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Sample records for reducing sugar concentration

  1. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanny, M.A.I.; Jinap, S.; Bakker, E.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying

  2. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. USE CELLULOSE FOR CLEANING CONCENTRATED SUGAR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kul’neva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Producing high quality intermediate products in the boiling-crystallization station is an actual problem of sugar production. In the production of white sugar brown sugar syrup is not further purified that decreases the quality of the end product. Studies have been conducted using cellulose as an adsorbent for the purification of concentrated sugar solutions, having affinity to dyes and other impurities. Research have been carried out with the intermediate products of the Lebedyan sugar plant. Test results have shown cellulose ability to adsorb the dyes in sugar production. The influence of the adsorbent concentration and the mass fraction of solids in the syrup on the decolorization effect has been studied; rational process parameters have been obtained. It has been found that proceeding an additional adsorption purification of brown sugars syrup allows to reduce the solution color, increase the amount and quality of the end product. Adsorbing means, received from production wastes on the basis of organic resources, have many advantages: economical, environmentally friendly for disposal, safe to use, reliable and efficient in use. Conducted research on using cellulose as adsorbent for treatment of concentrated sugar solutions, having an affinity for colouring matter and other impurities. The experiments were carried out on the intermediates Lebedyanskiy sugar factory. The test results showed the ability of cellulose to adsorb coloring matter of sugar production. To evaluate the effect of bleaching depending on the mass fraction of dry substances prepared yellow juice filtration of sugar concentration of 55, 60, 65 % with subsequent adsorption purification of cellulose. The results of the experiment built adsorption isotherm of dyestuffs. The influence of the concentration of the adsorbent and a mass fraction of solids of juice filtration on the efficiency of decolorization obtained by rational parameters of the process. It is

  4. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  5. Relationships between soluble sugar concentrations in roots and ecosystem stress for first-year sugar maple seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.W.; Reed, D.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Mroz, G.D.; Bagley, S.T. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products

    1996-03-01

    Accumulation of reducing sugars (i.e. glucose and fructose) in plant roots has been consistently correlated with forest dieback and decline and, therefore, has potential as a biological indicator of ecosystem stress. In this study, the relationships between acidic deposition and `natural` (temperature, mycorrhizae, and nutrition) factors with first-year sugar maple seedling root sugar concentrations and growth were assessed in two sugar maple dominated forests in Michigan. Seedlings at the southern site (Wellston) had greater root growth, phosphorus, total sugar, and sucrose concentrations in roots, but lower reducing sugar concentration in roots. In addition, percent root length colonized by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was less than that found for seedlings growing at the northern site (Alberta). Throughfall deposition of nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ions was not significantly correlated with seedling total or reducing sugar concentration. Total sugar concentration in seedling roots was positively correlated with air and soil temperatures at the southern site, but not at the northern site. Seedling tissue phosphorus concentration was correlated with total sugars at both sites, with sucrose at the southern site, and reducing sugars at the northern site. Mycorrhizal colonization rates at the Alberta site were positively correlated with reducing sugar concentration in seedling roots and negatively correlated with sucrose concentration. The results suggest that differences in seedling root sugar concentrations in these two forests are related to seedling root growth and are most likely due to ecological variables, such as available soil phosphorus, temperature, and growing season length through some complex interaction with mycorrhizae rather than acidic deposition stress. 56 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Ray tissues as an indirect measure of relative sap-sugar concentration in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Garrett; Kenneth R. Dudzik; Kenneth R. Dudzik

    1989-01-01

    Attempts to correlate ray tissue as a percentage of total wood volume with sap-sugar concentrations of sugar maple progenies were unsuccessful. These results raise doubts about our ability to use a relatively constant value such as ray-tissue volume in a selection program designed to increase the sap-sugar concentration of sugar maple seedlings.

  7. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  8. Increase The Sugar Concentration of The Solution Sugar by Reverse Osmotic Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjeki, S.; Hapsari, N.; Iriani

    2018-01-01

    Sugar is one of the basic needs of people and food and drink industry. As technology advances and the demand for efficient usage of sugar rises, crystal sugar is seen as less advantageous than liquid sugar. If sugar is always dissolved in water before use, then it will be more efficient and practical for consumers to use sugar in liquid form than in crystal form. Other than that, liquid sugar is also attractive to consumers because it is economical, hygienic, instantly soluble in hot and cold water, fresher and longer-lasting, able to thicken and enrich the texture of foods and drinks, and functions as sweetener, syrup, and flavor enhancer. Liquid sugar is also more beneficial for sugar producers because of simpler production process, cheaper production cost, and similar yield with no extra cost. In sugar production, separation process is found in most of its stages and therefore the use of membrane technology for separating solute and water content has a good potential. In this research, water content reduction of sugar solution was done in order to increase the sugar concentration of the solution. The parameters of this research were 4%, 5%, and 6% starting concentration of sugar solution; 20, 40, and 60 minutes of process time; and 85 and 60 PSI ΔP. The best result was acquired on 4% starting concentration, 60 PSI ΔP, and 60 minutes process time.

  9. SOUFFLE WITH REDUCED AMOUNT OF SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Was studied the technology of producing aerated candies "Souffle" with replacement of sugar to molasses with increased shelf life, molded by "jetting" with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry, into metallized film type "flow-pack ". Studied the process of foaming disperse systems. Studied the process of gelation and gelation affected by various factors. To establish a relationship between the effective viscosity and jelly mass of gelation ability of agar were achieved the dependence according to the effective viscosity of the jelly mass shear rate and a shear rate on the shear stress at temperature of 65 ˚C and a mass fraction of solids of 78%. Viscosity reduction has a positive effect on the process of molding molasses candies by the "extrusion". Were definede values of the plastic strength of jelly masses and found that replacing sugar to molasses reduces the plastic strength, but it does not affect a good form-stable ability. Cinnamon was added into the prescription whipped composition to improve the nutritional value of products. Were defined organoleptic, physical and chemical qualities, calculated energy value of the products. High hygroscopic souffle on molasses requires hermetic packaging. Proposed a new progressive method of forming a souffle with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry to form sausages. Curing and structure foarming implemented directly in the shell for 2 h, which is an important advantage of this method. Whipped products on molasses are functional.

  10. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m−3 in PM10 and 55 ng m−3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m−3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m−3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2

  11. Sugar type and concentration preference of the Cape white-eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... Minke Witteveen, Mark Brown ... sugar type preference at any sugar concentration, but showed a preference for the lowest concentration (10%) of both hexose and sucrose solutions when presented with a range of sugar concentrations.

  12. Alcoholic fermentation by immobilized yeast at high sugar concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcberg, I.B.; Margalith, P.

    1981-01-01

    Glucose fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized by entrapment in agar, carrageenan, alginate and polyacrylamide gels, was compared to that of freely suspended cells at concentration of 10-50% (w.w.) sugar. The rate of ethanol production by the entrapped cells was 20-25% higher than that of the free cells. Concentrations of up to 14.5% w/w ethanol (30% glucose initial concentration) could be obtained. A number of hypotheses for the improved alcoholic fermentation are discussed.

  13. Vitamin C and reducing sugars in the world collection of Capsicum baccatum L. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Venu; Nimmakayala, Padma; Nadimi, Marjan; Alaparthi, Suresh; Hankins, Gerald R; Ebert, Andreas W; Reddy, Umesh K

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze 123 genotypes of Capsicum baccatum L. originating from 22 countries, at two stages of fruit development, for vitamin C content and its relationship with reducing sugars in fruit pericarp. Among the parametric population, vitamin C and reducing sugar concentrations ranged between 2.54 to 50.44 and 41-700mgg(-1) DW of pericarp, respectively. Overall, 14 genotypes accumulated 50-500% of the RDA of vitamin C in each 2g of fruit pericarp on a dry weight basis. Compared with ripened fruits, matured (unripened) fruits contained higher vitamin C and lower reducing sugars. About 44% variation in the vitamin C content could be ascribed to levels of reducing sugars. For the first time, this study provides comprehensive data on vitamin C in the world collection of C. baccatum genotypes that could serve as a key resource for food research in future. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Sheng; Gao Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification. (paper)

  15. Process evaluation of enzymatic hydrolysis with filtrate recycle for the production of high concentration sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ying; Rusli, Jannov; Chang, Hou-Min; Phillips, Richard; Jameel, Hasan

    2012-02-01

    Process simulation and lab trials were carried out to demonstrate and confirm the efficiency of the concept that recycling hydrolysate at low total solid enzymatic hydrolysis is one of the options to increase the sugar concentration without mixing problems. Higher sugar concentration can reduce the capital cost for fermentation and distillation because of smaller retention volume. Meanwhile, operation cost will also decrease for less operating volume and less energy required for distillation. With the computer simulation, time and efforts can be saved to achieve the steady state of recycling process, which is the scenario for industrial production. This paper, to the best of our knowledge, is the first paper discussing steady-state saccharification with recycling of the filtrate form enzymatic hydrolysis to increase sugar concentration. Recycled enzymes in the filtrate (15-30% of the original enzyme loading) resulted in 5-10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to the case in which recycled enzymes were denatured. The recycled hydrolysate yielded 10% higher carbohydrate conversion compared to pure sugar simulated hydrolysate at the same enzyme loading, which indicated hydrolysis by-products could boost enzymatic hydrolysis. The high sugar concentration (pure sugar simulated) showed inhibition effect, since about 15% decrease in carbohydrate conversion was observed compared with the case with no sugar added. The overall effect of hydrolysate recycling at WinGEMS simulated steady-state conditions with 5% total solids was increasing the sugar concentration from 35 to 141 g/l, while the carbohydrate conversion was 2% higher for recycling at steady state (87%) compared with no recycling strategy (85%). Ten percent and 15% total solid processes were also evaluated in this study.

  16. Reducing calories and added sugars by improving children's beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted with the objective of observing alterations in reducing sugars, which may play a part in distinguishing tolerant and susceptible genotypes. The experimental material consisted of thirteen wheat genotypes including eleven bread wheat advanced lines, one synthetic hexaploid and its durum ...

  18. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  19. The Effect of Alkaline Concentration on Coconut Husk Crystallinity and the Yield of Sugars Released

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangian, H. F.; Widjaja, A.

    2018-02-01

    This work was to analyze the effect of alkaline concentration on coconut coir husk crystallinity and sugar liberated enzymatically. The data showed that the employing of alkaline on lignocellulose transformed the crystallinity. The XRD peaks increased highly which indicated that cellulose was more opened and exposed. After pretreatment, the chemical compositions (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) were changed significantly. The employing 1% alkaline, the cellulosic content inclined if compared to that of non-pretreatment. When the alkaline concentration was added to 4%, the cellulose was decreased slightly which indicated that a part of cellulose and hemicellulose was dissolved into solution. It was found the alkaline pretreatment influenced by the biochemical reaction of treated substrates in producing the reducing sugars. The amounts of sugar liberated enzymatically of coconut husk treated by 1% and 4% alkaline increased to 0.26, and 0.24 g sugar/g (cellulose+hemicellulose), respectively, compared to that of native solid recorded at 0.18 g sugar/g (cellulose+hemicellulose).

  20. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice

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    Prasetijio, L.D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of reduced sugar starfruit juice. Cloudy starfruit juice produced by juicing of the edible part of starfruit, then the obtained filtrate was formulated with citric acid, Na- CMC and different ratio of cane sugar and sorbitol i.e. 10.0%:0.0%, 7.5%:2.5%, 5.0%:5.0%, 2.5%:5.0% and 0.0%:10.0% (% b/v. Physicochemical characteristics of the starfruit juice were total soluble solids in a range of 9.20 and 11.90%, the viscosity of 8.27 and 8.65 cP, pH of 3.56 and 3.63; and titratable acidity of 0.29 and 0.31%. Those cane sugar and sorbitol ratios affected significantly only on the total soluble solids. Based on the sensory evaluation, starfruit juice with cane sugar and sorbitol ratio of 7.50%:2.50% had the highest total preference scores of color, appearance, and taste. Colloidal stability of the starfruit juices during 10 days storage was in a range of 86.26% and 88.18%.

  1. Dynamic behavior of a multi-effect sugar concentrator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, N.H.; Marwan, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A transient mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic response of multi effect evaporator for sugar distiller concentrators at delta company, Egypt. Based on the mass and energy balance equations, a non linear mathematical model relating the system variables is obtained. This model allows to investigate the response of the unit parameters in both steady state and transient operating condition. Also, the response of the unit to perturbations in feed syrup, flow rate, concentration and heating steam temperature is studied. The predicted response based on the solution of the mathematical model is illustrated. The developed model proved to be efficient and capable to predict different operating conditions at steady state or transients variations. The study shows that an increase in heating steam temperature can be a critical factor due to caramelization of the syrup. 1 tab., 10 fig

  2. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Nattress, Laura; Flammer, Linda J; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration. ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli. This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was

  3. The catalytic effect of honey on formation of reducing sugars during sucrose hydrolysis

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    Radovanović Mirjana N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In commercial apiculture, beekepers usually remove honey from hives and replenish food reserves with sugar syrup. When honeybees use sugar syrup (sucrose solution, they break down sucrose into glucose and fructose. These processes exhaust and weaken bees. In order to prevent bee exhaustion resulting from this processing, bees should preferably be supplied with ready made food before winter, i.e., with syrup in which sucrose has already been inverted. Feeding with inverted syrups is the most popular way of honeybee feeding. Beekeepers usually prepare inverted syrups by adding a weak organic acid (citric, oxalic, acetic or lactic acid to sucrose solution at elevated temperatures. Inverted syrup production under uncontrolled pH, temperature and time conditions can cause the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF, a compound harmful to bees. High quality inverted syrup can be obtained through the hydrolytic decomposition of sucrose by the enzyme invertase. Due to its invertase content, honey can be used as a biocatalyst for sucrose inversion. Invertase activity depends on the type, method and time of honey storage. This study evaluates the catalytic effect of acacia honey on formation of reducing sugars during hydrolysis of 50 wt.% sucrose solution. The ratio of reducing sugars and sucrose at 40°C, after 5 days of hydrolysis at a concentration of honey and 10 wt.% was 0.30 g reducing sugars/g of sucrose. The highest content of reducing sugars was achieved at a temperature of 35°C, after 48 h of invertion. In all samples of hydrolysates obtained at different temperatures (35–65°C, HMF was detected at concentrations of less than 4.32 mg kg–1. A high degree of negative correlation (coefficient of linearity –0.94 was established between parameters of volumetric and polarimetric measurements during the hydrolysis of sucrose. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 46010

  4. Effect of pulp preconditioning on acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids concentration during fermentation of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Quao, Jennifer; Budu, Agnes Simpson; Takrama, Jemmy; Saalia, Firibu Kwesi

    2011-11-01

    Changes in acidification, proteolysis, sugars and free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations of Ghanaian cocoa beans as affected by pulp preconditioning (pod storage or PS) and fermentation were investigated. Non-volatile acidity, pH, proteolysis, sugars (total, reducing and non-reducing) and FFAs concentrations were analysed using standard methods. Increasing PS consistently decreased the non-volatile acidity with concomitant increase in pH during fermentation of the beans. Fermentation decreased the pH of the unstored beans from 6.7 to 4.9 within the first 4 days and then increased slightly again to 5.3 by the sixth day. Protein, total sugars and non-reducing sugars decreased significantly (p cocoa beans was largely affected by fermentation than by PS.

  5. Effect of Sugar Concentration in Jerusalem Artichoke Extract on Kluyveromyces marxianus Growth and Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Margaritis, Argyrios; Bajpai, Pratima

    1983-01-01

    The effect of inulin sugars concentration on the growth and ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD (FST) 55-82 was studied. A maximum ethanol concentration of 102 g/liter was obtained from 250 g of sugars per liter initial concentration. The maximum specific growth rate varied from 0.44 h−1 at 50 g of sugar per liter to 0.13 h−1 at 300 g of sugar per liter, whereas the ethanol yield remained almost constant at 0.45 g of ethanol per g of sugars utilized.

  6. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  7. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. (Universidad del Zulia (Venezuela))

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  8. Inter-species comparative analysis of components of soluble sugar concentration in fleshy fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwu eDai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The soluble sugar concentration of fleshy fruit is a key determinant of fleshy fruit quality. It affects directly the sweetness of fresh fruits and indirectly the properties of processed products (e.g. alcohol content in wine. Despite considerable divergence among species, soluble sugar accumulation in a fruit results from the complex interplay of three main processes, namely sugar import, sugar metabolism, and water dilution. Therefore, inter-species comparison would help to identify common and/or species-specific modes of regulation in sugar accumulation. For this purpose, a process-based mathematical framework was used to compare soluble sugar accumulation in three fruits: grape, tomato and peach. Representative datasets covering the time course of sugar accumulation during fruit development were collected. They encompassed 104 combinations of species (3, genotypes (32, and growing conditions (19 years and 16 nutrient and environmental treatments. At maturity, grape showed the highest soluble sugar concentrations (16.5-26.3 g /100 g FW, followed by peach (2.2 to 20 g /100 g FW and tomato (1.4 to 5 g /100 g FW. Main processes determining soluble sugar concentration were decomposed into sugar importation, metabolism and water dilution with the process-based analysis. Different regulation modes of soluble sugar concentration were then identified, showing either import-based, dilution-based, or import and dilution dual-based. Firstly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in tomato is a result of higher sugar importation. Secondly, the higher soluble sugar concentration in grape than in peach is due to a lower water dilution. The third mode of regulation is more complicated than the first two, with differences both in sugar importation and water dilution (grape vs cherry tomato; cherry tomato vs peach; peach vs tomato. On the other hand, carbon utilization for synthesis of non-soluble sugar compounds (namely metabolism was

  9. The preparation and ethanol fermentation of high-concentration sugars from steam-explosion corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengqin; Yin, Shuangyao; Ren, Tianbao; Song, Andong

    2015-05-01

    In the field of biofuel ethanol, high-concentration- reducing sugars made from cellulosic materials lay the foundation for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. In this study, corn stover was pre-treated in a process combining chemical methods and steam explosion; the cellulosic hydrolyzed sugars obtained by fed-batch saccharification were then used as the carbon source for high-concentration ethanol fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1308, Angel yeast, and Issatchenkia orientalis were shake-cultured with Pachysolen tannophilus P-01 for fermentation. Results implied that the ethanol yields from the three types of mixed strains were 4.85 g/100 mL, 4.57 g/100 mL, and 5.02 g/100 mL (separately) at yield rates of 91.6, 89.3, and 92.2%, respectively. Therefore, it was inferred that shock-fermentation using mixed strains achieved a higher ethanol yield at a greater rate in a shorter fermentation period. This study provided a theoretical basis and technical guidance for the fermentation of industrial high-concentrated cellulosic ethanol.

  10. Alterations in reducing sugar in Triticum aestivum under irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... metabolic pathways. Among the major effects are those involving carbohydrate .... results on the effect of water and salt stress on sugar accumulation by many .... genotypic differences in osmoregulation in wheat. Aust. J. Plant.

  11. Evidence for the complex relationship between free amino acid and sugar concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttucumaru, N; Powers, SJ; Elmore, JS; Briddon, A; Mottram, DS; Halford, NG

    2014-01-01

    Free amino acids and reducing sugars participate in the Maillard reaction during high-temperature cooking and processing. This results not only in the formation of colour, aroma and flavour compounds, but also undesirable contaminants, including acrylamide, which forms when the amino acid that participates in the reaction is asparagine. In this study, tubers of 13 varieties of potato (Solanum tuberosum), which had been produced in a field trial in 2010 and sampled immediately after harvest or after storage for 6 months, were analysed to show the relationship between the concentrations of free asparagine, other free amino acids, sugars and acrylamide-forming potential. The varieties comprised five that are normally used for crisping, seven that are used for French fry production and one that is used for boiling. Acrylamide formation was measured in heated flour, and correlated with glucose and fructose concentration. In French fry varieties, which contain higher concentrations of sugars, acrylamide formation also correlated with free asparagine concentration, demonstrating the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide-forming potential in potato. Storage of the potatoes for 6 months at 9°C had a significant, variety-dependent impact on sugar and amino acid concentrations and acrylamide-forming potential. PMID:25540460

  12. Novel DDR Processing of Corn Stover Achieves High Monomeric Sugar Concentrations from Enzymatic Hydrolysis (230 g/L) and High Ethanol Concentration (10% v/v) During Fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Jennings, Ed; Shekiro, Joe; Kuhn, Erik M.; O' Brien, Marykate; Wang, Wei; Schell, Daniel J.; Himmel, Mike; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2015-04-03

    Distilling and purifying ethanol, butanol, and other products from second and later generation lignocellulosic biorefineries adds significant capital and operating cost for biofuels production. The energy costs associated with distillation affects plant gate and life cycle analysis costs. Lower titers in fermentation due to lower sugar concentrations from pretreatment increase both energy and production costs. In addition, higher titers decrease the volumes required for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation vessels. Therefore, increasing biofuels titers has been a research focus in renewable biofuels production for several decades. In this work, we achieved over 200 g/L of monomeric sugars after high solids enzymatic hydrolysis using the novel deacetylation and disc refining (DDR) process on corn stover. The high sugar concentrations and low chemical inhibitor concentrations from the DDR process allowed ethanol titers as high as 82 g/L in 22 hours, which translates into approximately 10 vol% ethanol. To our knowledge, this is the first time that 10 vol% ethanol in fermentation derived from corn stover without any sugar concentration or purification steps has been reported. Techno-economic analysis shows the higher titer ethanol achieved from the DDR process could significantly reduce the minimum ethanol selling price from cellulosic biomass.

  13. Acid and enzymatic hydrolysis to recover reducing sugars from cassava bagasse: an economic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woiciechowski Adenise Lorenci

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the acid and enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse for the recovery of reducing sugars and to establish the operational costs. A statistical program "Statistica", based on the surface response was used to optimize the recovery of reducing sugars in both the processes. The process economics was determined considering the values of reducing sugars obtained at laboratory scale, and the operations costs of a cylindrical reactor of 1500 L, with flat walls at the top and bottom. The reactor was operated with 150 kg of cassava bagasse and 1350 kg of water. The yield of the acid hydrolysis was 62.4 g of reducing sugars from 100 g of cassava bagasse containing 66% starch. It represented 94.5% of reducing sugar recovery. The yield of the enzymatic hydrolysis was 77.1 g of reducing sugars from 120 g of cassava bagasse, which represented 97.3% of reducing sugars recovery. Concerning to the time, a batch of acid hydrolysis required 10 minutes, plus the time to heat and cool the reactor, and a batch of the enzymatic hydrolysis needed 25 hours and 20 minutes, plus the time to heat and to cool the reactor. Thus, the acid hydrolysis of 150 kg of cassava bagasse required US$ 34.27, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of the same amount of cassava bagasse required US$ 2470.99.

  14. Hawkmoths use nectar sugar to reduce oxidative damage from flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E; Lopez-Martinez, G; Fane, B; Davidowitz, G

    2017-02-17

    Nectar-feeding animals have among the highest recorded metabolic rates. High aerobic performance is linked to oxidative damage in muscles. Antioxidants in nectar are scarce to nonexistent. We propose that nectarivores use nectar sugar to mitigate the oxidative damage caused by the muscular demands of flight. We found that sugar-fed moths had lower oxidative damage to their flight muscle membranes than unfed moths. Using respirometry coupled with δ 13 C analyses, we showed that moths generate antioxidant potential by shunting nectar glucose to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), resulting in a reduction in oxidative damage to the flight muscles. We suggest that nectar feeding, the use of PPP, and intense exercise are causally linked and have allowed the evolution of powerful fliers that feed on nectar. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Borassus flabellifer L. Brown Crystal Sugar Processing (The Study of Sap pH and Fine Crystal Sucrose (FCS Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Alvian Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nira as one of the Borassus flabellirer L. products has a similar characteristics with other agricultural commodities that are easily damaged. This research aims to know the influence of nira’s pH and concentration addition of FCS against characteristics of the brown crystal sugar. Research compiled by using Randomized Block Design (RBD which comprises two factors consisting of 3 levels with 3 times replication. The first factor is pH or degree of nira acidity which consists of 3 level (6.50 (± 0.10; 7.00 (± 0.10; 7.50 (± 0.10 and the second factor is addition of FCS concentration consisting of 3 level (5%; 10%; 15% (b/v. The analyzes used include analysis of organoleptic (color, aroma, taste as well as physical and chemical analyzes (sucrose content, moisture content, ash content, reducing sugar content, insoluble solid content. The analysis results of raw material showed that the pH of palm sap affect the amount of total sugar because the fermentation process. The addition of 10% FCS provides organoleptic results with the best reception at the brown crystal sugar. Physical and chemical test results of products with the best treatment showed that the levels of sucrose in brown crystal sugar was 81.483% in accordance with the minimum requirements specified Indonesian Industrial Standard (IIS, water content of 6.32% dry basis , ash content of 1.78%, reducing sugar amounted to 5.18%, and insoluble solid content of 0.089%.

  16. Selective ethanol production from reducing sugars in a saccharide mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Satoshi; Kato, Taku; Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Sakoda, Akiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Fermentation profiles of four different yeasts reportedly defective in sucrose utilization indicate that all strains tested removed particular sugar via selective conversion to ethanol in a saccharide mixture. At the temperature of pressed sugarcane juice, Saccharomyces dairenensis and Saccharomyces transvaalensis performed better in ethanol production rate and yield, respectively. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of pump suction reducer selection: Eccentric or concentric reducers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, R M; van Vuuren, S J

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric reducers are traditionally recommended for the pump suction reducer fitting to allow for transportation of air through the fitting to the pump. The ability of a concentric reducer to provide an improved approach flow to the pump while still allowing air to be transported through the fitting is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were utilised to analyse six concentric and six eccentric reducer geometries at four different inlet velocities to determine the flow velocity ...

  18. Influence of Plum Rootstocks on the Content of Reducing Sugars in the Annual Shoots of Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dēķena Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of suitable plum rootstocks for Baltic conditions has become a problem during recent years due to changing climatic conditions. Rapid temperature fluctuations between freezing and thawing are occurring more frequently. The winter-hardiness of rootstocks is essential for overwintering of trees in such conditions. The content of accumulated reducing sugars is an important physiological factor influencing wintering ability of trees. The dynamics of reducing sugars was investigated during two winter seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012 in one-year-old ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ (Prunus x rossica Erem. hybrid plum shoots from two orchards planted in 2001 at Pūre Horticultural Research Centre (Latvia and Polli Horticultural Research Centre (Estonia. Cultivar ‘Kubanskaya Kometa’ was grafted on eight clonal rootstocks: ‘St. Julien A’, ‘Brompton’ cuttings, ‘Ackermann’, ‘Pixy’, GF8/1, G5/22, GF655/2, ‘Hamyra’ and eight seedling rootstocks: ‘St. Julien INRA 2’, ‘St. Julien d’Orleans’, ‘St. Julien Noir’, ‘Brompton’ seedlings, ‘Wangenheims Zwetsche’, ‘St. Julien Wädenswill’, ‘Myrobаlan’ and Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata. Trees were planted at 5×3 m spacing in four replications per rootstock with three trees per plot. Shoot samples were harvested five times during the winter period. The concentration of reducing sugars (mg g-1 dry weight was determined with Bertran’s method. Significant differences in concentration of reducing sugar were found between samples coming from different locations and in two seasons. The maximum concentration of reducing sugar was found in December or January depending on growing location and meteorological conditions

  19. Nectar loads as fuel for collecting nectar and pollen in honeybees: adjustment by sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harano, Ken-Ichi; Nakamura, Jun

    2016-06-01

    When honeybee foragers leave the nest, they receive nectar from nest mates for use as fuel for flight or as binding material to build pollen loads. We examined whether the concentration of nectar carried from the nest changes with the need for sugar. We found that pollen foragers had more-concentrated nectar (61.8 %) than nectar foragers (43.8 %). Further analysis revealed that the sugar concentration of the crop load increased significantly with waggle duration, an indicator of food-source distance, in both groups of foragers. Crop volume also increased with waggle duration. The results support our argument that foragers use concentrated nectar when the need for sugar is high and suggest that they precisely adjust the amount of sugar in the crop by altering both volume and nectar concentrations. We also investigated the impact of the area where foragers receive nectar on the crop load concentration at departure. Although nectar and pollen foragers tend to load nectar at different areas in the nest, area did not have a significant effect on crop load concentration. Departing foragers showed an average of 2.2 momentary (nectar with inappropriate concentrations during these contacts.

  20. Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and viscosity of Brazilian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Flávia S P P; de Castilhos, Maurício B M; Telis, Vânia R N; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full-bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Concentrations of free amino acids and sugars in nine potato varieties: effects of storage and relationship with acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Nigel G; Muttucumaru, Nira; Powers, Stephen J; Gillatt, Peter N; Hartley, Lee; Elmore, J Stephen; Mottram, Donald S

    2012-12-05

    Acrylamide forms during cooking and processing predominately from the reaction of free asparagine and reducing sugars in the Maillard reaction. The identification of low free asparagine and reducing sugar varieties of crops is therefore an important target. In this study, nine varieties of potato (French fry varieties Maris Piper (from two suppliers), Pentland Dell, King Edward, Daisy, and Markies; and chipping varieties Lady Claire, Lady Rosetta, Saturna, and Hermes) grown in the United Kingdom in 2009 were analyzed at monthly intervals through storage from November 2009 to July 2010. Acrylamide formation was measured in heated flour and chips fried in oil. Analysis of variance revealed significant interactions between varieties nested within type (French fry and chipping) and storage time for most free amino acids, glucose, fructose, and acrylamide formation. Acrylamide formed in chips correlated significantly with acrylamide formed in flour and with chip color. There were significant correlations between glucose or total reducing sugar concentration and acrylamide formation in both variety types, but with fructose the correlation was much stronger for chipping than for French fry varieties. Conversely, there were significant correlations with acrylamide formation for both total free amino acid and free asparagine concentration in the French fry but not chipping varieties. The study showed the potential of variety selection for preventing unacceptable levels of acrylamide formation in potato products and the variety-dependent effect of long-term storage on acrylamide risk. It also highlighted the complex relationship between precursor concentration and acrylamide risk in potatoes.

  2. Estimating the potential of taxes on sugar-sweetened beverages to reduce consumption and generate revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Chaloupka, Frank J; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-06-01

    Beverage taxes came into light with increasing concerns about obesity, particularly among youth. Sugar-sweetened beverages have become a target of anti-obesity initiatives with increasing evidence of their link to obesity. Our paper offers a method for estimating revenues from an excise tax on sugar-sweetened beverages that governments of various levels could direct towards obesity prevention. We construct a model projecting beverage consumption and tax revenues based on best available data on regional beverage consumption, historic trends and recent estimates of the price elasticity of sugar-sweetened beverage demand. The public health impact of beverage taxes could be substantial. An estimated 24% reduction in sugar-sweetened beverage consumption from a penny-per-ounce sugar-sweetened beverage tax could reduce daily per capita caloric intake from sugar-sweetened beverages from the current 190-200 cal to 145-150 cal, if there is no substitution to other caloric beverages or food. A national penny-per-ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could generate new tax revenue of $79 billion over 2010-2015. A modest tax on sugar-sweetened beverages could both raise significant revenues and improve public health by reducing obesity. To the extent that at least some of the tax revenues get invested in obesity prevention programs, the public health benefits could be even more pronounced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  4. High-concentration sugars production from corn stover based on combined pretreatments and fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maohua; Li, Wangliang; Liu, Binbin; Li, Qiang; Xing, Jianmin

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, high-concentration sugars were produced from pretreated corn stover. The raw corn stover was pretreated in a process combining steam explosion and alkaline hydrogen-peroxide. The hemicellulose and lignin were removed greatly. The cellulose content increased to 73.2%. Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading and 20 FPU/g solids. Then, 6% solids were fed consecutively at 12, 36 and 60 h. After 144 h, the final concentrations of reducing sugar, glucose, cellobiose and xylose reached 220, 175, 22 and 20 g/L, respectively. The final total biomass conversion was 60% in fed-batch process. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing Added Sugars in the Food Supply Through a Cap-and-Trade Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effect of a simulated cap-and-trade policy to reduce added sugar in the food supply. Methods. Using nationally representative data on added-sugar content and consumption, we constructed a mathematical model of a cap-and-trade policy and compared its health implications to those of proposals to tax sugar sweetened beverages or added sugars. Results. Capping added-sugar emissions into the food supply by food manufacturers at a rate of 1% per year would be expected to reduce the prevalence of obesity by 1.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.9, 2.4; a 4.6% decline) and the incidence of type 2 diabetes by 21.7 cases per 100 000 people (95% CI = 12.9, 30.6; a 4.2% decline) over 20 years, averting approximately $9.7 billion in health care spending. Racial and ethnic minorities would be expected to experience the largest declines. By comparison, equivalent price penalties through excise taxes would be expected to generate smaller health benefits. Conclusions. A cap-and-trade policy to reduce added-sugar intake may reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes to a greater extent than currently-proposed excise taxes. PMID:25365146

  6. Quantitative monitoring of sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar dynamics for phenotyping of water-deficit stress tolerance in rice through spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bappa; Sahoo, Rabi N.; Pargal, Sourabh; Krishna, Gopal; Verma, Rakesh; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Sehgal, Vinay K.; Gupta, Vinod K.; Dash, Sushanta K.; Swain, Padmini

    2018-03-01

    In the present investigation, the changes in sucrose, reducing and total sugar content due to water-deficit stress in rice leaves were modeled using visible, near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy. The objectives of the study were to identify the best vegetation indices and suitable multivariate technique based on precise analysis of hyperspectral data (350 to 2500 nm) and sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content measured at different stress levels from 16 different rice genotypes. Spectral data analysis was done to identify suitable spectral indices and models for sucrose estimation. Novel spectral indices in near infrared (NIR) range viz. ratio spectral index (RSI) and normalised difference spectral indices (NDSI) sensitive to sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar content were identified which were subsequently calibrated and validated. The RSI and NDSI models had R2 values of 0.65, 0.71 and 0.67; RPD values of 1.68, 1.95 and 1.66 for sucrose, reducing sugar and total sugar, respectively for validation dataset. Different multivariate spectral models such as artificial neural network (ANN), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), multiple linear regression (MLR), partial least square regression (PLSR), random forest regression (RFR) and support vector machine regression (SVMR) were also evaluated. The best performing multivariate models for sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugars were found to be, MARS, ANN and MARS, respectively with respect to RPD values of 2.08, 2.44, and 1.93. Results indicated that VNIR and SWIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate calibration can be used as a reliable alternative to conventional methods for measurement of sucrose, reducing sugars and total sugars of rice under water-deficit stress as this technique is fast, economic, and noninvasive.

  7. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  8. Sodium concentration in home made salt – sugar – solution (sss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cohort of 210 young mothers, selected through cluster sampling technique from Ogida health district of Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, the electrolyte concentration of prepared salt-sugar-solutions (SSS) were evaluated. This was predicated on the need to determine the effects of introduction of various ...

  9. Sugars from woody tissue photosynthesis reduce xylem vulnerability to cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Baerdemaeker, Niels J F; Salomón, Roberto Luis; De Roo, Linus; Steppe, Kathy

    2017-11-01

    Reassimilation of internal CO 2 via woody tissue photosynthesis has a substantial effect on tree carbon income and wood production. However, little is known about its role in xylem vulnerability to cavitation and its implications in drought-driven tree mortality. Young trees of Populus nigra were subjected to light exclusion at the branch and stem levels. After 40 d, measurements of xylem water potential, diameter variation and acoustic emission (AE) were performed in detached branches to obtain acoustic vulnerability curves to cavitation following bench-top dehydration. Acoustic vulnerability curves and derived AE 50 values (i.e. water potential at which 50% of cavitation-related acoustic emissions occur) differed significantly between light-excluded and control branches (AE 50,light-excluded  = -1.00 ± 0.13 MPa; AE 50,control  = -1.45 ± 0.09 MPa; P = 0.007) denoting higher vulnerability to cavitation in light-excluded trees. Woody tissue photosynthesis represents an alternative and immediate source of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) that confers lower xylem vulnerability to cavitation via sugar-mediated mechanisms. Embolism repair and xylem structural changes could not explain this observation as the amount of cumulative AE and basic wood density did not differ between treatments. We suggest that woody tissue assimilates might play a role in the synthesis of xylem surfactants for nanobubble stabilization under tension. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Utilization of concentrate after membrane filtration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Witold; Regiec, Piotr; Stencel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The subject of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the concentrate obtained after membrane ultrafiltration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production and selection of fermentation conditions (yeast strain and media supplementation). Resulting concentrate was subjected to batch ethanol fermentation using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ethanol Red and Safdistill C-70). The effect of different forms of media supplementation (mineral salts: (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, MgCl2; urea+Mg3(PO4)2 and yeast extract) on the fermentation course was also studied. It was stated that sugar beet juice concentrate is suitable for ethanol production yielding, depending on the yeast strain, ca. 85-87 g L(-1) ethanol with ca. 82% practical yield and more than 95% of sugars consumption after 72 h of fermentation. Nutrients enrichment further increased ethanol yield. The best results were obtained for media supplemented with urea+Mg3(PO4)2 yielding 91.16-92.06 g L(-1) ethanol with practical yield ranging 84.78-85.62% and full sugars consumption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Reducing the use of sugar in public schools: a randomized cluster trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rita Adriana Gomes de; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Souza, Amanda de Moura; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-08-01

    To test the efficacy of nutritional guidelines for school lunch cooks aiming to reduce added sugar in school meals and their own sugar intake. A controlled randomized cluster trial was carried out in twenty public schools in the municipality of Niteroi in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, from March to December 2007. A nutrition educational program was implemented in the schools in question through messages, activities and printed educational materials encouraging reduced levels of added sugar in school meals and in the school lunch cooks' own intake. The reduced availability of added sugar in schools was evaluated using spreadsheets including data on the monthly use of food item supplies. The cooks' individual food intake was evaluated by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to standardized techniques and variation in weight was measured throughout the duration of the study. There was a more marked reduction in the intervention schools compared to the control schools (-6.0 kg versus 0.34 kg), but no statistically significant difference (p = 0.21), although the study power was low. Both groups of school lunch cooks showed a reduction in the consumption of sweets and sweetened beverages, but the difference in sugar intake was not statistically significant. Weight loss and a reduction in total energy consumption occurred in both groups, but the difference between them was not statistically significant, and there was no alteration in the percentages of adequacy of macronutrients in relation to energy consumption. The strategy of reducing the use and consumption of sugar by school lunch cooks from public schools could not be proved to be effective.

  12. Changes in Quality Properties and Kinetics of Reducing Sugar Removal in Potato Sticks during Blanching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to problems in storage, transportation and price fluctuation of fresh potato, production of ready-to-use products like French fries is of particular importance. French fries quality mainly depends on the appearance, taste, color, texture and oil uptake. One of the important steps in product processing is blanching. This step improves product texture and color due to the decrease in reducing sugar content, and causes reduction of oil uptake due to the gelatinization of surface starch. Therefore, by selecting a suitable method and condition, the improvement of product quality is possible. In order to investigate the effect of blanching temperature on kinetic of the reducing sugar content and changes in potato stick color and texture, sticks with 0.8 0.8 8 cm dimensions were prepared and blanching was carried out with hot water at different temperatures (60, 70, 80 and 90°C and various times up to 120 minutes. Color, texture and reducing sugar content of samples were measured during blanching. The results showed that reducing sugar content was reduced during the blanching as a function of temperature and time. Also, product color and texture were mainly affected by blanching temperature, with the low temperature being more suitable to improve potato stick quality. According to the results, there was no significant difference between blanching at 80, 90°C and 60°C for reducing sugar content. Also, for this parameter, there was no significant difference between times of 100 and 5 minutes at 60°C. The least texture damage was obtained by blanching at 60°C in a short time. It could be concluded that to preserve potato stick color and texture and reduce energy consumption, blanching can be done at 60°C for 5 minutes if enzymes are inactivated.

  13. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, but not 100% fruit juice, is associated with fasting high-density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentrations in U.S. adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Dyslipidemia, characterized by high triglyceride (TG) and low HDL concentrations, is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreasing dietary sugar consumption is one dietary modification that may influence dyslipidemia risk to reduce the risk for CVD. Two major sources of di...

  14. The effect of organosolv pretreatment on optimization of hydrolysis process to produce the reducing sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lini Fibrillian Zata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the fossil energy decrease such as petroleum and natural gas, that are encourages a lot of research to develop new sources of energy from renewable raw materials. One of the source is through reducing sugar (glucose and xylose obtained from coffee pulp waste; this is due to abundant production of coffee pulp every year reaching 743 kg/ha. In addition, this waste has not been used optimally and the cellulose and hemicellulose content of the coffee is high. The purpose of this study is to get the optimal operating condition for reducing sugar production from coffee pulp waste. The method used for optimization is Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design. The optimum operation condition obtained was pH 4.63 at 34ºC for 16.29 hours of hydrolysis. As a result, the predicted yield gained was 0.147 grams of reducing sugars / gram of cellulose+hemicellulose. The result indicates the gained yield was 0.137 grams of reducing sugars / gram of cellulose+hemicellulose.

  15. Adaptation of the Nelson-Somogyi reducing-sugar assay to a microassay using microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, F; Clausen, C A; Highley, T L

    1989-11-01

    The Nelson-Somogyi assay for reducing sugars was adapted to microtiter plates. The primary advantages of this modified assay are (i) smaller sample and reagent volumes, (ii) elimination of boiling and filtration steps, (iii) automated measurement with a dual-wavelength scanning TLC densitometer, (iv) increased range and reproducibility, and (v) automated colorimetric readings by reflectance rather than absorbance.

  16. Mary Poppins was right: Adding small amounts of sugar or salt reduces the bitterness of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Alyssa J; Stubbs, Cody A; McDowell, Elliott H; Moding, Kameron J; Johnson, Susan L; Hayes, John E

    2018-07-01

    Only a quarter of adults and 7% of children consume recommended amounts of vegetables each day. Often vegetables are not initially palatable due to bitterness, which may lead children and adults to refuse to taste or eat them. The objective of this research was to determine if very small amounts of sugar or salt (common household ingredients) could lead to significant reductions in bitterness intensity and increased hedonic ratings of green vegetable purees. For Experiment 1, three different green vegetable purees (broccoli, spinach, and kale) were prepared with different levels of sugar (0%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 1.8%) or salt (0 and 0.2%). Samples were evaluated using standard descriptive analysis techniques with nine adults who completed more than 20 h of green vegetable specific training as a group. For Experiment 2, each vegetable puree was prepared with either 0% or 2% sugar, and bitterness was assessed via a forced choice task with 84 adults. For Experiment 3, each vegetable puree was prepared with 0%, 1%, or 2% sugar and rated for liking on standard 9 point hedonic scales by 99 adults. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that addition of small amounts of sugar and salt each reduced the bitterness (and increased sweetness and saltiness) from all three vegetables without altering other sensory properties (e.g. texture or aroma). Experiment 3 showed that adding sugar to vegetable purees increased hedonic ratings for adult consumers. We also found parents had mixed attitudes about the idea of adding sugar to foods intended for infants and toddlers. Further research on the effects of bitterness masking especially for specific populations (e.g., infants and young children or adults who have higher sensitivity to bitter taste) is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical composition and properties of spray-dried sugar beet concentrate obtained after ultrafiltration of diffusion juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiec Piotr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of diffusion juice is a method that can reduce environmental pollution during the production of sugar. A by-product (concentrate of ultrafiltration contains a large amount of sucrose, but due to its properties, it is difficult to manage. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the temperature used during drying of diffusion juice concentrates on the content of certain components and characteristics of resultant preparations. Diffusion juice obtained from one of the Polish sugar plants was subjected to ultrafiltration and the obtained concentrates were dried in a spray dryer. In the dried samples, the following parameters were analyzed: dry mass, sucrose, total ash, protein, crude fiber and color. It has been declared that the degree of concentration and drying temperature influenced the chemical composition and the properties of the dehydrated diffusion juice concentrates. An increase in drying temperature was accompanied by the increased content of dry mass, protein, ash and fiber content in the preparations. The greater the degree of juice concentration, the greater was the content of dry mass, ash, and fiber. Inversely, the greater the degree of juice concentration, the lower the content of sucrose. The brightest color of the dehydrated product was observed at the drying temperature of 200°C. Spray-drying may be used for waste management after the diffusion juice membrane filtration, and the resultant preparations might be used in the production of feedstuff or food industry in general e.g. as sucrose source, in fermentation processes or in microorganisms propagation.

  18. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. Kinetics of ethanol production by immobilized Kluyveromyces marxianus cells at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajpai, P.; Margaritis, A.

    1987-08-01

    Kinetics of ethanol fermentation at varying sugar concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke tuber extract has been studied using Kluyveromyces marxianus cells immobilized in calcium alginate gel beads. A maximum ethanol concentration of 111 g/l was achieved at an initial sugar concentration of 260 g/l in 20 hours, when the immobilized cell concentration in the calcium alginate beads was 53.3 g dry wt./l bead volume. Ethanol yield remained almost unaffected by initial sugar concentration up to 250 g/l and was found to be about 88% of the theoretical. Maximum rate of ethanol production decreased from 22.5 g ethanol/l/h to 10.5 g ethanol/l/h while the maximum rate of total sugars utilization decreased from 74.9 g sugars/l/h to 28.5 g sugars/l/h as the initial substrate concentration was increased from 100 to 300 g/l. The concentration of free cells in the fermentation broth was low.

  20. Optimization of fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse for high-concentration sugar production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yueshu; Xu, Jingliang; Yuan, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Yunyun; Liang, Cuiyi

    2014-09-01

    Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis process from alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse was investigated to increase solids loading, produce high-concentration fermentable sugar and finally to reduce the cost of the production process. The optimal initial solids loading, feeding time and quantities were examined. The hydrolysis system was initiated with 12% (w/v) solids loading in flasks, where 7% fresh solids were fed consecutively at 6h, 12h, 24h to get a final solids loading of 33%. All the requested cellulase loading (10 FPU/g substrate) was added completely at the beginning of hydrolysis reaction. After 120 h of hydrolysis, the maximal concentrations of cellobiose, glucose and xylose obtained were 9.376 g/L, 129.50 g/L, 56.03 g/L, respectively. The final total glucan conversion rate attained to 60% from this fed-batch process. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Brown pigment formation in heated sugar-protein mixed suspensions containing unmodified and peptically modified whey protein concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsirikul, Narumol; Hongsprabhas, Parichat

    2016-01-01

    Commercial whey protein concentrate (WPC) was modified by heating the acidified protein suspensions (pH 2.0) at 80 °C for 30 min and treating with pepsin at 37 °C for 60 min. Prior to spray-drying, such modification did not change the molecular weights (MWs) of whey proteins determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). After spray-drying the modified whey protein concentrate with trehalose excipient (MWPC-TH), it was found that the α-lactalbumin (α-La) was the major protein that was further hydrolyzed the most. The reconstituted MWPC-TH contained β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the major protein and small molecular weight (MW) peptides of less than 6.5 kDa. The reconstituted MWPC-TH had higher NH2 group, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), lower exposed aromatic ring and thiol (SH) contents than did the commercial WPC. Kinetic studies revealed that the addition of MWPC-TH in fructose-glycine solution was able to reduce brown pigment formation in the mixtures heated at 80 to 95 °C by increasing the activation energy (Ea) of brown pigment formation due to the retardation of fluoresced advanced glycation end product (AGEs) formation. The addition of MWPC to reducing sugar-glycine/commercial WPC was also able to lower brown pigment formation in the sterilized (121 °C, 15 min) mixed suspensions containing 0.1 M reducing sugar and 0.5-1.0 % glycine and/or commercial (P < 0.05). It was demonstrated that the modification investigated in this study selectively hydrolyzed α-La and retained β-Lg for the production of antibrowning whey protein concentrate.

