Arinç, Emel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed inhibitory effects of 8 dietary flavonoids on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. • The flavonol myricetin was the most potent in inhibiting cytochrome b5 reduction with an IC 50 value of 0.35 μM. • We investigated kinetics of myricetin-induced inhibition in detail. • We explored the structure–inhibitory activity relationship of compounds. • Modulation of cytochrome b5 reduction indicates a potential for myricetin to lead to some food–drug/xenobiotic interactions. - Abstract: The microsomal NADH-dependent electron transport system consisting of cytochrome b5 reductase and cytochrome b5 participates in a number of physiologically important processes including lipid metabolism as well as is involved in the metabolism of various drug and xenobiotics. In the present study, we assessed the inhibitory effects of eight dietary flavonoids representing five distinct chemical classes on cytochrome b5 reduction by purified cytochrome b5 reductase. From the flavonoids tested, myricetin was the most potent in inhibiting cytochrome b5 reduction with an IC 50 value of 0.35 μM. Myricetin inhibited b5 reductase noncompetitively with a K i of 0.21 μM with respect to cofactor NADH, and exhibited a non-linear relationship indicating non-Michaelis–Menten kinetic binding with respect to cytochrome b5. In contrast to the potent inhibitory activity of myricetin, (+)-taxifolin was found to be a weak inhibitor (IC 50 = 9.8 μM). The remaining flavonoids were inactive within the concentration range tested (1–50 μM). Analysis of structure–activity data suggested that simultaneous presence of three OH groups in ring B is a primary structural determinant for a potent enzyme inhibition. Our results suggest that inhibition of the activity of this system by myricetin or myricetin containing diets may influence the metabolism of therapeutic drugs as well as detoxification of xenobiotics

  4. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to

  5. Expression of human aldo-keto reductase 1C2 in cell lines of peritoneal endometriosis: potential implications in metabolism of progesterone and dydrogesterone and inhibition by progestins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranič, Nataša; Brožič, Petra; Brus, Boris; Sosič, Izidor; Gobec, Stanislav; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea

    2012-05-01

    The human aldo-keto reductase AKR1C2 converts 5α-dihydrotestosterone to the less active 3α-androstanediol and has a minor 20-ketosteroid reductase activity that metabolises progesterone to 20α-hydroxyprogesterone. AKR1C2 is expressed in different peripheral tissues, but its role in uterine diseases like endometriosis has not been studied in detail. Some progestins used for treatment of endometriosis inhibit AKR1C1 and AKR1C3, with unknown effects on AKR1C2. In this study we investigated expression of AKR1C2 in the model cell lines of peritoneal endometriosis, and examined the ability of recombinant AKR1C2 to metabolise progesterone and progestin dydrogesterone, as well as its potential inhibition by progestins. AKR1C2 is expressed in epithelial and stromal endometriotic cell lines at the mRNA level. The recombinant enzyme catalyses reduction of progesterone to 20α-hydroxyprogesterone with a 10-fold lower catalytic efficiency than the major 20-ketosteroid reductase, AKR1C1. AKR1C2 also metabolises progestin dydrogesterone to its 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone, with 8.6-fold higher catalytic efficiency than 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Among the progestins that are currently used for treatment of endometriosis, dydrogesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate and 20α-dihydrodydrogesterone act as AKR1C2 inhibitors with low μM K(i) values in vitro. Their potential in vivo effects should be further studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-01-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R cryst of 19.0% and an R free of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation

  7. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G. [Carlsberg Laboratory (Denmark); Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems BioIogy, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte [Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems BioIogy, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Henriksen, Anette, E-mail: anette@crc.dk [Carlsberg Laboratory (Denmark)

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  8. Supplementation with a new trypsin inhibitor from peanut is associated with reduced fasting glucose, weight control, and increased plasma CCK secretion in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquiz, Alexandre C; Machado, Richele J A; Serquiz, Raphael P; Lima, Vanessa C O; de Carvalho, Fabiana Maria C; Carneiro, Marcella A A; Maciel, Bruna L L; Uchôa, Adriana F; Santos, Elizeu A; Morais, Ana H A

    2016-12-01

    Ingestion of peanuts may have a beneficial effect on weight control, possibly due to the satietogenic action of trypsin inhibitors. The aim of this study was to isolate a new trypsin inhibitor in a typical Brazilian peanut sweet (paçoca) and evaluate its effect in biochemical parameters, weight gain and food intake in male Wistar rats. The trypsin inhibitor in peanut paçoca (AHTI) was isolated. Experimental diets were prepared with AIN-93G supplemented with AHTI. Animals had their weight and food intake monitored. Animals were anesthetized, euthanized, and their bloods collected by cardiac puncture for dosage of cholecystokinin (CCK) and other biochemical parameters. Supplementation with AHTI significantly decreased fasting glucose, body weight gain, and food intake. These effects may be attributed to increased satiety, once supplemented animals showed no evidence of impaired nutritional status and also because AHTI increased CCK production. Thus, our results indicate that AHTI, besides reducing fasting glucose, can reduce weight gain via food intake reduction.

  9. A fluorimetric readout reporting the kinetics of nucleotide-induced human ribonucleotide reductase oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Lin, Hongyu; Wisitpitthaya, Somsinee; Blessing, William A; Aye, Yimon

    2014-11-24

    Human ribonucleotide reductase (hRNR) is a target of nucleotide chemotherapeutics in clinical use. The nucleotide-induced oligomeric regulation of hRNR subunit α is increasingly being recognized as an innate and drug-relevant mechanism for enzyme activity modulation. In the presence of negative feedback inhibitor dATP and leukemia drug clofarabine nucleotides, hRNR-α assembles into catalytically inert hexameric complexes, whereas nucleotide effectors that govern substrate specificity typically trigger α-dimerization. Currently, both knowledge of and tools to interrogate the oligomeric assembly pathway of RNR in any species in real time are lacking. We therefore developed a fluorimetric assay that reliably reports on oligomeric state changes of α with high sensitivity. The oligomerization-directed fluorescence quenching of hRNR-α, covalently labeled with two fluorophores, allows for direct readout of hRNR dimeric and hexameric states. We applied the newly developed platform to reveal the timescales of α self-assembly, driven by the feedback regulator dATP. This information is currently unavailable, despite the pharmaceutical relevance of hRNR oligomeric regulation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Isolation and primary structural analysis of two conjugated polyketone reductases from Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A R; Akond, M A; Kita, K; Kataoka, M; Shimizu, S

    2001-12-01

    Two conjugated polyketone reductases (CPRs) were isolated from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The primary structures of CPRs (C1 and C2) were analyzed by amino acid sequencing. The amino acid sequences of both enzymes had high similarity to those of several proteins of the aldo-keto-reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, several amino acid residues in the putative active sites of AKRs were not conserved in CPRs-C1 and -C2.

  11. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, Duncan M.; Lyon, Robert; Watson, David G.; Barski, Oleg A.; McGarvie, Gail; Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2006-01-01

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V max of 2141 ± 500 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 11 ± 4 μM. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K I of 3.1 ± 0.57 μM. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V max of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 15 ± 2 μM and was not inhibited by pyrazole

  12. [Combination drug therapy in patients with BPH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenko, A V; Kuzmenko, V V; Gyaurgiev, T A

    2018-03-01

    Introuction. One of the risk factors for LUTS is an infravesical obstruction, which is most often caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). BPH symptoms are formed due to three components: static (mechanical), dynamic, and impaired functional capacity of the bladder. Medical treatment with 1-blockers decreases the outflow obstruction. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are used to inhibit the static component of BPH. To investigate the effectiveness of various modifications of medical therapy of BPH using -blockers and 5-reductase inhibitors and combinations thereof. The study comprised 90 BPH patients who were divided into three groups, with each group containing 30 people. Patients of group I, II and III received monotherapy with -blockers, a combination of 5-reductase and -blockers, and fixed-dose combination drug Duodart, respectively. Evaluation of the treatment effectiveness included filling out voiding diaries, completing the I-PSS and QL questionnaires, uroflowmetry, transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate and estimation of the incidence of adverse effects. Also, compliance with the treatment was evaluated, and the number of patients who had episodes of acute urinary retention and required surgical treatment during the 12 month treatment course was registered. Compared to monotherapy, combination therapy with -blockers and 5-reductase inhibitors more effectively reduces the LUTS, increases Qmax and prevents the disease progression, which manifests in a lower incidence of AUR and fewer surgical interventions in groups II and III. However, the combination therapy can be associated with some side effects. Patients who received fixed-dose combination drug Duodart had a greater compliance rate than patients on the combination of drugs, which, in our opinion, is associated with fewer cases of AUR and surgical interventions. The use of Duodart in patients with BPH effectively alleviates LUTS and reduces the risk of the disease progression, which manifests itself

  13. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Bacterial Mercuric Reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to characterize the bacterial mercuric reductase (merA) gene, mercury resistant (Hgr) Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from various mercury contaminated sites of India. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Hg and zone of inhibition for different antibiotics were measured, and finally mer operon ...

  14. Molecular Cloning and Expression of Bacterial Mercuric Reductase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... In order to characterize the bacterial mercuric reductase (merA) gene, mercury resistant (Hgr). Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from various mercury contaminated sites of India. Their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Hg and zone of inhibition for different antibiotics were measured, and ...

  15. Intraethnic variation in steroid-5-alpha-reductase polymorphisms in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... in prostate cancer patients: a potential factor implicated ... reductase alpha polypeptides 1 and 2 in a set of 601 prostate cancer patients from four ..... tion in the key androgen-regulating genes androgen receptor, cytochrome ...

  16. Mutagenesis of the redox-active disulfide in mercuric ion reductase: Catalysis by mutant enzymes restricted to flavin redox chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distefano, M.D.; Au, K.G.; Walsh, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Mercuric reductase, a flavoenzyme that possesses a redox-active cystine, Cys 135 Cys 140 , catalyzes the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0) by NADPH. As a probe of mechanism, the authors have constructed mutants lacking a redox-active disulfide by eliminating Cys 135 (Ala 135 Cys 140 ), Cys 14 (Cys 135 Ala 140 ), or both (Ala 135 Ala 140 ). Additionally, they have made double mutants that lack Cys 135 (Ala 135 Cys 139 Cys 140 ) or Cys 140 (Cys 135 Cys 139 Ala 140 ) but introduce a new Cys in place of Gly 139 with the aim of constructing dithiol pairs in the active site that do not form a redox-active disulfide. The resulting mutant enzymes all lack redox-active disulfides and are hence restricted to FAD/FADH 2 redox chemistry. Each mutant enzyme possesses unique physical and spectroscopic properties that reflect subtle differences in the FAD microenvironment. Preliminary evidence for the Ala 135 Cys 139 Cys 14 mutant enzyme suggests that this protein forms a disulfide between the two adjacent Cys residues. Hg(II) titration experiments that correlate the extent of charge-transfer quenching with Hg(II) binding indicate that the Ala 135 Cys 140 protein binds Hg(II) with substantially less avidity than does the wild-type enzyme. All mutant mercuric reductases catalyze transhydrogenation and oxygen reduction reactions through obligatory reduced flavin intermediates at rates comparable to or greater than that of the wild-type enzyme. In multiple-turnover assays which monitored the production of Hg(0), two of the mutant enzymes were observed to proceed through at least 30 turnovers at rates ca. 1000-fold slower than that of wild-type mercuric reductase. They conclude that the Cys 135 and Cys 140 thiols serve as Hg(II) ligands that orient the Hg(II) for subsequent reduction by a reduced flavin intermediate

  17. SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Diabetic Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretto, Paola; Zambon, Alberto; Rossato, Marco; Busetto, Luca; Vettor, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Blood glucose and blood pressure control reduce the risk of developing this complication; however, once DN is established, it is only possible to slow progression. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the most recent glucose-lowering oral agents, may have the potential to exert nephroprotection not only through improving glycemic control but also through glucose-independent effects, such as blood pressure-lowering and direct renal effects. It is important to consider, however, that in patients with impaired renal function, given their mode of action, SGLT2 inhibitors are less effective in lowering blood glucose. In patients with high cardiovascular risk, the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin lowered the rate of cardiovascular events, especially cardiovascular death, and substantially reduced important renal outcomes. Such benefits on DN could derive from effects beyond glycemia. Glomerular hyperfiltration is a potential risk factor for DN. In addition to the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal tubular factors, including SGLT2, contribute to glomerular hyperfiltration in diabetes. SGLT2 inhibitors reduce sodium reabsorption in the proximal tubule, causing, through tubuloglomerular feedback, afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and reduction in hyperfiltration. Experimental studies showed that SGLT2 inhibitors reduced hyperfiltration and decreased inflammatory and fibrotic responses of proximal tubular cells. SGLT2 inhibitors reduced glomerular hyperfiltration in patients with type 1 diabetes, and in patients with type 2 diabetes, they caused transient acute reductions in glomerular filtration rate, followed by a progressive recovery and stabilization of renal function. Interestingly, recent studies consistently demonstrated a reduction in albuminuria. Although these data are promising, only dedicated renal outcome trials will clarify whether

  18. The aldo-keto reductase AKR1B7 coexpresses with renin without influencing renin production and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machura, Katharina; Iankilevitch, Elina; Neubauer, Björn; Theuring, Franz; Kurtz, Armin

    2013-03-01

    On the basis of evidence that within the adult kidney, the aldo-keto reductase AKR1B7 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member 7, also known as mouse vas deferens protein, MVDP) is selectively expressed in renin-producing cells, we aimed to define a possible role of AKR1B7 for the regulation and function of renin cells in the kidney. We could confirm colocalization and corecruitment of renin and of AKR1B7 in wild-type kidneys. Renin cells in AKR1B7-deficient kidneys showed normal morphology, numbers, and intrarenal distribution. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) and renin mRNA levels of AKR1B7-deficient mice were normal at standard chow and were lowered by a high-salt diet directly comparable to wild-type mice. Treatment with a low-salt diet in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor strongly increased PRC and renin mRNA in a similar fashion both in AKR1B7-deficient and wild-type mice. Under this condition, we also observed a strong retrograde recruitment of renin-expressing cell along the preglomerular vessels, however, without a difference between AKR1B7-deficient and wild-type mice. The isolated perfused mouse kidney model was used to study the acute regulation of renin secretion by ANG II and by perfusion pressure. Regarding these parameters, no differences were observed between AKR1B7-deficient and wild-type kidneys. In summary, our data suggest that AKR1B7 is not of major relevance for the regulation of renin production and secretion in spite of its striking coregulation with renin expression.

  19. Lignin Sulfonation and SO2 Addition Enhance the Hydrolyzability of Deacetylated and Then Steam-Pretreated Poplar with Reduced Inhibitor Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Dou, Xiaoli; Hu, Jinguang; Jiang, Jianxin; Saddler, Jack N

    2018-01-01

    The merit of deacetylation of corn stover prior to pretreatment is decreasing the formation of inhibitors and improving enzyme hydrolysis, proved in dilute acid pretreatment. However, few studies are done on how deacetylation would affect bioconversion process containing steam explosion. In this study, the effect of deacetylation on steam explosion was conducted using poplar as substrate. About 57 to 90% of acetyl group in poplar, depending on alkaline types and concentration, was removed by dilute alkaline deacetylation in 6 h. Deacetylation eliminated over 85% of inhibitor formation during downstream steam explosion. However, deacetylation prior to steam explosion decreased the dissolution of hemicellulose, thus reducing the cellulose accessibility of pretreated poplar, finally resulting in 5-20% decrease in glucose yield and 20-35% decrease in xylose yield. The addition of 5% SO 2 during steam explosion significantly improved the hydrolysis of deacetylated and pretreated poplar without significantly increasing the concentration of inhibitors. Incorporating 45 mmol/kg sulfoacid group in lignin fraction of deacetylated and then pretreated poplar dramatically improved the xylose yield to about 100% and increased the glucose yield by 30%.

