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Sample records for reducing student anxiety

  1. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  2. Reducing mathematics anxiety among students with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, Educational Psychologists, Counselling Psychologist and other educational related bodies could adopt the packages for educational diagnosis to improve academic performance of students with academic phobia. Keywords: Numerical Cognition, Emotional Freedom (Meridian-based Intervention), ...

  3. Peer Mentoring During Practicum to Reduce Anxiety in First-Semester Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Danielle; Verklan, Terese

    2016-11-01

    The clinical setting creates significant anxiety for students that can decrease their ability to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined whether nursing students who participate in peer mentoring during their first clinical experience (n = 18) experienced less anxiety than those in traditional clinical experiences (n = 19). Anxiety was measured using the standardized State Trait Anxiety Index and the Clinical Experiences Anxiety Form (CEAF). Data were analyzed using descriptive and nonparametric statistics. A significant decrease was demonstrated in clinical situation-specific anxiety, as measured by the CEAF, among students who were peer mentored as compared with students who were not. Peer mentoring shows promise as an effective strategy to reduce anxiety among novice nursing students. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):651-654.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Effectiveness of a Death-Education Program in Reducing Death Anxiety of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Noreen; Lally, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of death education program in reducing death anxiety experienced by 22 junior and senior nursing students. Subjects were pre- and posttested with State Form of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and viewed film of death experience. Posttest analysis indicated that death education program was effective in decreasing death anxiety…

  5. Humor Reduces Anxiety and Disgust in Anticipation of an Educational Dissection in Teacher Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter; Demirhan, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Dissections of human organs and animals are an important part of medical and science education but students usually express negative emotions towards dissections. Some studies show a negative influence of disgust and anxiety on motivation, interest and achievement. Therefore, reducing anxiety and disgust should be an important aim. As humor can…

  6. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. Materials and Methods: In the experimental design ′Before-and -after with control design′, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 120 medical students who were randomly selected from a private medical college, comprising of 30 males and 30 females in each of the two groups, viz., the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis: Means, standard deviations, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Counseling is helpful in building self-confidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical college students.

  7. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  8. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Coumaravelou Saravanan; Rajiah Kingston

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress a...

  9. Autogenic training to reduce anxiety in nursing students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Nasim; White, Adrian; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study to determine the effectiveness of autogenic training in reducing anxiety in nursing students. Nursing is stressful, and nursing students also have the additional pressures and uncertainties shared with all academic students. Autogenic training is a relaxation technique consisting of six mental exercises and is aimed at relieving tension, anger and stress. Meta-analysis has found large effect sizes for autogenic trainings intervention comparisons, medium effect sizes against control groups, and no effects when compared with other psychological therapies. A controlled trial with 50 nursing students found that the number of certified days off sick was reduced by autogenic training compared with no treatment, and a second trial with only 18 students reported greater improvement in Trait Anxiety, but not State Anxiety, compared with untreated controls. A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was completed in 1998 with 93 nursing students aged 19-49 years. The setting was a university college in the United Kingdom. The treatment group received eight weekly sessions of autogenic training, the attention control group received eight weekly sessions of laughter therapy, and the time control group received no intervention. The outcome measures were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, blood pressure and pulse rate completed at baseline, 2 months (end of treatment), and 5, 8, and 11 months from randomization. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction of State (Pautogenic training group than in both other groups immediately after treatment. There were no differences between the groups for the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The autogenic training group also showed statistically significantly greater reduction immediately after treatment in systolic (PAutogenic training has at least a short-term effect in alleviating stress in nursing students.

  10. The effectiveness of psychoeducation and systematic desensitization to reduce test anxiety among first-year pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiah, Kingston; Saravanan, Coumaravelou

    2014-11-15

    To analyze the effect of psychological intervention on reducing performance anxiety and the consequences of the intervention on first-year pharmacy students. In this experimental study, 236 first-year undergraduate pharmacy students from a private university in Malaysia were approached between weeks 5 and 7 of their first semester to participate in the study. The completed responses for the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS), the Kessler Perceived Distress Scale (PDS), and the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) were received from 225 students. Out of 225 students, 42 exhibited moderate to high test anxiety according to the WTAS (score ranging from 30 to 39) and were randomly placed into either an experiment group (n=21) or a waiting list control group (n=21). The prevalence of test anxiety among pharmacy students in this study was lower compared to other university students in previous studies. The present study's anxiety management of psychoeducation and systematic education for test anxiety reduced lack of motivation and psychological distress and improved grade point average (GPA). Psychological intervention helped significantly reduce scores of test anxiety, psychological distress, and lack of motivation, and it helped improve students' GPA.

  11. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  12. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-05-01

    Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  13. Reducing Test Anxiety among 12th Grade Students: Iraqi Kurdistan Region/Soran City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqe, Chiayee Khorshid; Moheddin, Kurdistan Rafiq; Kakamad, Karwan Kakabra

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at reducing test anxiety among twelfth grade students at Soran city high schools. Throughout the study both quantitative and qualitative methods used to collect data. The participants were 450 twelfth grade students in five schools at Soran City-Kurdistan region of Iraq. Non-random purposive sampling because the students needed…

  14. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Parviz Molavi; Niloufar Mikaeili; Neda Rahimi; Saeid Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students i...

  15. Reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in high school and college students with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachelka, D; Katz, R C

    1999-09-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure in otherwise capable students. Because test anxiety is common in older students with learning disabilities (LD), it is surprising that little research has been done on ways to reduce the distress these students experience in test situations. In this study, we used a randomized pretest-posttest control group design to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in a cohort (N = 27) of high school and college students with learning disabilities (LD). All of the students participated voluntarily. They were enrolled in classes for students with learning problems. Before the study began, they complained of test anxiety and showed an elevated score on the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI). Eleven students (85%) completed the 8-week long treatment, which consisted of progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, self-instruction training, as well as training in study and test-taking skills. Results showed significant improvement in the treated group which was not evident in an untreated control group (N = 16). Compared to the control group, the treated group showed significant reductions in test anxiety on the TAI, as well as improvement in study skills and academic self-esteem as measured by the Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes, and the school scale of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. These results extend the generality of similar studies on reducing test anxiety and improving academic self-esteem in younger students. They also suggest that relief from test anxiety can be expected fairly quickly when cognitive-behavioral methods are used. Additional implications and methodological limitations of the study are discussed.

  16. Improving ability mathematic literacy, self-efficacy and reducing mathematical anxiety with learning Treffinger model at senior high school students

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    Hafizh Nizham

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a Quasi Experimental study with the design of The Pretest-Post-Test Non-Equivalent Group Design. Population in this research is all student of class X SHS in South Jakarta. Sampling is done by purposive sampling, to obtain an experimental class and control class. In the experimental class, students learn with Treffinger learning model and control, class learning with conventional learning. This study is also to examine the differences of self-efficacy improvement and students literacy skills, and decreased students' mathematical anxiety. Also, this study also examines the relevance of early mathematical abilities (high, medium, low with improving students' math literacy skills. The instrument used in this research is literacy skill test, self-efficacy scale, mathematical anxiety scale, observation sheet, and student interview. Data were analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA, and two lines. From the results of the data, it is found that: (1 The improvement of literacy ability of students who are learned with Treffinger model learning is not significantly higher than students who learn with conventional. (2 The self-efficacy of students who learning with the Treffinger model learning  is better than the student that is learning by conventional. (3 The mathematical anxiety of students learning with Treffinger model learning reduces better than students learning with conventional. (4 There is a difference in the improvement of students' mathematical literacy skills learning by learning the Treffinger model and students learning with conventional learning based on early mathematical abilities. (5 Student response to Treffinger model learning is better than students learning with conventional learning. Therefore, learning model Treffinger can be an alternative model of learning to improve students' mathematical literacy skills, and self-efficacy students, and able to reduce mathematical anxiety.

  17. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Based on Reducing Anxiety and Depression in Students with Social Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Molavi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Social phobia is one of the common anxiety disorders characterized by fear of social situations, shame and embarrassment in communicating with unfamiliar people. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy in reducing anxiety and depression in students with social phobia .   Methods: An experimental pretest-posttest with control group design was used to conduct the study. The population consists of all female students in Ardabil city, 2013-2014 academic years. Using a multiple-stage cluster sampling method, a representative sample consists of 400 students was selected for the study. Then, among the students those with social phobia (based on the cut-off point, 34 participants were randomly selected and divided into two groups of 17 people (one experimental group and one control group . The participants in experimental group received acceptance and commitment therapy for 10 sessions of 90 minutes. The control group did not receive any intervention. Anxiety, depression and social phobia questionnaires were administered to the two groups before and after the intervention. Descriptive statistics and multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA were used for data analysis.   Results: The results of data analysis showed that treatment based on acceptance and commitment therapy reduces anxiety, depression and social phobia of students in the experimental group compared with the control group (p<0.001 .   Conclusion: The present study showed that acceptance and commitment therapy for students with social phobia can be used as a psychological intervention along with other intervention mechanisms.

  18. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  19. Three Treatments for Reducing the Worry and Emotionality Components of Test Anxiety with Undergraduate and Graduate College Students: Cognitive-Behavioral Hypnosis, Relaxation Therapy, and Supportive Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    1996-01-01

    Examines the effects of 3 different types of therapy in reducing the worry and emotional components associated with test anxiety among undergraduate (n=45) and graduate (n=45) students. Relaxation therapy was more effective with graduate students, while undergraduates responded more to supportive counseling. (JPS)

  20. Does Coping With Music as an Art Reduce Anxiety and Depression Symptoms? A Comparison of Conservatoire and Other Faculty Students

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    Nazan Karaoglu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Art is known to be a tool which provides relaxation and helps therapy especially in psychiatric diseases and in many other health problems. But the effect of art in artists is not known well. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is a difference in anxiety and depression symptom scores between students of conservatoire and the other faculties. METHOD: In this study, anxiety and depression scores of volunteer students in conservatoire and other faculties were determined via a self administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Percentages, chi-square, student-t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 171 students in the ages of 17–29 (mean=21.36±2.31 years and 89 (52% were female. Among 55 (32.2% conservatoire students and 116(67.8% other faculties’ students 104(60.8% were living in a hostel. Mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.21±3.37, 5.80±3.49 for conservatoire students and 7.56 ±3.62, 5.81±3.41 for the comparisons, respectively. There were symptoms above the cut– off levels for anxiety in 28 students (16.4% and for depression in 47 students (27.5% in the whole group. While anxiety and depression symptoms percentages were 18.2 %( n=10 and 15.5 %( n=18 in conservatoire students, that were 32.7 %( n=18 and 25.0 %( n=29 in other students. The difference was not statistically significant for both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that dealing with music as an art didn’t made difference in anxiety and depression symptoms in this study population. Art is always accepted as a relaxation tool but individuals making art as a lesson, as a job or as a way to gain money can feel different. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 465-472

  1. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

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    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  2. Audiovisual Material as Educational Innovation Strategy to Reduce Anxiety Response in Students of Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Maria Isabel; Castano, Gloria; Arraez-Aybar, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the design, effect and utility of using audiovisual material containing real images of dissected human cadavers as an innovative educational strategy (IES) in the teaching of Human Anatomy. The goal is to familiarize students with the practice of dissection and to transmit the importance and necessity of this discipline, while…

  3. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  4. Measuring Developmental Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    This study conducted an item-level analysis of mathematics anxiety and examined the dimensionality of mathematics anxiety in a sample of developmental mathematics students (N = 162) by Multi-dimensional Random Coefficients Multinominal Logit Model (MRCMLM). The results indicate a moderately correlated factor structure of mathematics anxiety (r =…

  5. Examination anxiety among secondary school students in Edo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... encourage stakeholders in the learning process to promote good study habits, provide learning materials and facilities that will build self confidence in the students, thereby reducing anxiety over examination. Keywords: Examination Anxiety, Adolescents, Secondary School Students, Examination Phobia, Test Anxiety ...

  6. Can Facebook Reduce Perceived Anxiety Among College Students? Randomized Controlled Exercise Trial Using the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul

    2017-12-08

    Recent studies suggest social media may be an attractive strategy to promote mental health and wellness. There remains a need to examine the utility for individually tailored wellness messages posted to social media sites such as Facebook to facilitate positive psychological outcomes. Our aim was to extend the growing body of evidence supporting the potential for social media to enhance mental health. We evaluated the influence of an 8-week social media intervention on anxiety in college students and examined the impact of dynamic (active) versus static (passive) Facebook content on physical activity behaviors. Participants in the static group (n=21) accessed a Facebook page featuring 96 statuses. Statuses were intended to engage cognitive processes followed by behavioral processes of change per the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Content posted on the static Facebook page was identical to the dynamic page; however, the static group viewed all 96 statuses on the first day of the study, while the dynamic group received only 1 to 2 of these status updates per day throughout the intervention. Anxiety was measured using the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). Time spent engaging in physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The OASIS change score for the dynamic Facebook group was statistically significant (P=.003), whereas the change score for the static group was not (P=.48). A statistically significant group-by-time interaction was observed (P=.03). The total IPAQ group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant (P=.06). We observed a decrease in anxiety and increase in total physical activity for the dynamic group only. Dynamic social networking sites, featuring regularly updated content, may be more advantageous than websites that retain static content over time. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03363737; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03363737 (Archived by WebCite at http

  7. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related

  8. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related

  9. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  10. Students' anxiety in a senior thesis course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M R; Palm, L J

    2000-06-01

    The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered on Weeks 8, 12, and 15 of a semester to 16 students enrolled in a senior thesis course. State anxiety scores were elevated when oral presentations began and declined following the presentations. Trait anxiety scores remained constant across test administrations. The influence of situational variables on students' anxiety was discussed.

  11. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  12. A Multifaceted Program To Improve Self-Esteem and Social Skills while Reducing Anxiety in Emotionally Handicapped Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Lynn

    A practicum was developed to increase self-esteem, to lower anxiety, and to improve social skills in 13 emotionally handicapped (EH) middle school boys. An additional objective was to provide parenting classes which focused on increasing parents' knowledge and skills in improving their children's self esteem. The 8-month multifaceted program…

  13. Effectiveness of Structured Psychodrama and Systematic Desensitization in Reducing Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A.; Giladi, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    Students with examination anxiety took part in study of effectiveness of two kinds of treatment, structured psychodrama and systematic desensitization, in reducing test anxiety. Results showed that subjects in both treatment groups significantly reduced test-anxiety scores. Structured psychodrama is as effective as systematic desensitization in…

  14. Dental Anxiety among Medical and Paramedical Undergraduate Students of Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjal, Shilpa; Pateel, Deepak Gowda Sadashivappa; Parkar, Sujal

    2017-01-01

    Aim . To assess the dental anxiety level among dental, medical, and pharmacy students of MAHSA University, Malaysia. Materials and Methods . A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1500 undergraduate students of MAHSA University. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. The responses were assessed by 5-point likert scale ranging from 1 to 5. The level of anxiety was categorized into lowly anxious (5-11), moderately anxious (12-18), and severely anxious ≥19. Out of 1500 students enrolled, 1024 students (342 males and 682 females) completed and returned the questionnaire having response rate of 68.26%. Results . There was a statistically significant difference ( P students had lowest mean score (11.95 ± 4.21). The fifth year (senior) dental students scored significantly ( P = 0.02) lower mean anxiety score as compared to the first dental students (junior). The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Conclusions . Dental students have a significantly low level of dental anxiety as compared with medical and pharmacy students. Incorporation of dental health education in preuniversity and other nondental university curriculums may reduce dental anxiety among the students.

  15. Yoga reduces performance anxiety in adolescent musicians.

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    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany; Shorter, Stephanie M; Reinhardt, Kristen M; Cope, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Professional musicians often experience high levels of stress, music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Given the fact that most professional musicians begin their musical training before the age of 12, it is important to identify interventions that will address these issues from an early age. This study intended to replicate and expand upon adult research in this area by evaluating the effects of a yoga intervention on MPA and PRMDs in a population of adolescent musicians. The present study was the first to examine these effects. The research team assigned participants, adolescent musicians, into two groups. The intervention group (n = 84) took part in a 6-wk yoga program, and the control group (n = 51) received no treatment. The team evaluated the effects of the yoga intervention by comparing the scores of the intervention group to those of the control group on a number of questionnaires related to MPA and PRMDs. The study was conducted at the Boston University Tanglewood Institute (BUTI). BUTI is a training academy for advanced adolescent musicians, located in Lenox, Massachusetts. Participants were adolescent, residential music students (mean age = 16 y) in a 6-wk summer program at the BUTI in 2007 and 2008. Participants in the yoga intervention group were requested to attend three, 60-min, Kripalustyle yoga classes each wk for 6 wk. MPA was measured using the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A). PRMDs were measured using the Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (PRMD-Q). RESULTS • Yoga participants showed statistically significant reductions in MPA from baseline to the end of the program compared to the control group, as measured by several subscales of the PAQ and MPAI-A; however, the results for PRMDs were inconsistent. The findings suggest that yoga may be a promising way for adolescents to reduce MPA and

  16. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda G.

    2013-01-01

    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  17. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  18. Reducing statistics anxiety and enhancing statistics learning achievement: effectiveness of a one-minute strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Chei-Chang; Wang, Yu-Min; Lee, Li-Tze

    2014-08-01

    Statistical knowledge is widely used in academia; however, statistics teachers struggle with the issue of how to reduce students' statistics anxiety and enhance students' statistics learning. This study assesses the effectiveness of a "one-minute paper strategy" in reducing students' statistics-related anxiety and in improving students' statistics-related achievement. Participants were 77 undergraduates from two classes enrolled in applied statistics courses. An experiment was implemented according to a pretest/posttest comparison group design. The quasi-experimental design showed that the one-minute paper strategy significantly reduced students' statistics anxiety and improved students' statistics learning achievement. The strategy was a better instructional tool than the textbook exercise for reducing students' statistics anxiety and improving students' statistics achievement.

  19. A yoga intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judith R S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-09-01

    Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrolled in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research.

  20. Insecure attachment and anxiety in student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L

    2013-06-01

    The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.

  1. Social Anxiety in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasi, Guzin

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety occurs when people feel doubtful about their particular impressions, real or imaginary, on others. Social anxiety, as denoted by its name, is a situation that arises in social settings as an outcome of interpersonal relationships. What lies in the basis of social anxiety is the fear of being evaluated by others as inadequate. Social…

  2. School Nurse Perceptions of Student Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeo, Michela A; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in youth. Because somatic complaints are a hallmark feature of anxiety, these students frequently visit their school nurse, creating an ideal opportunity for nurses to identify and assist them. In an effort to better understand current practices, we surveyed a large sample ( N = 93) of school nurses. Results indicated that the majority of nurses perceived anxiety as the most prevalent mental health issue in their students. Moreover, the majority of nurses reported that they did not use any formal screening tool or intervention protocol and stated wanting to expand their training in anxiety intervention. These data suggest that school nurses identify anxiety as a top problem but do not receive adequate training to address it. Data from this survey may be used to plan how best to fill gaps in nurse training and practices that can enhance nurses' capacity to optimize outcomes for anxious students.

  3. The Effect of Autogenic Training on Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Performance on Nursing Student Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Brian; Gosselin, Kevin; Mulcahy, Angela

    The increased anxiety experienced by nursing students during simulations can serve as a significant barrier to learning. The use of anxiety-reducing techniques such as autogenic training (AT) can mitigate the negative effects of anxiety and improve the overall learning experience. The investigators in this study sought to understand the effect of AT on student performance and self-efficacy during simulation experiences. The use of AT was an effective technique to decrease anxiety and increase performance among nursing students during nursing simulations. Reducing anxiety during simulations can improve the student learning experience.

  4. The effect of assertiveness training on student's academic anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebi, S; Sharifirad, G H R; Shahsiah, M; Botlani, S; Matlabi, M; Rezaeian, M

    2012-03-01

    Academic anxiety is an important educational problem that affects millions of students in colleges and schools over the world each year. Although a low level of anxiety can cause positive motivation for improvement of educational functioning, high levels of it can cause a disturbance in concentration, attention, storage of knowledge, recall and educational reduction. It has also been recently determined that there is a relationship between anxiety and assertiveness. Therefore, this study is an attempt to determine the effect of assertiveness training on reducing anxiety levels in pre-college academic students in Gonabad city in 2008. In this clinical trial study, all the pre-college students of Gonabad city were invited to participate and 89 students were divided into experimental and control groups. There were 3 questionnaires, namely demographic, academic anxiety and assertiveness Rathus questionnaires in which the validity and reliability were calculated and approved. The intervention for the experimental group was 5 sessions of assertiveness training using the PRECEDE model and 1 session for parents and teachers to help and support the intervention program. We had a post-test 8 weeks after the last training session for each group was conducted. The data was analyzed by SPSS. The results showed that anxiety levels and decisiveness in the target group were moderate to high and it is seen as a significant reverse relationship between these two factors (r = -0.69 and p anxiety decrease in the experimental group after the intervention. On the one hand, there was a significant increase in decisiveness for both groups, but there was not a significant difference between academic anxiety and assertiveness in the control group.before and after the intervention. Due to a significant decrease in anxiety and increased decisiveness in the experimental group, it can be claimed that assertiveness training is an effective non-pharmacological method for reducing academic anxiety

  5. Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…

  6. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students

    OpenAIRE

    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that includ...

  7. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  8. Effectiveness of “Task Concentration Training” in Reducing the Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Golmohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study, 20 students with social anxiety disorder were studied in Shahed University in 2014-15 academic year. The subjects, selected via stepwise cluster sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control and experimental (task concentration training groups. Data was collected using the social anxiety questionnaire and the structured clinical interview. Five one-hour task-concentration treatment sessions were conducted in experimental group. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using independent T test. Findings: The mean scores of social anxiety and its sub-scales were not significantly different in experimental and control groups at the pretest stage (p>0.05. Nevertheless, the pretest-posttest differences of the scores of social anxiety and its subscales including avoidance, fear, and physiologic discomfort between the groups were significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: The task-concentration training techniques reduce the social anxiety symptoms in persons with social anxiety disorders.

  9. University students' understanding of social anxiety disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Yashiki, Hisako; Uchino, Teiji; Isobe, Noriko; Takata, Jun; Kojima, Nanae; Nihonmatsu, Misato; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is an important cause of psychosocial morbidity in adolescents and young adults. Problems in adolescents and young adults with social anxiety disorder would be a topic in recent years in campus mental health. We examined the opinion of social anxiety disorder on university students. We found that many students felt anxiety in various social scenes, and some students were worried about their anxiety. Most of the students understood the importance of mental treatment for...

  10. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basudan, Sumaya; Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-05-24

    To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress. Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, prelationships (for depression b=-3.527, panxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions.