  2. Technical Performance and Economic Evaluation of Evaporative and Membrane-Based Concentration for Biomass-Derived Sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, David A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Grundl, Nicholas J.; Tao, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Several conversion pathways of lignocellulosic biomass to advanced biofuels require or benefit from using concentrated sugar syrups of 600 g/L or greater. And while concentration may seem straightforward, thermal sugar degradation and energy efficiency remain major concerns. This study evaluated the trade-offs in product recovery, energy consumption, and economics between evaporative and membrane-based concentration methods. The degradation kinetics of xylose and glucose were characterized and applied to an evaporator process simulation. Though significant sugar loss was predicted for certain scenarios due to the Maillard reaction, industrially common falling-film plate evaporators offer short residence times (<5 min) and are expected to limit sugar losses. Membrane concentration experiments characterized flux and sugar rejection, but diminished flux occurred at >100 g/L. A second step using evaporation is necessary to achieve target concentrations. Techno-economic process model simulations evaluated the overall economics of concentrating a 35 g/L sugar stream to 600 g/L in a full-scale biorefinery. A two-step approach of preconcentrating using membranes and finishing with an evaporator consumed less energy than evaporation alone but was more expensive because of high capital expenses of the membrane units.

  3. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Combined subcritical water and enzymatic hydrolysis for reducing sugar production from coconut husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharja, Maktum; Junianti, Fitri; Nurtono, Tantular; Widjaja, Arief

    2017-05-01

    Coconut husk wastes are abundantly available in Indonesia. It has a potential to be used into alternative renewable energy sources such as hydrogen using enzymatic hydrolysis followed by a fermentation process. Unfortunately, enzymatic hydrolysis is hampered by the complex structure of lignocellulose, so the cellulose component is hard to degrade. In this study, Combined Subcritical Water (SCW) and enzymatic hydrolysis are applied to enhance fermentable, thereby reducing production of sugar from coconut husk. There were two steps in this study, the first step was coconut husk pretreated by SCW in batch reactor at 80 bar and 150-200°C for 60 minutes reaction time. Secondly, solid fraction from the results of SCW was hydrolyzed using the mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes. Analysis was conducted on untreated and SCW-treated by gravimetric assay, liquid fraction after SCW and solid fraction after enzymatic hydrolysis using DNS assay. The maximum yield of reducing sugar (including xylose, arabinose glucose, galactose, mannose) was 1.254 gr per 6 gr raw material, representing 53.95% of total sugar in coconut husk biomass which was obtained at 150°C 80 bar for 60 minutes reaction time of SCW-treated and 6 hour of enzymatic hydrolysis using mixture of pure cellulose and xylanase enzymes (18.6 U /gram of coconut husk).

  5. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages: Children's Perceptions, Factors of Influence, and Suggestions for Reducing Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battram, Danielle S; Piché, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; He, Meizi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to gain an in-depth understanding of children's perceptions of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Nine focus groups were conducted in grade 5 and 6 elementary schoolchildren. Nine urban and rural elementary schools in London, Ontario, Canada. Fifty-one children, 58% of which were male, 52% of whom were in grade 5, and 84% of whom were Caucasian. Children's views on sugar-sweetened beverages. Three researchers conducted inductive content analysis on the data independently using the principles of the immersion-crystallization method. Participants had a high level of awareness of beverages and their health effects, which was primarily targeted at the sugar content. Dominant factors that influenced children's beverage choices and consumption patterns included taste, parental control practices, accessibility, and advertising. Participants identified a wide array of strategies to reduce SSB consumption in children, including educational strategies for both children and parents and policy-level changes at both the government and school levels. Despite a high level of awareness of SSBs, children believed that further education and policies regarding SSBs were warranted. These data may prove helpful in designing effective interventions targeted at children and parents to reduce SSB consumption by children. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágnes Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration.

  7. Variation in Nectar Volume and Sugar Concentration of Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum in Three Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Ágnes; Molnár, Réka; Morschhauser, Tamás; Hahn, István

    2012-01-01

    Floral nectar volume and concentration of ramson (Allium ursinum L. ssp. ucrainicum) were investigated in three different habitats, including two types of sessile oak-hornbeam association on brown forest soil with clay illuviation and a silver lime-flowering ash rock forest association on rendzina. Daily nectar production ranged from 0.1 to 3.8 μL per flower with sugar concentrations of 25 to 50%. Mean nectar volumes and concentrations showed significant differences between freely exposed flowers and covered flowers, which had been isolated from flower visitors 24 h prior to nectar studies. Both the amount and quality of nectar were affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties and varied between populations at different habitats. In the silver lime-flowering ash rock-forest association mean nectar volumes and concentrations were lower than in a typical sessile oak-hornbeam association on three occasions, the difference being significant in two cases. During full bloom, the date of sampling did not have a profound effect on either nectar volume or concentration. PMID:22619588

  8. Recovering/concentrating of hemicellulosic sugars and acetic acid by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft based hardwood dissolving pulp process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Laboni; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-03-01

    This work investigated the feasibility of recovering and concentrating sugars and acetic acid (HAc) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp process prior to fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars, by the combination of activated carbon adsorption, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) processes. To reduce the fouling PHL was subjected to adsorption on activated carbon, then the treated PHL (TPHL) passed through a nanofiltration (NF DK) membrane to retain the sugars, and the permeate of acetic acid rich solution was passed through a reverse osmosis membrane (RO SG). It was found that for NF process sugars were concentrated from 48 to 227g/L at a volume reduction factor (VRF) of 5 while 80 to 90% of acetic acid was permeated. For the reverse osmosis process, 68% of acetic acid retention was achieved at pH 4.3 and 500 psi pressure and the HAc concentration increased from 10 to 50g/L. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A novel approach for estimating sugar and alcohol concentrations in wines using refractometer and hydrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, H S; Hong, Y S; Park, W M; Yu, M A; Lee, C H

    2009-03-01

    To estimate true Brix and alcoholic strength of must and wines without distillation, a novel approach using a refractometer and a hydrometer was developed. Initial Brix (I.B.), apparent refractometer Brix (A.R.), and apparent hydrometer Brix (A.H.) of must were measured by refractometer and hydrometer, respectively. Alcohol content (A) was determined with a hydrometer after distillation and true Brix (T.B.) was measured in distilled wines using a refractometer. Strong proportional correlations among A.R., A.H., T.B., and A in sugar solutions containing varying alcohol concentrations were observed in preliminary experiments. Similar proportional relationships among the parameters were also observed in must, which is a far more complex system than the sugar solution. To estimate T.B. and A of must during alcoholic fermentation, a total of 6 planar equations were empirically derived from the relationships among the experimental parameters. The empirical equations were then tested to estimate T.B. and A in 17 wine products, and resulted in good estimations of both quality factors. This novel approach was rapid, easy, and practical for use in routine analyses or for monitoring quality of must during fermentation and final wine products in a winery and/or laboratory.

  10. Sugar concentration in nectar: a quantitative metric of crop attractiveness for refined pollinator risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Dan, Tereza; Reisig, Dominic D; Johnson, Josephine D; Bowers, Lisa M

    2016-10-01

    Those involved with pollinator risk assessment know that agricultural crops vary in attractiveness to bees. Intuitively, this means that exposure to agricultural pesticides is likely greatest for attractive plants and lowest for unattractive plants. While crop attractiveness in the risk assessment process has been qualitatively remarked on by some authorities, absent is direction on how to refine the process with quantitative metrics of attractiveness. At a high level, attractiveness of crops to bees appears to depend on several key variables, including but not limited to: floral, olfactory, visual and tactile cues; seasonal availability; physical and behavioral characteristics of the bee; plant and nectar rewards. Notwithstanding the complexities and interactions among these variables, sugar content in nectar stands out as a suitable quantitative metric by which to refine pollinator risk assessments for attractiveness. Provided herein is a proposed way to use sugar nectar concentration to adjust the exposure parameter (with what is called a crop attractiveness factor) in the calculation of risk quotients in order to derive crop-specific tier I assessments. This Perspective is meant to invite discussion on incorporating such changes in the risk assessment process. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Coconut Coir Dust Pretreated by the Recycled Ionic Liquid [mmim][dmp] and Combination with Alkaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Frans Sangian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce reducing sugar hydrolyzed from substrate, coconut coir dust pretreated by recycled ionic liquid and its combination with alkaline. The 1H NMR and FTIR were performed to ver-ify the synthesized ionic liquid methylmethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([mmim][dmp]. The structure of pretreated substrates was analyzed by XRD measurement. The used ionic liquid was recy-cled twice to re-employ for substrate pretreatment. The treated- and untreated-coconut coir dust were hydrolyzed into sugars using pure cellulase. The reaction, which called an enzymatic hydrolysis, was conducted at 60 °C, pH 3, for 48 h. The yields of sugar hydrolyzed from fresh IL-pretreated, 1R*IL-pretreated and 2R*IL-pretreated substrates were of 0.19, 0.15 and 0.15 g sugar / g cellu-lose+hemicellulose, respectively. Pretreatment with NaOH or the combination of NaOH+IL resulted in yields of reducing sugars of 0.25, 0.28 g/g, respectively. When alkaline combined with the recycled ionic liquids, NaOH+1R*IL, NaOH+2R*IL in the pretreatment, the yields of sugar were relatively similar to those obtained using alkaline followed by fresh ionic liquid. If the mixture enzymes, cellu-lase+xylanase, used to liberate sugars from fresh IL-pretreated, or recycled IL-pretreated substrates, the amount of sugar (concentration or yield increased slightly compared to that employing a single cel-lulase. These findings showed that recycled IL pretreatment of the high-lignin lignocellulose, coconut coir dust, is a new prospect for the economical manufacture of fermentable sugars and biofuel in the coming years. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 1st July 2014; Revised: 5th September 2014; Accepted: 5th September 2014 How to Cite: Sangian, H.F., Kristian, J., Rahma, S., Dewi, H., Puspasari, D., Agnesty, S., Gunawan, S., Widjaja, A. (2015. Preparation of Reducing Sugar Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Coconut Coir Dust Pretreated by the Recycled Ionic Liquid [mmim

  12. Physicochemical properties of sugar palm starch film: Effect of concentration and plasticizer type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Apriyana, W.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Hernawan; Hayati, S. N.; Rosyida, V. T.; Pranoto, Y.; Poeloengasih, C. D.

    2017-07-01

    In order to find the best formula for capsule shell production, this present work dealt with exploring physicochemical properties of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch film as a function of different kinds and various concentrations of plasticizers. The films were prepared by casting method at different formula: starch 9-11%, glycerol or sorbitol 35-45% and polyethylene-glycol 400 (PEG 400) 5-9%. Appearance, thickness, retraction ratio, moisture content, swelling behavior and solubility of the film in water were analyzed. Both glycerol and sorbitol are compatible with starch matrix. On the contrary, PEG 400 did not form a film with suitable characteristics. The result reveals that glycerol- and sorbitol-plasticized films appeared translucent, homogenous, smooth and slightly brown in all formulas. Different type and concentration of plasticizers altered the physicochemical of film in different ways. The sorbitol-plasticized film had lower moisture content (≤ 10%) than that of glycerol-plasticized film (≥ 18%). In contrast, film plasticized with sorbitol showed higher solubility in water (28-35%) than glycerol-plasticized film (22-28%). As the concentration of both plasticizers increased, there was an increasing tendency on thickness and solubility in water. Conversely, retraction ratio and swelling degree decreased when both plasticizers concentration increased. In conclusion, the sorbitol-plasticized film showed a potency to be developed as hard capsule material.

  13. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachev, Vladislav; Stich, Kai Petra; Winter, York

    2013-01-01

    Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina), in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  14. Weber's law, the magnitude effect and discrimination of sugar concentrations in nectar-feeding animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Nachev

    Full Text Available Weber's law quantifies the perception of difference between stimuli. For instance, it can explain why we are less likely to detect the removal of three nuts from a bowl if the bowl is full than if it is nearly empty. This is an example of the magnitude effect - the phenomenon that the subjective perception of a linear difference between a pair of stimuli progressively diminishes when the average magnitude of the stimuli increases. Although discrimination performances of both human and animal subjects in various sensory modalities exhibit the magnitude effect, results sometimes systematically deviate from the quantitative predictions based on Weber's law. An attempt to reformulate the law to better fit data from acoustic discrimination tasks has been dubbed the "near-miss to Weber's law". Here, we tested the gustatory discrimination performance of nectar-feeding bats (Glossophaga soricina, in order to investigate whether the original version of Weber's law accurately predicts choice behavior in a two-alternative forced choice task. As expected, bats either preferred the sweeter of the two options or showed no preference. In 4 out of 6 bats the near-miss to Weber's law provided a better fit and Weber's law underestimated the magnitude effect. In order to test the generality of this observation in nectar-feeders, we reviewed previously published data on bats, hummingbirds, honeybees, and bumblebees. In all groups of animals the near-miss to Weber's law provided better fits than Weber's law. Furthermore, whereas the magnitude effect was stronger than predicted by Weber's law in vertebrates, it was weaker than predicted in insects. Thus nectar-feeding vertebrates and insects seem to differ in how their choice behavior changes as sugar concentration is increased. We discuss the ecological and evolutionary implications of the observed patterns of sugar concentration discrimination.

  15. Automated assay for screening the enzymatic release of reducing sugars from micronized biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asther Marcel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the production cost of bioethanol obtained from fermentation of the sugars provided by degradation of lignocellulosic biomass (i.e., second generation bioethanol, it is necessary to screen for new enzymes endowed with more efficient biomass degrading properties. This demands the set-up of high-throughput screening methods. Several methods have been devised all using microplates in the industrial SBS format. Although this size reduction and standardization has greatly improved the screening process, the published methods comprise one or more manual steps that seriously decrease throughput. Therefore, we worked to devise a screening method devoid of any manual steps. Results We describe a fully automated assay for measuring the amount of reducing sugars released by biomass-degrading enzymes from wheat-straw and spruce. The method comprises two independent and automated steps. The first step is the making of "substrate plates". It consists of filling 96-well microplates with slurry suspensions of micronized substrate which are then stored frozen until use. The second step is an enzymatic activity assay. After thawing, the substrate plates are supplemented by the robot with cell-wall degrading enzymes where necessary, and the whole process from addition of enzymes to quantification of released sugars is autonomously performed by the robot. We describe how critical parameters (amount of substrate, amount of enzyme, incubation duration and temperature were selected to fit with our specific use. The ability of this automated small-scale assay to discriminate among different enzymatic activities was validated using a set of commercial enzymes. Conclusions Using an automatic microplate sealer solved three main problems generally encountered during the set-up of methods for measuring the sugar-releasing activity of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes: throughput, automation, and evaporation losses. In its present set-up, the

  16. Association between Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration among Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. Duchaine

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages has increased in North America and seems to have several adverse health effects possibly through decreased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD concentrations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations among premenopausal women. Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages including colas, other carbonated beverages and sweet fruit drinks was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire among 741 premenopausal women. Plasma concentrations of 25(OHD were quantified by radioimmunoassay. The association between sugar-sweetened beverages intake and 25(OHD concentrations was evaluated using multivariate generalized linear models and Spearman correlations. A higher intake of colas was associated with lower mean 25(OHD levels (67.0, 63.7, 64.7 and 58.5 nmol/L for never, <1, 1–3 and >3 servings/week, respectively; r = −0.11 (p = 0.004. A correlation was observed between intake of other carbonated beverages and 25(OHD concentrations but was not statistically significant (r = −0.06 (p = 0.10. No association was observed between intake of sweet fruit drinks and 25(OHD concentrations. This study suggests that high intake of colas may decrease 25(OHD levels in premenopausal women. Considering the high consumption of these drinks in the general population and the possible consequences of vitamin D deficiency on health, this finding needs further investigation.

  17. Rheological and thermophysical properties of model compounds for ice-cream with reduced fat and sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Šubarić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of hydrocolloid carrageenan, native tapioca starch and powdered whey on viscosity and thermophysical properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat. Measurements were performed immediately after mixture preparation and after two months of storage at -18 °C. Results showed that rheological properties of model ice-cream mixtures with reduced content of sugar and fat can be improved by addition of starch and whey, particularly at low temperatures (0 and -5 °C. Improvement of properties at low temperatures is particularly important for before mentioned group of products, as well as the fact that raw materials used in the recipes are cost effective and have high nutritive value. Two-month storage at -18 °C resulted in increase of rheological parameters of all investigated samples. Freeze and thaw temperatures of model mixtures were not changed significantly after two months of storage. On the other hand, enthalpies of freezing and thawing have after storage in the most cases decreased.

  18. Selection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains for reducing alcohol levels in wine by sugar respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirós, Manuel; Rojas, Virginia; Gonzalez, Ramon; Morales, Pilar

    2014-07-02

    Respiration of sugars by non-Saccharomyces yeasts has been recently proposed for lowering alcohol levels in wine. Development of industrial fermentation processes based on such an approach requires, amongst other steps, the identification of yeast strains which are able to grow and respire under the relatively harsh conditions found in grape must. This work describes the characterization of a collection of non-Saccharomyces yeast strains in order to identify candidate yeast strains for this specific application. It involved the estimation of respiratory quotient (RQ) values under aerated conditions, at low pH and high sugar concentrations, calculation of yields of ethanol and other relevant metabolites, and characterization of growth responses to the main stress factors found during the first stages of alcoholic fermentation. Physiological features of some strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima or two species of Kluyveromyces, suggest they are suitable for lowering ethanol yields by respiration. The unsuitability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for this purpose was not due to ethanol yields (under aerated conditions they are low enough for a significant reduction in final ethanol content), but to the high acetic acid yields under these growth conditions. According to results from controlled aeration fermentations with one strain of M. pulcherrima, design of an aeration regime allowing for lowering ethanol yields though preserving grape must components from excessive oxidation, would be conceivable. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmović, Marko; Karlović, Sven; Biškić, Matija; Brnčić, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedding plants, especially petunia is important element for urban landscaping and attracted the attention of landscapers. This is due to some properties such as growth habit and color. The petunia (Petunia hybrida L. belongs to Solanaceae family that has annual and perennial varieties. This plant is originally from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Some plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3 and vitamins including thiamine and ascorbic acid affect plant growth and development and may extend flowering period. Vitamin C affects cell division and cell growth in plants and is effective on the feeding cycle activity in higher plants and it has an important role in electron transport system. The concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of vitamin C and thiamine can increase the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, and chemical compounds of the Syngonium plant. The application of 100 mg/l of GA3 significantly increased plant height and the number of leaves of gladiolus. Material and methods: The experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. In this research, growth characteristics (lateral branch number, flower number, flower diameter, stem diameter, root length, and lateral branch length and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and reducing sugar were measured. After seeding and transplanting the seedling at 6 leaf stage, plants sprayed at 4 various growth stages with following treatments: 1-\tControl 2-\tVitamin C(100 mg/l 3-\tThiamin (100 mg/l 4-\tGibberellic acid (100 mg/l 5-\tVitamin C and Thiamin (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 6-\tVitamin C and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 7-\tThiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 8-\tVitamin C, Thiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of three 100 mg/l Data obtained from the measured parameters

  1. Pectinase activity determination: an early deceleration in the release of reducing sugars throws a spanner in the works!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Biz

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been suggested that pectinases could be used to hydrolyze pectin in biorefineries based on pectin-rich agro-industrial wastes. However, for this to be viable, the cost of their production would need to be lowered significantly. In fact, over the last few decades, there have been many attempts to improve pectinase production by existing strains or to screen for new strains from environmental isolates. In these studies, it is necessary to measure pectinase activities. Many researchers use single-time-point assays that involve incubation of pectinolytic extracts with pectic substrates for a fixed time, followed by determination of the liberated reducing sugars. However, different researchers use quite different conditions for this assay. Furthermore, no attention has been given to the reaction profile during the assay. In the current work, we show, for the first time, that a significant deceleration of the rate of liberation of reducing sugars occurs over the first ten minutes of the reaction. As a consequence, the incubation time used in a single-time-point assay has a large effect on the value obtained for the activity. In fact, we demonstrate that, depending on the particular combination of incubation time, pectin concentration and reaction temperature, the same extract could be reported to have activities that differ by an order of magnitude. In addition, we show that the relative activities obtained with polygalacturonic acid do not correlate with those obtained with pectin. We conclude that it is currently impossible to make meaningful comparisons between pectinase activities reported in the literature by workers who have used different assay conditions. Therefore there is an urgent need for the development of a standardized assay for evaluating the saccharification potential of pectinase complexes.

  2. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Lerner, Stephen; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Yeselson, Yelena; Egbaria, Aiman; Kottapalli, Jayaram; Schaffer, Arthur A; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

    2017-07-01

    Sugars affect central aspects of plant physiology, including photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and the loss of water through the stomata. Yet, the potential effects of sugars on plant aquaporins (AQPs) and water conductance have not been examined. We used database and transcriptional analyses, as well as cellular and whole-plant functional techniques to examine the link between sugar-related genes and AQPs. Database analyses revealed a high level of correlation between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1). Increased expression of AtHXK1, as well as the addition of its primary substrate, glucose (Glc), repressed the expression of 10 AQPs from the plasma membrane-intrinsic proteins (PIP) subfamily (PIP-AQPs) and induced the expression of two stress-related PIP-AQPs. The osmotic water permeability of mesophyll protoplasts of AtHXK1-expressing plants and the leaf hydraulic conductance of those plants were significantly reduced, in line with the decreased expression of PIP-AQPs. Conversely, hxk1 mutants demonstrated a higher level of hydraulic conductance, with increased water potential in their leaves. In addition, the presence of Glc reduced leaf water potential, as compared with an osmotic control, indicating that Glc reduces the movement of water from the xylem into the mesophyll. The production of sugars entails a significant loss of water and these results suggest that sugars and AtHXK1 affect the expression of AQP genes and reduce leaf water conductance, to coordinate sugar levels with the loss of water through transpiration. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The sugar cane agro-industry - its contribution to reducing CO2 emissions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, I. de C.

    1992-01-01

    Production of sugar cane in Brazil is 222 million tonnes (harvested wet weight)/year and is processed to sugar (7.5 million tonnes) and ethanol (11.8 million m 3 ) in 1990. The use of fossil fuels in sugar cane production is 271 MJ/t of cane. Sugar cane bagasse and ethanol substitute for fuel oil in the food and chemical industry (including sugar production) and for gasoline (9.75 million m 3 /year), thus avoiding CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels. Considering the fast carbon cycling in sugar cane production and use, net emissions of 9.45 million tonnes of C/year are avoided; this corresponds roughly to 18% of the total CO 2 emissions from fossil fuels in Brazil. (author)

  4. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  5. Effects of the addition of different nitrogen sources in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2007-04-01

    To study the effect of the addition of different nitrogen sources at high sugar concentration in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were performed at high sugar concentration (170 g l(-1)) using Agave tequilana Weber blue variety with and without added nitrogen from different sources (ammonium sulfate; glutamic acid; a mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids) during the exponential phase of growth. All the additions increased the fermentation rate and alcohol efficiency. The level of synthesis of volatile compounds depended on the source added. The concentration of amyl alcohols and isobutanol were decreased while propanol and acetaldehyde concentration increased. The most efficient nitrogen sources for fermentation rate were ammonium sulfate and the mixture of ammonium sulfate and amino acids. The level of volatile compounds produced depended upon types of nitrogen. The synthesis of some volatile compounds increased while others decreased with nitrogen addition. The addition of nitrogen could be a strategy for improving the fermentation rate and efficiency in the tequila fermentation process at high sugar Agave tequilana concentration. Furthermore, the sensory quality of the final product may change because the synthesis of the volatile compounds is modified.

  6. Kiwifruit Non-Sugar Components Reduce Glycaemic Response to Co-Ingested Cereal in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mishra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (KF effects on the human glycaemic response to co-ingested wheat cereal were determined. Participants (n = 20 consumed four meals in random order, all being made to 40 g of the same available carbohydrate, by adding kiwifruit sugars (KF sug; glucose, fructose, sucrose 2:2:1 to meals not containing KF. The meals were flaked wheat biscuit (WB+KFsug, WB+KF, WB+guar gum+KFsug, WB+guar gum+KF, that was ingested after fasting overnight. Blood glucose was monitored 3 h and hunger measured at 180 min post-meal using a visual analogue scale. KF and guar reduced postprandial blood glucose response amplitude, and prevented subsequent hypoglycaemia that occurred with WB+KFsug. The area between the blood glucose response curve and baseline from 0 to 180 min was not significantly different between meals, 0–120 min areas were significantly reduced by KF and/or guar. Area from 120 to 180 min was positive for KF, guar, and KF+guar, while the area for the WB meal was negative. Hunger at 180 min was significantly reduced by KF and/or guar when compared with WB. We conclude that KF components other than available carbohydrate may improve the glycaemic response profile to co-ingested cereal food.

  7. Fed batch enzymatic saccharification of food waste improves the sugar concentration in the hydrolysates and eventually the ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubao Yan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of food waste by commercially available enzymes and the subsequent ethanol fermentation of the hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerecisiae H058 were studied in this work. The optimum batch enzymatic conditions were found to be saccharification pH of 4.5, temperature of 55!, glucoamylase concentration of 120 u/g, α-amylase concentration of 10 u/g, solid-liquid ratio of 1: 0.75 (w/w. Fed batch hydrolysis process was started with a solid-liquid ratio of 1: 1 (w/w, with solid food waste added at time lapse of 2 h to get a final solid-liquid ratio of 1: 0.5 (w/w. After 4 h of reaction, the reducing sugar concentration reached 194.43 g/L with a enzymatic digestibility of 93.12%. Further fermentation of the batch and fed batch enzymatic hydrolysates, which contained reducing sugar concentration of 131.41 and 194.43 g/L respectively, was performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae H058, 62.93 and 90.72 g/L ethanol was obtained within 48 h.

  8. Taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes: Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pfinder, Manuela; Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.; Pega, Frank; Gartlehner, Gerald; Fenton, Candida; Griebler, Ursula; Sommer, Isolde; Heise, Thomas L.; Lhachimi, Stefan K.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effects of taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods in the general population on the:\\ud \\ud consumption of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods;\\ud prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity; and\\ud prevalence and incidence of diet-related health conditions.

  9. Pectin methyl esterase treatment on high-methoxy pectin for making fruit jam with reduced sugar content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuh-Tai; Lien, Ling-Lan; Chang, Ya-Chu; Wu, James Swi-Bea

    2013-01-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) has been postulated to catalyse the transacylation reaction between pectin molecules. The present study aimed to prove the occurrence of this reaction. The feasibility of applying PME-catalysed transacylation between high-methoxy pectin molecules in making fruit jam with reduced sugar content was also investigated. PME treatment increased the turbidity and particle size in pectin solution and the molecular weight of pectin, while it decreased the number of methoxy ester linkages and the intensity of the CH₃ absorption peak in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum without changes in the number of total ester linkages in pectin molecules. These findings support the occurrence of PME-catalysed transacylation between pectin molecules. Higher values of hardness, gumminess and chewiness were found in a jam containing PME-treated citrus pectin (10 g L⁻¹) and sugar (350 g L⁻¹) as compared with either a jam containing untreated citrus pectin (10 g L⁻¹) and sugar (350 g L⁻¹) or strawberry jam containing pectin (10 g L⁻¹) from the fruit and sugar (650 g L⁻¹). The demand for sugar in jam making can be greatly reduced by the use of PME-treated high-methoxy pectin. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Optimization of Two-Step Acid-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch for High Sugar Concentration in Hydrolysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting high sugar concentrations in lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysate with reasonable yields of sugars is commercially attractive but very challenging. Two-step acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB was conducted to get high sugar concentrations in the hydrolysate. The biphasic kinetic model was used to guide the optimization of the first step dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of EFB. A total sugar concentration of 83.0 g/L with a xylose concentration of 69.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 84.0% was experimentally achieved, which is in well agreement with the model predictions under optimal conditions (3% H2SO4 and 1.2% H3PO4, w/v, liquid to solid ratio 3 mL/g, 130°C, and 36 min. To further increase total sugar and xylose concentrations in hydrolysate, a second step hydrolysis was performed by adding fresh EFB to the hydrolysate at 130°C for 30 min, giving a total sugar concentration of 114.4 g/L with a xylose concentration of 93.5 g/L and a xylose yield of 56.5%. To the best of our knowledge, the total sugar and xylose concentrations are the highest among those ever reported for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of lignocellulose.

  11. EFFECT OF NITROGEN SOURCE AND INITIAL SUGAR CONCENTRATION ON LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION OF PINEAPPLE WASTE USING L.DELBRUECKII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Moch Busairi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The liquid pineapple waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for lactic acid fermentation. The lactic acid is utilised in food technology as pH regulator, microbial preservative, buffering agent and in the chemical industry. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were carried out in batch fermentation at anaerobic condition with stirring speed: 50 rpm, temperature: 40 oC, pH: 6.0, and inoculum size: 5%. Effect of nitrogen source and initial sugar concentration were studied. The effect of nitrogen source on lactic acid production shows that the yeast extract is highest yield , followed by urea , corn steep liquor, malt sprout and ammonium sulphates with the yield of 78.52; 26.68; 19.14; 14.10 and 5.6 %, respectively. The highest yield of initial sugar concentration on lactic acid production obtained was 78.52 % (54.97 g/l at 70 g/l, if the concentration of sugar was increased to 110 g/l , the lactic acid production or yield decrease to51.53 g/l or 54.24%.

  12. Filtered molasses concentrate from sugar cane: natural functional ingredient effective in lowering the glycaemic index and insulin response of high carbohydrate foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alison G; Ellis, Timothy P; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2014-12-01

    An aqueous filtered molasses concentrate (FMC) sourced from sugar cane was used as a functional ingredient in a range of carbohydrate-containing foods to reduce glycaemic response. When compared to untreated controls, postprandial glucose responses in the test products were reduced 5-20%, assessed by accredited glycaemic index (GI) testing. The reduction in glucose response in the test foods was dose-dependent and directly proportional to the ratio of FMC added to the amount of available carbohydrate in the test products. The insulin response to the foods was also reduced with FMC addition as compared to untreated controls. Inclusion of FMC in test foods did not replace any formulation ingredients; it was incorporated as an additional ingredient to existing formulations. Filtered molasses concentrate, made by a proprietary and patented process, contains many naturally occurring compounds. Some of the identified compounds are known to influence carbohydrate metabolism, and include phenolic compounds, minerals and organic acids. FMC, sourced from a by-product of sugar cane processing, shows potential as a natural functional ingredient capable of modifying carbohydrate metabolism and contributing to GI reduction of processed foods and beverages.

  13. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Vellers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels.Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD or high fat/high sugar (HFHS diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males and 17β-estradiol (females to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity.Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀ were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001 and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001. The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28% and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%. In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat.Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  14. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  15. Combined alkali and acid pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for reducing sugar and biofertilizer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong-Ji; Liu, Jia-Heng; Sun, Li-Fan; Hu, Zong-Fu; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was pretreated with alkaline reagents including potassium hydroxide, lime and ammonia to enhance enzymatic saccharification. Under the best pretreatment conditions (1M KOH, 80 °C, 90 min; 1M lime, 80 °C, 120 min; 10 M ammonia, 70 °C, 120 min), the total reducing sugar (TRS) yield reached 258.6, 204.2 and 251.2 mg/g raw SMS, which were respectively 6.15, 4.86, and 5.98 times of untreated SMS. The effects of pretreatment by above alkaline reagents and sulfuric acid on the composition and structure of SMS were evaluated to provide comparative performance data. A new process, combined alkali and acid (CAA) pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, was innovatively proposed to improve the cost-effectiveness and avoid environmental problems. The SMS residue after CAA pretreatment-enzymatic hydrolysis process was converted to biofertilizer with Pichia farinose FL7 and a cell density of 3.0×10(8) cfu/g in biomass was attained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  17. Characterization of Sugar Concentration Among Edible Podded Accessions in the USDA Phaseolus vulgaris Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective is to gain knowledge regarding variation in sugar and flavor content among a sample of dry bean and green pod-type accessions from the USDA Phaseolus Germplasm Core Collection, Pullman, WA. The results could be used to market product quality and offer unique opportunities to expand ma...

  18. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-11-15

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g{sup −1}) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars.

  19. Relationship to reducing sugar production and scanning electron microscope structure to pretreated hemp hurd biomass (Cannabis sativa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, Reinu E.; Barrow, Colin J.; Puri, Munish

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a highly rigid and recalcitrant structure which requires pretreatment to loosen chemical bonds to make accessible monomeric sugars for biofuel production. In this study, locally available biomass, that is hemp (Cannabis sativa), a low cost feedstock for ethanol production, has been used for the production of fermentable sugars. Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was exposed to five different pretreatments which included dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ), alkaline (NaOH), alkaline peroxide, hot water and one stage dilute acid (H 2 SO 4 ). Different pretreatments resulted in loosening and degradation of HHB structure thus facilitating enzymatic saccharification at optimized parameters (pH–4.8 and 50 °C). The changes in the reactive groups (hydroxyl or acetyl) of the HHB were confirmed by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to characterize the surface morphology of untreated and treated HHB. Finally, enzymatic saccharification demonstrated maximum yield of total sugars (743 mg g −1 ) that are suitable for biofuel production. -- Highlights: • Hemp hurd biomass (HHB) was used for producing fermentable sugars. • Alkaline pretreatment resulted in loosening and degradation of hemp structure. • Pretreated HHB was characterized using FTIR studies. • SEM studies evaluated the opening of fiber bundles in pretreatment, thereby increasing cellulose access to enzymes. • Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated HHB demonstrated maximum yield of reducing sugars

  20. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámburo-Gálvez, Jesús G; Ontiveros, Noé; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Gracia-Valenzuela, Martina H; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2017-12-18

    Sugar-free (SF), sugar-reduced (SR), or low-glycemic-index (low GI) cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016). The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p snacks, and tostadas/totopos) had higher prices than their conventional counterparts ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  1. Price and Availability of Sugar-Free, Sugar-Reduced and Low Glycemic Index Cereal Products in Northwestern México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús G. Arámburo-Gálvez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar-free (SF, sugar-reduced (SR, or low-glycemic-index (low GI cereal products could be helpful for the dietary treatment of disorders related to glucose homeostasis. However, access and economic aspects are barriers that could hamper their consumption. Thus, the availability and price of such cereal products were evaluated in Northwestern México. The products were categorized in 10 groups. The data were collected in five cities by store visitation (from November 2015 to April 2016. The availability in specialized stores and supermarkets was expressed as availability rates based on the total number of products. The price of the SF, SR, and low GI products were compared with their conventional counterparts. Availability rates were higher in supermarkets than in specialized stores by product numbers (14.29% versus 3.76%, respectively; p < 0.001 and by product categories (53.57% versus 26.92%, respectively; p < 0.001. Five categories of products labeled as SF, SR, and low GI (oats, cookies and crackers, flours, snacks, and tostadas/totopos had higher prices than their conventional counterparts (p < 0.05. In conclusion, in Northwestern Mexico, the availability of SF, SR, and low GI cereal-based foods is relatively low, and these foods are more expensive than their conventional counterparts.

  2. Effectiveness of sugar-sweetened beverages taxes to reduce obesity: evidence brief for policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán, Josefina; Cuadrado, Cristóbal

    2017-10-25

    The high prevalence of obesity in Chile, along with the increasing consumption of sugary drinks in the country, has made apparent the need to propose fiscal measures, through taxes on specific foods, as a complementary alternative to approach this problem. Since 2014, an additional 5% increase in the tax on sugar-sweetened nonalcoholic beverages has been in effect in Chile, an amount that may be insufficient to produce an impact on obesity levels. The evidence of the effectiveness of fiscal measures upon sugary beverages, in terms of price modification, generally reflects a high transfer of the tax to the final consumers, which is variable according to local conditions. After the analysis of the literature, a sensitivity of the demand to the changes in prices of sugary drinks was evidenced, by means of negative elasticity close to -1, for different groups observed, besides a decrease in the consumption of these products. On the other hand, effects on body weight after the application of these taxes were analyzed by several simulation studies, reporting a decrease on prevalence of obesity between 0.99% and 2.4%. Within the acceptability of a fiscal measure of this nature, there were variable support figures between 36% and 60% among general population. Regarding possible negative effects on employment, an international study even evidenced a rise in the figures for employment in two locations following the application of a tax on sugary drinks. The research showed that there is evidence to support the implementation of a fiscal measure upon sugary beverages in Chile; however, there is a lack of local simulation studies to explore the possible effects and implications of a new tax of this kind in the country. Taxation measures upon foods seem to be both viable and effective alternatives to address the problem of obesity in Chile, but they should be considered as part of an overall strategy with the clear goal of reducing the prevalence of national obesity.

  3. Concentrations and size distribution of inhalable and respirable dust among sugar industry workers: a pilot study in Khon Kaen, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakunkoo, Pornpun; Chaiear, Naesinee; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Sadhra, Steven

    2011-11-01

    There has been very limited information regarding bagasse exposure among workers in sugar industries as well as on health outcomes. The authors determined the occupational exposure of sugar industry workers in Khon Kaen to airborne bagasse dust. The size of the bagasse dust ranged from 0.08 to 9 µm with the highest size concentration of 2.1 to 4.7 µm. The most common size had a geometric mean diameter of 5.2 µm, with a mass concentration of 6.89 mg/m(3)/log µm. The highest mean values of inhalable and respirable dust were found to be 9.29 mg/m(3) from February to April in bagasse storage, 5.12 mg/m(3) from May to September, and 4.12 mg/m(3) from October to January. Inhalable dust concentrations were 0.33, 0.47, and 0.41 mg/m(3), respectively. Workers are likely to be exposed to high concentrations of bagasse dust and are at risk of respiratory diseases. Preventive measures, both in the form of engineering designs and personal protective devices, should be implemented.

  4. Increasing fermentation efficiency at high sugar concentrations by supplementing an additional source of nitrogen during the exponential phase of the tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Gschaedler, Anne

    2002-11-01

    In the tequila industry, fermentation is traditionally achieved at sugar concentrations ranging from 50 to 100 g x L(-1). In this work, the behaviour of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast (isolated from the juices of the Agave tequilana Weber blue variety) during the agave juice fermentation is compared at different sugar concentrations to determine if it is feasible for the industry to run fermentation at higher sugar concentrations. Fermentation efficiency is shown to be higher (above 90%) at a high concentration of initial sugar (170 g x L(-1)) when an additional source of nitrogen (a mixture of amino acids and ammonium sulphate, different than a grape must nitrogen composition) is added during the exponential growth phase.

  5. Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Escobar, Maria A; Veerman, J Lennert; Tollman, Stephen M; Bertram, Melanie Y; Hofman, Karen J

    2013-11-13

    Excess intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been shown to result in weight gain. To address the growing epidemic of obesity, one option is to combine programmes that target individual behaviour change with a fiscal policy such as excise tax on SSBs. This study evaluates the literature on SSB taxes or price increases, and their potential impact on consumption levels, obesity, overweight and body mass index (BMI). The possibility of switching to alternative drinks is also considered. The following databases were used: Pubmed/Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, Econlit, National Bureau of Economics Research (NBER), Research Papers in Economics (RePEc). Articles published between January 2000 and January 2013, which reported changes in diet or BMI, overweight and/or obesity due to a tax on, or price change of, SSBs were included. Nine articles met the criteria for the meta-analysis. Six were from the USA and one each from Mexico, Brazil and France. All showed negative own-price elasticity, which means that higher prices are associated with a lower demand for SSBs. Pooled own price-elasticity was -1.299 (95% CI: -1.089 - -1.509). Four articles reported cross-price elasticities, three from the USA and one from Mexico; higher prices for SSBs were associated with an increased demand for alternative beverages such as fruit juice (0.388, 95% CI: 0.009 - 0.767) and milk (0.129, 95% CI: -0.085 - 0.342), and a reduced demand for diet drinks (-0.423, 95% CI: -0.628 - -1.219). Six articles from the USA showed that a higher price could also lead to a decrease in BMI, and decrease the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Taxing SSBs may reduce obesity. Future research should estimate price elasticities in low- and middle-income countries and identify potential health gains and the wider impact on jobs, monetary savings to the health sector, implementation costs and government revenue. Context-specific cost-effectiveness studies would

  6. Impact of buccal glucose spray, liquid sugars and dextrose tablets on the evolution of plasma glucose concentration in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlup, Rudolf; Zapletalova, Jana; Peterson, Karolina; Poljakova, Iveta; Lenhartova, Eva; Tancred, Adam; Perera, Russel; Smital, Jan

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective controlled trial was to assess the efficacy of three commercially available glucose products, (1) buccal glucose spray, (2) liquid sugars, and (3) dextrose tablet, on the evolution of plasma glucose concentration (PG). Sixteen healthy volunteers aged 21.8 +/- 0.78 y (mean +/- SE), BMI 23.5 +/- 0.84 kg/m(2), tested their PG over the course of 3 sets of 4 sessions (S) each: S(0)-control fasting, S(1)-buccal administration of 10 glucose spray-doses (0.84 g of glucose) without swallowing; S(2-) consumption of 1 sachet (13 ml) of liquid sugar (ca. 5.2 g glucose, 5.2 g fructose, 5.2 g sucrose); S(3-) consumption of one dextrose tablet (6 g). PG was tested in finger-prick capillary blood using a personal glucometer Linus at the start, and at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The means of 3 respective sessions for each of the 16 subjects were analyzed. The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no significant differences between changes in the mean PG at the start vs. 5-minute interval either in control, or any intervention sessions. Analysis of regression coefficients after 30 min compared to the control session, demonstrated an increase in PG with the sachet of liquid sugars (0.068 mmol/l/min, p = 0.001) which was greater than a single dextrose tablet (0.052 mmol/l/min, p = 0.002), but no significant PG increase was found after buccal glucose spray. Liquid sugars or dextrose tablets, but not the buccal glucose spray, are effective means to increase PG within 10 minutes after ingestion.

  7. Optimal Aquifer Pumping Policy to Reduce Contaminant Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different sources of ground water contamination lead to non-uniform distribution of contaminant concentration in the aquifer. If elimination or containment of pollution sources was not possible, the distribution of contaminant concentrations could be modified in order to eliminate peak concentrations using optimal water pumping discharge plan. In the present investigation Visual MODFLOW model was used to simulate the flow and transport in a hypothetic aquifer. Genetic Algorithm (GA also was applied to optimize the location and pumping flow rate of wells in order to reduce contaminants peak concentrations in aquifer.

  8. Procedure for reducing hydrogen ion concentration in acidic anion eluate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Baloun, S.; Plevac, S.

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is suggested for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in the acidic anionic eluate formed during the separation of uranium. The procedure involves anex elution, precipitation, filtration, precipitate rinsing, and anex rinsing. The procedure is included in the uranium elution process and requires at least one ion exchanger column and at least one tank in the continuous or discontinuous mode. Sparing the neutralizing agent by reducing the hydrogen ion concentration in the acidic anionic eluate is a major asset of this procedure. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  9. Study on the Varying Patterns of Total Phospholipids, Selenium, Phosphorus, Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar, Hydrolyzed Amino Acids in the Velvet Antler of Northeast Sika Deer in Growth Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shu-li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the varying patterns of total phospholipids, selenium, phosphorus, reducing sugar and total sugar, hydrolyzed amino acids in the velvet antler of Northeast sika deer in growth period were evaluated. Eighteen Northeast sika deer were allocated into 6 groups according to the antler shedding time. Results indicated that there was significant difference of the selenium content between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 1 and Group 2 or Group 5 and Group 6. About the phosphorus there was significant difference between any two of the six groups (P<0.05 except that of Group 4 and Group 5 or Group 2 and Group 3 or Group 1 and Group 2. Group 6 had the lowest total Phospholipids content. Both of the reducing sugar and total sugar showed an increasing pattern initially and then decrease gradually.

  10. Factors related to reducing free sugar intake among white ethnic adults in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawahi, Said Harith Al; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Jonathon Timothy

    2018-01-01

    To determine the barriers and enablers to behavioural change to reduce free sugar intake related to dental caries in a sample of UK adults who identify their ethnicity as White. Qualitative study comprising semi-structured interviews of 27 participants. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis methods. The Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour model (COM-B) and the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used to guide the derivation of themes. Data saturation occurred at 27 interviews. The COM-B Model and TDF domains captured various factors that may influence the consumption of free sugar. TDF elements which are reflected in the study are: Knowledge; Psychological skills; Memory, attention, and decision processes; Behavioural regulation; Physical skills; Social influence; Environmental context and resources; Social and professional role and identity; Beliefs about capabilities; Beliefs about consequence; Intentions and goals reinforcement; and Emotions. COM-B Model elements which are reflected in the study are: psychological capabilities, physical capabilities, social opportunities, physical opportunities, reflective motivation, and automatic motivation. The COM-B model and TDF framework provided a comprehensive account of the barriers and facilitators of reducing sugar intake among white ethnic groups.

  11. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  12. Sugar in infants, children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mis, Nataša Fidler; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (i.e. sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit-juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because...... there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply...... and reduced dietary diversity and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term 'free sugars', includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present...

  13. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-09-28

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were treated by HPHT processing or conventional high-temperature (HT) treatments. Browning was reduced, and early and advanced Maillard reactions were retarded under HPHT processing at all pH values compared to HT treatment. HPHT induced a larger pH drop than HT treatments, especially at pH 9, which was not associated with Maillard reactions. After HPHT processing at pH 7, protein aggregation and viscosity of whey protein isolate-glucose/trehalose solutions remained unchanged. It was concluded that HPHT processing can potentially improve the quality of protein-sugar-containing foods, for which browning and high viscosities are undesired, such as high-protein beverages.