  20. Chemical modification of human muscle aldose reductase by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morjana, N.A.; Lyons, C.; Flynn, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a monomeric oxidoreductase (Mr, 37,000). This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of a wide variety of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. The ability to reduce D-glucose and utilize NADH distinguishes ALR2 from aldehyde reductase (ALR1) which is exclusively NADPH-dependent. As part of a study to determine active site residues critical for binding and catalysis they have investigated the behavior of ALR2 with pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). In contrast to ALR1, which is inactivated by PLP, the reaction of ALR2 with PLP results in a 2-3 fold activation with the incorporation of 1 mol of PLP/mol enzyme. However, despite a 3-fold increase in k/sub cat/, there is also a 13-14 fold increase in the Km for both coenzyme and substrate and catalytic efficiency (k/sub cat//Km) is actually decreased. Reaction of ALR2 with 3 [H] PLP followed by digestion with endoproteinase Lys-C enabled the separation and purification by HPLC of a peptide containing a single pyridoxyllysine residue. The sequence of this 32 residue peptide is highly homologous with a peptide similarly obtained from pig and human ALR1 and is identical with one from pig ALR2. In all four enzymes, pig ALR1, ALR2; human ALR1, ALR2, a tetrapeptide containing the pyridoxylated lysine (I-P-K-S) shows absolute identity. Thus, despite differences in substrate and coenzyme specificity, the active site in both ALR1 and ALR2 is relatively conserved

  1. para-Aminosalicylic acid is a prodrug targeting dihydrofolate reductase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Rubin, Eric J; Bifani, Pablo; Mathys, Vanessa; Lim, Vivian; Au, Melvin; Jang, Jichan; Nam, Jiyoun; Dick, Thomas; Walker, John R; Pethe, Kevin; Camacho, Luis R

    2013-08-09

    para-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is one of the antimycobacterial drugs currently used for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Although it has been in clinical use for over 60 years, its mechanism(s) of action remains elusive. Here we report that PAS is a prodrug targeting dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) through an unusual and novel mechanism of action. We provide evidences that PAS is incorporated into the folate pathway by dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate synthase (DHFS) to generate a hydroxyl dihydrofolate antimetabolite, which in turn inhibits DHFR enzymatic activity. Interestingly, PAS is recognized by DHPS as efficiently as its natural substrate para-amino benzoic acid. Chemical inhibition of DHPS or mutation in DHFS prevents the formation of the antimetabolite, thereby conferring resistance to PAS. In addition, we identified a bifunctional enzyme (riboflavin biosynthesis protein (RibD)), a putative functional analog of DHFR in a knock-out strain. This finding is further supported by the identification of PAS-resistant clinical isolates encoding a RibD overexpression mutation displaying cross-resistance to genuine DHFR inhibitors. Our findings reveal that a metabolite of PAS inhibits DHFR in the folate pathway. RibD was shown to act as a functional analog of DHFR, and as for DHFS, both were shown to be associated in PAS resistance in laboratory strains and clinical isolates.

  2. The Nox/Ferric reductase/Ferric reductase-like families of Eumycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissa, Ibtissem; Bidard, Frédérique; Grognet, Pierre; Grossetete, Sandrine; Silar, Philippe

    2010-09-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are involved in plant biomass degradation by fungi and development of fungal structures. While the ROS-generating NADPH oxidases from filamentous fungi are under strong scrutiny, much less is known about the related integral Membrane (or Ferric) Reductases (IMRs). Here, we present a survey of these enzymes in 29 fungal genomes covering the entire available range of fungal diversity. IMRs are present in all fungal genomes. They can be classified into at least 24 families, underscoring the high diversity of these enzymes. Some are differentially regulated during colony or fruiting body development, as well as by the nature of the carbon source of the growth medium. Importantly, functional characterization of IMRs has been made on proteins belonging to only two families, while nothing or very little is known about the proteins of the other 22 families. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nitrate reductase and photosynthetic activities of wheat and their relationship with plant productivity under soil water deficit conditions (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.Y.; Sarwar, G.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in lysimeters with wheat during two consecutive years. The first year experiment comprised of eight wheat genotypes with four water stress treatments, i.e. normal irrigation, pre-anthesis drought, post-anthesis drought and terminal drought, with four replications. The results showed that yield and yield parameters reduced with the severity of drought in all wheat lines. However, wheat lines Chakwal-86, DS-4 and Barani-83 had comparatively higher yield and yield components than others. The maximum reduction in all parameters was under terminal drought. The difference between pre- and post-anthesis drought was nonsignificant, particularly for grain yield. The second experiment was conducted with four wheat lines: two were tolerant (Chakwal-86 and DS-4) and two susceptible (Pavon and DS-17) under similar environments with same treatments to study the photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen metabolism and their relationship with plant productivity (yield). The results showed that leaf area, transpiration, dry matter accumulation and nitrate reductase activity were reduced while diffusive resistance and total amino acids increased in all the wheat lines under water deficit conditions. The relationship between yield and leaf area, transpiration, dry matter accumulation and nitrate reductase activity was positive. The overall results showed that wheat lines Chakwal-86 and DS-4 showed better performance than others. (author)

  4. Molecular effects of bioactive fraction of Curcuma mangga (DLBS4847 as a downregulator of 5α-reductase activity pathways in prostatic epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsono AH

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Agung Heru Karsono, Olivia Mayasari Tandrasasmita, Raymond R TjandrawinataSection of Molecular Pharmacology, Research Innovation and Invention, Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, IndonesiaAbstract: DLBS4847 is a standardized bioactive fraction of Curcuma mangga. In this study, we used prostate cancer (PC-3 as the cell line to study the effects of DLBS4847 on prostatic cell viability, as well as related molecular changes associated with the decreased cell number. The observation revealed that DLBS4847 inhibited the growth of PC3 cells through downregulation of the 5α-reductase (5AR pathway. At the transcription level, 5AR1 and androgen-receptor gene expressions were downregulated in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5AR-1 and dihydrotestosterone expression were also downregulated at the protein level. A microarray study was also performed to see the effects of DLBS4847 on differential gene expressions in prostate cancer 3 cells. Among others, DLBS4847 downregulated genes related to prostate growth and hypertrophy. Our results suggested that DLBS4847 could potentially become an alternative treatment for prostate disorders, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this regard, DLBS4847 exerts its growth inhibition partially through downregulation of the 5AR pathway.Keywords: DLBS4847, Curcuma mangga, 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, prostate cancer

  5. NMR studies of differences in the conformations and dynamics of ligand complexes formed with mutant dihydrofolate reductases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, B.; Andrews, J.; Ostler, G.; Tendler, S.J.B.; Feeney, J.; Roberts, G.C.K.; Davies, R.W.; Cheung, H.T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Two mutants of Lactobacillus casei dihydrofolate reductase, Trp 21 → Leu and Asp 26 → Glu, have been prepared by using site-directed mutagenesis methods, and their ligand binding and structural properties have been compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P NMR studies have been carried out to characterize the structural changes in the complexes of the mutant and wild-type enzymes. Replacement of the conserved Trp 21 by a Leu residue causes a decrease in activity of the enzyme and reduces the NADPH binding constant by a factor of 400. The binding of substrates and substrate analogues is only slightly affected. 1 H NMR studies of the Trp 21 → Leu enzyme complexes have confirmed the original resonance assignments for Trp 21. In complexes formed with methotrexate and the mutant enzyme, the results indicate some small changes in conformation occurring as much as 14 angstrom away from the site of substitution. For the enzyme-NADPH complexes, the chemical shifts of nuclei in the bound coenzyme indicate that the nicotinamide ring binds differently in complexes with the mutant and the wild-type enzyme. There are complexes where the wild-type enzyme has been shown to exist in solution as a mixture of conformations, and studies on the corresponding complexes with the Trp 21 → Leu mutant indicate that the delicately poised equilibria can be perturbed. Some conformational adjustments are required to allow the carboxylate of Glu 26 to bind effectively to the N1 proton of inhibitors such as methotrexate and trimethoprim

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of ferredoxin reductase from Leptospira interrogans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Ferrarezi, Thiago; Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.; Polikarpov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Crystals adequate for X-ray diffraction analysis have been prepared from L. interrogans ferredoxin-NADP + reductase. Ferredoxin-NADP + reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxin. Here, results are reported of the recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of FNR from Leptospira interrogans, a parasitic bacterium of animals and humans. The L. interrogans FNR crystals belong to a primitive monoclinic space group and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution at a synchrotron source

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of ferredoxin reductase from Leptospira interrogans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Alessandro S.; Ferrarezi, Thiago [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 (Brazil); Catalano-Dupuy, Daniela L.; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A. [Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas, Molecular Biology Division, Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (IBR), CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Suipacha 531, S2002LRK Rosario (Argentina); Polikarpov, Igor, E-mail: ipolikarpov@if.sc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP, 13560-970 (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Crystals adequate for X-ray diffraction analysis have been prepared from L. interrogans ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase. Ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (FNR) is an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes electron transfer between NADP(H) and ferredoxin. Here, results are reported of the recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of FNR from Leptospira interrogans, a parasitic bacterium of animals and humans. The L. interrogans FNR crystals belong to a primitive monoclinic space group and diffract to 2.4 Å resolution at a synchrotron source.

  8. Verapamil and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J F; Tingsted, L; Rasmussen, Verner

    1996-01-01

    Verapamil is effective as antianginal medication but contraindicated in patients with congestive heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors improve survival in patients with congestive heart failure but have limited effect on patients with angina pectoris. No studies have been.......4 to 2.5 +/- 0.6 (p attacks were both significantly reduced after 3 months of treatment. These findings support the hypothesis that the combination of verapamil and trandolapril is useful in patients with attenuated left ventricular function...

  9. Identification of a 4-Deoxy-l-erythro-5-hexoseulose Uronic Acid Reductase, FlRed, in an Alginolytic Bacterium Flavobacterium sp. Strain UMI-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In alginate-assimilating bacteria, alginate is depolymerized to unsaturated monosaccharide by the actions of endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases (EC 4.2.2.3 and EC 4.2.2.11. The monosaccharide is non-enzymatically converted to 4-deoxy-l-ery thro-5-hexoseulose uronic acid (DEH, then reduced to 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate (KDG by a specific reductase, and metabolized through the Entner–Doudoroff pathway. Recently, the NADPH-dependent reductase A1-R that belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR superfamily was identified as the DEH-reductase in Sphingomonas sp. A1. We have subsequently noticed that an SDR-like enzyme gene, flred, occurred in the genome of an alginolytic bacterium Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01. In the present study, we report on the deduced amino-acid sequence of flred and DEH-reducing activity of recombinant FlRed. The deduced amino-acid sequence of flred comprised 254 residues and showed 34% amino-acid identities to that of A1-R from Sphingomonas sp. A1 and 80%–88% to those of SDR-like enzymes from several alginolytic bacteria. Common sequence motifs of SDR-superfamily enzymes, e.g., the catalytic tetrad Asn-Lys-Tyr-Ser and the cofactor-binding sequence Thr-Gly-x-x-x-Gly-x-Gly in Rossmann fold, were completely conserved in FlRed. On the other hand, an Arg residue that determined the NADPH-specificity of Sphingomonas A1-R was replaced by Glu in FlRed. Thus, we investigated cofactor-preference of FlRed using a recombinant enzyme. As a result, the recombinant FlRed (recFlRed was found to show high specificity to NADH. recFlRed exhibited practically no activity toward variety of aldehyde, ketone, keto ester, keto acid and aldose substrates except for DEH. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlRed is the NADH-dependent DEH-specific SDR of Flavobacterium sp. strain UMI-01.

  10. Inactivation of proteinaceous protease inhibitors of soybeans by isolated fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, M.M.T.; Spekking, W.T.J.; Sijtsma, L.; Bont, de J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Proteinaceous protease inhibitors, Kunitz Soybean Trypsin Inhibitor (KSTI) and Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI), in legume seeds reduce the digestibility of proteins in feed of monogastric animals. Enzymatic inactivation of these inhibitors will increase the nutritional value of the feed. The aim of this

  11. The Drosophila carbonyl reductase sniffer is an efficient 4-oxonon-2-enal (4ONE) reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hans-Jörg; Ziemba, Marta; Kisiela, Michael; Botella, José A; Schneuwly, Stephan; Maser, Edmund

    2011-05-30

    Studies with the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that the enzyme sniffer prevented oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. Mutant flies overexpressing sniffer had significantly extended life spans in a 99.5% oxygen atmosphere compared to wild-type flies. However, the molecular mechanism of this protection remained unclear. Sequence analysis and database searches identified sniffer as a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily with a 27.4% identity to the human enzyme carbonyl reductase type I (CBR1). As CBR1 catalyzes the reduction of the lipid peroxidation products 4HNE and 4ONE, we tested whether sniffer is able to metabolize these lipid derived aldehydes by carbonyl reduction. To produce recombinant enzyme, the coding sequence of sniffer was amplified from a cDNA-library, cloned into a bacterial expression vector and the His-tagged protein was purified by Ni-chelate chromatography. We found that sniffer catalyzed the NADPH-dependent carbonyl reduction of 4ONE (K(m)=24±2 μM, k(cat)=500±10 min(-1), k(cat)/K(m)=350 s(-1) mM(-1)) but not that of 4HNE. The reaction product of 4ONE reduction by sniffer was mainly 4HNE as shown by HPLC- and GC/MS analysis. Since 4HNE, though still a potent electrophile, is less neurotoxic and protein reactive than 4ONE, one mechanism by which sniffer exerts its neuroprotective effects in Drosophila after oxidative stress may be enzymatic reduction of 4ONE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The reduction of nitrate, nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia by enzymes from Cucurbita pepo L. in the presence of reduced benzyl viologen as electron donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, C. F.; Hageman, R. H.; Hewitt, E. J.; Hucklesby, D. P.

    1965-01-01

    1. Enzyme systems from Cucurbita pepo have been shown to catalyse the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia in yields about 90–100%. 2. Reduced benzyl viologen serves as an efficient electron donor for both systems. Activity of the nitrite-reductase system is directly related to degree of dye reduction when expressed in terms of the function for oxidation–reduction potentials, but appears to decrease to negligible activity below about 9% dye reduction. 3. NADH and NADPH alone produce negligible nitrite loss, but NADPH can be linked to an endogenous diaphorase system to reduce nitrite to ammonia in the presence of catalytic amounts of benzyl viologen. 4. The NADH– or NADPH–nitrate-reductase system that is also present can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen, but shows relationships opposite to that for the nitrite-reductase system with regard to effect of degree of dye reduction on activity. The product of nitrate reduction may be nitrite alone, or nitrite and ammonia, or ammonia alone, according only to the degree of dye reduction. 5. The relative activities of nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems show different relationships with degree of dye reduction and may become reversed in magnitude when effects of degree of dye reduction are tested over a suitable range. 6. Nitrite severely inhibits the rate of reduction of hydroxylamine without affecting the yield of ammonia as a percentage of total substrate loss, but hydroxylamine has a negligible effect on the activity of the nitrite-reductase system. 7. The apparent Km for nitrite (1 μm) is substantially less than that for hydroxylamine, for which variable values between 0·05 and 0·9mm (mean 0·51 mm) have been observed. 8. The apparent Km values for reduced benzyl viologen differ for the nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase systems: 60 and 7·5 μm respectively. 9. It is concluded that free hydroxylamine may not be an intermediate in the reduction of nitrite

  13. Crystallization of purple nitrous oxide reductase from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomowski, Anja; Zumft, Walter G.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Einsle, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The physiologically active form of nitrous oxide reductase was isolated and crystallized under strict exclusion of dioxygen and diffraction data were collected from crystals belonging to two different space groups. Nitrous oxide reductase (N 2 OR) from Pseudomonas stutzeri catalyzes the final step in denitrification: the two-electron reduction of nitrous oxide to molecular dinitrogen. Crystals of the enzyme were grown under strict exclusion of dioxygen by sitting-drop vapour diffusion using 2R,3R-butanediol as a cryoprotectant. N 2 OR crystallized in either space group P1 or P6 5 . Interestingly, the key determinant for the resulting space group was the crystallization temperature. Crystals belonging to space group P1 contained four 130 kDa dimers in the asymmetric unit, while crystals belonging to space group P6 5 contained a single dimer in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were collected to resolutions better than 2 Å

  14. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduces fertility in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørr, L; Bennedsen, Birgit; Fedder, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Clinical review of the present data on the effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on male fertility was the objective of the study. PubMed and Scopus were searched for publications in English or Danish and reviewed. Human trials, animal studies and in vitro studies were included...