  12. Reducing post-traumatic anxiety by immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Gil M; Cohen, Hagit; Schwartz, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Trafficking of T lymphocytes to specific organs, such as the skin and lungs, is part of the body's defense mechanism following acute psychological stress. Here we demonstrate that T lymphocytes are also trafficking to the brain in response to psychological stress and are needed to alleviate its negative behavioral consequences. We show that short exposure of mice to a stressor (predator odor) enhanced T-cell infiltration to the brain, especially to the choroid plexus, and that this infiltration was associated with increased ICAM-1 expression by choroid plexus cells. Systemic administration of corticosterone could mimic the effects of psychological stress on ICAM-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that the ability to cope with this stress is interrelated with T-cell trafficking and with the brain and hippocampal BDNF levels. Immunization with a CNS-related peptide reduced the stress-induced anxiety and the acoustic startle response, and restored levels of BDNF, shown to be important for stress resilience. These results identified T cells as novel players in coping with psychological stress, and offers immunization with a myelin-related peptide as a new therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic consequences of acute psychological trauma, such as those found in posttraumatic stress disorder.

  13. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lujun; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts. Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones. Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  14. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Shen

    Full Text Available To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students.The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts.Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05. Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones.Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  15. Anxiety and Death Anxiety in Egyptian and Spanish Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…

  16. Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety. Information Capsule. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…

  17. Mathematical Anxiety among Business Statistics Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High, Robert V.

    A survey instrument was developed to identify sources of mathematics anxiety among undergraduate business students in a statistics class. A number of statistics classes were selected at two colleges in Long Island, New York. A final sample of n=102 respondents indicated that there was a relationship between the mathematics grade in prior…

  18. Student teacher anxieties related to practice teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    pedagogical, classroom management and staff relations factors. Capel ... Is there any relationship between anxiety and student teachers' personality factors? 3. ..... dimensions relate to specific work-related stress factors (Ngidi, 1998). In the same vein, ... Extraversion, Neuroticism and Coping as Variables in the Burnout ...

  19. Statistics Anxiety among Postgraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Denise; Zawi, Mohd Khairi

    2014-01-01

    Most postgraduate programmes, that have research components, require students to take at least one course of research statistics. Not all postgraduate programmes are science based, there are a significant number of postgraduate students who are from the social sciences that will be taking statistics courses, as they try to complete their…

  20. Students with Anxiety: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E. Heather; Robertson, Phyllis; Curtis, Russ; Frick, Melodie H.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most pervasive mental health concerns affecting students, yet a significant number of students with anxiety disorders remain underserved. If left untreated, anxiety can hinder students' personal/social, academic, and career development. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with helpful…

  1. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. Methods The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants’ writing manuscripts. Results Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students’ writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days’ manuscripts and the last 10 days’ ones. Conclusions Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study. PMID:29401473

  2. Is Cognitive Test-Taking Anxiety Associated With Academic Performance Among Nursing Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duty, Susan M; Christian, Ladonna; Loftus, Jocelyn; Zappi, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive component of test anxiety was correlated with academic performance among nursing students. Modest but statistically significant lower examination grade T scores were observed for students with high compared with low levels of cognitive test anxiety (CTA). High levels of CTA were associated with reduced academic performance.

  3. Surgery information reduces anxiety in the pre-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohara Leandro Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Patients preparing to undergo surgery should not suffer needless anxiety. This study aimed to evaluate anxiety levels on the day before surgery as related to the information known by the patient regarding the diagnosis, surgical procedure, or anesthesia. METHOD: Patients reported their knowledge of diagnosis, surgery, and anesthesia. The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was used to measure patient anxiety levels. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-nine patients were selected, and 82 females and 38 males were interviewed. Twenty-nine patients were excluded due to illiteracy. The state-anxiety levels were alike for males and females (36.10 ± 11.94 vs. 37.61 ± 8.76 (mean ± SD. Trait-anxiety levels were higher for women (42.55 ± 10.39 vs. 38.08 ± 12.25, P = 0.041. Patient education level did not influence the state-anxiety level but was inversely related to the trait-anxiety level. Knowledge of the diagnosis was clear for 91.7% of patients, of the surgery for 75.0%, and of anesthesia for 37.5%. Unfamiliarity with the surgical procedure raised state-anxiety levels (P = 0.021. A lower state-anxiety level was found among patients who did not know the diagnosis but knew about the surgery (P = 0.038. CONCLUSIONS: Increased knowledge of patients regarding the surgery they are about to undergo may reduce their state-anxiety levels.

  4. Statistics Anxiety and Business Statistics: The International Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Does the international student suffer from statistics anxiety? To investigate this, the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) was administered to sixty-six beginning statistics students, including twelve international students and fifty-four domestic students. Due to the small number of international students, nonparametric methods were used to…

  5. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  6. Role of Academic Self-efficacy and Social Support on Nursing Students' Test Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawski, Sigalit; Bar-Lev, Oshra; Barnoy, Sivia

    2018-05-25

    Associations between test anxiety, academic self-efficacy (ASE), and social support through social media have not been fully explored. The purposes were to explore associations between test anxiety, ASE, and social support from social media and to examine differences in test anxiety by students' year of studies and cultural background. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive design. The sample comprised first- and fourth-year nursing students (n = 240) attending a baccalaureate nursing program in Israel. Higher ASE and support through social media were related to lower test anxiety. Fourth-year students and Jewish students had higher ASE than first-year and Arab students, who received more support on social media than Jewish students. Developing learning strategies designed to increase students' ASE and reduce test anxiety is warranted. Social media as an educational tool can be adopted for this purpose.

  7. Developing Business Writing Skills and Reducing Writing Anxiety of EFL Learners through Wikis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed Ali Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effect of using wikis on developing business writing skills and reducing writing anxiety of Business Administration students at Prince Sattam bin Abdul Aziz University, KSA. Sixty students, who were randomly chosen and divided into two equivalent groups: control and experimental, participated in the…

  8. Executive Functioning Profiles and Test Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick S.

    2017-01-01

    The current study attempted to answer whether a specific executive functioning profile for individuals with test anxiety exists and whether deficits in working memory are associated with an earlier onset of test anxiety. Two hundred eighty-four undergraduate students completed a survey on test anxiety and self-report measures of test anxiety and…

  9. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

  10. Personalized music to reduce patient anxiety (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zwaag, M.; Tijs, T.J.W.; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Patient anxiety is a frequently occurring concern as it decreases patient satisfaction, increases consultation duration, and can influence successful medical outcome. To illustrate, for some diagnosis methods as PET scans patients need to be relaxed for successful medicaloutcome. Music can possibly

  11. Propranolol reduces the anxiety associated with day case surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealy, K; Ngeh, N; Gillen, P; Fitzpatrick, G; Keane, F B; Tanner, A

    1996-01-01

    To find out if propranolol, a non-cardioselective beta-blocker, can reduce the anxiety associated with day case surgery. Prospective randomized double blind trial. University hospital, Ireland. An unselected group of 53 patients undergoing day case surgery. Subjects randomised to receive either propranolol (10 mg) or placebo on the morning of operation. Blood pressure; pulse, anxiety, pain score and patient satisfaction. Mean (SD) Hospital Anxiety and Depression score was significantly lower in the propranolol group than in the control group (2.5 (0.7) compared with 4.6 (0.7), p anxiety.

  12. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety? A Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vennet, Renee; Serice, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study replicated Curry and Kasser's (2005) research that tested whether coloring a mandala would reduce anxiety. After inducing an anxious mood via a writing activity, participants were randomly assigned to three groups that colored either on a mandala design, on a plaid design, or on a blank paper. Anxiety level was measured…

  13. Math Anxiety and How It Affects High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, Kathleen A.

    2001-01-01

    Studies the role that math anxiety played in the poor performance of students, what promoted such feelings, and what teachers can do to lessen this anxiety. Students and adults sense the urgency to understand the mathematical material, and that urgency often leads to anxiety when they cannot arrive at a solution. (ASK)

  14. Undergraduate student nurses' lived experiences of anxiety during their first clinical practicum: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fan-Ko; Long, Ann; Tseng, Yun Shan; Huang, Hui-Man; You, Jia-Hui; Chiang, Chun-Ying

    2016-02-01

    The Fundamental Nursing clinical practicum is an essential module for nursing students. Some feel stress or anxiety about attending this first placement; however, evidence demonstrates that it is rare to explore the feelings of anxiety felt by the nursing students concerning their first clinical practicum. This study was designed to explore student nurses' experiences of anxiety felt regarding their initial clinical practicum while studying for their University degree. A phenomenological approach was used. A university in Southern Taiwan. A purposive sampling of fifteen student nurses with anxiety reactions who had completed their first clinical practicum. Data were collected using a semi-structured guide and deep interview. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven-step phenomenological method. Three themes surfaced in the findings. The first theme was anxiety around their first clinical practicum, which stirred up anxiety about: self-doubt, worry and fear; difficulty coping with the learning process; worry hampered establishing therapeutic relationships with patients; the progress of the patients' illness could not be predicted; and anxiety felt about lecturer-student interactions. The second theme was three phases of anxiety reactions, which included increasing anxiety before clinical practicum; exacerbated anxiety during clinical practicum, and relief of anxiety after clinical practicum. The third theme was coping behaviors. This comprised: self-reflection in preparation for clinical practicum; finding ways to release emotions; distractions from the anxiety; and, also facing their difficulties head-on. The findings could help raise the awareness of lecturers and students by understanding student nurses' anxiety experiences and facilitating a healthy preparation for their initial clinical practicum, consequently proactively helping reduce potential anxiety experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficiency of brainwave entrainment by binaural beats in reducing anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alipoor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is a fundamental phenomenon that is a common symptom in all mental disorders. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of brainwave entrainment on anxiety reduction using binaural beats. Methods: In this experimental double-blind study, 30 employees were selected from an engineering research firm through random sampling and replacement and divided into two groups: control group and experimental group. All participants completed the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Then, the experimental group listened to binaural beats which was recorded on a non-vocal piece of music for 4 weeks, 3 sessions each week. Each session lasted about 20 minutes. At the same time, the control group listened to the background music without any entrainment sound. At the end, both groups completed the anxiety questionnaire and the anxiety scores of both groups obtained before and after intervention were analyzed by ANCOVA. Results: The findings showed that the brainwave entrainment using binaural beats led to the significant reduction of state anxiety (P<0.001 and trait anxiety (P<0.018. Conclusion: Brainwave entrainment using binaural beats is an effective factor in decreasing state and trait anxiety; so, it can be used to reduce anxiety in mental health centers.

  16. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  17. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Test anxiety and self-esteem in senior high school students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, Seda Aybüke; Bilek, Günal; Çelik, Ekrem

    2018-02-01

    In this study, it is aimed to determine the level of test anxiety and self-esteem in the high school students preparing for the university exam in Bitlis, Turkey, and to investigate the effect of test anxiety on self-esteem. Seven-hundred and twenty-four high school students who were preparing for the university entrance examination in Bitlis participated in the study. A questionnaire which includes socio-demographic data form, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Revised Test Anxiety Scale was prepared as an e-questionnaire for the students to fill easily and uploaded to the Bitlis State Hospital's website. Schools were called and informed for the students to fill out the e-questionnaire on the Internet. The most important findings from our study are that gender is influential on test anxiety and self-esteem score and test anxiety level are negatively correlated. It was observed that female students had more test anxiety than male students and those who had higher self-esteem had less test anxiety. Consequently, our study shows that university entrance examination creates anxiety on students and reduces self-esteem, especially in female students.

  19. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Ladd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants’ trait (Study 1 and state (Study 2 anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.

  20. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Sandra L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effect. Participants' trait (Study 1) and state (Study 2) anxiety were characterized with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Greater trait and state anxiety correlated with greater negative affect and lesser positive affect. In both experiments, greater anxiety was associated with a reduced mere exposure effect. Measures of fluency (response times at study and test) were unrelated to the mere exposure effect. These findings support the role of affective processes in the mere exposure effect, and offer a new insight into the nature of anxiety such that anxiety is associated with a reduced experience of positive affect typically associated with familiarity.

  1. Anxiety Symptoms and Disorders in College Students With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Sarah R; Bray, Allison C; Anastopoulos, Arthur D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined anxiety symptoms and disorders in college students with ADHD. Forty-six college students with ADHD and a matched group of students without ADHD participated. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms and associated features, including worry, maladaptive beliefs about worry, panic symptoms, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and self-efficacy. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview to assess lifetime and current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD endorsed more maladaptive beliefs about worry, more obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and poorer self-efficacy compared with comparison participants. There were no group differences in rates of current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD were over 2 times more likely than comparison participants to endorse this lifetime history. College students with ADHD are more likely to have a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and are at greater risk for some anxiety symptoms and associated features.

  2. Foreign Language Reading Anxiety among Yemeni Secondary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Ahmed Y. Al-Sohbani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Foreign Language (FL reading anxiety level of Arabicspeaking Yemeni students learning English as a foreign language (n = 106. It utilized (a a background information questionnaire, (b the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale (FLRAS, and (c students' English school marks. Results of the study showed that learners of English experienced an above moderate level of FL reading anxiety. There was no significant difference between students' FL reading anxiety and their gender. However, a statistically reliable difference between the means of public and private schools regarding their FL reading anxiety in favor of the private school. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between students' FL reading anxiety and their type of school. Difficulties of uncertainty, pronunciation of English words, unfamiliar topic, unknown vocabulary, reading aloud, using word by word translation, unfamiliar English culture and history, unfamiliar grammar, English letters and symbols were identified as the major sources of FL reading anxiety.

  3. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at...

  4. Patterns of examination anxiety among secondary school students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety is a negative emotion which affects human beings irrespective of social status. However, individuals exhibit anxiety in different forms. This study therefore investigated the patterns of examination anxiety among secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The influence of variables of gender and school ...

  5. Relation of assertiveness and anxiety among Iranian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, T T; Aghajani, M; Baheiraei, A; Neiestanak, N S

    2010-12-01

    • The findings from the present study revealed that less than 30% of nursing and midwifery students have high assertiveness and only half of them have low anxiety. • Assertiveness and anxiety have negative correlations in nursing and midwifery students and affect the mental health and educational and occupational performance of the students. • Many factors such as years of education and working while studying influence the level of assertiveness in the students. • The anxiety in students had a significant relation with the father's level of education, family income, etc. The simultaneous existence of low assertiveness and high anxiety in nursing and midwifery students leads to the disruption of study performance. There exists little information concerning their assertiveness. The purpose of this study was to determine the relation of assertiveness and anxiety in nursing and midwifery students. In this correlational, cross-sectional study, 173 nursing students (68 males and 105 females) and 77 midwifery students were recruited from the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire including personal-social factors, the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Assertion Inventory of Gambrill and Richey. More than half of the nursing and midwifery students (59.5% and 59.7%, respectively) had moderate assertiveness. Also, 43.3% and 36.4% of them had moderate and high levels of anxiety. Pearson correlation test revealed that assertiveness and anxiety had negative correlations in nursing (r=-0.51, P assertiveness and anxiety among the students. Considering the relation of assertiveness and anxiety and its effects on mental health and educational and occupational performance, students should be informed of the required skills for positive interaction with others and to increase assertiveness and decrease anxiety. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  6. Effectiveness of binaural beats in reducing preoperative dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, B K; Esen, A; Büyükerkmen, B; Kilinç, A; Menziletoglu, D

    2017-07-01

    Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two different pure-tone sine waves are presented one to each ear at a steady intensity and frequency. We evaluated their effectiveness in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Sixty patients (30 in each group) who were to have impacted third molars removed were studied (experimental group: 20 women and 10 men, mean (range) age 24 (18-35) years, and control group: 22 women and 8 men, mean (range) age 28 (15-47) years). All patients were fully informed about the operation preoperatively, and their anxiety recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). The local anaesthetic was given and the patients waited for 10minutes, during which those in the experimental group were asked to listen to binaural beats through stereo earphones (200Hz for the left ear and 209.3Hz for the right ear). No special treatment was given to the control group. In both groups anxiety was then recorded again, and the tooth removed in the usual way. The paired t test and t test were used to assess the significance of differences between groups. The degree of anxiety in the control group was unchanged after the second measurement (p=0.625), while that in the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety (p=0.001). We conclude that binaural beats may be useful in reducing preoperative anxiety in dentistry. Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Effectiveness of prayer in reducing anxiety in cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Camila Csizmar; Chaves, Erika de Cássia Lopes; Iunes, Denise Hollanda; Simão, Talita Prado; Grasselli, Cristiane da Silva Marciano; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of prayer on anxiety in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Quasi-experimental study, with pre and post-intervention. Twenty patients admitted to treatment of continuous intravenous chemotherapy were recruited. The volunteers were evaluated through interviews using a questionnaire of sociodemographic, clinical and spiritual characteristics, the Index of Religiosity Duke University and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Vital signs were measured and collected salivary cortisol. The intervention was applied prayer and data collection occurred in three phases: first collection (baseline), pre and post-intervention. The data found between the pre and post-intervention samples showed different statistically significant for state anxiety (p= Prayer, therefore, proved to be an effective strategy in reducing the anxiety of the patient undergoing chemotherapy.

  8. The Study of the Relationship between Mothers' Anxiety with the Mathematical Performance and Students' Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Moradpour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today mathematics stress have considered under interesting of many psychologists of mathematics education and cognitive psychologists too so that recognize emotion and mental stimulations of students in mathematics and to find scientific strategies for removing and controlling them. Anxiety is one of important and effective issues of 21th century. This study is done with aim of the study of relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics performance and anxiety of their children at first grade of high school at zone one of Tehran. Among population, 97 students and their mothers are chosen. Data of this research are collected by Cattell standard questionnaire for studying mothers' anxiety and standard questionnaire of mathematics anxiety for studying mathematics anxiety and a math exam for studying of students' performance. Research findings indicate that there is significant relationship between mothers' anxiety with mathematics anxiety and performance of students. Also it indicated that there is significant difference between students with high and low mathematics anxiety in term of mathematics performance.

  9. Test Anxiety and Academic Procrastination Among Prelicensure Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Nicole

    Test anxiety may cause nursing students to cope poorly with academic demands, affecting academic performance and attrition and leading to possible failure on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®). Test-anxious nursing students may engage academic procrastination as a coping mechanism. The Test Anxiety Inventory and the Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students were administered to 202 prelicensure nursing students from diploma, associate, and baccalaureate nursing programs in southwestern Pennsylvania. Statistically significant correlations between test anxiety and academic procrastination were found. The majority of participants reported procrastinating most on weekly reading assignments. Students with higher grade point averages exhibited less academic procrastination.

  10. Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Sarıcam; Üzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary S...

  11. Perfectionism, Depression, Anxiety, and Academic Performance in Premedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Sevlever

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in perfectionism, depression, anxiety, and academic performance between premedical (N = 104 and non-premedical (N = 76 undergraduate students. Results indicated that premedical students did not differ significantly from non-premedical students in perfectionistic self-criticism, personal standards perfectionism, depression, or anxiety. Perfectionistic high standards were not correlated with depression or anxiety for either group. Self-critical perfectionism was positively correlated with depression and anxiety, with comparable effect sizes, for both groups of students. Premedical students and non-premedical students drastically differed in their reported academic performance (GPA. For premedical students, PS perfectionism was related to higher GPA, however PS perfectionism in non-premedical students had a negligible effect in increasing GPA. The implications of these results for interventions and future research are discussed.

  12. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Rahardjo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of course assignments. The aim of this research is to investigate contribution of anxiety in operating computer and academic stress toward procrastination on students. As much as 65 students majoring in psychology became participants in this study. The results showed that anxiety in operating computer and academic stress play significant role in influencing academic procrastination among social sciences students. In terms of academic procrastination tendencies, anxiety in operating computer and academic stress, male students have higher percentage than female students.

  13. Effect of Music Practice on Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ghasemi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between music practice and level of stress in dental students.  Materials and Methods: In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of music practice and 44 matched controls without music practice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI and Beck depression inventory (BDI questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression scores.Results: The level of anxiety was higher in students who did not have music practice and this difference was significant (P<0.001. The same was observed for depression (P=0.027. Other factors including age, gender, and being far from family had no significant effect on depression and anxiety (P>0.05. But level of anxiety and depression was higher in students of universities with tuition fee compared to free public institutes (P<0.05.Conclusions: It may be concluded that music practice can reduce anxiety and depression of dental students.

  14. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elizabeth Bond

    Full Text Available Multiple-choice question (MCQ examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the

  15. Negatively-marked MCQ assessments that reward partial knowledge do not introduce gender bias yet increase student performance and satisfaction and reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A Elizabeth; Bodger, Owen; Skibinski, David O F; Jones, D Hugh; Restall, Colin J; Dudley, Edward; van Keulen, Geertje

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-choice question (MCQ) examinations are increasingly used as the assessment method of theoretical knowledge in large class-size modules in many life science degrees. MCQ-tests can be used to objectively measure factual knowledge, ability and high-level learning outcomes, but may also introduce gender bias in performance dependent on topic, instruction, scoring and difficulty. The 'Single Answer' (SA) test is often used in which students choose one correct answer, in which they are unable to demonstrate partial knowledge. Negatively marking eliminates the chance element of guessing but may be considered unfair. Elimination testing (ET) is an alternative form of MCQ, which discriminates between all levels of knowledge, while rewarding demonstration of partial knowledge. Comparisons of performance and gender bias in negatively marked SA and ET tests have not yet been performed in the life sciences. Our results show that life science students were significantly advantaged by answering the MCQ test in elimination format compared to single answer format under negative marking conditions by rewarding partial knowledge of topics. Importantly, we found no significant difference in performance between genders in either cohort for either MCQ test under negative marking conditions. Surveys showed that students generally preferred ET-style MCQ testing over SA-style testing. Students reported feeling more relaxed taking ET MCQ and more stressed when sitting SA tests, while disagreeing with being distracted by thinking about best tactics for scoring high. Students agreed ET testing improved their critical thinking skills. We conclude that appropriately-designed MCQ tests do not systematically discriminate between genders. We recommend careful consideration in choosing the type of MCQ test, and propose to apply negative scoring conditions to each test type to avoid the introduction of gender bias. The student experience could be improved through the incorporation of the

  16. Biofeedback and Counseling for Stress and Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Prince, Judy; Hayashino, Diane

    2012-01-01

    With the rise in stress and anxiety among college students, there is a need for more comprehensive and effective counseling options for counselors in college counseling centers. This study investigated the impact of using biofeedback and brief counseling in treating stress and anxiety in an ethnically diverse college student population. Results…

  17. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Social Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…

  18. Free Improvisation and Performance Anxiety among Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…

  19. Effects of Math Anxiety on Student Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. I.; Suarez-Pellicioni, M.; Bono, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether math anxiety and negative attitudes toward mathematics have an effect on university students' academic achievement in a methodological course forming part of their degree. A total of 193 students were presented with a math anxiety test and some questions about their enjoyment, self-confidence and motivation regarding…

  20. Metacognitive Awareness and Math Anxiety in Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricam, Hakan; Ogurlu, Üzeyir

    2015-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students' metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students…

  1. Relaxation training after stroke: potential to reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneebone, Ian; Walker-Samuel, Natalie; Swanston, Jennifer; Otto, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    To consider the feasibility of setting up a relaxation group to treat symptoms of post stroke anxiety in an in-patient post-acute setting; and to explore the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing self-reported tension. A relaxation group protocol was developed in consultation with a multidisciplinary team and a user group. Over a period of 24 months, 55 stroke patients attended group autogenic relaxation training on a rehabilitation ward. Attendance ranged between one and eleven sessions. Self-reported tension was assessed pre and post relaxation training using the Tension Rating Circles (TRCs). The TRCs identified a significant reduction in self-reported tension from pre to post training, irrespective of the number of sessions attended; z = -3.656, p training. The TRCs proved acceptable to group members, but should be validated against standard anxiety measures. Further exploration of the application of relaxation techniques in clinical practice is desirable. Implications for Rehabilitation Anxiety is prevalent after stroke and likely affects rehabilitation outcomes. Relaxation training is a well proven treatment for anxiety in the non-stroke population. A significant within session reduction in tension, a hallmark symptom of anxiety, was evidenced via group relaxation training delivered in a post-acute, in-patient stroke unit setting. Relaxation training a shows promise as a treatment for anxiety after stroke.