  14. SACCHARIFICATION ENZYMATIC APPLIED TO THE FRESH PEA POD VARIETY PISUM SATIVUM L. FOR OBTAIN REDUCING SUGAR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Andrés González González

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the process of enzymatic saccharification applied to the fresh pea pod variety Santa Isabel, a content rich vegetable material lignocellulose, which can be exploited to obtain sugars. For effects of the research they thought about to apply nine treatments keeping in mind: the solvent type (deionized water and sulfuric acid, the enzyme type (Novozymes® and Alkozym®, the so much dilution relationship of the solvent like of the enzyme, one also kept in mind the use or not of autoclave like part of the treatment applied to the samples. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the sugars was carried out for liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC using a team LC-2010 AHT Shimadzu®, with a detector of refraction index RID-10A Shimadzu® and a column Shodex SC1011, using deionized water as the phase mobile. Similarly it was a chemical characterization of the pea pods certain percentage of moisture, protein, fiber, fat and ash. It also performed analysis of Lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose. The Statistical analysis for the content of sugars was performed by analysis of variance and comparison of means by Tukey test, in order to find the best treatment; Finding that treatment 8, the works best for obtaining glucose and fructose, but considering not to use sulfuric acid, the best treatment would be 4; which applies to all three sugars identified and quantified (sucrose, glucose and fructose. For data obtained from the analysis of lignin, holocellulose, cellulose and hemicellulose was applied to analysis of variance to establish whether the samples subjected to hydrolysis treatments show a significant difference in content of lignocellulosic material

  15. Influence of fiber degradation and concentration of fermentable sugars on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of high-solids spruce slurry to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Kerstin; Galbe, Mats; Zacchi, Guido

    2013-10-08

    Saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, such as spruce, should be performed at high solids contents in order to reduce the cost of the produced bioethanol. However, this has been shown to result in reduced ethanol yields or a complete lack of ethanol production. Previous studies have shown inconsistent results when prehydrolysis is performed at a higher temperature prior to the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials. In some cases, a significant increase in overall ethanol yield was reported, while in others, a slight decrease in ethanol yield was observed. In order to investigate the influence of prehydrolysis on high-solids SSF of steam-pretreated spruce slurry, in the present study, the presence of fibers and inhibitors, degree of fiber degradation and initial fermentable sugar concentration has been studied. SSF of whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry at a solids content of 13.7% water-insoluble solids (WIS) resulted in a very low overall ethanol yield, mostly due to poor fermentation. The yeast was, however, able to ferment the washed slurry and the liquid fraction of the pretreated slurry. Performing prehydrolysis at 48°C for 22 hours prior to SSF of the whole pretreated slurry increased the overall ethanol yield from 3.9 to 62.1%. The initial concentration of fermentable sugars in SSF could not explain the increase in ethanol yield in SSF with prehydrolysis. Although the viscosity of the material did not appear to decrease significantly during prehydrolysis, the degradation of the fibers prior to the addition of the yeast had a positive effect on ethanol yield when using whole steam-pretreated spruce slurry. The results of the present study suggest that the increase in ethanol yield from SSF when performing prehydrolysis is a result of fiber degradation rather than a decrease in viscosity. The increased concentration of fermentable sugars at the beginning of the

  16. Effects of evaporation pressure and antifoam concentration and the use of a flocculant and adjuvant on the quality of sugar honey and panela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Esperanza Prada Forero

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of multi-effect evaporators on panela (unrefined whole cane sugar production process requires, besides the technological adjustment, to maintain product characteristics; this condition revealed the lack of knowledge of the effect of evaporation pressure on the quality of panela. In order to fill part of this gap, this study sought to determine the effect of both the concentration of antifoam and the use of a flocculant (Heliocarpus popayanensis Kunth and an adjuvant (lime on the quality of sugar honey and panela, when evaporation is performed at different atmospheric pressures. In order to achieve this, the present study worked on two completely randomized experimental designs with four replications, a density of evaporation heat flow of 27.78 kW/m2 and juice from the CC85-46 variety. In the first design, two variables were studied: evaporation pressure and use of flocculant and adjuvant with a 4x2x2 factorial arrangement without antifoam. In the second design, variables evaporation pressure and quantity of antifoam with a 4x3 factorial arrangement without flocculant nor adjuvant were studied. The results show that the quality of the product deteriorates in pressurized systems (glucoside coefficient increases up to 200%, is not affected by the use of 50 μL of antifoam per liter of clarified juice and improved by the use of flocculant (turbidity is reduced by 55%. Solidification and hardness improve with the addition of the adjuvant, but this increased 48% color and 24% turbidity.

  17. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2013-06-01

    While childhood obesity is a global problem, the extent and severity of the problem in United States, has resulted in a number of new initiatives, including recent hospital initiatives to limit the sale of sweetened beverages and other high calorie drinks in hospital vending machines and cafeterias. These proposed policy changes are not unique to United States, but are more comprehensive in the number of proposed hospitals that they will impact. Meanwhile, however, it is advised, that these initiatives should focus on banning sugar sweetened beverages, including sodas, 100% fruit juice and sports drinks, from hospital cafeterias and vending machines instead of limiting their presence, so as to ensure the success of these programs in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. If US hospitals comprehensively remove sugar sweetened beverages from their cafeterias and vending machines, these programs could subsequently become a model for efforts to address childhood obesity in other areas of the world. Hospitals should be a model for health care reform in their communities and removing sugar sweetened beverages is a necessary first step. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  19. Extended Storage of Pathogen-Reduced Platelet Concentrates (PRECON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    transfusion. Our project proposes to determine the efficacy of using a pathogen inactivation technique (Mirasol) coupled with a platelet additive solution (PAS...technology, platelet additive solution, platelet recovery and survival, platelet storage, platelet storage solution, platelets, thrombocytopenia, transfusion...Platelets Report to 2017 Military Health System Research Symposium ……………………………………………………………….. 29 Extended Storage of Pathogen-Reduced Platelet Concentrates

  20. The Determination of the Concentrations of Sugar Solutions by Laser Refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elvin, Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents an easily performed experiment to determine sucrose concentrations using a laser and a hollow glass prism. The experiment is suggested for high school, freshman college, and instrumental analysis classes. Notes an Erlenmeyer flask can be used instead of a prism. (MVL)

  1. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  2. Ethanol fermentation by xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae using sugars in a rice straw liquid hydrolysate concentrated by nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Sasaki, Daisuke; Sakihama, Yuri; Teramura, Hiroshi; Yamada, Ryosuke; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    Concentrating sugars using membrane separation, followed by ethanol fermentation by recombinant xylose-assimilating Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an attractive technology. Three nanofiltration membranes (NTR-729HF, NTR-7250, and ESNA3) were effective in concentrating glucose, fructose, and sucrose from dilute molasses solution and no permeation of sucrose. The separation factors of acetate, formate, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, which were produced by dilute acid pretreatment of rice straw, over glucose after passage through these three membranes were 3.37-11.22, 4.71-20.27, 4.32-16.45, and 4.05-16.84, respectively, at pH 5.0, an applied pressure of 1.5 or 2.0 MPa, and 25 °C. The separation factors of these fermentation inhibitors over xylose were infinite, as there was no permeation of xylose. Ethanol production from approximately two-times concentrated liquid hydrolysate using recombinant S. cerevisiae was double (5.34-6.44 g L(-1)) that compared with fermentation of liquid hydrolysate before membrane separation (2.75 g L(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TESTING OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME ENZYMATIC MIXTURES, CONCERNING THE CONVERSION OF SEVERAL LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS’ SOURSES, TO REDUCING SUGARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADIANA TAMBA-BEREHOIU

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Three lignocelluloses substrates have been used, as following: Mischantus, Maize stalk and Wheat bran, in order to obtain fermentescible sugars, which will be transformed into bioethanol. The substrates were hydrolysed using commercial enzymes: MethaPlus (b-glucanase, xylanase, cellulase, Veron 191 (xylanase, Hep C (cellulase. The hydrolysis was performed at 550 C, for 20 h, at pH = 5,5. The best results were obtained by using MethaPlus enzyme. The efficiency of hydrolysis was 110.80 % for Miscanthus, 126.15 % for maize stalk and 118.76 % for wheat bran, reported to the control. The most enhanced quantities of reducing sugars were obtained in maize stalk, namely: 126.15 % using MethaPlus, 112.07 % using Veron 191 and 113.52 % using Hep C. The wheat bran was hydrolysed with enzymatic mixtures, for emphasizing the reducing sugars’ grow, coming from residual starch’s content (flour. In comparison to the control, the efficiency of hydrolysis was of: 181.004 % for MethaPlus-Veron M4 mixture, 168.83 % for MethaPlus-Veron 393 mixture, 205.86 % for MethaPlus-BG a-malt mixture and of 176.57 % for MethaPlus-Veron MX mixture. The enzymatic mixture which contains BG a-malt was the most productive, the hydrolysis efficiency being superior to all other variants.

  4. Nuclear Design Study for Reduced Boron Concentration Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daing, Aung Tharn; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    In PWR, Boron Dilution Accident (BDA) which is an inadvertent reduction of the soluble boron concentration in the primary coolant, can lead to a positive reactivity insertion and a power increase. In this study, an optimal Low Boron Concentration (LBC) core design will be developed by reducing an excess reactivity so as to possess passive inherently safety features as well as one of attentively preventive measures of BDA scenarios. The scope of the research project concerning the change of operational procedure in chemical shim system, will involve three main parts namely, nuclear design for LBC core, feasibility check on the proposed core in safety and costs, and PSA approach on design change benefits. In addition, successful system analysis of the reactivity effects due to boron dilution transients, require a full coupling between core thermal hydraulic, reactor dynamics, and the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes

  5. Nuclear Design Study for Reduced Boron Concentration Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daing, Aung Tharn; Kim, Myung Hyun [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    In PWR, Boron Dilution Accident (BDA) which is an inadvertent reduction of the soluble boron concentration in the primary coolant, can lead to a positive reactivity insertion and a power increase. In this study, an optimal Low Boron Concentration (LBC) core design will be developed by reducing an excess reactivity so as to possess passive inherently safety features as well as one of attentively preventive measures of BDA scenarios. The scope of the research project concerning the change of operational procedure in chemical shim system, will involve three main parts namely, nuclear design for LBC core, feasibility check on the proposed core in safety and costs, and PSA approach on design change benefits. In addition, successful system analysis of the reactivity effects due to boron dilution transients, require a full coupling between core thermal hydraulic, reactor dynamics, and the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes.

  6. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk.

  7. Method of increased bioethanol concentration with reduced heat consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremers, G.; Blija, A.

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol dehydration applying method of non-reflux saline distillation was conduced on a laboratory scale and in bigger pilot equipment. Results make possible recommend new method for the increased of ethanol concentration. Heat consumption reduced by 50% and cooling water consumption by 90 % when the non-reflux distillation was applied. Reflux flow in the column is replacing with contact mass, which consist from saline layer and seclude medium. Basis diagram of ethanol non-reflux saline distillation was established. Distillation equipment and number of plates in the column can calculate using basis diagram. Absolute ethanol can obtain with non-reflux saline distillation. Absolute ethanol use in produce of biofuel (author)

  8. A Multicomponent Intervention Helped Reduce Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in Economically Disadvantaged Hispanic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Du; Song, Huaxin; Esperat, M Christina; Black, Ipuna

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of a multicomponent intervention program on consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and lifestyle factors associated with SSB intake, in Hispanic children from low-income families. A five-wave longitudinal study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Five elementary schools in West Texas served as the setting. Participants included 555 predominantly Hispanic children (ages 5-9 years) from low-income families and their parents (n = 525). A multicomponent intervention program was implemented. Children's anthropometric measures were obtained. Their weight status was determined based on body mass index for age and gender. Parents responded to a demographic questionnaire, a shelf inventory, an acculturation scale, and a family survey. Growth curve analyses were used to test differences between intervention and comparison participants' SSB intake and to examine potential covariates. Comparison group children's daily SSB intake significantly increased over time (B = 1.06 ± .40 ounces per month, p food intake, and more types of SSBs available at home were associated with higher SSB intake. Risk factors of childhood obesity were associated with each other. The intervention program produced a modest reduction in SSB consumed by economically disadvantaged and predominantly Hispanic children. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  9. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D M; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  10. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  11. Analyses of statistical transformations of row data describing free proline concentration in sugar beet exposed to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven sugar beet genotypes were tested for their capacity to tolerate drought. Plants were grown in semi-controlled conditions, in the greenhouse, and watered daily. After 90 days, water deficit was imposed by the cessation of watering, while the control plants continued to be watered up to 80% of FWC. Five days later concentration of free proline in leaves was determined. Analysis was done in three replications. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 9.0, Minitab 15, and R2.11.1. Differences between genotypes were statistically processed by Duncan test. Because of nonormality of the data distribution and heterogeneity of variances in different groups, two types of transformations of row data were applied. For this type of data more appropriate in eliminating nonormality was Johnson transformation, as opposed to Box-Cox. Based on the both transformations it may be concluded that in all genotypes except for 10, concentration of free proline differs significantly between treatment (drought and the control.

  12. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during biscuit baking. Part II: Effect of the ratio of reducing sugars and asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) formation during biscuit baking. Four types of wheat flour with different molar ratios of total fructose and glucose to asparagine were investigated. Nevertheless, the molar ratio in all four biscuit doughs exceeded one after proofing due to enzyme action. Data obtained after baking were used to develop a mechanistic model, based on the asparagine-related pathway, for acrylamide and HMF formation in the four baked biscuit types. Asparagine reacted with fructose to form a Schiff base before decarboxylation to produce acrylamide without Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Fructose contributed considerably to acrylamide formation and to HMF formation via caramelization in all four biscuit types. No clear correlation was found between acrylamide and HMF in baked biscuits, nor between asparagine and the sum of glucose and fructose concentrations in the wheat flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Dragos C; Hollands, Gareth J; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    "Nudging"-modifying environments to change people's behavior, often without their conscious awareness-can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown. We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA) received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a) via conscious processes; (b) via non-conscious processes; or (c) no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items. Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples. In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less acceptable than education. Contrary to prediction, we

  14. Ethics and obesity prevention: ethical considerations in 3 approaches to reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Nancy; Hecht, Kenneth; Paul, Amy; Birnbach, Kerry

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence soared to unprecedented levels in the United States, with 1 in 3 adults and 1 in 6 children currently categorized as obese. Although many approaches have been taken to encourage individual behavior change, policies increasingly attempt to modify environments to have a more positive influence on individuals' food and drink choices. Several policy proposals target sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), consumption of which has become the largest contributor to Americans' caloric intake. Yet proposals have been criticized for unduly inhibiting choice, being overly paternalistic, and stigmatizing low-income populations. We explored the ethical acceptability of 3 approaches to reduce SSB consumption: restricting sale of SSBs in public schools, levying significant taxes on SSBs, and prohibiting the use of Supplemental Nutrition and Assistance Program (formerly food stamps) benefits for SSB purchases.

  15. Reinforcement corrosion in alkaline chloride media with reduced oxygen concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.; Fullea, J.; Toro, L.; Martinez, I.; Rebolledo, N.

    2013-01-01

    It is commonly considered that the corrosion of steel in concrete is controlled by the oxygen content of the pore solution and there are service life models that relate the corrosion rate to the amount of oxygen. It is also commonly believed that in water saturated conditions the oxygen content in the pores is negligible and that underwater there is no risk of depassivation and the corrosion rate is very low. However, the available data on corrosion rates in immersed conditions do not indicate such performance; on the contrary corrosion develops when sufficient chloride reaches the reinforcement. In the present paper, results are presented for tests performed in alkaline chloride solutions that were purged with nitrogen to reduce the oxygen content. The results indicate that at very low oxygen concentrations, corrosion may develop in the presence of chlorides. The presence or absence of corrosion is influenced by the amount of chloride, the corrosion potential and the steel surface condition. (authors)

  16. Atorvastatin reduces malondialdehyde concentrations in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Shepherd, John; Coady, Anne-Marie; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Atkin, Stephen L

    2012-11-01

    It has been shown that there is an increase in oxidative stress in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Statins are considered to have a pleiotropic effect other than their lipid-lowering effect. These effects may be mediated in part by reducing oxidative stress. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to assess the effect of atorvastatin on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as a marker of oxidative stress in patients with PCOS. Forty medication-naïve patients with PCOS were randomized to either atorvastatin 20 mg daily or placebo for 3 months. A 3-month extension study for both groups of patients was undertaken with metformin 1500 mg daily after completing initial 3 months of atorvastatin or placebo. There was a significant decrease of MDA concentrations with atorvastatin [mean (sem)] [0.29 (0.04) vs. 0.25 (0.02) μmol/liter; P polycystic ovary syndrome that was independently predicted by changes in testosterone, 25OHD, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

  17. Conversion of the reducing substances and the indices of sugar solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the extent of adsorption removal of calcium carbonate pigments - products of conversion of the reducing substances in different conditions of the preceding limestone processing flow. Also carried out experiments on the influence of the conditions of conversion of the reducing substances in the process of lime treatment on the filtration characteristics of the solutions after the first carbonation. As the criterion was accepted the value of the filtration coefficient. Found that by subjecting the conversion of reducing substances in the process managed lime processing, it is necessary in the course of the subsequent carbonization to ensure maximum adsorption of the formed secondary products – it is possible to achieve a satisfactory filtration of the investigated solutions. It is shown that the largest absolute removal of the dyes obtained after high temperature lime treatment, however, the composition of the products of disintegration to a greater extent accumulate high molecular weight compounds which deteriorate the filtration performance of solutions. In the solutions after the combination of the lime treatment in the process of carbonization is achieved the maximum effect of adsorption with the minimum remaining shares of conversion products, including high-molecular substances, which favorably affect the parameters of the filtering. The combination possibilities of the model of purification of diffusion juice with warm-hot lime treatment is limited to receive the filtered juice in the processing of raw materials with a purity of beet juice 82 % or less, you need to enter a 3.5% Cao, which is unacceptable. To ensure sustainable results of the adsorption of conversion products reducing substances and satisfactory filtering carbonated solutions are to intensify the processes of combined lime processing diffusion juice at the optimum distribution of the reagent.

  18. Do Emotional Appeals in Public Service Advertisements Influence Adolescents' Intention to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Hennessy, Michael; Glanz, Karen; Strasser, Andrew; Vaala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Mass media campaigns are a commonly used approach to reduce sugary drink consumption, which is linked to obesity in children and adolescents. The present study investigated the direct and mediated effects of emotional appeals in public service advertisements (PSAs) that aired between 2010 and 2012 on adolescents' intention to reduce their sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. An online randomized experiment was conducted with a national sample of adolescent respondents ages 13 to 17 years old (N = 805). Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions. Three experimental conditions represented PSAs with different emotional appeals: humor, fear, and nurturance, plus a fourth control condition. The outcome was adolescents' intention to cut back on SSBs. The direct effect of fear appeals on intention was mediated through adolescents' perception of the PSAs' argument strength; perceived argument strength was also the key mediator for the indirect effects of humor and nurturance on intention. Several hypothesized mediators influenced by the appeals were not associated with intention. This is the first study to test the effect of persuasive emotional appeals used in SSB-related PSAs. The perceived strength of the PSAs' arguments is important to consider in the communication of messages designed to reduce SSB consumption.

  19. Primary care interventions to reduce childhood obesity and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption: Food for thought for oral health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Diane; Moultrie, Nicolette M; Sites, Elsbeth; Crawford, Patricia B

    2017-06-01

    Childhood obesity remains a significant threat to America's children. Health care leaders have increasingly called upon oral health professionals to integrate healthy weight promotion and enhanced sugar-sweetened beverage counseling into their professional practices. The aim of this scoping review is to examine recent evidence regarding the effectiveness of primary care childhood obesity interventions that have potential for adoption by oral health professionals. Medine, and PubMed were searched from 2010 to 2016 for review articles and studies reporting patient outcomes or policy outcomes relevant to primary care childhood obesity interventions for children ages 2-11 years. Additional articles were accessed through relevant websites, journals, and references. Our screening criteria included interventions that could be adopted by oral health professionals. Forty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Effective interventions fell into four domains: family-based programs, motivational interviewing, office-based practice tools, and policy interventions. Despite strong evidence linking the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages to childhood obesity, our review did not find evidence of primary care programs effectively targeting and reducing childhood sugary drinks. Effective primary care interventions for addressing childhood obesity have been identified, although only short-term effectiveness has been demonstrated. Dissemination of these practices as well as further research and advocacy are needed. Childhood obesity and poor oral health share many common risk factors. Additional research should focus on the benefits and feasibility of widespread interdisciplinary medical-oral health collaboration in addressing the two most prevalent diseases of childhood. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Silencing a sugar transporter gene reduces growth and fecundity in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Ting; Song, Qi-Sheng; Stanley, David; Kuai, Peng; Lu, Xiu-Li; Yang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2015-07-17

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, sugar transporter gene 6 (Nlst6) is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter (often called a passive carrier) expressed in midgut that mediates sugar transport from the midgut lumen to hemolymph. The influence of down regulating expression of sugar transporter genes on insect growth, development, and fecundity is unknown. Nonetheless, it is reasonable to suspect that transporter-mediated uptake of dietary sugar is essential to the biology of phloem-feeding insects. Based on this reasoning, we posed the hypothesis that silencing, or reducing expression, of a BPH sugar transporter gene would be deleterious to the insects. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effects of Nlst6 knockdown on BPH biology. Reducing expression of Nlst6 led to profound effects on BPHs. It significantly prolonged the pre-oviposition period, shortened the oviposition period, decreased the number of eggs deposited and reduced body weight, compared to controls. Nlst6 knockdown also significantly decreased fat body and ovarian (particularly vitellogenin) protein content as well as vitellogenin gene expression. Experimental BPHs accumulated less fat body glucose compared to controls. We infer that Nlst6 acts in BPH growth and fecundity, and has potential as a novel target gene for control of phloem-feeding pest insects.

  1. Comparative Study of the Preparation of Reducing Sugars Hydrolyzed from High-Lignin Lignocellulose Pretreated with Ionic Liquid, Alkaline Solution and Their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny F. Sangian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ionicliquid [MMIM][DMP] was synthesized from the reactants methyl imidazole [MIM] and trimethylphosphate [TMP] and verified using 1HNMR and FTIR. Coconut coir dust was pretreated with a 1% alkaline solution.Its crystalline structure increased significantly due to the dissolution of lignin and hemicelluloses under alkaline conditions, exposing the cellulose. After NaOH and IL were employed, the XRD showed that peak (002 decreased significantly and peak (101 almost vanished. This significant decrease in crystallinity was related to the alteration of the substrate from the cellulose I structure to the cellulose II structure. The pretreated substrates were hydrolyzed to convert them to reducing sugars by pure cellulase and xylanase,and the reaction was conducted at 60°C, pH 3, for 12 or 48 hours. The yields of sugar hydrolyzed from untreated and NaOH-pretreated substrates were 0.07 and 0.12 g sugar/g lignocellulose, respectively. Pretreatment with IL or the combination of NaOH+IL resulted in yields of reducing sugars of 0.11 and 0.13 g/g, respectively. These findings showed that IL pretreatment of the high-lignin lignocellulose is a new prospect for the economical manufacture of reducing sugars and bioethanol in the coming years.

  2. Numerical modelling of pyrolysis in normal and reduced oxygen concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacem, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The predictive capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) fire models depends on the accuracy with which the source term due to fuel pyrolysis can be determined. The pyrolysis rate is a key parameter controlling fire behavior, which in turn drives the heat feedback from the flame to the fuel surface. In the present study an in-depth pyrolysis model of a semi-transparent solid fuel (here, clear polymethyl methacrylate or PMMA) with spectrally-resolved radiation and a moving gas/solid interface was coupled with the CFD code ISIS of the IRSN which included turbulence, combustion and radiation for the gas phase. A combined genetic algorithm/pyrolysis model was used with Cone Calorimeter data from a pure pyrolysis experiment to estimate a unique set of kinetic parameters for PMMA pyrolysis. In order to validate the coupled model, ambient air flaming experiments were conducted on square slabs of PMMA with side lengths of 10, 20 and 40 cm. From measurements at the center of the slab, it was found that i) for any sample size, the experimental regression rate becomes almost constant with time, and ii) although the radiative and total heat transfers increase significantly with the sample size, the radiative contribution to the total heat flux remains almost constant (∼80%). Coupled model results show a fairly good agreement with the literature and with current measurements of the heat fluxes, gas temperature and regressing surface rate at the center of the slabs. Discrepancies between predicted and measured total pyrolysis rate are observed, which result from the underestimation of the flame heat flux feedback at the edges of the slab, as confirmed by the comparison between predicted and observed topography of burned samples. Predicted flame heights based on a threshold temperature criterion were found to be close to those deduced from the correlation of Heskestad. Finally, in order to predict the pyrolysis of PMMA under reduced ambient oxygen concentration, a two

  3. Effect of Plasticizer Type and Concentration on Tensile, Thermal and Barrier Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Sugar Palm (Arenga pinnata Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed L. Sanyang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of starch based films as a potential alternative choice to petroleum derived plastics is imperative for environmental waste management. This study presents a new biopolymer (sugar palm starch for the preparation of biodegradable packaging films using a solution casting technique. The effect of different plasticizer types (glycerol (G, sorbitol (S and glycerol-sorbitol (GS combination with varying concentrations (0, 15, 30 and 45, w/w% on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of sugar palm starch (SPS films was evaluated. Regardless of plasticizer types, the tensile strength of plasticized SPS films decreased, whereas their elongation at break (E% increased as the plasticizer concentrations were raised. However, the E% for G and GS-plasticized films significantly decreased at a higher plasticizer concentration (45% w/w due to the anti-plasticization effect of plasticizers. Change in plasticizer concentration showed an insignificant effect on the thermal properties of S-plasticized films. The glass transition temperature of SPS films slightly decreased as the plasticizer concentration increased from 15% to 45%. The plasticized films exhibited increased water vapor permeability values from 4.855 × 10−10 to 8.70 × 10−10 g·m−1·s−1·Pa−1, irrespective of plasticizer types. Overall, the current study manifested that plasticized sugar palm starch can be regarded as a promising biopolymer for biodegradable films.

  4. Use of sugarcane molasses "B" as an alternative for ethanol production with wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 at high sugar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-López, C L; Torrestiana-Sánchez, B; Salgado-Cervantes, M A; García, P G Mendoza; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2012-05-01

    Molasses "B" is a rich co-product of the sugarcane process. It is obtained from the second step of crystallization and is richer in fermentable sugars (50-65%) than the final molasses, with a lower non-sugar solid content (18-33%); this co-product also contains good vitamin and mineral levels. The use of molasses "B" for ethanol production could be a good option for the sugarcane industry when cane sugar prices diminish in the market. In a complex medium like molasses, osmotolerance is a desirable characteristic for ethanol producing strains. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of molasses "B" for ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ITV-01 (a wild-type yeast isolated from sugarcane molasses) using different initial sugar concentrations (70-291 g L(-1)), two inoculum sizes and the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract, urea, and ammonium sulphate to the culture medium. The results obtained showed that the strain was able to grow at 291 g L(-1) total sugars in molasses "B" medium; the addition of nutrients to the culture medium did not produce a statistically significant difference. This yeast exhibits high osmotolerance in this medium, producing high ethanol yields (0.41 g g(-1)). The best conditions for ethanol production were 220 g L(-1) initial total sugars in molasses "B" medium, pH 5.5, using an inoculum size of 6 × 10(6) cell mL(-1); ethanol production was 85 g L(-1), productivity 3.8 g L(-1 )h(-1) with 90% preserved cell viability.

  5. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Dragos C.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Ng, Yin-Lam; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background “Nudging”—modifying environments to change people’s behavior, often without their conscious awareness—can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown. Methods We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA), of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA) received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a) via conscious processes; (b) via non-conscious processes; or (c) no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items. Results Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples. Conclusion In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less

  6. Public Acceptability in the UK and USA of Nudging to Reduce Obesity: The Example of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos C Petrescu

    Full Text Available "Nudging"-modifying environments to change people's behavior, often without their conscious awareness-can improve health, but public acceptability of nudging is largely unknown.We compared acceptability, in the United Kingdom (UK and the United States of America (USA, of government interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Three nudge interventions were assessed: i. reducing portion Size, ii. changing the Shape of the drink containers, iii. changing their shelf Location; alongside two traditional interventions: iv. Taxation and v. Education. We also tested the hypothesis that describing interventions as working through non-conscious processes decreases their acceptability. Predictors of acceptability, including perceived intervention effectiveness, were also assessed. Participants (n = 1093 UK and n = 1082 USA received a description of each of the five interventions which varied, by randomisation, in how the interventions were said to affect behaviour: (a via conscious processes; (b via non-conscious processes; or (c no process stated. Acceptability was derived from responses to three items.Levels of acceptability for four of the five interventions did not differ significantly between the UK and US samples; reducing portion size was less accepted by the US sample. Within each country, Education was rated as most acceptable and Taxation the least, with the three nudge-type interventions rated between these. There was no evidence to support the study hypothesis: i.e. stating that interventions worked via non-conscious processes did not decrease their acceptability in either the UK or US samples. Perceived effectiveness was the strongest predictor of acceptability for all interventions across the two samples.In conclusion, nudge interventions to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages seem similarly acceptable in the UK and USA, being more acceptable than taxation, but less acceptable than education. Contrary to

  7. Reducing indoor radon concentrations by passive subslab ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.

    2005-01-01

    perforated pipes laid into the subslab layer of coarse gravel and vertical exhaust pipe running through the heated part of the house and terminating above the roof can be surprisingly effective. Discovered effectiveness for two houses varied between 75 % and 89 %, which is a better result than 50 % observed for passive mini sump systems. The difference can be explained by the fact that perforated pipes ensure better pressure distribution and soil ventilation compared to simple sumps. This could lead to the conclusion,that passive soil ventilation based on perforated pipes can be convenient for houses with indoor radon concentration below approximately 1200 Bq/m3. However there is insufficient data to draw any firm conclusions. Further research in this field is needed. In new houses passive systems should be preferable to a fan driven ones because they are usually cheaper to install, run and maintain. In addition it is a simple task to add an electric fan later if the passive system does not adequately reduce indoor radon concentrations. (authors)

  8. Effects of an intervention aimed at reducing the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in primary school children: A controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian); W. Jansen (Wilma); A. van Grieken (Amy); G.J.J.M. Borsboom (Gerard); S.P.J. Kremers (Stef); H. Raat (Hein)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Background Since sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight in children, effective interventions to reduce their consumption are needed. Here we evaluated the effect of a combined school- and community-based intervention aimed at

  9. Reduced Availability of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Diet Soda Has a Limited Impact on Beverage Consumption Patterns in Maine High School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley Blum, Janet E.; Davee, Anne-Marie; Beaudoin, Christina M.; Jenkins, Paul L.; Kaley, Lori A.; Wigand, Debra A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine change in high school students' beverage consumption patterns pre- and post-intervention of reduced availability of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and diet soda in school food venues. Design: A prospective, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized study design. Setting: Public high schools. Participants: A convenience sample from…

  10. A novel ion-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure concentrations and cycling rates of carbohydrates and amino sugars in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horňák, Karel; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2014-10-24

    The concentrations of free neutral carbohydrates and amino sugars were determined in freshwater samples of distinct matrix complexity, including meso-, eu- and dystrophic lakes and ponds, using high-performance ion-exclusion chromatography (HPIEC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In contrast to other methods, our approach allowed the quantification of free neutral carbohydrates and amino sugars at low nM concentrations without derivatization, de-salting or pre-concentration. New sample preparation procedures were applied prior to injection employing syringe and hollow fiber filtration. Analytes were separated on a strong cation exchange resin under 100% aqueous conditions using 0.1% formic acid as a mobile phase. To minimize background noise in MS, analytes were detected in a multiple reaction monitoring scan mode with double ion filtering. Detection limits of carbohydrates and amino sugars ranged between 0.2 and 2nM at a signal-to-noise ratio >5. Error ranged between 1 and 12% at 0.5-500nM levels. Using a stable isotope dilution approach, both the utilization and recycling of glucose in Lake Zurich was observed. In contrast, N-acetyl-glucosamine was equally rapidly consumed but there was no visible de novo production. The simple and rapid sample preparation makes our protocol suitable for routine analyses of organic compounds in freshwater samples. Application of stable isotope tracers along with accurate measures of carbohydrate and amino sugar concentrations enables novel insights into the compound in situ dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon S Nakhimovsky

    Full Text Available The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs, which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs. Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1, changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2, and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3.We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016 and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied.The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  12. Taxes on Sugar-Sweetened Beverages to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhimovsky, Sharon S; Feigl, Andrea B; Avila, Carlos; O'Sullivan, Gael; Macgregor-Skinner, Elizabeth; Spranca, Mark

    The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which can lead to weight gain, is rising in middle-income countries (MICs). Taxing SSBs may help address this challenge. Systematic reviews focused on high-income countries indicate that taxing SSBs may reduce SSB consumption. Responsiveness to price changes may differ in MICs, where governments are considering the tax. To help inform their policy decisions, this review compiles evidence from MICs, assessing post-tax price increases (objective 1), changes in demand for SSBs and other products, overall and by socio-economic groups (objective 2), and effects on overweight and obesity prevalence (objective 3). We conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of SSB taxation in MICs (1990-2016) and identified nine studies from Brazil, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Peru, and South Africa. Estimates for own-price elasticity ranged from -0.6 to -1.2, and decreases in SSB consumption ranged from 5 to 39 kilojoules per person per day given a 10% increase in SSB prices. The review found that milk is a likely substitute, and foods prepared away from home, snacks, and candy are likely complements to SSBs. A quasi-experimental study and two modeling studies also found a negative relationship between SSB prices and obesity outcomes after accounting for substitution effects. Estimates are consistent despite variation in baseline obesity prevalence and per person per day consumption of SSBs across countries studied. The review indicates that taxing SSBs will increase the prices of SSBs, especially sugary soda, in markets with few producers. Taxing SSBs will also reduce net energy intake by enough to prevent further growth in obesity prevalence, but not to reduce population weight permanently. Additional research using better survey data and stronger study designs is needed to ascertain the long-term effectiveness of an SSB tax on obesity prevalence in MICs.

  13. Co-solvent pretreatment reduces costly enzyme requirements for high sugar and ethanol yields from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Yen; Cai, Charles M; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2015-05-22

    We introduce a new pretreatment called co-solvent-enhanced lignocellulosic fractionation (CELF) to reduce enzyme costs dramatically for high sugar yields from hemicellulose and cellulose, which is essential for the low-cost conversion of biomass to fuels. CELF employs THF miscible with aqueous dilute acid to obtain up to 95 % theoretical yield of glucose, xylose, and arabinose from corn stover even if coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis at only 2 mgenzyme  gglucan (-1) . The unusually high saccharification with such low enzyme loadings can be attributed to a very high lignin removal, which is supported by compositional analysis, fractal kinetic modeling, and SEM imaging. Subsequently, nearly pure lignin product can be precipitated by the evaporation of volatile THF for recovery and recycling. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of CELF-pretreated solids with low enzyme loadings and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced twice as much ethanol as that from dilute-acid-pretreated solids if both were optimized for corn stover. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake among Alaska Native children. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement, the terms "Alaska Native", "children" and "oral health" were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970-2012) for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions are promising approaches to improve the oral and systemic health of Alaska Native

  15. Reduced serum myostatin concentrations associated with genetic muscle disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Peter M; Pogoryelova, Oksana; Palandra, Joe; Goldstein, Richard; Bennett, Donald; Fitz, Lori; Guglieri, Michela; Bettolo, Chiara Marini; Straub, Volker; Evangelista, Teresinha; Neubert, Hendrik; Lochmüller, Hanns; Morris, Carl

    2017-03-01

    Myostatin is a highly conserved protein secreted primarily from skeletal muscle that can potently suppress muscle growth. This ability to regulate skeletal muscle mass has sparked intense interest in the development of anti-myostatin therapies for a wide array of muscle disorders including sarcopenia, cachexia and genetic neuromuscular diseases. While a number of studies have examined the circulating myostatin concentrations in healthy and sarcopenic populations, very little data are available from inherited muscle disease patients. Here, we have measured the myostatin concentration in serum from seven genetic neuromuscular disorder patient populations using immunoaffinity LC-MS/MS. Average serum concentrations of myostatin in all seven muscle disease patient groups were significantly less than those measured in healthy controls. Furthermore, circulating myostatin concentrations correlated with clinical measures of disease progression for five of the muscle disease patient populations. These findings greatly expand the understanding of myostatin in neuromuscular disease and suggest its potential utility as a biomarker of disease progression.

  16. The effects of gamma irradiation on the leaching of reducing sugars, inorganic phosphate and enzymes from barley seeds during germination in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurobane, I.; Yamaguchi, H.; Sander, C.; Nilan, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma irradiation enhanced the leaching of reducing sugars from barley seeds into the water in which the seeds were shaken. Treatments prior to shaking in water, such as overnight soaking in water at 5 0 C and subsequent germination in Petri dishes for 1 or 2 days at 20 0 C, showed pronounced effects on the leaching. The highest effect, which was obtained at 500 krad irradiation, was four times higher than that of the non-irradiated control. Gamma irradiation also stimulated the leaching of inorganic phosphate and slightly that of amylases from barley seeds. When seeds from which the embryos has been removed were shaken into water, no stimulating effect on the leaching of sugars was noted. These results, combined with the irradiation effect on the embryo, suggest that the stimulated leaching of reducing sugars is due to the extreme difference in sensitivity to gamma irradiation between the production of reducing sugars in the endosperm and the development and growth of the embryo. (author)

  17. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network to enhance the release of reducing sugars from non-edible seed cake by autoclave assisted HCl hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Vinayaka B; Palan, Anusha M; Rao, Shama U; Varun, C; Aishwarya, Uday; Raja, Selvaraj; Goveas, Louella Concepta; Vaman Rao, C; Ujwal, P

    2018-02-01

    In the current investigation, statistical approaches were adopted to hydrolyse non-edible seed cake (NESC) of Pongamia and optimize the hydrolysis process by response surface methodology (RSM). Through the RSM approach, the optimized conditions were found to be 1.17%v/v of HCl concentration at 54.12 min for hydrolysis. Under optimized conditions, the release of reducing sugars was found to be 53.03 g/L. The RSM data were used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) and the predictive ability of both models was compared by calculating various statistical parameters. A three-layered ANN model consisting of 2:12:1 topology was developed; the response of the ANN model indicates that it is precise when compared with the RSM model. The fit of the models was expressed with the regression coefficient R 2 , which was found to be 0.975 and 0.888, respectively, for the ANN and RSM models. This further demonstrated that the performance of ANN was better than that of RSM.

  18. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin...... and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue...... that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates...

  19. The release of reducing sugars and dissolved organic carbon from Spartina alterniflora Loisel in a Georgia salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulski, J. Dean

    1986-04-01

    Eight monosaccharides were found to be released from both tall and short forms of Spartina alterniflora during tidal submergence including: 2-d ribose, rhamnose, ribose, mannose, arabinose, fructose, galactose and xylose. Glucose was not detected in the leachate of either growth form. Two additional monosaccharides were found but were not identified. Losses of total reducing sugars (TRS) and total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC) ranged from 14-54 μgCg -1 dry wth -1 and 42 to 850 μgCg -1 dry wth -1, respectively. Losses of individual monosaccharides were generally <5μgCg -1 dry wth -1 and varied from 0·5-17 μgCg -1 dry wth -1. Differences were observed in seasonal patterns of losses between tall and short Spartina. Tall Spartina TRS losses peaked in midsummer, while in short Spartina TRS losses peaked in the spring and fall. TDOC losses in both tall and short Spartina followed similar patterns with peak losses occurring in the spring and fall. Periods of net uptake of TDOC were observed in both growth forms in midsummer. Uptake rates varied from 142-930 μgCg -1 dry wth -1. Estimated annual losses of TDOC from tall and short Spartina were between 100-150 and 5-10 gCm -2 year -1, respectively. The magnitude and seasonal pattern of TDOC losses reported here support Turner's conclusions that losses of labile DOM from Spartina are substantial in Georgia salt marshes and related to seasonal patterns of estuarine metabolism.

  20. A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Thomas R.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-03-30

    To obtain minerals suitable for age-dating and other analyses, it is necessary to first reduce the mineral-bearing rock to a fine, sand-like consistency. Reducing whole rock requires crushing, grinding, and sieving. Ideally, the reduced material should range in size from 80- to 270-mesh (an opening between wires in a sieve). The openings in an 80-mesh sieve are equal to 0.007 inches, 0.177 millimeters, or 177 micrometers. This size range ensures that compound grains are mostly disaggregated and that grains, in general, are dimensionally similar. This range also improves the segregation rate of conspicuous to extremely small individual heavy mineral grains.

  1. The role of artificial and natural sweeteners in reducing the consumption of table sugar: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Smith, Meridith; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity worldwide has been partially attributed to the overconsumption of added sugars. Recent guidelines call for limiting the consumption of simple sugars to less than 10% of daily caloric consumption. High intensity sweeteners are regulated as food additives and include aspartame, acesulfame-k, neotame, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate and alitame. Steviol glycosides and Luo Han Guo fruit extracts are high intensity sweeteners that are designated as generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Commonly used non-caloric artificial sweeteners may have unfavorable effect on health including glucose intolerance and failure to cause weight reduction. The nutritive sweeteners include sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, xylitol, lactitol, mannitol, erythritol, trehalose and maltitol. Naturally occurring rare sugars have recently emerged as an alternative category of sweeteners. These monosaccharides and their derivatives are found in nature in small quantities and lack significant calories. This category includes d-allulose (d-psicose), d-tagatose, d-sorbose and d-allose. Limiting consumption of any sweetener may well be the best health advice. Identifying natural sweeteners that have favorable effects on body weight and metabolism may help achieving the current recommendations of restricting simple sugar consumption. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. KOMBUCHA DENGAN VARIASI KADAR GULA KELAPA SEBAGAI SUMBER KARBON [Kombucha from Different Coconut Sugar Concentration as a Carbon Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkuria Karyantina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha has been known as traditional medicine that can cure various diseases, such as hypercholesterol. Kombucha made of fermented sweetened tea using symbiotic growth of khamir and bacteria. Functional properties of kombucha related to metabolite that has been produced during fermentation process, glucuronic acid. The aim of this research was to get a fit carbon source that can produce kombucha which have highest glucuronic acid. The result showed that microbe that dominated at the beginning through the end of fermentation process was a group of khamir, i.e 1.81x107 ; 1.43x106 ; 2.40x107 ; 7.00x104 CFU/mL for 1, 4, 7, and 10% of additive coconut sugar. Kombucha at 4% of coconut sugar yielded 8.86 ppm of glucuronic acid. Meanwhile, kombucha with 10% of coconut sugar yielded 6.22 ppm of glucuronic acid. Total acid has no corelation with glucuronid acid formation during the fermentation process.

  3. 21 CFR 146.148 - Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.148 Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice. (a) Reduced acid frozen concentrated orange juice is the food that complies with the requirements for composition...

  4. Gradual reduction of sugar in soft drinks without substitution as a strategy to reduce overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; Yin, Yunjian; Hashem, Kawther M; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-02-01

    predicted reduction in bodyweight is achieved. If fruit juices were excluded from the category of sugar-sweetened beverages (because of potential challenges for reformulation), the corresponding reductions in energy intake and steady-state bodyweight would be 31·0 kcal per day (95% CI 28·6-33·7) and 0·96 kg (0·88-1·04), respectively. These reductions would result in a 0·7 percentage point (0·3 million) reduction in overweight and a 1·7 percentage point (0·8 million) reduction in obesity, which would in turn prevent about 221,000-250,000 cases of type 2 diabetes over two decades after the predicted reduction in bodyweight is achieved. The predicted effect was greater in adolescents, young adults, and individuals from low-income families (who consume more sugar-sweetened beverages). An incremental reduction in free sugars added to sugar-sweetened beverages without the use of artificial sweeteners is predicted to reduce the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The proposed strategy should be implemented immediately, and could be used in combination with other approaches, such as taxation policies, to produce a more powerful effect. None. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing Alaska Native paediatric oral health disparities: a systematic review of oral health interventions and a case study on multilevel strategies to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Chi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tooth decay is the most common paediatric disease and there is a serious paediatric tooth decay epidemic in Alaska Native communities. When untreated, tooth decay can lead to pain, infection, systemic health problems, hospitalisations and in rare cases death, as well as school absenteeism, poor grades and low quality-of-life. The extent to which population-based oral health interventions have been conducted in Alaska Native paediatric populations is unknown. Objective. To conduct a systematic review of oral health interventions aimed at Alaska Native children below age 18 and to present a case study and conceptual model on multilevel intervention strategies aimed at reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Design. Based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA Statement, the terms “Alaska Native”, “children” and “oral health” were used to search Medline, Embase, Web of Science, GoogleScholar and health foundation websites (1970–2012 for relevant clinical trials and evaluation studies. Results. Eighty-five studies were found in Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases and there were 663 hits in GoogleScholar. A total of 9 publications were included in the qualitative review. These publications describe 3 interventions that focused on: reducing paediatric tooth decay by educating families and communities; providing dental chemotherapeutics to pregnant women; and training mid-level dental care providers. While these approaches have the potential to improve the oral health of Alaska Native children, there are unique challenges regarding intervention acceptability, reach and sustainability. A case study and conceptual model are presented on multilevel strategies to reduce SSB intake among Alaska Native children. Conclusions. Few oral health interventions have been tested within Alaska Native communities. Community-centred multilevel interventions

  6. The taste of KCl - What a difference a sugar makes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abu, Natalie; Harries, Daniel; Voet, Hillary; Niv, Masha Y

    2018-07-30

    Dramatic increase in NaCl consumption lead to sodium intake beyond health guidelines. KCl substitution helps reduce sodium intake but results in a bitter-metallic off-taste. Two disaccharides, trehalose and sucrose, were tested in order to untangle the chemical (increase in effective concentration of KCl due to sugar addition) from the sensory effects. The bitter-metallic taste of KCl was reduced by these sugars, while saltiness was enhanced or unaltered. The perceived sweetness of sugar, regardless of its type and concentration, was an important factor in KCl taste modulation. Though KCl was previously shown to increase the chemical activity of trehalose but not of sucrose, we found that it suppressed the perceived sweetness of both sugars. Therefore, sensory integration was the dominant factor in the tested KCl-sugar combinations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-08-03

    Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015-2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All

  8. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179

  9. Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Curly; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Scholten, Marijke

    2014-01-01

    cells, we show that patients in the highest quartile receiving DMSO (mL and mL/kg body weight) had significantly more side effects attributed to DMSO, although this effect was not observed if DMSO was calculated as mL/min. Dividing the myeloma and lymphoma patients each into two equal groups by age we...... and attention to the dose of DMSO received by patients could help reduce the toxicity and morbidity of the transplant procedure....