  15. Genetic characterization and role in virulence of the ribonucleotide reductases of Streptococcus sanguinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, DeLacy V; Crump, Katie E; Makhlynets, Olga; Snyder, Melanie; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Stubbe, JoAnne; Kitten, Todd

    2014-02-28

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a cause of infective endocarditis and has been shown to require a manganese transporter called SsaB for virulence and O2 tolerance. Like certain other pathogens, S. sanguinis possesses aerobic class Ib (NrdEF) and anaerobic class III (NrdDG) ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that perform the essential function of reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The accompanying paper (Makhlynets, O., Boal, A. K., Rhodes, D. V., Kitten, T., Rosenzweig, A. C., and Stubbe, J. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 6259-6272) indicates that in the presence of O2, the S. sanguinis class Ib RNR self-assembles an essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (Fe(III)2-Y(•)) in vitro, whereas assembly of a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (Mn(III)2-Y(•)) cofactor requires NrdI, and Mn(III)2-Y(•) is more active than Fe(III)2-Y(•) with the endogenous reducing system of NrdH and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1). In this study, we have shown that deletion of either nrdHEKF or nrdI completely abolishes virulence in an animal model of endocarditis, whereas nrdD mutation has no effect. The nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants fail to grow aerobically, whereas anaerobic growth requires nrdD. The nrdJ gene encoding an O2-independent adenosylcobalamin-cofactored RNR was introduced into the nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants. Growth of the nrdHEKF and nrdI mutants in the presence of O2 was partially restored. The combined results suggest that Mn(III)2-Y(•)-cofactored NrdF is required for growth under aerobic conditions and in animals. This could explain in part why manganese is necessary for virulence and O2 tolerance in many bacterial pathogens possessing a class Ib RNR and suggests NrdF and NrdI may serve as promising new antimicrobial targets.

  16. Simvastatin treatment reduces the cholesterol content of membrane/lipid rafts, implicating the N -methyl-D-aspartate receptor in anxiety: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Niehues da Cruz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Membrane/lipid rafts (MLRs are plasmalemmal microdomains that are essential for neuronal signaling and synaptic development/stabilization. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase (statins can disable the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor through disruption of MLRs and, in turn, decrease NMDA-mediated anxiety. This hypothesis will contribute to understanding the critical roles of simvastatin in treating anxiety via the NMDA receptor.

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency alters levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in brain tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Jadavji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an enzyme key regulator in folate metabolism. Deficiencies in MTHFR result in increased levels of homocysteine, which leads to reduced levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. In the brain, SAM donates methyl groups to catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT, which is involved in neurotransmitter analysis. Using the MTHFR-deficient mouse model the purpose of this study was to investigate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and amino acid levels in brain tissue. MTHFR deficiency affected levels of both glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid in within the cerebellum and hippocampus. Mthfr−/− mice had reduced levels of glutamate in the amygdala and γ-aminobutyric acid in the thalamus. The excitatory mechanisms of homocysteine through activation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in brain tissue might alter levels of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid.

  18. Nitrate reductase and nitrous oxide production by Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakov, A V; Nosikov, A N; Skrynnikova, E V; L'vov, N P

    2000-08-01

    The fungus Fusarium oxysporum 11dn1 was found to be able to grow and produce nitrous oxide on nitrate-containing medium in anaerobic conditions. The rate of nitrous oxide formation was three to six orders of magnitude lower than the rates of molecular nitrogen production by common denitrifying bacteria. Acetylene and ammonia did not affect the release of nitrous oxide release. It was shown that under anaerobic conditions fast increase of nitrate reductase activity occurred, caused by the synthesis of enzyme de novo and protein dephosphorylation. Reverse transfer of the mycelium to aerobic conditions led to a decline in nitrate reductase activity and stopped nitrous oxide production. The presence of two nitrate reductases was shown, which differed in molecular mass, location, temperature optima, and activity in nitrate- and ammonium-containing media. Two enzymes represent assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reductases, which are active in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively.

  19. Location of the redox-active thiols of ribonucleotide reductase: sequences similarity between the Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus leichmannii enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.N.I.; Ashley, G.W.; Stubbe, J.

    1987-01-01

    The redox-active thiols of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and of Lactobacillus leichmannii ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase have been located by a procedure involving (1) prereduction of enzyme with dithiothreitol, (2) specific oxidation of the redox-active thiols by treatment with substrate in the absence of exogenous reductant, (3) alkylation of other thiols with iodoacetamide, and (4) reduction of the disulfides with dithiothreitol and alkylation with [1- 14 C]iodoacetamide. The dithiothreitol-reduce E. coli B1 subunit is able to convert 3 equiv of CDP to dCDP and is labeled with 5.4 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 2.8 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-752 and -757 at the C-terminus of B1, while 1.0-1.5 equiv of 14 C is on cysteines-222 and -227. It thus appears that two sets of redox-active dithiols are involved in substrate reduction. The L. leichmannii reductase is able to convert 1.1 equiv of CTP to dCTP and is labeled with 2.1 equiv of 14 C. Sequencing of tryptic peptides shows that 1.4 equiv of 14 C is located on the two cysteines of C-E-G-G-A-C-P-I-K. This peptide shows remarkable and unexpected similarity to the thiol-containing region of the C-terminal peptide of E. coli B1, C-E-S-G-A-C-K-I

  20. SGLT2 inhibitors: molecular design and potential differences in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaji, Masayuki

    2011-03-01

    The physiological and pathological handling of glucose via sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) in the kidneys has been evolving, and SGLT2 inhibitors have been focused upon as a novel drug for treating diabetes. SGLT2 inhibitors enhance renal glucose excretion by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption. Consequently, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce plasma glucose insulin independently and improve insulin resistance in diabetes. To date, various SGLT2 inhibitors have been developed and evaluated in clinical studies. The potency and positioning of SGLT2 inhibitors as an antidiabetic drug are dependent on their characteristic profile, which induces selectivity, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and safety. This profile decides which SGLT2 inhibitors can be expected for application of the theoretical concept of reducing renal glucose reabsorption for the treatment of diabetes. I review the structure and advancing profile of various SGLT2 inhibitors, comparing their similarities and differences, and discuss the expected SGLT2 inhibitors for an emerging category of antidiabetic drugs.

  1. Transcriptional modulation of genes encoding nitrate reductase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The free aluminum (Al) content in soil can reach levels that are toxic to plants, and this has frequently limited increased productivity of cultures. Four genes encoding nitrate reductase (NR) were identified, named ZmNR1–4. With the aim of evaluating NR activity and the transcriptional modulation of the ZmNR1, ZmNR2, ...

  2. DNA damage induction of ribonucleotide reductase.

    OpenAIRE

    Elledge, S J; Davis, R W

    1989-01-01

    RNR2 encodes the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the pathway for the production of deoxyribonucleotides needed for DNA synthesis. RNR2 is a member of a group of genes whose activities are cell cycle regulated and that are transcriptionally induced in response to the stress of DNA damage. An RNR2-lacZ fusion was used to further characterize the regulation of RNR2 and the pathway responsible for its response to DNA damage. beta-Galactosidas...

  3. Inhibition of Cholesterol Synthesis in HepG2 Cells by GINST-Decreasing HMG-CoA Reductase Expression Via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Seung; Sung, Jong Hwan; Lee, Seung Kwon

    2017-11-01

    GINST, a hydrolyzed ginseng extract, has been reported to have antidiabetic effects and to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Hypercholesterolemia is caused by diet or genetic factors and can lead to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Thus, the purpose of this study is to determine whether GINST and the ginsenoside metabolite, IH-901 (compound K), reduce cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells and the signal transduction pathways involved. Concentrations of cholesterol were measured by using an enzymatic method. Expression levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2), HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBPα), GAPDH, and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt), and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) were measured using western blot. Total cholesterol concentration decreased after GINST treatment for 24 and 48 h. Expression of HMGCR decreased more with GINST than with the inhibitors, U18666A and atorvastatin, after 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of AMPKα increased 2.5x by GINST after 360 min of treatment, and phosphorylation of Akt decreased after 120 and 360 min. We separated compound K from GINST extracts flash chromatography. Compound K decreased cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells at 24 and 48 h. Therefore, we conclude that GINST inhibits cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells by decreasing HMGCR expression via AMPKα activation. GINST, a hydrolyzed ginseng extract, can inhibit cholesterol synthesis in liver cells via activation of AMPKα. IH-901 (compound K), which is the main component with bioactivity in GINST, also has anticholesterol effects. Thus, we suggest that GINST can be used to reduce hypercholesterolemia. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Screening of protein kinase inhibitors identifies PKC inhibitors as inhibitors of osteoclastic acid secretion and bone resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutin Jean A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone resorption is initiated by osteoclastic acidification of the resorption lacunae. This process is mediated by secretion of protons through the V-ATPase and chloride through the chloride antiporter ClC-7. To shed light on the intracellular signalling controlling extracellular acidification, we screened a protein kinase inhibitor library in human osteoclasts. Methods Human osteoclasts were generated from CD14+ monocytes. The effect of different kinase inhibitors on lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts was investigated using acridine orange for different incubation times (45 minutes, 4 and 24 hours. The inhibitors were tested in an acid influx assay using microsomes isolated from human osteoclasts. Bone resorption by human osteoclasts on bone slices was measured by calcium release. Cell viability was measured using AlamarBlue. Results Of the 51 compounds investigated only few inhibitors were positive in both acidification and resorption assays. Rottlerin, GF109203X, Hypericin and Ro31-8220 inhibited acid influx in microsomes and bone resorption, while Sphingosine and Palmitoyl-DL-carnitine-Cl showed low levels of inhibition. Rottlerin inhibited lysosomal acidification in human osteoclasts potently. Conclusions In conclusion, a group of inhibitors all indicated to inhibit PKC reduced acidification in human osteoclasts, and thereby bone resorption, indicating that acid secretion by osteoclasts may be specifically regulated by PKC in osteoclasts.

  5. mTOR inhibitors alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors effectively inhibit cells of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costanza Bogani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysregulated signaling of the JAK/STAT pathway is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN, usually associated with JAK2V617F mutation. Recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors showed significant improvements in splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis but meaningful molecular responses were not documented. Accordingly, there remains a need for exploring new treatment strategies of MPN. A potential additional target for treatment is represented by the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway that has been found constitutively activated in MPN cells; proof-of-evidence of efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 has been obtained recently in a Phase I/II trial in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the effects in vitro of mTOR inhibitors, used alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors, against MPN cells. FINDINGS: Mouse and human JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and primary hematopoietic progenitors from MPN patients were challenged with an allosteric (RAD001 and an ATP-competitive (PP242 mTOR inhibitor and two JAK2 inhibitors (AZD1480 and ruxolitinib. mTOR inhibitors effectively reduced proliferation and colony formation of cell lines through a slowed cell division mediated by changes in cell cycle transition to the S-phase. mTOR inhibitors also impaired the proliferation and prevented colony formation from MPN hematopoietic progenitors at doses significantly lower than healthy controls. JAK2 inhibitors produced similar antiproliferative effects in MPN cell lines and primary cells but were more potent inducers of apoptosis, as also supported by differential effects on cyclinD1, PIM1 and BcLxL expression levels. Co-treatment of mTOR inhibitor with JAK2 inhibitor resulted in synergistic activity against the proliferation of JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and significantly reduced erythropoietin-independent colony growth in patients with

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra was expressed, purified, and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data of this crystal were collected to 2.2 Å resolution. (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P4 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%

  7. Regulation of ribonucleotide reductase by Spd1 involves multiple mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nestoras, Konstantinos; Mohammed, Asma Hadi; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie

    2010-01-01

    The correct levels of deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates and their relative abundance are important to maintain genomic integrity. Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) regulation is complex and multifaceted. RNR is regulated allosterically by two nucleotide-binding sites, by transcriptional control, and...

  8. Identification of fermentation inhibitors in wood hydrolyzates and removal of inhibitors by ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Caidian

    1998-12-01

    Common methods employed in the ethanol production from biomass consist of chemical or enzymatic degradation of biomass into sugars and then fermentation of sugars into ethanol or other chemicals. However, some degradation products severely inhibit the fermentation processes and substantially reduce the efficiency of ethanol production. How to remove inhibitors from the reaction product mixture and increase the production efficiency are critical in the commercialization of any processes of energy from biomass. The present study has investigated anion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction as potential methods for inhibitor removal. An analytical method has been developed to identify the fermentation inhibitors in a hydrolyzate. The majority of inhibitors present in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate have positively been identified. Ion exchange with weak basic Dowex-MWA-1 resin has been proved to be an effective mean to remove fermentation inhibitors from hybrid poplar hydrolyzate and significantly increase the fermentation productivity. Extraction with n-butanol might be a preferred way to remove inhibitors from wood hydrolyzates and improve the fermentability of sugars in the hydrolyzates. n-Butanol also removes some glucose, mannose and xylose from the hydrolyzate. Inhibitor identification reveals that lignin and sugar degradation compounds including both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and carboxylic acids formed in hydrolysis, plus fatty acids and other components from wood extractives are major fermentation inhibitors in Sacchromyces cerevisiae fermentation. There are 35 components identified as fermentation inhibitors. Among them, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, syringic acid, syringaldehyde, and ferulic acid are among the most abundant aromatic inhibitors in hybrid poplar hydrolyzate. The conversion of aldehyde groups into carboxylic acid groups in the nitric acid catalyzed hydrolysis reduces the toxicity of the hydrolyzate. A wide spectrum of

  9. Cloning and characterization of a nitrite reductase gene related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... Alexander et al., 2005) and heme-type nitrite reductase gene (Smith and ... owing to a genotype-dependent response (Zhang et al.,. 1991; Sakhanokho et al., ..... Improvement of cell culture conditions for rice. Jpn. Agric. Res.