  2. [College students social anxiety associated with stress and mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Zhen; Gao, Jing; Hu, Weipeng

    2007-03-01

    To explore the mediator effects of social anxiety on college students' life stress and mental health. 1430 college students were tested by revised Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and social anxiety scale chose from Self-Consciousness Scale. 1. Social anxiety was the mediator variable between stress and mental health. 2. Female students were easily suffered from higher losing stress and human relationship stress in comparision with male. 3. Non-only child Students got a higher score in social anxiety and lower GHQ in comparision with only child. It may be helpful to improve the stress management and mental health of college students by testing and intervening their social anxiety perception.

  3. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Prakriti; Sharan, Rajiv; Binay, Yashi; Verma, Vijay; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version). The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female) with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11%) students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents 'Democratic' and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  4. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version. Results: The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11% students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents ′Democratic′ and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. Conclusions: The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  5. Study on Writing Anxiety among Iranian EFL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Jebreil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aimed at investigating the level of writing anxiety of the Iranian EFL students with different proficiency levels. To do so, 45 students (elementary, intermediate, and advanced learners studying in Azad University of Ilam, Iran were selected based on random sampling. Second, Language Writing Anxiety Inventory SLWAI (Cheng, 2004 was used to measure anxiety.  Both descriptive and inferential statistics including One-way ANOVA were run to analyze the data. Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS. The results of the study indicated that the selected Iranian EFL students majoring in English language teaching experienced a high level of anxiety. In addition, students with elementary level were found to suffer higher level of English writing anxiety than the students with intermediate and advanced levels. Finally, based on the findings, cognitive anxiety was the most common type of anxiety, followed by somatic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. The results also highlighted the fact that foreign and second language teachers should be cautious of the dangers of  anxiety  and try  to  make  the  atmosphere  of  class  as  stress-free  as possible  in  order  to  improve  students’ performance.

  6. Comorbidity of Anxiety-Depression among Australian University Students: Implications for Student Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence, factor structure and scale item differences in anxiety-depression comorbidity were investigated in a sample of Australian university students defined according to the presence of anxiety and/or depression. The incidence of anxiety-depression comorbidity was over 32%, about four times that for anxiety or depression alone.…

  7. Exploring mathematics anxiety and attitude: Mathematics students' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahri, Nurul Ashikin; Kamaruzaman, Wan Nur Farahdalila Wan; Jamil, Jastini Mohd.; Shaharanee, Izwan Nizal Mohd.

    2017-11-01

    A quantitative and correlational, survey methods were used to investigate the relationships among mathematical anxiety and attitude toward student's mathematics performance. Participants were 100 students volunteer to enroll in undergraduate Industrial Statistics, Decision Sciences and Business Mathematics at one of northern university in Malaysia. Survey data consisted of demographic items and Likert scale items. The collected data was analyzed by using the idea of correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was a significant positive relationship between students' attitude and mathematics anxiety. Results also indicated that a substantial positive effect of students' attitude and mathematics anxiety in students' achievement. Further study can be conducted on how mathematical anxiety and attitude toward mathematics affects can be used to predict the students' performance in the class.

  8. Anxiety in Kuwaiti and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2006-10-01

    Samples of Kuwaiti (n=646) and American (n=320) undergraduates responded to the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale in Arabic and English, respectively. Differences by sex were significant, with women having a higher mean anxiety score than men and by country with Kuwaiti women having a higher anxiety score than American women.

  9. Effect of Music Practice on Anxiety and Depression of Iranian Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mahmood; Lotfollahzadeh, Hana; Kermani-Ranjbar, Tahereh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2017-05-01

    The practice of dentistry has long been associated with high levels of occupational stress and anxiety and music has been shown as a method of reducing stress. Considering the reportedly high level of stress among dental students and its consequences and also considering the positive effect of music therapy, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between music practice and level of stress in dental students. In this analytical, cross-sectional study, 88 students, including 44 with a history of music practice and 44 matched controls without music practice who met the defined inclusion criteria, participated. Upon obtaining written informed consent, all volunteers filled the Beck anxiety inventory (BAI) and Beck depression inventory (BDI) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and multiple linear regression test with backward method was used to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on anxiety and depression scores. The level of anxiety was higher in students who did not have music practice and this difference was significant (P0.05). But level of anxiety and depression was higher in students of universities with tuition fee compared to free public institutes (Pmusic practice can reduce anxiety and depression of dental students.

  10. Adaptation of abbreviated mathematics anxiety rating scale for engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah

    2015-05-01

    Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.

  11. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  12. STUDENTS OF ECONOMICS’ ANXIETY TOWARDS ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnara Faritovna Kalganova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores language anxiety which has shown a substantially negative impact on performance. This paper reveals four related levels of language anxiety such as communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, level of language performance, and their correlations with macro and micro social variables like age, gender, bilingual environment.A total 103 male and female English-language learners of the Economic faculty, Federal Kazan University, completed two questionnaires: a background questionnaire and the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale.The results showed that girls experience greater psychological discomfort in the process of foreign language learning; the greatest concern of students is language anxiety in test situations; first-year students as a whole are more susceptible to language anxiety.The task of a teacher is to create a favorable psychological climate in the classroom of a foreign language in order to removing barriers to development and a better perception of the subject matter.

  13. The relationship among young adult college students' depression, anxiety, stress, demographics, life satisfaction, and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan Saber Raja; Staten, Ruth; Hall, Lynne A; Lennie, Terry A

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that young adult college students experience increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. It is less clear what strategies college health care providers might use to assist students in decreasing these mental health concerns. In this paper, we examine the relative importance of coping style, life satisfaction, and selected demographics in predicting undergraduates' depression, anxiety, and stress. A total of 508 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed the study measures and a short demographics information questionnaire. Coping strategies and life satisfaction were assessed using the Brief COPE Inventory and an adapted version of the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relative influence of each of the independent variables on depression, anxiety, and stress. Maladaptive coping was the main predictor of depression, anxiety, and stress. Adaptive coping was not a significant predictor of any of the three outcome variables. Reducing maladaptive coping behaviors may have the most positive impact on reducing depression, anxiety, and stress in this population.

  14. The Psychometric Properties of PHQ-4 Depression and Anxiety Screening Scale Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Brey, Rebecca; Kotecki, Jerome; Kleinfelder, JoAnn; Anderson, Jason

    2016-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are some of the most common causes of morbidity, social dysfunction, and reduced academic performance in college students. The combination of improved surveillance and access to care would result in better outreach. Brief screening tools can help reach larger populations of college students efficiently. However, reliability and validity of brief screeners for anxiety and depression have not been assessed in college students. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of college students the psychometric properties of PHQ-4, a brief screening tool for depression and anxiety. Undergraduate students were recruited from general education classes at a Midwestern university. Students were given a questionnaire that asked them whether they had been diagnosed by a doctor or health professional with anxiety or depression. Next, they were asked to respond to the items on the PHQ-4 scale. A total of 934 students responded to the survey (response rate=72%). Majority of the participants were females (63%) and Whites (80%). The internal reliability of PHQ-4 was found to be high (α=0.81). Those who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety had statistically significantly higher scores on PHQ-4 (panxiety and depression. The PHQ-4 is a reliable and valid tool that can serve as a mass screener for depression and anxiety in young adults. Widespread implementation of this screening tool should be explored across college campuses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla; Prakriti Sinha; Rajiv Sharan; Yashi Binay; Vijay Verma; Suprakash Chaudhury

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children v...

  16. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal; Muhammad Waseem Abbas; Muhammad Zohaib Chaudhary; Muhammad Nouman Iqbal; Mohammad Sami Aleem; Rukhsar Javaid; Hasnain Ahmed; Taleea Younas; Faiza Maqsood; Fiza Fatima; Hafiz Hasnain Ahmed; Sana Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is defined as physical, behavioral, social and psychological response to treat self-concept characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension. Nowadays anxiety is most commonly found among medical students. This study was conducted to find out the anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 178 medical students which tests the level of anxiety and severity of symptom...

  17. Biofeedback-assisted relaxation training to decrease test anxiety in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, Catherine A; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experiencing debilitating test anxiety may be unable to demonstrate their knowledge and have potential for poor academic performance. A biofeedback-assisted relaxation training program was created to reduce test anxiety. Anxiety was measured using Spielberger's Test Anxiety Inventory and monitoring peripheral skin temperature, pulse, and respiration rates during the training. Participants were introduced to diaphragmatic breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and autogenic training. Statistically significant changes occurred in respiratory rates and skin temperatures during the diaphragmatic breathing session; respiratory rates and peripheral skin temperatures during progressive muscle relaxation session; respiratory and pulse rates, and peripheral skin temperatures during the autogenic sessions. No statistically significant difference was noted between the first and second TAI. Subjective test anxiety scores of the students did not decrease by the end of training. Autogenic training session was most effective in showing a statistically significant change in decreased respiratory and pulse rates and increased peripheral skin temperature.

  18. Unemployment Anxiety of Student Taking Sports Education in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shalal Abdulla; Devecioglu, Sebahattin

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the critical medical conditions that affect individuals due to various reasons. Some of these reasons may be related to inheritance while others are acquired during major life events. In this investigation, the level of unemployment anxiety was evaluated for students at Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. The study population…

  19. Mindfulness: Facet Relationships with Anxiety and Depression in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredze, Joshua Menachem

    2017-01-01

    College students have been shown to be highly stressed and experience depression and anxiety. Over the last two to three decades, mindfulness has emerged as a widely accepted and used therapy for a range of disorders including depression and anxiety. More recently, second order research has targeted the causes or mechanisms of action underlying…

  20. Anxiety symptoms in regular school students in Mumbai City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, S; Gogtay, N J; Bala, N; Sant, H; Thakkar, A; Sholapurwala, R

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety disorders usually remain undiagnosed in school students owing to the internalized nature of their symptoms. The present study was conducted with the primary objective of evaluating the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in school students in Mumbai. A secondary objective was to assess the impact of variables (age, gender, presence of sibling, and type of school curriculum or school) on anxiety symptoms. Study cases (8-15 year olds) were recruited by nonprobability sampling from four English-medium schools. Anxiety was measured using Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS)-child self-report questionnaire. T-scores (total and subscales) were calculated and cut-off scores of> 60 were considered as significant. Symptoms of overall anxiety were present in 10.8% (53/493) of the students. Older students (12-15 year olds) had greater odds of having overall anxiety symptoms (crude OR = 4.36, 95% CI 2.27 to 8.39, P < 0.0001). Symptoms of all anxiety disorders were present in the 493 participants, with obsessions/compulsions and fears of physical injury being the most common (in 29.6% and 27.2%, respectively). Older students and boys had greater odds of having obsessions/compulsions (crude OR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.56 to 3.44, P < 0.0001; and crude OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.27, P= 0.035, respectively]. Students with sibling (s) had greater odds of having fears of physical injury (crude OR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.78, P= 0.003). There is an urgent need to screen school students in our city for anxiety disorders.

  1. Auricular Acupuncture for Exam Anxiety in Medical Students-A Randomized Crossover Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Klausenitz

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture (AA is effective in the treatment of preoperative anxiety. The aim was to investigate whether AA can reduce exam anxiety as compared to placebo and no intervention. Forty-four medical students were randomized to receive AA, placebo, or no intervention in a crossover manner and subsequently completed three comparable oral anatomy exams with an interval of 1 month between the exams/interventions. AA was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at points MA-IC1, MA-TF1, MA-SC, MA-AT1 and MA-TG one day prior to each exam. Placebo needles were used as control. Levels of anxiety were measured using a visual analogue scale before and after each intervention as well as before each exam. Additional measures included the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, duration of sleep at night, blood pressure, heart rate and the extent of participant blinding. All included participants finished the study. Anxiety levels were reduced after AA and placebo intervention compared to baseline and the no intervention condition (p < 0.003. AA was better at reducing anxiety than placebo in the evening before the exam (p = 0.018. Participants were able to distinguish between AA and placebo intervention. Both AA and placebo interventions reduced exam anxiety in medical students. The superiority of AA over placebo may be due to insufficient blinding of participants.

  2. Preoperative patient education: can we improve satisfaction and reduce anxiety?

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    Jaime Ortiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients' knowledge deficits concerning anesthesia and the anesthesiologist's role in their care may contribute to anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop anesthesia patient education materials that would help improve patient's satisfaction regarding their knowledge of the perioperative process and decrease anxiety in a community hospital with a large Spanish-speaking population. METHODS: A survey (Survey A in English and Spanish was administered to all adult anesthesiology preoperative clinic patients during a 4-week period. The data were analyzed and then a patient education handout was developed in both English and Spanish to assist with our patients' major concerns. A second survey (Survey B was administered that was completed after the education handout had been put into use at the clinic. The survey asked for basic demographic information and included questions on satisfaction with regard to understanding of anesthesia as well as worries regarding surgery and pain. RESULTS: In the patients who received the handout, statistically significant improvement was found in the questions that asked about satisfaction with regard to understanding of type of anesthesia, options for pain control, what patients are supposed to do on the day of surgery, and the amount of information given with regard to anesthetic plan. There was no difference in anxiety related to surgery in patients who received the educational handout compared to those patients who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Patient education handouts improved patient's satisfaction regarding their knowledge of the perioperative process but did not reduce anxiety related to surgery.

  3. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2nd-year medical students, followed by an interview to confirm the diagnosis. They found an ... Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. .... Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21),[11] and questions on alcohol and drug use.

  4. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  5. Music Performance Anxiety among Students of the Academy in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliaukiene, Vilma; Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Eimontas, Jonas; Skeryte-Kazlauskiene, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) affects amateurs, students and professional musicians. We aimed to analyse MPA among students of music performance in a higher education academy in Lithuania. A sample of 258 music performance arts students of the Lithuanian Music and Theatre Academy participated in this study. The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety…

  6. Stress and Anxiety Management in Nursing Students: Biofeedback and Mindfulness Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Park, Janet F; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Kathalae, Duangrat

    2015-09-01

    The current study investigated the efficacy of two brief intervention programs-biofeedback and mindfulness meditation-on levels of state anxiety and perceived stress in second-year Thai nursing students as they began clinical training. Eighty-nine participants from a public nursing college in Thailand were randomly assigned to one of three groups: biofeedback group, mindfulness meditation group, or a control group. All participants were given pre- and postintervention surveys, which included demographic information; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (State Anxiety Scale); and the Perceived Stress Scale. Findings indicated that biofeedback significantly reduced anxiety and maintained stress levels in nursing students. Mindfulness meditation similarly decreased anxiety levels, while also significantly lowering stress levels. The biofeedback group exhibited significant reduction in anxiety levels among the three groups at postintervention. Despite stressors and demands nursing students experience as they begin clinical practice, study findings support the use of biofeedback and mindfulness meditation interventions to assist nursing students in managing stress and anxiety. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Student’s anxiety about the Musical Language subject and strategies to reduce it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Berrón Ruiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Students embark upon their studies at the conservatory motivated to learn how to play a musical instrument. Nevertheless, they must attend Music Language classes from the first year, a subject that they usually find it unattractive and it makes them feel with anxiety.In this article we discuss a research carried out in a Professional Conservatory of Music with students in their first two years of elementary training. The goals in this research are to identify which aspects are a source of anxiety in these students and to analyse the usefulness of our educational proposals in order to reduce it. We have applied a qualitative research methodology which combines the characteristics of case study methods and classroom-based research.This research enables us to state that the implementation of flexible, dynamic and positive pedagogy, the improvement of study habits in our students, the family involvement, the care of relationships, the recognition of mistakes, accepting them as natural feature of the whole learning process, and the performing musical exhibitions in public on a regular basis reduce anxiety.

  8. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  9. Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarıcam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students and The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children were used. For analysing the data, Spearman correlation analysis, the Mann Whitney U test, and linear regression analysis were used. According to the findings: firstly, gifted students’ metacognitive awareness scores were higher than those of non-gifted students. On the other hand, non-gifted students’ maths anxiety levels were higher than those of gifted students. Secondly, there was negative correlation between metacognitive awareness and math anxiety. Finally, the findings of linear regression analysis indicated that metacognitive awareness is explained by 48% total variance of maths anxiety in gifted students.

  10. Cognitive emotions: depression and anxiety in medical students and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Isra; Banu, Haseena; Al-Fageer, Reem; Al-Suwaidi, Reem

    2009-09-01

    Medical students represent a highly educated population under significant pressures. They encounter multiple emotions during the transformation from insecure student to young knowledgeable physician. During the transition to clinical settings in the third year, the student may experience a loss of external control and may counter this with an increase in depression and/or anxiety symptoms. Studies suggest that mental health worsens after students begin medical school and remains poor throughout training. It is not just the undergraduate study period, which brings about these changes; it may continue later in internship, postgraduate study, and in physicians' practical life, and it may reach burnout level. The greater the psychosocial health, the greater is the well-being and the capacity for adaptation and overcoming problems and common life frustrations in family, relationships, and work. Medical students and practicing physicians, in comparison with the general population and that of other professions, are exposed to academic and professional stress and therefore are vulnerable to psychosocial health problems and certain specific dysfunctions that may compromise their physical, mental, and social health. Our study examines the phenomenology of depression and anxiety in medical doctors in 3 government hospitals, 3 primary health care centers and the students (all years) and staff of Dubai Medical College for Girls (DMCG). This cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2008. One hundred sixty-five medical students of DMCG and 93 doctors (including medical staff of DMCG) completed a set of 2 questionnaires regarding Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) & Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results were analyzed using SPSS 11, and adequate statistical significant tests were done. A P value of students, 28.6% showed depression and 28.7% showed anxiety. Of medical staff, 7.8% showed depression and 2.2% of them showed anxiety. The second-year medical students exhibited the

  11. Medical Students’ First Male Urogenital Examination: Investigating the Effects of Instruction and Gender on Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa D. Howley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect that standardized instruction of the male urogenital examination had on the anxiety levels of students and to determine what influence, if any, the gender of the student had on this experience. Methods: One hundred thirty six second year medical students were asked to report their level of anxiety before and after participation in a small group teaching session on the male urogenital examination. We gathered both qualitative and quantitative information to better understand students’ anxiety surrounding this instruction. Results: Students had significantly lower state-anxiety scores following the instruction than before (F(1, 76=102.353, p=.000, eta2=.574 and female students were more likely to have greater state-anxiety than male students (F=6.952, p=.010, eta2=.084. Ninety-nine percent of students reported that the teaching associates successfully reduced their anxiety. This decrease was attributed predominantly to the personal qualities of the teaching associates and to the format of the instruction. Conclusions: This study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence that the use of male teaching associates to provide standardized instruction on the urogenital exam is effective at reducing students’ anxiety, particularly with regard to female students. Added standardized instruction may lead to increased confidence, skill, and future compliance with intimate physical exam screening practices

  12. Mathematics Anxiety of Ninth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Günes

    2018-01-01

    Human beings have been using mathematics since they got familiar with the environment they lived in. Because of this reason, the emphasis of necessity of mathematics education for schools with various levels in different countries has undoubtedly been agreed upon. Mathematics anxiety is a problem for many people. Mathematics anxiety is one of the…

  13. Anxiety levels in employees and students in psychiatric nursing

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    Urban Bole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several research finding indicate that nursing care professionals are often faced with situations which may lead to anxiety. The aim of the present research was to determine the prevalence and typical signs of anxiety among nursing employees and nursing students in psychiatric settings. Methods: The Burns Anxiety Inventory was used as an assessment tool to measure anxiety. The research sample consisted of 242 participants. The data collected were processed by the descriptive statistics, Leveneʹs test, the ANOVA statistical test, the Welchʹs t-test, and the post hoc analysis. Pearsonʹs correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of the association between the variables. Results: The results of the current study show that nearly half of the participants experience anxiety, but the differences were noted as regards their anxiety thoughts (p = 0.039. Anxiety feelings are more prevalent in female students (p = 0.046. Habitual smokers (p = 0.030 and casual smokers (p = 0.020 are more likely to develop anxious feelings and physical signs of anxiety. The anxiety signs are also more pronounced in the respondents with self-assessed lower economic status (p = 0.001 and poor self-rated health (p = 0.0001. Discussion and conclusion: The professionals and students in psychiatric nursing often encounter situations conducive to the development of anxiety. Further studies on the current topic are therefore recommended to design adequate educational programmes to timely recognise anxiety symptoms and to implement mutual and self-help measure.

  14. Impact of Music in Reducing Patient Anxiety During Pediatric Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselman, Andrew; Bergen, Michael; Stefanov, Dimitre; Goldfisher, Rachelle; Amodio, John

    2016-03-31

    The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control) after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate.

  15. Impact of music in reducing patient anxiety during pediatric ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Kesselman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of noninvasive ultrasound examinations can potentially result in significant anxiety in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of music during pediatric ultrasound examinations to reduce anxiety measured by heart rate. A total of 44 patients were recruited; 21 controls and 23 experimental. Each participant was randomized to either music or no music (control after parental consent was obtained. Pulse oximeters were used to monitor heart rate at 15 second intervals for a total of 1 minute, with mean values calculated prior to entering the procedure room, during the middle of the procedure, and after the procedure was completed. The total scan time was determined from the initial image acquisition until the last image recorded by the ultrasound technologist. At the completion of each procedure, the ultrasound technologist scored the ease of performance for the scan on a subjective scale of 1-10 based on prior experience. When utilizing music during pediatric ultrasounds examinations, our study demonstrated significantly decreased heart rate variability from pre-procedural to post-procedural periods. There was no statistical significant difference in total scan time or ultrasound technologist scoring between the two groups. This study demonstrates that music is an inexpensive and effective means of reducing anxiety during pediatric ultrasound as indicated by heart rate.