  10. Effects of CO 2 concentration and moisture content of sugar-free media on the tissue-cultured plantlets in a large growth chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y. H.; Lin, C.; Zhou, W.; Li, Y.; Chen, B.; Chen, G. Q.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamic fluctuations of CO 2 concentration in the tissue culture growth chamber after transplantation of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato plantlets were recorded with a real-time control system to determine the critical CO 2 concentration levels of 35 μl l -1 at which CO 2 enrichment is needed. The experimental data showed that the tissue-cultured plantlets of petunia, chrysanthemum and tomato had the same CO 2 concentration dynamics. The results indicated that CO 2 enrichment was proper on the second day after transplantation. Petunia plantlets were used to conduct experiments under PPFD of 80 μmol m -2 s -1, and CO 2 concentrations of 350 ± 50 μl l -1, 650 ± 50 μl l -1 and 950 ± 50 μl l -1 as well as medium moisture contents of 60%, 70% and 80%, with the result that plantlets grew better under CO 2 concentration of 650 ± 50 μl l -1 than under the other two concentrations with all the different media water contents. Three media water contents under the same CO 2 concentration produced plantlets with the same quality. The impacts of CO 2 concentrations on plantlets are more important than those of the media water contents. Sugar-free tissue culture, as compared with the conventional culture, showed that CO 2 enrichment to 350 ± 50 μl l -1 can promote the growth of the cultured plantlets. Sugar-free tissue culture produced healthy plantlets with thick roots, almost equivalent to the common plantlets.

  11. Can insoluble polysaccharide concentration in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms predict early childhood caries? A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M

    2015-08-01

    Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (pdental plaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The osmolyte xylitol reduces the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and may enhance bacterial killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabner, Joseph; Seiler, Michael P.; Launspach, Janice L.; Karp, Philip H.; Kearney, William R.; Look, Dwight C.; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2000-10-01

    The thin layer of airway surface liquid (ASL) contains antimicrobial substances that kill the small numbers of bacteria that are constantly being deposited in the lungs. An increase in ASL salt concentration inhibits the activity of airway antimicrobial factors and may partially explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF). We tested the hypothesis that an osmolyte with a low transepithelial permeability may lower the ASL salt concentration, thereby enhancing innate immunity. We found that the five-carbon sugar xylitol has a low transepithelial permeability, is poorly metabolized by several bacteria, and can lower the ASL salt concentration in both CF and non-CF airway epithelia in vitro. Furthermore, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, xylitol sprayed for 4 days into each nostril of normal volunteers significantly decreased the number of nasal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus compared with saline control. Xylitol may be of value in decreasing ASL salt concentration and enhancing the innate antimicrobial defense at the airway surface.

  13. High-Pressure-High-Temperature Processing Reduces Maillard Reaction and Viscosity in Whey Protein-Sugar Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Xi, Bingyan; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of pressure in high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) processing on Maillard reactions and protein aggregation of whey protein-sugar solutions. Solutions of whey protein isolate containing either glucose or trehalose at pH 6, 7, and 9 were

  14. Obligate sugar oxidation in Mesotoga spp., phylum Thermotogae, in the presence of either elemental sulfur or hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducers as electron acceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui, Khaled; Ben Hania, Wagdi; Armougom, Fabrice; Bartoli, Manon; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Erauso, Gaël; Brasseur, Gaël; Aubert, Corinne; Hamdi, Moktar; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Dolla, Alain; Ollivier, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Mesotoga prima strain PhosAc3 is a mesophilic representative of the phylum Thermotogae comprising only fermentative bacteria so far. We show that while unable to ferment glucose, this bacterium is able to couple its oxidation to reduction of elemental sulfur. We demonstrate furthermore that M. prima strain PhosAc3 as well as M. prima strain MesG1 and Mesotoga infera are able to grow in syntrophic association with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) acting as hydrogen scavengers through interspecies hydrogen transfer. Hydrogen production was higher in M. prima strain PhosAc3 cells co-cultured with SRB than in cells cultured alone in the presence of elemental sulfur. We propose that the efficient sugar-oxidizing metabolism by M. prima strain PhosAc3 in syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium can be extrapolated to all members of the Mesotoga genus. Genome comparison of Thermotogae members suggests that the metabolic difference between Mesotoga and Thermotoga species (sugar oxidation versus fermentation) is mainly due to the absence of the bifurcating [FeFe]-hydrogenase in the former. Such an obligate oxidative process for using sugars, unusual within prokaryotes, is the first reported within the Thermotogae. It is hypothesized to be of primary ecological importance for growth of Mesotoga spp. in the environments that they inhabit. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Complete factorial design to adjust pH and sugar concentrations in the inoculum phase of Ralstonia solanacearum to optimize P(3HB production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Laste Macagnan

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biodegradable plastic biopolymer that accumulates as lipophilic inclusions in the cytoplasm of some microorganisms. The biotechnological process by which P(3HB is synthesized occurs in two phases. The first phase involves cell growth in a complex culture medium, while the second phase involves polymer accumulation in the presence of excess carbon sources. As such, the efficiency of the second phase depends on the first phase. The aim of this study was to evaluate culture media with different concentrations of sucrose and glucose and different pH values in the inoculum phase of Ralstonia solanacearum RS with the intention of identifying methods by which the biomass yield could be increased, subsequently enhancing the yield of P(3HB. The culture medium was formulated according to the experimental planning type of central composite rotational design 22. The independent variables were pH and sugar concentration (sucrose and glucose, and the dependent variables were OD600nm, dry cell weight (DCW, and P(3HB yield. The highest cell growth, estimated by the OD600nm (20.6 and DCW (5.35 values, was obtained when sucrose was used in the culture medium at a concentration above 35 g.L-1 in combination with an acidic pH. High polymer (45% accumulation was also achieved under these conditions. Using glucose, the best results for OD600nm (12.5 and DCW (2.74 were also obtained at acidic pH but with a sugar concentration at the minimum values evaluated. Due to the significant accumulation of polymer in the cells that were still in the growth phase, the accumulating microorganism P(3HB Ralstonia solanacearum RS can be classified as having type II metabolism in relation to the polymer accumulation phase, which is different from other Ralstonia spp. studied until this time.

  16. Changes in polyphenol and sugar concentrations in wild type and genetically modified Nicotiana langsdorffii Weinmann in response to water and heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillotti, Claudia; Bogani, Patrizia; Biricolti, Stefano; Calistri, Elisa; Checchini, Leonardo; Ciofi, Lorenzo; Gonnelli, Cristina; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    In this study wild type Nicotiana langsdorffii plants were genetically transformed by the insertion of the rat gene (gr) encoding the glucocorticoid receptor or the rolC gene and exposed to water and heat stress. Water stress was induced for 15 days by adding 20% PEG 6000 in the growth medium, whereas the heat treatment was performed at 50 °C for 2 h, after that a re-growing capability study was carried out. The plant response to stress was investigated by determining electrolyte leakage, dry weight biomass production and water content. These data were evaluated in relation to antiradical activity and concentrations of total polyphenols, selected phenolic compounds and some soluble sugars, as biochemical indicators of metabolic changes due to gene insertion and/or stress treatments. As regards the water stress, the measured physiological parameters evidenced an increasing stress level in the order rolC < gr < WT plants (e.g. about 100% and 50% electrolyte leakage increase in WT and gr samples, respectively) and complied with the biochemical pattern, which consisted in a general decrease of antiradical activity and phenolics, together with an increase in sugars. As regard heat stress, electrolyte leakage data were only in partial agreement with the re-growing capability study. In fact, according to this latter evaluation, gr was the genotype less affected by the heat shock. In this regard, sugars and especially phenolic compounds are informative of the long-term effects due to heat shock treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of feeding frequency and sugar concentration on behavior and longevity of the adult aphid parasitoid: Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzouz, H.; Giordanengo, P.; Wäckers, F.L.; Kaiser, L.

    2004-01-01

    Aphidius ervi (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a solitary aphid endoparasitoid. Adults feed on honeydew and possibly on other sugar sources such as nectar. Sugar sources can vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to biotic factors and environmental conditions. Experiments were

  18. The relationship between amount of soda consumed and intention to reduce soda consumption among adults exposed to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' health marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Blitstein, Jonathan L; Lieberman, Alicea J; Barragan, Noel C; Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony

    2015-10-01

    To examine behavioural intention to reduce soda consumption after exposure to the Choose Health LA 'Sugar Pack' campaign in Los Angeles County, California, USA. A cross-sectional street-intercept survey was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes, health behaviours and behavioural intentions after exposure to the 'Sugar Pack' campaign. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between the amount of soda consumed and self-reported intention to reduce consumption of non-diet soda among adults who saw the campaign. Three pre-selected Los Angeles County Metro bus shelters and/or rail stops with the highest number of 'Sugar Pack' campaign advertisement placements. Riders of the region's Metro buses and railways who were the intended audience of the campaign advertisements. The overall survey response rate was 56 % (resulting n 1041). Almost 60 % of respondents were exposed to the advertisements (619/1041). The multivariable logistic regression analysis suggested that the odds of reporting intention to reduce soda consumption among moderate consumers (1-6 sodas/week) were 1·95 times greater than among heavy consumers (≥1 soda/d), after controlling for clustering and covariates. Respondents with less than a high-school education and who perceived sugary beverage consumption as harmful also had higher odds; in contrast, respondents aged ≥65 years had lower odds. Results suggest that future campaigns should be tailored differently for moderate v. heavy consumers of soda. Similar tailoring strategies are likely needed for younger groups, for those with less educational attainment and for those who do not perceive consumption of soda as harmful.

  19. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Andrew [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)]. E-mail: ajj@nist.gov; White, John [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75A-bar for beta casein in solution and around 80A-bar for the sucrose conjugate.

  20. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-01-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75A-bar for beta casein in solution and around 80A-bar for the sucrose conjugate

  1. Small angle scattering from protein/sugar conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Andrew; White, John

    2006-11-01

    The Maillard reaction between free amine groups on proteins and sugars is well known. We have examined the effect of the reaction of the casein group of milk proteins with sugars on their nanoscale structure and aggregation. The small angle neutron scattering from beta casein and sodium caseinate and their sugar conjugates have been studied as a function of solution concentration. At high conjugate concentration (greater than ca. 5 mg/ml) the addition of sugar reduces supra-micellar aggregation of the protein whilst at lower concentration, where the protein is expected to be deaggregated already, little effect is seen. Guinier analysis of the scattering data show a radius of gyration of around 75 A˚ for beta casein in solution and around 80 A˚ for the sucrose conjugate.

  2. The Effect of Temperature, pH and SO/sub 2/ on Ethanol Concentration and Sugar Consumption Rate (SCR) in Apple Wine Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoglu, M. D.; Ertunc, S.; Akay, B.; Vural, N.; Hapoglu, H.; Demirci, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effects of operating parameters on ethanol concentration (ethanol) in apple wine production process. Examined parameters were temperature (T), pH and sulphur dioxide concentration (SO/sub 2/). Experiments were planned and executed according to a full two-level factorial experimental design method. The studied levels were 18 degree C and 25 degree C for temperature, 3 and 4 for pH and 50 and 150 ppm for SO/sub 2/. Ethanol concentration of apple wine for each set of experiments was determined by GC/MS. Experimental data were analyzed by using both graphical and quantitative Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) Techniques. The main effect of each factor on sugar consumption rate (SCR) was also examined. The results show that the effect of examined operating parameters on ethanol was negative. High temperature level caused faster fermentation rate than the one caused by low temperature. Low level of pH and high level of SO/sub 2/ inhibited the activities of both harmful microorganisms and wine yeast. (author)

  3. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... sugar ( hypoglycemia ) Recognize and treat high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ) Plan healthy meals Monitor your blood sugar (glucose) ...

  4. Free Sugar Profile in Cycads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edward Marler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date.

  5. Acrylamide formation in plantain (Musa paradisiaca) chips influenced by different ripening stages: A correlation study with respect to reducing sugars, amino acids and phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamla, L; Nisha, P

    2017-05-01

    The effect of ripening on the formation of acrylamide in deep fried plantain chips made from Nendran variety (Musa paradisiaca) was investigated. The precursors of acrylamide formation, reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and ten major amino acids, were quantified during different stages of ripening using HPLC and correlated with acrylamide formation. The total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were also estimated and correlated with acrylamide formation. Both glucose and fructose increased during ripening and demonstrated a positive correlation on formation of acrylamide (correlation coefficient of r=0.95 and 0.94 respectively (p0.05). The decreased levels of phenolic content during ripening of plantain were negatively correlated with acrylamide formation in the deep fried chips prepared. Thus the selection of proper ripening stage renders reduced formation of acrylamide in plantain chips to a reasonable extend. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sugar uptake and starch biosynthesis by slices of developing maize endosperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Liu, Kangchien; Shannon, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Sugar uptake and incorporation into starch by slices of developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm were examined and compared with sugar uptake by maize endosperm-derived suspension cultures. Rates of sucrose, fructose, and D- and L-glucose uptake by slices were similar, whereas uptake rates for these sugars differed greatly in suspension cultures. Concentration dependence of sucrose, fructose, and D-glucose uptake was biphasic (consisting of linear plus saturable components) with suspension cultures but linear with slices. These and other differences suggest that endosperm slices are freely permeable to sugars. After diffusion into the slices, sugars were metabolized and incorporated into starch. Starch synthesis, but not sugar accumulation, was greatly reduced by 2.5 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid and 0.1 millimolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Starch synthesis was dependent on kernel age and incubation temperature, but not on external pH (5 through 8). Competing sugars generally did not affect the distribution of 14 C among the soluble sugars extracted from endosperm slices incubated in 14 C-sugars. Competing hexoses reduced the incorporation of 14 C into starch, but competing sucrose did not, suggesting that sucrose is not a necessary intermediate in starch biosynthesis. The bidirectional permeability of endosperm slices to sugars makes the characterization of sugar transport into endosperm slices impossible, however the model system is useful for experiments dealing with starch biosynthesis which occurs in the metabolically active tissue

  7. High salt inclusion reduces concentrate intake without major effects on renal function in young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Blanco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef producers prefer to feed concentrates on an ad libitum basis to increase the flexibility of their work. Including salt, which is a self-limiting supplement, could control or reduce concentrate intake without increasing the workforce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of including 10%NaCl in the concentrate on intake, growth, blood ions (sodium, potassium and chlorine, renal function (through creatinine and urea concentrations in blood, and daytime behaviour of bulls over 6 weeks. Bulls consuming the control concentrate (Control bulls had greater weight gain (P<0.05 and concentrate intake (P<0.001 than those consuming the concentrate with 10%NaCl (10%NaCl bulls. Lower plasma sodium concentration was found in Control bulls after 6 weeks (P<0.05, while potassium concentration was lower after 4 (P<0.05 and 6 weeks (P<0.01. Blood urea did not differ between the groups, and creatinine only differed at week 4 (P<0.01. Control bulls spent less time eating hay (P<0.001 and more time idling (P<0.01 during daylight hours. In conclusion, the inclusion of 10%NaCl in the concentrate for short periods could be used to reduce concentrate intake without major effects on renal function; however, a concomitant decrease in weight gain should be expected.

  8. Traffic-light labels and financial incentives to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage purchases by low-income Latino families: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Levy, Douglas E; Macias-Navarro, Lorena; Rimm, Eric B; Thorndike, Anne N

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effectiveness of financial incentives and traffic-light labels to reduce purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages in a community supermarket. In this randomized controlled trial, after a 2-month baseline period (February-March 2014), in-store traffic-light labels were posted to indicate healthy (green), less healthy (yellow) or unhealthy (red) beverages. During the subsequent five months (April-August 2014), participants in the intervention arm were eligible to earn a $US 25 in-store gift card each month they refrained from purchasing red-labelled beverages. Urban supermarket in Chelsea, MA, USA, a low-income Latino community. Participants were customers of this supermarket who had at least one child living at home. A total of 148 customers (n 77 in the intervention group and n 71 in the control group) were included in the final analyses. Outcomes were monthly in-store purchases tracked using a store loyalty card and self-reported consumption of red-labelled beverages. Compared with control participants, the proportion of intervention participants who purchased any red-labelled beverages decreased by 9 % more per month (P=0·002). More intervention than control participants reduced their consumption of red-labelled beverages (-23 % v. -2 % for consuming ≥1 red beverage/week, P=0·01). Overall, financial incentives paired with in-store traffic-light labels modestly reduced purchase and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages by customers of a community supermarket.

  9. THE USE OF HALLOYSITE TO REDUCE POLLUTIONS CONCENTRATION IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Machnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of municipal wastewater treatment allows the use of biofilters. The study used a bed filled halloysite. In operation of the bed, depending on the hydraulic load, the concentration of phosphate, ammonium and organic matter was reduced. Highest reduction of the concentration PO43- (89% and N – NH4+ (81% in the waste water of the hydraulic load – 0,04 m3/m2h was obtained. The concentration of the organic substrate was reduced by approximately 86%.

  10. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of added sugar in soda. However, popular "vitamin-type" waters, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks also contain ... include: Drink water instead of regular soda, "vitamin-type" water, sports drinks, coffee drinks, and energy drinks. Eat less ...

  11. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  12. Do You Know What Your Kids Are Drinking? Evaluation of a Media Campaign to Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy; Mallya, Giridhar; Hennessy, Michael; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a citywide media campaign that targeted reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption as a strategy for addressing obesity. Rolling cross-sectional survey data, collected before and during the media campaign, with 1367 parents to assess exposure to and effect of a televised public service advertisement (TV PSA) developed using a reasoned action approach. Televised public service advertisement campaign created by the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and disseminated on cable television channels within the Philadelphia market. Philadelphia parents/primary caregivers with a child between the ages of 3 and 16. Linear regression analysis shows that exposure to the TV PSA was significantly associated with intention to substitute nonsugary drinks for SSBs for the parent ( P = .04) and the child ( P = .02). The effect of exposure on intention to reduce child's SSB consumption increased the longer the campaign was in the field. Exposure was also significantly associated with the belief that reducing SSB consumption decreases the risk of diabetes ( P = .04) and was significantly negatively related to the belief that reducing SSB consumption would make mealtimes less enjoyable ( P = .04). These findings suggest that a theory-based mass media campaign can achieve positive changes in intention related to SSB consumption by changing relevant and salient underlying beliefs.

  13. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  14. Improved Sugar Conversion and Ethanol Yield for Forage Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Lines with Reduced Lignin Contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignin is known to impede conversion of lignocellulose into ethanol. In this study, forage sorghum plants carrying brown midrib (bmr) mutations, which reduce lignin contents, were evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks. The near isogenic lines evaluated were: wild-type, bmr-6, bmr-12, and bmr-6 bmr-12...

  15. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  16. Phosphorus reduces the zinc concentration in cereals pot-grown on calcareous Vertisols from southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Del Campillo, María Carmen; Torrent, José

    2017-08-01

    Zinc deficiency, a major problem in crops grown on soils low in available Zn, is even more important in phosphorus-rich soils. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of soil P and Zn levels, and of fertilizer application, on yield and Zn concentration in cereal grains. Wheat and barley were successively pot-grown on 20 calcareous Vertisols low in available Zn and ranging widely in available P. Grain yield in the plants grown on the native soils was positively correlated with Olsen P but not with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Zn except for wheat on P-rich soils. Grain Zn concentration was negatively correlated with Olsen P. Grain Zn uptake differed little among soils. Application of P to the soils increased grain yield insignificantly and P concentration significantly; however, it reduced grain Zn concentration (particularly at low Olsen P values). Applying Zn alone only increased grain Zn concentration, whereas applying P and Zn in combination increased yield and grain Zn concentration at low and high Olsen P values, respectively. Applying P alone to plants grown on calcareous Vertisols low in available P and Zn may in practice reduce grain Zn concentrations while not increasing grain yield significantly. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Development of a process to reduce the uranium concentration of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentealba Toro, Edgardo David

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of radioactive waste management is to prevent the discharge of waste into the biosphere, a function carried out in Chile by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), which stores around 500 [L] of these organic and inorganic waste in cans coming from research of Universities and CCHEN' laboratories. Within the inorganic liquid waste are concentrations of Uranyl salts with sulfates, chlorides and phosphates. The purpose of this work is to develop at laboratory level a process to concentrate and precipitate uranium salts (Sulfate and Uranyl Chloride) present in radioactive liquid effluents, because in the case of these very long period wastes in liquid state, the most widely used processes are aimed at concentrating or extracting radioactive compounds through separation processes, for their conditioning and final storage under conditions whose radiological risk is minimized. The selected process is liquid-liquid extraction, being evaluated solvents such as benzene and kerosene with the following extractants: tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and Cyanex© 923. To determine the extraction conditions, which allow to reduce the concentration of uranium to values lower than 10 ppm, the extractant concentration was modified from 0.05 to 0.41 [M] with solvent volume / residue (VO/VA) ratios of 0.2 to 0.5, at an initial concentration of 8,446 [gU/L] and subsequent precipitation of uranium extracted by a reaction with ammonium carbonate. From these experimental tests the maximum extraction conditions were determined. To the generated effluents, a second stage of extraction was necessary in order to reduce its concentration below 10 [mg / L]. The experimental tests allowed to reduce the concentration under 2.5 [mgU/L], equivalent to 99.97% extraction efficiency. The tests with Cyanex© 923 in replacement of the TOPO, allowed to obtain similar results and even better in some cases, due to the fact that final

  18. Soaking assisted thermal pretreatment of cassava peels wastes for fermentable sugar production: Process modelling and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruwajoye, Gabriel S.; Faloye, Funmilayo D.; Kana, Evariste Gueguim

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Soaking Assisted Thermal Pretreatment (SATP) of Cassava Peels’ waste is reported. • Maximum fermentable sugar of 0.93 g/g and 90.90% sugar recovery was achieved. • This technique gave a 31% sugar yield improvement over enzymatic pretreatment. • SEM and FTIR analysis confirms the efficiency of SATP. - Abstract: This study reports a hybrid pretreatment strategy for optimum fermentable sugar (FS) release from cassava peels waste. The Response Surface design method was used to investigate the effect of soaking temperature, soaking duration, autoclave duration, acid concentration and solid loading on reducing sugar yield. The model gave a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.87. The optimum pretreatment conditions of 69.62 °C soaking temperature, 2.57 h soaking duration, 5 min autoclave duration, 3.68 v/v acid concentration and 9.65% w/v solid loading were obtained. Maximum reducing sugar of 89.80 ± 2.87 g/L corresponding to a fermentable sugar yield of 0.93 ± 0.03 g/g cassava peels was achieved upon model validation. A percentage sugar recovery of 90.79% was achieved with a 31% improvement in the FS yield from the enzyme pretreatment. The combined severity factor (CSF) of 0.77 and the low concentration of inhibitory compounds achieved further demonstrates the efficiency of this technique.

  19. Modelled Cost-Effectiveness of a Package Size Cap and a Kilojoule Reduction Intervention to Reduce Energy Intake from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla Herrera, Ana Maria; Neal, Bruce; Zheng, Miaobing; Lal, Anita; Sacks, Gary

    2017-01-01

    Interventions targeting portion size and energy density of food and beverage products have been identified as a promising approach for obesity prevention. This study modelled the potential cost-effectiveness of: a package size cap on single-serve sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) >375 mL (package size cap), and product reformulation to reduce energy content of packaged SSBs (energy reduction). The cost-effectiveness of each intervention was modelled for the 2010 Australia population using a multi-state life table Markov model with a lifetime time horizon. Long-term health outcomes were modelled from calculated changes in body mass index to their impact on Health-Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). Intervention costs were estimated from a limited societal perspective. Cost and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. Total intervention costs estimated in AUD 2010 were AUD 210 million. Both interventions resulted in reduced mean body weight (package size cap: 0.12 kg; energy reduction: 0.23 kg); and HALYs gained (package size cap: 73,883; energy reduction: 144,621). Cost offsets were estimated at AUD 750.8 million (package size cap) and AUD 1.4 billion (energy reduction). Cost-effectiveness analyses showed that both interventions were “dominant”, and likely to result in long term cost savings and health benefits. A package size cap and kJ reduction of SSBs are likely to offer excellent “value for money” as obesity prevention measures in Australia. PMID:28878175

  20. Deacetylation Followed by Fractionation of Yellow Poplar Sawdust for the Production of Toxicity-Reduced Hemicellulosic Sugar for Ethanol Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Ju Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to produce bioethanol from yellow poplar sawdust without detoxification, deacetylation (mild alkali treatment was performed with aqueous ammonia solution. To select the optimal conditions, deacetylation was carried out under different conditions: NH4OH loading (2–10% (w/v and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:4–1:10 at 121 °C for 60 min. In order to assess the effectiveness of deacetylation, fractionation of deacetylated yellow poplar sawdust was performed using dilute acid (H2SO4, 0.5–2.0% (w/v at a reaction temperature of 130–150 °C for 10–80 min. The toxicity-reduced hemicellulosic hydrolyzates that were obtained through a two-step treatment at optimized conditions were fermented using Pichia stipitis for ethanol production, without any further detoxification. The maximum ethanol production was 4.84 g/L, corresponding to a theoretical ethanol yield of 82.52%, which is comparable to those of intentionally made hydrolyzates as controls.

  1. Hierarchy of non-glucose sugars in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelberg, Guy; Towbin, Benjamin D; Rothschild, Daphna; Dekel, Erez; Bren, Anat; Alon, Uri

    2014-12-24

    Understanding how cells make decisions, and why they make the decisions they make, is of fundamental interest in systems biology. To address this, we study the decisions made by E. coli on which genes to express when presented with two different sugars. It is well-known that glucose, E. coli's preferred carbon source, represses the uptake of other sugars by means of global and gene-specific mechanisms. However, less is known about the utilization of glucose-free sugar mixtures which are found in the natural environment of E. coli and in biotechnology. Here, we combine experiment and theory to map the choices of E. coli among 6 different non-glucose carbon sources. We used robotic assays and fluorescence reporter strains to make precise measurements of promoter activity and growth rate in all pairs of these sugars. We find that the sugars can be ranked in a hierarchy: in a mixture of a higher and a lower sugar, the lower sugar system shows reduced promoter activity. The hierarchy corresponds to the growth rate supported by each sugar- the faster the growth rate, the higher the sugar on the hierarchy. The hierarchy is 'soft' in the sense that the lower sugar promoters are not completely repressed. Measurement of the activity of the master regulator CRP-cAMP shows that the hierarchy can be quantitatively explained based on differential activation of the promoters by CRP-cAMP. Comparing sugar system activation as a function of time in sugar pair mixtures at sub-saturating concentrations, we find cases of sequential activation, and also cases of simultaneous expression of both systems. Such simultaneous expression is not predicted by simple models of growth rate optimization, which predict only sequential activation. We extend these models by suggesting multi-objective optimization for both growing rapidly now and preparing the cell for future growth on the poorer sugar. We find a defined hierarchy of sugar utilization, which can be quantitatively explained by

  2. Reduced Ultrafine Particle Concentration in Urban Air: Changes in Nucleation and Anthropogenic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K; Robinson, Ellis S; Shah, Rishabh U; Zimmerman, Naomi; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2018-06-19

    Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-2002 and 2016-2017. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50% over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation. On average, the particle growth rates are 30% slower than 15 years ago. We attribute these changes to dramatic reductions in SO 2 (more than 90%) and other pollutant concentrations. Overall, UFP concentrations in Pittsburgh have been reduced by ∼48% in the past 15 years, with a ∼70% reduction in nucleation, ∼27% in weekday local sources (e.g., weekday traffic), and 49% in the regional background. Our results highlight that a reduction in anthropogenic emissions can considerably reduce nucleation events and UFP concentrations in a polluted urban environment.

  3. Platelet concentrates: reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Korte D

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dirk de Korte,1 Jan H Marcelis2 1Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, 2Department of Microbiology, St Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of a combination of interventions during collection of whole-blood or platelet concentrates has been successful in lowering the degree of bacterial contamination in the final product, the platelet concentrate, by 50%–75%. These interventions were improved donor questionnaires, best-practice skin disinfection, and diversion of first blood volume. These interventions have reduced the number of bacteria present in the platelet concentrates. In combination with screening for bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates with a culture method, the degree of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection has been reduced significantly. Due to the very low initial bacteria counts upon collection of the products, the need for improved sensitivity of early screenings tests or highly selective point-of-issue tests remains. The latter should be rapid and easy to perform. An alternative approach might be the implementation of pathogen-inactivation methods for cellular blood products to reduce the amount of pathogens. However, these methods are costly, and so far not proved to be cost-effective, especially in countries with an already-low incidence of transfusion-transmitted infections by viruses, parasites, or bacteria. Keywords: blood products, bacterial contamination, screening, point of issue, pathogen inactivation

  4. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females.Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs.Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  5. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of chlorogenic acid on reducing the virulence factor production by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Qiao, Mingyu; Guo, Yan; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yunfeng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2014-09-01

    Chlorogenic acid (CA) has been reported to inhibit several pathogens, but the influence of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on virulence expression of pathogens has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of CA on the virulence factor production of Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CA against S. aureus was determined using a broth microdilution method. Hemolysin assays, coagulase titer assays, adherence to solid-phase fibrinogen assays, Western blot, and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of CA on the virulence factors of S. aureus. MIC of CA against S. aureus ATCC29213 was found to be 2.56 mg/mL. At subinhibitory concentrations, CA significantly inhibited the hemolysis and dose-dependently decreased coagulase titer. Reduced binding to fibrinogen and decreased production of SEA were observed with treatment of CA at concentrations ranging from 1/16MIC to 1/2MIC. CA markedly inhibited the expression of hla, sea, and agr genes in S. aureus. These data demonstrate that the virulence expression of S. aureus could be reduced by CA and suggest that CA could be potentially developed as a supplemental strategy to control S. aureus infection and to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning.

  6. A Phenylurea Cytokinin, CPPU, Elevated Reducing Sugar and Correlated to Andrographolide Contents in Leaves of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakan, Phapawee; Karaket, Netiya; Maneejantra, Nuchada; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play multiple roles to control plant growth and development. In this study, leaf biomass and the production of andrographolide compounds in a medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata were significantly increased after exogenously treating with the synthetic cytokinin cytokinin-1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-3-phenylurea (CPPU) at 0 (water), 5, or 10 mg L -1 and observed the results for 24 h, 48 h, and 7 days of treatment. It was found that CPPU could significantly enhance new axillary bud formation and further promote branching 4.6-5.6-fold higher, resulting in higher fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) than the control. Application of CPPU at 5 mg L -1 significantly promoted the highest contents of total reducing sugar at 2.5-fold in leaves and at 1.5-fold in roots. Although treatments of CPPU significantly affected the increasing contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid (1.2-1.6-fold), CPPU at 10 mg L -1 slightly caused leaf stress and chlorophyll reduction. Interestingly, 5 mg L -1 CPPU could enhance andrographolide content, an active anti-infectious compound in Andrographis paniculata (2.2-fold higher than the control) that reached the highest content at 24 h after treatment. This study suggested that CPPU should be suitable for field application to promote leaf yields and induce the production of useful pharmaceutical compounds in Andrographis paniculata.

  7. Effect of reduced light and low oxygen concentration on germination, growth and establishment of some plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasin, Muhammad

    Many abiotic factors effect plants germination, growth, and development. This Ph.D. study elucidates the effect of reduced light, low oxygen and seed dormancy on germination and growth of some weed species, field crops and vegetables. One study describes the growth and developmental responses...... of some common, invasive and rare weed species to reduced light levels in greenhouse experiments. The seed germination response of some weed species, field crops, and vegetables to different oxygen concentrations was also quantified in the laboratory experiments. The effect of east-west (EW) and north...

  8. A procedure for reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate and equipment therefore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Baloun, S.; Plevac, S.

    1989-01-01

    The method is described of reducing the concentration of hydrogen ions in acid anionic eluate produced in the separation of uranium or other metals, in which anion exchanger elution, precipitation, filtration and precipitate and anion exchanger washing are used. The technological line for such elution comprises at least one ion exchange column and at least one container. They together form the first and the second stages of preparation of the acid anion elution solution, the sorption-elution separation of hydrogen ions on an cation exchanger being inserted between them. The preparation of the solution is divide into two stages. In the first stage, the acid and part of the solution for the preparation of the acid anion elution solution are supplied. The resulting enriched acid elution solution is fe onto the cation exchanger where the hydrogen ion concentration i reduced. It is then carried into the second stage where it is mixed with the remaining part of the solution. (B.S.)

  9. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  10. Design and methods for a community-based intervention to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among youth: H2GO! study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica L. Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB intake is an important dietary target among underserved children at high risk for obesity and associated morbidities. Community-based approaches to reduce SSB intake are needed. The use of narrative-based approaches (presenting messages within the context of a story can facilitate connection with target health messages and empower children as behavior change agents within their families. The H2GO! program is a community-based behavioral intervention that integrates narrative-based strategies to reduce SSB consumption and promote water intake among school-age youth and parents. Methods Guided by the Social Cognitive Theory and the Social Ecological Model, the H2GO! intervention consists of 6 weekly sessions that target beverage knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors through youth-produced messages and narratives to reduce SSB intake and encourage water intake and parent–child activities. To reach underserved youth and families, we identified Boys & Girls Clubs (B&GC (youth-based community centers that serve an ethnically diverse and predominantly low socioeconomic status population as a community partner and study setting. Participants (children ages 9–12 years and their parents will be recruited from B&GC sites in Massachusetts, USA. Intervention efficacy will be assessed through a site-randomized trial (N = 2 youth-based community sites, pair-matched for size and racial/ethnic composition with 54 parent–child pairs (N = 108 enrolled per site (N = 216 total. The comparison site will carry on with usual practice. Child and parental SSB and water consumption (primary outcomes and parent and child beverage knowledge and attitudes (secondary outcomes will be measured via self-report surveys. Additional outcomes include children’s anthropometric data, additional dietary behaviors, and physical activity. Measures will be collected at baseline, 2 and 6 months follow-up. With

  11. Reduced blood flow increases the in vivo ammonium ion concentration in the RIF-1 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Ioannis; Gamcsik, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that pooling of ammonium in tumor tissues may be caused by its inefficient removal due to the poor vasculature commonly found in tumors. The purpose of these experiments was to validate the relationship between tumor ammonium ion concentration and tumor blood flow, and to determine whether large concentrations of ammonium ion detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are either produced within the tumor or simply imported into the tumor through the blood stream. Methods and Materials: To test this hypothesis, we reduced blood flow in subcutaneously grown Radiation Induced Fibrosarcoma-1 (RIF-1) tumors, either by creating partial ischemia with a bolus injection of hydralazine or by occlusion with surgical sutures. 14 N and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of ammonium, and to assess the bioenergetic status of the tumors, respectively. Results: A correlation between ammonium ion concentration and (PCr(P i )) ratio was established for untreated tumors. An increase in the in vivo tumor ammonium ion concentration was observed for every tumor that experienced a reduction in blood flow caused by either hydralazine injection or suture ligation. Changes in ammonium ion concentration paralleled changes in the bioenergetics of hydralazine-treated tumors. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis that a reduction in tumor blood flow is responsible for the accumulation of ammonium in tumors, and that detected ammonium originated from within the tumor

  12. Root characteristics of cover crops and their erosion-reducing potential during concentrated runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baets, S.; Poesen, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the loam region in central Belgium, a lot of research has been conducted on the effects of cover crops for preventing splash and interrill erosion and on their nutrient pumping effectiveness. As this is a very effective erosion and environment conservation technique, planting cover crops during the winter season is widely applied in the loess belt. Most of these cover crops freeze at the beginning of the winter period. Consequently, the above-ground biomass becomes less effective in protecting the soil from water erosion. Apart from the effects of the above-ground biomass in protecting the soil against raindrop impacts and reducing flow velocities by the retarding effects of their stems, plant roots also play an important role in improving soil strength. Previous research showed that roots contribute to a large extent to the resistance of topsoils against concentrated flow erosion. Unfortunately, information on root properties of common cover crops (e.g. Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne, Avena sativa, Secale cereale, Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus) is very scarce. Therefore, root density distribution with depth and their erosion-reducing effects during concentrated flow erosion were assessed by conducting root auger measurements and concentrated flow experiments at the end of the growth period (December). The preliminary results indicate that the studied cover crops are not equally effective in preventing soil loss by concentrated flow erosion at the end of the growing season. Cover crops with thick roots, such as Sinapis alba and Raphanus sativus subsp. oleiferus are less effective than cover crops with fine-branched roots such as Phacelia tanacetifoli, Lolium perenne (Ryegrass), Avena sativa (Oats) and Secale cereale (Rye) in preventing soil losses by concentrated flow erosion. These results enable soil managers to select the most suitable crops and maximize soil protection.

  13. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  14. Surface modification of platelet concentrate bags to reduce biofilm formation and transfusion sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Nieuwenhuis, Joels S T; Dempsey-Hibbert, Nina; Liauw, Christopher M; Whitehead, Kathryn A

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products poses a major risk in transfusion medicine, including transfusions involving platelet products. Although testing systems are in place for routine screening of platelet units, the formation of bacterial biofilms in such units may decrease the likelihood that bacteria will be detected. This work determined the surface properties of p-PVC platelet concentrate bags and investigated how these characteristics influenced biofilm formation. Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two species commonly implicated in platelet contamination, were used to study biofilm growth. The platelet concentrate bags were physically flattened to determine if reducing the surface roughness altered biofilm formation. The results demonstrated that the flattening process of the platelet bags affected the chemistry of the surface and reduced the surface hydrophobicity. Flattening of the surfaces resulted in a reduction in biofilm formation for both species after 5 days, with S. marcescens demonstrating a greater reduction. However, there was no significant difference between the smooth and flat surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. marcescens and no significant differences between any of the surfaces following 7 days' incubation for S. epidermidis. The results suggest that flattening the p-PVC surfaces may limit potential biofilm formation for the current duration of platelet storage time of 5 days. It is hoped that this work will enhance the understanding of how surface properties influence the development of microbial biofilms in platelet concentrate bags in order to devise a solution to discourage biofilm formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution.

  16. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape white-eyes, Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar preferences and digestion of sugars in artificial fruit of different sugar types and concentrations were investigated in a South African facultative frugivore, the Cape white-eye (Zosterops virens). We studied sugar preferences, daily food and energy intake, and digestive efficiencies and transit times with birds that were ...

  17. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD policy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshe A Mekonnen

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  18. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Are the Main Sources of Added Sugar Intake in the Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Batis, Carolina; Lutter, Chessa K; Rivera, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Sugar intake has been associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, other noncommunicable diseases, and dental caries. The WHO recommends that free sugars should be ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Survey) 2012], which represents 3 geographic regions and urban and rural areas. Dietary information was obtained by administering a 24-h recall questionnaire to 10,096 participants. Total sugar intake was estimated by using the National Institute of Public Health (INSP) food-composition table and an established method to estimate added sugars. The mean intakes of total, intrinsic, and added sugars were 365, 127, and 238 kcal/d, respectively. Added sugars contributed 13% of TEI. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) were the main source of sugars, contributing 69% of added sugars. Food products high in saturated fat and/or added sugar (HSFAS) were the second main sources of added sugars, contributing 25% of added sugars. The average intake of added sugars in the Mexican diet is higher than WHO recommendations, which may partly explain the high prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Mexico. Because SSBs and HSFAS contribute >94% of total added sugars, strategies to reduce their intake should be strengthened. This includes stronger food labels to warn the consumer about the content of added sugars in foods and beverages. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. CONCENTRATION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES REDUCING IN SURFACE LAYER OF ATMOSPHERE AT RHEOSTAT LOCOMOTIVE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Bondar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that at present an acceptable way of reducing the concentration of harmful substances in the surface layer of the atmosphere at rheostat tests of locomotives is their dispersion in a large volume of air. Channels, installed above an exhaust pipe of diesel locomotive with a break at the gas flow, work as ejectors. We have solved jointly the equation of aerodynamic characteristics of the ejector device and the equation of diffusion of gases; as a result the calculated dependence for determining the necessary height of ejector device has been obtained.

  20. Development of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors with Concentrated Windings for Reducing Magnet Eddy Current Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Katsumi; Kanou, Yuji; Fukushima, Yu; Ohki, Shunji; Nezu, Akira; Ikemi, Takeshi; Mizokami, Ryoichi

    In this paper, we present the development of interior magnet motors with concentrated windings, which reduce the eddy current loss of the magnets. First, the mechanism of the magnet eddy current loss generation is investigated by a simple linear magnetic circuit. Due to the consideration, an automatic optimization method using an adaptive finite element method is carried out to determine the stator and rotor shapes, which decrease the eddy current loss of the magnet. The determined stator and rotor are manufactured in order to proof the effectiveness by the measurement.

  1. Can Insoluble Polysaccharide Concentration In Dental Plaque, Sugar Exposure And Cariogenic Microorganisms Predict Early Childhood Caries? A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parisotto; T. M.; Stipp; R.; Rodrigues; L. K. A.; Mattos-Graner; R. O.; Costa; L. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos; M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. Aims: To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Design: Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 ...

  2. The application of air pressure difference in reducing indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.

    2000-01-01

    In densely populated tropical cities like Hong Kong, people usually live and work inside high-rise buildings. And because of the hot and humid climate, air conditioning systems are used throughout the year, particularly in commercial buildings. Previous territory-wide surveys have shown that over 10% of commercial buildings in Hong Kong have indoor radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 . Since the major source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building materials, increasing ventilation and applying radon barriers on wall surfaces seem to be the only ways to reduce the indoor radon concentration. But it was noted that the ventilation rate the many commercial buildings are not efficient enough to remove the radon because of various reasons such as energy saving, lack of maintenance, etc. In this study, radon mitigation was achieved by reducing the rate of radon exhaled from the building materials. A special laboratory, which has the capability of simulating any meteorological conditions that could be faced by high-rise buildings in Hong Kong, was built. The reduction of radon exhalation rate by applying pressure difference and temperature difference across walls was studied in the laboratory. This paper summarizes the results and tactics for applying pressure difference in existing commercial buildings. A new technique of reducing radon exhalation rate in new buildings by depressurizing the interior of walls was also developed. Tunnels can be embedded in the concrete walls of new buildings during construction. By using simple vacuum pumps, radon exhalation rate from the walls can be reduced significantly by depressurizing the tunnels. The feasibility and applicability of the technique is presented in this paper. (author)

  3. Options for cost-effectively reducing atmospheric methane concentrations from anthropogenic biomass sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, K.F.; Jacobs, C.; Orlic, M.

    1993-01-01

    Methane is a major greenhouse gas, second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to future global warming. Methane concentrations have more than doubled over the last two centuries and continue to rise annually. These increases are largely correlated with increasing human populations. Methane emissions from human related activities currently account for about 70 percent of annual emissions. Of these human related emissions, biomass sources account for about 75 percent and non-biomass sources about 25 percent. Because methane has a shorter lifetime than other major greenhouse gases, efforts to reduce methane emissions may fairly quickly be translated into lower atmospheric concentrations of methane and lower levels of radiative forcing. This fairly quick response would have the benefit of slowing the rate of climate change and hence allow natural ecosystems more time to adapt. Importantly, methane may be cost-effectively reduced from a number of biomass and non-biomass sources in the United States and worldwide. Methane is a valuable fuel, not just a waste by-product, and often systems may be reconfigured to reap the fuel value of the methane and more than justify the necessary expenditures. Such options for reducing methane emission from biomass sources exist for landfills, livestock manures, and ruminant livestock, and have been implemented to varying degrees in countries around the world. However, there are a number of barriers that hinder the more widespread use of technologies, including institutional, financial, regulatory, informational, and other barriers. This paper describes an array of available options that may be cost-effectively implemented to reduce methane emissions from biomass sources. This paper also discusses a number of programs that have been developed in the United States and internationally to promote the implementation of these methane reduction options and overcome existing barriers

  4. Improve the Recovery of Fermentable Sugar from Rice Straw by Sonication and Its Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Saurav; Dutta, Somenath; Datta, Sidhartha; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2012-08-01

    Rice straw is waste renewable agricultural biomass, which contains sufficient amount of fermentable sugars like glucose, galactose fructose, xylose etc. These sugars can be treated with fermentation pathway to produce ethanol. Hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in dilute sulfuric acid was investigated at different acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 % w/v), and sonication was carried out to improve the extent of sugar extraction. The current work examines the effect of sonication on extraction of total reducing sugar (TRS) and an empirical mathematical model has been established to predict it. Effects of various operating variables of sonication, including amplitude (60-100 %), cycle (0.6-1.0), treatment time (0-15 min) have been analyzed for each acid concentration. Observation shows that on optimization of the sonication conditions (100 % amplitude, 0.8 cycle and 10 min) around 90 % improvement of TRS extraction occurs at 0.5 % (w/v) acid concentration.

  5. Complete oxidative conversion of lignocellulose derived non-glucose sugars to sugar acids by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruimiao; Hou, Weiliang; Bao, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Non-glucose sugars derived from lignocellulose cover approximately 40% of the total carbohydrates of lignocellulose biomass. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars to the target products is an important task of lignocellulose biorefining research. Here we report a fast and complete conversion of the total non-glucose sugars from corn stover into the corresponding sugar acids by whole cell catalysis and aerobic fermentation of Gluconobacter oxydans. The conversions include xylose to xylonate, arabinose to arabonate, mannose to mannonate, and galactose to galactonate, as well as with glucose into gluconate. These cellulosic non-glucose sugar acids showed the excellent cement retard setting property. The mixed cellulosic sugar acids could be used as cement retard additives without separation. The conversion of the non-glucose sugars not only makes full use of lignocellulose derived sugars, but also effectively reduces the wastewater treatment burden by removal of residual sugars. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient concentrations in a Littorella uniflora community at higher CO2 concentrations and reduced light intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.; Pedersen, O.; Andersen, F. Ø.

    2005-01-01

    laboratory experiments with isoetid vegetation (Littorella uniflora) where water column CO2 and light could be manipulated in order to test whether (i) light and CO2 availability affect nutrient concentrations in isoetid vegetation, and (ii) if changes in light and CO2 climate affect fluxes of inorganic...... nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from sediment to water column, which potentially could result in increased growth of epiphytic algae. 3. The results showed that the standing stocks of phosphorus and nitrogen in the L. uniflora vegetation were significantly influenced by CO2 concentration and light...... intensity. Both standing stocks of P and N were significantly higher in the mesocosm treatments with high CO2 concentration than in those at low CO2 concentration. Similarly, standing stocks of P and N enhanced with increasing light intensity. 4. Measurements of nutrient fluxes both in the field...

  7. Role of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds in the Inhibition Effect of Reducing Sugars on the Formation of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhonghui; Liu, Bing; Niu, Zhiyan; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Jianxin; Shi, Lei; Wang, Shujun; Wang, Shuo

    2017-11-22

    The effect of reducing sugars on formation of PhIP in fried pork was investigated, and the underlying mechanisms were revealed by studying the reaction pathways between α-dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) and PhIP. The addition of reducing sugars (such as glucose) greatly reduced the amount of PhIP in fried pork from 15.5 ng/g to less than 1.0 ng/g. The amount of PhIP decreased significantly with an increasing level of added α-DCs in model systems. Similarly, the addition of methylglyoxal (MGO) decreased significantly the levels of phenylalanine (Phe) and creatinine (Crn) but increased significantly the level of phenylacetaldehyde (PEA). 2-Amino-1-methyl-5-(2-oxopropylidene)-imidazol-4-one and N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) amino propionic acids were identified in MGO/Crn and MGO/Crn/Phe model systems and fried pork with glucose. These results revealed that the degradation products of reducing sugars-α-DCs-play an important role in inhibiting formation of PhIP by reacting with key precursors of PhIP and itself.