  10. Effect of ammonium and nitrate on ferric chelate reductase and nitrate reductase in Vaccinium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonnachit, U; Darnell, R

    2004-04-01

    Most Vaccinium species have strict soil requirements for optimal growth, requiring low pH, high iron availability and nitrogen primarily in the ammonium form. These soils are limited and are often located near wetlands. Vaccinium arboreum is a wild species adapted to a wide range of soils, including high pH, low iron, and nitrate-containing soils. This broader soil adaptation in V. arboreum may be related to increased efficiency of iron or nitrate uptake compared with the cultivated Vaccinium species. Nitrate, ammonium and iron uptake, and nitrate reductase (NR) and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activities were compared in two Vaccinium species grown hydroponically in either nitrate or ammonia, with or without iron. The species studied were the wild V. arboreum and the cultivated V. corymbosum interspecific hybrid, which exhibits the strict soil requirements of most Vaccinium species. Ammonium uptake was significantly greater than nitrate uptake in both species, while nitrate uptake was greater in the wild species, V. arboreum, compared with the cultivated species, V. corymbosum. The increased nitrate uptake in V. arboreum was correlated with increased root NR activity compared with V. corymbosum. The lower nitrate uptake in V. corymbosum was reflected in decreased plant dry weight in this species compared with V. arboreum. Root FCR activity increased significantly in V. corymbosum grown under iron-deficient conditions, compared with the same species grown under iron-sufficient conditions or with V. arboreum grown under either iron condition. V. arboreum appears to be more efficient in acquiring nitrate compared with V. corymbosum, possibly due to increased NR activity and this may partially explain the wider soil adaptation of V. arboreum.

  11. Reduced intensity conditioning is superior to nonmyeloablative conditioning for older chronic myelogenous leukemia patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant during the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warlick, Erica; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Pedersen, Tanya L

    2012-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and reduced intensity conditioning (RIC)/nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning hematopoietic cell transplants (HCTs) have changed the therapeutic strategy for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. We analyzed post-HCT outcomes of 306 CML patients reported to...

  12. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly-fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes reduces methanol content in carambola wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, James Swi-Bea; Wu, Ming-Chang; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Hwang, Ya-Ping; Shen, Szu-Chuan; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-11-30

    Crude pectinesterase (PE) inhibitor (PEI) extracted from jelly-fig achenes (JFA) (Ficus awakeosang Makino) was added to carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) puree to determine the change in methanol production during fermentation. Addition of pectin or microbial pectic enzyme to puree increased dose-dependently the methanol content in fermented products. Decreasing ratio (from 1:0 to 1:19, v:v) of pectic enzyme to diluted crude PEI solution in the puree-enzyme mixture decreased the PE activity remarkably. Except for transmittance (%T), addition of crude PEI to puree did not affect apparently the physical and chemical properties of wine; however, it reduced methanol content in the control from 256 to 58 ppm. The degree of esterification (DE) of pectin in starting puree was approximately 70%. It decreased to approximately 27% in the control group and reduced slightly to approximately 67% in fermented puree with crude PEI added after 14 days of fermentation. This reveals that crude PEI solution was potent in inhibiting intrinsic carambola PE activity and appeared to be a potential alternative for methanol reduction in wines.

  13. Cloning of genes and enzymatic characterizations of novel dioscorin isoforms from Dioscorea japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Miyakawa, Takuya; Sawano, Yoriko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2012-02-01

    Dioscorin, the major tuber storage protein of yam, has been shown to possess carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. In the present study, dioscorin from Dioscorea japonica was confirmed as a glycoprotein using the enhanced concanavalin A-peroxidase staining method, and the protein was shown to have both N- and O-glycans. Following the gene cloning, four full-length isoforms of dioscorin were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity purification and anion-exchange chromatography for structural and biochemical experiments. It was clearly observed that the recombinant dioscorins had carbonic anhydrase, trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. However, the dehydroascorbate reductase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities were markedly decreased in recombinant dioscorins compared with native dioscorin. The decreased activities were closely related to the loss of the glycosylation from the protein. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  15. Hyperglycemia Promotes Schwann Cell De-differentiation and De-myelination via Sorbitol Accumulation and Igf1 Protein Down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Wu; Tashiro, Syoichi; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Sato, Yuiko; Kobayashi, Tami; Tando, Toshimi; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Morita, Mayu; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Amizuka, Norio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2015-07-10

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently accompanied by complications, such as peripheral nerve neuropathy. Schwann cells play a pivotal role in regulating peripheral nerve function and conduction velocity; however, changes in Schwann cell differentiation status in DM are not fully understood. Here, we report that Schwann cells de-differentiate into immature cells under hyperglycemic conditions as a result of sorbitol accumulation and decreased Igf1 expression in those cells. We found that de-differentiated Schwann cells could be re-differentiated in vitro into mature cells by treatment with an aldose reductase inhibitor, to reduce sorbitol levels, or with vitamin D3, to elevate Igf1 expression. In vivo DM models exhibited significantly reduced nerve function and conduction, Schwann cell de-differentiation, peripheral nerve de-myelination, and all conditions were significantly rescued by aldose reductase inhibitor or vitamin D3 administration. These findings reveal mechanisms underlying pathological changes in Schwann cells seen in DM and suggest ways to treat neurological conditions associated with this condition. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Modulation of the interaction between human P450 3A4 and B. megaterium reductase via engineered loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Silvia; D'Avino, Serena; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Catucci, Gianluca; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2018-01-01

    Chimerogenesis involving cytochromes P450 is a successful approach to generate catalytically self-sufficient enzymes. However, the connection between the different functional modules should allow a certain degree of flexibility in order to obtain functional and catalytically efficient proteins. We previously applied the molecular Lego approach to develop a chimeric P450 3A4 enzyme linked to the reductase domain of P450 BM3 (BMR). Three constructs were designed with the connecting loop containing no glycine, 3 glycine or 5 glycine residues and showed a different catalytic activity and coupling efficiency. Here we investigate how the linker affects the ability of P450 3A4 to bind substrates and inhibitors. We measure the electron transfer rates and the catalytic properties of the enzyme also in the presence of ketoconazole as inhibitor. The data show that the construct 3A4-5GLY-BMR with the longest loop better retains the binding ability and cooperativity for testosterone, compared to P450 3A4. In both 3A4-3GLY-BMR and 3A4-5GLY-BMR, the substrate induces an increase in the first electron transfer rate and a shorter lag phase related to a domain rearrangements, when compared to the construct without Gly. These data are consistent with docking results and secondary structure predictions showing a propensity to form helical structures in the loop of the 3A4-BMR and 3A4-3GLY-BMR. All three chimeras retain the ability to bind the inhibitor ketoconazole and show an IC 50 comparable with those reported for the wild type protein. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression, purification and molecular structure modeling of thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Xiaojian; Liu, Qing; Ai, Chenbing; Mo, Hongyu; Zeng, Jia

    2009-07-01

    The thioredoxin system consists of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and NADPH, which plays several key roles in maintaining the redox environment of the cell. In Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, thioredoxin system may play important functions in the activity regulation of periplasmic proteins and energy metabolism. Here, we cloned thioredoxin (trx) and thioredoxin reductase (trxR) genes from Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, and expressed the genes in Escherichia coli. His-Trx and His-TrxR were purified to homogeneity with one-step Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Site-directed mutagenesis results confirmed that Cys33, Cys36 of thioredoxin, and Cys142, Cys145 of thioredoxin reductase were active-site residues.

  18. Long-term outcomes of thoracic transplant recipients following conversion to everolimus with reduced calcineurin inhibitor in a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial lv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestad, Lars; Eiskjaer, Hans; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The NOCTET study randomized 282 patients ≥1 year after heart or lung transplantation to continue conventional calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy or to start everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI. Last follow-up, at ≥5 years postrandomization (mean: 5.6 years) was attended by 72/140 everolimus...

  19. A Novel Ras Inhibitor (MDC-1016 Reduces Human Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo G Mackenzie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among all cancers partly because of its persistent resistance to chemotherapy. The currently limited treatment options for pancreatic cancer underscore the need for more efficient agents. Because activating Kras mutations initiate and maintain pancreatic cancer, inhibition of this pathway should have a major therapeutic impact. We synthesized phospho-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (PFTS; MDC-1016 and evaluated its efficacy, safety, and metabolism in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. PFTS inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in culture in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In an MIA PaCa-2 xenograft mouse model, PFTS at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced tumor growth by 62% and 65% (P < .05 vs vehicle control. Furthermore, PFTS prevented pancreatitis-accelerated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in mice with activated Kras. PFTS appeared to be safe, with the animals showing no signs of toxicity during treatment. Following oral administration, PFTS was rapidly absorbed, metabolized to FTS and FTS glucuronide, and distributed through the blood to body organs. Mechanistically, PFTS inhibited Ras-GTP, the active form of Ras, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the inhibition of downstream effector pathways c-RAF/mitogen-activated protein-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK/ERK1/2 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT. In addition, PFTS proved to be a strong combination partner with phospho-valproic acid, a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 inhibitor, displaying synergy in the inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth. In conclusion, PFTS, a direct Ras inhibitor, is an efficacious agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in preclinical models, deserving further evaluation.

  20. Genetic Characterization and Role in Virulence of the Ribonucleotide Reductases of Streptococcus sanguinis * ♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, DeLacy V.; Crump, Katie E.; Makhlynets, Olga; Snyder, Melanie; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Stubbe, JoAnne; Kitten, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis is a cause of infective endocarditis and has been shown to require a manganese transporter called SsaB for virulence and O2 tolerance. Like certain other pathogens, S. sanguinis possesses aerobic class Ib (NrdEF) and anaerobic class III (NrdDG) ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) that perform the essential function of reducing ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides. The accompanying paper (Makhlynets, O., Boal, A. K., Rhodes, D. V., Kitten, T., Rosenzweig, A. C., and Stubbe, J. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 6259–6272) indicates that in the presence of O2, the S. sanguinis class Ib RNR self-assembles an essential diferric-tyrosyl radical (FeIII2-Y•) in vitro, whereas assembly of a dimanganese-tyrosyl radical (MnIII2-Y•) cofactor requires NrdI, and MnIII2-Y• is more active than FeIII2-Y• with the endogenous reducing system of NrdH and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1). In this study, we have shown that deletion of either nrdHEKF or nrdI completely abolishes virulence in an animal model of endocarditis, whereas nrdD mutation has no effect. The nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants fail to grow aerobically, whereas anaerobic growth requires nrdD. The nrdJ gene encoding an O2-independent adenosylcobalamin-cofactored RNR was introduced into the nrdHEKF, nrdI, and trxR1 mutants. Growth of the nrdHEKF and nrdI mutants in the presence of O2 was partially restored. The combined results suggest that MnIII2-Y•-cofactored NrdF is required for growth under aerobic conditions and in animals. This could explain in part why manganese is necessary for virulence and O2 tolerance in many bacterial pathogens possessing a class Ib RNR and suggests NrdF and NrdI may serve as promising new antimicrobial targets. PMID:24381171

  1. Production of a highly active, soluble form of the cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR A) from Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Mark

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides soluble cytochrome p450 reductase (CPR) proteins from Candida sp. having an altered N-terminal region which results in reduced hydrophobicity of the N-terminal region. Also provided are host cells comprising the subject soluble CPR proteins. In addition, the present invention provides nucleotide and corresponding amino acid sequences for soluble CPR proteins and vectors comprising the nucleotide sequences. Methods for producing a soluble CPR, for increasing production of a dicarboxylic acid, and for detecting a cytochrome P450 are also provided.

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of 1,4-naphthoquinone ether derivatives as SmTGR inhibitors and new anti-schistosomal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Laure; Belorgey, Didier; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Day, Latasha; Chessé, Matthieu; Becker, Katja; Williams, David L; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Investigations regarding the chemistry and mechanism of action of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (or menadione) derivatives revealed 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones as a novel anti-schistosomal chemical series. These newly synthesized compounds (1-7) and their difluoromethylmenadione counterparts (8, 9) were found to be potent and specific inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (SmTGR), which has been identified as a potential target for anti-schistosomal drugs. The compounds were also tested in enzymic assays using both human flavoenzymes, i.e. glutathione reductase (hGR) and selenium-dependent human thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR), to evaluate the specificity of the inhibition. Structure-activity relationships as well as physico- and electro-chemical studies showed a high potential for the 3-phenoxymethyl menadiones to inhibit SmTGR selectively compared to hGR and hTrxR enzymes, in particular those bearing an α-fluorophenol methyl ether moiety, which improves anti-schistosomal action. Furthermore, the (substituted phenoxy)methyl menadione derivative (7) displayed time-dependent SmTGR inactivation, correlating with unproductive NADPH-dependent redox cycling of SmTGR, and potent anti-schistosomal action in worms cultured ex vivo. In contrast, the difluoromethylmenadione analog 9, which inactivates SmTGR through an irreversible non-consuming NADPH-dependent process, has little killing effect in worms cultured ex vivo. Despite ex vivo activity, none of the compounds tested was active in vivo, suggesting that the limited bioavailability may compromise compound activity. Therefore, future studies will be directed toward improving pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability. © 2015 FEBS.

  3. Reconstitution of FMN-free NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase with a phosphorothioate analog of FMN: 31P NMR studies of the reconstituted protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krum, D.P.; Otvos, J.D.; Calhoun, J.P.; Miziorko, H.M.; Masters, B.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    A phosphorothioate analog of FMN (FMNS) has been synthesized and shown to be completely competent in reconstituting the FMN-free form of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase as evidenced by flavin determinations and cytochrome c reductase activity assays. The FMNS-reconstituted FMN-free reductase gives rise to an air-stable semiquinone, and the fluorescence of FMNS is quenched upon addition of FMN-free reductase. 31 P NMR spectra of the FMN-free reductase reveal only two resonances (-7.3 and -11.3 ppm), which are attributable to FAD. This result confirms the assignments of Otvos et al, and demonstrates unequivocally that there are no phosphate residues other than those of FMN and FAD attached to the steapsin-solubilized reductase. The addition of FMN to the FMN-free reductase resulted in the appearance of one additional resonance at 3.9 ppm. Addition of FMNS to the FMN-free reductase caused no change, surprisingly, in the 31 P NMR spectrum until Mn(II) was added, after which a peak centered at ∼ 45 ppm was observed. This unexpected result may be explained if the T 1 for the phosphate of FMNS is significantly longer than that of FMN, and suggests that the sulfur atom of FMNS may perturb the interaction of the phosphate with its protein environment. These results demonstrate the utility of phosphorothioate analogs as mechanistic probes for proteins containing nucleotide cofactors

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of interaction of ligands with Streptococcus faecium dihydrofolate reductase labeled with [#betta#-13C]tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Groff, J.P.; Cocco, L.; Blakley, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase from Streptococcus faecium has been labeled with [#betta#- 13 C]tryptophan. We have determined changes occurring in the chemical shifts and line widths of the four resonances of the 13 C NMR spectrum of the labeled enzyme, due to its interaction with various ligands. These include the coenzyme, NPDPH and related nucleotides, folate and its polyglutamate derivatives, and many inhibitors including methotrexate and trimethoprim. In addition, paramagnetic relaxation effects produced by a bound spin-labeled analogue of 2'-phosphoadenosine-5'-diphosphoribose on the tryptophan C/sup #betta#/ carbons have been measured. Distances calculated from the relaxation data have been compared with corresponding distances in the crystallographic model of the NADPH-methotrexate ternary complex of Lactobacillus casei reductase. The paramagnetic relaxation data indicate that the two downfield resonances (1 and 2) correspond to tryptophans (W/sub A/ and W/sub B/) that are more remote from the catalytic site, and from the crystallographic model these are seen to be Trp-115 and Trp-160. The upfield resonances (3 and 4) that show broadening due to chemical exchange correspond to closer residues (W/sub C/ and W/sub D/), and these are identified with Trp-6 and Trp-22. However, the relaxation data do not permit specific assignments within the nearer and farther pairs. Although resonance 3, which is split due to chemical exchange, was formerly assigned to Trp-6, data obtained for the enzyme in the presence of various ligands are better interpreted if resonance 3 is assigned to Trp-22, which is located on a loop that joins elements of secondary structure and forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity

  5. Aromatic inhibitors derived from ammonia-pretreated lignocellulose hinder bacterial ethanologenesis by activating regulatory circuits controlling inhibitor efflux and detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Keating

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient microbial conversion of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to biofuels is a key barrier to the economically viable deployment of lignocellulosic biofuels. A chief contributor to this barrier is the impact on microbial processes and energy metabolism of lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, including phenolic carboxylates, phenolic amides (for ammonia-pretreated biomass, phenolic aldehydes, and furfurals. To understand the bacterial pathways induced by inhibitors present in ammonia-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, which are less well studied than acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates, we developed and exploited synthetic mimics of ammonia-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH. To determine regulatory responses to the inhibitors normally present in ACSH, we measured transcript and protein levels in an Escherichia coli ethanologen using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics during fermentation to ethanol of synthetic hydrolysates containing or lacking the inhibitors. Our study identified four major regulators mediating these responses, the MarA/SoxS/Rob network, AaeR, FrmR, and YqhC. Induction of these regulons was correlated with a reduced rate of ethanol production, buildup of pyruvate, depletion of ATP and NAD(PH, and an inhibition of xylose conversion. The aromatic aldehyde inhibitor 5-hydroxymethylfurfural appeared to be reduced to its alcohol form by the ethanologen during fermentation, whereas phenolic acid and amide inhibitors were not metabolized. Together, our findings establish that the major regulatory responses to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors are mediated by transcriptional rather than translational regulators, suggest that energy consumed for inhibitor efflux and detoxification may limit biofuel production, and identify a network of regulators for future synthetic biology efforts.