  16. Test Anxiety Research: Students with Vision Impairments and Students with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee

    2014-01-01

    There is an absence of research on test anxiety in students with disabilities although such testing is taken for granted among students without disabilities. This study investigated the test anxiety of the students in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairments and those with intellectual disabilities who are placed in…

  17. Relationship between time management skills and anxiety and academic motivation of nursing students in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Arezoo Mohamadkhani; Naderi, Manijeh; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Ahmadi, Farzane; Hosseini, Meimanat

    2017-01-01

    Time management skills are essential for nursing students' success, and development of clinical competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between time management skills and anxiety and academic motivation of nursing students in Tehran medical sciences universities in 2015. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 441 nursing students in three medical universities in Tehran. Random stratified sampling was done to select the samples. Data were collected using demographic Questionnaire, Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which was completed t by self-report. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software with descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, independent t-test, Regression and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Most participants had a moderate level of time Management skills (49%), State Anxiety (58%), Trait Anxiety (60%) and Academic Motivation (58%). The results also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the students' TMQ scores and the state anxiety (r= -0.282, ptime management skills in order to enhance academic motivation and reduce anxiety rates among nursing students.

  18. The Speech Anxiety Program at UTK: A Training Program for Students with High Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Bob

    The University of Tennessee (Knoxville) offers as a special section of the public speaking curriculum, a "speech anxiety" program, taught by faculty and graduate students from the speech and theatre and educational psychology departments and staff from the counseling services center. The students spend the first few weeks of the special…

  19. Sources of Foreign Language Student Teacher Anxiety: A Qualitative Inquiry

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    Ali Merç

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to Şnd out the sources of foreign language student teacher anxiety experienced by Turkish EFL student teachers throughout the teaching practicum using qualitative data collection tools. 150 student teachers completing their teaching practicum as part of their graduation requirement at Anadolu University Faculty of Education English Language Teaching Program participated in the study. The research tools were diaries kept by student teachers and semistructured interviews conducted with 30 of the participant student teachers. Constant Comparison Method was used to analyze the qualitative data. The analysis of the data revealed six main categories as the sources of foreign language student teacher anxiety: students and class profiles, classroom management, teaching procedures, being observed, mentors, and miscellaneous. Each source of foreign language student teacher anxiety is described and exempliŞed with extracts from student teachers’ diaries or interview records. The findings are discussed along the recent literature on foreign language student teacher anxiety. Suggestions for foreign language teacher education programs are also provided

  20. Social anxiety experiences and responses of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behiye Akacan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the responses of university students in social anxiety situations in order to create a psychological counselling program with a structured group based on Cognitive Behavioural and Existential Approaches. These responses involve the behaviour and thoughts of the university students in situations where they experience or anticipate social anxiety. The semi-structured interview form developed by the researchers was used in the study during the face-to-face interviews with fifty-one 4th year students from the Guidance and Psychological Counselling (GPC and Pre-School Teaching (PST departments. The scope of the interview form includes the situations where 1 students experience social anxiety in the school setting and their thoughts and behaviours regarding these situations, 2 the situations where they anticipate social anxiety in their future profession, and 3 the situations where they experience social anxiety in their daily lives. Our aim was to collect data from these areas. The data collected were analysed through content analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the thoughts regarding the social anxiety situations of the final year students studying in Guidance and Psychological Counselling and Pre-School Teaching departments are generally negative and their behaviour usually presents as desertion or avoidance.

  1. Smelling Anxiety Chemosignals Impairs Clinical Performance of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Bano; Young, Alix; Lind, Synnøve; Leegaard, Marie Cathinka; Capuozzo, Alessandra; Parma, Valentina

    2018-05-15

    Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone. The intensity and pleasantness ratings showed that the test subjects could not report perceptual differences between the odor conditions. When exposed to masked anxiety body odors the test subject's dental performance was significantly worse than when they were exposed to masked rest body odors and masker alone, indicating that their performance was modulated by exposure to the emotional tone of the odor. These findings call for a careful evaluation of the anxiety-inducing effects of body odors in performance-related tasks and provide the first ecological evaluation of human anxiety chemosignal communication.

  2. Test anxiety and academic performance in chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N R

    2014-01-01

    Objective : We assessed the level of students' test anxiety, and the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Methods : We recruited 166 third-quarter students. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was administered to all participants. Total scores from written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were used as response variables. Results : Multiple regression analysis shows that there was a modest, but statistically significant negative correlation between TAI scores and written exam scores, but not OSCE scores. Worry and emotionality were the best predictive models for written exam scores. Mean total anxiety and emotionality scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, but not worry scores. Conclusion : Moderate-to-high test anxiety was observed in 85% of the chiropractic students examined. However, total test anxiety, as measured by the TAI score, was a very weak predictive model for written exam performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that replacing total anxiety (TAI) with worry and emotionality (TAI subscales) produces a much more effective predictive model of written exam performance. Sex, age, highest current academic degree, and ethnicity contributed little additional predictive power in either regression model. Moreover, TAI scores were not found to be statistically significant predictors of physical exam skill performance, as measured by OSCEs.

  3. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Nop; Hanklang, Suda; Chumchai, Pornlert

    2015-01-01

    Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  4. Biofeedback Intervention for Stress, Anxiety, and Depression among Graduate Students in Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ratanasiripong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, graduate students have been found to have high prevalence of mental health problems. With increasing severity of mental health problems on university campuses and limited resources for mental health treatment, alternative interventions are needed. This study investigated the use of biofeedback training to help reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. A sample of 60 graduate students in public health nursing was randomly assigned to either the biofeedback intervention or the control group. Results indicated that biofeedback intervention was effective in significantly reducing the levels of stress, anxiety, and depression over the 4-week period, while the control group had increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression over the same timeframe. As future leaders in the public health nursing arena, the more psychologically healthy the graduate students in public health nursing are, the better the public health nursing professionals they will be as they go forth to serve the community after graduation.

  5. Effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy on Public Speaking Anxiety of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Aslani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public speaking anxiety is a prominent problem in the college student population. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing on public speaking anxiety of college students. Materials and Methods: The design of research was quasi-experimental with pre-post test type, and control group. The sample consistent of 30 students with speech anxiety that selected base on available sampling and assigned randomly in experimental (N=15 and control (N=15 groups. The experimental group was treated with EMDR therapy for 7 sessions. In order to collect the data, Paul’s personal report of confidence as a speaker, S-R inventory of anxiousness was used. To analyze the data, SPSS-19 software and covariance analysis were used. Results: The multivariate analysis of covariance showed that the eye movement desensitization and reprocessing reducing public speaking anxiety. The one-way analysis of covariance for each variable shows there are significant differences in confidence of speaker (p=0.001 and physiological symptoms of speech anxiety (p=0.001 at the two groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that treatment of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing is effective on reducing physiological symptoms of speech anxiety and increasing the speaker’s confidence.

  6. Anxiety and Spiritual Well-Being in Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbris, Jéssika Leão; Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Caldeira, Sílvia; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2016-06-20

    To analyze the relation between anxiety and spiritual well-being in undergraduate nursing students. Cross sectional, correlational, and survey design. A total of 169 students from a Brazilian Nursing School completed three instruments: demographic data, Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The mean score of SWBS was high, and the mean score of BAI was low. When experiencing anxiety, there was lower probability of experiencing high spiritual well-being. For those students considering religiosity very important, the score of SWBS was high. Students scoring lower in SWBS had more probability of experiencing moderate/high anxiety. Higher scores of SWBS and importance given to religiosity were related to lower scores of BAI. Also, the performance and score of spiritual well-being were related to anxiety scores. Further research is worthy to identify and validate which educational aspects could promote spiritual well-being and reduce anxiety as well as research to analyze the relation between spiritual well-being score and learning outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Statistics anxiety among undergraduate students in the faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the level of statistics anxiety among undergraduate students, and whether the level of influenced by factor e.g gender and age. A sample of 100 third year students who enrolled for basic statistics in the University of Calabar was used for the study. A series of t-tests revealed that the ...

  8. Social Anxiety Experiences and Responses of University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacan, Behiye; Secim, Gurcan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the responses of university students in social anxiety situations in order to create a psychological counselling program with a structured group based on Cognitive Behavioural and Existential Approaches. These responses involve the behaviour and thoughts of the university students in situations where they…

  9. Effects of Clicker Use on Calculus Students' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey study of clicker use and mathematics anxiety among students enrolled in an undergraduate calculus course during the Fall 2013 semester. Students in two large lecture sections of calculus completed surveys at the beginning and end of the course. One class used clickers, whereas the other class was taught…

  10. Effectiveness of “Task Concentration Training” in Reducing the Anxiety Symptoms in Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    K. Golmohammadi; M.R. Shairi; M.A. Asghari Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Aims: As a common disorder, the social anxiety disorder is characterized by the persistent fear of social situations and severe physical and mental reactions. Its prevalence and effect being noticed, different psychotherapy methods were raised to reduce or annihilate it. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of task-concentration training technics on the social anxiety symptom reduction in persons with social anxiety. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-postte...

  11. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsoom, Bibi; Afsar, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students' mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students. This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons. All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2-3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination), and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination). Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP), housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained. A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre-and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively) which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively) to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of "baseline" depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores. The students had high "baseline" traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of "baseline" depression, anxiety, or stress. Students suggested that study burden and a busy schedule were the major reasons for their high DASS-21 scores.

  12. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gül Kapçı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains

  13. Executive Functions in Students With Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the executive functions of students with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms with those functions in healthy ones. This study was a comparative and non-clinical analysis. The study population comprised all students of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran. A total of 448 students were recruited using convenience sampling method. They were also screened using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) test comprising 21 items. Of study participants, 30 people were depressed, 27 had anxiety, and 15 suffered from stress. Then, 50 control people were matched with them. Next, both groups were compared using the Stroop test, Wisconsin card sorting, and cognitive ability test. Using MANOVA test, data analysis revealed no significant differences among 4 groups with regard to selective attention and shifting attention. Depressed group reacted rapidly as opposed to the anxiety group with regard to measures of shifting attention and cognitive abilities; it was observed that the memory, inhibition control, planning, and flexibility of the healthy group were better than those of the 3 other groups. The findings of this research raised specific issues in relation to the role of depression, anxiety, and stress in the disruption of the executive functions of sufferers. Selective and shifting attention and cognitive abilities are specifically affected in this regard. Meanwhile, the role of stress in impairing decision making and the major role of anxiety in impairing sustained attention was shown to be considerable.

  14. Management of Stress and Anxiety Among PhD Students During Thesis Writing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrafkan, Leila; Shokrpour, Nasrin; Yousefi, Alireza; Yamani, Nikoo

    2016-01-01

    Today, postgraduate students experience a variety of stresses and anxiety in different situations of academic cycle. Stress and anxiety have been defined as a syndrome shown by emotional exhaustion and reduced personal goal achievement. This article addresses the causes and different strategies of coping with this phenomena by PhD students at Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences. The study was conducted by a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Through purposive sampling, 16 postgraduate medical sciences PhD students were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews and field observations. Six hundred fifty-four initial codes were summarized and classified into 4 main categories and 11 subcategories on the thematic coding stage dependent on conceptual similarities and differences. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes including "thesis as a major source of stress," "supervisor relationship," "socioeconomic problem," and "coping with stress and anxiety." It was concluded that PhD students experience stress and anxiety from a variety of sources and apply different methods of coping in effective and ineffective ways. Purposeful supervision and guidance can reduce the cause of stress and anxiety; in addition, coping strategy must be in a thoughtful approach, as recommended in this study.

  15. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Fadzil, Fariza; Ismail, Wan Salwina Wan; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Omar, Khairani; Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Jaffar, Aida; Ismail, Aniza; Mahadevan, Raynuha

    2013-08-01

    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common. The aim was to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, and identify their correlates among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 students between the ages of 18 and 24 years from four public universities in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Through an anonymous, self administered questionnaire, they were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). Data on socio-demographic, family characteristics and living arrangement were also obtained. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explore association between these aspects. Analysis showed among all students, 27.5% had moderate, and 9.7% had severe or extremely severe depression; 34% had moderate, and 29% had severe or extremely severe anxiety; and 18.6% had moderate and 5.1% had severe or extremely severe stress scores based on the DASS-21 inventory. Both depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above) and those born in rural areas. Whereas, higher stress scores were significantly higher among older students (20 and above), females, Malays and those whose family had either low or high incomes compared to those with middle incomes. The prevalence of anxiety is much higher than either depression or stress, with some differences in their correlates except for age. These differences need to be further explored for development of better intervention programs and appropriate support services targeting this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A study of students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst form four students in Kerian Perak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Suraya; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and mathematics anxiety amongst Form Four students in Kerian, Perak. The study involves 175 Form Four students as respondents. The instrument which is used to assess the students' learning styles and mathematic anxiety is adapted from the Grasha's Learning Styles Inventory and the Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) respectively. The types of learning styles used are independent, avoidant, collaborative, dependent, competitive and participant. The collected data is processed by SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences 16.0). The data is analysed by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics that include t-test and Pearson correlation. The results show that majority of the students adopt collaborative learning style and the students have moderate level of mathematics anxiety. Moreover, it is found that there is significant difference between learning style avoidant, collaborative, dependent and participant based on gender. Amongst all students' learning style, there exists a weak but significant correlation between avoidant, independent and participant learning style and mathematics anxiety. It is very important for the teachers need to be concerned about the effects of learning styles on mathematics anxiety. Therefore, the teachers should understand mathematics anxiety and implement suitable learning strategies in order for the students to overcome their mathematics anxiety.

  17. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students often experience depression, anxiety, stress and decreased mindfulness which may decrease their patient care effectiveness. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) effectively reduced depression, anxiety and stress, and increased mindfulness in previous research with other populations, but there is sparse evidence regarding its effectiveness for nursing students in Korea. To examine the effects of MBSR on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. A randomized controlled trial. Fifty (50) nursing students at KN University College of Nursing in South Korea were randomly assigned to two groups. Data from 44 students, MBSR (n=21) and a wait list (WL) control (n=23) were analyzed. The MBSR group practiced mindfulness meditation for 2 h every week for 8 weeks. The WL group did not receive MBSR intervention. Standardized self-administered questionnaires of depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness were administered at the baseline prior to the MBSR program and at completion (at 8 weeks). Compared with WL participants, MBSR participants reported significantly greater decreases in depression, anxiety and stress, and greater increase in mindfulness. A program of MBSR was effective when it was used with nursing students in reducing measures of depression, anxiety and stress, and increasing their mindful awareness. MBSR shows promise for use with nursing students to address their experience of mild depression, anxiety and stress, and to increase mindfulness in academic and clinical work, warranting further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Auriculotherapy in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders with Anxiety in University Students

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    Denise Hollanda Iunes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of auriculotherapy with mustard seeds in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs, anxiety, and electromyographic (EMG activity in university students. Methodology. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC for TMDs (RDC/TMDs, and electromyography were used in this study of 44 college students with high levels of anxiety and TMDs. The subjects were divided into two groups: an auriculotherapy (AA group (n=31 and an AA sham group (n=13. The mustard seeds were applied to the shenmen, rim, sympathetic, brain stem, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ points in the AA group and to sham points in the external ear and wrist in the AA sham group. The treatment protocol was 10 sessions (two treatments per week. Results. Anxiety (p<0.01 was significantly reduced in the AA group. This group also showed a decrease in tender points in the mandibular posterior region (p=0.04 and in the right side of the submandibular region (p=0.02. Complaints of bilateral pain were reduced in the temporal tendon (p≤0.01 and in the left side of the ATM (p<0.01. In addition, electromyographic (EMG activity was reduced during temporal muscle contraction (p=0.03.  Conclusion. Auriculotherapy was effective in the treatment of students with anxiety and TMDs.

  19. Computer Anxiety, Academic Stress, and Academic Procrastination on College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Rahardjo; Juneman Juneman; Yeni Setiani

    2013-01-01

    Academic procrastination is fairly and commonly found among college students. The lack of understanding in making the best use of computer technology may lead to anxiety in terms of operating computer hence cause postponement in completing course assignments related to computer operation. On the other hand, failure in achieving certain academic targets as expected by parents and/or the students themselves also makes students less focused and leads to tendency of postponing many completions of...

  20. Mathematics Anxiety and Prevention Strategy: An Attempt to Support Students and Strengthen Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Shishigu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reaching a medium income country, science, mathematics and technology have become an emphasis of Ethiopia. But, currently, students' interest to study mathematics and ability in mathematics is declining. This study therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence of mathematics anxiety and its effect on students' current mathematics achievement. Additionally, by grounding on the literature, some strategies supposed to reduce the negative effects of math anxiety were identified for practice. The study was conducted on five randomly selected public secondary schools of East Shoa Zone in Oromia region. Math anxiety was measured using a validated instrument called Math Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS, whereas students' current mathematics achievement was measured using achievement test. Structural model was developed to examine causal relationship of the variables treated in the study. The finding revealed that there was a significant negative relationship between mathematics anxiety and achievement. There was also a statistically significant gender difference in mathematics anxiety and current math achievement, with effect size small and typical respectively. Based on the findings of the study, imperative implication for practice and future research were made.

  1. The Sum of All Fears: The Effects of Math Anxiety on Math Achievement in Fifth Grade Students and the Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…

  2. Test Anxiety: Evaluation of a Low-Threshold Seminar-Based Intervention for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Nadine; Augustin, Sophie; Bade, Claudia; Ammer-Wies, Annett; Bahramsoltani, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Veterinary students are confronted with a high workload and an extensive number of examinations. However, the skills students gained in high school cannot serve as satisfactory coping strategies during veterinary training. This disparity can lead to test anxiety, as frequently reported by international surveys. In response, a pilot study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a newly developed training seminar to prevent and/or reduce test anxiety. The seminar was offered on a voluntary basis as a low-threshold intervention to first- and second-year veterinary students at three different veterinary schools in Germany. The intervention was offered in two different designs: in either a block or in a semester course containing cognitive and behavioral approaches as well as skill-deficit methods. By conducting a survey and interviews among the participants it was determined whether the contents of the seminar were perceived as helpful for counteracting test anxiety. The potential of the intervention was evaluated using a German test anxiety questionnaire (PAF). The contents of the training seminar were all assessed as beneficial but evaluated slightly differently by first- and second-year students. The results indicate that the seminar prevents and reduces test anxiety significantly compared to the control group students. The greatest effects were achieved by offering the intervention to first-year students and as a block course. As the participants benefit from the intervention independent of the extent of test anxiety, these results suggest that it may be profitable to integrate a workshop on coping strategies in the veterinary curriculum.

  3. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan Librizzi

    2016-05-01

    Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management. The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience. The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States. All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39). Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week. Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait

  4. THE STRATEGIES TO COPE WITH EFL STUDENTS‟ SPEAKING ANXIETY IN CLASSROOM CONVERSATION: STUDENTS AND TEACHER PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Atikah Wati

    2017-01-01

    This study deals with students‘ anxiety and the strategies to cope with those anxieties from the perspective of students and teacher. Anxiety is important area to be analyze because of: firstly, the research suggests that ―anxiety... may affect the quality of an individual‘s communication or willingness to communicate‖ (Young 1990:58), but also because it affects a large number of students in higher institutions (Campbell & Ortiz 1991:159). Secondly, Students with anxiety disorder exhibit a p...

  5. Emotional intensity reduces later generalized anxiety disorder symptoms when fear of anxiety and negative problem-solving appraisal are low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshinori; Sugiura, Tomoko

    2015-08-01

    While research based on the emotion dysregulation model indicates a positive relationship between intense emotions and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms, emotion-focused intervention involves the use of techniques to enhance emotional experiences, based on the notion that GAD patients are engaging in avoidance strategies. To reveal the conditions under which intense emotions lead to reduced GAD symptoms, we designed a longitudinal study to monitor changes in GAD symptoms among students (N = 129) over 3 months. Our focus was on possible moderators of the effect of emotional intensity. Results indicated that when fear of emotions and negative appraisals about problem solving were low, negative emotional intensity reduced later GAD symptoms. Moreover, under the condition of high responsibility to continue thinking, emotional intensity tended to reduce later GAD symptoms. Results suggest that reduced fear of emotions and reduced negative appraisals about problem solving may enhance the use of emotional processing techniques (e.g., emotional exposure). The interaction between responsibility to continue thinking and emotional intensity requires further examination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  8. Hostility/anger as a mediator between college students' emotion regulation abilities and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia

    2013-01-01

    Internalizing problems are common among college students and have been linked consistently to deficits in emotion regulation (ER). Also, hostility/anger (animosity toward others, phenomenological aspect of anger) is an important feature of internalizing problems, but has received limited attention as a mediator between ER and outcomes. Results (N = 160) indicated that although college students' ER abilities corresponded with all three types of internalizing symptoms, hostility/anger mediated fully the relationship for symptoms of depression and social anxiety, but not generalized anxiety (GAD). The stronger interpersonal aspect inherent in depression and social anxiety relative to GAD may in part explain findings, but findings must be viewed in lieu of limitations, which include self-report, a non-clinical sample, and a cross-sectional design. Overall, hostility/anger may be important to address in interventions and programs aimed at reducing internalizing problems, especially among those who demonstrate ER deficits and are prone to depression and social anxiety.

  9. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Despite being competent in their field of work, professional's worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to…

  10. Roots of Mathematics Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan-Lorey, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    A majority of college students exhibit feelings of fear and discomfort when put into situations that require the use of mathematics. These students are characterized to be mathematics-anxious and tend to overlook the idea that one can gain many benefits from learning the subject. This paper investigates the various factors that have led to and…

  11. Effect of a mindfulness program on stress, anxiety and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, José; Aguilar-Parra, José M; Cangas, Adolfo J; Langer, Álvaro I; Mañas, Israel

    2015-01-13

    Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.

  12. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  13. Clinical anxiety among final year dental students: The trainers and students perspectives

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    A Obarisiagbon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The dental clinical setting, which is a significant learning environment for undergraduate dental students, may induce anxiety, which may adversely affect the clinical performance. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors provoking clinical anxiety in dental students from the trainers and students perspectives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 6 th (final year dental students of University of Benin and their clinical trainers between January and March 2012 using the 38-item modified Moss and McManus clinical anxiety questionnaire. Results: Of the 67 participants, 32 (47.8% were 6 th year dental students while 35 (52.2% were clinical trainers. According to the students, the top clinical anxiety provoking situations were inability to meet requirements before exams, inability to pass the final exams, dealing with psychiatric patients, coping with uncooperative children, getting infected by patients, fracturing a tooth during extraction, extracting the wrong tooth, discovering calculus by the supervisor after scaling, accidental pulp exposure, inadvertently hurting patients and using the high speed hand piece. There existed concordance on the top two clinical anxiety provoking situations reported by the students and their clinical trainers. However, measuring blood pressure, taking pulse, presenting in the clinic, handling a syncopal attack, and accidental pulp exposure were statistically significant contrasting clinical anxiety provoking situations from dental students and trainers perspectives. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed that clinical trainers share largely the same perspectives with the dental students on the clinical anxiety provoking situations with slight variations. Fostering a supportive learning environment conducive to dental student learning by strengthen efforts to minimize clinical anxiety is a necessity.