  8. Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Inka; Li, Meng; Colic, Lejla; Marr, Vanessa; Födisch, Carina; von Düring, Felicia; Schiltz, Kolja; Drumkova, Krasimira; Witzel, Joachim; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Walter, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters. We measured GABA concentration in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and in a control region, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) in pedophilic sex offenders ( N  = 13) and matched controls ( N  = 13) using a 7 Tesla STEAM magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In dACC but not in the control region pedophilic sex offenders showed reduced GABA/Cr concentrations compared to healthy controls. The reduction was robust after controlling for potential influence of age and gray matter proportion within the MRS voxel ( p  < 0.04). Importantly, reduced GABA/Cr in patients was correlated with lower self-control measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (p = 0.028, r = -0.689). In a region related to cognitive control and salience mapping, pedophilic sex offenders showed reduction of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which may be seen as a neuronal correlate of inhibition and behavioral control.

  9. Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka Ristow

    Full Text Available A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters. We measured GABA concentration in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and in a control region, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC in pedophilic sex offenders (N = 13 and matched controls (N = 13 using a 7 Tesla STEAM magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. In dACC but not in the control region pedophilic sex offenders showed reduced GABA/Cr concentrations compared to healthy controls. The reduction was robust after controlling for potential influence of age and gray matter proportion within the MRS voxel (p < 0.04. Importantly, reduced GABA/Cr in patients was correlated with lower self-control measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (p = 0.028, r = −0.689. In a region related to cognitive control and salience mapping, pedophilic sex offenders showed reduction of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which may be seen as a neuronal correlate of inhibition and behavioral control. Keywords: Child sexual abuse, Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, GABA, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Pedophilic sex offenders

  10. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Poggi, Hector [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Meraz, Monica, E-mail: meraz@xanum.uam.mx [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC{sub 50} values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC{sub 50} values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  11. Modification of a Turbulent Boundary Layer within a Homogeneous Concentration of Drag reducing Polymer Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    High molecular weight polymer solutions in wall-bounded flows can reduce the local skin friction by as much as 80%. External flow studies have typical focused on injection of polymer within a developing turbulent boundary layer (TBL), allowing the concentration and drag reduction level to evolve with downstream distance. Modification of the log-law region of the TBL is directly related to drag reduction, but recent results suggest that the exact behavior is dependent on flow and polymer properties. Weissenberg number and the viscosity ratio (ratio of solvent viscosity to the zero-shear viscosity) are concentration dependent, thus the current study uses a polymer ocean (i.e. a homogenous concentration of polymer solution) with a developing TBL to eliminate uncertainty related to polymer properties. The near-wall modified TBL velocity profiles are acquired with particle image velocimetry. In the current presentation the mean velocity profiles and the corresponding flow (Reynolds number) and polymer (Weissenberg number, viscosity ratio, and length ratio) properties are reported. Note that the impact of polymer degradation on molecular weight will also be quantified and accounted for when estimating polymer properties This work was supported by NSF Grant 1604978.

  12. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  13. Lithium-induced NDI: acetazolamide reduces polyuria but does not improve urine concentrating ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Theun; Doornebal, Joan; Christensen, Birgitte M; Cockx, Simone; Sinke, Anne P; Baumgarten, Ruben; Bedford, Jennifer J; Walker, Robert J; Wetzels, Jack F M; Deen, Peter M T

    2017-09-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but it generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, which are essential for water uptake from tubular urine. Recently, we found that the prophylactic administration of acetazolamide to mice effectively attenuated Li-NDI. To evaluate whether acetazolamide might benefit lithium-treated patients, we administered acetazolamide to mice with established Li-NDI and six patients with a lithium-induced urinary concentrating defect. In mice, acetazolamide partially reversed lithium-induced polyuria and increased urine osmolality, which, however, did not coincide with increased AQP2 abundances. In patients, acetazolamide led to the withdrawal of two patients from the study due to side effects. In the four remaining patients acetazolamide did not lead to clinically relevant changes in maximal urine osmolality. Urine output was also not affected, although none of these patients demonstrated overt lithium-induced polyuria. In three out of four patients, acetazolamide treatment increased serum creatinine levels, indicating a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Strikingly, these three patients also showed a decrease in systemic blood pressure. All together, our data reveal that acetazolamide does not improve the urinary concentrating defect caused by lithium, but it lowers the GFR, likely explaining the reduced urine output in our mice and in a recently reported patient with lithium-induced polyuria. The reduced GFR in patients prone to chronic kidney disease development, however, warrants against application of acetazolamide in Li-NDI patients without long-term (pre)clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Anderson, Dwight; Levie, Benjamin

    2013-01-28

    been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

  15. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: a systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, Stephanie; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S.; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:\\ud To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures.\\ud Design/methodology/approach:\\ud A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, adve...

  16. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, Janne C; Olthof, Margreet R; Seidell, Jacob C; Katan, Martijn B

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consumption of beverages that contain sugar is associated with overweight, possibly because liquid sugars do not lead to a sense of satiety, so the consumption of other foods is not reduced. However, data are lacking to show that the replacement of sugar-containing beverages with

  17. Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Low Concentrations of Vitamin C Reduce the Synthesis of Extracellular Polymers and Destabilize Bacterial Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Pandit, Santosh

    2017-12-26

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by bacteria form a matrix supporting the complex three-dimensional architecture of biofilms. This EPS matrix is primarily composed of polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA. In addition to supporting the community structure, the EPS matrix protects bacterial biofilms from the environment. Specifically, it shields the bacterial cells inside the biofilm, by preventing antimicrobial agents from getting in contact with them, thereby reducing their killing effect. New strategies for disrupting the formation of the EPS matrix can therefore lead to a more efficient use of existing antimicrobials. Here we examined the mechanism of the known effect of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) on enhancing the activity of various antibacterial agents. Our quantitative proteomics analysis shows that non-lethal concentrations of vitamin C inhibit bacterial quorum sensing and other regulatory mechanisms underpinning biofilm development. As a result, the EPS biosynthesis in reduced, and especially the polysaccharide component of the matrix is depleted. Once the EPS content is reduced beyond a critical point, bacterial cells get fully exposed to the medium. At this stage, the cells are more susceptible to killing, either by vitamin C-induced oxidative stress as reported here, or by other antimicrobials or treatments.

  19. Low Concentrations of Vitamin C Reduce the Synthesis of Extracellular Polymers and Destabilize Bacterial Biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Pandit, Santosh; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Derouiche, Abderahmane; Mokkapati, V. R. S. S.; Sihlbom, Carina; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi; Gao, Xin; Westerlund, Fredrik; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by bacteria form a matrix supporting the complex three-dimensional architecture of biofilms. This EPS matrix is primarily composed of polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA. In addition to supporting the community structure, the EPS matrix protects bacterial biofilms from the environment. Specifically, it shields the bacterial cells inside the biofilm, by preventing antimicrobial agents from getting in contact with them, thereby reducing their killing effect. New strategies for disrupting the formation of the EPS matrix can therefore lead to a more efficient use of existing antimicrobials. Here we examined the mechanism of the known effect of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) on enhancing the activity of various antibacterial agents. Our quantitative proteomics analysis shows that non-lethal concentrations of vitamin C inhibit bacterial quorum sensing and other regulatory mechanisms underpinning biofilm development. As a result, the EPS biosynthesis in reduced, and especially the polysaccharide component of the matrix is depleted. Once the EPS content is reduced beyond a critical point, bacterial cells get fully exposed to the medium. At this stage, the cells are more susceptible to killing, either by vitamin C-induced oxidative stress as reported here, or by other antimicrobials or treatments.

  20. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  1. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F.

    2007-01-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  2. Radiation effect on sucrose content of inverted sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podadera, Priscilla; Sabato, Susy F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes]. E-mails: ppodadera@yahoo.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Inverted sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose used as an ingredient in the food and beverage industry. During production there are points of contamination by microorganisms that can modify the sugar properties and reduce shelf life. This work aims to consider one efficient technique in the sanitization of this ingredient with minimum alterations in the sugar ratios. Irradiation with Cobalt 60 is a technique with proven efficacy in the reduction of microorganisms. Samples of inverted sugar had been radiated with Cobalt 60, Gammacell type, at the CTR-IPEN, with doses of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 kGy, and dose rate of 3.88 kGy/h. The content of sucrose was determined by the Fehling method. The sample irradiated at highest dose presented the most intense reduction in the concentration of sucrose: 13% in comparison to the control. Irradiated samples up to 30 kGy did not presented statistical difference in relation to the control (p<0.05), indicating that radiation can be applied to the inverted sugar without significant alterations in the concentration of sucrose. (author)

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  4. Sugar in Infants, Children and Adolescents: A Position Paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler Mis, Nataša; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Embleton, Nicholas D; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; Vora, Rakesh; Fewtrell, Mary

    2017-12-01

    The consumption of sugars, particularly sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs; beverages or drinks that contain added caloric sweeteners (ie, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice concentrates), in European children and adolescents exceeds current recommendations. This is of concern because there is no nutritional requirement for free sugars, and infants have an innate preference for sweet taste, which may be modified and reinforced by pre- and postnatal exposures. Sugar-containing beverages/free sugars increase the risk for overweight/obesity and dental caries, can result in poor nutrient supply and reduced dietary diversity, and may be associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular risk, and other health effects. The term "free sugars," includes all monosaccharides/disaccharides added to foods/beverages by the manufacturer/cook/consumer, plus sugars naturally present in honey/syrups/unsweetened fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates. Sugar naturally present in intact fruits and lactose in amounts naturally present in human milk or infant formula, cow/goat milk, and unsweetened milk products is not free sugar. Intake of free sugars should be reduced and minimised with a desirable goal of advertising, introducing standards for kindergarten and school meals, and fiscal measures, depending on local circumstances.

  5. Tritium concentration reducing method in atmosphere in nuclear reactor containment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshiya; Kigoshi, Yasutane; Yonenaga, Haruo.

    1992-01-01

    A portion of water content in an atmosphere is condensed by a condensation/evaporation device disposed in a nuclear reactor containment building and then a portion of the condensed water is evaporated in the atmosphere. A portion of hydrogen nuclides constituting the evaporated water content is subjected to isotopic exchange with tritium nuclides in the atmosphere. A portion of water content in the atmosphere applied with the isotopic exchange is condensed in the condensation/evaporation device. That is, the hydrogen nuclides in steams are applied with isotopic exchange with tritium nuclides, and steams incorporating tritium nuclides are condensed again in the condensation/evaporation device, to transfer the tritium nuclides in the atmosphere to condensed water. The condensed water is recovered without releasing the tritium nuclides to the outside of the reactor containment building, thereby enabling to reduce the tritium concentration in the atmosphere. (N.H.)

  6. Near-ambient ozone concentrations reduce the vigor of Betula and Populus species in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, Elina; Manninen, Sirkku; Vapaavuori, Elina; Holopainen, Toini

    2009-12-01

    In this review the main growth responses of Finnish birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen species (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides x P. tremula) are correlated with ozone exposure, indicated as the AOT40 value. Data are derived from 23 different laboratory, open-top chamber, and free-air fumigation experiments. Our results indicate that these tree species are sensitive to increasing ozone concentrations, though high intraspecific variation exists. The roots are the most vulnerable targets in both genera. These growth reductions, determined from trees grown under optimal nutrient and water supply, were generally accompanied by increased visible foliar injuries, carbon allocation toward defensive compounds, reduced carbohydrate contents of leaves, impaired photosynthesis processes, disturbances in stomatal function, and earlier autumn senescence. Because both genera have shown complex ozone defense and response mechanisms, which are modified by variable environmental conditions, a mechanistically based approach is necessary for accurate ozone risk assessment.

  7. Climatic warming increases winter wheat yield but reduces grain nitrogen concentration in east China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlu Tian

    Full Text Available Climatic warming is often predicted to reduce wheat yield and grain quality in China. However, direct evidence is still lacking. We conducted a three-year experiment with a Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI facility to examine the responses of winter wheat growth and plant N accumulation to a moderate temperature increase of 1.5°C predicted to prevail by 2050 in East China. Three warming treatments (AW: all-day warming; DW: daytime warming; NW: nighttime warming were applied for an entire growth period. Consistent warming effects on wheat plant were recorded across the experimental years. An increase of ca. 1.5°C in daily, daytime and nighttime mean temperatures shortened the length of pre-anthesis period averagely by 12.7, 8.3 and 10.7 d (P<0.05, respectively, but had no significant impact on the length of the post-anthesis period. Warming did not significantly alter the aboveground biomass production, but the grain yield was 16.3, 18.1 and 19.6% (P<0.05 higher in the AW, DW and NW plots than the non-warmed plot, respectively. Warming also significantly increased plant N uptake and total biomass N accumulation. However, warming significantly reduced grain N concentrations while increased N concentrations in the leaves and stems. Together, our results demonstrate differential impacts of warming on the depositions of grain starch and protein, highlighting the needs to further understand the mechanisms that underlie warming impacts on plant C and N metabolism in wheat.

  8. Lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination reduce isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Acevedo-Arcique

    Full Text Available The effects of intravenous (i.v. lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination delivered as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO in dogs were evaluated. Seven healthy adult dogs were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. For each dog, baseline MAC (MACISO/BASAL was determined after a 90-minute equilibration period. Thereafter, each dog received one of the following treatments (loading dose, CRI: lidocaine 2 mg kg(-1, 100 µg kg(-1 minute(-1; dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg(-1, 2 µg kg(-1 hour(-1; or their combination. MAC was then determined again after 45- minutes of treatment by CRI. At the doses administered, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination significantly reduced MACISO by 27.3% (range: 12.5-39.2%, 43.4% (33.3-53.3% and 60.9% (46.1-78.1%, respectively, when compared to MACISO/BASAL. The combination resulted in a greater MACISO reduction than the two drugs alone. Their use, at the doses studied, provides a clinically important reduction in the concentration of ISO during anaesthesia in dogs.

  9. Enhancement of Saharan groundwater quality by reducing its fluoride concentration using different materials

    KAUST Repository

    Ramdani, Amina

    2014-04-15

    According to the environmental protection regulations, fluoride concentration is considered as a substance of priority for assessment of drinking water quality to determine their impacts on the environment and public health. Saharan groundwater (Algeria) contains an excess of fluoride ions. Regular consumption of this water by the population of the region may cause endemic fluorosis. To solve this problem, we propose to treat this water by adsorption on different materials, such as activated alumina (AA), sodium clay (SC), and hydroxyapatite (HAP) in order to enhance its quality by reducing its fluoride concentration. The maximum adsorption is achieved with an adsorption capacity of the order of 0.9, 0.667, and 0.370 mg/g and with a percentage of 90, 83.4, and 73.95% for AA, HAP, and SC, respectively. Indeed, the acidity and alkalinity of the medium significantly affect the adsorption of fluoride ions. Results deduced from the curves of adsorption isotherms of fluoride ions showed that the retention is predictable from these isotherms in agreement with the Langmuir model. The low removal of fluoride ions was observed in presence of (Formula presented.), (Formula presented.), and (Formula presented.) ions. Finally, AA material proved to be the best adsorbent for fluoride ions removal. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  10. Saliva with reduced calcium and phosphorous concentrations: Effect on erosion dental lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denucci, Giovanna Corrêa; Mantilla, Taís Fonseca; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2018-02-08

    To investigate whether saliva formulations with reduced calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorous (Pi) concentration would affect dental erosion caused by hydrochloric acid (HCl). Enamel and root dentine bovine slabs were embedded, polished and measured for surface Knoop microhardness (SMH). After reference areas were created, specimens were exposed to HCl solution (0.01M; pH 2; 120s) and immersed in artificial salivas (6h) containing three different Ca/Pi concentrations (n=15), which simulate serum conditions of normo-, mild- or severe hypocalcaemia. The control group was immersed in Ca/Pi-free saliva. The study protocol was carried out 2x/day for 5 days. Surface loss of enamel and root dentine was assessed using an optical profilometer and SMH was remeasured for enamel. ANOVA (pdental substrate, salivary formulations resembling serum hypocalcaemia affected surface loss due to erosion and rehardening thereof. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypopituitarism is associated with lower oxytocin concentrations and reduced empathic ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Rees, D Aled

    2017-07-01

    Central diabetes insipidus is characterised by arginine vasopressin deficiency. Oxytocin is structurally related to vasopressin and is synthesised in the same hypothalamic nuclei, thus we hypothesised that patients with acquired central diabetes insipidus and anterior hypopituitarism would display an oxytocin deficiency. Moreover, psychological research has demonstrated that oxytocin influences social and emotional behaviours, particularly empathic behaviour. We therefore further hypothesised that central diabetes insipidus patients would perform worse on empathy-related tasks, compared to age-matched and gender-matched clinical control (clinical control-isolated anterior hypopituitarism) and healthy control groups. Fifty-six participants (age 46.54 ± 16.30 yrs; central diabetes insipidus: n = 20, 8 males; clinical control: n = 15, 6 males; healthy control: n = 20, 7 males) provided two saliva samples which were analysed for oxytocin and completed two empathy tasks. Hypopituitary patients (both central diabetes insipidus and clinical control groups) had significantly lower oxytocin concentrations compared to healthy control participants. Hypopituitary patients also performed significantly worse on both the reading the mind in the eyes task and the facial expression recognition task compared to healthy control participants. Regression analyses further revealed that central diabetes insipidus patients' oxytocin concentrations significantly predicted their performance on easy items of the reading the mind in the eyes task. Hypopituitarism may therefore be associated with reduced oxytocin concentrations and impaired empathic ability. While further studies are needed to replicate these findings, our data suggest that oxytocin replacement may offer a therapeutic approach to improve psychological well-being in patients with hypopituitarism.

  12. Reduced itraconazole concentration and durations are successful in treating Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, Laura A

    2014-03-14

    Amphibians are experiencing the greatest decline of any vertebrate class and a leading cause of these declines is a fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis. Captive assurance colonies are important worldwide for threatened amphibian species and may be the only lifeline for those in critical threat of extinction. Maintaining disease free colonies is a priority of captive managers, yet safe and effective treatments for all species and across life stages have not been identified. The most widely used chemotherapeutic treatment is itraconazole, although the dosage commonly used can be harmful to some individuals and species. We performed a clinical treatment trial to assess whether a lower and safer but effective dose of itraconazole could be found to cure Bd infections. We found that by reducing the treatment concentration from 0.01-0.0025% and reducing the treatment duration from 11-6 days of 5 min baths, frogs could be cured of Bd infection with fewer side effects and less treatment-associated mortality.

  13. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Mc Cutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Li,; Xu, [Newark, DE; Emptage, Mark [Wilmington, DE; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  14. Simulating multi-component liquid phase adsorption systems: ethanol and residual sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.; Tezel, F.H.; Thibault, J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa (Canada)], email: Jules.Thibault@uottawa.ca

    2011-07-01

    A series of multi-component adsorption studies was performed to determine the relative advantages of producing ethanol which is to be blended with gasoline. These studies developed a model to describe the competition for adsorption sites between ethanol and sugar molecules on the surface of the adsorbent. Three competitive adsorption models established by batch systems were examined to evaluate the suitability of the experiment data across different ethanol and sugar concentrations and determine their isotherm parameters. Multi-component packed bed adsorption experiments were then performed. The results show that ethanol capacity was decreased only slightly from that obtained in single component adsorption studies. There is significant evidence to indicate that sugar displacement from adsorption sites occurs because adsorption of ethanol is preferred. So the capacity of sugars will be greatly reduced if there are appreciable ethanol concentrations.

  15. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Rachael Kibblewhite; Alice Nettleton; Rachael McLean; Jillian Haszard; Elizabeth Fleming; Devonia Kruimer; Lisa Te Morenga

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition...

  16. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  17. Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are reduced in heavy drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beceiro, Carmen; Campos, Joaquín; Valcarcel, Maria-Angeles

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baseline serum tryptase concentrations are commonly used in clinical practice as a marker of the body's mast cell burden. This study aimed to investigate serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. METHODS: Serum tryptase concentrations were determined in 126 heavy drinkers (75...... test positivity) was not associated with serum tryptase concentrations in heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of mast cell tryptase are lower in heavy drinkers than in healthy controls....

  18. Sugar Price Supports and Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilk, Abby; Savaiano, Dennis A.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic US sugar production has been protected by government policy for the past 82 years, resulting in elevated domestic prices and an estimated annual (2013) $1.4 billion dollar “tax” on consumers. These elevated prices and the simultaneous federal support for domestic corn production have ensured a strong market for high-fructose corn syrup. Americans have dramatically increased their consumption of caloric sweeteners during the same period. Consumption of “empty” calories (ie, foods with low-nutrient/high-caloric density)—sugar and high-fructose corn syrup being the primary sources—is considered by most public health experts to be a key contributing factor to the rise in obesity. There have been substantial efforts to tax sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) to both reduce consumption and provide a source of funds for nutrition education, thereby emulating the tobacco tax model. Volume-based SSB taxes levy the tax rate per ounce of liquid, where some are only imposed on beverages with added sugar content exceeding a set threshold. Nonetheless, volume-based taxes have significant limitations in encouraging consumers to reduce their caloric intake due to a lack of transparency at the point of purchase. Thus, it is hypothesized that point-of-purchase, nutrient-specific excise taxes on SSBs would be more effective at reducing sugar consumption. However, all SSB taxes are limited by the possibility that consumers may compensate their decreased intake from SSBs with other high-calorie junk foods. Furthermore, there are no existing studies to provide evidence on how SSB taxes will impact obesity rates in the long term. The paradox of sugar prices is that Americans have paid higher prices for sugar to protect domestic production for more than 80 years, and now, Americans are being asked to pay even more to promote public health. The effective use of sugar taxes should be considered based on their merits in reducing sugar consumption and making available a new

  19. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  20. Glycation of polyclonal IgGs: Effect of sugar excipients during stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Y; Bihoreau, N; Jube, M; Andre, M-H; Tellier, Z; Chevreux, G

    2016-05-01

    A number of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations are stabilized with sugar additives that may lead over time to undesirable glycation reactions especially in liquid formulation. This study aimed to evaluate the reactivity of sugar excipients on such preparations in condition of temperature, formulation and concentration commonly used for pharmaceutical products. Through an innovative LC-MS method reported to characterize post-translational modifications of IgGs Fc/2 fragments, a stability study of IVIg formulated with reducing and non-reducing sugars has been undertaken. The rate of polyclonal IgGs glycation was investigated during 6months at 5, 25, 30 and 40°C. High levels of glycation were observed with reducing sugars such as glucose and maltose in the first months of the stability study from 25°C. Non-reducing sugars presented a low reactivity even at the highest tested temperature (40°C). Furthermore, a site by site analysis was performed by MS/MS to determine the glycation sites which were mainly identified at Lys246, Lys248 and Lys324. This work points out the high probability of glycation reactions in some commercialized products and describes a useful method to characterize IVIg glycated products issued from reducing sugar excipients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  2. Reduced Orbitofrontal Gray Matter Concentration as a Marker of Premorbid Childhood Trauma in Cocaine Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Bachi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood trauma affects neurodevelopment and promotes vulnerability to impaired constraint, depression, and addiction. Reduced gray matter concentration (GMC in the mesocorticolimbic regions implicated in reward processing and cognitive control may be an underlying substrate, as documented separately in addiction and for childhood trauma. The purpose of this study was to understand the contribution of childhood maltreatment to GMC effects in individuals with cocaine use disorder.Methods: Individuals with cocaine use disorder were partitioned into groups of low vs. high childhood trauma based on median split of the total score of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; CUD-L, N = 23; CUD-H, N = 24 and compared with age, race, and gender matched healthy controls with low trauma (N = 29. GMC was obtained using voxel-based morphometry applied to T1-weighted MRI scans. Drug use, depression and constraint were assessed with standardized instruments.Results: Whole-brain group comparisons showed reduced GMC in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC in CUD-H as compared with controls (cluster-level pFWE-corr < 0.001 and CUD-L (cluster-level pFWE-corr = 0.035; there were no significant differences between CUD-L and controls. A hierarchical regression analysis across both CUD groups revealed that childhood trauma, but not demographics and drug use, and beyond constraint and depression, accounted for 37.7% of the variance in the GMC in the right lateral OFC (p < 0.001.Conclusions: Beyond other contributing factors, childhood trauma predicted GMC reductions in the OFC in individuals with cocaine use disorder. These findings underscore a link between premorbid environmental stress and morphological integrity of a brain region central for behaviors underlying drug addiction. These results further highlight the importance of accounting for childhood trauma, potentially as a factor predisposing to addiction, when examining and interpreting

  3. Reduced-Concentration Clavulanate for Young Children with Acute Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradise, Jack L.; Rockette, Howard E.; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Kearney, Diana H.; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Shope, Timothy R.; Muñiz, Gysella; Martin, Judith M.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Haralam, MaryAnn; Pope, Marcia A.; Nagg, Jennifer P.; Zhao, Wenchen; Miah, Mohammad Kowser; Beumer, Jan; Venkataramanan, Raman; Shaikh, Nader

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Amoxicillin-clavulanate (A/C) is currently the most effective oral antimicrobial in treating children with acute otitis media (AOM), but the standard dosage of 90 mg amoxicillin/6.4 mg clavulanate/kg of body weight/day commonly causes diarrhea. We examined whether an A/C formulation containing lower concentrations of clavulanate would result in less diarrhea while maintaining plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate adequate to eradicate middle-ear pathogens and to achieve clinical success. We conducted an open-label study in children with AOM who were 6 to 23 months of age. In phase 1, we treated 40 children with a reduced-clavulanate A/C formulation providing 90 mg amoxicillin/3.2 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. In phase 2, we treated 72 children with the same formulation at a dosage of 80 mg amoxicillin/2.85 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. We compared the rates of protocol-defined diarrhea (PDD), diaper dermatitis, and AOM clinical response in these children with rates we had reported in children who received the standard A/C regimen, and we obtained plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate at various time points. Outcomes in phase 1 children and in children who had received the standard regimen did not differ significantly. Rates of PDD in children receiving phase 2 and standard regimens were 17% and 26%, respectively (P = 0.10). The corresponding rates of diaper dermatitis were 21% and 33% (P = 0.04) and of AOM treatment failure were 12% and 16% (P = 0.44). Symptomatic responses did not differ significantly between regimens; both gave clavulanate levels sufficient to inhibit β-lactamase activity. In young children with AOM, clavulanate dosages lower than those currently used may be associated with fewer side effects without reducing clinical efficacy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02630992.) PMID:28438923

  4. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Freja Skovsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (vitC deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32 were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001. Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling.

  5. Production of xylose, furfural, fermentable sugars and ethanol from agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Das, K.; Sharma, D.K.

    1984-02-01

    With the developing shortage of petroleum, reliance on biomass as a source of chemicals and fuels will increase. In the present work, bagasse and rice husk were subjected to dilute acid (H2SO4) hydrolysis using pressurised water to obtain furfural and fermentable sugars. Various process conditions such as particle size, solid-liquid ratio, acid concentration, reaction time and temperature have been studied to optimise yields of furfural, xylose and other fermentable sugars. The use of particle sizes smaller than 495 mu m did not further increase the yield of reducing sugars. A solid-liquid ratio of 1:15 was found to be the most suitable for production of reducing sugars. Hydrolysis using 0.4% H2SO4 at 453 K resulted in selective yields (g per 100 g of dried agricultural residues) of xylose from bagasse (22.5%) and rice husk (21.5%). A maximum yield of furfural was obtained using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K from bagasse (11.5%) and rice husk (10.9%). It was also found that hydrolysis using 1% H2SO4 at 493 K resulted in maximum yields of total reducing sugar from bagasse (53.5%) and rice husk (50%). The reducing sugars obtained were fermented to ethanol after removal of furfural. The effect of furfural on the fermentation of sugars to ethanol was also studied. Based on these studies, an integrated two-step process for the production of furfural and fermentable sugars could be envisaged. In the first step, using 0.4% H2SO4 at 473 K, furfural could be obtained, while in the second step, the use of 1% H2SO4 at 493 K should result in the production of fermentable sugars. (Refs. 22).

  6. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  7. The rare sugar D-allose has a reducing effect against ischemia-reperfusion injury on the rat abdominal skin island flap model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneuchi, Gan; Hossain, Akram; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Suzuki, Shigehiko; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2013-08-01

    Recently, one of the rare sugars, D-allose, has received attention from many researchers because of its availability for mass production and its various physiological functions. Among these, an antioxidative effect has been strongly suggested. In this study, we investigated whether this effect is also applicable to the field of skin surgery. In ischemia-reperfusion injury model using the rat abdominal skin island flap (male Wistar rats, n = 110), D-allose was injected intravenously 15 min before 8-h ischemia. The survival area (%) was measured by digital photographic assessment 1 wk after surgery, and multiple comparisons (Fisher's protected least significant difference) were carried out. Histopathological examination (neutrophilic infiltration into dermis in hematoxylin and eosin stain) and immunostaining (of ectodermal dysplasia-1 (ED1)-positive cells/flap) were assessed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the skin flap (sampling at the time of 8 h after reperfusion) was measured spectrophotometrically, and Student t-test was performed. D-allose extended the survival of the remaining flaps, and a dose greater than 30 mg (0.1 mg/g) was necessary to be effective. The flap survival rates in the 30, 60, and 150 mg groups were significantly higher than that in the control (saline) group: 75.87 ± 5.90, 79.27 ± 7.81, and 77.87 ± 6.20 versus 50.53 ± 9.66, respectively (P rare sugars are safer for our bodies as well as the environment; therefore, this rare sugar project is expected to lead to the development of a safer antioxidant for skin flap surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sugar administration to newly emerged Aedes albopictus males increases their survival probability and mating performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Romeo; Puggioli, Arianna; Balestrino, Fabrizio; Brunelli, Paolo; Medici, Anna; Urbanelli, Sandra; Carrieri, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h. When evaluated in lab cages, comparing adults emerged from the device with sugar solution vs the device with water only (as negative control), about half of the males tested positive for fructose using the Van Handel anthrone test, compared to none of males in the control cage. We then tested the tool in semi-field and in field conditions with different sugar concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20%) and compared results to the controls fed with water only. Males were recaptured by a battery operated manual aspirator at 24 and 48 h after pupae release. Rather high share 10-25% of captured males tested positive for fructose in recollections in the vicinity of the control stations, while in the vicinity of the sugar stations around 40-55% of males were positive, though variability between replicates was large. The sugar positive males in the control test may have been released males that had access to natural sugar sources found close to the release station and/or wild males present in the environment. Only a slight increase in the proportion of positive males was obtained by increasing the sugar concentration in the feeding device from 10% to 20%. Surprisingly, modification of the device to add a black plastic inverted funnel above the container reduced rather than increased the proportion of fructose positive males collected around the station. No evidence of difference in the

  9. Reduced gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration is associated with physical disability in progressive multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanky, Bhavana S.; Muhlert, Nils; Tur, Carmen; Edden, Richard A. E.; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A. M.; Miller, David H.; Thompson, Alan J.; Ciccarelli, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegeneration is thought to be the major cause of ongoing, irreversible disability in progressive stages of multiple sclerosis. Gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principle inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. The aims of this study were to investigate if gamma-aminobutyric acid levels (i) are abnormal in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis compared with healthy controls; and (ii) correlate with physical and cognitive performance in this patient population. Thirty patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent single-voxel MEGA-PRESS (MEscher-GArwood Point RESolved Spectroscopy) magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 T, to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the prefrontal cortex, right hippocampus and left sensorimotor cortex. All subjects were assessed clinically and underwent a cognitive assessment. Multiple linear regression models were used to compare differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid concentrations between patients and controls adjusting for age, gender and tissue fractions within each spectroscopic voxel. Regression was used to examine the relationships between the cognitive function and physical disability scores specific for these regions with gamma-aminobuytric acid levels, adjusting for age, gender, and total N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamine-glutamate complex levels. When compared with controls, patients performed significantly worse on all motor and sensory tests, and were cognitively impaired in processing speed and verbal memory. Patients had significantly lower gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the hippocampus (adjusted difference = −0.403 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.792, −0.014, P = 0.043) and sensorimotor cortex (adjusted difference = −0.385 mM, 95% confidence intervals −0.667, −0.104, P = 0.009) compared with controls. In patients, reduced motor function in the right upper and lower limb was associated with lower gamma-aminobutyric acid

  10. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and 32 P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar

  11. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages Compared to Water Is Associated with Reduced Intake of Carbohydrates and Sugar, with No Adverse Relationships to Glycemic Responses: Results from the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marge Leahy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that there was moderate evidence that substituting sugar-containing sweeteners with low-calorie sweeteners (LCS reduces calorie intake and weight, dietary recommendations encourage substituting only water for sugar-sweetened beverages during weight management. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relation of water and no- and low-calorie sweetened beverage (LCSB intake with nutrient intakes and prediabetes criteria using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2001–2012 in 25,817 adults that were free of diabetes. Although linear trends were observed with both beverages, higher LCSB intake was associated with significantly lower consumption of carbohydrates (−9.1 g/day vs. −1.4 g/day, total sugars (−10.9 g/day vs. −2.2 g/day, and added sugars (−2.0 tsp eq vs. −0.8 tsp eq than those associated with higher water intake. Higher intake of both beverages was significantly associated with lower insulin levels (p < 0.01; however, higher intake of LCSB was also associated with lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (p < 0.01. We observed lower odds ratios for elevated HbA1c (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.79, 95% CI 0.64–0.98, HOMA-IR (0.68, 0.53–0.87, and insulin levels (0.63, 0.49–0.80 in LCSB among the higher (2+ servings intake group compared to the lowest (<1 serving intake group. Contrary to conventional wisdom, LCSB consumption was associated with equal, if not better, dietary intake and glycemic response than water consumption. Although observational in nature, these results contribute to the growing body of evidence from human studies suggesting that in addition to water, LCSBs can also be sensible choices for reducing sugars and carbohydrate intake, with no adverse associations to measures of glycemic response.

  12. Aroma-related cross-modal interactions for sugar reduction in milk desserts: Influence on consumer perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaire, Florencia; Antúnez, Lucía; Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Ares, Gastón

    2017-07-01

    Reformulation of industrialized products has been regarded as one of the most cost-effective strategies to reduce sugar intake. Although non-nutritive sweeteners have been extensively used to reduce the added sugar content of these products, increasing evidence about the existence of compensatory energy intake mechanisms makes it necessary to develop alternative strategies to achieve rapid sugar reductions. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate aroma-related cross modal interactions for sugar reduction in vanilla milk desserts. In particular, the influence of increasing vanilla concentration and the joint increase of vanilla and starch concentration on consumer sensory and hedonic perception was assessed. Two studies with 100 consumers each were conducted, in which a total of 15 samples were evaluated. For each sample, consumers rated their overall liking and answered a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question comprising 12 flavour and texture terms. Sugar reduction caused significant changes in the flavour and texture characteristics of the desserts. An increase in vanilla concentration had a minor effect on their sensory characteristics. However, increasing both vanilla and starch concentration led to an increase in vanilla flavour and sweetness perception and reduced changes in consumer hedonic perception. These results showed the potential of aroma-related cross modal interactions for minimizing the sensory changes caused by sugar reduction. These strategies could contribute to product reformulation without the need to use non-nutritive sweeteners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reduced-Concentration Clavulanate for Young Children with Acute Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberman, Alejandro; Paradise, Jack L; Rockette, Howard E; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Kearney, Diana H; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Shope, Timothy R; Muñiz, Gysella; Martin, Judith M; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Haralam, MaryAnn; Pope, Marcia A; Nagg, Jennifer P; Zhao, Wenchen; Miah, Mohammad Kowser; Beumer, Jan; Venkataramanan, Raman; Shaikh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Amoxicillin-clavulanate (A/C) is currently the most effective oral antimicrobial in treating children with acute otitis media (AOM), but the standard dosage of 90 mg amoxicillin/6.4 mg clavulanate/kg of body weight/day commonly causes diarrhea. We examined whether an A/C formulation containing lower concentrations of clavulanate would result in less diarrhea while maintaining plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate adequate to eradicate middle-ear pathogens and to achieve clinical success. We conducted an open-label study in children with AOM who were 6 to 23 months of age. In phase 1, we treated 40 children with a reduced-clavulanate A/C formulation providing 90 mg amoxicillin/3.2 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. In phase 2, we treated 72 children with the same formulation at a dosage of 80 mg amoxicillin/2.85 mg clavulanate/kg/day for 10 days. We compared the rates of protocol-defined diarrhea (PDD), diaper dermatitis, and AOM clinical response in these children with rates we had reported in children who received the standard A/C regimen, and we obtained plasma levels of amoxicillin and clavulanate at various time points. Outcomes in phase 1 children and in children who had received the standard regimen did not differ significantly. Rates of PDD in children receiving phase 2 and standard regimens were 17% and 26%, respectively ( P = 0.10). The corresponding rates of diaper dermatitis were 21% and 33% ( P = 0.04) and of AOM treatment failure were 12% and 16% ( P = 0.44). Symptomatic responses did not differ significantly between regimens; both gave clavulanate levels sufficient to inhibit β-lactamase activity. In young children with AOM, clavulanate dosages lower than those currently used may be associated with fewer side effects without reducing clinical efficacy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02630992.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. The whole body cryostimulation modifies irisin concentration and reduces inflammation in middle aged, obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulian, Katarzyna; Laskowski, Radosław; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Kujach, Sylwester; Flis, Damian J; Smaruj, Mirosław; Ziemann, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect induced by exposure to low temperature might trigger the endocrine function of muscle and fat tissue. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the whole body cryostimulation (CRY) on irisin, a myokine which activates oxygen consumption in fat cells as well as thermogenesis. In addition, the relationship between hepcidin (Hpc) - hormone regulating iron metabolism, and inflammation was studied. A group of middle aged men (n = 12, 38 ± 9 years old, BMI > 30 kg m(-2)) participated in the study. Subjects were exposed to a series of 10 sessions in a cryogenic chamber (once a day at 9:30 am, for 3 min, at temperature -110 °C). Blood samples were collected before the first cryostimulation and after completing the last one. Prior to treatment body composition and fitness level were determined. The applied protocol of cryostimulation lead to rise the blood irisin in obese non-active men (338.8 ± 42.2 vs 407.6 ± 118.5 ng mL(-1)), whereas has no effect in obese active men (371.5 ± 30.0 vs 343.3 ± 47.6 ng mL(-1)). Values recorded 24 h after the last cryo-session correlated significantly with the fat tissue, yet inversely with the skeletal muscle mass. Therefore, we concluded the subcutaneous fat tissue to be the main source of irisin in response to cold exposures. The applied cold treatment reduced the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hpc concentration confirming its anti-inflammatory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p haylage. There was a significantly (p haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  16. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  17. Minimization of sucrose losses in sugar industry by pH and temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panpae, Kornvalai; Jaturonrusmee, Wasna; Mingvanish, Withawat; Santudrob, Kittisak; Triphanpitak, Siriphan

    2008-01-01

    Invert sugar has several disadvantage properties that play an important role in many food applications. It has a high affinity for water and is the cause of making products retain moisture. Invert sugar also affects the carmelization process, producing a browning effect. In this study, the possibility of minimization of sucrose inversion during the industrial production of sugar cane was investigated by the variation of the important parameters, i.e. temperature and pH of sugar cane juice for each of samples. The amounts of sucrose and reducing sugar alerting during the sucrose inversion process were determined by the values of % Pol and % reducing sugar (% RS), respectively. Starting with the study of temperature and pH effects of the sucrose solution with the concentration of 16 Brix, used as a sample model, it was found that no change in amounts of reducing sugar and sucrose was observed at room temperature (34 degree Celsius) in the pH range of 5-11. At pH 3, the amounts of reducing sugar increased and the amount of sucrose decreased as the time increased. These indicated that the process of sucrose inversion should better occur in more acidic solutions. Compared to the room temperature, it was found that the increment of temperature led to enhance the process of sucrose inversion. This was depicted by higher values of % RS and lower value of % Pol as the temperatures were elevated. The experiments were also done with real sugar cane juice, i.e. first, last, and mixed juice. The tendency of changes of the amounts of reducing sugar and sucrose in sugar cane samples by varying temperature and pH were found to resemble to those for the sample model. The increment of temperatures have also affected on a reduction of amounts of sucrose in each sugar cane juice. In addition, it could be concluded that the acidity of the solution affects sucrose easier to be broken down to glucose and fructose molecules. (author)

  18. The Truth about Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars', are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times.

  19. Retailer-Led Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Price Increase Reduces Purchases in a Hospital Convenience Store in Melbourne, Australia: A Mixed Methods Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Miranda R; Peeters, Anna; Lancsar, Emily; Boelsen-Robinson, Tara; Corben, Kirstan; Stevenson, Christopher E; Palermo, Claire; Backholer, Kathryn

    2018-06-01

    Limited evidence has been gathered on the real-world impact of sugar-sweetened beverage price changes on purchasing behavior over time or in community-retail settings. Our aim was to determine changes in beverage purchases, business outcomes, and customer and retailer satisfaction associated with a retailer-led sugar-sweetened beverage price increase in a convenience store. We hypothesized that purchases of less-healthy beverages would decrease compared to predicted sales. A convergent parallel mixed methods design complemented sales data (122 weeks pre-intervention, 17 weeks during intervention) with stakeholder interviews and customer surveys. Electronic beverage sales data were collected from a convenience store in Melbourne, Australia (August through November 2015). Convenience store staff completed semi-structured interviews (n=4) and adult customers exiting the store completed surveys (n=352). Beverages were classified using a state government framework. Prices of "red" beverages (eg, nondiet soft drinks, energy drinks) increased by 20%. Prices of "amber" (eg, diet soft drinks, small pure fruit juices) and "green" beverages (eg, water) were unchanged. Changes in beverage volume, item sales, and revenue during the intervention were compared with predicted sales. Sales data were analyzed using time series segmented regression while controlling for pre-intervention trends, autocorrelation in sales data, and seasonal fluctuations. Beverage volume sales of red (-27.6%; 95% CI -32.2 to -23.0) and amber (-26.7%; 95% CI -39.3 to -16.0) decreased, and volume of green beverages increased (+26.9%; 95% CI +14.1 to +39.7) in the 17th intervention week compared with predicted sales. Store manager and staff considered the intervention business-neutral, despite a small reduction in beverage revenue. Fifteen percent of customers noticed the price difference and 61% supported the intervention. A 20% sugar-sweetened beverage price increase was associated with a reduction

  20. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO2 concentration from stomatal and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Wilfried; Katul, Gabriel; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita; Grein, Michaela

    2017-06-01

    To address questions related to the acceleration or deceleration of the global hydrological cycle or links between the carbon and water cycles over land, reliable data for past climatic conditions based on proxies are required. In particular, the reconstruction of palaeoatmospheric CO2 content (Ca) is needed to assist the separation of natural from anthropogenic Ca variability and to explore phase relations between Ca and air temperature Ta time series. Both Ta and Ca are needed to fingerprint anthropogenic signatures in vapor pressure deficit, a major driver used to explain acceleration or deceleration phases in the global hydrological cycle. Current approaches to Ca reconstruction rely on a robust inverse correlation between measured stomatal density in leaves (ν) of many plant taxa and Ca. There are two methods that exploit this correlation: The first uses calibration curves obtained from extant species assumed to represent the fossil taxa, thereby restricting the suitable taxa to those existing today. The second is a hybrid eco-hydrological/physiological approach that determines Ca with the aid of systems of equations based on quasi-instantaneous leaf-gas exchange theories and fossil stomatal data collected along with other measured leaf anatomical traits and parameters. In this contribution, a reduced order model (ROM) is proposed that derives Ca from a single equation incorporating the aforementioned stomatal data, basic climate (e.g. temperature), estimated biochemical parameters of assimilation and isotope data. The usage of the ROM is then illustrated by applying it to isotopic and anatomical measurements from three extant species. The ROM derivation is based on a balance between the biochemical demand and atmospheric supply of CO2 that leads to an explicit expression linking stomatal conductance to internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and Ca. The resulting expression of stomatal conductance from the carbon economy of the leaf is then equated to another

  1. A high-fat high-sugar diet predicts poorer hippocampal-related memory and a reduced ability to suppress wanting under satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attuquayefio, Tuki; Stevenson, Richard J; Boakes, Robert A; Oaten, Megan J; Yeomans, Martin R; Mahmut, Mehmet; Francis, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Animal data indicate that greater intake of fats and sugars prevalent in a Western diet impairs hippocampal memory and tests of behavioral inhibition known to be related to hippocampal function (e.g., feature negative discrimination tasks). It has been argued that such high-fat high-sugar diets (HFS) impair the hippocampus, which then becomes less sensitive to modulation by physiological state. Thus retrieval of motivationally salient memories (e.g., when seeing or smelling food) occurs irrespective of state. Here we examine whether evidence of similar effects can be observed in humans using a correlational design. Healthy human participants (N = 94), who varied in their habitual consumption of a HFS diet, completed the verbal paired-associate (VPA) test, a known hippocampal-dependent process, as well as liking and wanting ratings of palatable snack foods, assessed both when hungry and when sated. Greater intake of a HFS diet was significantly associated with a slower VPA learning rate, as predicted. Importantly, for those who regularly consumed a HFS diet, though reductions in liking and wanting occurred between hungry and sated states, the reduction in wanting was far smaller relative to liking. The latter effect was strongly related to VPA learning rate, suggestive of hippocampal mediation. In agreement with the animal literature, human participants with a greater intake of a HFS diet show deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, and their desire to consume palatable food is less affected by physiological state-a process we suggest that is also hippocampal related. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, S.M.; Jones, R.J.; Brenner, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of sugar uptake by immature maize embryos were determined in vitro utilizing a 14 C-sugar solution incubation method. Hexose uptake rates were greater than those for sucrose, however, all showed biphasic kinetics. Glucose and fructose saturable components were evidence at <50 mM and sucrose at <5 mM. Chemical inhibitors (CCCP, DNP, NaCN, and PCMBS) and low temperature reduced sugar uptake. Sucrose influx was pH dependent while glucose was not. Embryos maintained a high sucrose to hexose ratio throughout development. At 25 days after pollination sucrose levels exceeded 200 mM while hexose levels remained below 5 mM. Glucose was rapidly converted to sucrose upon transport into the embryo. These circumstantial data indicate that sugar uptake by immature maize embryos is metabolically dependent and carrier mediated. Furthermore, sucrose transport appears to occur against its concentration gradient involving a H+/sucrose cotransport mechanism, while glucose influx is driven by its concentration gradient and subsequent metabolism

  3. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains...... unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly...... to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar...