  6. Evaluation of the conserve flavin reductase gene from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... means of PCR technique. The nucleic acid sequences of the PCR primers were designed using conserved nucleic acid sequences of the flavin reductase enzyme from. Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. The oligonucleotide primers were as follows: 5'-GAA TTC ATG TCT GAC. AAG CCG AAT GCC-3' (forward) ...

  7. Comparing the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways in arabinose and xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable option for the production of bioethanol. This process would greatly benefit from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains also able to ferment, besides the hexose sugar fraction, the pentose sugars, arabinose and xylose. Different pathways can be introduced in S. cerevisiae to provide arabinose and xylose utilisation. In this study, the bacterial arabinose isomerase pathway was combined with two different xylose utilisation pathways: the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways, respectively, in genetically identical strains. The strains were compared with respect to aerobic growth in arabinose and xylose batch culture and in anaerobic batch fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose. Results The specific aerobic arabinose growth rate was identical, 0.03 h-1, for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase strain. The xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain displayed higher aerobic growth rate on xylose, 0.14 h-1, and higher specific xylose consumption rate in anaerobic batch fermentation, 0.09 g (g cells-1 h-1 than the xylose isomerase strain, which only reached 0.03 h-1 and 0.02 g (g cells-1h-1, respectively. Whereas the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain produced higher ethanol yield on total sugars, 0.23 g g-1 compared with 0.18 g g-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, the xylose isomerase strain achieved higher ethanol yield on consumed sugars, 0.41 g g-1 compared with 0.32 g g-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain. Anaerobic fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose resulted in higher final ethanol concentration, 14.7 g l-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain compared with 11.8 g l-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, and in higher specific ethanol productivity, 0.024 g (g cells-1 h-1 compared with 0.01 g (g cells-1 h-1

  8. Different effects of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on sterol synthesis in various human cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, A.K. van; Thiel, G.C.F. van; Huisman, R.H.; Moshage, H.; Yap, S.H.; Cohen, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    The three vastatins examined, lovastatin, simvastatin and pravastatin, are equally strong inhibitors of the sterol synthesis in human hepatocytes in culture with IC50-values of 4.1, 8.0 and 2.0 nM, respectively. However, in the human extrahepatic cells: umbilical vascular endothelial cells, retinal

  9. Purification and characterization of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci thioredoxin: insight into thioredoxin-glutathione-reductase (TGR) substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, J J; Guevara-Flores, A; Rendón, J L; Sosa-Peinado, A; Del Arenal Mena, I P

    2015-04-01

    Thioredoxin (Trx) is an oxidoreductase central to redox homeostasis in cells and is involved in the regulation of protein activity through thiol/disulfide exchanges. Based on these facts, our goal was to purify and characterize cytosolic thioredoxin from Taenia crassiceps cysticerci, as well as to study its behavior as a substrate of thioredoxin-glutathione reductase (TGR). The enzyme was purified >133-fold with a total yield of 9.7%. A molecular mass of 11.7kDa and a pI of 4.84 were measured. Native electrophoresis was used to identify the oxidized and reduced forms of the monomer as well as the presence of a homodimer. In addition to the catalytic site cysteines, cysticerci thioredoxin contains Cys28 and Cys65 residues conserved in previously sequenced cestode thioredoxins. The following kinetic parameters were obtained for the substrate of TGR: a Km of 3.1μM, a kcat of 10s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency of 3.2×10(6)M(-1)s(-1). The negative patch around the α3-helix of Trx is involved in the interaction with TGR and suggests variable specificity and catalytic efficiency of the reductase toward thioredoxins of different origins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The levels of mutant K-RAS and mutant N-RAS are rapidly reduced in a Beclin1 / ATG5 -dependent fashion by the irreversible ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor neratinib

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Laurence; Roberts, Jane L.; Poklepovic, Andrew; Kirkwood, John; Sander, Cindy; Avogadri-Connors, Francesca; Cutler Jr, Richard E.; Lalani, Alshad S.; Dent, Paul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The FDA approved irreversible inhibitor of ERBB1/2/4, neratinib, was recently shown to rapidly down-regulate the expression of ERBB1/2/4 as well as the levels of c-MET and mutant K-RAS via autophagic degradation. In the present studies, in a dose-dependent fashion, neratinib reduced the expression levels of mutant K-RAS or of mutant N-RAS, which was augmented in an additive to greater than additive fashion by the HDAC inhibitors sodium valproate and AR42. Neratinib could reduce PDGFR...

  11. Pre-radiotherapy PSA progression is a negative prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients using 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taussky, Daniel; Lambert, Carole; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Beauchemin, Marie-Claude; Barkati, Maroie; Menard, Cynthia; Delouya, Guila [Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); CRCHUM-Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Piotte, Julie [Hopital Notre-Dame, Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Zorn, Kevin C.; Zanaty, Marc [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Section of Urology, Department of Surgery, Montreal, QC (Canada); Krishnan, Vimal [Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Department of Pathology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2018-01-15

    To investigate the impact of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use on radiotherapy outcomes for localized prostate cancer. We included 203 patients on a 5-ARI from our institutional database comprising over 2500 patients who had been treated with either external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Patients received a 5-ARI for urinary symptoms or active surveillance. Cancer progressions at the time of definitive treatment were analyzed according to the following criteria: (a) progression of Gleason score or increase in cancer volume on biopsy, (b) first biopsy positive for cancer after being treated for urinary symptoms with a 5-ARI, and (c) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression with or without a previous cancer diagnosis. Biochemical failure (BF) was defined by the Phoenix definition. Log-rank test was used for survival analysis. At a median follow-up of 38.2 months (standard deviation 22.2 months), 10 (4.9%) patients experienced BF. Concerning prostate cancer progression criteria, 52% of men demonstrated none, 37% showed only one criterion, and 11% showed two. Using univariate analysis, PSA progression (p = 0.004) and appearance of a positive biopsy (p < 0.001) were significant predictive factors for BF, while Gleason progression (p = 0.3) was not. In multivariate analysis adjusted for cancer aggressiveness, rising PSA (hazard ratio, HR, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1-28.8; p = 0.04) and the number of cancer progression factors (HR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.0, p = 0.02) remained adverse risk factors. PSA progression experienced during 5-ARI treatment before radiotherapy is predictive of worse biochemical outcome. Such details should be considered when counseling men prior to radiation therapy. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung des Einflusses einer Behandlung mit einem 5-Alpha-Reduktaseinhibitor (5-ARI) auf das Ergebnis der Strahlentherapie beim lokalisierten Prostatakarzinom. In die Studie eingeschlossen wurden 203

  12. Expression of reductases in continuous mammal cell cultures and its significance for the activation of nitroaromatics shown for the example of 1.6 dinitropyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, U.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the first part of the work was to establish the metabolism of 1,3- and 1,6-DNP in intact cells. This gave rise to the following questions. What metabolites are formed in cell lines with different enzyme outfits? What influence does the induction of P450 have on the metabolism of the two nitroaromates? Does the metabolism found in the different test cell lines permit any conclusions as to the activating mechanism of 1,6- and 1,3-DNP. In the second part these test cell lines were studied with respect to the expression of the reductases that might be involved in the metabolism of aromates. The following questions were of focal interest: Are cytochrome reductase, DT diaphorase and xanthine-oxidase expressed in the cell lines? If so, to what extent? Can these enzymes be induced in the test cell lines? In the last part the enzymes that reduce 1,6-DNP to gene-toxic products were identified. This required clarifying the following: What role do the above-mentioned reductases play in the activation of 1,6-DNP in individual cell lines? Are there other enzymes responsible for the activation of 1,6-DNP? (MG) [de

  13. Structural insights into the neuroprotective-acting carbonyl reductase Sniffer of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgraja, Tanja; Ulschmid, Julia; Becker, Katja; Schneuwly, Stephan; Klebe, Gerhard; Reuter, Klaus; Heine, Andreas

    2004-10-01

    In vivo studies with the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the Sniffer protein prevents age-dependent and oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative processes. Sniffer is a NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase belonging to the enzyme family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). The crystal structure of the homodimeric Sniffer protein from Drosophila melanogaster in complex with NADP+ has been determined by multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion and refined to a resolution of 1.75 A. The observed fold represents a typical dinucleotide-binding domain as detected for other SDRs. With respect to the cofactor-binding site and the region referred to as substrate-binding loop, the Sniffer protein shows a striking similarity to the porcine carbonyl reductase (PTCR). This loop, in both Sniffer and PTCR, is substantially shortened compared to other SDRs. In most enzymes of the SDR family this loop adopts a well-defined conformation only after substrate binding and remains disordered in the absence of any bound ligands or even if only the dinucleotide cofactor is bound. In the structure of the Sniffer protein, however, the conformation of this loop is well defined, although no substrate is present. Molecular modeling studies provide an idea of how binding of substrate molecules to Sniffer could possibly occur.

  14. Sodium Valproate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Is Associated With Reduced Stroke Risk After Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Crichton, Siobhan; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Yi, Qilong; Li, Linxin; Hankey, Graeme J.; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose— A variant in the histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) gene is associated with large artery stroke. Therefore, inhibiting HDAC9 might offer a novel secondary preventative treatment for ischemic stroke. The antiepileptic drug sodium valproate (SVA) is a nonspecific inhibitor of HDAC9. We tested whether SVA therapy given after ischemic stroke was associated with reduced recurrent stroke rate. Methods— Data were pooled from 3 prospective studies recruiting patients with previous stroke or transient ischemic attack and long-term follow-up: the South London Stroke Register, The Vitamins to Prevent Stroke Study, and the Oxford Vascular Study. Patients receiving SVA were compared with patients who received antiepileptic drugs other than SVA using survival analysis and Cox Regression. Results— A total of 11 949 patients with confirmed ischemic event were included. Recurrent stroke rate was lower in patient taking SVA (17 of 168) than other antiepileptic drugs (105 of 530; log-rank survival analysis P=0.002). On Cox regression, controlling for potential cofounders, SVA remained associated with reduced stroke (hazard ratio=0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.3–0.7; P=0.002). A similar result was obtained when patients taking SVA were compared with all cases not taking SVA (Cox regression, hazard ratio=0.47; 95% confidence interval: 0.29–0.77; P=0.003). Conclusions— These results suggest that exposure to SVA, an inhibitor of HDAC, may be associated with a lower recurrent stroke risk although we cannot exclude residual confounding in this study design. This supports the hypothesis that HDAC9 is important in the ischemic stroke pathogenesis and that its inhibition, by SVA or a more specific HDAC9 inhibitor, is worthy of evaluation as a treatment to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke. PMID:29247141

  15. NMR characterization of altered lignins extracted from tobacco plants down-regulated for lignification enzymes cinnamylalcohol dehydrogenase and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, John; Hatfield, Ronald D.; Piquemal, Joël; Yahiaoui, Nabila; Pean, Michel; Lapierre, Catherine; Boudet, Alain M.

    1998-01-01

    Homologous antisense constructs were used to down-regulate tobacco cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) and cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR; EC 1.2.1.44) activities in the lignin monomer biosynthetic pathway. CCR converts activated cinnamic acids (hydroxycinnamoyl–SCoAs) to cinnamaldehydes; cinnamaldehydes are then reduced to cinnamyl alcohols by CAD. The transformations caused the incorporation of nontraditional components into the extractable tobacco lignins, as evidenced by NMR....

  16. A bioavailable cathepsin S nitrile inhibitor abrogates tumor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Richard D A; Young, Andrew; Burden, Roberta E; Williams, Rich; Scott, Christopher J

    2016-04-21

    Cathepsin S has been implicated in a variety of malignancies with genetic ablation studies demonstrating a key role in tumor invasion and neo-angiogenesis. Thus, the application of cathepsin S inhibitors may have clinical utility in the treatment of cancer. In this investigation, we applied a cell-permeable dipeptidyl nitrile inhibitor of cathepsin S, originally developed to target cathepsin S in inflammatory diseases, in both in vitro and in vivo tumor models. Validation of cathepsin S selectivity was carried out by assaying fluorogenic substrate turnover using recombinant cathepsin protease. Complete kinetic analysis was carried out and true K i values calculated. Abrogation of tumour invasion using murine MC38 and human MCF7 cell lines were carried out in vitro using a transwell migration assay. Effect on endothelial tube formation was evaluated using primary HUVEC cells. The effect of inhibitor in vivo on MC38 and MCF7 tumor progression was evaluated using cells propagated in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice respectively. Subsequent immunohistochemical staining of proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (TUNEL) was carried out on MCF7 tumors. We confirmed that this inhibitor was able to selectively target cathepsin S over family members K, V, L and B. The inhibitor also significantly reduced MC38 and MCF7 cell invasion and furthermore, significantly reduced HUVEC endothelial tubule formation in vitro. In vivo analysis revealed that the compound could significantly reduce tumor volume in murine MC38 syngeneic and MCF7 xenograft models. Immunohistochemical analysis of MCF7 tumors revealed cathepsin S inhibitor treatment significantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis. In summary, these results highlight the characterisation of this nitrile cathepsin S inhibitor using in vitro and in vivo tumor models, presenting a compound which may be used to further dissect the role of cathepsin S in cancer progression and may hold therapeutic potential.