  14. The Effectiveness of Attribution Retraining on Anxiety of Students with Learning Disabilities

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    Marzieh Yahyaei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of attribution retraining group program on anxiety of students with learning disabilities. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study pre-test and post-test design with control group was used. Two learning disorders centers were selected on purpose and conveniently in Tehran City in 2012-13 academic years. Thirty six students (9 girls and 27 boys who were educating in 2nd to 6th grade in elementary school with learning disabilities selected in convenience. One center was considered as experimental group and the other one as control group randomly (each group consisted of 18 individuals. Experimental group was divided into three subgroups (each consisted of 6 individuals, and were participated in 11 intervention sessions (each lasts for 45 minutes twice a week and received attribution retraining program, but control group received no training. Spence Children Anxiety Scale (SCAS was completed before and after the intervention by all subjects. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and analysis of covariance. Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that attribution retraining intervention did not influence the anxiety. There is no significant difference between the anxiety of experimental and control group (P=0.34. Conclusion: It was concluded that attribution retraining group program can not probably reduce anxiety symptoms of students with learning disabilities.

  15. Reducing Math Anxiety: Findings from Incorporating Service Learning into a Quantitative Reasoning Course at Seattle University

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    Allison Henrich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available How might one teach mathematics to math-anxious students and at the same time reduce their math anxiety? This paper describes what we found when we incorporated a service learning component into a quantitative reasoning course at Seattle University in Fall 2010 (20 students and Spring 2011 (28 students. The course is taken primarily by humanities majors, many of whom would not take a course in math if they didn’t need to satisfy the university’s core requirement. For the service learning component, each student met with and tutored children at local schools for 1-2 hours per week (total about 15 service hours, kept a weekly journal reflecting on the experience, and wrote a five-page final paper on the importance and reasonable expectations of mathematics literacy. The autobiographies, self-description at the beginning of the class, focus group interviews at the end of the term, journal entries, final essays, and student evaluations indicated that the students gained confidence in their mathematical abilities, a greater interest in mathematics, and a broader sense of the importance of math literacy in modern society. One notable finding was that students discovered that the act of manufacturing enthusiasm about math as a tool for tutoring the children made them more enthusiastic about math in their own courses.

  16. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematolahi, Pouya; Mehrabani, Mitra; Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral rosemary on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students. In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial, the 68 participating students randomly received 500 mg rosemary and placebo twice daily for one month. Prospective and retrospective memory performance, depression, anxiety and sleep quality of the students were measured using Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory at baseline and after one month. The scores of all the scales and subscales except the sleep latency and sleep duration components of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory were significantly decreased in the rosemary group in comparison with the control group after one month. Rosemary as a traditional herb could be used to boost prospective and retrospective memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and improve sleep quality in university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of anxiolytic premedication in reducing preoperative anxiety.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of preoperative anxiety with anxiolytic premedication is associated with improved preoperative outcomes in surgical patients. The objective of the authors\\' study was to evaluate the percentage of surgical patients that are prescribed premedication for preoperative anxiety before their anticipated surgical procedure. A prospective study was carried out by theatre nursing staff in the theatre reception bay of a university teaching hospital. A questionnaire was designed to record the number of patients that described symptoms consistent with preoperative anxiety. The number of patients that had been offered anxiolytic premedication for preoperative anxiety was also recorded. Consent was obtained from 115 consecutive surgical patients (male, n=52; female, n=63). Of these, 66% (n=76) reported anxiety before their surgical procedure (male: n=27, female: n=49). Premedication with a low-dose benzodiazepine was prescribed by an anaesthetist in 4% of cases (n=5). Patients that received premedication preoperatively reported effective relief of their anxiety symptoms This study demonstrates that preoperative patient anxiety is highly prevalent. The authors\\' findings suggest that premedication with anxiolytic pharmacological therapy may be an underused therapeutic resource for managing preoperative patient anxiety.

  18. THE STRATEGIES TO COPE WITH EFL STUDENTS‟ SPEAKING ANXIETY IN CLASSROOM CONVERSATION: STUDENTS AND TEACHER PERSPECTIVE

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    Atikah Wati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with students‘ anxiety and the strategies to cope with those anxieties from the perspective of students and teacher. Anxiety is important area to be analyze because of: firstly, the research suggests that ―anxiety... may affect the quality of an individual‘s communication or willingness to communicate‖ (Young 1990:58, but also because it affects a large number of students in higher institutions (Campbell & Ortiz 1991:159. Secondly, Students with anxiety disorder exhibit a passive attitude in their studies such as lack of interest in learning, poor performance in exams, and do poorly on assignments. The third, A student with high anxiety can fall behind academically because he or she is distracted and has impaired verbal working memory skills when anxious (Hopko et al., 2005. The common anxiety among university students has been acknowledgement by students and educators. However, the study of anxiety is a real phenomena, the importance of study anxiety is particularly related to the sources of anxiety and how to handle them so that the students can involve the classroom communication smoothly and improve their performance and exam academically. That‘s why this study will reveal the students speaking anxiety in classroom conversation and how to cope with students‘ speaking anxiety based on students and teacher perspective. The result will be gathered from questionnaire to the students and interview to the English teachers.

  19. Eficácia da aromaterapia na redução de níveis de estresse e ansiedade em alunos de graduação da área da saúde: estudo preliminar Effectiveness of aromatherapy in reducing stress and anxiety levels in undergraduate health science students: a preliminary study

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    Cassandra Santantonio de Lyra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a eficácia de aromaterapia na diminuição de níveis de estresse e ansiedade (traço e estado de alunos de graduação de cursos na área da saúde. Participaram do estudo 36 sujeitos, com idade entre 18 e 29 anos, que foram divididos entre os que receberam tratamento (grupo aroma, n=18 e o grupo controle (n=18. Os sujeitos foram avaliados quanto a níveis de estresse e ansiedade antes e após o período de intervenção, pela Lista de Sintomas de Estresse e pelo Inventário de Ansiedade Traço e Estado. O tratamento de aromaterapia consistiu em sete sessões (duas vezes por semana de dez minutos de inalação com uma sinergia de óleos essenciais elaborada especificamente. Os escores de estresse e ansiedade antes e depois do tratamento foram comparados estatisticamente, com nível de significância de 5% (pThe purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of aromatherapy in decreasing stress and anxiety levels in undergraduate health science students. Thirty-six students aged 18 to 29 were divided into those who received treatment (aroma group, n=18 and a control group (n=18. All subjects were assessed as to stress and anxiety levels before and after the treatment, by means of the List of Stress Symptoms and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The aromatherapy treatment consisted in twice weekly, 10-minute inhalations of a synergy of essential oils made specifically for this study, for a total of 7 sessions. Stress and anxiety scores measured before and after treatment were statistically compared, with significance level set at 5% (p<0.05. The aroma group showed a significant (p<0,05 decrease in stress (less 24% and anxitey (less 13% and 19% levels, while in control group only a significant, though lesser (11% stress level decrease could be noticed. Aromatherapy thus proved effective in reducing stress and anxiety levels in graduate health students, but there is still great need to further studies to

  20. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  1. HYPNOANXIETY AS AN ALTERNATIVE THERAPY TO REDUCE ANXIETY IN PRIMIGRAVIDA MOTHERS

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    Nurul Jannah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety among primigravida mothers should be handled to avoid the risks during pregnancy. Hypnotherapy is considered to be a solution, however, there is limited studies to see its effect for anxiety, especially in primipara mothers. Objective: To examine the effect of hypnoanxiety on the level of anxiety in primigravida. Methods: This was a Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs with pretest-posttest design, conducted between September – October 2016 in the working area of the Health Center of Bergas Semarang, Indonesia. There were 40 respondents recruited using simple random sampling, which divided into intervention and control group. Hypnoanxiety was performed 8 times for 4 weeks. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS was used to measure anxiety in pregnant women. Data were analyzed using Mann Whitney test and Kruskal waliis test. Results: Findings showed that after four weeks intervention, there was a decrease of the level of anxiety in the intervention group, consisted of 25% of moderate anxiety, 40% of mild anxiety, and 35 % of respondents had no anxiety. The p-value was 0.005, which indicated that there was mean difference of anxiety level between intervention and control group. Conclusions: There was a significant effect of hypnoanxiety on the level of anxiety in pregnant women. It is suggested that hypnoanxiety could be one of the alternative therapies to reduce the anxiety among prenant women. This could be considered to be included in the standard of midwifery care in Indonesia.

  2. Stress, anxiety, and depression among medical students in a multiethnic setting

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    Kulsoom B

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bibi Kulsoom,1 Nasir Ali Afsar2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Contemporary literature suggests that medical education might adversely affect students’ mental health. Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is a developing institution; hence, there has been a concern regarding the mental well-being of the students.Objectives: This study was designed to assess the traits of depression, anxiety, and stress among students in relation to potential underlying reasons.Methods: All 575 medical students across the 5 years of study participated by filling out the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21 questionnaire anonymously twice. Firstly, 2–3 weeks before a major examination (pre-examination, and secondly, during regular classes (post-examination. Correlation was sought regarding sex, year of scholarship, attendance of a premedical university preparatory program (UPP, housing, and smoking. Subjective comments from students were also obtained.Results: A total of 76.8% and 74.9% of students participated in pre- and post-examination groups, respectively. The majority were the children of expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia, and included Arabs, South Asians, and North Americans. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was high (43%, 63%, and 41%, respectively which reduced (to 30%, 47%, and 30%, respectively to some extent after examinations. Saudis and those who had attended UPP had higher DASS-21 scores. Smoking and female sex predicted higher levels of “baseline” depression, anxiety, or stress. The students perceived the curriculum and schedule to be the primary causes of their high DASS-21 scores.Conclusion: The students had high “baseline” traits of depression, anxiety, and stress, and these were higher if an examination was near, especially among Saudis and those who had attended UPP. Smoking and female sex

  3. Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated. PMID:28771564

  4. Differential Dimensions of Death Anxiety in Nursing Students with and without Nursing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Ben, Kevin S. Del; Fortson, Beverly L.; Lewis, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have demonstrated death anxiety in nursing professionals; however, it is unclear as to when this anxiety develops. This study used a multidimensional measure to investigate death anxiety in a group of experienced (n = 53) and inexperienced (n = 49) nursing students and a control group of non-nursing students (n = 50). Experienced…

  5. No Fear, Just Relax and Play: Social Anxiety, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Games among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Olthuis, Janine V.; Casner, Hilary G.; Bui, Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the association between social anxiety and drinking game (DG) involvement as well as the moderating role of social anxiety-relevant alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) in social anxiety and DG involvement among college students. Participants: Participants were 715 students (74.8% women, M[subscript age] = 19.46, SD =…

  6. Effects of a Classroom Intervention on Academic Engagement of Elementary School Students with Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Lychelle

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of anxiety reduction on academic engagement for eight students experiencing significant anxiety in grades three through five. All participating students showed high anxiety levels that appeared to be impacting performance on at least one academic task in the classroom, according to teacher report. Student…

  7. Facilitating and Debilitating Test Anxiety Among College Students and Volunteers for Desensitization Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudesman, John; Wiesner, Ezra

    1978-01-01

    Examines whether the degree of facilitating and debilitating test anxiety is different for students who volunteer for test anxiety desensitization workshops than it is for the general college population, whether test anxiety in urban community college students is correlated, and whether either or both of the AAT scales are predictive of student…

  8. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescent students; a perspective from Sri Lanka

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    Wijeratne Thilina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.

  9. State test-anxiety, selective attention and concentration in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Castillo, Antonio; Caurcel, María J

    2015-08-01

    The principal aim of this study was to assess the level of selective attention and mental concentration before exams in a sample of university students and to determine a possible relationship between anxiety and reduction of levels of attention in this circumstance. A total of 403 university students, 176 men and 227 women, aged from 18 to 46 years, participated in the study. Of them, 169 were first-year undergraduates, 118 were second to fourth-year undergraduates and 116 were postgraduate Master's degree students. All of them completed the Spanish version of the Spielberger State-Anxiety Inventory and the D2 Attention Test just before taking an exam. Our results showed that participants with lower levels of anxiety had higher levels of selective attention and mental concentration before the exam. These results specifically indicate that when anxiety levels are very high, this could over-activate the orientating and alerting functions and to reduce the capacity of attentional control. These processes could have a negative impact on specific attentional processes and become a negative influence on performance in exams. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  10. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

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    Farhan Uddin Raja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being competent in their field of work, professional’s worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons behind the anxiety level in undergraduate students of a public speaking class and recommend strategies to overcome this fear. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a sample of 50 students using convenience sampling technique from a reputable private sector business school in Karachi. The findings showed that students who fear public speaking can perform well if they use certain strategies to fight their fears. 75% participants admitted their fear of public speaking and 95% participants agreed that if proper counseling, instruction and coaching is provided, this fear can be overcome. Research revealed that exposure to virtual environment can facilitate student confidence and enables themto face audience irrespective of the size.

  11. Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ivaldo Jesus Lima; de Souza, Victor Vasconcelos; Motta, Vitor; Da-Silva, Sérgio Leme

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C ascorbic acid) is a well-known antioxidant that is involved in anxiety, stress, depression, fatigue and mood state in humans. Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may trigger neuropsychological disorders. Antioxidants may play an important therapeutic role in combating the damage caused by oxidative stress in individuals that suffer from anxiety. In this context, it was hypothesized that oral vitamin C supplementation would reduce anxiety. However, few up to date studies have evaluated the consequences of oral vitamin C supplementation on anxiety in humans. The present study examined the effects of oral vitamin C supplements in 42 high school students, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The students were given either vitamin C (500 mg day(-1)) or placebo. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and blood pressure were measured before the intervention and then one day after the intervention. Anxiety levels were evaluated for each student before and after 14 days following supplementation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that vitamin C reduced anxiety levels and led to higher plasma vitamin C concentration compared to the placebo. The mean heart rates were also significantly different between vitamin C group and placebo control group. Present study results not only provide evidence that vitamin C plays an important therapeutic role for anxiety but also point a possible use for antioxidants in the prevention or reduction of anxiety. This suggests that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to medical and psychological treatment of anxiety and improve academic performance.

  12. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Chun Yeh; Cheng-Fang Yen; Chung-Sheng Lai; Chun-Hsiung Huang; Keh-Min Liu; In-Ting Huang

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program ...

  13. The role of music therapy in reducing post meal related anxiety for patients with anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bibb, Jennifer; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well known that mealtime is anxiety provoking for patients with Anorexia Nervosa. However, there is little research into effective interventions for reducing meal related anxiety in an inpatient setting. Methods This study compared the levels of distress and anxiety of patients with Anorexia Nervosa pre and post music therapy, in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. Data was collected using the Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) scale which was administered pre ...

  14. Dental anxiety among university students and its correlation with their field of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Wael Mousa; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud Khalid

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the subjective ratings of dental anxiety levels among university students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology. In addition, the present study aimed to explore the sources of dental anxiety and the impact of gender on the perceived dental anxiety and the correlation between field of study and dental anxiety level. The Modified Corah Dental Anxiety Scale was used to measure dental anxiety among the study population. Six hundred subjects were recruited into the study from Jordanian undergraduate students from the faculties of Medicine, Engineering, and Dentistry. Five hundred and thirty five complete questionnaires were returned, which accounts for a response rate of 89.2%. The totals of the mean anxiety scores were the following: Medical students, 13.58%; Engineering students, 13.27% and dental students, 11.22%. About 32% of the study population has scored 15 or more. Dental students had the lowest percentage of those who scored 15 or more. Surprisingly, the medical students were responsible for the highest percentage of those who scored 15 or above. Although women demonstrated statistically higher total dental anxiety scores than men (p= 0.03), the difference between both genders was small and could be clinically insignificant. The students were anxious mostly about tooth drilling and local anesthetic injection. Lack of adequate dental health education may result in a high level of dental anxiety among non-dental university students in Jordan. Further studies are required to identify the correlates of dental anxiety among university students.

  15. Relationship between Dental Anxiety and Health Locus of Control among Physiotherapy Students

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    Pooja Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Materials & Method: A total of 152 students participated in the study. Dental anxiety was assessed using the 5 item Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS and Locus of Control was assessed using the 18 item Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC scale. Results: A Statistically significant positive correlation was found between the internal dimension of MHLC and dental anxiety. Conclusions: HLC was found to play an important role in predicting the dental anxiety among physiotherapy students.

  16. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Mathematics Anxiety Levels among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Baloğlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between college students’ subjective and objective assessment of mathematics anxiety levels. Students rated their general and current mathematics anxiety levels, mathematical ability levels, and confidence in doing mathematics. The Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale was used as an objective measure of their mathematics anxiety levels. Participants were 559 students, 406 (72.6%) women and 151 (27.0%) men. Results showed that perceived general mathe...

  17. Do high school students with different styles have different level of math anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Shirvani, Hosin; Guerra, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study included 240 mostly Hispanic students from one high school. The study used a learning style survey and a math anxiety survey to find students’ learning styles and level of math anxiety. The study examined whether students with three learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) had a different level of math anxiety. The study found that children with kinesthetic learning style had higher math anxiety than the other two types. The study also examined whether there were differe...

  18. Performance Anxiety at English PBL Groups Among Taiwanese Medical Students: A Preliminary Study

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    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Students' performance anxiety can impact negatively on the effectiveness of medical education reform, including performance in problem-based learning (PBL and in using English in discussion. This study aimed to investigate the nature of performance anxiety among Taiwanese medical students in an English-language PBL group. Eighteen Taiwanese, one American and four Asian medical students who were attending an international PBL workshop were enrolled. A questionnaire seeking demographic data and experience in use of PBL and eight questions evaluating performance anxiety were administered. The performance anxiety of Taiwanese medical students was compared to that of the Asians and the one American. Frequencies of each performance anxiety were calculated. The results suggested that the Taiwanese students showed more anxiety than the one student from the United States, but less than other Asian students. The acts of giving a report, being the center of attention, and talking in the PBL group were the most common situations related to anxiety in PBL groups. Using English and working in a new PBL environment are possible sources of anxiety. The presence of anxiety among the Taiwanese medical students in English PBL groups implies the necessity for developing an effective strategy to deal with students' performance anxiety.

  19. Clinical use of virtual reality distraction system to reduce anxiety and pain in dental procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, Mark D; Gao, Kenneth; Wiederhold, Brenda K

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has been used by clinicians to manage pain in clinical populations. This study examines the use of VR as a form of distraction for dental patients using both subjective and objective measures to determine how a VR system affects patients' reported anxiety level, pain level, and physiological factors. As predicted, results of self-evaluation questionnaires showed that patients experienced less anxiety and pain after undergoing VR treatment. Physiological data reported similar trends in decreased anxiety. Overall, the favorable subjective and objective responses suggest that VR distraction systems can reduce discomfort and pain for patients with mild to moderate fear and anxiety.

  20. Stress, depression, and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomas, Wanda M; Shapiro, Carla

    2013-11-07

    Admission to a professional program marks the beginning of fulfilling a career goal. However, the rigors of professional education can be demanding. Stress, depression, and anxiety (SDA) can interfere with learning, affect academic performance, and impair clinical practice performance. Studies report a general increase in the severity of and extent of mental health problems among college/university students. The literature regarding nursing students' mental health distress identifies academic and personal sources of stress and coping efforts, with emphasis on the stress and anxiety associated with clinical practice. This cross-sectional descriptive exploratory study investigated levels of SDA among nursing students in 3 years of a university-based program. The association between quality of life indicators including known stressors, such as financial concerns and balance between school and personal life, and SDA was also investigated. Through an online survey, 437 participants from one mid-western Canadian undergraduate nursing program completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and provided data on quality of life indicators and demographic information. Participants also were invited to provide narrative data about their experiences with SDA. This article will present significant findings including: levels of SDA; comparisons between our sample and a normative sample on the dimensions of SDA; and the results of multiple regression analysis identifying significant predictors of each dimension. Themes from the qualitative comments from 251 of the participants were identified and added depth and clarity to the quantitative findings. The predominant themes represented were: perceptions of clinical practice, coping, personal issues, and balancing school, work, and personal life. Implications and recommendations for curriculum design, ensuring students understand program expectations prior to admission, and enhancing accessibility to mental health/support services

  1. Can father inclusive practice reduce paternal postnatal anxiety? A repeated measures cohort study using the hospital anxiety and depression scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohotoa Jenny

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal research on anxiety and depression has primarily focused on mothers. We have limited knowledge of fathers’ anxiety during the perinatal period yet there is evidence that the parenting capacity of a person can be compromised by anxiety and depression. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of a father inclusive intervention on perinatal anxiety and depression. The prime focus of the intervention was to provide education and support to fathers of breastfeeding partners with the aim of increasing both initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Methods A repeated measures cohort study was conducted during a RCT that was implemented across eight public maternity hospitals in Perth, Western Australia between May 2008 and June 2009. A baseline questionnaire which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was administered to all participants on the first night of their hospital based antenatal education program and was repeated at six weeks postnatal. SPSS version 17 was used for reporting descriptive results. Results The mean anxiety levels at baseline for the fathers in the intervention group (n=289 and control group (n=244 were 4.58 and 4.22 respectively. At 6 weeks postnatal (only matched pairs, intervention and control group were 3.93 and 3.79. More intervention group fathers self-rated less anxiety compared to the fathers in the control group from baseline to post test (p=0.048. Depression scores for intervention fathers at baseline (mean =1.09 and at six weeks (mean=1.09 were very similar to fathers in the control group at baseline (mean=1.11 and at six weeks (mean =1.07 with no significant changes. Conclusions Both intervention and control group fathers experienced some anxiety prior to the birth of their baby, but this was rapidly reduced at six weeks. Paternal anxiety is common to new fathers and providing them with information and strategies for problem-solving can increase their

  2. Student Attitudes, Student Anxieties, and How to Address Them; A handbook for science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Helge

    2016-02-01

    This book is based on a commitment to teaching science to everybody. What may work for training professional scientists does not work for general science education. Students bring to the classrooms preconceived attitudes, as well as the emotional baggage called 'science anxiety'. Students may regard science as cold, unfriendly, and even inherently hostile and biased against women. This book has been designed to deal with each of these issues and results from research in both Denmark and the USA. The first chapter discusses student attitudes towards science and the second discusses science anxiety. The connection between the two is discussed before the introduction of constructivism as a pedagogy that can aid science learning if it also addresses attitudes and anxieties. Much of the book elucidates what the authors have learned as science teachers and science education researchers. They studied various groups including university students majoring in the sciences, mathematics, humanities, social sciences, business, nursing, and education; high-school students; teachers' seminary students; science teachers at all levels from middle school through college; and science administrators. The insights of these groups constitute the most important feature of the book, and by sharing them, the authors hope to help their fellow science teachers to understand student attitudes about science, to recognize the connections between these and science anxiety, and to see how a pedagogy that takes these into account can improve science learning.