  4. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Enhancement of Saharan groundwater quality by reducing its fluoride concentration using different materials

    KAUST Repository

    Ramdani, Amina; Taleb, Safia; Benghalem, Abderazzak; Deratani, André ; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2014-01-01

    According to the environmental protection regulations, fluoride concentration is considered as a substance of priority for assessment of drinking water quality to determine their impacts on the environment and public health. Saharan groundwater

  6. Low blood sugar - newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007306.htm Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also ...

  7. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural formation during baking of biscuits: Part I: Effects of sugar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Peters, Ruud J B; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sugar type on the reaction mechanism for formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) during the baking of biscuits at 200°C using multiresponse modelling. Four types of biscuits were prepared: (1) with sucrose, (2) with glucose and fructose, (3) with fructose only and (4) with glucose only. Experimental data showed that HMF concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose and fructose, whereas acrylamide concentration was highest in biscuits with glucose, also having the highest asparagine concentration. Proposed mechanistic models suggested that HMF is formed via caramelisation and that acrylamide formation follows the specific amino acid route, i.e., reducing sugars react with asparagine to form the Schiff base before decarboxylation, to generate acrylamide without the Amadori rearrangement product and sugar fragmentation. Study results contribute to understanding chemical reaction pathways in real food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Air quality more extensive monitoring of particulates pollution but concentrations must be reduced by 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Colosio, J.

    2000-09-01

    Most epidemiological data point to a link between the concentrations of particles measured in the ambient air and the effects of air pollution on human health. Particulates emitted by road traffic and industry are among the most harmful; they carry serious risks. The particulate monitoring network and legislation on the issue are constantly changing. In France, the number of monitoring stations has more than doubled in recent years. EC Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 sets limit values for concentrations of particulates in ambient air to be complied with at certain given dates. In France, while the concentrations measured in urban areas with over 100 000 inhabitants are below the limit values set by the Directive for today, they are significantly higher than those to be complied with by 1 January 2005. (author)

  9. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  11. Lithium-induced NDI: acetazolamide reduces polyuria but does not improve urine concentrating ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T. de; Doornebal, J.; Christensen, B.M.; Cockx, S.; Sinke, A.P.; Baumgarten, R.; Bedford, J.J.; Walker, R.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium is the mainstay treatment for patients with bipolar disorder, but it generally causes nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), a disorder in which the renal urine concentrating ability has become vasopressin insensitive. Li-NDI is caused by lithium uptake by collecting duct principal cells and

  12. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  13. Reduced red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentrations in critical illness without decreased in vivo P50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T J; Koch, D; Morris, D; Clague, A; Purdie, D M

    2001-10-01

    We investigated whether red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations are reduced in critical illness, whether acidaemia, hypophosphataemia or anaemia influence 2,3-DPG, and whether there is any net effect on in vivo P50. Twenty healthy, non-smoking, male volunteers were compared with 20 male intensive care patients with APACHE 2 scores >20 on the preceding day. Those transfused in this time were excluded. Venous red cell 2,3-DPG concentrations were measured in both groups. In the patient group, routine multichannel biochemical profile and arterial blood gas analysis were also performed and in vivo P50 calculated. The mean 2,3-DPG concentration was significantly lower in the patient group than in the controls (4.2+/-1.3 mmol/l vs 4.9+/-0.5 mmol/l, P=0.016). The patients were well oxygenated (lowest arterial PO2=75 mm Hg) and showed a tendency to acidaemia (median pH 7.37, range 7.06 to 7.48) and anaemia (median haemoglobin concentration 113 g/l, range 89 to 154 g/l). By linear regression of patient data, pH had a significant effect on 2,3-DPG concentrations (r=0.6, P=0.011). Haemoglobin and phosphate concentrations did not, but there were few abnormal phosphate values. There was no correlation between 2,3-DPG concentrations and in vivo P50 (r2 < or = 0.08). We conclude that 2,3-DPG concentrations were reduced in a broad group of critically ill patients. Although this would normally reduce the P50, the reduction was primarily linked with acidaemia, which increases the P50. Overall, there was no net effect on the P50 and thus no affinity-related decrease in tissue oxygenation.

  14. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  15. Determination of Sugar and Some Trace Metals Content in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten brands of commercial fruit juices were analyzed for pH, specific gravity, total solids, reducing sugar and total sugar trace metals contents. The pH was determined using a Hanna pH meter. Sugar content was determined using the Lane and Eynon method. Sodium and potassium were determined by flame photometry ...

  16. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  17. 78 FR 45494 - Notice of Second Sugar Purchase and Exchange for Re-export Program Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... have saved CCC $66.9 million in Sugar Program costs by reducing the amount of sugar loan collateral... collateral for CCC loan, as the purpose of this action is to reduce the forfeitures of loan collateral under... of later acquiring the sugar through loan forfeiture under the Sugar Program. The purchase invitation...

  18. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  19. Low Concentrations of Vitamin C Reduce the Synthesis of Extracellular Polymers and Destabilize Bacterial Biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandit, Santosh; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.

    2017-01-01

    to a more efficient use of existing antimicrobials. Here we examined the mechanism of the known effect of vitamin C (sodium ascorbate) on enhancing the activity of various antibacterial agents. Our quantitative proteomics analysis shows that non-lethal concentrations of vitamin C inhibit bacterial quorum....... At this stage, the cells are more susceptible to killing, either by vitamin C-induced oxidative stress as reported here, or by other antimicrobials or treatments....

  20. Strategic purchasing reform in Estonia: Reducing inequalities in access while improving care concentration and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Triin; Habicht, Jarno; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2015-08-01

    As of 2014, the Estonian Health Insurance Fund has adopted new purchasing procedures and criteria, which it now has started to implement in specialist care. Main changes include (1) redefined access criteria based on population need rather than historical supply, which aim to achieve more equal access of providers and specialties; (2) stricter definition and use of optimal workload criteria to increase the concentration of specialist care (3) better consideration of patient movement; and (4) an increased emphasis on quality to foster quality improvement. The new criteria were first used in the contract cycle that started in 2014 and resulted in fewer contracted providers for a similar volume of care compared to the previous contract cycle. This implies that provision of specialized care has become concentrated at fewer providers. It is too early to draw firm conclusions on the impact on care quality or on actors, but the process has sparked debate on the role of selective contracting and the role of public and private providers in Estonian health care. Lastly, the Estonian experience may hold important lessons for other countries looking to overcome inequalities in access while concentrating care and improving care quality. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Sugar and metabolic health: is there still a debate?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, JB; Fielding, BA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review: There is considerable political and public awareness of new recommendations to reduce sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in our diets. It is therefore timely to review the most recent changes in guidelines, with a focus on evidence for metabolic health, recent research in the area and gaps in our knowledge. Recent findings: Sufficient evidence links a high intake of sugar to dental caries and obesity, and high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages in particular to increase...

  2. Impact of interventions to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake in children and adults: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Garcia, Elisa J; El Evans, Charlotte; Cade, Janet E

    2015-02-21

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been stressed as relevant targets of public health interventions considering the negative outcomes derived from their excessive intake. Though the evidence from published literature grows to support a cause-and-effect association of SSBs with obesity and other diseases, little is known on the effectiveness that strategies alone or as part of multi-component programmes have had to influence this particular dietary behaviour across all ages. Therefore, this review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate the effect that interventions have had to decrease their consumption or increase water intake in children and adults so as to guide the design of future programmes and inform policy making. Included studies in this review will be randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental interventions (with a control group) that have reported baseline and post-intervention intakes of SSBs or water and that have been published from 1990 in any language. A thorough search will be performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane's central register of controlled trials, and the Global Health Library. Two independent reviewers will conduct initial screening of potentially included articles and will later extract data to analyse domains of intervention design and delivery (with emphasis on behaviour change techniques used as rationale), as well as results in changes on consumption patterns and behavioural determinants. Internal and external validity of each study will also be appraised. A meta-analysis will be performed if a sufficient number of studies are available, and if not, a narrative review will be conducted instead. The results from this review aim to strengthen public health initiatives tackling obesity through improvements in non-alcoholic drinking patterns. As a subject of growing attention globally, this review will help determine which strategies available are the most effective in different contexts. Knowledge gained

  3. Suitable Concentrations of Uric Acid Can Reduce Cell Death in Models of OGD and Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Ning; Lin, Shao-Peng; Zhang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability. After establishing models of OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) with HT22 and BV-2 cells, uric acid at a low concentration (50 μM) cannot improve cell viability and apoptosis, and Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during OGD/reoxygenation; a suitable concentration (300 μM) of uric acid can significantly improve cell viability and apoptosis, and reduce ROS production during OGD/reoxygenation; but a high concentration (1000 μM) of uric acid can further reduce cell viability and enhance ROS production. After establishing middle cerebral artery occlusion of male rats with suture method, damage and increase of ROS production in brain tissue could be seen, and after adding suitable concentration of uric acid, the degree of brain damage and ROS production was reduced. Therefore, different concentrations of uric acid should have different effect, and suitable concentrations of uric acid have neuroprotective effect, and this finding may provide guidance for study on the clinical curative effect of uric acid.

  4. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  5. Winter climate change and fine root biogenic silica in sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum): Implications for silica in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Timothy J.; Templer, Pamela H.; Battles, John J.; Fulweiler, Robinson W.

    2017-03-01

    Winter temperatures are projected to increase over the next century, leading to reductions in winter snowpack and increased frequency of soil freezing in many northern forest ecosystems. Here we examine biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) fine roots collected from a snow manipulation experiment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Increased soil freezing significantly lowered the BSi content of sugar maple fine roots potentially decreasing their capacity to take up water and dissolved nutrients. The reduced silica uptake (8 ± 1 kmol silica km-2) by sugar maple fine roots is comparable to silica export from temperate forest watersheds. We estimate that fine roots account for 29% of sugar maple BSi, despite accounting for only 4% of their biomass. These results suggest that increased frequency of soil freezing will reduce silica uptake by temperate tree roots, thereby changing silica availability in downstream receiving waters.

  6. The Effect of Sugar-Free Versus Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Satiety, Liking and Wanting: An 18 Month Randomized Double-Blind Trial in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, J.C.; Katan, M.B.; Kuijper, L.D.J.; Liem, D.G.; Olthof, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Substituting sugar-free for sugar-sweetened beverages reduces weight gain. A possible explanation is that sugar-containing and sugar-free beverages cause the same degree of satiety. However, this has not been tested in long-term trials.Methods:We randomized 203 children aged 7-11 years to

  7. Probing the Geometry of the Inner Vestibule of BK Channels with Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelidze, Tinatin I.; Magleby, Karl L.

    2005-01-01

    The geometry of the inner vestibule of BK channels was probed by examining the effects of different sugars in the intracellular solution on single-channel current amplitude (unitary current). Glycerol, glucose, and sucrose decreased unitary current through BK channels in a concentration- and size-dependent manner, in the order sucrose > glucose > glycerol, with outward currents being reduced more than inward currents. The fractional decrease of outward current was more directly related to the fractional hydrodynamic volume occupied by the sugars than to changes in osmolality. For concentrations of sugars ≤1 M, the i/V plots for outward currents in the presence and absence of sugar superimposed after scaling, and increasing K+ i from 150 mM to 2 M increased the magnitudes of the i/V plots with little effect on the shape of the scaled curves. These observations suggest that sugars ≤1 M reduce outward currents mainly by entering the inner vestibule and reducing the movement of K+ through the vestibule, rather than by limiting diffusion-controlled access of K+ to the vestibule. With 2 M sucrose, the movement of K+ into the inner vestibule became diffusion limited for 150 mM K+ i and voltages >+100 mV. Increasing K+ i then relieved the diffusion limitation. An estimate of the capture radius based on the 5 pA diffusion-limited current for channels without the ring of negative charge at the entrance to the inner vestibule was 2.2 Å. Adding the radius of a hydrated K+ (6–8 Å) then gave an effective radius for the entrance to the inner vestibule of 8–10 Å. Such a functionally wide entrance to the inner vestibule together with our observation that even small concentrations of sugar in the inner vestibule reduce unitary current suggest that a wide inner vestibule is required for the large conductance of BK channels. PMID:16043773

  8. The Effect of Sugar Price Policy on U.S. Imports of Processed Sugar-containing foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jabara, Cathy L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of sugar protection, as well as the effects of these other factors, on U.S. demand for imports of sugar-containing products. The paper also addresses two main issues: (1) whether substitution of alternative sweeteners has allowed U.S. food manufactures to reduce the competitive advantage provided to foreign manufactures by U.S. sugar policies, and (2) which countries -- developed or developing -- have been able to increase their exports of sugar-containing prod...

  9. Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membranes for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization within the Porous Sublayer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai Yu

    2010-05-19

    A scheme to fabricate forward osmosis membranes comprising a highly porous sublayer sandwiched between two selective skin layers via phase inversion was proposed. One severe deficiency of existing composite and asymmetric membranes used in forward osmosis is the presence of unfavorable internal concentration polarization within the porous support layer that hinders both (i) separation (salt flux) and (ii) the performance (water flux). The double skin layers of the tailored membrane may mitigate the internal concentration polarization by preventing the salt and other solutes in the draw solution from penetrating into the membrane porous support. The prototype double-skinned cellulose acetate membrane displayed a water flux of 48.2 L·m-2·h -1 and lower reverse salt transport of 6.5 g·m -2·h-1 using 5.0 M MgCl2 as the draw solution in a forward osmosis process performed at 22 °C. This can be attributed to the effective salt rejection by the double skin layers and the low water transport resistance within the porous support layer. The prospects of utilizing the double-selective layer membranes may have potential application in forward osmosis for desalination. This study may help pave the way to improve the membrane design for the forward osmosis process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. Double-Skinned Forward Osmosis Membranes for Reducing Internal Concentration Polarization within the Porous Sublayer

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Kai Yu; Ong, Rui Chin; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2010-01-01

    A scheme to fabricate forward osmosis membranes comprising a highly porous sublayer sandwiched between two selective skin layers via phase inversion was proposed. One severe deficiency of existing composite and asymmetric membranes used in forward osmosis is the presence of unfavorable internal concentration polarization within the porous support layer that hinders both (i) separation (salt flux) and (ii) the performance (water flux). The double skin layers of the tailored membrane may mitigate the internal concentration polarization by preventing the salt and other solutes in the draw solution from penetrating into the membrane porous support. The prototype double-skinned cellulose acetate membrane displayed a water flux of 48.2 L·m-2·h -1 and lower reverse salt transport of 6.5 g·m -2·h-1 using 5.0 M MgCl2 as the draw solution in a forward osmosis process performed at 22 °C. This can be attributed to the effective salt rejection by the double skin layers and the low water transport resistance within the porous support layer. The prospects of utilizing the double-selective layer membranes may have potential application in forward osmosis for desalination. This study may help pave the way to improve the membrane design for the forward osmosis process. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  11. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  12. Effectiveness of cooking to reduce norovirus and infectious F-specific RNA bacteriophage concentrations in Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, J; Rajko-Nenow, P; Winterbourn, J B; Malham, S K; Jones, D L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if domestic cooking practices can reduce concentrations of norovirus (NoV) and F-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage in experimentally contaminated mussels. Mussels (n = 600) contaminated with NoV and FRNA bacteriophage underwent four different cooking experiments performed in triplicate at ~70°C and >90°C. Concentrations of infectious FRNA bacteriophage (using a plaque assay) were compared with concentrations of FRNA bacteriophage and NoV determined using a standardised RT-qPCR. Initial concentrations of infectious FRNA bacteriophage (7·05 log10  PFU g(-1) ) in mussels were not significantly reduced in simmering water (~70°C); however, cooking at higher temperatures (>90°C) reduced infectious FRNA bacteriophage to undetected levels within 3 min. Further investigation determined the time required for a 1-log reduction of infectious FRNA bacteriophage at 90°C to be 42 s therefore a >3-log reduction in infectious virus can be obtained by heating mussel digestive tissue to 90°C for 126 s. Domestic cooking practices based on shell opening alone do not inactivate infectious virus in mussels, however, cooking mussels at high temperatures is effective to reduce infectious virus concentrations and the risk of illness in consumers. The data will contribute towards evidence-based cooking recommendations for shellfish to provide a safe product for human consumption. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Erythroxylum pungens elicits vasorelaxation by reducing intracellular calcium concentration in vascular smooth muscle cells of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurylene C. Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular effects elicited by the ethanolic extract obtained from the roots of Erythroxylum pungens O.E. Schulz, Erythroxylaceae (EEEP and the vasorelaxant effect induced by its main tropane alkaloid (pungencine were investigated. In normotensive rats, administration of EEEP (1, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.v., randomly produced dose-dependent hypotension (-2±1, -7±0.5 -17.6±1, -24±1 Δ mmHg, n=5 followed by tachycardia (3±0.5, 7±2, 7.1±1, 10±5 Δ bpm, n=5. In intact phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µM-pre-contracted rings, EEEP (0.01-500 µg/mL induced concentration-dependent vasorelaxation (EC50 13.7±5.5 µg/mL, Maximal Response= 92±2.6%, and this effect was unchanged after the removal of the vascular endothelium (EC50 27.2±4.7 µg/ml, Maximal Response= 88.3±3.3 %. In KCl (80 mM-pre-contracted-endothelium-denuded rings, EEEP elicited concentration-dependent relaxation (EC50= 128.2±11.2 µg/mL, Maximal Response 76.8±3.4%. Vasorelaxation has also been achieved with tonic contractions evoked by the L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (EC50 80.2±9.1 µg/mL, Maximal Response 86.3±8.3%. In addition, in a depolarizing medium, EEEP inhibited CaCl2 (30-500 µg/mL induced contractions and caused a concentration-dependent rightward shift of the relaxation curves. Lastly, the tropane alkaloid pungencine caused vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries resembling to the EEEP responses. These results suggests that EEEP induces hypotension and vasorelaxation, at least in part, due to the reduction in [Ca2+]i in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  14. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Sietse Jan; Ruis, Marko; Dekker, Ruud; van Diepen, Hans; Korte, Mechiel; Mroz, Zdzislaw

    2005-07-21

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress hormones in catheterized pigs ( approximately 50 kg BW), which were exposed to social stress by placing them twice into the territory of a dominant pig ( approximately 60 kg) for 15 min. Pre-stress plasma TRP concentrations were 156+/-15 vs. 53+/-6 micromol/l (psocial confrontations, pigs on the high vs. normal TRP diets show a tendency towards reduced active avoidance behavior (3.2+/-1.1 vs. 6.7+/-1.2 min, psocial confrontations, the post-stress plasma cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations and/or curves (from +5 min to 2 h) were lower/steeper (psurplus TRP in diets for pigs (1) does not significantly affect behavior when exposed to social stress, (2) reduces basal plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations, (3) does not affect the immediate hormonal response to stress, and (4) reduces the long-term hormonal response to stress. In general, pigs receiving high dietary TRP were found to be less affected by stress.

  15. Reduced serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in transsexual Brazilian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Aguiar, Bianca; Tusset, Cíntia; Andreazza, Tahiana; Schneider, Maiko; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Massuda, Raffael; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-09-06

    Serum BDNF levels are significantly decreased in transsexual Brazilian women when compared to cis-sexual men. Since transsexual men are also exposed to chronic social stress and have a high prevalence of associated psychopathologies, it is plausible to inquire if BDNF serum levels are altered in transsexual men as well. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate differences in BDNF serum level of transsexual men when compared to cis-sexual men and women. Our sample comprises 27 transsexual men, 31 cis-sexual women and 30 cis-sexual men recruited between 2011 and 2015. We observed that BDNF serum concentration is decreased in transsexual men comparing to cis-sexual men and women. Cross-sex hormone treatment, chronic social stress or long-term gender dysphoria (GD) could explain the variation found in BDNF serum levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vitamin C deficiency reduces muscarinic receptor coronary artery vasoconstriction and plasma tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries...... exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium......-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid...

  17. Effect of chloride concentration on the solubility of amorphous uranium dioxide at 25deg C under reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, M.; Casas, I.; Pablo, J. de; Torrero, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The dependence of the solubility of a microcrystalline uranium dioxide on the chloride concentration has been studied at 25deg C under reducing conditions. The concentration of uranium in solution has been found to be some orders of magnitude lower than in perchlorate media. Possible changes of both the morphology and the composition of the solid phase have been investigated by means of Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and X-ray Powder Difraction (XPD). The formation of a secondary solid phase as a reason for the decrease of the solubility has been postulated. (orig.)

  18. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  19. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake associations with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations are not modified by selected genetic variants in a ChREBP-FGF21 pathway: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are a major dietary contributor to fructose intake. A molecular pathway involving the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and the metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) may influence sugar metabolism and, thereby, contribute to fru...

  20. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  1. Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Stephanie A; Freeman, Ruth; Anderson, Annie S; MacGillivray, Steve

    2015-06-01

    To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures. A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date. Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures. Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soybean greatly reduces valproic acid plasma concentrations: A food–drug interaction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Anu; Bhandary, Bidur; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of valproic acid (VPA). In a preclinical study, rats were pretreated with two different amounts of soy extract for five days (150 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), which resulted in decreases of 57% and 65% in the Cmax of VPA, respectively. AUC of VPA decreased to 83% and 70% in the soy pretreatment groups. Interestingly, the excretion rate of VPA glucuronide (VPAG) was higher in the soy-fed groups. Levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were elevated in the soy-treated group, and GABA concentrations were elevated in the brain after VPA administration. However, this was less pronounced in soy extract pretreated group than for the untreated group. This is the first study to report the effects of soy pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VPA in rodents. PMID:24618639

  3. Soybean greatly reduces valproic acid plasma concentrations: a food-drug interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Anu; Bhandary, Bidur; Jeong, Seul-Ki; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2014-03-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of soy on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of valproic acid (VPA). In a preclinical study, rats were pretreated with two different amounts of soy extract for five days (150 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), which resulted in decreases of 57% and 65% in the Cmax of VPA, respectively. AUC of VPA decreased to 83% and 70% in the soy pretreatment groups. Interestingly, the excretion rate of VPA glucuronide (VPAG) was higher in the soy-fed groups. Levels of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT2B7 and UGT2B15 were elevated in the soy-treated group, and GABA concentrations were elevated in the brain after VPA administration. However, this was less pronounced in soy extract pretreated group than for the untreated group. This is the first study to report the effects of soy pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of VPA in rodents.

  4. Effectiveness of “Task Concentration Training” in Reducing the Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    K. Golmohammadi; M.R. Shairi; M.A. Asghari Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-postte...

  5. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentration is Reduced in Visual Cortex in Schizophrenia and Correlates with Orientation-Specific Surround Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jong H.; Maddock, Richard J.; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A.; Minzenberg, Michael J.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Carter, Cameron S.

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis proposes that reduced neuronal GABA concentration and neurotransmission results in cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, few in vivo studies have directly examined this hypothesis. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at high field to measure visual cortical GABA levels in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 13 demographically matche...

  6. Dietary sources of sugars in adolescents' diet: the HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesana, M I; Hilbig, A; Androutsos, O; Cuenca-García, M; Dallongeville, J; Huybrechts, I; De Henauw, S; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A; Nova, E; Marcos, A; González-Gross, M; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Moreno, L A

    2018-03-01

    To report dietary sugars consumption and their different types and food sources, in European adolescents. Food consumption data of selected groups were obtained from 1630 adolescents (45.6% males, 12.5-17.5 years) from the HELENA study using two nonconsecutive 24-h recalls. Energy intake, total sugars and free sugars were assessed using the HELENA-DIAT software. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for relevant confounders. Total sugars intake (137.5 g/day) represented 23.6% and free sugars (110.1 g/day), 19% of energy intake. Girls had significantly lower intakes of energy, carbohydrates, total sugars and free sugars. 94% of adolescents had a consumption of free sugars above 10% of total energy intake. The main food contributor to free sugars was 'carbonated, soft and isotonic drinks,' followed by 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey, jam and syrup.' Older boys and girls had significantly higher intakes of free sugars from 'cakes, pies and biscuits.' Free sugars intake was negatively associated with low socioeconomic status for 'non-chocolate confectionary' and 'sugar, honey and jam' groups; with low maternal educational level for carbonated and 'soft drinks,' 'sugar, honey and jam,' 'cakes and pies' and 'breakfast cereals' groups; and with high paternal educational level for 'carbonated and soft drinks' and 'chocolates' group. The majority (94%) of studied adolescents consumed free sugars above 10% of daily energy intake. Our data indicate a broad variety in foods providing free sugars. Continued efforts are required at different levels to reduce the intake of free sugars, especially in families with a low educational level.

  7. Water Integration In Sugar Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Hatim Balla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The sugar industry uses much water and produces a significant amount of wastewater for disposal. Efficient utilization of water is vital in the process industries not only to reduce the cost of the supply and discharge of freshwater associated with the process but also to minimize environmental problems associated with the use and discharge of water. This paper presents the analysis of fresh water used and wastewater discharged in a sugar manufacturing process. In order to reduce the load of the cooling water system. The system was modified to an open recirculation cooling water system. Also the excess condensate internal water and the discharged water from cooling water system were analyzed and optimized using pinch analysis and mathematical optimization techniques by Resource Conversation Networks spreadsheet software.

  8. Effectiveness of “Task Concentration Training” in Reducing the Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Golmohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study, 20 students with social anxiety disorder were studied in Shahed University in 2014-15 academic year. The subjects, selected via stepwise cluster sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control and experimental (task concentration training groups. Data was collected using the social anxiety questionnaire and the structured clinical interview. Five one-hour task-concentration treatment sessions were conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T test. Findings: The mean scores of social anxiety and its sub-scales were not significantly different in experimental and control groups at the pretest stage (p>0.05. Nevertheless, the pretest-posttest differences of the scores of social anxiety and its subscales including avoidance, fear, and physiologic discomfort between the groups were significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: The task-concentration training techniques reduce the social anxiety symptoms in persons with social anxiety disorders.

  9. Quantificação de açúcares solúveis totais, açúcares redutores e amido nos grãos verdes de cultivares de milho na colheita Quantification of total soluble sugars, reducing sugars and starch in immature kernels of corn cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Fátima Caniato

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar os teores de açúcares solúveis totais (AST, açúcares redutores (AR e amido em nove cultivares de milho colhidos no estádio verde, uma vez que estes influenciam diretamente o sabor, o aroma e a aceitação do consumidor. O experimento foi conduzido em Ponte Nova, MG, no ano agrícola 2002/2003. Para a determinação das características, foi retirada uma amostra de três espigas de cada unidade experimental. O ponto de colheita foi identificado por método empírico, quando o estilo-estigma se desprendia da espiga com facilidade. As cultivares apresentaram umidades diferentes no momento da colheita, variando de 56 a 64%. Não foi detectada diferença entre as cultivares quanto aos teores de AR, porém, P3232 e AG4051 apresentaram boa relação entre AR e AST, destacando-se para esta finalidade.Total soluble sugars (TSS, reducing sugars (RS, moisture and starch directly influence flavor and consumption. In this work, TSS, RS and starch were determined at harvest in young kernels of nine corn cultivars. The experiment was carried out in Ponte Nova, MG, Brazil. To determine chemical characters of young kernels a sample was obtained of three cobs from each experimental plot. Corn ears were harvested using an empirical method, when the silk was loose from the ear. Moisture varied among samples of different cultivars at harvest. Moisture content ranged from 56 to 64%. There were no differences among cultivars regarding RS. However, cultivars P3232 and AG4051 showed good RS to TSS ratio, being adequate for fresh consumption.

  10. Increasing platelet concentrations in leukocyte-reduced platelet-rich plasma decrease collagen gene synthesis in tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Stacie G; Schnabel, Lauren V; Mohammed, Hussni O; Sundman, Emily A; Minas, Tom; Fortier, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used for the treatment of tendinopathy. There are numerous PRP preparations, and the optimal combination of platelets and leukocytes is not known. Within leukocyte-reduced PRP (lrPRP), there is a plateau effect of platelet concentration, with increasing platelet concentrations being detrimental to extracellular matrix synthesis. Controlled laboratory study. Different formulations of lrPRP with respect to the platelet:leukocyte ratio were generated from venous blood of 8 horses. Explants of the superficial digital flexor tendon were cultured in lrPRP products for 96 hours. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations were determined in the media by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Gene expression in tendon tissue for collagen type I and III (COL1A1 and COL3A1, respectively), matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -13 (MMP-3 and MMP-13, respectively), cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and IL-1β was determined. Data were divided into 3 groups of lrPRP based on the ratio of platelets:leukocytes and evaluated to determine the effect of platelet concentration. Complete blood counts verified leukocyte reduction and platelet enrichment in all PRP preparations. In the lrPRP preparation, the anabolic growth factors PDGF-BB and TGF-β1 were increased with increasing platelet concentrations, and the catabolic cytokine IL-1β was decreased with increasing platelet concentrations. Increasing the platelet concentration resulted in a significant reduction in COL1A1 and COL3A1 synthesis in tendons. Increasing the platelet concentration within lrPRP preparations results in the delivery of more anabolic growth factors and less proinflammatory cytokines, but the biological effect on tendons is diminished metabolism as indicated by a decrease in the synthesis of both COL1A1 and COL3A1. Together, this information suggests that

  11. Inulin Supplementation Does Not Reduce Plasma Trimethylamine N-Oxide Concentrations in Individuals at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Elizabeth Baugh

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM and increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Prebiotic supplementation has been purported to reduce TMAO production, but whether prebiotics reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO levels is unclear. Sedentary, overweight/obese adults at risk for T2DM (n = 18 were randomized to consume a standardized diet (55% carbohydrate, 30% fat with 10 g/day of either an inulin supplement or maltodextrin placebo for 6 weeks. Blood samples were obtained in the fasting state and hourly during a 4-h high-fat challenge meal (820 kcal; 25% carbohydrate, 63% fat; 317.4 mg choline, 62.5 mg betaine, 8.1 mg l-carnitine before and after the diet. Plasma TMAO and trimethylamine (TMA moieties (choline, l-carnitine, betaine, and γ-butyrobetaine were measured using isocratic ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. There were no differences in fasting or postprandial TMAO or TMA moieties between the inulin and placebo groups at baseline (all p > 0.05. There were no significant changes in fasting or postprandial plasma TMAO or TMA moiety concentrations following inulin or placebo. These findings suggest that inulin supplementation for 6 weeks did not reduce fasting or postprandial TMAO in individuals at risk for T2DM. Future studies are needed to identify efficacious interventions that reduce plasma TMAO concentrations.

  12. Reduced European emissions of S and N - Effects on air concentrations, deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla, E-mail: gunilla.pihl.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Akselsson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.akselsson@nateko.lu.se [Department of Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, SE-223 62 Lund (Sweden); Hellsten, Sofie, E-mail: sofie.hellsten@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per Erik, E-mail: pererik.karlsson@ivl.se [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Changes in sulphur and nitrogen pollution in Swedish forests have been assessed in relation to European emission reductions, based on measurements in the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network. Measurements were analysed over 20 years with a focus on the 12-year period 1996 to 2008. Air concentrations of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2}, have decreased. The SO{sub 4}-deposition has decreased in parallel with the European emission reductions. Soil water SO{sub 4}-concentrations have decreased at most sites but the pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated acidification recovery only at some of the sites. No changes in the bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen could be demonstrated. Elevated NO{sub 3}-concentrations in the soil water occurred at irregular occasions at some southern sites. Despite considerable air pollution emission reductions in Europe, acidification recovery in Swedish forests soils is slow. Nitrogen deposition to Swedish forests continues at elevated levels that may lead to leaching of nitrate to surface waters. - Highlights: > S deposition to Swedish forests has decreased in parallel with European emissions. > Soil water pH, ANC and inorganic Al-concentrations indicated a slow recovery. > The bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen over Sweden has not decreased. > Continued N deposition to Swedish forests may cause leaching of N to surface waters. - Reduced European emissions have led to decreased acidic deposition and a slow recovery of soil water but nitrogen deposition remains the same in Swedish forests.

  13. Trees in urban parks and forests reduce O3, but not NO2 concentrations in Baltimore, MD, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Scott, Anna A.; Viippola, Viljami; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-10-01

    Trees and other vegetation absorb and capture air pollutants, leading to the common perception that they, and trees in particular, can improve air quality in cities and provide an important ecosystem service for urban inhabitants. Yet, there has been a lack of empirical evidence showing this at the local scale with different plant configurations and climatic regions. We studied the impact of urban park and forest vegetation on the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ground-level ozone (O3) while controlling for temperature during early summer (May) using passive samplers in Baltimore, USA. Concentrations of O3 were significantly lower in tree-covered habitats than in adjacent open habitats, but concentrations of NO2 did not differ significantly between tree-covered and open habitats. Higher temperatures resulted in higher pollutant concentrations and NO2 and O3 concentration were negatively correlated with each other. Our results suggest that the role of trees in reducing NO2 concentrations in urban parks and forests in the Mid-Atlantic USA is minor, but that the presence of tree-cover can result in lower O3 levels compared to similar open areas. Our results further suggest that actions aiming at local air pollution mitigation should consider local variability in vegetation, climate, micro-climate, and traffic conditions.

  14. Reducing toughness of beef from Bos indicus draught steers by injection of calcium chloride: Effect of concentration and time postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaturasitha, S; Thirawong, P; Leangwunta, V; Kreuzer, M

    2004-09-01

    Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) solution in concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 M was injected at 10% (wt/wt) either 45 min or 24 h postmortem into longissimus dorsi muscles of eight draught steers discharged from work and >4 years of age. Shear force, after 7 days of aging, declined by CaCl(2) injection by up to 50% of control, depending on CaCl(2) concentration. Prerigor treatment was twice as efficient as postrigor injection. Collagen content and solubility were less clearly affected. Sensory tenderness scores were higher by 50% with all CaCl(2) concentrations, but only with prerigor treatment. A bitter taste was noted only with the highest concentration of CaCl(2), but overall acceptance did not increase with CaCl(2) concentration. CaCl(2) enhanced electrical conductivity, reduced redness and luminosity, and increased drip and thawing loss, but not boiling loss, of longissiumus dorsi. Results indicate a high potential of CaCl(2) treatment in extraordinarily tough meat.

  15. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučurović Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  16. Evolutionary engineering of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-negative, acetate-reducing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain enables anaerobic growth at high glucose concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe-Medina, Víctor; Metz, Benjamin; Oud, Bart; van Der Graaf, Charlotte M; Mans, Robert; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-01-01

    Glycerol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is required for redox-cofactor balancing in anaerobic cultures, causes yield reduction in industrial bioethanol production. Recently, glycerol formation in anaerobic S. cerevisiae cultures was eliminated by expressing Escherichia coli (acetylating) acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by mhpF) and simultaneously deleting the GPD1 and GPD2 genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, thus coupling NADH reoxidation to reduction of acetate to ethanol. Gpd– strains are, however, sensitive to high sugar concentrations, which complicates industrial implementation of this metabolic engineering concept. In this study, laboratory evolution was used to improve osmotolerance of a Gpd– mhpF-expressing S. cerevisiae strain. Serial batch cultivation at increasing osmotic pressure enabled isolation of an evolved strain that grew anaerobically at 1 M glucose, at a specific growth rate of 0.12 h−1. The evolved strain produced glycerol at low concentrations (0.64 ± 0.33 g l−1). However, these glycerol concentrations were below 10% of those observed with a Gpd+ reference strain. Consequently, the ethanol yield on sugar increased from 79% of the theoretical maximum in the reference strain to 92% for the evolved strains. Genetic analysis indicated that osmotolerance under aerobic conditions required a single dominant chromosomal mutation, and one further mutation in the plasmid-borne mhpF gene for anaerobic growth. PMID:24004455

  17. Alcohol consumption reduces HbA1c and glycated albumin concentrations but not 1,5-anhydroglucitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Shinya; Koga, Masafumi

    2017-11-01

    Background The effect of alcohol consumption on glycaemic control indicators is not well known. In this study, we studied the effect of alcohol consumption on the plasma glucose and glycaemic control indicators in non-diabetic men. Methods The study enrolled 300 non-diabetic men who received a complete medical checkup (age: 52.8 ± 6.5 years, body mass index: 24.4 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ). The subjects were divided into four groups by the amount of alcohol consumed, and the plasma glucose, HbA1c, glycated albumin (GA) and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) concentrations of the groups were compared. Results As the level of alcohol consumption increased, significantly high concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were observed, and the oral glucose tolerance test 2-h plasma glucose concentrations tended to rise. While no significant effect of alcohol consumption on HbA1c, 1,5-AG, and the 1,5-AG/FPG ratio was observed, the HbA1c/FPG ratio, GA and the GA/FPG ratio exhibited significantly low values as the level of alcohol consumption increased. In stepwise multivariate regression analysis, alcohol consumption was a significant negative independent variable for HbA1c and GA, but not for 1,5-AG. Conclusions As the level of alcohol consumption increased, the plasma glucose concentrations rose, but the HbA1c and GA concentrations were lower compared with the plasma glucose concentrations. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption may reduce HbA1c and GA concentrations, but not 1,5-AG.

  18. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Van Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 from 10 USA/UK population samples. Associations of SSB, diet beverages, and sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose) with BP were assessed by multiple linear regression. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake related directly to BP, P-values 0.005 to Sugar-sweetened beverage intake higher by 1 serving/day (355 ml/24-h) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +1.6/+0.8 mm Hg (both P sugar-sodium interactions: for individuals with above-median 24-h urinary sodium excretion, fructose intake higher by 2 SD (5.6 %kcal) was associated with systolic/diastolic BP differences of +3.4/+2.2 mm Hg (both P sugar-BP differences for persons with higher sodium excretion, lend support to recommendations that intake of SSB, sugars, and salt be substantially reduced. PMID:21357284

  19. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  20. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  1. Prediction and analysis of near-road concentrations using a reduced-form emission/dispersion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononowech Robert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near-road exposures of traffic-related air pollutants have been receiving increased attention due to evidence linking emissions from high-traffic roadways to adverse health outcomes. To date, most epidemiological and risk analyses have utilized simple but crude exposure indicators, most typically proximity measures, such as the distance between freeways and residences, to represent air quality impacts from traffic. This paper derives and analyzes a simplified microscale simulation model designed to predict short- (hourly to long-term (annual average pollutant concentrations near roads. Sensitivity analyses and case studies are used to highlight issues in predicting near-road exposures. Methods Process-based simulation models using a computationally efficient reduced-form response surface structure and a minimum number of inputs integrate the major determinants of air pollution exposures: traffic volume and vehicle emissions, meteorology, and receptor location. We identify the most influential variables and then derive a set of multiplicative submodels that match predictions from "parent" models MOBILE6.2 and CALINE4. The assembled model is applied to two case studies in the Detroit, Michigan area. The first predicts carbon monoxide (CO concentrations at a monitoring site near a freeway. The second predicts CO and PM2.5 concentrations in a dense receptor grid over a 1 km2 area around the intersection of two major roads. We analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of pollutant concentration predictions. Results Predicted CO concentrations showed reasonable agreement with annual average and 24-hour measurements, e.g., 59% of the 24-hr predictions were within a factor of two of observations in the warmer months when CO emissions are more consistent. The highest concentrations of both CO and PM2.5 were predicted to occur near intersections and downwind of major roads during periods of unfavorable meteorology (e.g., low wind

  2. Obligate sugar oxidation in Mesotoga spp., phylum Thermotogae, in the presence of either elemental sulfur or hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducers as electron acceptor

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhlaoui, K.; Ben Hania, W.; Armougom, Fabrice; Bartoli, M.; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Erauso, G.; Brasseur, G.; Aubert, C.; Hamdi, M.; Brochier-Armanet, C.; Dolla, A.; Ollivier, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Mesotoga prima strain PhosAc3 is a mesophilic representative of the phylum Thermotogae comprising only fermentative bacteria so far. We show that while unable to ferment glucose, this bacterium is able to couple its oxidation to reduction of elemental sulfur. We demonstrate furthermore that M. prima strain PhosAc3 as well as M. prima strain MesG1 and Mesotoga infera are able to grow in syntrophic association with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) acting as hydrogen scavengers through interspeci...

  3. GABA concentration is reduced in visual cortex in schizophrenia and correlates with orientation-specific surround suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Maddock, Richard J; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A; Minzenberg, Michael J; Ragland, J Daniel; Carter, Cameron S

    2010-03-10

    The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia remain essentially unknown. The GABA hypothesis proposes that reduced neuronal GABA concentration and neurotransmission results in cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, few in vivo studies have directly examined this hypothesis. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at high field to measure visual cortical GABA levels in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 13 demographically matched healthy control subjects. We found that the schizophrenia group had an approximately 10% reduction in GABA concentration. We further tested the GABA hypothesis by examining the relationship between visual cortical GABA levels and orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS), a behavioral measure of visual inhibition thought to be dependent on GABAergic synaptic transmission. Previous work has shown that subjects with schizophrenia exhibit reduced OSSS of contrast discrimination (Yoon et al., 2009). For subjects with both MRS and OSSS data (n = 16), we found a highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.76) between these variables. GABA concentration was not correlated with overall contrast discrimination performance for stimuli without a surround (r = -0.10). These results suggest that a neocortical GABA deficit in subjects with schizophrenia leads to impaired cortical inhibition and that GABAergic synaptic transmission in visual cortex plays a critical role in OSSS.

  4. Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Concentration is Reduced in Visual Cortex in Schizophrenia and Correlates with Orientation-Specific Surround Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H.; Maddock, Richard J.; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A.; Minzenberg, Michael J.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Carter, Cameron S.

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypothesis proposes that reduced neuronal GABA concentration and neurotransmission results in cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, few in vivo studies have directly examined this hypothesis. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at high field to measure visual cortical GABA levels in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 13 demographically matched healthy control subjects. We found that the schizophrenia group had an approximately 10% reduction in GABA concentration. We further tested the GABA hypothesis by examining the relationship between visual cortical GABA levels and orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS), a behavioral measure of visual inhibition thought to be dependent on GABAergic synaptic transmission. Previous work has shown that subjects with schizophrenia exhibit reduced OSSS of contrast discrimination (Yoon et al., 2009). For subjects with both MRS and OSSS data (n=16), we found a highly significant positive correlation (r=0.76) between these variables. GABA concentration was not correlated with overall contrast discrimination performance for stimuli without a surround (r=-0.10). These results suggest that a neocortical GABA deficit in subjects with schizophrenia leads to impaired cortical inhibition and that GABAergic synaptic transmission in visual cortex plays a critical role in OSSS. PMID:20220012

  5. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2017-11-27

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  6. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Kibblewhite

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ food composition database (FOODfiles 2010 by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future.

  7. Estimating Free and Added Sugar Intakes in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibblewhite, Rachael; Nettleton, Alice; McLean, Rachael; Haszard, Jillian; Fleming, Elizabeth; Kruimer, Devonia

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of free or added sugar intake (sugars added to food and drinks as a sweetener) is almost universally recommended to reduce the risk of obesity-related diseases and dental caries. The World Health Organisation recommends intakes of free sugars of less than 10% of energy intake. However, estimating and monitoring intakes at the population level is challenging because free sugars cannot be analytically distinguished from naturally occurring sugars and most national food composition databases do not include data on free or added sugars. We developed free and added sugar estimates for the New Zealand (NZ) food composition database (FOODfiles 2010) by adapting a method developed for Australia. We reanalyzed the 24 h recall dietary data collected for 4721 adults aged 15 years and over participating in the nationally representative 2008/09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey to estimate free and added sugar intakes. The median estimated intake of free and added sugars was 57 and 49 g/day respectively and 42% of adults consumed less than 10% of their energy intake from free sugars. This approach provides more direct estimates of the free and added sugar contents of New Zealand foods than previously available and will enable monitoring of adherence to free sugar intake guidelines in future. PMID:29186927

  8. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  9. Rising atmospheric CO2 is reducing the protein concentration of a floral pollen source essential for North American bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; Pettis, Jeffery S; Edwards, Joan; Hancock, Jillian E; Tomecek, Martha B; Clark, Andrew; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Loladze, Irakli; Polley, H Wayne

    2016-04-13

    At present, there is substantive evidence that the nutritional content of agriculturally important food crops will decrease in response to rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, Ca However, whether Ca-induced declines in nutritional quality are also occurring for pollinator food sources is unknown. Flowering late in the season, goldenrod (Solidago spp.) pollen is a widely available autumnal food source commonly acknowledged by apiarists to be essential to native bee (e.g. Bombus spp.) and honeybee (Apis mellifera) health and winter survival. Using floral collections obtained from the Smithsonian Natural History Museum, we quantified Ca-induced temporal changes in pollen protein concentration of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis), the most wide spread Solidago taxon, from hundreds of samples collected throughout the USA and southern Canada over the period 1842-2014 (i.e. a Ca from approx. 280 to 398 ppm). In addition, we conducted a 2 year in situtrial of S. Canadensis populations grown along a continuous Ca gradient from approximately 280 to 500 ppm. The historical data indicated a strong significant correlation between recent increases in Ca and reductions in pollen protein concentration (r(2)= 0.81). Experimental data confirmed this decrease in pollen protein concentration, and indicated that it would be ongoing as Ca continues to rise in the near term, i.e. to 500 ppm (r(2)= 0.88). While additional data are needed to quantify the subsequent effects of reduced protein concentration for Canada goldenrod on bee health and population stability, these results are the first to indicate that increasing Ca can reduce protein content of a floral pollen source widely used by North American bees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Avoiding the ingestion of cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol may reduce the risk of cancer associated with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Mancina, Emilio; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for cancer. Almost 6% of all cancers worldwide are attributable to alcohol use. Approximately half of them occur in tissues highly exposed to ethanol, such as the oral cavity, pharynx, upper larynx and esophagus. However, since ethanol is not mutagenic and the mutagenic metabolite of ethanol (acetaldehyde) is mainly produced in the liver, it is unclear why alcohol consumption preferentially exerts a local carcinogenic effect. Recent findings indicate that the risk of cancer in a tissue is strongly correlated with the number of stem cell divisions accumulated by the tissue; the accumulation of stem cell divisions leads to the accumulation of cancer-promoting errors such as mutations occurring during DNA replication. Since cell death activates the division of stem cells, we recently proposed that the possible cytotoxicity of ethanol on the cells lining the tissues in direct contact with alcoholic beverages could explain the local carcinogenic effect of alcohol. Here we report that short-term exposures (2-3 s) to ethanol concentrations between 10% and 15% start to cause a marked cytotoxic effect on human epithelial keratinocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. We propose that choosing alcoholic beverages containing non-cytotoxic concentrations of ethanol, or diluting ethanol to non-cytotoxic concentrations, may be a simple and effective way to reduce the risk of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus in alcohol users. This preventive strategy may also reduce the known synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on the risk of these cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between intracellular Na+ concentration and reduced Na+ affinity in Na+,K+-ATPase mutants causing neurological disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toustrup-Jensen, Mads Schak; Einholm, Anja P.; Schack, Vivien

    The neurological disorders familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2), alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism (RDP) are caused by mutations of Na+,K+-ATPase α2 and α3 isoforms, expressed in glial and neuronal cells, respectively. Although these disorders......, addressing the question to what extent they cause a change of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations ([Na+]i and [K+]i) in COS cells. C-terminal extension mutants generally showed dramatically reduced Na+ affinity without disturbance of K+ binding, as did other RDP mutants. No phosphorylation from ATP...