  17. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  18. The cardiovascular safety trials of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 agonists, and SGLT2 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, Matthew H; Udell, Jacob A; Filion, Kristian B

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we review the results of large, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trials mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration to examine the cardiovascular safety of newly-approved antihyperglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes. The cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors remain controversial: while these drugs did not reduce or increase the risk of primary, pre-specified composite cardiovascular outcomes, one DPP-4 inhibitor (saxagliptin) increased the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in the overall population; another (alogliptin) demonstrated inconsistent effects on heart failure hospitalization across subgroups of patients, and a third (sitagliptin) demonstrated no effect on heart failure. Evidence for cardiovascular benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists has been similarly heterogeneous, with liraglutide and semaglutide reducing the risk of composite cardiovascular outcomes, but lixisenatide having no reduction or increase in cardiovascular risk. The effect of GLP-1 agonists on retinopathy remains a potential concern. In the only completed trial to date to assess a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, empagliflozin reduced the risk of composite cardiovascular endpoints, predominantly through its impact on cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) electrochemistry at multi-walled carbon nanotubes/Nafion modified glassy carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelster, Lindsey N.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electron transport chain is important to the understanding of metabolism in the living cell. ► Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase is a membrane bound complex of the electron transport chain (Complex III). ► The paper details the first bioelectrochemical characterization of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase at an electrode. - Abstract: Electron transport chain complexes are critical to metabolism in living cells. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (Complex III) is responsible for carrying electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, but the complex has not been evaluated electrochemically. This work details the bioelectrochemistry of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase of the electron transport chain of tuber mitochondria. The characterization of the electrochemistry of this enzyme is investigated in carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube/tetrabutyl ammonium bromide-modified Nafion ® modified glassy carbon electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Increasing concentrations of cytochrome c result in a catalytic response from the active enzyme in the nanotube sandwich. The experiments show that the enzyme followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics with a K m for the immobilized enzyme of 2.97 (±0.11) × 10 −6 M and a V max of 6.31 (±0.82) × 10 −3 μmol min −1 at the electrode, but the K m and V max values decreased compared to the free enzyme in solution, which is expected for immobilized redox proteins. This is the first evidence of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase bioelectrocatalysis.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the reductase component of p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonanant, Worrapoj; Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon

    2012-01-01

    The reductase component of p-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase from A. baumannii was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.3 Å resolution. p-Hydroxyphenylacetate 3-hydroxylase (HPAH) from Acinetobacter baumannii catalyzes the hydroxylation of p-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPA) at the ortho position to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetate (DHPA). HPAH from A. baumannii is a two-component flavoprotein consisting of a smaller reductase (C 1 ) component and a larger oxygenase (C 2 ) component. The C 1 component supplies a reduced flavin in its free form to the C 2 counterpart for hydroxylation. In addition, HPA can bind to C 1 and enhance the flavin-reduction rate without becoming hydroxylated. The recombinant C 1 component was purified and crystallized using the microbatch method at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation on the BL13B1 beamline at NSRRC, Taiwan. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 47.78, b = 59.92, c = 211.85 Å, and contained two molecules of C 1 per asymmetric unit

  1. Meleagrin, a new FabI inhibitor from Penicillium chryosogenum with at least one additional mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ji Zheng

    Full Text Available Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI is a promising novel antibacterial target. We isolated a new class of FabI inhibitor from Penicillium chrysogenum, which produces various antibiotics, the mechanisms of some of them are unknown. The isolated FabI inhibitor was determined to be meleagrin by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analyses, and its more active and inactive derivatives were chemically prepared. Consistent with their selective inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus FabI, meleagrin and its more active derivatives directly bound to S. aureus FabI in a fluorescence quenching assay, inhibited intracellular fatty acid biosynthesis and growth of S. aureus, and increased the minimum inhibitory concentration for fabI-overexpressing S. aureus. The compounds that were not effective against the FabK isoform, however, inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae that contained only the FabK isoform. Additionally no resistant mutant to the compounds was obtained. Importantly, fabK-overexpressing Escherichia coli was not resistant to these compounds, but was resistant to triclosan. These results demonstrate that the compounds inhibited another target in addition to FabI. Thus, meleagrin is a new class of FabI inhibitor with at least one additional mode of action that could have potential for treating multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  2. Radiation inactivation analysis of assimilatory NADH:nitrate reductase. Apparent functional sizes of partial activities associated with intact and proteolytically modified enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomonson, L.P.; McCreery, M.J.; Kay, C.J.; Barber, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that target sizes for the partial activities of nitrate reductase were considerably smaller than the 100-kDa subunit which corresponded to the target size of the full (physiologic) activity NADH:nitrate reductase. These results suggested that the partial activities resided on functionally independent domains and that radiation inactivation may be due to localized rather than extensive damage to protein structure. The present study extends these observations and addresses several associated questions. Monophasic plots were observed over a wide range of radiation doses, suggesting a single activity component in each case. No apparent differences were observed over a 10-fold range of concentration for each substrate, suggesting that the observed slopes were not due to marked changes in Km values. Apparent target sizes estimated for partial activities associated with native enzyme and with limited proteolysis products of native enzyme suggested that the functional size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis is independent of the size of the polypeptide chain. The presence of free radical scavengers during irradiation reduced the apparent target size of both the physiologic and partial activities by an amount ranging from 24 to 43%, suggesting that a free radical mechanism is at least partially responsible for the inactivation. Immunoblot analysis of nitrate reductase irradiated in the presence of free radical scavengers revealed formation of distinct bands at 90, 75, and 40 kDa with increasing doses of irradiation rather than complete destruction of the polypeptide chain

  3. Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edman, J C; Edman, U; Cao, Mi-Mi

    1989-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolate: NADP+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.5.1.3) cDNA sequences have been isolated by their ability to confer trimethoprim resistance to Escherichia coli. Consistent with the recent conclusion that P. carinii is a member of the Fungi...

  4. The 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase gene from Taxus media: Cloning, characterization and functional identification. Y Sun, M Chen, J Tang, W Liu, C Yang, Y Yang, X Lan, M Hsieh, Z Liao ...

  5. Nitrite reductase activity and inhibition of H₂S biogenesis by human cystathionine ß-synthase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gherasim

    Full Text Available Nitrite was recognized as a potent vasodilator >130 years and has more recently emerged as an endogenous signaling molecule and modulator of gene expression. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate nitrite metabolism is essential for its use as a potential diagnostic marker as well as therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we have identified human cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS as a new player in nitrite reduction with implications for the nitrite-dependent control of H₂S production. This novel activity of CBS exploits the catalytic property of its unusual heme cofactor to reduce nitrite and generate NO. Evidence for the possible physiological relevance of this reaction is provided by the formation of ferrous-nitrosyl (Fe(II-NO CBS in the presence of NADPH, the human diflavin methionine synthase reductase (MSR and nitrite. Formation of Fe(II-NO CBS via its nitrite reductase activity inhibits CBS, providing an avenue for regulating biogenesis of H₂S and cysteine, the limiting reagent for synthesis of glutathione, a major antioxidant. Our results also suggest a possible role for CBS in intracellular NO biogenesis particularly under hypoxic conditions. The participation of a regulatory heme cofactor in CBS in nitrite reduction is unexpected and expands the repertoire of proteins that can liberate NO from the intracellular nitrite pool. Our results reveal a potential molecular mechanism for cross-talk between nitrite, NO and H₂S biology.

  6. The role of HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in endothelial dysfunction and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Gelosa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Gelosa1, Mauro Cimino2, Alice Pignieri1, Elena Tremoli1,3, Uliano Guerrini1, Luigi Sironi11Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milan, Italy; 2Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Carlo Bo University of Urbino, Italy; 3Monzino Cardiologic Center IRCCS, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Statin-induced inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase reduces cholesterol production and prevents the formation of many non-steroidal isoprenoid compounds, such as farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, that act as lipid attachments for the post-translational modification of various proteins, including the G-proteins and transcription factors involved in a number of cell processes. However, the blockade of isoprenylation elicited by statin treatment also has biological effects on cell function that go beyond the decrease in cholesterol synthesis: these are the so-called “pleiotropic” effects that mainly relate to vascular function. Endothelial dysfunction is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events that correlates with inflammation markers/mediators and robust predictors of cardiovascular diseases such as increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. The results of in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the statins have beneficial effects unrelated to cholesterol lowering, such as improving endothelial function, increasing myocardial perfusion, and enhancing the availability of nitric oxide. This review describes the pleiotropic effects of statins that may be involved in modulating/preventing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory processes, as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which they improve endothelial function.Keywords: statins; inflammation; endothelial dysfunction; nitric oxide; HMG-CoA reductase

  7. Structure-activity relationships of lanostane-type triterpenoids from Ganoderma lingzhi as α-glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatmawati, Sri; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2013-11-01

    A series of lanostane-type triterpenoids, identified as ganoderma alcohols and ganoderma acids, were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lingzhi. Some of these compounds were confirmed as active inhibitors of the in vitro human recombinant aldose reductase. This paper aims to explain the structural requirement for α-glucosidase inhibition. Our structure-activity studies of ganoderma alcohols showed that the OH substituent at C-3 and the double-bond moiety at C-24 and C-25 are necessary to increase α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. The structure-activity relationships of ganoderma acids revealed that the OH substituent at C-11 is an important feature and that the carboxylic group in the side chain is essential for the recognition of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Moreover, the double-bond moiety at C-20 and C-22 in the side chain and the OH substituent at C-3 of ganoderma acids improve α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. These results provide an approach with which to consider the structural requirements of lanostane-type triterpenoids from G. lingzhi. An understanding of these requirements is considered necessary in order to improve a new type of α-glucosidase inhibitor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel bacterial sulfur oxygenase reductases from bioreactors treating gold-bearing concentrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Z-W; Liu, Y-Y; Wu, J-F

    2007-01-01

    The microbial community and sulfur oxygenase reductases of metagenomic DNA from bioreactors treating gold-bearing concentrates were studied by 16S rRNA library, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), conventional cultivation, and molecular cloning. Results indicated that major bacterial......) of bacteria and archaea were 4.59 x 10(9) and 6.68 x 10(5), respectively. Bacterial strains representing Acidithiobacillus, Leptospirillum, and Sulfobacillus were isolated from the bioreactors. To study sulfur oxidation in the reactors, pairs of new PCR primers were designed for the detection of sulfur...... oxygenase reductase (SOR) genes. Three sor-like genes, namely, sor (Fx), sor (SA), and sor (SB) were identified from metagenomic DNAs of the bioreactors. The sor (Fx) is an inactivated SOR gene and is identical to the pseudo-SOR gene of Ferroplasma acidarmanus. The sor (SA) and sor (SB) showed...

  9. Influence of rete testis fluid deprivation on the kinetic parameters of goat epididymal 5 alpha-reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelce, W R; Lubis, A M; Braun, W F; Youngquist, R S; Ganjam, V K

    1990-01-01

    A surgical technique to cannulate the rete testis of the goat was utilized to examine the effects of rete testis fluid (RTF) deprivation on the enzymatic activity of epididymal 5 alpha-reductase. Kinetic techniques were used to determine whether the regional enzymatic effect of RTF deprivation is to decrease the apparent number of 5 alpha-reductase active sites or the catalytic activity of each active site within the epididymal epithelium. Paired comparisons of (Vmax)app and (Km)app values between control and RTF-deprived epididymides indicated that RTF deprivation affected the value of (Vmax)app with no apparent change in the values of (Km)app in caput, corpus, and cauda epididymal regions. We conclude that RTF deprivation in the goat epididymis for 7 days results in a decreased number of apparent 5 alpha-reductase active sites within the epididymal epithelium.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the NADPH-dependent 3-quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Kataoka, Michihiko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Uzura, Atsuko; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    (R)-3-Quinuclidinol is a useful compound that is applicable to the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals. The NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase 3-­quinuclidinone reductase from Rhodotorula rubra catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of 3-quinuclidinone to (R)-3-quinuclidinol and is expected to be utilized in industrial production of this alcohol. 3-Quinuclidinone reductase from R. rubra was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni-affinity and ion-exchange column chromatography. Crystals of the protein were obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 8000 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to space group P41212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 91.3, c = 265.4 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.2 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four molecules of the protein and the solvent content was 48.4%. PMID:19478454

  11. Intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    ) as the level of reduction increased in both the WT and the His mutant. Equilibrium standard enthalpy and entropy changes and activation parameters of this ET process were determined. We concluded that negative cooperativity is a common feature among the cd(1) nitrite reductases, and we discuss this control...

  12. The Enzymatic and Structural Basis for Inhibition of Echinococcus granulosus Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase by Gold(I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Gustavo; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yang; Bonilla, Mariana; Yu, Long; Novikov, Andrey; Virginio, Veridiana G; Ferreira, Henrique B; Vieites, Marisol; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Gambino, Dinorah; Dai, Shaodong

    2017-12-20

    New drugs are needed to treat flatworm infections that cause severe human diseases such as schistosomiasis. The unique flatworm enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR), structurally different from the human enzyme, is a key drug target. Structural studies of the flatworm Echinococcus granulosus TGR, free and complexed with Au I -MPO, a novel gold inhibitor, together with inhibition assays were performed. Au I -MPO is a potent TGR inhibitor that achieves 75% inhibition at a 1:1 TGR:Au ratio and efficiently kills E. granulosus in vitro. The structures revealed salient insights: (i) unique monomer-monomer interactions, (ii) distinct binding sites for thioredoxin and the glutaredoxin (Grx) domain, (iii) a single glutathione disulfide reduction site in the Grx domain, (iv) rotation of the Grx domain toward the Sec-containing redox active site, and (v) a single gold atom bound to Cys 519 and Cys 573 in the Au I -TGR complex. Structural modeling suggests that these residues are involved in the stabilization of the Sec-containing C-terminus. Consistently, Cys→Ser mutations in these residues decreased TGR activities. Mass spectroscopy confirmed these cysteines are the primary binding site. The identification of a primary site for gold binding and the structural model provide a basis for gold compound optimization through scaffold adjustments. The structural study revealed that TGR functions are achieved not only through a mobile Sec-containing redox center but also by rotation of the Grx domain and distinct binding sites for Grx domain and thioredoxin. The conserved Cys 519 and Cys 573 residues targeted by gold assist catalysis through stabilization of the Sec-containing redox center. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1491-1504.

  13. The Effect of Nitrate Levels and Harvest Times on Fe, Zn, Cu, and K, Concentrations and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Lettuce and Spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Gheshlaghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables are considered as the main sources of nitrate in the human diet. In order to investigate the effect of nitrate levels and harvest times on nitrate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu and K in Lettuce and Spinach and their relation to nitrate accumulation in these leafy vegetables, two harvest times (29 and 46 days after transplanting, two vegetable species of lettuce and spinach and two concentrations of nitrate (10 and 20 mM were used in a hydroponics greenhouse experiment with a completely randomized design and 3 replications. Modified Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solutions were used for the experiment. The results indicated that by increasing nitrate concentration of solution, nitrate accumulation in roots and shoots of lettuce and spinach increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05, and the same trend was observed for the nitrate reductase activity in the shoots of the two species. Increasing the nitrate concentrations of solution, reduced the shoot dry weight and the concentration of Fe and Cu in both species, where as it increased the K and Zn concentrations in the shoots of the two species in each both harvest times, the nitrate accumulation increased, but the nitrate reductase activity decreased in the shoots of the two species over the course of the growth. The Concentration of Fe, Cu and K decreased in the shoots of lettuce and the spinach with the time, despite the increase in Zn concentration in the shoots. The results also indicated that increasing nitrate concentrations of solution to the levels greater than the plant capacity for reduction and net uptake of nitrate, leads to the nitrate accumulation in the plants. Nitrate accumulation in plant tissue led to decreases in fresh shoot yield and Fe and Cu concentrations and nitrate reductase activities in both lettuce and spinach.

  14. Identification of a Novel Epoxyqueuosine Reductase Family by Comparative Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallot, Rémi; Ross, Robert; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bruner, Steven D; Limbach, Patrick A; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2017-03-17

    The reduction of epoxyqueuosine (oQ) is the last step in the synthesis of the tRNA modification queuosine (Q). While the epoxyqueuosine reductase (EC 1.17.99.6) enzymatic activity was first described 30 years ago, the encoding gene queG was only identified in Escherichia coli in 2011. Interestingly, queG is absent from a large number of sequenced genomes that harbor Q synthesis or salvage genes, suggesting the existence of an alternative epoxyqueuosine reductase in these organisms. By analyzing phylogenetic distributions, physical gene clustering, and fusions, members of the Domain of Unknown Function 208 (DUF208) family were predicted to encode for an alternative epoxyqueuosine reductase. This prediction was validated with genetic methods. The Q modification is present in Lactobacillus salivarius, an organism missing queG but harboring the duf208 gene. Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is one of the few organisms that harbor both QueG and DUF208, and deletion of both corresponding genes was required to observe the absence of Q and the accumulation of oQ in tRNA. Finally, the conversion oQ to Q was restored in an E. coli queG mutant by complementation with plasmids harboring duf208 genes from different bacteria. Members of the DUF208 family are not homologous to QueG enzymes, and thus, duf208 is a non-orthologous replacement of queG. We propose to name DUF208 encoding genes as queH. While QueH contains conserved cysteines that could be involved in the coordination of a Fe/S center in a similar fashion to what has been identified in QueG, no cobalamin was identified associated with recombinant QueH protein.