  3. The Effect of Aromatherapy on Level of Exam Anxiety Among Nursing Students in Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoshkesht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exam anxiety and reduce of that, is one of the problems of educational systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on level of exam anxiety among nursing students in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a triple blind clinical trial on 91 nursing students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences which have been sampled simply and randomized divided into group A and group B. Vital signs and Spielberg state–trait anxiety inventory were measured and recorded at baseline and 5 minutes after intervention and after exam .Then, the students were asked to place the bottle of aroma (lavender or sterile water at a distance of 5 cm of nose and inhale for 10 minutes. Half of students were exposed to bottles that fulfilled by 5 drops of lavender essential oil and half of them were exposed to bottles that fulfilled by 5 drops of sterile water that labeled as A or B and was blind for subjects, researchers and analyzer. After analysis, content of each bottle was disclosed. Results: The results showed that there were meaningful difference between average exam anxiety, pulse and systolic blood pressure along the time (P=0.000, 0.023, 0.009. Conclusion: These results showed that although aromatherapy has been not meaningful statistical effective but can reduce the exam anxiety in nursing student along the time.

  4. Trait and state anxiety reduce the mere exposure effect

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra L Ladd; Sandra L Ladd; John D E Gabrieli; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to an affective preference elicited by exposure to previously unfamiliar items. Although it is a well-established finding, its mechanism remains uncertain, with some positing that it reflects affective processes and others positing that it reflects perceptual or motor fluency with repeated items. Here we examined whether individual differences in trait and state anxiety, which have been associated with the experience of emotion, influence the mere exposure effe...

  5. Beat the Fear of Public Speaking: Mobile 360° Video Virtual Reality Exposure Training in Home Environment Reduces Public Speaking Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupar-Rutenfrans, Snežana; Ketelaars, Loes E H; van Gisbergen, Marnix S

    2017-10-01

    With this article, we aim to increase our understanding of how mobile virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) can help reduce speaking anxiety. Using the results of a longitudinal study, we examined the effect of a new VRET strategy (Public Speech Trainer, PST), that incorporates 360° live recorded VR environments, on the reduction of public speaking anxiety. The PST was developed as a 360° smartphone application for a VR head-mounted device that participants could use at home. Realistic anxiety experiences were created by means of live 360° video recordings of a lecture hall containing three training sessions based on graded exposure framework; empty classroom (a) and with a small (b) and large audience (c). Thirty-five students participated in all sessions using PST. Anxiety levels were measured before and after each session over a period of 4 weeks. As expected, speaking anxiety significantly decreased after the completion of all PST sessions, and the decrement was the strongest in participants with initially high speaking anxiety baseline levels. Results also revealed that participants with moderate and high speaking anxiety baseline level differ in the anxiety state pattern over time. Conclusively and in line with habituation theory, the results supported the notion that VRET is more effective when aimed at reducing high-state anxiety levels. Further implications for future research and improvement of current VRET strategies are discussed.

  6. Interpretation modification training reduces social anxiety in clinically anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing Test Anxiety while Increasing Learning: The Cheat Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Brigitte

    2007-01-01

    Student learning is greatly enhanced by studying prior to an exam. Allowing students to prepare a cheat sheet for the exam helps structure this study time and deepens learning. The crib sheet is well defined: one double-sided page of notes. An award for the best and most creative cheat sheet allows the instructor to appreciate the students'…

  8. Social anxiety and Internet socialization in Indian undergraduate students: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnekeri, Bianca S; Goel, Akhil; Umate, Maithili; Shah, Nilesh; De Sousa, Avinash

    2017-06-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a globally prevalent, chronic, debilitating psychiatric disorder affecting youth. With comorbidities including major depression, substance abuse, lower educational and work attainment, and increased suicide risk, it has a significant public health burden. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of SAD in urban Indian undergraduate students and to study their Facebook (FB) usage patterns. In this exploratory cross-sectional study, 316 undergraduate students were screened for social anxiety using validated instruments, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS), and divided into two groups based on scores obtained. The groups were then compared with regards to behaviors and attitudes toward Facebook, obtained from a self-report questionnaire. SAD was estimated to be a significant, prevalent (7.8%) disorder in otherwise productive youth, and showed female preponderance. Higher specific social phobia scores were associated with the inability to reduce Facebook use, urges toward increasing use, spending more time thinking about Facebook, negative reactions to restricting use, and using it to forget one's problems. SAD was estimated to have a prevalence of 7.8% in our study, and was associated with stronger FB usage attitudes and patterns. We recommend that the relationship between social anxiety and Internet use be explored further, to study the possibility of Internet-based screening and intervention strategies having wider reach and appeal in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship between Dimensions of Personality and Library Anxiety in Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Nicola A.; Evans, M. Max; Frissen, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that library anxiety is a phenomenon experienced by many university-level students that impedes successful information retrieval, thereby negatively impacting academic performance. This study examines the relationship between library anxiety and personality in graduate students at the master's level. Students from various…

  10. The role of music therapy in reducing post meal related anxiety for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Jennifer; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that mealtime is anxiety provoking for patients with Anorexia Nervosa. However, there is little research into effective interventions for reducing meal related anxiety in an inpatient setting. This study compared the levels of distress and anxiety of patients with Anorexia Nervosa pre and post music therapy, in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. Data was collected using the Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) scale which was administered pre and post each condition. A total of 89 intervention and 84 control sessions were recorded. Results from an unpaired t-test analysis indicated statistically significant differences between the music therapy and supported meal conditions. Results indicated that participation in music therapy significantly decreases post meal related anxiety and distress in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. This research provides support for the use of music therapy in this setting as an effective clinical intervention in reducing meal related anxiety.

  11. Autogenic training reduces anxiety after coronary angioplasty: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, N; White, A R; Ernst, E

    2004-03-01

    Autogenic training (AT) is a method of autosuggestion with some potential for reducing anxiety. This study tests whether AT lowers anxiety levels experienced by patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Fifty-nine patients were randomly assigned to receive regular AT or no such therapy as an adjunct to standard care for 5 months. The primary outcome measure was State Anxiety at 2 months. Qualitative information was generated by face-to-face interviews. State Anxiety showed a significant intergroup difference both at 2 and 5 months. This finding was corroborated by secondary outcome measures, for example, quality of life, and by qualitative information about patients' experiences. The results do not allow us to determine whether the observed effects are specific to AT or of a nonspecific nature. Our results suggest that AT may have a role in reducing anxiety of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty.

  12. Clarifying the relation of acculturative stress and anxiety/depressive symptoms: The role of anxiety sensitivity among Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Mayorga, Nubia A; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garey, Lorra; Viana, Andres G; Sharp, Carla; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Recent work has highlighted the link between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms among Hispanic young adults, but the nature of these relations is not well understood. The present study aimed to clarify the relation between acculturative stress and depression/anxiety symptoms by examining anxiety sensitivity, globally and via subfactors, as an explanatory variable. A cross-sectional sample of 788 Hispanic college students (80.8% female; M age = 20.83 years, SD = 1.93) was recruited from a southwestern public university and completed an online self-report assessment battery. Acculturative stress exerted an indirect effect, via the global construct of anxiety sensitivity, on depression symptoms, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety symptoms. Follow-up simultaneous analytic models demonstrated indirect effects via the anxiety sensitivity subfactors that were pathognomonic with each of the specific affective outcomes. These findings suggest the utility of assessing and targeting anxiety sensitivity in the treatment of acculturative stress-related depression/anxiety problems among Hispanic college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Anxiety and Depression in Cyberbullied College Students: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Frías, Cinthia Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Cyberbullying is a worldwide phenomenon and its effects can be severe. To better understand the personal and situational factors in cyberbullying, we approach it from the perspective of the general aggression model. More specifically, we analyze the medium and long-term impact of past experiences of cyberbullying on university students. We also compare their psychological adjustment with peers who have not been cyberbullied by examining the recall of cyberbullying while attending secondary school of 1,593 university students. Participants from a Spanish University ( N = 680) and a Bolivian University ( N = 913) were invited to participate by filling in an online survey. It included the School Violence Questionnaire-Revised, CUVE-R, to assess school and classroom climate in relation to bullying and cyberbullying, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results show that among the participants, 5.1% reported having suffered cyberbullying and 19.3% reported having been a bystander of cyberbullying, with similar percentages between universities. Canonical correlation suggests that variables related to school climate best explain the variability among participants who have and have not been cyberbullied. Those who have been cyberbullied scored significantly higher on anxiety and depression symptoms as well. Being a bystander of cyberbullying was not associated to significant differences on psychological adjustment (i.e., anxiety and depression). Results indicated that experiencing cyberbullying in secondary school is associated to lower psychological adjustment years later as university students. School climate variables contribute more strongly to identifying victims of cyberbullying. These results support the need for psychosocial interventions from a broader perspective, addressing the different dimensions of this phenomenon and its impact on victims.

  14. The Distribution of and Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety in a UK Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, Megan; Bullock, Tom; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Traits associated with autism and social anxiety were assessed in a UK student population (n = 1325) using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Clinically relevant levels of autistic traits were observed in 3.3% of the cohort; 10.1% of the cohort reported clinically relevant levels of social anxiety; 1.8% of the…

  15. Information Anxiety and African-American Students in a Graduate Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopol, Patricia Fields

    2012-01-01

    Library anxiety has been cited as one factor affecting academic performance, but library use is only part of obtaining information for academic needs. This paper expands the concept of library anxiety to "information anxiety" by an examination of the information behavior of black graduate students when using a variety of information resources,…

  16. Foreign language classroom anxiety : A study of Chinese university students of Japanese and English over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Yinxing

    2016-01-01

    This PhD project mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between foreign language (FL) anxiety and FL proficiency development, the sources of FL anxiety, and the stability of FL anxiety over time and across target languages. To this end, 146 L1 Chinese university students, who had been learning

  17. Internet-based guided self-help for university students with anxiety, depression and stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; McGrath, Patrick J; Wojtowicz, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Anxiety, depression and stress, often co-occurring, are the psychological problems for which university students most often seek help. Moreover there are many distressed students who cannot, or choose not to, access professional help. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program for moderate anxiety, depression and stress. The program was based on standard cognitive behavior therapy principles and included 5 core modules, some of which involved options for focusing on anxiety and/or depression and/or stress. Trained student coaches provided encouragement and advice about using the program via e-mail or brief weekly phone calls. Sixty-six distressed university students were randomly assigned to either Immediate Access or a 6-week Delayed Access condition. Sixty-one percent of Immediate Access participants completed all 5 core modules, and 80% of all participants completed the second assessment. On the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Immediate Access participants reported significantly greater reductions in depression (ηp(2)=. 07), anxiety (ηp(2)=. 08) and stress (ηp(2)=. 12) in comparison to participants waiting to do the program, and these improvements were maintained at a six month follow-up. The results suggest that the provision of individually-adaptable, internet-based, self-help programs can reduce psychological distress in university students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Wright, Pamela; Bunders, Joske

    2013-12-17

    There is a rapidly growing public awareness of mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school students. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, to identify related risk factors, and to explore students' own proposals for improving their mental health. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1161 secondary students in Can Tho City, Vietnam during September through December, 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and proposed solutions. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence estimates of symptoms reaching a threshold comparable to a diagnosis of anxiety and depression were 22.8% and 41.1%, respectively. Suicide had been seriously considered by 26.3% of the students, while 12.9% had made a suicide plan and 3.8% had attempted suicide. Major risk factors related to anxiety and depression were physical or emotional abuse by the family, and high educational stress. As proposed solutions, nearly 80% of students suggested that the academic workload should be reduced and that confidential counselors should be appointed at schools. About half the students stated that the attitudes of their parents and teachers needed to change. A significant majority said that they would visit a website that provided mental health support for students. Anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are common among Vietnamese secondary school students. There are strong associations with physical and emotional abuse in the family and high educational stress. Academic curricula and attitudes of parents and teachers need to be changed from a punitive to a more supportive approach to reduce the risk of poor mental health. An internet-based mental health intervention could be a feasible and effective first step to improve students' mental health.

  19. The Duration of Self-Selected Music Needed to Reduce Preoperative Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurkin, Sylva L; Smith, Claudia D

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative anxiety affects patients both physically and psychologically. It may also influence the patient's perioperative experience and result in reduced patient satisfaction with care and potentially delayed recovery. Previous research indicates that patients who listen to music in the perioperative setting experience less anxiety than patients who do not listen to music. Research does not address the duration of music required to effectively reduce anxiety in this population. A randomized control trial was used. Two intervention groups (15-minute music and 30-minute music) and one control group (no music) were compared. Patients (n = 133) demonstrated less anxiety after listening to either 15 or 30 minutes of music (P music demonstrated less anxiety than those who did not listen to music (P = .005), whereas patients (n = 41) who listened to 30 minutes of music demonstrated less anxiety than those who did not listen to music (P music preoperatively is an effective method to reduce anxiety in patients who are about to have surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  1. Virtual reality on mobile phones to reduce anxiety in outpatient surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, José L; Gorini, Alessandra; De La Cerda, Gustavo; Obrador, Tomas; Almazan, Andrew; Mosso, Dejanira; Nieto, Jesus J; Riva, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    When undergo ambulatory surgical operations, the majority of patients experience high level of anxiety. Different experimental studies have shown that distraction techniques are effective in reducing pain and related anxiety. Since Virtual reality (VR) has been demonstrated a good distraction technique, it has been repeatedly used in hospital contexts for reducing pain in burned patients, but it has never been used during surgical operations. With the present randomized controlled study we intended to verify the effectiveness of VR in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing ambulatory operations under local or regional anaesthesia. In particular, we measured the degree to which anxiety associated with surgical intervention was reduced by distracting patients with immersive VR provided through a cell phone connected to an HMD compared to a no-distraction control condition. A significant reduction of anxiety was obtained after 45 minutes of operation in the VR group, but not in the control group and, after 90 minutes, the reduction was larger in the experimental group than in other one. In conclusion, this study presents an innovative promising technique to reduce anxiety during surgical interventions, even if more studies are necessary to investigate its effectiveness in other kinds of operations and in larger numbers of patients.

  2. Efficacy trial of Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujaoney, S; Mamtani, M; Thakre, T; Tote, J; Hazarey, V; Hazarey, P; Kulkarni, H

    2013-12-01

    Dental fear and anxiety in early childhood are widely prevalent and contribute to dental problems and behaviour in adulthood. Novel ways to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children are needed. Our aim was to conduct an efficacy trial of a novel Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children. randomised controlled trial of efficacy of the Camouflage Syringe. We designed a Camouflage Syringe with a toy-like appearance that veils the conventional syringe to permit topical application and injection of local anaesthesia and ensure more involvement of the patient in the treatment process. We conducted a concurrent parallel, randomised controlled trial (NCT01398007) on the efficacy of this Camouflage Syringe to reduce the dental fear and anxiety in children seeking dental treatment who required the use of local anaesthesia. Using Venham's clinical rating scale, Venham's picture test, parental stress questionnaire and recall questionnaire, the efficacy of the Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety ranged from 82% to 97% for various outcomes and from 60% to 100% for prevention of related adverse outcomes. For all outcomes, the number needed to treat was close to unity. Our results strongly favour the use of Camouflage Syringe to reduce dental fear and anxiety in children.

  3. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S F

    2016-08-03

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students' levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group.

  4. The Efficacy of Prescribed Casual Videogame Play in Reducing Symptoms of Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Matthew T; Russoniello, Carmen V; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    Anxiety is a natural reaction to stress, but when excessive, it can develop into a debilitating disorder. Traditional treatments such as pharmaceuticals and psychotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating anxiety symptoms but are often costly and stigmatizing. This study tested whether a regimen of prescribed casual videogame (CVG) play could reduce individuals' anxiety symptom severity in a depressed population. CVGs are defined as fun, easy to play, spontaneous, and extremely popular. Data were taken from a larger study on depression and CVGs. Participants were screened for depression using a score of ≥5 (mild depression) on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. After completing pre-intervention questionnaires, participants were randomized into the experimental (n=30) or control (n=29) group. Participants in the experimental group were prescribed a CVG of their choice to play three times per week, for 30 minutes, over a 1-month period. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to test the hypothesis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed significant interaction of group by time for state and trait anxiety measures, supporting the hypothesis that anxiety severity would be different by group post-intervention. When state and trait anxiety measures were compared using within-subjects contrasts and between-group analyses, significant decreases in anxiety symptom severity were demonstrated. A prescribed regimen of CVG play significantly reduced state and trait anxiety symptom severity as measured by the STAI. Clinicians should consider using these easy-to-use and low-cost CVGs to address symptoms associated with state and trait anxiety.

  5. Reduced recruitment of orbitofrontal cortex to human social chemosensory cues in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Hou, Ping; Zhou, Yuxiang; Chen, Denise

    2011-04-01

    Social anxiety refers to the prevalent and debilitating experience of fear and anxiety of being scrutinized in social situations. It originates from both learned (e.g. adverse social conditioning) and innate (e.g. shyness) factors. Research on social anxiety has traditionally focused on negative emotions induced by visual and auditory social cues in socially anxious clinical populations, and posits a dysfunctional orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit as a primary etiological mechanism. Yet as a trait, social anxiety is independent of one's specific emotional state. Here we probe the neural substrate of intrinsic social anxiety by employing a unique type of social stimuli, airborne human social chemosensory cues that are inherently social, ubiquitously present, and yet operating below verbal awareness. We show that the adopted social chemosensory cues were not perceived to be human-related, did not differentially bias self-report of anxiety or autonomic nervous system responses, yet individuals with elevated social anxiety demonstrated a reduced recruitment of the orbitofrontal cortex to social chemosensory cues. No reciprocal activity in the amygdala was observed. Our findings point to an intrinsic neural substrate underlying social anxiety that is not associated with prior adverse social conditioning, thereby providing the first neural evidence for the inherent social aspect of this enigmatic phenomenon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara

    2014-07-01

    A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract 3 indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults.

  7. Age-related reduced prefrontal-amygdala structural connectivity is associated with lower trait anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewett, David; Bachman, Shelby; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Objective A current neuroanatomical model of anxiety posits that greater structural connectivity between the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) facilitates regulatory control over the amygdala and helps reduce anxiety. However, some neuroimaging studies have reported contradictory findings, demonstrating a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and amygdala-vPFC white matter integrity. To help reconcile these findings, we tested the regulatory hypothesis of anxiety circuitry using aging as a model of white matter decline in the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Methods We used probabilistic tractography to trace connections between the amygdala and vPFC in 21 younger, 18 middle-aged, and 15 healthy older adults. The resulting tract estimates were used to extract three indices of white-matter integrity: fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). The relationship between these amygdala-vPFC structural connectivity measures and age and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were assessed. Results The tractography results revealed age-related decline in the FA (p = .005) and radial diffusivity (p = .002) of the amygdala-vPFC pathway. Contrary to the regulatory hypothesis, we found a positive rather than negative association between trait anxiety and right amygdala-vPFC FA (p = .01). Conclusion These findings argue against the notion that greater amygdala-vPFC structural integrity facilitates better anxiety outcomes in healthy adults. Instead, our results suggest that white matter degeneration in this network relates to lower anxiety in older adults. PMID:24635708

  8. Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced heart rate variability: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eChalmers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety disorders increase risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD and mortality, even after controlling for confounds including smoking, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status, and irrespective of a history of medical disorders. While impaired vagal function, indicated by reductions in heart rate variability (HRV, may be one mechanism linking anxiety disorders to CVD, prior studies have reported inconsistent findings highlighting the need for meta-analysis.Method: Studies comparing resting state HRV recordings in patients with an anxiety disorder as a primary diagnosis and healthy controls were considered for meta-analysis. Results: Meta-analyses were based on 36 articles, including 2086 patients with an anxiety disorder and 2294 controls. Overall, anxiety disorders were characterised by lower HRV (high frequency: Hedges’ g = -.29. 95%CI: -.41 to -.17, p < 0.001; time domain: Hedges’ g = -0.45, 95%CI: -0.57 to -0.33, p < .001 than controls. Panic Disorder (n=447, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (n=192, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (n=68, and Social anxiety disorder (n=90, but not Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (n=40, displayed reductions in high frequency HRV relative to controls (all ps < .001. Conclusions: Anxiety disorders are associated with reduced HRV, findings associated with a small to moderate effect size. Findings have important implications for future physical health and wellbeing of patients, highlighting a need for comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction.

  9. Based on acceptance and commitment therapy on social anxiety symptoms and quality of life Chamran University students

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    Farokh Hasheminiya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy on social anxiety symptoms and quality of life Chamran University Dormitory. From among female students living in dormitories martyr Chamran University, through the call, and after the implementation of the social anxiety questionnaire, a total of 30 people with the highest social anxiety score Bund, were selected randomly to participate in the study. Method of this quasi experimental study was from type of pre- and post-test with the control group. So that the qualified students, after the initial interview were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups. Participants in both groups of social anxiety and quality of life questionnaire in the pre-test, post-test and follow-up was 1.5 months completed. The experimental group received 10 sessions of treatment based on acceptance and commitment. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA suggests that this treatment reduces social anxiety (F = 18,47, p = 0/001 and improved quality of life (F = 13,46, p = 0/04 in experimental group compared with the control group in the post-test and procedures were followed. Research results show that based on acceptance and commitment therapy a good way to reduce social anxiety and improve the quality of life.

  10. The comparison of attentional control deficits in the three group of normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students of Lorestan University

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadampour E; Rezaei F; Hosseini Ramaghani NA; Moradi M

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: One of the mechanisms that thought to underlie social anxiety disorder is dysfunction in attentional control. The current study was designed to compare attentional control deficits in the three group: normal, with social anxiety disorder and with comorbidity (social anxiety disorder and depression) students. Methods: The design of present study was causal-comparative. Statistical population of this study contained all normal female students, with social anxiety disorde...