  12. Effect of D-penicillamine on the concentration of reduced glutathione in the liver of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oroszlan, Gyoergy; Buzasi, Edit; Szabo, Terez; Lakatos, Lajos; Karmazsin, Laszlo

    1984-01-01

    Rats received whole-body sup(60)Co-irradiation of 10 Gy total dose with a dose-rate of 0.6 Gy per min. The concentration of reduced glutathione increased upon irradiation; this increase was diminished by D-penicillamine pretreatment in newborn but not in adult rats. The age-dependent effects of D-penicillamine might explain the clinical observation that the frequency of retrolental fibrosis is decreased by D-penicillamine in small-weight pre-term neonates. (L.E.)

  13. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeica, Natalia; Poni, Stefano; Hilbert, Ghislaine; Renaud, Christel; Gomès, Eric; Delrot, Serge; Dai, Zhanwu

    2015-01-01

    Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3% as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1%. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9%) than under carbon sufficiency (48%). Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary metabolites.

  14. Differential responses of sugar, organic acids and anthocyanins to source-sink modulation in Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eBobeica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape berry composition mainly consists of primary and secondary metabolites. Both are sensitive to environment and viticultural management. As a consequence, climate change can affect berry composition and modify wine quality and typicity. Leaf removal techniques can impact berry composition by modulating the source-to-sink balance and, in turn, may mitigate some undesired effects due to climate change. The present study investigated the balance between technological maturity parameters such as sugars and organic acids, and phenolic maturity parameters such as anthocyanins in response to source-sink modulation. Sugar, organic acid, and anthocyanin profiles were compared under two contrasting carbon supply levels in berries of cv. Cabernet Sauvignon and Sangiovese collected at 9 and 14 developmental stages respectively. In addition, whole-canopy net carbon exchange rate was monitored for Sangiovese vines and a mathematic model was used to calculate the balance between carbon fixation and berry sugar accumulation. Carbon limitation affected neither berry size nor the concentration of organic acids at harvest. However, it significantly reduced the accumulation of sugars and total anthocyanins in both cultivars. Most interestingly, carbon limitation decreased total anthocyanin concentration by 84.3 % as compared to the non source-limited control, whereas it decreased sugar concentration only by 27.1 %. This suggests that carbon limitation led to a strong imbalance between sugars and anthocyanins. Moreover, carbon limitation affected anthocyanin profiles in a cultivar dependent manner. Mathematical analysis of carbon-balance indicated that berries used a higher proportion of fixed carbon for sugar accumulation under carbon limitation (76.9% than under carbon sufficiency (48%. Thus, under carbon limitation, the grape berry can manage the metabolic fate of carbon in such a way that sugar accumulation is maintained at the expense of secondary

  15. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p < 0.01); digesta MRT in rumen (p < 0.01), hindgut (p = 0.01) and total digestive tract (p < 0.01); protozoa abundance (p < 0.05); and water intake (p < 0.001). Exposure to cold temperature increased plasma T3 concentration (p < 0.05), CO2 production (p = 0.01), total VFA concentrations (p = 0.03) and estimated microbial output from the rumen (p = 0.03). The rate of wool growth increased (p < 0.01) due to cold treatment, but DM intake, DM digestibility and BW change were not affected. The results suggest that exposure of sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increase the solubility of protein-tannin complexes and at high concentration, glucose and sucrose interfere with bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, James F; Yuan, Chunlong; Mireles, Maria S; Hanlin, Rachel L; Downey, Mark O

    2013-05-01

    Wines were modified with increasing sugar concentrations and decreasing tannin concentrations and analysed by a combination of protein precipitation and bisulphite bleaching. Increasing sugar concentration decreased the precipitation of tannin and protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (PPP). The use of a hydrogen bond disruptor (urea) to reduce protein-tannin and protein-pigment complex formation showed that the effect of sugar concentration occurred by increasing the solubility of the tannin-protein complex, not by interfering with protein-tannin complex formation. By increasing the solubility of pigment-protein complexes, non-protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (nPPP) appeared to increase. There was also an increase in total polymeric pigments at each tannin concentration with increasing glucose and sucrose concentration, indicating that sugar concentration might also affect bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments. While a significant effect of sugar concentration on tannin-protein complex solubility was observed, these effects were greatest at sugar concentrations far in excess of normal wine making conditions. Under normal wine making conditions, sugar concentration will have a negligible effect on protein-precipitable tannin, PPP and nPPP concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  18. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  19. Modelling deposition and air concentration of reduced nitrogen in Poland and sensitivity to variability in annual meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryza, Maciej; Dore, Anthony J; Błaś, Marek; Sobik, Mieczysław

    2011-04-01

    The relative contribution of reduced nitrogen to acid and eutrophic deposition in Europe has increased recently as a result of European policies which have been successful in reducing SO(2) and NO(x) emissions but have had smaller impacts on ammonia (NH(3)) emissions. In this paper the Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange (FRAME) model was used to calculate the spatial patterns of annual average ammonia and ammonium (NH(4)(+)) air concentrations and reduced nitrogen (NH(x)) dry and wet deposition with a 5 km × 5 km grid for years 2002-2005. The modelled air concentrations of NH(3) and dry deposition of NH(x) show similar spatial patterns for all years considered. The largest year to year changes were found for wet deposition, which vary considerably with precipitation amount. The FRAME modelled air concentrations and wet deposition are in reasonable agreement with available measurements (Pearson's correlation coefficients above 0.6 for years 2002-2005), and with spatial patterns of concentrations and deposition of NH(x) reported with the EMEP results, but show larger spatial gradients. The error statistics show that the FRAME model results are in better agreement with measurements if compared with EMEP estimates. The differences in deposition budgets calculated with FRAME and EMEP do not exceed 17% for wet and 6% for dry deposition, with FRAME estimates higher than for EMEP wet deposition for modelled period and lower or equal for dry deposition. The FRAME estimates of wet deposition budget are lower than the measurement-based values reported by the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection of Poland, with the differences by approximately 3%. Up to 93% of dry and 53% of wet deposition of NH(x) in Poland originates from national sources. Over the western part of Poland and mountainous areas in the south, transboundary transport can contribute over 80% of total (dry + wet) NH(x) deposition. The spatial pattern of the relative contribution of

  20. Sacubitril/valsartan reduces serum uric acid concentration, an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in PARADIGM-HF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulrik M.; Køber, Lars; Jhund, Pardeep S.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Elevated serum uric acid concentration (SUA) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but this may be due to unmeasured confounders. We examined the association between SUA and outcomes as well as the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on SUA in patients with heart...... (adjusted hazard ratios) Q5 vs. Q1=1.28 [95% confidence intervals (1.09-1.50), P=0.003], cardiovascular death [1.44 (1.11-1.77), P=0.001], HF hospitalization [1.37 (1.11-1.70), P=0.004], and all-cause mortality [1.36 (1.13-1.64), P=0.001]. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril/valsartan reduced SUA by 0.24 (0.......17-0.32) mg/dL over 12months (PSacubitril/valsartan improved outcomes, irrespective of SUA concentration. Conclusion: Serum uric acid concentration was an independent predictor of worse outcomes after multivariable adjustment in patients with HFrEF. Compared with enalapril, sacubitril...

  1. Reduced glutathione concentration and glutathione reductase activity in various rat tissues after the administration of some radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulpanova, J.; Kovarova, H.; Ledvina, M.

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of glutathione reductase were investigated in rat liver, kidney and spleen after intraperitoneal administration of cystamine (50 mg/kg), mexamine (10 mg/kg), or a mixture of cystamine with mexamine (20 + 10 mg/kg). The GSH concentration increased after the administration of cystamine in the liver (maximum between the 20th and 30th min), in the kidney and spleen (maximum after 60 min). The cystamine + mexamine mixture also caused a significant increase of the GSH concentration in all the organs investigated; however, the values increased at earlier intervals as after the cystamine administration. No substantial effect was shown in the case of the mexamine administration, only 30 min after the administration the values were higher. The activity of glutathione reductase was significantly lower over the entire period examined. This was found in the liver and kidney as after the administration of cystamine, as after the radioprotective mixture. There was also a less pronounced inhibition of the enzyme activity in the spleen. Mexamine as a single radioprotector had practically no influence on the activity. (author)

  2. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  3. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medical emergency. It can cause seizures and brain damage. Severe low blood sugar that causes you to become unconscious is called hypoglycemic or insulin shock. Even one episode of severe low blood ...

  4. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mass Health Promotion Clearinghouse Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fasting Blood Sugar Test - español (Spanish) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Ukrainian (українська ) Expand Section Fasting Blood ...

  5. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Hyperglycemia - self care; High blood glucose - self care; Diabetes - high blood sugar References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2017: 4. Lifestyle management and 6. Glycemic targets. Diabetes Care . 2017;40( ...

  6. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exposed to heat. It is best used in beverages rather than baking. Well-studied, and hasn't ... sweeteners, such as saccharin, in carbonated low-calorie beverages and other products. Most similar to table sugar ...

  7. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  8. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  9. Effects of limited irrigation on root yield and quality of sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Irrigation treatments had a significant effect on sugar yield and its quality. Potassium ... beet plants respond to water stress by an increase in tap- ..... nitrogen fertilization on soluble carbohydrate concentration in sugar beet.

  10. Alcohol from sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Verzhbitskaya, V A

    1962-01-01

    The factor which determines the economy in the EtOH industry which uses sugar beets as raw materials is the rapid and complete recovery of the sugar contained in the beets for fermentation purposes. It is best to extract the beets at 70 to 75/sup 0/. Thorough shredding of the beets then need no longer form part of the operation, and the protein compounds, which give rise to fuel oils, are extracted in small amounts only.

  11. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanomolar concentration of blood-soluble drag-reducing polymer inhibits experimental metastasis of human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Z

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zhijie Ding,1,* Marion Joy,1,* Marina V Kameneva,1-3 Partha Roy1,3-6 1Department of Bioengineering, 2Department of Surgery, 3McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, 4Department of Pathology, 5Department of Cell Biology, 6Magee Women’s Research Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer mortality. Extravasation of cancer cells is a critical step of metastasis. We report a novel proof-of-concept study that investigated whether non-toxic blood-soluble chemical agents capable of rheological modification of the near-vessel-wall blood flow can reduce extravasation of tumor cells and subsequent development of metastasis. Using an experimental metastasis model, we demonstrated that systemic administration of nanomolar concentrations of so-called drag-reducing polymer dramatically impeded extravasation and development of pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer cells in mice. This is the first proof-of-principle study to directly demonstrate physical/rheological, as opposed to chemical, way to prevent cancer cells from extravasation and developing metastasis and, thus, it opens the possibility of a new direction of adjuvant interventional approach in cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, metastasis, extravasation, hemodynamics, drag-reducing polymer, blood cell traffic, microvessels

  13. The Sugar Tax in Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajjaji, Fadoua

    2016-01-01

    This inquiry supports the theory of a sugar tax has a positive influence on the sugar consumption of Dutch individuals. Once a tax is implemented, the sugar consumption declines. Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis claiming that children have a positive influence on their parental sugar

  14. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  15. A Simple and Rapid Method for Reducing Radiocesium Concentrations in Wild Mushrooms ( Cantharellus and Boletus ) in the Course of Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Steinhauser, Veronika

    2016-11-01

    Many species of mushrooms are known accumulators of radioactive cesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs). Even years and decades after major nuclear accidents, especially those at Chernobyl and Fukushima, mushrooms exhibit high concentrations of these radionuclides. We investigated a simple method for reducing the activity of radiocesium in wild mushrooms (chanterelles, Cantharellus cibarius ; and boleti, Boletus edulis ) during cooking. The juice generated while cooking mushrooms contains a relatively high fraction of the total cesium. The amount of juice can be increased by washing the mushrooms with water prior to cooking. By removing the juice, up to 29% of the radiocesium can be easily removed from chanterelles. Because boleti have a lower affinity for cesium, activity levels were lower in boleti than in chanterelles. The fraction of radiocesium in the juice was lower in boleti than in chanterelles.

  16. Current issues and ways to reduce the negative impact of environment increased concentrations of Radon (222Rn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coretchi, Liubov; Bahnarel, Ion; Apostol, Ion; Virlan, Serghei

    2012-01-01

    (This study was conducted to review the latest research in radon problem carried out by scientists of Moldova, the 13 EU countries and the USA, and relevant international organizations. Particular attention was paid to contradictions between energy efficiency measures and these of mitigation of 222 Rn negative impact on human health. The main proposals developed were focused on the need for a National Radon Strategy (NRS) and a National Action Plan (NAP) for NRS implementation. Both NRS and NAP has to be correlated with other national policies, such as Smoking Reducing or Energy Efficiency. Development of a Radon Database including a map of radon concentrations, as well as a set of requirements for new housing construction, would be among the main components of NAP. (authors)

  17. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there

  18. Mesquite Gum as a Novel Reducing and Stabilizing Agent for Modified Tollens Synthesis of Highly Concentrated Ag Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Berenice Moreno‐Trejo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis that is described in this study is for the preparation of silver nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm with a defined shape (globular, confirmed by UV-vis, SEM, STEM and DLS analysis. This simple and favorable one-step modified Tollens reaction does not require any special equipment or other stabilizing or reducing agent except for a solution of purified mesquite gum, and it produces aqueous colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles with a stability thatexceeds three months, a relatively narrow size distribution, a low tendency to aggregate and a yield of at least 95% for all cases. Reaction times are between 15 min and 60 min to obtain silver nanoparticles in concentrations ranging from 0.1 g to 3 g of Ag per 100 g of reaction mixture. The proposed synthetic method presents a high potential for scale-up, since its production capacity is rather high and the methodology is simple.The synthesis that is described in this study is for the preparation of silver nanoparticles of sizes ranging from 10 nm to 30 nm with a defined shape (globular, confirmed by UV-vis, SEM, STEM and DLS analysis. This simple and favorable one-step modified Tollens reaction does not require any special equipment or other stabilizing or reducing agent except for a solution of purified mesquite gum, and it produces aqueous colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles with a stability thatexceeds three months, a relatively narrow size distribution, a low tendency to aggregate and a yield of at least 95% for all cases. Reaction times are between 15 min and 60 min to obtain silver nanoparticles in concentrations ranging from 0.1 g to 3 g of Ag per 100 g of reaction mixture. The proposed synthetic method presents a high potential for scale-up, since its production capacity is rather high and the methodology is simple.

  19. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  20. BaSi2 formation mechanism in thermally evaporated films and its application to reducing oxygen impurity concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kosuke O.; Yamamoto, Chiaya; Yamanaka, Junji; Arimoto, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Kiyokazu; Usami, Noritaka

    2018-04-01

    Thermal evaporation is a simple and rapid method to fabricate semiconducting BaSi2 films. In this study, to elucidate the BaSi2 formation mechanism, the microstructure of a BaSi2 epitaxial film fabricated by thermal evaporation has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The BaSi2 film is found to consist of three layers with different microstructural characteristics, which is well explained by assuming two stages of film deposition. In the first stage, BaSi2 forms through the diffusion of Ba atoms from the deposited Ba-rich film to the Si substrate while in the second stage, the mutual diffusion of Ba and Si atoms in the film leads to BaSi2 formation. On the basis of the BaSi2 formation mechanism, two issues are addressed. One is the as-yet unclarified reason for epitaxial growth. It is found important to quickly form BaSi2 in the first stage for the epitaxial growth of upper layers. The other issue is the high oxygen concentration in BaSi2 films around the BaSi2-Si interface. Two routes of oxygen incorporation, i.e., oxidation of the Si substrate surface and initially deposited Ba-rich layer by the residual gas, are identified. On the basis of this knowledge, oxygen concentration is decreased by reducing the holding time of the substrate at high temperatures and by premelting of the source. In addition, X-ray diffraction results show that the decrease in oxygen concentration can lead to an increased proportion of a-axis-oriented grains.

  1. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Abstract. Comparative effects of simple laboratory quality sugar and cassava starch on grade C35 concrete were studied in the laboratory. The simple white sugar was used at concentrations of 0 to 1% by weight of cement in concrete cured at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days using ordinary Portland cement. Cassava starch of the same ...

  2. Intake of added sugar in Malaysia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Maria Sofia V; Khor, Geok Lin; Chan, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    The term 'added sugars' refers to sugars and syrup added to foods during processing or preparation, and sugars and syrups added at the table. Calls to limit the daily intakes of added sugars and its sources arose from evidence analysed by WHO, the American Heart Association and other organizations. The present review examined the best available evidence regarding levels of added sugar consumption among different age and sex groups in Malaysia and sources of added sugars. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys and published studies. Varying results emerged, as nationwide information on intake of sugar and foods with added sugar were obtained at different times and used different assessment methods. Data from the 2003 Malaysian Adult Nutrition Survey (MANS) using food frequency questionnaires suggested that on average, Malaysian adults consumed 30 grams of sweetened condensed milk (equivalent to 16 grams sugar) and 21 grams of table sugar per day, which together are below the WHO recommendation of 50 grams sugar for every 2000 kcal/day to reduce risk of chronic disease. Published studies suggested that, for both adults and the elderly, frequently consumed sweetened foods were beverages (tea or coffee) with sweetened condensed milk and added sugar. More accurate data should be obtained by conducting population-wide studies using biomarkers of sugar intake (e.g. 24-hour urinary sucrose and fructose excretion or serum abundance of the stable isotope 13C) to determine intake levels, and multiple 24 hour recalls to identify major food sources of added sugar.

  3. Sugar-cane juice induces pectin lyase and polygalacturonase in Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minussi Rosana Cristina

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of other inducers as substitutes for pectin was studied aiming to reduce the production costs of pectic enzymes. The effects of sugar-cane juice on the production of pectin lyase (PL and polygalacturonase (PG by Penicillium griseoroseum were investigated. The fungus was cultured in a mineral medium (pH 6.3 in a rotary shaker (150 rpm for 48 h at 25oC. Culture media were supplemented with yeast extract and sucrose or sugar-cane juice. Sugar-cane juice added singly to the medium promoted higher PL activity and mycelial dry weight when compared to pectin and the use of sugar-cane juice and yeast extract yielded levels of PG activity that were similar to those obtained with sucrose-yeast extract or pectin. The results indicated that, even at low concentrations, sugar-cane juice was capable of inducing pectin lyase and polygalacturonase with no cellulase activity in P. griseoroseum.

  4. Flux, rejection and fouling during microfiltration and ultrafiltration of sugar palm sap using a pilot plant scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanichapichart, P.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using a pilot plant scale microfiltration (MF and ultrafiltration (UF to clarify and reduce number of bacteria, yeast and mould of sugar palm sap was studied. The membrane used was multi channel tubular ceramic membrane (ZrO2-TiO2 with membrane pore size 0.2 and 0.1 μm and molecular weight cut off (MWCO 300 and 50 kDa for microfiltration and ultrafiltration respectively. The experiment was carried out to investigate the rejection of the components in sugar palm sap, permeate flux and fouling characteristics. The results showed that the turbidity, the total solid, the viscosity and the numbers of bacteria, yeast and mould in the permeate obtained by MF and UF were reduced significantly compared to those of fresh sugar palm sap. The total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar and pH were not affected by MF and UF. The permeate fluxes for all membranes were reduced greatly as the volume concentration ratio (VCR increased due to severe fouling. The irreversible fouling on membrane surface and/or inside the membrane tended to increase with increasing membrane pore size or MWCO. The result also suggested that protein and small particle in the sugar palm sap were probably responsible for the internal fouling of large pore size membrane. According to the physical, chemical and microorganism quality results, both MF and UF showed the potential use for improving the quality of sugar palm sap but flux reduction due to fouling was a major problem affecting the process performance.

  5. Face Masks and Cough Etiquette Reduce the Cough Aerosol Concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in People with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michelle E; Stockwell, Rebecca E; Johnson, Graham R; Ramsay, Kay A; Sherrard, Laura J; Jabbour, Nassib; Ballard, Emma; O'Rourke, Peter; Kidd, Timothy J; Wainwright, Claire E; Knibbs, Luke D; Sly, Peter D; Morawska, Lidia; Bell, Scott C

    2018-02-01

    People with cystic fibrosis (CF) generate Pseudomonas aeruginosa in droplet nuclei during coughing. The use of surgical masks has been recommended in healthcare settings to minimize pathogen transmission between patients with CF. To determine if face masks and cough etiquette reduce viable P. aeruginosa aerosolized during coughing. Twenty-five adults with CF and chronic P. aeruginosa infection were recruited. Participants performed six talking and coughing maneuvers, with or without face masks (surgical and N95) and hand covering the mouth when coughing (cough etiquette) in an aerosol-sampling device. An Andersen Cascade Impactor was used to sample the aerosol at 2 meters from each participant. Quantitative sputum and aerosol bacterial cultures were performed, and participants rated the mask comfort levels during the cough maneuvers. During uncovered coughing (reference maneuver), 19 of 25 (76%) participants produced aerosols containing P. aeruginosa, with a positive correlation found between sputum P. aeruginosa concentration (measured as cfu/ml) and aerosol P. aeruginosa colony-forming units. There was a reduction in aerosol P. aeruginosa load during coughing with a surgical mask, coughing with an N95 mask, and cough etiquette compared with uncovered coughing (P masks during coughing; yet, participants rated the surgical masks as more comfortable (P = 0.013). Cough etiquette provided approximately half the reduction of viable aerosols of the mask interventions during voluntary coughing. Talking was a low viable aerosol-producing activity. Face masks reduce cough-generated P. aeruginosa aerosols, with the surgical mask providing enhanced comfort. Cough etiquette was less effective at reducing viable aerosols.

  6. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. ... and Lin [3] and Ghatak et al [4] have studied the use of optical fibers as sensing elements. ... at the interface, an evanescent wave propagates parallel to the interface. .... the ends of the fiber are fixed with fiber holders on either side.

  7. Effect of Sugar Maple Root Exudate on Seedlings of Northern Conifer Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1976-01-01

    It has been shows that a root exudate of sugar maple reduces the growth of yellow birch. A laboratory test indicated that the growth of northern conifers is also reduced in sugar maple root exudate. Allelopathy may play an important role in survival of species on sites where sugar maple is abundant.

  8. Production of fermentable sugars by combined chemo-enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic material for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Idrees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To change the recalcitrant nature of the lignocellulosic material for maximum hydrolysis yield, a comprehensive study was done by using sulphuric acid as an exclusive catalyst for the pretreatment process. The enzymatic digestibility of the biomass [Water Hyacinth: Eichhornia crassipes] after pretreatment was determined by measuring the hydrolysis yield of the pretreated material obtained from twenty four different pretreatment conditions. These included different concentrations of sulphuric acid (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0%, at two different temperatures (108 and 121 ºC for different residence times (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0h.The highest reducing sugar yield (36.65 g/L from enzymatic hydrolysis was obtained when plant material was pretreated at 121 ºC for 1.0 h residence time using 3.0% (v/v sulphuric acid and at 1:10 (w/v solid to liquid ratio. The total reducing sugars obtained from the two-stage process (pretreatment + enzymatic hydrolysis was 69.6g/L. The resulting sugars were fermented into ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield from the enzymatic hydrolyzate was 95.2% of the theoretical yield (0.51g/g glucose, as determined by GS-MS, and nearly 100% since no reducing sugars were detected in the fermenting media by TLC and DNS analysis.

  9. Influence of physiological state of inoculum on volatile acidity production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during high sugar fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bely

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach consisting of controlling yeast inoculum to minimize volatile acidity production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the alcoholic fermentation of botrytized must was investigated. Direct inoculation of rehydrated active dry yeasts produced the most volatile acidity, while a yeast preparation pre-cultured for 24 hours reduced the final production by up to 23 %. Using yeasts collected from a fermenting wine as a starter must also reduced volatile acidity production. The conditions for preparing the inoculum affected the fermentation capacity of the first generation yeasts: fermentation duration, sugar to ethanol ratio, and wine composition. A pre-culture medium with a low sugar concentration (< 220 g/L is essential to limit volatile acidity production in high sugar fermentations.

  10. Influence of passion fruit albedo, citric acid, and the pulp/sugar ratio on the quality of banana preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Galvão Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the citric acid concentration, pulp/sugar ratio, and albedo concentration of the passion fruit peel on physical, physiochemical, and sensorial characteristics of the 'Silver' banana preserves. A 2³ factorial design and 3 repetitions in the central point were used. The albedo concentration between 0 and 3% had significant influence on the reduction of the reducing sugars and on the decrease in titratable acidity. The increase in the pulp/sugar ratio exerted a negative effect on the pH and positive on the titratable acidity; the acid addition reduced the non-reducing sugar level. The sensorial evaluation and purchase intention indicated that the incorporation of a maximum of 1.5% albedo in formulations containing 50% pulp and 0.5% citric acid resulted in products with good acceptability in comparison with the formulation in which 60% pulp and an absence of acid or albedo is utilized.

  11. Conversion of woody biomass into fermentable sugars by cellulase from Agaricus arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeya, Marimuthu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Phuong-Thao; Moon, Hee-Jung; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2010-11-01

    Agaricus arvensis, a newly isolated basidiomycetous fungus, was found to secrete efficient cellulases. The strain produced the highest endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH) and beta-glucosidase (BGL) activities of 0.3, 3.2 and 8U/mg-protein, respectively, with rice straw as the carbon source. Saccharification of the woody biomass with A. arvensis cellulase as the enzyme source released a high level of fermentable sugars. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the poplar biomass was optimized using the response surface methodology in order to study the influence of the variables (pH, temperature, cellulases concentration and substrate concentration). The enzyme and substrate concentrations were identified as the limiting factors for the saccharification of poplar wood biomass. A total reducing sugar level of 29g/L (293mg/g-substrate) was obtained at an enzyme concentration of 65FPU/g-substrate after optimization of the hydrolysis parameters. The model validation showed a good agreement between the experimental results and the predicted responses. A. arvensis could be a good candidate for the production of reducing sugars from a cellulosic biomass.

  12. European Sugar Market – Impact of Quota System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Benešová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European agricultural market has been criticized for its heavy regulations and subsidization. The sugar market is one of the most regulated ones; however, this will change radically in 2017 when the current system of production quotas will end. The aim of this paper is to present the basic characteristics of the EU quota sugar market. The analysis identifies the main drivers of EU sugar market and their position within the EU sugar market. The paper identifies especially those drivers/companies/alliances which take control over the EU sugar production realized under the quota production system. The paper also highlights the level of EU sugar market concentration and also identifies those countries and companies which are the main leaders in the sugar production area realized under the quota system. Based on the results deriving from the paper, it is possible to characterize the EU sugar market as a heavily concentrated one – nearly 75% (10 mil. tonnes of the quota is controlled by five multinational companies only; these companies are operating more than 50% of all the available sugar plants located in the EU. These multinational alliances are also in control of the production capacities of their subsidiaries. In most countries, this causes serious problems as the given quota is controlled by one or two producers only. The EU sugar market is extremely concentrated especially if we take into consideration the location of each alliance’s headquarters. The majority of production capacities are under (the control of especially German and French companies. These two countries are also the main beneficiaries in relation to the EU sugar production quota system.

  13. Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor reduces endothelial proliferation and induces an increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet; Neuhof, Christiane; Doerr, Oliver; Benscheid, Utz; Andrade, Sheila S; Most, Astrid; Abdallah, Yaser; Parahuleva, Mariana; Guenduez, Dursun; Oliva, Maria L; Erdogan, Ali

    2010-12-01

    Proteinase inhibitors, isolated from different types of Bauhinia, have an effect on apoptosis, angiogenesis and inflammation. The Bauhinia bauhinioides cruzipain inhibitor (BbCI) is a Kunitz-type inhibitor and inactivates the cysteine proteinases cruzipain and cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi. Cruzipain and tissue kallikrein have similar biochemical properties, e.g. the proteolytic cleavage of the kininogen precursor of lys-bradykinin. Tissue kallikrein stimulation in endothelial cells causes migration and capillary tube formation. The aim of this study was to examine whether the antiproliferative effect of BbCI is dependent on changes of the intracellular calcium concentration and membrane hyperpolarization. Endothelial cells were isolated from human umbilical cord veins (HUVEC). For proliferation experiments, HUVEC were incubated with BbCI (10-100 μmol/L) for 48 h. The proliferation was detected by cell counting with a Neubauer chamber. The effect of BbCI (10-100 μM) on the membrane potential was measured with the fluorescence dye DiBAC4(3) and the effect on [Ca+2]i with the fluorescence probe Fluo-3 AM. The change of the fluorescence intensity was determined with a GENios plate reader (Tecan). The experiments showed that BbCI (10-100 μmol/L) reduces the endothelial cell proliferation significantly in a concentration-dependent manner with a maximum effect at 100 μmol/L (35.1±1.8% as compared to control (p≤0.05; n=45)). As compared to the control, the addition of BbCI (100 μmol/L) caused a significant increase of systolic Ca2+ of 28.4±5.0% after 30 min incubation. HUVEC treatment with BbCI (100 μmol/L) showed a weak but significant decrease of the membrane potential of 9.5±0.9% as compared to control (p≤0.05; n=80). BbCI influenced significantly the endothelial proliferation, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the membrane potential.

  14. Influência de abelhas africanizadas na concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207 = Influence of africanized honeybees on sugar concentration in the nectar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill em áreas com ou sem a presença de abelhas Apis mellifera L. Foi utilizada a variedade Coodetec 207 em quatro tratamentos: área de 24 m2 coberta com colônia de abelhas africanizadas em seu interior; área semicoberta com livre acesso para insetos visitantes; área livre e área coberta sem abelhas. As flores foram coletadas durante três dias, a cada 2h. e a concentração dos açúcares totais por flor foi determinada por espectrofotometria. A área coberta com abelha apresentou maior concentração de açúcares totais em relação à área coberta sem abelhas e livre, contudo, aconcentração de açúcares totais na área livre não diferiu da concentração observada na área coberta sem abelhas. Houve redução na concentração média de sacarose na área livre, diferindo das concentrações nas demais áreas. A concentração média de glicose não diferiu entre os tratamentos, enquanto que a de frutose não apresentou diferença entre as áreas cobertas com abelhas, semicoberta e livre. A variedade Coodetec 207 da soja apresentou maior concentração total de açúcares e de frutose nas áreas cobertas com abelhas. Contudo, a presença de Apis mellifera não interferiu nesta concentração de açúcares no néctar das flores de soja desta variedade.This research was carried out to evaluate the sugar concentration in soybean nectar in areas with Africanized honeybee colonies. The var. Coodetec 207 was used in four treatments: 24 m2 covered area with Africanized honeybee colony inside, semi-covered area for free insect visitation, uncovered area, and covered area without insect visitation. Flowers were harvested for three days at two-hour intervals, and the total sugar concentration per flower was determined by spectrophotometry. The covered area with Africanized honeybee colony presented higher sugar concentration than the covered area

  15. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in water/sugar solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerbret, A. [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, 101 Stocking Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Affouard, F. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)], E-mail: frederic.affouard@univ-lille1.fr; Bordat, P. [Laboratoire de Chimie Theorique et de Physico-Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5624, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, 64000 Pau (France); Hedoux, A.; Guinet, Y.; Descamps, M. [Laboratoire de Dynamique et Structure des Materiaux Moleculaires, UMR CNRS 8024, Universite Lille I, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-18

    Structural and dynamical properties of the solvent at the protein/solvent interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations of lysozyme in trehalose, maltose and sucrose solutions. Results are discussed in the framework of the bioprotection phenomena. The analysis of the relative concentration of water oxygen atoms around lysozyme suggests that lysozyme is preferentially hydrated. When comparing the three sugars, trehalose is seen more excluded than maltose and sucrose. The preferential exclusion of sugars from the protein surface induces some differences in the behavior of trehalose and maltose, particularly at 50 and 60 wt% concentrations, that are not observed experimentally in binary sugar/mixtures. The dynamical slowing down of the solvent is suggested to mainly arise from the homogeneity of the water/sugar matrices controlled by the percolation of the sugar hydrogen bonds networks. Furthermore, lysozyme strongly increases relaxation times of solvent molecules at the protein/solvent interface.

  17. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sugars and reducing sugars of pineapple treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on chilling injuries were not significantly different from that of the control pineapple. Liu et al. (2009) reported that the flavor in summer pineapple fruit was better than that of the winter fruit. Joomwong (2006) showed that the fruit ...

  18. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, S.H.F.; Pasman, W.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term

  19. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  20. Dynamic analysis of sugar metabolism in different harvest seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In pineapple fruits, sugar accumulation plays an important role in flavor characteristics, which varies according to the stage of fruit development. Metabolic changes in the contents of fructose, sucrose and glucose and reducing sugar related to the activities of soluble acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose ...

  1. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  2. Purifying fluoride-contaminated water by a novel forward osmosis design with enhanced flux under reduced concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Madhubonti; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Pal, Parimal; Linnanen, Lassi

    2015-08-01

    For purifying fluoride-contaminated water, a new forward osmosis scheme in horizontal flat-sheet cross flow module was designed and investigated. Effects of pressure, cross flow rate, draw solution and alignment of membrane module on separation and flux were studied. Concentration polarization and reverse salt diffusion got significantly reduced in the new hydrodynamic regime. This resulted in less membrane fouling, better solute separation and higher pure water flux than in a conventional module. The entire scheme was completed in two stages-an upstream forward osmosis for separating pure water from contaminated water and a downstream nanofiltration operation for continuous recovery and recycle of draw solute. Synchronization of these two stages of operation resulted in a continuous, steady-state process. From a set of commercial membranes, two polyamide composite membranes were screened out for the upstream and downstream filtrations. A 0.3-M NaCl solution was found to be the best one for forward osmosis draw solution. Potable water with less than 1% residual fluoride could be produced at a high flux of 60-62 L m(-2) h(-1) whereas more than 99% draw solute could be recovered and recycled in the downstream nanofiltration stage from where flux was 62-65 L m(-2) h(-1).

  3. Sugar, Pressure and Pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017.v33i1.337. 1. Van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 2001;345(19):1359-1367. https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmoa011300. 2. The NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators. Intensive ...

  4. The Maple Sugar Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Basil

    1978-01-01

    Describing the Iroquoi's Maple Sugar Festival, this article details the symbolism of renewal, becoming, and regeneration celebrated by the Iroquoi as the sap from the maple trees begins to flow each year. The symbolic role of woman, the sweet sap itself, and man's fellow creatures are described. (JC)

  5. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  7. Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and NutritionHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversHigh Homocysteine Level: How It Affects Your Blood VesselsUnderstanding Your Medical ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level Share Print What ...

  8. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  9. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  10. Cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash: CO2 emissions reduction and potential for carbon credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Eduardo M R; Americano, Branca B; Cordeiro, Guilherme C; Paula, Thiago P; Toledo Filho, Romildo D; Silvoso, Marcos M

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents a study of cement replacement by sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) in industrial scale aiming to reduce the CO(2) emissions into the atmosphere. SCBA is a by-product of the sugar/ethanol agro-industry abundantly available in some regions of the world and has cementitious properties indicating that it can be used together with cement. Recent comprehensive research developed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil has demonstrated that SCBA maintains, or even improves, the mechanical and durability properties of cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes. Brazil is the world's largest sugar cane producer and being a developing country can claim carbon credits. A simulation was carried out to estimate the potential of CO(2) emission reductions and the viability to issue certified emission reduction (CER) credits. The simulation was developed within the framework of the methodology established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The State of São Paulo (Brazil) was chosen for this case study because it concentrates about 60% of the national sugar cane and ash production together with an important concentration of cement factories. Since one of the key variables to estimate the CO(2) emissions is the average distance between sugar cane/ethanol factories and the cement plants, a genetic algorithm was developed to solve this optimization problem. The results indicated that SCBA blended cement reduces CO(2) emissions, which qualifies this product for CDM projects. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resveratrol Increases Serum BDNF Concentrations and Reduces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contractility via a NOS-3-Independent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wiciński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a polyphenol that presents both antineuroinflammatory properties and the ability to interact with NOS-3, what contributes to vasorelaxation. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF, a molecule associated with neuroprotection in many neurodegenerative disorders, is considered as an important element of maintaining stable cerebral blood flow. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs are considered to be an important element in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and a potential preventative target by agents which reduce the contractility of the vessels. Our main objectives were to define the relationship between serum and long-term oral resveratrol administration in the rat model, as well as to assess the effect of resveratrol on phenylephrine- (PHE- induced contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Moreover, we attempt to define the dependence of contraction mechanisms on endothelial NO synthase. Experiments were performed on Wistar rats (n=17 pretreated with resveratrol (4 weeks; 10 mg/kg p.o. or placebo. Serum BDNF levels were quantified after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment with ELISA. Contraction force was measured on isolated and perfused tail arteries as the increase of perfusion pressure with a constant flow. Values of serum BNDF in week 0 were 1.18±0.12 ng/mL (treated and 1.17±0.13 ng/mL (control (p = ns. After 2 weeks of treatment, BDNF in the treatment group was higher than in controls, 1.52±0.23 ng/mL and 1.24±0.13 ng/mL, respectively. (p=0.02 Following 4 weeks of treatment, BDNF values were higher in the resveratrol group compared to control 1.64±0.31 ng/mL and 1.32±0.26 ng/mL, respectively (p=0.031. EC50 values obtained for PHE in resveratrol pretreated arteries were significantly higher than controls (5.33±1.7 × 10−7 M/L versus 4.53±1.2 × 10−8 M/L, p<0.05. These results show a significant increase in BDNF concentration in the resveratrol pretreated group. The reactivity of resistant

  12. Impacts of Sugar Import Policy on Sugar Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suryantoro, Agustinus; Susilo, Albertus Magnus; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Production of sugar unful lled consumption of Indonesia society. The lack of consumption and productionhave ful lled by import. Assumption national consumption 2,7 million ton, Indonesia will import sugar in 2013predicted about 300.000 ton (Tempo.co, August, 21, 2012).The aims in general of this research are to understand the impact of sugar import policy on sugar production.Especially (1) to understand the factors that in uence sugar import price, (2) to understand impact of sugarimport pric...

  13. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  14. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Clark

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress. Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS and lateral (DLS dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress.

  15. Basic analysis of sugar cane lead and cane fields of an AIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Rizo, O.; Saunders, M.; Herrerra, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Mendoza, A.; Meneses, N.; Griffith, J.; Mesa, S.; Zhuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The concentration of minor and trace elements in sugar cane leaves and soils samples from a cuban sugar factory were determine by means of thermal reactor neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The samples were taken according to the methodology of Sugar Minister for leaves and soils analysis. The concentration of 28 elements was determinate. the concentration values obtained by NAA, XRFA and previous analysis are compared

  16. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14 C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN 3 , HgCl 2 , dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

  17. A rapid method for simultaneous quantification of 13 sugars and sugar alcohols in food products by UPLC-ELSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Wan; Park, Jae-Woong; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Bang, Dae-Young

    2018-02-01

    A novel, rapid, simultaneous analysis method for five sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) and eight sugar alcohols (erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, inositol, maltitol, lactitol, and isomalt) was developed using UPLC-ELSD, without derivatization. The analysis conditions, including the gradient conditions, modifier concentration and column length, were optimized. Thirteen sugars and sugar alcohols were separated well and the resolution of their peaks was above 1.0. Their optimum analysis condition can be analyzed within 15min. Standard curves for sugars and sugar alcohols with concentrations of 5.0-0.1% and 2.0-0.05% are presented herein, and their correlation coefficients are found to be above 0.999 and the limit of detection (LOD) was around 0.006-0.018%. This novel analysis system can be used for foodstuffs such as candy, chewing gum, jelly, chocolate, processed chocolate products, and snacks containing 0.21-46.41% of sugars and sugar alcohols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  19. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  20. Effects of defoliation and drought on root food reserves in sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Parker; Johnson Parker

    1970-01-01

    The artificial defoliation of sugar maple (Acer. saccharum Marsh.) can cause a marked decline in root food reserves, especially starch, and an increase in the levels of the reducing sugars, fructose and glucose. Defoliation can also bring on the dieback-decline syndrome in sugar maples (Parker and Houston 1968). Two experiments designed to examine this question were...

  1. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  2. Sugar and metabolic health: is there still a debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J Bernadette; Fielding, Barbara A

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable political and public awareness of new recommendations to reduce sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages in our diets. It is therefore timely to review the most recent changes in guidelines, with a focus on evidence for metabolic health, recent research in the area and gaps in our knowledge. Sufficient evidence links a high intake of sugar to dental caries and obesity, and high intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages in particular to increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This has led to the updating of dietary recommendations related to added sugars in the diet. The effects of specific sugars at usual intakes as part of an isoenergetic diet are less clear. The glycaemic response to food is complex and mediated by many factors, but sugar intake is not necessarily the major component. There are many challenges faced by healthcare professionals and government bodies in order to improve the health of individuals and nations through evidence-based diets. Sufficiently powered long-term mechanistic studies are still required to provide evidence for the effects of reducing dietary sugars on metabolic health. However, there are many challenges for research scientists in the implementation of these studies.

  3. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  4. The Evidence for Saturated Fat and for Sugar Related to Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; O'Keefe, James H

    2016-01-01

    ) and may present greater risk of CHD. This paper reviews the evidence linking saturated fats and sugars to CHD, and concludes that the latter is more of a problem than the former. Dietary guidelines should shift focus away from reducing saturated fat, and from replacing saturated fat with carbohydrates, specifically when these carbohydrates are refined. To reduce the burden of CHD, guidelines should focus particularly on reducing intake of concentrated sugars, specifically the fructose-containing sugars like sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup in the form of ultra-processed foods and beverages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podadera, P.; Sabato, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  6. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species specific responses to Ca and Mg that may reduce health and growth of sugar maple or change species composition, if not addressed.

  7. CAUSES OF CRISIS SITUATION IN UKRAINE SUGAR INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES AND THEIR SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fyliuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Current state and major trends of functioning of the sugar industry enterprises in Ukraine are characterized. The industry's place in the structure of social production in Ukraine is highlighted. The dynamics of the number of operating sugar factories and dynamics of production and consumption of sugar in Ukraine during recent years are displayed. The performance of the sugar factories is analyzed. Forecasted assessment of the of PEST- factors on the development of the sugar industry is shown. The basic entry barriers to the industry for new players are indicated. The description of major players in the sugar market is made. Level of concentration of sugar market in Ukraine is calculated and conclusions about its dynamics are made. Factors of crisis state of sugar industry enterprises in Ukraine are determined. Suggestions on implementation of priority measures aimed at improving the efficiency of industry's management in order to drive the enterprises out of the crisis are formulated.

  8. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  9. Predicting sugar consumption: Application of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Trost, Nadine; Keech, Jacob J; Chan, Derwin K C; Hamilton, Kyra

    2017-09-01

    Excess consumption of added dietary sugars is related to multiple metabolic problems and adverse health conditions. Identifying the modifiable social cognitive and motivational constructs that predict sugar consumption is important to inform behavioral interventions aimed at reducing sugar intake. We tested the efficacy of an integrated dual-process, dual-phase model derived from multiple theories to predict sugar consumption. Using a prospective design, university students (N = 90) completed initial measures of the reflective (autonomous and controlled motivation, intentions, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control), impulsive (implicit attitudes), volitional (action and coping planning), and behavioral (past sugar consumption) components of the proposed model. Self-reported sugar consumption was measured two weeks later. A structural equation model revealed that intentions, implicit attitudes, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption had small, significant effects on sugar consumption. Attitudes, subjective norm, and, indirectly, autonomous motivation to reduce sugar consumption predicted intentions. There were no effects of the planning constructs. Model effects were independent of the effects of past sugar consumption. The model identified the relative contribution of reflective and impulsive components in predicting sugar consumption. Given the prominent role of the impulsive component, interventions that assist individuals in managing cues-to-action and behavioral monitoring are likely to be effective in regulating sugar consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiak, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  11. Continuous ethanol production using yeast immobilized on sugar-cane stalks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, J.N. de [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: jnunes@ctec.ufal.br; Lopes, C.E. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos; Franca, F.P. de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica

    2004-09-01

    Sugar-cane stalks, 2.0 cm long, were used as a support for yeast immobilization envisaging ethanol production. The assays were conducted in 38.5 L fermenters containing a bed of stalks with 50% porosity. The operational stability of the immobilized yeast, the efficiency and stability of the process, as well as the best dilution rate were evaluated. Molasses from demerara sugar production was used in the medium formulation. It was diluted to obtain 111.75 {+-} 1.51 g/L without any further treatment. Sulfuric acid was used to adjust the pH value to around 4.2. Every two days Kamoran HJ (10 ppm) or with a mixture containing penicillin (10 ppm) and tetracycline (10 ppm), was added to the medium. Ethanol yield and efficiency were 29.64 g/L.h and 86.40%, respectively, and the total reducing sugars conversion was 74.61% at a dilution rate of 0.83 h{sup -1}. The yeast-stalk system was shown to be stable for over a 60 day period at extremely variable dilution rates ranging from 0.05 h{sup -1} to 3.00 h{sup -1}. The concentration of immobilized cell reached around 109 cells/gram of dry sugar-cane stalk when the fermenter was operating at the highest dilution rate (3.00 h{sup -1}). (author)

  12. Catalytic production of sugar alcohols (polyols) and their application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R; Straetz, A; Vollheim, G

    1980-07-01

    The article surveys the numerous applications of the principal sugar alcohols sorbitol and xylitol and their world production in 1978. Nowadays, the industrial production of sugar alcohols is almost exclusively by catalytic hydrogenation of the corresponding sugars; thus sorbitol is manufactured by hydrogenation of D-glucose, xylitol by hydrogenation of xylose, and mannitol by hydrogenation of invert sugar or fructose. Some 80% of the world production of sugar alcohols are manufactured in batch suspension processes using Raney nickel catalysts. Apart from the Atlas Powder continuous suspension process employing nickel-carrier catalysts, continuous processes have recently been developed which use Raney nickel and prove more economical owing to the lower catalyst costs. Trickling processes with fixed catalyst continue to play a minor role. Available production capacity based on batch suspension processes can be expanded by process optimization and new catalyst developments. A newly developed special Raney nickel catalyst reduces the specific catalyst consumption by about 50%.