  15. Nitrate reductase activity of Staphylococcus carnosus affecting the color formation in cured raw ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse Née Danz, Ramona; Gibis, Monika; Schmidt, Herbert; Weiss, Jochen

    2016-07-01

    The influence of the nitrate reductase activity of two Staphylococcus carnosus strains used as starter cultures on the formation of nitrate, nitrite and color pigments in cured raw ham was investigated. In this context, microbiological, chemical and multivariate image analyses were carried out on cured raw hams, which were injected with different brines containing either nitrite or nitrate, with or without the S. carnosus starter cultures. During processing and storage, the viable counts of staphylococci remained constant at 6.5logcfu/g in the hams inoculated with starter cultures, while the background microbiota of the hams processed without the starter cultures developed after 14days. Those cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 7036 (high nitrate reductase activity) showed the highest decrease in nitrate and high nitrite concentrations in the end product, but were still in the range of the legal European level. The hams cured with nitrate and without starter culture or with the other strain, S. carnosus LTH 3838 (low nitrate reductase activity) showed higher residual nitrate levels and a lower nitrite content in the end product. The multivariate image analysis identified spatial and temporal differences in the meat pigment profiles of the differently cured hams. The cured hams inoculated with S. carnosus LTH 3838 showed an uncured core due to a delay in pigment formation. Therefore, the selection of starter cultures based on their nitrate reductase activity is a key point in the formation of curing compounds and color pigments in cured raw ham manufacture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. NADPH-Thioredoxin Reductase C Mediates the Response to Oxidative Stress and Thermotolerance in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp PCC7120

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Riego, Ana M.; Mata-Cabana, Alejandro; Galmozzi, CarlaV.; Florencio, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    NADPH-thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is a bimodular enzyme composed of an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase and a thiioredoxin domain extension in the same protein. In plants, NTRC has been described to be involved in the protection of the chloroplast against oxidative stress damage through reduction of

  17. Sterol-induced Dislocation of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase from Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes into the Cytosol through a Subcellular Compartment Resembling Lipid Droplets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Isamu Z.; Liu, Pingsheng; Zehmer, John K.; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Jo, Youngah; Anderson, Richard G. W.; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    Sterol-induced binding to Insigs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) allows for ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis. This ubiquitination marks reductase for recognition by the ATPase VCP/p97, which mediates extraction and delivery of reductase from ER membranes to cytosolic 26 S proteasomes for degradation. Here, we report that reductase becomes dislocated from ER membranes into the cytosol of sterol-treated cells. This dislocation exhibits an absolute requirement for the actions of Insigs and VCP/p97. Reductase also appears in a buoyant fraction of sterol-treated cells that co-purifies with lipid droplets, cytosolic organelles traditionally regarded as storage depots for neutral lipids such as triglycerides and cholesteryl esters. Genetic, biochemical, and localization studies suggest a model in which reductase is dislodged into the cytosol from an ER subdomain closely associated with lipid droplets. PMID:20406816

  18. ePrescribing: Reducing Costs through In-Class Therapeutic Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Shane P; Chakravarthy, Rohini; Johnson, Kevin B; Miller, William L; Olson, Julie; Wickizer, Marleen; Johnson, Nate N; Ohmer, Rick; Uskavitch, David R; Bernard, Gordon R; Neal, Erin B; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2016-12-14

    Spending on pharmaceuticals in the US reached $373.9 billion in 2014. Therapeutic interchange offers potential medication cost savings by replacing a prescribed drug for an equally efficacious therapeutic alternative. Hard-stop therapeutic interchange recommendation alerts were developed for four medication classes (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, serotonin receptor agonists, intranasal steroid sprays, and proton-pump inhibitors) in an electronic prescription-writing tool for outpatient prescriptions. Using prescription data from January 2012 to June 2015, the Compliance Ratio (CR) was calculated by dividing the number of prescriptions with recommended therapeutic interchange medications by the number of prescriptions with non-recommended medications to measure effectiveness. To explore potential cost savings, prescription data and medication costs were analyzed for the 45,000 Vanderbilt Employee Health Plan members. For all medication classes, significant improvements were demonstrated - the CR improved (proton-pump inhibitors 2.8 to 5.32, nasal steroids 2.44 to 8.16, statins 2.06 to 5.51, and serotonin receptor agonists 0.8 to 1.52). Quarterly savings through the four therapeutic interchange interventions combined exceeded $200,000 with an estimated annual savings for the health plan of $800,000, or more than $17 per member. A therapeutic interchange clinical decision support tool at the point of prescribing resulted in increased compliance with recommendations for outpatient prescriptions while producing substantial cost savings to the Vanderbilt Employee Health Plan - $17.77 per member per year. Therapeutic interchange rules require rational targeting, appropriate governance, and vigilant content updates.

  19. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

  20. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with [ 14 C]iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined

  1. Discovery of nonsteroidal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibitors by pharmacophore-based screening of virtual compound libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Daniela; Nashev, Lyubomir G; Kirchmair, Johannes; Laggner, Christian; Wolber, Gerhard; Langer, Thierry; Odermatt, Alex

    2008-07-24

    17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) plays a pivotal role in the local synthesis of the most potent estrogen estradiol. Its expression is a prognostic marker for the outcome of patients with breast cancer and inhibition of 17beta-HSD1 is currently under consideration for breast cancer prevention and treatment. We aimed to identify nonsteroidal 17beta-HSD1 inhibitor scaffolds by virtual screening with pharmacophore models built from crystal structures containing steroidal compounds. The most promising model was validated by comparing predicted and experimentally determined inhibitory activities of several flavonoids. Subsequently, a virtual library of nonsteroidal compounds was screened against the 3D pharmacophore. Analysis of 14 selected compounds yielded four that inhibited the activity of human 17beta-HSD1 (IC 50 below 50 microM). Specificity assessment of identified 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors emphasized the importance of including related short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) members to analyze off-target effects. Compound 29 displayed at least 10-fold selectivity over the related SDR enzymes tested.

  2. Cloning, expression and antigenicity of the L. donovani reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A T; Kemp, K; Theander, T G

    2001-01-01

    (K). Only 2 of 22 plasma samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis were found to have detectable anti-reductase antibodies and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from one of three individuals previously infected with visceral leishmaniasis proliferated in the presence of recombinant...

  3. Structural rearrangements occurring upon cofactor binding in the Mycobacterium smegmatis β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase MabA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küssau, Tanja; Flipo, Marion; Van Wyk, Niel; Viljoen, Albertus; Olieric, Vincent; Kremer, Laurent; Blaise, Mickaël

    2018-05-01

    In mycobacteria, the ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase MabA (designated FabG in other bacteria) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of β-ketoacyl-ACP substrates to β-hydroxyacyl-ACP products. This first reductive step in the fatty-acid biosynthesis elongation cycle is essential for bacteria, which makes MabA/FabG an interesting drug target. To date, however, very few molecules targeting FabG have been discovered and MabA remains the only enzyme of the mycobacterial type II fatty-acid synthase that lacks specific inhibitors. Despite the existence of several MabA/FabG crystal structures, the structural rearrangement that occurs upon cofactor binding is still not fully understood. Therefore, unlocking this knowledge gap could help in the design of new inhibitors. Here, high-resolution crystal structures of MabA from Mycobacterium smegmatis in its apo, NADP + -bound and NADPH-bound forms are reported. Comparison of these crystal structures reveals the structural reorganization of the lid region covering the active site of the enzyme. The crystal structure of the apo form revealed numerous residues that trigger steric hindrance to the binding of NADPH and substrate. Upon NADPH binding, these residues are pushed away from the active site, allowing the enzyme to adopt an open conformation. The transition from an NADPH-bound to an NADP + -bound form is likely to facilitate release of the product. These results may be useful for subsequent rational drug design and/or for in silico drug-screening approaches targeting MabA/FabG.

  4. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Codd, Rachel, E-mail: rachel.codd@sydney.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a

  6. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. ► Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. ► Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. ► Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo–MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe–4S] iron–sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap Sgel ) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap Sput ) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap Sgel and Nap Sput occurred at 54.5 and 65 °C, respectively. When Nap Sgel was preincubated at 21–70 °C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 °C, which suggested that Nap Sgel was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap Sput , did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 °C, Nap Sgel reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap Sput did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap Sgel that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap Sgel cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap Sgel using a mesophilic template with 66% amino acid identity showed the majority of substitutions occurred at the protein surface distal to the Mo–MGD cofactor. Two mesophilic ↔ psychrophilic

  7. A New Type of YumC-Like Ferredoxin (Flavodoxin) Reductase Is Involved in Ribonucleotide Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jun; Shen, Jing; Solem, Christian

    2015-01-01

    . subtilis but that the addition of deoxynucleosides cannot compensate for the lethal phenotype displayed by the B. subtilis yumC knockout mutant. Ferredoxin (flavodoxin) reductase (FdR) is involved in many important reactions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, such as photosynthesis, nitrate reduction, etc. The recently...... ribonucleotide reductase, which represents the workhorse for the bioconversion of nucleotides to deoxynucleotides in many prokaryotes and eukaryotic pathogens under aerobic conditions. As the partner of the flavodoxin (NrdI), the key FdR is missing in the current model describing the class Ib system...

  8. Growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under continuous low oxygen concentration sparging: impact of the membrane-bound oxygen reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, Fanny; Brasseur, Gael; Pieulle, Laetitia; Valette, Odile; Hirschler-Réa, Agnès; Fardeau, Marie Laure; Dolla, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH) exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/o)o3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox) and double deletion (Δcoxbd) mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97%) but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining reducing conditions

  9. Growth of the obligate anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough under continuous low oxygen concentration sparging: impact of the membrane-bound oxygen reductases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ramel

    Full Text Available Although obligate anaerobe, the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH exhibits high aerotolerance that involves several enzymatic systems, including two membrane-bound oxygen reductases, a bd-quinol oxidase and a cc(b/oo3 cytochrome oxidase. Effect of constant low oxygen concentration on growth and morphology of the wild-type, single (Δbd, Δcox and double deletion (Δcoxbd mutant strains of the genes encoding these oxygen reductases was studied. When both wild-type and deletion mutant strains were cultured in lactate/sulfate medium under constant 0.02% O2 sparging, they were able to grow but the final biomasses and the growth yield were lower than that obtained under anaerobic conditions. At the end of the growth, lactate was not completely consumed and when conditions were then switched to anaerobic, growth resumed. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that a large majority of the cells were then able to divide (over 97% but the time to recover a complete division event was longer for single deletion mutant Δbd than for the three other strains. Determination of the molar growth yields on lactate suggested that a part of the energy gained from lactate oxidation was derived toward cells protection/repairing against oxidative conditions rather than biosynthesis, and that this part was higher in the single deletion mutant Δbd and, to a lesser extent, Δcox strains. Our data show that when DvH encounters oxidative conditions, it is able to stop growing and to rapidly resume growing when conditions are switched to anaerobic, suggesting that it enters active dormancy sate under oxidative conditions. We propose that the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR plays a central role in this phenomenon by reversibly switching from an oxidative-sensitive fully active state to an oxidative-insensitive inactive state. The oxygen reductases, and especially the bd-quinol oxidase, would have a crucial function by maintaining

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckschlager, Tomas; Plch, Johana; Stiborova, Marie; Hrabeta, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferases (HAT). HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors as Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Eckschlager

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinogenesis cannot be explained only by genetic alterations, but also involves epigenetic processes. Modification of histones by acetylation plays a key role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression and is controlled by the balance between histone deacetylases (HDAC and histone acetyltransferases (HAT. HDAC inhibitors induce cancer cell cycle arrest, differentiation and cell death, reduce angiogenesis and modulate immune response. Mechanisms of anticancer effects of HDAC inhibitors are not uniform; they may be different and depend on the cancer type, HDAC inhibitors, doses, etc. HDAC inhibitors seem to be promising anti-cancer drugs particularly in the combination with other anti-cancer drugs and/or radiotherapy. HDAC inhibitors vorinostat, romidepsin and belinostat have been approved for some T-cell lymphoma and panobinostat for multiple myeloma. Other HDAC inhibitors are in clinical trials for the treatment of hematological and solid malignancies. The results of such studies are promising but further larger studies are needed. Because of the reversibility of epigenetic changes during cancer development, the potency of epigenetic therapies seems to be of great importance. Here, we summarize the data on different classes of HDAC inhibitors, mechanisms of their actions and discuss novel results of preclinical and clinical studies, including the combination with other therapeutic modalities.

  12. Progesterone and DNA Damage Encourage Uterine Cell Proliferation and Decidualization through Up-regulating Ribonucleotide Reductase 2 Expression during Early Pregnancy in Mice*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Feng, Xu-Hui; Deng, Wen-Bo; Ni, Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Jia, Bo; Yang, Xin-Ling; Wang, Tong-Song; Liu, Ji-Long; Su, Ren-Wei; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Qi, Qian-Rong; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Embryo implantation into the maternal uterus is a crucial step for the successful establishment of mammalian pregnancy. Following the attachment of embryo to the uterine luminal epithelium, uterine stromal cells undergo steroid hormone-dependent decidualization, which is characterized by stromal cell proliferation and differentiation. The mechanisms underlying steroid hormone-induced stromal cell proliferation and differentiation during decidualization are still poorly understood. Ribonucleotide reductase, consisting of two subunits (RRM1 and RRM2), is a rate-limiting enzyme in deoxynucleotide production for DNA synthesis and plays an important role in cell proliferation and tumorgenicity. Based on our microarray analysis, Rrm2 expression was significantly higher at implantation sites compared with interimplantation sites in mouse uterus. However, the expression, regulation, and function of RRM2 in mouse uterus during embryo implantation and decidualization are still unknown. Here we show that although both RRM1 and RRM2 expression are markedly induced in mouse uterine stromal cells undergoing decidualization, only RRM2 is regulated by progesterone, a key regulator of decidualization. Further studies showed that the induction of progesterone on RRM2 expression in stromal cells is mediated by the AKT/c-MYC pathway. RRM2 can also be induced by replication stress and DNA damage during decidualization through the ATR/ATM-CHK1-E2F1 pathway. The weight of implantation sites and deciduoma was effectively reduced by specific inhibitors for RRM2. The expression of decidual/trophoblast prolactin-related protein (Dtprp), a reliable marker for decidualization in mice, was significantly reduced in deciduoma and steroid-induced decidual cells after HU treatment. Therefore, RRM2 may be an important effector of progesterone signaling to induce cell proliferation and decidualization in mouse uterus. PMID:22403396