  11. Dental anxiety: a comparison of students of dentistry, biology, and psychology

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    Storjord HP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Helene Persen Storjord,1 Mari Mjønes Teodorsen,1 Jan Bergdahl,1 Rolf Wynn,2,3 Jan-Are Kolset Johnsen1 1Department of Clinical Dentistry, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, 3Division of Addictions and Specialized Psychiatric Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway Introduction: Dental anxiety is an important challenge for many patients and clinicians. It is thus of importance to know more about dental students' own experiences with dental anxiety and their understanding of dental anxiety. The aim was to investigate differences in dental anxiety levels between dental students, psychology students, and biology students at a Norwegian university. Materials and methods: A total of 510 students of dentistry, psychology, and biology at the University of Tromsø received a questionnaire consisting of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, demographic questions, and questions relating to their last visit to the dentist/dental hygienist; 169 students gave complete responses. Nonparametric tests were used to investigate differences between the student groups. Results: The respondents were 78% female and 22% male; their mean age was 24 years. The dental students showed a significantly lower degree of dental anxiety than the psychology (P<0.001 and biology students (P<0.001. A significant decrease in dental anxiety levels was found between novice and experienced dentistry students (P<0.001. Discussion: The dental students had less dental anxiety compared to psychology students and biology students. Experienced dental students also had less dental anxiety than novice dental students. This could indicate that the dentistry program structure at the university may influence dental anxiety levels. Conclusion: Dental anxiety seemed to be less frequent in dentistry students compared to students of biology or clinical psychology. The practice-oriented dentistry education at the university might contribute to

  12. The Effectiveness of Counseling in Reducing Anxiety Among Nulliparous Pregnant Women

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    Parisa Parsa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effectiveness of counseling in reducing anxiety of nulliparous pregnant women.Materials and methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 nulliparous pregnant women were selected out of all pregnant women referring to Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. Then, the subjects were divided into two groups in experimental and control (55 women in each. The data were collected through a questionnaire covering demographic and obstetric characteristics and Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The experimental group participated in four weekly sessions of group counseling about mother-infant attachment behaviors. Whereas, the control group only receive routine cares. Two groups were compared in terms of anxiety before and after the study.Results: Before the intervention, no significant difference in anxiety level was observed between the two groups; however, state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women in the experimental group significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.001. There was also significant difference in the mean score of state and trait anxiety levels between the two groups after the intervention (p < 0.001.Conclusion: The results showed the effectiveness of prenatal counseling in reducing state and trait anxiety levels of pregnant women. 

  13. Interventions to reduce stress in university students: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Cheryl; Glancy, Dylan; Pitts, Annabel

    2013-05-15

    Recent research has revealed concerning rates of anxiety and depression among university students. Nevertheless, only a small percentage of these students receive treatment from university health services. Universities are thus challenged with instituting preventative programs that address student stress and reduce resultant anxiety and depression. A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis was conducted to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stress in university students. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Retrieved studies represented a variety of intervention approaches with students in a broad range of programs and disciplines. Twenty-four studies, involving 1431 students were included in the meta-analysis. Cognitive, behavioral and mindfulness interventions were associated with decreased symptoms of anxiety. Secondary outcomes included lower levels of depression and cortisol. Included studies were limited to those published in peer reviewed journals. These studies over-represent interventions with female students in Western countries. Studies on some types of interventions such as psycho-educational and arts based interventions did not have sufficient data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. This review provides evidence that cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness interventions are effective in reducing stress in university students. Universities are encouraged to make such programs widely available to students. In addition however, future work should focus on developing stress reduction programs that attract male students and address their needs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY DISORDERS AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa; Chaithanya C; Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were includ...

  15. Incorporating social anxiety into a model of college student problematic drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.

    2005-01-01

    College problem drinking and social anxiety are significant public health concerns with highly negative consequences. College students are faced with a variety of novel social situations and situations encouraging alcohol consumption. The current study involved developing a path model of college problem drinking, including social anxiety, in 316 college students referred to an alcohol intervention due to a campus alcohol violation. Contrary to hypotheses, social anxiety generally had an inver...

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEST ANXIETY AND PARENTING IN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS, MALEKSHAHI, ILAM

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Reza Havasian and Zohreh Havasian*

    2017-01-01

    Test anxiety, which is one of the main obstacles of education systems at different levels, is one of the most common phenomena among students. Regarding the effect of test anxiety on academic performance, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between test anxiety and parenting in Malekshahi city of Ilam. The present research is a descriptive cross-sectional study and the statistical population includes all male and female students of high school in Maleshahi city. The subject...

  17. The Relationship among Elementary Teachers’ Mathematics Anxiety, Mathematics Instructional Practices, and Student Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hadley, Kristin M.; Dorward, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Many elementary teachers have been found to have high levels of mathematics anxiety but the impact on student achievement was unknown. Elementary teachers (N = 692) completed the modified Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (Hopko, 2003) along with a questionnaire probing anxiety about teaching mathematics and current mathematics instructional practices. Student mathematics achievement data were collected for the classrooms taught by the teachers. A positive relationship was found betwee...

  18. Peer Instruction in the Learning Laboratory: A Strategy To Decrease Student Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Laura D.; Walden, Debra J.

    2001-01-01

    To decrease nursing students' anxiety during psychomotor skills testing in learning laboratories, paid peer instructors were trained to assist. Over 3 years, 270 students participated and reported positive outcomes. (SK)

  19. Analysis of Scientific Research Related Anxiety Levels of Undergraduate Students'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Sefa; Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the scientific research-related anxiety levels of the undergraduate students studying in the department of faculty of science and letters and faculty of education to analyse these anxiety levels in terms of various variables (students' gender, using web based information sources, going to the library,…

  20. Reciprocal Relationships between Mathematics Anxiety and Attitude towards Mathematics in Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haciomeroglu, Guney

    2017-01-01

    This current study examined the reciprocal relationship between anxiety and attitude towards mathematics in elementary students. Two instruments (attitudes towards mathematics inventory short form [ATMI-Short Form] and the Revised Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale [Revised-FSMAS]) were administered to 310 fourth grade elementary students.…

  1. Evaluating High School Students' Anxiety and Self-Efficacy towards Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and self-efficacy are among the factors that impact students' performance in biology. The current study aims to investigate high school students' perception of biology anxiety and self-efficacy, in relation to gender, grade level, interest in biology, negative experience associated with biology classes, and teachers' approaches in the…

  2. The Relationship between Writing Anxiety and Learning Styles among Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between learning styles and writing anxiety with female (n=72) and male (n=18) graduate students. Findings reveal that students with the highest levels of writing anxiety tended to be those who prefer to learn in warm environments, lacked self-motivation, liked structure, were peer-oriented learners, were…

  3. Leading Learning: Enhancing the Learning Experience of University Students through Anxiety Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on an innovative strategy for auditing university students' anxieties across the study cycle. It discusses the shortcomings of traditional feedback mechanisms and identifies the opportunities that anxiety auditing presents in terms of providing scope for students to discuss and to more directly influence improvement in course…

  4. The Relationship among Parenting Styles Experienced during Childhood, Anxiety, Motivation, and Academic Success in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marc; Dorso, Erin; Azhar, Aisha; Renk, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among parenting styles experienced in childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Results suggested that fathers' authoritative parenting was related to decreases, whereas mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to increases, in college students' anxiety. Further,…

  5. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Rifat Ramazan; Ünal, Emre

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students' grade levels and genders are…

  6. Effect of Foreign Language Anxiety on Gender and Academic Achievement among Yemeni University EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Norizan Abdul; Yassin, Amr Abdullatif; Maasum, Tengku Nor Rizan Bt Tengku Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in terms of anxiety among Yemeni university EFL learners. It also aimed to investigate the correlation between the level of anxiety and the academic achievement of the students. The participants of this study were 155 students chosen from the population through stratified random sampling. The…

  7. Anxiety and Well-Being among Students in a Psychoeducation Program: The Mediating Role of Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Julie; Lévesque, Geneviève

    2018-01-01

    Mental health problems among university and college students are a major public health concern and a socioeconomic issue. Our psychoeducation department is not exempt from this reality and has seen an important increase in mental health problems, especially anxiety issues, over the past years. To better understand anxiety in our students, we…

  8. The Relationship Between Second Language Anxiety and International Nursing Students Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Chan, Sabrina; Stein, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    We examined the relationship between second language anxiety and international nursing student stress after taking into account the demographic, cognitive, and acculturative factors. International nursing students (N = 152) completed an online questionnaire battery. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that spoken second language anxiety and…

  9. A Study of Income and Test Anxiety among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between income level of Turkish university students studying at an English language teaching department and test anxiety levels as well as worry and emotionality components of test anxiety. 249 (60 male, 189 female) undergraduate students studying at an English Language Teaching Department of a…

  10. Working and Non-Working University Students: Anxiety, Depression, and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, Rebecca; Vandehey, Michael A.; Diekhoff, George M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the differences between 110 working and non-working students in terms of mental health, academic achievement, and perceptions about student employment. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Academic achievement was measured by grade point average. Perceptions of…

  11. The Anxiety of PGSD’s Student In The Teaching of Mathemathics

    OpenAIRE

    Wardana, Mahardika Darmawan Kusuma; Amir, Mohammad Faizal

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics is a subject that has characteristics which different from other subjects. Mathematics subject mostly always splurging on numbers. This causes not all university students like this subject. Many university students are anxious when meeting or even more when teaching these subject. To find out more about the anxiety of students on mathematics, the researchers conducted a research to determine the anxiety that existed in the students while teaching mathematics subject. The method us...

  12. Hyperventilation complaints in music performance anxiety among classical music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina; Danuser, Brigitta; Hildebrandt, Horst; Arial, Marc; Gomez, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of respiration and hyperventilation in anxiety disorders, research on breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation is rare in the field of music performance anxiety (MPA, also known as stage fright). The only comparable study in this area reported a positive correlation between negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints during performance. The goals of this study were (a) to extend these previous findings to the period before performance, (b) to test whether a positive correlation also exists between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem, (c) to investigate instrument-specific symptom reporting, and (d) to confirm gender differences in negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints reported in other studies. We assessed 169 university students of classical music with a questionnaire comprising: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for negative feelings of MPA, the Nijmegen Questionnaire for hyperventilation complaints, and a single item for the experience of stage fright as a problem. We found a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA before performance and a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem. Wind musicians/singers reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms than other musicians. Furthermore, women scored significantly higher on hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA. These results further the findings of previous reports by suggesting that breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation may play a role in MPA prior to going on stage. Experimental studies are needed to confirm whether hyperventilation complaints associated with negative feelings of MPA manifest themselves at the physiological level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical students' experience of and reaction to stress: the role of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Wilks, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Medical school is recognized as a stressful environment that often has a negative effect on students' academic performance, physical health, and psychosocial well-being. Previous studies have not identified differences between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of stress or their reactions to stressors. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of depression and anxiety among a sample of 358 medical students attending a private university in Malaysia and to examine differences according to participants' gender, year of study, and stage of training (preclinical and clinical). Additionally, this study examined the extent to which stress predicts depression and anxiety, differences between depressed and nondepressed medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors, and differences between anxious and nonanxious medical students' experiences of and reactions to stressors. The Student Life Stress Inventory was used to measure stress and reaction to stressors and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale was used to measure depression and anxiety. The results showed that 44% (n = 158) of the students were anxious and 34.9% (n = 125) were depressed. More female students exhibited anxiety compared to male students. Stress is a predictor for depression and anxiety. A significant difference was found between depressed and nondepressed and anxious and nonanxious students' experience of stressors due to frustration, change, and their emotional reaction to stressors. Overall, depressed and anxious students were found to experience more stress and react differently to stressors compared to nondepressed and nonanxious students.

  14. Development of a performance anxiety scale for music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakoğlu, Okan Cem; Şentürk, Gülce Çoskun

    2013-12-01

    In the present research, the Performance Anxiety Scale for Music Students (PASMS) was developed in three successive studies. In Study 1, the factor structure of PASMS was explored and three components were found: fear of stage (FES), avoidance (AVD) and symptoms (SMP). The internal consistency of the subscales of PASMS, which consisted of 27 items, varied between 0.89 and 0.91. The internal consistency for the whole scale was found to be 0.95. The correlations among PASMS and other anxiety-related measures were significant and in the expected direction, indicating that the scale has convergent validity. The construct validity of the scale was assessed in Study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis. After several revisions, the final tested model achieved acceptable fits. In Study 3, the 14-day test-retest reliability of the final 24-item version of PASMS was tested and found to be extremely high (0.95). In all three studies, the whole scale and subscale scores of females were significantly higher than for males.

  15. Depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Vietnamese secondary school students and proposed solutions: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a rapidly growing public awareness of mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school students. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation, to identify related risk factors, and to explore students’ own proposals for improving their mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1161 secondary students in Can Tho City, Vietnam during September through December, 2011. A structured questionnaire was used to assess anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation and proposed solutions. Depression was measured using the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale. Results The prevalence estimates of symptoms reaching a threshold comparable to a diagnosis of anxiety and depression were 22.8% and 41.1%, respectively. Suicide had been seriously considered by 26.3% of the students, while 12.9% had made a suicide plan and 3.8% had attempted suicide. Major risk factors related to anxiety and depression were physical or emotional abuse by the family, and high educational stress. As proposed solutions, nearly 80% of students suggested that the academic workload should be reduced and that confidential counselors should be appointed at schools. About half the students stated that the attitudes of their parents and teachers needed to change. A significant majority said that they would visit a website that provided mental health support for students. Conclusions Anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation are common among Vietnamese secondary school students. There are strong associations with physical and emotional abuse in the family and high educational stress. Academic curricula and attitudes of parents and teachers need to be changed from a punitive to a more supportive approach to reduce the risk of poor mental health. An internet-based mental health intervention could be a feasible and effective first step to improve students’ mental health. PMID:24341792

  16. Relationship among Iranian EFL Students' Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…

  17. Evaluating a Web-Based Social Anxiety Intervention Among University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Hugh Cameron; Richardson, Chris G; Helgadottir, Fjola Dogg; Chen, Frances S

    2018-03-21

    Treatment rates for social anxiety, a prevalent and potentially debilitating condition, remain among the lowest of all major mental disorders today. Although computer-delivered interventions are well poised to surmount key barriers to the treatment of social anxiety, most are only marginally effective when delivered as stand-alone treatments. A new, Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention called Overcome Social Anxiety was recently created to address the limitations of prior computer-delivered interventions. Users of Overcome Social Anxiety are self-directed through various CBT modules incorporating cognitive restructuring and behavioral experiments. The intervention is personalized to each user's symptoms, and automatic email reminders and time limits are used to encourage adherence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Overcome Social Anxiety in reducing social anxiety symptoms in a nonclinical sample of university students. As a secondary aim, we also investigated whether Overcome Social Anxiety would increase life satisfaction in this sample. Following eligibility screening, participants were randomly assigned to a treatment condition or a wait-list control condition. Only those assigned to the treatment condition were given access to Overcome Social Anxiety; they were asked to complete the program within 4 months. The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS), the fear of negative evaluation scale (FNE), and the quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire-short form (Q-LES-Q-SF) were administered to participants from both conditions during baseline and 4-month follow-up lab visits. Over the course of the study, participants assigned to the treatment condition experienced a significant reduction in social anxiety (SIAS: Psocial anxiety in the 2 conditions over the course of the study showed that those assigned to the treatment condition experienced significantly

  18. Patterns of depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqoob, N.; Khan, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the depression, anxiety symptoms and coping styles among early and late adolescent students. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Place and Duration of study: Study was carried out at University of the Punjab, Lahore from 17 February to 31st August 2010. Methods: A purposive sample of 600 students (boys=300; girls=300) was divided into two age groups; early adolescents (13-15 years) and late adolescents (16-18 years). Participants were administered beck anxiety inventory, beck depression inventory-II and coping strategies questionnaire. Data was analyzed on SPSS14 version using independent sample t test. Results: The overall results of the study indicated that early adolescents exhibit more depression and anxiety symptoms as compared to the late adolescents. Moreover, early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways as active practical coping styles were more utilized by late adolescents. On the other hand, religious focused and avoidance focused coping styles were mostly used by the early adolescents. Besides, there was no significant group difference on active distractive coping styles. Conclusion: The current study revealed that significant changes during adolescence may affect adaptive processes and have implications for intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of stress during this period. The findings also suggest early and late adolescents each attempt to cope with stressors in a variety of ways that become more diverse and adaptive with development through the adolescent years. (author)

  19. Reducing Anxiety and Increasing Self-Efficacy within an Advanced Graduate Psychology Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, April L.; Ferns, Alyssa; Greiner, Leigh; Wanamaker, Kayla; Brown, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    In this study we assessed the usefulness of a multifaceted teaching framework in an advanced statistics course. We sought to expand on past findings by using this framework to assess changes in anxiety and self-efficacy, and we collected focus group data to ascertain whether students attribute such changes to a multifaceted teaching approach.…

  20. Aromatherapy with two essential oils from Satureja genre and mindfulness meditation to reduce anxiety in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilú Roxana Soto-Vásquez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to verify whether association of aromatherapy with essential oils of Satureja brevicalyx or Satureja boliviana and mindfulness meditation can reduce anxiety levels in humans. A randomized experimental trial was carried out with 108 participants who were divided into 6 groups, comprising a waiting list control group and five experimental groups. Aromatherapy was carried out by inhalation of essential oils while mindfulness intervention program was focused on “flow meditation”. The anxiety index was evaluated by State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Measures were taken two times: pretest and posttest. State and Trait anxiety scores showed a decrease in posttest study phase in comparison with pretest in all experimental groups (p < 0.005, especially in those where aromatherapy and mindfulness meditation were used together. All Cohen's d scores were over to 1 that means a large size effect in anxiety variable. Percentages of change showed reductions of anxiety variable ranging between 20% and 47%. All treatments used isolated or associated, may be considered alternative treatment options for anxiety.

  1. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at your home, feeling a bit worried about getting everything done on time can help you focus and finish the job. This kind of anxiety is a normal response to stress. But too much anxiety is another thing. It’s not normal and it’s not helpful. You ...

  2. Test Anxiety, Procrastrination and Mental Simpthoms in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furlan, Luis Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety (TA and academic procrastination (AP, are motives of counsulting frequentlly asociated with another mental simpthoms. To estimate more accurately this commorbidity, 219 students of the National University of Cordoba, completed inventories of mental simpthoms, TA and AP. A multivariate analysis of variance with groups of 1 Highly TA and AP (n= 75, 2 highly TA and low AP (n= 40, 3 low TA and highly AP (n= 38 and 4 low TA and AP (n= 66 showed diffrerences between the three simpthomatic scales (negativeness - low self seteem; tension, irritability – indecision and suspicacy – alucination between the four groups. Group 1 obteined higher scores to the other groups in the scales. Non significative diffrerences were found between groups 2 and 3. Group 4 showed lower scores to group 2 and 3 but the diffrenecies were of little significance. Implicances to diagnosis and treatment of both conditions are discussed.

  3. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  4. Music therapy as a stress reducing agent and anxiety in adolescents. Development of a musicoterapeutical process within the educational center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mora

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Music therapy is a very powerful therapeutic intervention technique that connects very quickly with the emotional content of the individual. In Spain, the facts of education and emotional development have been relegated to a second position in detriment of performance and academic achievement. Under this situation many adolescents in our society suffer daily problems of anxiety and stress, associated or not to other possible pathologies. The following study aims to shed little specks of light about the effects of music therapy on individual development of adolescents from a public school. We treat these students in their entire whole, including cognitive, emotional, social, musical and intrapersonal aspects within each session. It is intended primarily to reduce levels of anxiety and stress that many of them are subjected to daily, victims of their own risk or social exclusion, added or not to different pathologies diagnosed.

  5. Neurofeedback Treatment of College Students' Test on Anxiety, Depression, Personality, and Mood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Zhu; Yuan Li; Jin Yang

    2009-01-01

    Biofeedback is used to treat the mental diseases of college students, such as test anxiety, depression, personality, and mood. Anxiety of the colleague students was first tested by test anxiety scale (TAS) and then treated by biofeedback. After getting the biofeedback treatment, the students' TAS scores, blood volume pulse, and skin conductance were decreased, especially, their TAS scores dropped markedly. Meanwhile, the level of EEG ((1 rhythm/( rhythm) and peripheral temperature increased observably. Then, neurofeedback ((1 rhythm/( rhythm) was applied to treat students' depression, personality, and mood. As a result, these three kinds of symptoms got alleviated. And their therapeutic effects based on neurofeedback were more stable, durative and less recrudescent.

  6. Correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression in medical students experiencing integrated curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min; Huang, In-Ting

    2007-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. The

  7. Correlations between Academic Achievement and Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students Experiencing Integrated Curriculum Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chun Yeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the correlations between academic achievement and levels of anxiety and depression in medical students who were experiencing curriculum reform. The differences in academic achievement and the directions of correlations between academic achievement and anxiety and depression among the medical students with different levels of anxiety and depression were also examined. Grade 1 students from graduate-entry program and grade 3 students from undergraduate-entry program in their first semester of the new curriculum were recruited to complete the Zung's Anxiety and Depression Scale twice to examine their levels of anxiety and depression. Their academic achievement ratings in the four blocks of the first semester of the new curriculum were collected. The results indicated that no significant correlation was found between academic achievement and global anxiety and depression. However, by dividing the medical students into low, moderate and high level anxiety or depression groups, those who had poorer academic achievement in the first learning block were more likely to have higher levels of depression in the first psychologic assessment. Among the medical students who were in the high anxiety level group in the first psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the low anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had better academic achievement in the fourth learning block. Among the medical students who were in the moderate anxiety level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe anxiety had poorer academic achievement in the second learning block. Among the medical students who were in the high depression level group in the second psychologic assessment, those who had more severe depression had poorer academic achievement in the fourth

  8. Re-Thinking Anxiety: Using Inoculation Messages to Reduce and Reinterpret Public Speaking Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Thornton, Ashleigh L; Dimmock, James A

    2017-01-01

    Inoculation theory offers a framework for protecting individuals against challenges to an existing attitude, belief, or state. Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of public speaking anxiety, inoculation strategies have yet to be used to help individuals remain calm before and during public speaking. We aimed to test the effectiveness of an inoculation message for reducing the onset of public speaking anxiety, and helping presenters interpret their speech-related anxiety more positively. Participants (Mage = 20.14, SD = 2.72) received either an inoculation (n = 102) or control (n = 128) message prior to engaging a public speaking task and reported a range of anxiety-related perceptions. Accounting for personality characteristics and perceptions of task importance, and relative to control participants, those who received the inoculation message reported significantly lower pre-task anxiety, and following the task, reported that they had experienced lower somatic anxiety, and that the inoculation message had caused them to view their nerves in a less debilitating light. Inoculation messages may be an effective strategy for helping participants reframe and reduce their apprehension about public speaking, and investigating their efficacy in other stress-inducing contexts may be worthwhile.

  9. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Engagement in Health Care Providers Through an Auricular Acupuncture Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Teresa M; Reilly, Patricia M; Vafides, Carol; Dykes, Patricia

    Stress and anxiety are experienced by health care providers as a consequence of caregiving and may result in physical, emotional, and psychological outcomes that negatively impact work engagement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether auricular acupuncture can reduce provider anxiety and improve work engagement. Study participants received 5 auricular acupuncture sessions within a 16-week period utilizing the National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol for treating emotional trauma. Each participant completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) prior to their first session and again after their fifth treatment. Significant reductions were found in state and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), as well as significant increases in the overall scores on the UWES as compared with baseline. Only the dedication subcategory of the UWES showed significant improvement. Engagement has been linked to increased productivity and well-being and improved patient and organizational outcomes. Providing effective strategies such as auricular acupuncture to support health care providers in reducing anxiety in the workplace may improve engagement.