  13. Sap-Sugar Content of Grafted Sugar Maple Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt; Maurice E. Jr. Demeritt

    1985-01-01

    In March and April 1983, 289 and 196 young grafted sugar maple trees were tapped and evaluated for sap-sugar content. In April, sap was collected from taps both above and below the graft union. Diameter of all tapped trees at 18 inches above the ground was measured. Analysis of the data revealed that: (1) trees selected for high sugar yield cannot be reproduced by...

  14. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF RAW SUGAR MATERIAL FOR SUGAR PRODUCER COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Gromkovskii; O. I. Sherstyuk

    2015-01-01

    Summary. In the article examines the statistical data on the development of average weight and average sugar content of sugar beet roots. The successful solution of the problem of forecasting these raw indices is essential for solving problems of sugar producing complex control. In the paper by calculating the autocorrelation function demonstrated that the predominant trend component of the growth raw characteristics. For construct the prediction model is proposed to use an autoregressive fir...

  15. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  16. [Retrospection and reflection on international progress of sugar-sweetened beverages tax policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Zhai, Y; Zhao, W H

    2017-12-06

    Since the invention of sugar, added sugars bring us enjoyment. As consumption continues to rise, especially the advent of sugary drinks makes it easier for people to consume added sugars, less sugars and reduced sugars have also become a of concern around the world. In recent years, in WHO and several countries, tax on sugary beverages has been designed to reduce the intake of sugar and prevent the economic costs of obesity and other diseases. This paper reviews the WHO's proposal on sugary drinks tax and the progress of sugary drinks tax in Hungary, Finland, France, Mexico, the United States, South Africa and other countries and regions. The effect of policy on sugary drinks tax was analyzed and considered. Suggestion and support for the progress of China's reduced sugars was provided in the last.

  17. Influence of insulin on heat (450) protection by hexose sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandifer, L.; Nagle, W.A.; Henle, K.J.; Moss, A.J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Treatment of cultured cells with 100mM D-glucose and D-galactose confers protection against hyperthermia-induced cell death, but the mechanism is not known. The authors measured changes in cell survival and altered levels of intracellular sugar metabolites in Chinese hamster fibroblast (V79) cells. Cells were incubated at 37 0 for 1 or 5 hours prior to a 45 0 heating in balanced salts solution (BSS) with 2mM glutamine and varying concentrations of sugars in the presence and absence of insulin (10 gm/ml). Cells incubated at all sugar concentrations (5-125mM) with insulin showed a more rapid increase in survival: after 17 min. at 45 0 the survival with 125mM sugar plus insulin yielded a 4 fold increase after a 1 or 5 hour incubation. Longer incubation times were required for increased survival in the absence of insulin. The authors also observed increased survival, relative to cells heated in complete medium, for cells incubated in BSS with 2mM glutamine and no sugar. This suggests that glutamine metabolism may lead to an increase in cell heat resistance. These survival results will be related to intracellular changes in sugar metabolites, principally sugar phosphates

  18. Prediction of Starch, Soluble Sugars and Amino Acids in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) Using Hyperspectral Imaging, Dielectric and LF-NMR Methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anders; Nielsen, Glenn; Stærke, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Handling and processing of potatoes is performed in increasingly large and more automated facilities, and the industry calls for more automated machinery for quality assessment and sorting by concentration of starch, soluble sugars, protein, amino acids etc. of the potato tubers. The present study...... cultivars were simultaneously sampled for analyses of content and scanned by the five different scanning methods. The resulting multivariate dataset was used to estimate the prediction ability of the individual scanning methods on starch-related parameters, selected simple sugars, selected amino acids......, conductivity of pressed cell sap and cell sizes. Results showed that most types of spectral analyses had relatively high potential for predicting the starch-related parameters and medium potential for predicting the concentration of the reducing sugars fructose and glucose. Most methods showed medium potential...

  19. Reduced cerebrospinal fluid concentration of interleukin-12/23 subunit p40 in patients with cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Johansson

    Full Text Available The role of inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD and other cognitive disorders is unclear. In a well-defined mono-center population, we measured cytokines and chemokines in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples.Consecutive patients with AD (n = 30, stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI, n = 11, other dementias (n = 11, and healthy controls (n = 18 were included. None of the subjects was treated with glucocorticoids, cholinesterase inhibitors, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Serum and CSF concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12/23 p40, IL-15, IL-16, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, and three chemokines were measured using a multiplex panel.After correction for multiple comparisons, only CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration differed significantly between the total patient group (n = 52 and controls (n = 18; p = 0.002. Further analyses showed that CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentration was decreased in all patient subgroups (AD, other dementias, and SMCI compared to healthy controls (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively. In the total study population (n = 70, CSF IL-12/23 p40 concentrations correlated positively with CSF concentrations of β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau protein (P-tau whereas in AD patients (n = 30, CSF IL-12/23 p40 only correlated positively with CSF P-Tau (r = 0.46, p = 0.01.Most cytokines and chemokines were similar in patients and controls, but CSF IL-12/23 subunit p40 concentration was decreased in patients with cognitive impairment, and correlated with markers of AD disease status. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of CSF IL-12/23 p40 in other dementias and SMCI.

  20. Desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais de fêmeas leiteiras em crescimento alimentadas com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar com concentrado Performance and nutritional parameters of growing heifers fed corn silage or sugar cane with concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2010-11-01

    ção à silagem de milho em sistemas de produção de leite com idade ao parto próxima dos 24 meses.This study evaluated the response of dairy heifers fed corn based silage with 1.3 kg/day of concentrated in comparison with three sugar cane-based diets corrected with 1% of urea + ammonium sulphate (9:1 (urea, with 1.3; 2.0 and 2.7 kg/day of concentrate. A total of 20 heifers were used (12 Holstein breed and 8 Brown Swiss breed heifers in a randomised block design, with 5 blocks formed on the basis of initial live weight and breed. The consumption of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber did not differ between corn-silage based diet and sugar-cane based diet. Higher consumption of ether extract was found when diet based on corn silage was supplied in comparison to those based on sugar cane. Intakes of total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrates differed between corn silage diet and those based on sugarcane (1.3 and 2.0 kg concentrate. Total digestible nutrient intake observed with supply of the diet based on corn silage was lower than that obtained with sugar cane (2 kg concentrate. Diets had a significant effect on coefficients of digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, total carbohidrates and neutral detergent fiber. There was no significant difference on total weight gain neither on average daily gain between the corn-silage based diet and the sugar-cane diet with 2.7 kg of concentrate in relation to the sugar-cane diets. Ruminal pH did not differ at collection times among experimental diets. The lowest concentration of N-NH3 was observed in animals fed corn silage-based diet 3 hours after feeding compared to the sugar cane-based treatments. A milk production system with heifers calving at 24 months and fed a diet containing moderate to high concentrate levels (± 45:55, forage:concentrate, sugar cane forage added with 1% of a mixture of urea + ammonium sulfate (9:1, urea:ammonium sulphate can be a substitute for corn silage.

  1. [Reduced zinc concentration in expressed prostatic secretion relates to the pain symptoms of types Ⅲ and Ⅳ prostatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lin-Jian; Chen, Xi; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Guang-Yu; Zhang, Xun; Huang, Shan; Xie, Zhi-Bin; Mo, Zeng-Nan

    2016-06-01

    To determine the zinc levels in the expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) of the patients with different types of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, and explore the reference value of zinc concentration in EPS in the diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis. We collected EPS samples from 35 healthy men and 173 patients with chronic nonbacterial prostatitis, including 65 cases of type ⅢA, 69 cases of type ⅢB, and 39 cases of type Ⅳ, according to the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI). We compared the zinc levels in the EPS samples among different groups and analyzed the correlations of zinc concentration with the NIH-CPSI scores, WBC count, pH value, and age of the subjects. The participants were aged 17-65 (32.5±8.5) years. The zinc concentrations in the EPS were significantly lower in the ⅢA ([162.2±10.8] μg/ml) and ⅢB ([171.2±12.0] μg/ml) than in the Ⅳ ([234.6±17.9] μg/ml) (Pprostatitis may be associated with the pain symptoms of the disease, which suggests the potential reference value of measuring the zinc concentration in EPS in the diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis.

  2. Reduced Seminal Concentration of CD45pos Cells after Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Treatment in Selected Patients with Idiopathic Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita A. Condorelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the conventional sperm parameters and the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells (pan-leukocyte marker of infertile patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The patients were arbitrarily divided into three groups treated with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: α (Group A = 20 patients, recombinant FSH-β (Group B = 20 patients, and highly purified human FSH (Group C = 14 patients. All treated groups achieved a similar improvement of the main sperm parameters (density, progressive motility, and morphology, but only the increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology was significant compared to the baseline in all three examined groups. Moreover, all groups had a significant reduction of the seminal concentration of CD45pos cells and of the percentage of immature germ cells. Before and after the treatment, the concentration of CD45pos cells showed a positive linear correlation with the percentage of immature germ cells and a negative correlation with the percentage of spermatozoa with regular morphology. These results demonstrate that treatment with FSH is effective in patients with idiopathic OAT and that there are no significant differences between the different preparations. The novelty of this study is in the significant reduction of the concentration of CD45pos cells observed after the treatment.

  3. The fentanyl concentration required for immobility under propofol anesthesia is reduced by pre-treatment with flurbiprofen axetil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaka, Mitsuharu; Tsukakoshi, Mikiko; Miyao, Hideki; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Ichikawa, Junko; Komori, Makiko

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the plasma fentanyl concentration required to produce immobility in 50% of patients in response to skin incision (Cp50incision) compared with placebo under target-controlled infusion (TCI) propofol anesthesia. Sixty-two unpremedicated patients scheduled to undergo gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly assigned to receive placebo (control group) or flurbiprofen axetil 1 mg·kg(-1) (flurbiprofen group) preoperatively. General anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and propofol, and intubation was performed after succinylcholine 1 mg·kg(-1). Propofol was administered via a target-controlled infusion (TCI) system (Diprifusor™) set at an effect-site concentration of 5 μg·mL(-1). Fentanyl was given by a TCI system using the STANPUMP software (Schafer model). The concentration for the first patient was set at 3 ng·mL(-1) and modified in each group according to the up-down method. Skin incision was performed after more than ten minutes equilibration time. Serum fentanyl concentration, bispectral index (BIS), and hemodynamic parameters were measured two minutes before and after skin incision. The Cp50incision of fentanyl was derived from the mean of the crossovers (i.e., the serum fentanyl concentrations of successive participants who responded and those who did not or vice versa). Ten and 11 independent crossover pairs were collected in the control and flurbiprofen groups, respectively, representing 42 of 62 enrolled patients. The mean (SD) fentanyl Cp50incision was less in the flurbiprofen group [0.84 (0.63) ng·mL(-1)] than in the control group [1.65 (1.15) ng·mL(-1)]; P = 0.007; however, there were no differences in BIS, blood pressure, or heart rate, between groups. Preoperative flurbiprofen axetil decreased the Cp50incision of fentanyl by 49% during propofol anesthesia without changing the BIS or hemodynamic variables.

  4. I Mend It With Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    I mend it with sugar         Abstract   "Gluttony" and "sloth" is the sugar addictions best friend, or could it be that the addiction comes out of a disturbed hormone production caused by the environment that surrounds us? Trying to understand my own sugar addiction I weave in my personal story into my artistic research around this subject. The sugar might be the cause of the pandemic obesity and that's why it has to bee brought up into the light from its darkness down the basement of the fo...

  5. Comparison of Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Copper in Sugar Cane Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Sarah Adriana R; Costa, Silvânio Silvério L; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny O; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes; Dantas, Alailson Falcão

    2018-05-01

    Three spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of copper (Cu) in sugar cane spirit using the chromogenic reagents neocuproine, cuprizone, and bathocuproine. Experimental conditions, such as reagent concentration, reducer concentration, pH, buffer concentration, the order of addition of reagents, and the stability of the complexes, were optimized. The work range was established from 1.0 to 10.0 µg/mL, with correlation coefficients of >0.999 for all three optimized methods. The methods were evaluated regarding accuracy by addition and recovery tests at five concentration levels, and the obtained recoveries ranged from 91 to 105% (n = 3). Precision was expressed as RSD (relative standard deviation), with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.17% (n = 10). The method using the chromogenic reagent cuprizone presented the greatest molar absorptivity, followed by bathocuproine and neocuproine. The methods were applied for the determination of Cu in sugar cane spirit, and the results were compared with a reference method by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Calibration curve solutions for FAAS analysis were prepared in a 40% (v/v) alcohol medium in a range of concentrations from 0.5 up to 5 µg/mL. Measurements for Cu determination were carried out at a wavelength of 324.7 nm. The concentrations obtained for Cu in sugar cane spirit samples from Brazil were between 1.99 and 12.63 µg/mL, and about 75% of the samples presented Cu concentrations above the limit established by Brazilian legislation (5.0 µg/mL or 5.0 mg/L).

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, reduced basal insulin secretion rate and lower fasting glucagon concentration in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, F; Disse, E; Laville, M

    2012-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes with a stronger effect in women. As the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterised, we investigated its relationship with insulin resistance, insulin secretion, clearance of insulin and glucagon concentration....

  7. Sensory and Physical Effects of Sugar Reduction in a Caramel Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Emily J; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2017-08-01

    Sugar reduction in processed foods is a pressing and complex problem, as sugars contribute important sensory and physical properties to foods. Composed of sugars and lipids, caramel coating systems, like the coating in caramel popcorns, exemplify this challenge. In order to probe the feasibility and consequences of sugar reduction, both sensory and physical properties were measured for 3 types of caramel coating systems. Four commonly used sugar alcohols, isomalt, maltitol, mannitol, and sorbitol, with different thermal properties and relative sweetness values were chosen to replace sugar in the caramel coating systems at 25% and 50% sugar reduction levels. Full sugar (control) and reduced sugar caramel coating samples were prepared in duplicate. Ten trained panelists participated in a 6-wk descriptive analysis panel to define and quantify the intensity of important sensory characteristics. All 24 sensory terms generated by the panel differed significantly across caramel type and sugar replacer. Thermal properties were measured through differential scanning calorimetry, and textural properties were measured through texture profile analysis. Replacement of sugar with sugar alcohols was found to decrease the glass transition temperature and systematically alter the hardness and resilience of caramel samples. Principal component analysis of sensory and physical data revealed that caramel coating type dictates caramel aroma, aroma by mouth, taste, and aftertaste, while sugar replacer and replacement level dictate texture. This research represents the first comprehensive study of the effects of sugar reduction in a caramel coating system and suggests successful strategies for sugar reduction and key parameters to control in reduced sugar systems. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. [Effects of different types and concentration of oral sweet solution on reducing neonatal pain during heel lance procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Hong-yao; Zheng, Xian-lan; Yan, Li; Zhang, Xian-hong; He, Hua-yun; Xiang, Ming

    2013-09-01

    To compare the effect of different types and concentrations of sweet solutions on neonatal pain during heel lance procedure. Totally 560 full term neonates (male 295, female 265) were randomized into 7 groups:placebo group (plain water), 10% glucose, 25% glucose, 50% glucose, 12% sucrose, 24% sucrose and 30% sucrose groups.In each group, 2 ml corresponding oral solutions were administered through a syringe by dripping into the neonate's mouth 2 minute before heel lance. The procedure process was recorded by videos, from which to collect heart rate, oxygen saturation and pain score 1 min before puncture, 3, 5 and 10 min after puncture. The average heart rate increase 3, 5 and 10 min after procedure in the 25% and 50% glucose groups, 12% and 24% and 30% sucrose groups was significantly lower than those in the placebo group (P lance (both P lance, but the best concentration of sucrose for pain relief needs further study.

  9. Vertical variability of arsenic concentrations under the control of iron-sulfur-arsenic interactions in reducing aquifer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Kunfu; Wang, Yanxin; Postma, Dieke; Ma, Teng; Su, Chunli; Xie, Xianjun

    2018-06-01

    High spatial variability of arsenic (As) concentration in geogenic As-contaminated groundwater has been commonly observed worldwide, but the underlying reasons remain not well understood. Selecting a sulfate-containing, As-affected aquifer at the Datong Basin, northern China as the study area and combining hydrogeochemical investigation and sediment extraction with reactive transport modeling, this work elucidated the roles of Fe-S-As interactions in regulating the vertical variation of As concentration in the groundwater. Dissolved As concentration varied between 0.05 and 18 μmol/L, but generally increased in the depth of 20-25 m and then decreased in 25-30 m. The high-As groundwater contained low Fe(II) (groundwater devoid of sulfate reduction. The reductive dissolution of As-bearing Fe(III) oxides coupled to the degradation of organic matter with an estimated maximum rate of 0.22 mmol C/L/yr, mainly accounted for the depth-dependent increase of As concentration in the upper part of the shallow aquifer (groundwater but also probably co-precipitated As to prompt As decrease in the depth of 25-30 m. Arsenite adsorbed on remaining Fe(III) oxides and newly-formed Fe(II) sulfides is another important pool of As in the aquifer, which varies in response to the extents of Fe(III)-oxide and sulfate reduction and consequently alters As distribution coefficient between the solid and the aqueous phases. This study highlights the importance of coupled geochemical cycling of Fe, S and As for As mobilization and reveals how it regulates As partitioning between groundwater and sediments.

  10. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins by S. aureus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secretion of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with beta-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors.

  11. Suppression of aqueous corrosion of La(Fe0.88Si0.12)13 by reducing dissolved oxygen concentration for high-performance magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, S.; Fukamichi, K.; Suzuki, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The aqueous corrosion of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 and its suppression were investigated. • The lattice expansion after immersion was caused by the hydrogen absorption. • The itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition became indistinct after immersion. • The aqueous corrosion was suppressed by reducing the dissolved oxygen concentration. - Abstract: The itinerant-electron metamagnetic transition of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 becomes indistinct after immersion in distilled-water containing about 8 ppm of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration because of aqueous corrosion. However, the aqueous corrosion of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 is significantly suppressed by reducing the DO concentration. Thus, isothermal magnetic entropy change after immersion for 30 days in deaerated distilled-water with a DO concentration less than 0.1 ppm is larger than that after immersion for 5 days in distilled-water containing about 8 ppm of the DO concentration. Consequently, the reduction of the DO concentration is effective for preservation of the excellent magnetocaloric effects of La(Fe 0.88 Si 0.12 ) 13 in an aqueous solution, which is a promising heat transfer fluid of room-temperature magnetic refrigeration

  12. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  13. Surplus dietary tryptophan reduces plasma cortisol and noradrenaline concentrations and enhances recovery after social stress in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, S.J.; Ruis, M.A.W.; Dekker, R.A.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Korte, S.M.; Mroz, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Social stress occurs in intensive pig farming due to aggressive behavior. This stress may be reduced at elevated dietary levels of tryptophan (TRP). In this study, we compared the effects of high (13.2%) vs. normal (3.4%) dietary TRP to large neutral amino acid (LNAA) ratios on behavior and stress

  14. Validación de la metodología ICUMSA "Draft Method Nº 3" para determinar la concentración de almidón en jugos de caña de azúcar Validation of ICUMSA Draft Method No. 3 to determine starch concentration in sugar cane juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Silvia Zossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En la caña de azúcar, el almidón cumple una función de reserva energética, dependiendo su concentración de la variedad y estado de madurez. Este microcomponente ingresa junto con la caña al proceso de fabricación de azúcar, originando problemas durante las distintas etapas de elaboración y en el producto final, cuando se emplea el azúcar como materia prima para la elaboración de otros alimentos. Debido a esto, su cuantificación durante las distintas etapas de fabricación es común en la industria de procesos, a fin de disminuir sus efectos negativos mediante el empleo de la enzima α- amilasa, cuando su contenido excede los valores normales. En la Sección Química de la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, trabajando bajo un sistema de gestión de la calidad de los laboratorios, se busca continuamente actualizar y reemplazar las metodologías vigentes por aquellas que permitan obtener mejores resultados. Por este motivo se validó la aplicación del "Draft Method Nº 3" de la International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis (ICUMSA para la determinación de almidón en jugos de caña de azúcar, debido a su sencillez, rapidez y bajo costo, comparado con los métodos usados anteriormente en el laboratorio. Se determinaron parámetros para establecer su repetibilidad, reproducibilidad e incertidumbre. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que esta técnica es aceptable para determinar almidón en jugo de caña de azúcar en concentraciones comprendidas entre 43,75 mg/l y 500 mg/l, con una incertidumbre de ±6,22%, utilizando un factor de cobertura (K igual a 2.In sugar cane, starch plays a role as energy reservoir and its concentration depends on cane variety and maturity level. This microcomponent interferes with sugar cane manufacturing process, producing problems at different production stages and influencing final products, whenever sugar is used as feedstock for food production. Starch

  15. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  16. Are sugar-free confections really beneficial for dental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, H; Wesamaa, H; Janket, S-J; Bollu, P; Meurman, J H

    2011-10-07

    Various sugar substitutes have been introduced and are widely used in confections and beverages to avoid tooth decay from sugar and other fermentable carbohydrates. One group of sugar substitutes are sugar alcohols or polyols. They have been specifically used in foods for diabetic patients because polyols are not readily absorbed in the intestine and blood stream, preventing post-prandial elevation of glucose level. Additionally they may lower caloric intake. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Trials Registry, Cochrane Oral Health Review, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination in the UK, National Library for Public Health and a Centre for Evidence Based Dentistry website up to the end of October 2010, using the search terms 'sugar alcohol' or 'sugar-free' or 'polyols' and combined with a search with terms 'dental caries' or 'dental erosion'. Xylitol, a polyol, has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for its non-cariogenic properties that actually reduce the risk of dental decay and recently, the European Union also officially approved a health claim about xylitol as a 'tooth friendly' component in chewing gums. Although the presence of acidic flavourings and preservatives in sugar-free products has received less attention, these additives may have adverse dental health effects, such as dental erosion. Furthermore, the term sugar-free may generate false security because people may automatically believe that sugar-free products are safe on teeth. We concluded that polyol-based sugar-free products may decrease dental caries incidence but they may bring another dental health risk, dental erosion, if they contain acidic flavouring. There is a need for properly conducted clinical studies in this area.

  17. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  18. Hydrolysis with Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease reduces antigenic response to bovine whey protein concentrate and αs-casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Konrad; Bajzert, Joanna; Dąbrowska, Anna; Szołtysik, Marek; Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Lubec, Gert; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Willak-Janc, Ewa; Chrzanowska, Józefa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study the effect of hydrolysis with non-commercial Cucurbita ficifolia serine protease on a reduction of the IgE and IgG binding capacity of whey protein concentrate and αs-casein was investigated. The intensity of the protein degradation was analyzed by the degree of hydrolysis, the free amino groups content and RP-HPLC. The ability to bind the antibodies by native proteins and their hydrolysates was determined using a competitive ELISA test. Deep hydrolysis contributed to a significant reduction of immunoreactive epitopes present in WPC. In the case of IgE and IgG present in the serum pool of children with CMA, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h WPC hydrolysate, where the inhibition of the reaction with native WPC was ≤23 and ≤60 %, respectively. The analysis of the IgG reactivity in the antiserum of the immunized goat showed that the lowest antibody binding capacity was exhibited also by 24 h WPC hydrolysate at a concentration of 1000 μg/ml where the inhibition of the reaction with nWPC was ≤47 %. One-hour hydrolysis of α-casein was sufficient to significant reduction of the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) of hydrolysis probably lead to the appearance of new epitopes reactive with polyclonal.

  19. Zero-Gap Alkaline Water Electrolysis Using Ion-Solvating Polymer Electrolyte Membranes at Reduced KOH Concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraglund, Mikkel Rykær; Aili, David; Jankova Atanasova, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Membranes based on poly(2,2'-(m-phenylene)-5,5-bibenzimidazole) (m-PBI) can dissolve large amounts of aqueous KOH to give electrolyte systems with ion conductivity in a practically useful range. The conductivity of the membrane strongly depends on the concentration of the aqueous KOH phase......, reaching about 10-1 S cm-1 or higher in 15-25 wt% KOH. Herein, m-PBI membranes are systematically characterized with respect to performance and short-term stability as electrolyte in a zero-gap alkaline water electrolyzer at different KOH concentrations. Using plain uncatalyzed nickel foam electrodes......, the cell based on m-PBI outperforms the cell based on the commercially available state-of-the-art diaphragm and reaches a current density of 1500 mA cm-2 at 2.4 V in 20 wt% KOH at 80°C. The cell performance remained stable during two days of operation, though post analysis of the membrane using size...

  20. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daie, J.

    1986-01-01

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14 C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

  2. Nifedipine treatment reduces resting calcium concentration, oxidative and apoptotic gene expression, and improves muscle function in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Altamirano

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a recessive X-linked genetic disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin. DMD is characterized in humans and in mdx mice by a severe and progressive destruction of muscle fibers, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and cell death. In mdx muscle fibers, we have shown that basal ATP release is increased and that extracellular ATP stimulation is pro-apoptotic. In normal fibers, depolarization-induced ATP release is blocked by nifedipine, leading us to study the potential therapeutic effect of nifedipine in mdx muscles and its relation with extracellular ATP signaling. Acute exposure to nifedipine (10 µM decreased [Ca(2+]r, NF-κB activity and iNOS expression in mdx myotubes. In addition, 6-week-old mdx mice were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of nifedipine, 1 mg/Kg for 1 week. This treatment lowered the [Ca(2+]r measured in vivo in the mdx vastus lateralis. We demonstrated that extracellular ATP levels were higher in adult mdx flexor digitorum brevis (FDB fibers and can be significantly reduced after 1 week of treatment with nifedipine. Interestingly, acute treatment of mdx FDB fibers with apyrase, an enzyme that completely degrades extracellular ATP to AMP, reduced [Ca(2+]r to a similar extent as was seen in FDB fibers after 1-week of nifedipine treatment. Moreover, we demonstrated that nifedipine treatment reduced mRNA levels of pro-oxidative/nitrosative (iNOS and gp91(phox/p47(phox NOX2 subunits and pro-apoptotic (Bax genes in mdx diaphragm muscles and lowered serum creatine kinase (CK levels. In addition, nifedipine treatment increased muscle strength assessed by the inverted grip-hanging test and exercise tolerance measured with forced swimming test in mdx mice. We hypothesize that nifedipine reduces basal ATP release, thereby decreasing purinergic receptor activation, which in turn reduces [Ca(2+]r in mdx skeletal muscle cells. The results in this work open new

  3. Dietary supplementation with a superoxide dismutase-melon concentrate reduces stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Notin, Claire; Schmitt, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Lacan, Dominique

    2014-06-19

    We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32) and placebo (n = 29) for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD) and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France), and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  4. Dietary Supplementation with a Superoxide Dismutase-Melon Concentrate Reduces Stress, Physical and Mental Fatigue in Healthy People: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carillon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD-melon concentrate supplementation on psychological stress, physical and mental fatigue in healthy people. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 61 people divided in two groups: active supplement (n = 32 and placebo (n = 29 for 12 weeks. Volunteers were given one small hard capsule per day. One capsule contained 10 mg of SOD-melon concentrate (140 U of SOD and starch for the active supplement and starch only for the placebo. Stress and fatigue were evaluated using four psychometric scales: PSS-14; SF-36; Stroop tests and Prevost scale. Results: The supplementation with SOD-melon concentrate significantly decreased perceived stress, compared to placebo. Moreover, quality of life was improved and physical and mental fatigue were reduced with SOD-melon concentrate supplementation. Conclusion: SOD-melon concentrate supplementation appears to be an effective and natural way to reduce stress and fatigue. Trial registration: trial approved by the ethical committee of Poitiers (France, and the ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT01767922.

  5. Multiple Roles of Soluble Sugars in the Establishment of Gunnera-Nostoc Endosymbiosis1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamar, Hima J.; Breathwaite, Erick K.; Prasse, Christine E.; Fraley, Elizabeth R.; Secor, Craig R.; Chibane, Fairouz L.; Elhai, Jeff; Chiu, Wan-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Gunnera plants have the unique ability to form endosymbioses with N2-fixing cyanobacteria, primarily Nostoc. Cyanobacteria enter Gunnera through transiently active mucilage-secreting glands on stems. We took advantage of the nitrogen (N)-limitation-induced gland development in Gunnera manicata to identify factors that may enable plant tissue to attract and maintain cyanobacteria colonies. Cortical cells in stems of N-stressed Gunnera plants were found to accumulate a copious amount of starch, while starch in the neighboring mature glands was nearly undetectable. Instead, mature glands accumulated millimolar concentrations of glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru). Successful colonization by Nostoc drastically reduced sugar accumulation in the surrounding tissue. Consistent with the abundance of Glc and Fru in the gland prior to Nostoc colonization, genes encoding key enzymes for sucrose and starch hydrolysis (e.g. cell wall invertase, α-amylase, and starch phosphorylase) were expressed at higher levels in stem segments with glands than those without. In contrast, soluble sugars were barely detectable in mucilage freshly secreted from glands. Different sugars affected Nostoc’s ability to differentiate motile hormogonia in a manner consistent with their locations. Galactose and arabinose, the predominant constituents of polysaccharides in the mucilage, had little or no inhibitory effect on hormogonia differentiation. On the other hand, soluble sugars that accumulated in gland tissue, namely sucrose, Glc, and Fru, inhibited hormogonia differentiation and enhanced vegetative growth. Results from this study suggest that, in an N-limited environment, mature Gunnera stem glands may employ different soluble sugars to attract Nostoc and, once the cyanobacteria are internalized, to maintain them in the N2-fixing vegetative state. PMID:20833727

  6. Effect of sugar fatty acid esters on rumen fermentation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, M; Hoshino, S

    1987-11-01

    1. The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro. 2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70% increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate:propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent propionate enhancer and rumen gas depressor, the effective dose being as low as 1 g/l in a final concentration. Fatty acid esters other than SFEs had little, if any, effect on rumen VFA production and their molar proportions. 3. Approximately 50% of laurate sugar ester was hydrolysed by in vitro incubation with rumen fluid for 2 h. The addition of fatty acids and sucrose was also effective in the alterations of rumen VFA and gas production. However, the effect of SFEs on in vitro rumen fermentation was significantly greater than that of their constituent fatty acids or sucrose, or both. Accordingly, the effect appeared to be ascribed to the complex action of SFE itself and to its constituents, free fatty acids and sucrose. 4. SFEs, at the level of 4 g/l, reduced substantially the froth formation (ingesta volume increase) and seemed to be effective for the prevention of bloat.

  7. Reduced energy density of close-up diets decrease ruminal pH and increase concentration of volatile fatty acids postpartum in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Li, Shengli; Wu, Zhaohai; Cao, Zhijun

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on ruminal fermentation parameters in transition cows. Fourteen Holstein dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet (HD, 1.62 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NE L )/kg dry matter (DM)), or a middle energy density diet (MD, 1.47 Mcal NE L /kg DM), or a low energy density diet (LD, 1.30 Mcal NE L /kg DM) prepartum, and were fed the same diet postpartum. The reduced energy density diets decreased the average dry matter intake (DMI) prepartum and tended to increase the DMI postpartum. The ruminal pH of the LD group was significantly higher prepartum and lower during the first week of lactation compared with the other two groups. The reduced energy density diet depressed the average ruminal concentration of propionate and butyrate prepartum, and increased the average concentration of total volatile fatty acids (VFA) postpartum. The LD group had higher populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens relative to HD and MD groups on 7 days in milk. In conclusion, the cows fed reduced energy density diet prepartum had higher VFA concentration, but were more susceptible to subacute ruminal acidosis postpartum. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Variation in total sugars and reductive sugars in the moss Pleurozium schreberi (hylocomiaceae) under water deficit conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Ruiz, Luis Carlos; Melgarejo Munoz, Luz Marina.

    2012-01-01

    The structural simplicity of the bryophytes exposed them easily to water stress, forcing them to have physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable them to survive. This study evaluated the variation of total soluble sugars and reducing sugars in relation to relative water content, in Pleurozium schreberi when faced with low water content in the Paramo de Chingaza (Colombia) and under simulated conditions of water deficit in the laboratory. we found that total sugars increase when the plant is dehydrated and returned to their normal content when re-hydrated moss, this could be interpreted as a possible mechanism of osmotic adjustment and osmoprotection of the cell content and cellular structure. Reducing sugars showed no significant variation, showing that monosaccharides do not have a protective role during dehydration.

  9. Sugar Sugar – don’t be misled / laat je niet misleiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2017-01-01

    NRC Handelsblad’s Saturday 25 November issue contains an entry of eleven pages entirely devoted to sugar. It discusses a broad range of topics related to sugar, including the role of sugar throughout the centuries, sugar consumption in the Netherlands, the amount of sugar in bread, and sugar

  10. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  11. Acetoacetate reduces growth and ATP concentration in cancer cell lines which over-express uncoupling protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Edward V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that several human cancers are capable of uncoupling of mitochondrial ATP generation in the presence of intact tricarboxylic acid (TCA enzymes. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies can inhibit cell growth in aggressive cancers and that expression of uncoupling protein 2 is a contributing factor. The proposed mechanism involves inhibition of glycolytic ATP production via a Randle-like cycle while increased uncoupling renders cancers unable to produce compensatory ATP from respiration. Methods Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM, or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. The cells were assayed for cell growth, ATP production and expression of UCP2. Results There was a high correlation of cell growth with ATP concentration (r = 0.948 in a continuum across all cell lines. Controls demonstrated normal cell growth and ATP with the lowest density of mitochondrial UCP2 staining while all cancer lines demonstrated proportionally inhibited growth and ATP, and over-expression of UCP2 (p Conclusion Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. The findings were not observed in control fibroblasts. The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. The results bear on the hypothesized potential for ketogenic diets as therapeutic strategies.

  12. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m−3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m−3. We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  13. Thirteen years of observations on primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Santosh Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Jing; Fu, Pingqing

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the atmospheric transport of bioaerosols, we conducted long-term observations of primary sugars and sugar alcohols over remote Chichijima Island in the western North Pacific from 2001 to 2013. Our results showed that concentrations of total sugar compounds for 13 years ranged from 1.2 to 310 ng m-3 (average of 46 ± 49 ng m-3). We found that atmospheric circulations significantly affect the seasonal variations of bioaerosol distributions over the western North Pacific. The primary sugars (glucose and fructose) maximized in summer, possibly due to an increased emission of the vegetation products from local vascular plants in Chichijima. We also found higher concentrations of sugar components (arabitol, mannitol, and trehalose) in more recent years during summer and autumn, suggesting an enhanced emission of fungal and microbial species over the island. Sucrose peaked in late winter to early spring, indicating a springtime pollen contribution by long-range atmospheric transport, while elevated concentrations of sucrose in early summer could be explained by long-range transport of soil dust from Southeast Asia to Chichijima. Sucrose and trehalose were found to present increasing trends from 2001 to 2013, while total sugar components did not show any clear trends during the 13-year period. Positive matrix factorization analyses suggested the locally emitted sugar compounds as well as long-range-transported airborne pollen grains, microbes, and fungal spores are the major contributors to total sugar compounds in the Chichijima aerosols. Backward air mass trajectories support the atmospheric transport of continental aerosols from the Asian continent during winter and spring over Chichijima.

  14. Effects of serving high-sugar cereals on children's breakfast-eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Schwartz, Marlene B; Ustjanauskas, Amy; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    To test (1) whether children will consume low-sugar ready-to-eat (RTE) cereals and (2) the effects of serving high- versus low-sugar cereals on the consumption of cereal, refined sugar, fresh fruit, and milk. Using an experimental design, we randomly assigned children (n = 91) who were attending summer day camp to receive a breakfast that included either the choice of 1 of 3 high-sugar cereals (high-sugar condition) or low-sugar cereals (low-sugar condition), as well as low-fat milk, orange juice, bananas, strawberries, and sugar packets. Participants served themselves and completed a background questionnaire after eating. Researchers measured the amount and calories consumed of each food. In both conditions, children reported "liking" or "loving" the cereal they chose. Children in the low-sugar cereal condition consumed, on average, slightly more than 1 serving of cereal (35 g), whereas children in the high-sugar condition consumed significantly more (61 g) and almost twice the amount of refined sugar in total (24.4 vs 12.5 g). Milk and total calories consumed did not differ significantly between conditions, but children in the low-sugar condition were more likely to put fruit on their cereal (54% vs 8%) and consumed a greater portion of total calories from fresh fruit (20% vs 13%). Compared with serving low-sugar cereals, high-sugar cereals increase children's total sugar consumption and reduce the overall nutritional quality of their breakfast. Children will consume low-sugar cereals when offered, and they provide a superior breakfast option.

  15. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español When Blood Sugar Is Too Low KidsHealth / For Kids / When Blood ... get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to kids ...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison...... will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results...... obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar...

  17. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 o C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production.

  18. Low concentration of circulating antimüllerian hormone is not predictive of reduced fecundability in young healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Casper; Vestergaard, Sonja; Juul, Anders

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether circulating levels of antimüllerian hormone (AMH) predict fecundability in young healthy women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: General community. PATIENT(S): A total of 186 couples who intended to discontinue contraception to become pregnant were followed...... compared with women with low or medium AMH levels, and they had higher levels of LH (geometric mean: 8.4 vs. 5.3 IU/L) and LH:FSH ratio (2.4 vs. 1.8). After exclusion of women with irregular cycles, women with high AMH still had reduced fecundability (FR 0.48; 95% CI 0.27-0.85) and elevated LH:FSH ratio (2...

  19. Error analysis for reducing noisy wide-gap concentric cylinder rheometric data for nonlinear fluids - Theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, Andrea; Spera, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    This work discusses the propagation of errors for the recovery of the shear rate from wide-gap concentric cylinder viscometric measurements of non-Newtonian fluids. A least-square regression of stress on angular velocity data to a system of arbitrary functions is used to propagate the errors for the series solution to the viscometric flow developed by Krieger and Elrod (1953) and Pawlowski (1953) ('power-law' approximation) and for the first term of the series developed by Krieger (1968). A numerical experiment shows that, for measurements affected by significant errors, the first term of the Krieger-Elrod-Pawlowski series ('infinite radius' approximation) and the power-law approximation may recover the shear rate with equal accuracy as the full Krieger-Elrod-Pawlowski solution. An experiment on a clay slurry indicates that the clay has a larger yield stress at rest than during shearing, and that, for the range of shear rates investigated, a four-parameter constitutive equation approximates reasonably well its rheology. The error analysis presented is useful for studying the rheology of fluids such as particle suspensions, slurries, foams, and magma.

  20. Impact of a New Law to Reduce the Legal Blood Alcohol Concentration Limit - A Poisson Regression Analysis and Descriptive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistal-Nuño, Beatriz

    2017-03-31

    In Chile, a new law introduced in March 2012 lowered the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for impaired drivers from 0.1% to 0.08% and the BAC limit for driving under the influence of alcohol from 0.05% to 0.03%, but its effectiveness remains uncertain. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of this enactment on road traffic injuries and fatalities in Chile. A retrospective cohort study. Data were analyzed using a descriptive and a Generalized Linear Models approach, type of Poisson regression, to analyze deaths and injuries in a series of additive Log-Linear Models accounting for the effects of law implementation, month influence, a linear time trend and population exposure. A review of national databases in Chile was conducted from 2003 to 2014 to evaluate the monthly rates of traffic fatalities and injuries associated to alcohol and in total. It was observed a decrease by 28.1 percent in the monthly rate of traffic fatalities related to alcohol as compared to before the law (Plaw (Plaw implemented in 2012 in Chile. Chile experienced a significant reduction in alcohol-related traffic fatalities and injuries, being a successful public health intervention.

  1. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  2. Lysimeter experiments to determine the ability of soil to reduce concentrations of BOD, available P and inorganic N in dirty water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, S K E; Chadwick; Retter, A R

    2005-11-01

    Lysimeter experiments were conducted to determine the ability of different soils to reduce levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and concentrations of molybdate reactive phosphorus (MRP) and ammonium-N (NH4(+)-N) in dirty water and the impact of applications on nitrate leaching. An additional experiment investigated the effect of dirty water components on leaching quality. This information is required to assess the potential risk of dirty water applications on polluting groundwater and to assess the use of such soils in the development of treatment systems for dirty water. Intact and disturbed soil lysimeters, 0.5 and 1m deep were constructed from four soils; a coarse free-draining sandy loam, a sandy loam over soft sandstone, a calcareous silty clay over chalk and a sandy loam over granite. For the coarse free-draining sandy loam, lysimeters were also constructed from disturbed soil with and without the addition of lime, to assess if this could increase phosphorus immobilisation. Levels of BOD and concentrations of MRP, NH4(+)-N and nitrate (NO3(-)-N) of leachates were measured following dirty water applications at 2 and 8 mm day(-1) under laboratory conditions. Under the daily 2mm application, all soils were effective at treating dirty water, reducing concentrations of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N by > or = 98% but NO3(-)-N concentrations increased up to 80 mg l(-1) from the 0.5 m deep lysimeters of the sandy loam over granite. Soils were less effective at reducing levels of BOD, MRP and NH4(+)- N at the 8 mm daily rate of application, with maximum NO3(-)-N concentrations of leachates of 200 mg l(-1) from disturbed soils.

  3. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schultealbert; Tobias Baur; Andreas Schütze; Tilman Sauerwald

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can ...

  4. Characteristics of fermentation of refined cane sugar syrup for alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, Z A; Bazilevich, K K

    1956-01-01

    Technological properties of cane sugar syrup, obtained on refining of raw cane sugar, were investigated. Its poor fermentation is caused by the lack of nitrous substances (1/10 as much as in sugar beet) necessary for the nutrition of yeast. It is necessary to introduce into the mixture of yeast and must 0.8% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based on weight of syrup (at a permanent aeration the assimilability of N from (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ by the yeast will be higher and the dosage has to be increased), 1% of superphosphate or 0.12% of a 70% phosphoric acid solution, and 0.5% of a yeast autolyst. For the fermentation of cane sugar syrup the mixture of yeast and must has to be prepared with a concentration of 10 to 11/sup 0/ by the saccharometer scale, but the average initial concentration of the fermentive must has to be 17 to 18/sup 0/ with the intention to keep the alcohol content of the ripe must at 8.7 to 8.8% by volume. Considering the low buffer ability of the syrup from cane sugar, the acidity of the must, mixed with yeast, has to be kept less than or equal to 0.4 to 0.5/sup 0/, the pH at 4.6 to 4.8; on a higher acidity the pH drops to a value which inhibits the fission of the yeast cells. On a joint fermentation of syrup from sugar cane and sugar beets 1% of superphosphate in the form of an aqueous extract and an autolyst of yeast in an amount of 0.5% of the weight of syrup was introduced into the must; the yield of alcohol from cane sugar syrup increased compared with the yield on separate processing.

  5. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of tributyltin reduced survival, growth, and 20-hydroxyecdysone levels in a marine mysid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Saravanan, Manoharan; Lee, Do-Hee; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2018-06-07

    Tributyltin (TBT) is as an antifouling organotin compound used in boat paints. Although organotin-based antifouling agents have been banned on a global scale, the mode of action of TBT has been studied in numerous aquatic species because of its toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and endocrine-disrupting characteristics. In this study, we conducted 96-h acute toxicity tests wherein we exposed juvenile and adult marine mysids to waterborne TBT. Over 4 weeks of exposure, mortality was dose-dependently increased in juveniles and adult mysids. To test sublethal effects of TBT on juvenile development, newborn juvenile mysids were exposed to 1, 5, or 10 ng L -1  TBT for 4 weeks. Subsequently, we measured morphological growth parameters and quantified the hormone ecdysterone (20-hydroxyecdysone: 20E), which controls molting in mysids. The lengths of the whole body, antennal scale, exopod, endopod, and telson were significantly smaller in the 5 and/or 10 ng L -1 TBT-exposed juvenile mysids than in control and DMSO-exposed groups. Levels of 20E were significantly lower at 5 and 10 ng L -1  TBT exposures. Additionally, the number of newly hatched juveniles was significantly lower from females previously exposed to 10 ng L -1  TBT. Our results indicate sublethal concentrations of TBT have inhibitory effects on the survival, growth, and production of juveniles. The lower 20E levels could be strongly associated with TBT-triggered inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Administration of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen increases macrophage concentrations but reduces necrosis during modified muscle use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E. V.; Tidball, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ibuprofen administration during modified muscle use reduces muscle necrosis and invasion by select myeloid cell populations. METHODS: Rats were subjected to hindlimb unloading for 10 days, after which they experienced muscle reloading by normal weight-bearing to induce muscle inflammation and necrosis. Some animals received ibuprofen by intraperitoneal injection 8 h prior to the onset of muscle reloading, and then again at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Other animals received buffer injection at 8 h prior to reloading and then ibuprofen at 8 and 16 h following the onset of reloading. Control animals received buffer only at each time point. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis was used to assess the presence of necrotic muscle fibers, total inflammatory infiltrate, neutrophils, ED1+ macrophages and ED2+ macrophages at 24 h following the onset of reloading. RESULT: Administration of ibuprofen beginning 8 h prior to reloading caused significant reduction in the concentration of necrotic fibers, but increased the concentration of inflammatory cells in muscle. The increase in inflammatory cells was attributable to a 2.6-fold increase in the concentration of ED2+ macrophages. Animals treated with ibuprofen 8 h following the onset of reloading showed no decrease in muscle necrosis or increase in ED2+ macrophage concentrations. CONCLUSION: Administration of ibuprofen prior to increased muscle loading reduces muscle damage, but increases the concentration of macrophages that express the ED2 antigen. The increase in ED2+ macrophage concentration and decrease in necrosis may be mechanistically related because ED2+ macrophages have been associated with muscle regeneration and repair.

  7. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schultealbert

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR. For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude for four different reducing gases (CO, H2, ammonia and benzene using randomized gas exposures.

  8. Facile Quantification and Identification Techniques for Reducing Gases over a Wide Concentration Range Using a MOS Sensor in Temperature-Cycled Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultealbert, Caroline; Baur, Tobias; Schütze, Andreas; Sauerwald, Tilman

    2018-03-01

    Dedicated methods for quantification and identification of reducing gases based on model-based temperature-cycled operation (TCO) using a single commercial MOS gas sensor are presented. During high temperature phases the sensor surface is highly oxidized, yielding a significant sensitivity increase after switching to lower temperatures (differential surface reduction, DSR). For low concentrations, the slope of the logarithmic conductance during this low-temperature phase is evaluated and can directly be used for quantification. For higher concentrations, the time constant for reaching a stable conductance during the same low-temperature phase is evaluated. Both signals represent the reaction rate of the reducing gas on the strongly oxidized surface at this low temperature and provide a linear calibration curve, which is exceptional for MOS sensors. By determining these reaction rates on different low-temperature plateaus and applying pattern recognition, the resulting footprint can be used for identification of different gases. All methods are tested over a wide concentration range from 10 ppb to 100 ppm (4 orders of magnitude) for four different reducing gases (CO, H₂, ammonia and benzene) using randomized gas exposures.