  13. Microbial production of branched-chain dicarboxylate 2-methylsuccinic acid via enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Yang, Yaping; Zhang, Ruihua; Shen, Xiaolin; Chen, Zhenya; Wang, Jia; Yuan, Qipeng; Yan, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    2-Methylsuccinic acid (2-MSA) is a C5 branched-chain dicarboxylate that serves as an attractive synthon for the synthesis of polymers with extensive applications in coatings, cosmetic solvents and bioplastics. However, the lack of natural pathways for 2-MSA biosynthesis has limited its application as a promising bio-replacement. Herein, we conceived a non-natural three-step biosynthetic route for 2-MSA, via employing the citramalate pathway in combination with enoate reductase-mediated bioreduction of the pathway intermediate citraconate. First, over-expression of codon-optimized citramalate synthase variant CimA* from Methanococcus jannaschii, endogenous isopropylmalate isomerase EcLeuCD and enoate reductase YqjM from Bacillus subtilis allowed the production of 2-MSA in Escherichia coli for the first time, with a titer of 0.35g/L in shake flask experiments. Subsequent screening of YqjM-like enoate reductases of different bacterial origins enabled identification and characterization of a new NAD(P)H-dependent enoate reductase KpnER from Klebsiella pneumoniae, which exhibited higher activity towards citraconate than YqjM. Incorporation of KpnER into the 2-MSA biosynthetic pathway led to 2-MSA production improvement to a titer of 0.96g/L in aerobic condition. Subsequent optimizations including cofactor regeneration, microaerobic cultivation and host strain engineering, boosted 2-MSA titer to 3.61g/L with a molar yield of 0.36 in shake flask experiments. This work established a promising platform for 2-MSA bioproduction, which enabled the highest titer of 2-MSA production in microbial hosts so far. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2017-08-02

    In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  15. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Nocek, Boguslaw; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2017-08-02

    In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2). In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER) that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  16. Functional Characterization of Four Putative δ1-Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Reductases from Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Forlani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In most living organisms, the amino acid proline is synthesized starting from both glutamate and ornithine. In prokaryotes, in the absence of an ornithine cyclodeaminase that has been identified to date only in a small number of soil and plant bacteria, these pathways share the last step, the reduction of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C catalyzed by P5C reductase (EC 1.5.1.2. In several species, multiple forms of P5C reductase have been reported, possibly reflecting the dual function of proline. Aside from its common role as a building block of proteins, proline is indeed also involved in the cellular response to osmotic and oxidative stress conditions. Genome analysis of Bacillus subtilis identifies the presence of four genes (ProH, ProI, ProG, and ComER that, based on bioinformatic and phylogenic studies, were defined as respectively coding a putative P5C reductase. Here we describe the cloning, heterologous expression, functional analysis and small-angle X-ray scattering studies of the four affinity-purified proteins. Results showed that two of them, namely ProI and ComER, lost their catalytic efficiency or underwent subfunctionalization. In the case of ComER, this could be likely explained by the loss of the ability to form a dimer, which has been previously shown to be an essential structural feature of the catalytically active P5C reductase. The properties of the two active enzymes are consistent with a constitutive role for ProG, and suggest that ProH expression may be beneficial to satisfy an increased need for proline.

  17. An approximate but efficient method to calculate free energy trends by computer simulation: Application to dihydrofolate reductase-inhibitor complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Paul R.; Mark, Alan E.; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F.

    1993-06-01

    Derivatives of free energy differences have been calculated by molecular dynamics techniques. The systems under study were ternary complexes of Trimethoprim (TMP) with dihydrofolate reductases of E. coli and chicken liver, containing the cofactor NADPH. Derivatives are taken with respect to modification of TMP, with emphasis on altering the 3-, 4- and 5-substituents of the phenyl ring. A linear approximation allows the encompassing of a whole set of modifications in a single simulation, as opposed to a full perturbation calculation, which requires a separate simulation for each modification. In the case considered here, the proposed technique requires a factor of 1000 less computing effort than a full free energy perturbation calculation. For the linear approximation to yield a significant result, one has to find ways of choosing the perturbation evolution, such that the initial trend mirrors the full calculation. The generation of new atoms requires a careful treatment of the singular terms in the non-bonded interaction. The result can be represented by maps of the changed molecule, which indicate whether complex formation is favoured under movement of partial charges and change in atom polarizabilities. Comparison with experimental measurements of inhibition constants reveals fair agreement in the range of values covered. However, detailed comparison fails to show a significant correlation. Possible reasons for the most pronounced deviations are given.

  18. Association study of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutation with cerebral venous thrombosis in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Habib; Soheili, Zahra; Samiei, Shahram; Soltanpour, Mohammad S

    2015-12-01

    There are limited data on the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and hyperhomocysteinemia as risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis in Iranian population. We examined a possible association between fasting plasma homocysteine levels, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism, and cerebral venous thrombosis in 50 patients with a diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (20-63 years old) and 75 healthy controls (18-65 years old). Genotyping of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and homocysteine levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in cerebral venous thrombosis patients than in controls (P = 0.015). Moreover, plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype compared to 677CT and 677CC genotypes in both cerebral venous thrombosis patients (P = 0.01) and controls (P = 0.03). Neither 677CT heterozygote genotype [odds ratio (OR) 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-2.84, P = 0.556] nor 677TT homozygote genotype (OR 1.73, 95% CI 0.32-9.21, P = 0.833) was significantly associated with cerebral venous thrombosis. Additionally, no significant differences in the frequency of 677T allele between cerebral venous thrombosis patients and controls were identified (OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.69-2.50, P = 0.512). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are significant risk factors for cerebral venous thrombosis. Also, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677TT genotype is not linked with cerebral venous thrombosis, but is a determinant of elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

  19. Dissecting molecular interactions involved in recognition of target disulfides by the barley thioredoxin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Maeda, Kenji; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α-amylase/subtilisin inhibi......Thioredoxin reduces disulfide bonds, thus regulating activities of target proteins in various biological systems, e.g., inactivation of inhibitors of starch hydrolases and proteases in germinating plant seeds. In the three-dimensional structure of a complex with barley α...... thioredoxin reductase. HvTrxh2 M88G and M88A adjacent to the invariant cis-proline lost efficiency in both BASI disulfide reduction and recycling by thioredoxin reductase. These effects were further pronounced in M88P lacking a backbone NH group. Remarkably, HvTrxh2 E86R in the same loop displayed overall...... retained catalytic properties, with the exception of a 3-fold increased activity toward BASI. From the 104VGA106 loop, a backbone hydrogen bond donated by A106 appears to be important for target disulfide recognition as A106P lost 90% activity toward BASI but was efficiently recycled by thioredoxin...

  20. The effectiveness of reducing the daily dose of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finasteride, a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, is an established treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The recommended dosage is 5 mg a day, however case reports have show effectiveness with lower doses. The objective of the current study was to determine in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with finasteride 5 mg daily, if they will maintain subjective and objective improvements in urinary obstruction when treated with 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Methods In an open label, prospective study, 40 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with 5 mg of finasteride, took 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Measurements included AUA symptom score, maximum flow rate, voided volume and PSA. Results There were no significant changes in maximum flow rate, voided volume, or AUA symptom score after one year of finasteride 2.5 mg daily therapy. PSA increased significantly, p Conclusions The daily dose of finasteride can be reduced to 2.5 mg daily without significant effect on subjective and objective measures of urinary obstruction. Although statistically significant increases in PSA are noted when reducing the daily finasteride dose from 5 mg to 2.5 mg, the clinical significance of a mean .6 ng/ml increase in PSA is questionable.

  1. The Drosophila carbonyl reductase sniffer prevents oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Jose A; Ulschmid, Julia K; Gruenewald, Christoph; Moehle, Christoph; Kretzschmar, Doris; Becker, Katja; Schneuwly, Stephan

    2004-05-04

    A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a common underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, Creutzfeld-Jakob and Parkinson's diseases. Despite the increasing number of reports finding a causal relation between oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, little is known about the genetic elements that confer protection against the deleterious effects of oxidation in neurons. We have isolated and characterized the Drosophila melanogaster gene sniffer, whose function is essential for preventing age-related neurodegeneration. In addition, we demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct cause of neurodegeneration in the Drosophila central nervous system and that reduction of sniffer activity leads to neuronal cell death. The overexpression of the gene confers neuronal protection against oxygen-induced apoptosis, increases resistance of flies to experimental normobaric hyperoxia, and improves general locomotor fitness. Sniffer belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzymes and exhibits carbonyl reductase activity. This is the first in vivo evidence of the direct and important implication of this enzyme as a neuroprotective agent in the cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress.

  2. Cytochrome b5 reductase is the component from neuronal synaptic plasma membrane vesicles that generates superoxide anion upon stimulation by cytochrome c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro K. Samhan-Arias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we measured the effect of cytochrome c on the NADH-dependent superoxide anion production by synaptic plasma membrane vesicles from rat brain. In these membranes, the cytochrome c stimulated NADH-dependent superoxide anion production was inhibited by antibodies against cytochrome b5 reductase linking the production to this enzyme. Measurement of the superoxide anion radical generated by purified recombinant soluble and membrane cytochrome b5 reductase corroborates the production of the radical by different enzyme isoforms. In the presence of cytochrome c, a burst of superoxide anion as well as the reduction of cytochrome c by cytochrome b5 reductase was measured. Complex formation between both proteins suggests that cytochrome b5 reductase is one of the major partners of cytochrome c upon its release from mitochondria to the cytosol during apoptosis. Superoxide anion production and cytochrome c reduction are the consequences of the stimulated NADH consumption by cytochrome b5 reductase upon complex formation with cytochrome c and suggest a major role of this enzyme as an anti-apoptotic protein during cell death.

  3. Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XXXII. aminopeptidase N and aldose reductase inhibitors from Sinocrassula indica: structures of sinocrassosides B(4), B(5), C(1), and D(1)-D(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Xie, Haihui; Wang, Tao; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2008-10-01

    From the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Sinocrassula indica (Crassulaceae), six new flavonol glycosides, sinocrassosides B(4) (1), B(5) (2), C(1) (3), D(1) (4), D(2) (5), and D(3) (6), were isolated together with 30 compounds. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, several constituents were found to show inhibitory effects on aminopeptidase N and aldose reductase.

  4. Hydroxyurea-resistant vaccinia virus: overproduction of ribonucleotide reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slabaugh, M.B.; Mathews, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Repeated passage of vaccinia virus in increasing concentrations of hydroxyurea followed by plaque purification resulted in the isolation of variants capable of growth in 5 mM hydroxyurea, a drug concentration which inhibited the reproduction of wild-type vaccinia virus 1000-fold. Analyses of viral protein synthesis by using [ 35 S]methionine pulse-labeling at intervals throughout the infection cycle revealed that all isolates overproduced a 34,000-molecular-weight (MW) early polypeptide. Measurement of ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity after infection indicated that 4- to 10-fold more activity was induced by hydroxyurea-resistant viruses than by the wild-type virus. A two-step partial purification resulted in a substantial enrichment for the 34,000-MW protein from extracts of wild-type and hydroxyurea-resistant-virus-infected, but not mock-infected, cells. In the presence of the drug, the isolates incorporated [ 3 H]thymidine into DNA earlier and a rate substantially greater than that of the wild type, although the onset of DNA synthesis was delayed in both cases. The drug resistance trait was markedly unstable in all isolates. In the absence of selective pressure, plaque-purified isolated readily segregated progeny that displayed a wide range of resistance phenotypes. The results of this study indicate that vaccinia virus encodes a subunit of ribonucleotide reductase which is 34,000-MW early protein whose overproduction confers hydroxyurea resistance on reproducing viruses

  5. YqhD. A broad-substrate range aldehyde reductase with various applications in production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarboe, Laura R. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2011-01-15

    The Escherichia coli NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase YqhD has contributed to a variety of metabolic engineering projects for production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals. As a scavenger of toxic aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation, YqhD has reductase activity for a broad range of short-chain aldehydes, including butyraldehyde, glyceraldehyde, malondialdehyde, isobutyraldehyde, methylglyoxal, propanealdehyde, acrolein, furfural, glyoxal, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, glycolaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetol. This reductase activity has proven useful for the production of biorenewable fuels and chemicals, such as isobutanol and 1,3- and 1,2-propanediol; additional capability exists for production of 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and allyl alcohol. A drawback of this reductase activity is the diversion of valuable NADPH away from biosynthesis. This YqhD-mediated NADPH depletion provides sufficient burden to contribute to growth inhibition by furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, inhibitory contaminants of biomass hydrolysate. The structure of YqhD has been characterized, with identification of a Zn atom in the active site. Directed engineering efforts have improved utilization of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and NADPH. Most recently, two independent projects have demonstrated regulation of yqhD by YqhC, where YqhC appears to function as an aldehyde sensor. (orig.)

  6. Multiple receptor conformers based molecular docking study of fluorine enhanced ethionamide with mycobacterium enoyl ACP reductase (InhA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akib Mahmud; Shawon, Jakaria; Halim, Mohammad A

    2017-10-01

    A major limitation in current molecular docking method is that of failure to account for receptor flexibility. Herein we report multiple receptor conformers based molecular docking as a practical alternative to account for the receptor flexibility. Multiple (forty) conformers of Mycobacterium Enoyl ACP Reductase (InhA) are generated from Molecular Dynamics simulation and twenty crystallographic structures of InhA bound to different inhibitors are obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Fluorine directed modifications are performed to currently available anti-tuberculosis drug ethionamide. The modified drugs are optimized using B3LYP 6-31G (d,p) level of theory. Dipole moment, frontier orbital gap and thermodynamical properties such as electronic energy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of these optimized drugs are investigated. These drugs are subsequently docked against the conformers of InhA. Molecular docking against multiple InhA conformations show variation in ligand binding affinity and suggest that Ser94, Gly96, Lys165 and Ile194 amino acids play critical role on strong drug-InhA interaction. Modified drug N1 showed greater binding affinity compared to EN in most conformations. Structure of PDB ID: 2NSD and snapshot conformer at 5.5ns show most favorable binding with N1 compared to other conformers. Fluorine participates in forming fluorine bonds and contributes significantly in increasing binding affinity. Our study reveal that addition of trifluoromethyl group explicitly shows promise in improving thermodynamic properties and in enhancing hydrogen bonding and non-bonded interactions. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation show that EN and N1 remained in the binding pocket similar to the docked pose of EN-InhA and E1-InhA complexes and also suggested that InhA binds to its inhibitor in inhibitor-induced folding manner. ADMET calculations predict modified drugs to have improved pharmacokinetic properties. Our study concludes that multiple receptor conformers based

  7. Insights on the mechanism of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by gold N-heterocyclic carbene compounds using the synthetic linear selenocysteine containing C-terminal peptide hTrxR(488-499): an ESI-MS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Alessandro; Gabbiani, Chiara; Michelucci, Elena; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Papini, Anna Maria; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Ott, Ingo; Messori, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Gold-based drugs typically behave as strong inhibitors of the enzyme thioredoxin reductase (hTrxR), possibly as the consequence of direct Gold(I) coordination to its active site selenocysteine. To gain a deeper insight into the molecular basis of enzyme inhibition and prove gold-selenocysteine coordination, the reactions of three parent Gold(I) NHC compounds with the synthetic C-terminal dodecapeptide of hTrxR containing Selenocysteine at position 498, were investigated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Formation of 1:1 Gold-peptide adducts, though in highly different amounts, was demonstrated in all cases. In these adducts the same [Au-NHC](+) moiety is always associated to the intact peptide. Afterward, tandem MS experiments, conducted on a specific Gold-peptide complex, pointed out that Gold is coordinated to the selenolate group. The relatively large strength of the Gold-selenolate coordinative bond well accounts for potent enzyme inhibition typically afforded by these Gold(I) compounds. In a selected case, the time course of enzyme inhibition was explored. Interestingly, enzyme inhibition turned out to show up very quickly and reached its maximum just few minutes after mixing. Overall, the present results offer some clear insight into the process of thioredoxin reductase inhibition by Gold-based compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Stereoselective hydrogenation of olefins using rhodium-substituted carbonic anhydrase--a new reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Qing; Okrasa, Krzysztof; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2009-01-01

    One usef