  10. Efficacy of Acupuncture in Reducing Preoperative Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis

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    Hyojeong Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce preoperative anxiety in several previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs. In order to assess the preoperative anxiolytic efficacy of acupuncture therapy, this study conducted a meta-analysis of an array of appropriate studies. Methods. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL were searched up to February 2014. In the meta-analysis data were included from RCT studies in which groups receiving preoperative acupuncture treatment were compared with control groups receiving a placebo for anxiety. Results. Fourteen publications (N = 1,034 were included. Six publications, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S, reported that acupuncture interventions led to greater reductions in preoperative anxiety relative to sham acupuncture (mean difference = 5.63, P < .00001, 95% CI [4.14, 7.11]. Further eight publications, employing visual analogue scales (VAS, also indicated significant differences in preoperative anxiety amelioration between acupuncture and sham acupuncture (mean difference = 19.23, P < .00001, 95% CI [16.34, 22.12]. Conclusions. Acupuncture therapy aiming at reducing preoperative anxiety has a statistically significant effect relative to placebo or nontreatment conditions. Well-designed and rigorous studies that employ large sample sizes are necessary to corroborate this finding.

  11. Reduced Pain and Anxiety with Music and Noise-Canceling Headphones During Shockwave Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalar, Mustafa; Keles, Ibrahim; Doğantekin, Engin; Kahveci, Orhan Kemal; Sarici, Hasmet

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the effects of music and noise-canceling headphones (NCHs) on perceived patient pain and anxiety from extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Patients with renal calculi scheduled for SWL were prospectively enrolled. All 89 patients between the ages of 19 and 80 years were informed about this study and then randomized into three groups: Group 1 (controls), no headphones and music; Group 2, music with NCHs (patients listened to Turkish classical music with NCHs during SWL); and Group 3, music with non-NCHs (patients listened to Turkish classical music with non-NCHs during SWL). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded before and just after the SWL session. All patient visual analog scale (VAS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were recorded just after the SWL procedure. There were significant differences in VAS scores among the groups (5.1, 3.6, and 4.5, respectively, p < 0.001), including between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.018). There were also significant differences in STAI-State anxiety scores among the groups (43.1, 33.5, and 38.9, respectively, p = 0.001), including between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.04). Music therapy during SWL reduced pain and anxiety. Music therapy with NCHs was more effective for pain and anxiety reduction. To reduce pain and anxiety, nonpharmacologic therapies such as music therapy with NCHs during SWL should be investigated further and used routinely.

  12. Evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based yoga intervention to reduce anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    Yoga is often viewed as a form of alternative and complementary medicine, as it strives to achieve equilibrium between the body and mind that aids healing. Studies have shown the beneficial role of yoga in anxiety reduction. The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a 10-week social cognitive theory based yoga intervention to reduce anxiety. The yoga intervention utilized the constructs of behavioral capability, expectations, self-efficacy for yoga from social cognitive theory, and included asanas (postures), pranayama (breathing techniques), shava asana (relaxation), and dhyana (meditation). A one-between and one-within group, quasi-experimental design was utilized for evaluation. Scales measuring expectations from yoga, self-efficacy for yoga, and Speilberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory, were administered before and after the intervention. Repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed to compare pre-test and post-test scores in the two groups. Yoga as an approach shows promising results for anxiety reduction.

  13. Cognitive bias modification versus CBT in reducing adolescent social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sportel, B Esther; de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J; Nauta, Maaike H

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety is a common mental disorder among adolescents and is associated with detrimental long term outcomes. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of two possible early interventions for adolescent social anxiety and test anxiety. An internet-based cognitive bias modification (CBM; n = 86) was compared to a school-based cognitive behavioral group training (CBT; n = 84) and a control group (n = 70) in reducing symptoms of social and test anxiety in high socially and/or test anxious adolescents aged 13-15 years. Participants (n = 240) were randomized at school level over the three conditions. CBM consisted of a 20-session at home internet-delivered training; CBT was a 10-session at school group training with homework assignments; the control group received no training. Participants were assessed before and after the intervention and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. At 6 month follow-up CBT resulted in lower social anxiety than the control condition, while for CBM, this effect was only trend-significant. At 12 month follow-up this initial benefit was no longer present. Test anxiety decreased more in the CBT condition relative to the control condition in both short and long term. Interestingly, in the long term, participants in the CBM condition improved more with regard to automatic threat-related associations than both other conditions. The results indicate that the interventions resulted in a faster decline of social anxiety symptoms, whereas the eventual end point of social anxiety was not affected. Test anxiety was influenced in the long term by the CBT intervention, and CBM lead to increased positive automatic threat-related associations. TrialRegister.nl NTR965.

  14. The Mediating Role of Resilience in the Relationship between Big Five Personality and Anxiety among Chinese Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. Methods This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57%) at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. Results The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50) among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms. PMID:25794003

  15. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between big five personality and anxiety among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shi

    Full Text Available The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships.This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, Big Five Inventory (BFI, Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14 and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57% at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience.The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50 among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms.Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms.

  16. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between big five personality and anxiety among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Liu, Li; Wang, Zi Yue; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    The psychological distress of medical students is a major concern of public health worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate anxiety symptoms of medical students in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anxiety symptoms among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms among medical students, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Big Five Inventory (BFI), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14) and demographic section were distributed to the subjects. A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 2925 medical students (effective response rate: 83.57%) at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms was 47.3% (SAS index score≥50) among Chinese medical students. After adjusting for the demographic factors, the traits of agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness were all negatively associated with anxiety whereas neuroticism was positively associated with it. Resilience functioned as a mediator in the relationships between agreeableness/conscientiousness/openness and anxiety symptoms. Among Chinese medical students, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was high and resilience mediated the relationships between big five personality traits and anxiety symptoms. Identifying at-risk individuals and undertaking appropriate intervention strategies that focus on both personality traits and resilience might be more effective to prevent and reduce anxiety symptoms.

  17. Investigating the Relationships Among Resilience, Social Anxiety, and Procrastination in a Sample of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chen-Yi Amy; Chang, Yuhsuan

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among resilience, social anxiety, and procrastination in a sample of college students. Specifically, structural equation modeling analyses were applied to examine the effect of resilience on procrastination and to test the mediating effect of social anxiety. The results of this study suggested that social anxiety partially mediated the relationship between resilience and procrastination. Students with higher levels of resilience reported a lower frequency of procrastination behavior, and resilience had an indirect effect on procrastination through social anxiety. The results of this study clarify the current knowledge of the mixed results on resilience and procrastination behaviors and offer practical learning strategies and psychological interventions.

  18. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.

  19. Test anxiety levels and related factors: students preparing for university exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ayse Sonay; Balci, Serap; Kose, Dilek

    2014-11-01

    To assess test anxiety levels and related factors among students preparing for university exams. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised students preparing for exams in two private courses for the 2010-11 academic year. Data was collected via an original questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Inventory. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 1250 students who qualified for the study, the final sample size was 376 (30%). Of them, 210 (55.9%) were females, and 154 (41%) were 18 years old. Students' mean Test Anxiety Inventory scores were 39.44±11.34. Female students' overall test anxiety scores and mean emotionality subscale score were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts. Students whose mothers had an educational attainment between primary school n=170 (45.2%) and a high school diploma n=184 (48.9%), as well as those with four or more siblings n=49 (15%), had significantly higher mean overall Test Anxiety Inventory scores. Among other things, test anxiety is influenced by maternal educational level, type of high school, number of exams, and number of siblings. Preparing a relaxed study environment for students, providing the family monetary or social support, and encouraging participation in social activities are recommendedto decreajb anxiety in students preparing for university exams.

  20. Frequency of anxiety and depression in medical students of a private medical college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, N.

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are the common mental disorders with a prevalence of 10-44% in developing countries and is the fourth leading cause of morbidity. Undergraduate medical studies are generally perceived to be more stressful for the students as compared to other undergraduate programs as students have to undergo strenuous curriculum and evaluation which may lead to many emotional stresses that may end with psychiatric disorders like depression and anxiety. This study aimed to determine the frequency of anxiety and depression in medical students of Foundation University Medical College (FUMC), Rawalpindi. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, Beck Depressive Inventory and Beck Anxiety scales were used to assess anxiety and depression at three different times of the Academic year. All five-year students were included in the study. Results: Out of a sample of 150 students, mild depression was seen in 37.46% and moderate to severe depression was observed in 14% students. About 19% of the students had moderate to severe anxiety. In Second year students time of assessment was significantly related to depression and anxiety (p-0.000). Females had higher association with depression in final year (p-0.037). Conclusion: High psychiatric morbidity found needs to be identified and treated at the earliest; otherwise it can lead to serious consequences such as suicidal ideation and burnout. (author)

  1. Factors associated to depression and anxiety in medical students: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Brenneisen Mayer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate personal and institutional factors related to depression and anxiety prevalence of students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Methods The authors performed a multicenter study (August 2011 to August 2012, examining personal factors (age, sex, housing, tuition scholarship and institutional factors (year of the medical training, school legal status, location and support service in association with scores of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Of 1,650 randomly selected students, 1,350 (81.8 % completed the study. The depressive symptoms prevalence was 41 % (BDI > 9, state-anxiety 81.7 % and trait-anxiety in 85.6 % (STAI > 33. There was a positive relationship between levels of state (r = 0,591, p < 0.001 and trait (r = 0,718, p < 0.001 anxiety and depression scores. All three symptoms were positively associated with female sex and students from medical schools located in capital cities of both sexes. Tuition scholarship students had higher state-anxiety but not trait-anxiety or depression scores. Medical students with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms disagree more than their peers with the statements “I have adequate access to psychological support” and “There is a good support system for students who get stressed”. Conclusions The factors associated with the increase of medical students’ depression and anxiety symptoms were female sex, school location and tuition scholarship. It is interesting that tuition scholarship students showed state-anxiety, but not depression and trait-anxiety symptoms.

  2. Social Anxiety and Sociometric Nomination in Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Beatriz; Inglés, Cándido J; Aparisi, David; García-Fernández, José M

    2016-07-18

    Adolescents with social anxiety can manifest great interference in their relationship with classmates and other peers, as well as in their school performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociometric nominations and assessment of students with high social anxiety by their peers and teachers, and to determine whether these assessments differ significantly between evaluators (peers vs. teachers), in a sample of 2022 (51.1% male) Spanish adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. Sociometric identification and assessment of various educational aspects of the students was performed through the Socio program and Teacher assessment scales, respectively. Results show that students with high social anxiety were nominated by peers as popular, rejected and neglected with the same frequency and proportionately less nominated as leaders, friendly, cooperative, and quarrelsome students than those without high social anxiety (d .97). Finally, peers significantly nominated students with high social anxiety more as leaders, cooperative, quarrelsome, obedient and good students than their teachers (d social anxiety are valued and nominated by their peers and teachers differently.

  3. Prevalence of depression and anxiety among undergraduate university students in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    January, James; Madhombiro, Munyaradzi; Chipamaunga, Shalote; Ray, Sunanda; Chingono, Alfred; Abas, Melanie

    2018-04-10

    Depression and anxiety symptoms are reported to be common among university students in many regions of the world and impact on quality of life and academic attainment. The extent of the problem of depression and anxiety among students in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is largely unknown. This paper details methods for a systematic review that will be conducted to explore the prevalence, antecedents, consequences, and treatments for depression and anxiety among undergraduate university students in LMICs. Studies reporting primary data on common mental disorders among students in universities and colleges within LMICs will be included. Quality assessment of retrieved articles will be conducted using four Joanna Briggs critical appraisal checklists for prevalence, randomized control/pseudo-randomized trials, descriptive case series, and comparable cohort/case control. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of depression and anxiety will be conducted using a random effects model which will generate pooled prevalence with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results from this systematic review will help in informing and guiding healthcare practitioners, planners, and policymakers on the burden of common mental disorders in university students in LMICs and of appropriate and feasible interventions aimed at reducing the burden of psychological morbidity among them. The results will also point to gaps in research and help set priorities for future enquiries. PROSPERO CRD42017064148.

  4. Music for reducing the anxiety and pain of patients undergoing a biopsy: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingzhi; Li, Nanyang; Zhang, Xianbin; Shang, Yuru; Yan, Litao; Chu, Jin; Sun, Ran; Xu, Yun

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy for reducing the anxiety and pain of patients who underwent a biopsy. Music can affect human anxiety and pain by triggering a neuroendocrine effect. Clinical study results indicated that music can influence the anxiety and pain caused by invasive procedures. There is no effective solution for anxiety and pain arising from a biopsy. Although researchers in this field have different views, music still holds promise in reducing the anxiety and pain in patients undergoing the biopsy. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Systematic searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, Medline and Cochrane databases for studies reported in the English language. The review period covered 2000 - December 2016. The outcome measure of interest was anxiety and pain. This review followed Cochrane methods. Studies were selected according to the PICOS framework. The methodological quality of studies was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A systematic review of effectiveness was conducted by using GRADE approach. Nine randomized controlled trials with a total of 326 participants in the music intervention group and 323 controls met the inclusion criteria. Music had a tendency towards decreasing systolic blood pressure before the biopsy, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores after the biopsy, diastolic blood pressure after the biopsy and heart rate after the biopsy. Similarly, music also tended to be more effective for controlling pain after the biopsy. There was moderate quality evidence for the outcome: State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores after the biopsy; and low- or very low-quality evidence for other outcomes. Music can be used for patients before and during the biopsy procedure. This approach may be performed by nurses to promote the recovery of patients after the biopsy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of Auricular Acupressure on Sleep Quality, Anxiety, and Depressed Mood in RN-BSN Students With Sleep Disturbance.

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    Chueh, Ke-Hsin; Chang, Chia-Chuan; Yeh, Mei-Ling

    2018-02-01

    Students in 2-year registered nurse to Bachelor of Science in nursing (RN-BSN) programs usually work full-time and study part-time. Sleep disturbance, anxiety, and depression are known to be common health problems among these students.Prior research has described the effectiveness of auricular acupressure (AA) in reducing sleep disturbance and improving mood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using a 4-week AA program that adheres to a magnetic pellet on the shenmen acupoint on sleep quality, anxiousness, and depressed moods in nursing students with sleep disturbance. This study used a one-group, quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. Eligible students were recruited from an RN-BSN program offered by a university in northern Taiwan, and all were currently experiencing sleep disturbance. A 4-week AA intervention that applied a magnetic pellet on the shenmen acupoint was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory-II were used to measure sleep quality and mood outcomes each week during the 4-week intervention. Improvements in sleep quality, anxiety, and depressed moods were analyzed using the generalized estimating equation. Thirty-six participants with a mean age of 32 years were enrolled as participants. After adjusting for confounding factors, continuous and significant improvements in sleep quality, anxiety, and depressed mood (p anxiousness, and depressed mood in RN-BSN students experiencing sleep disturbances. Especially, the emotional mood of participants improved significantly as early as the first week. The 4-week AA for reducing sleep disturbance, and improving students' anxiety, and depressed moods may be applied on primary healthcare.

  6. Factors Affecting the State Anxiety Level of Higher Education Students in Macau: The Impact of Trait Anxiety and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Yan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…

  7. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of academic success of medical students at the University of Mostar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalihić, Amra; Mešukić, Sabina; Sušac, Bože; Knezović, Katarina; Martinac, Marko

    2017-12-01

    Higher education students comprise a particularly vulnerable group for the development of anxiety symptoms and disorders. The aim of our research was to examine the impact of anxiety sensitivity on the success of medical students at the University of Mostar, and to establish the differences between students depending on their sex and the year of study. One hundred students in their first and fifth year of medical school were interviewed using the ASI questionnaire, 7 days prior to their final exams. Here we demonstrate a positive correlation between anxiety sensitivity and academic success. We did not find any significant differences between the first and fifth-year medical students, nor between participants based on their sex. We conclude that anxiety can have a positive impact on the academic achievement of higher education students.

  8. The Study Of Anxiety In Medical Students And It’s Relation With Practice of Health Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshkani Z

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education is inherently stressful and demanding to deal with various stressors, which may cause impaired judgment, reduced concentration, lack of self-steam, increased anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 250 medical students from 6 month period to graduation in medical college of Tehran university of Medical sciences in order to assess their anxiety and practice of health behaviors and also the relation between the two variables and some other related factors.. Results: The results of study show that of 6.6% medical students suffer from severe state and 4.9% from trait anxiety. The finding of this study shows that 83.3% of girls and 84.6% of boys have practicing risky health behaviors. No statistical relationships found between, anxiety and practicing health behaviors. The relation between anxiety and health satisfaction was Statistically significant; mental and physical (P<0.001. Conclusion: The information found in this research, can help medical education institute to capitalize an opportunities to help their students in preventing risky behaviors, and different stress management techniques should be taught at medical schools.

  9. Oxytocin reduces amygdala activity, increases social interactions, and reduces anxiety-like behavior irrespective of NMDAR antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rosanna; Mihara, Takuma; Forrest, Alexandra; Featherstone, Robert E; Siegel, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    Standard dopamine therapies for schizophrenia are not efficacious for negative symptoms of the disease, including asociality. This reduced social behavior may be due to glutamatergic dysfunction within the amygdala, leading to increased fear and social anxiety. Several studies have demonstrated the prosocial effects of oxytocin in schizophrenia patients. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of subchronic oxytocin on EEG activity in amygdala of mice during performance of the three-chamber social choice and open field tests following acute ketamine as a model of glutamatergic dysfunction. Oxytocin did not restore social deficits introduced by ketamine but did significantly increase sociality in comparison to the control group. Ketamine had no effect on time spent in the center during the open field trials, whereas oxytocin increased overall center time across all groups, suggesting a reduction in anxiety. Amygdala activity was consistent across all drug groups during social and nonsocial behavioral trials. However, oxytocin reduced overall amygdala EEG power during the two behavioral tasks. Alternatively, ketamine did not significantly affect EEG power throughout the tasks. Decreased EEG power in the amygdala, as caused by oxytocin, may be related to both reduced anxiety and increased social behaviors. Data suggest that separate prosocial and social anxiety pathways may mediate social preference. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. PREVALENCE, CAUSES AND PATTERNS OF ANXIETY TOWARDS EXAMINATIONS AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS COPING: A STUDY AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Tassadaq, Mohammad Munaim; Naseem, Muhammed; Zafar, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study is to assess symptoms of test anxiety among medical students and its association with various academic, social and health-related factors. The specific aims are to determine: the prevalence of symptoms of test anxiety, the factors responsible for and different patterns of test anxiety, the correlation of socio-demographic data with test anxiety in medical students and the attitude towards coping strategies developped by them to deal with test anxiety.Methods:...

  11. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  12. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Petra

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems.

  13. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Abbasi, Amir; Masten, William G.

    2007-01-01

    A number of studies have continued to investigate cross-cultural differences in anxiety. However, the cross-national research on anxiety is still far less advanced than other psychological constructs such as schizophrenia or depression. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to compare and contrast the levels of anxiety experienced by …

  14. Effects of Psychology Courseware Use on Computer Anxiety in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew E.; Lenthall, Gerard

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that examined the relationship between computer anxiety and the use of psychology courseware in an undergraduate abnormal psychology class using four computerized case simulations. Comparisons of pretest and posttest computer anxiety measures are described, and the relationship between computer anxiety/attitudes and computer use is…

  15. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  16. Computer anxiety among university and college students majoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined computer anxiety among university and college of education Physical and Health Education (PHE) majors. The influence of personal characteristics of gender, age and experience of PHE majors on computer anxiety level were analysed. The Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS) developed by Marcoulides ...

  17. Characteristics of test anxiety among medical students and congruence of strategies to address it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Encandela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students may experience test anxiety associated with ‘high stakes’ exams, such as Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Methods: We collected qualitative responses about test anxiety at three points in time from 93 second-year medical students engaged in studying for and taking Step 1. Results: Causes of test anxiety as reported by students were related to negative self-talk during preparation for the exam. Effects of anxiety had to do with emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical well-being. Strategies included socializing with others and a variety of cognitive and physical approaches. Comparison of individuals’ strategies with causes and effects showed some congruence, but substantial incongruence between the types of strategies chosen and the reported causes and effects of test anxiety. Discussion: Students’ adoption of a ‘menu’ of strategies rather than one or two carefully selected strategies suggest inefficiencies that might be addressed by interventions, such as advisor-directed conversations with students and incorporating student self-assessment and strategies for managing anxiety within courses on test-taking. Such interventions are in need of further study. An annotated list of evidence-based strategies would be helpful to students and educators. Most important, test anxiety should be viewed by medical educators as a ‘real’ experience, and students would benefit from educator support.

  18. Supporting law students’ skills development online – a strategy to improve skills and reduce student stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hewitt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Law students internationally suffer from a high level of psychological distress compared with the general and student populations, and anecdotal evidence suggests that students developing skills without adequate support experience significant stress and anxiety. This article considers an initiative at one Australian law school to develop a degree-wide structured online skills development programme as a means to both improve student skills acquisition and reduce student stress. The project implements, through the use of learning technology, the principles proposed by McKinney for making small changes to law school teaching, informed by self-efficacy theory, which can have powerful results.

  19. Socially Desirable Responding and College Students with Dyslexia: Implications for the Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2018-02-01

    We investigated self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms among college students with dyslexia, with emphasis on the role of socially desirable responding (SDR) in understanding these reports. Analyses included examination of differences in self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and SDR. We also examined the relationships among SDR, depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and reading skills. Participants with dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher SDR than did participants without dyslexia, and higher SDR was significantly associated with lower self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Moreover, higher SDR was significantly associated with lower reading skills. There was no group difference on anxiety-related symptoms, but participants with dyslexia had higher depressive symptoms than did participants without dyslexia when SDR was controlled. Implications for the assessment of anxiety and depression among college students with dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fifteen-minute music intervention reduces pre-radiotherapy anxiety in oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lee-Chen; Wang, Tze-Fang; Shih, Yi-Nuo; Wu, Le-Jung

    2013-08-01

    Oncology patients may respond to radiation treatment with anxiety expressed as stress, fear, depression, and frustration. This study aimed to investigate effects of music intervention on reducing pre-radiotherapy anxiety in oncology patients. Quasi-experimental study with purposeful sampling was conducted in the Department of Radiation Oncology, at Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Subjects were assigned into a music group (n = 100) receiving 15 min of music therapy prior to radiation and a control group (n = 100) receiving 15 min rest prior to radiation. Both groups were evaluated for pre- and post-test anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Physiological indicators of anxiety were measured pre- and post-test. Baseline State/Trait scores and vital signs were comparable between groups (P > 0.05). Mean change in pre- and post-test State/Trait scores showed significant decreases from baseline to post-test in both groups (all P music therapy and control groups in mean change of State anxiety scores (mean decreases 7.19 and 1.04, respectively; P music and control groups (-5.69 ± 0.41 mmHg vs. -0.67 ± 1.29 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.009). Music therapy decreased State anxiety levels, Trait anxiety levels and systolic blood pressure in oncology patients who received the intervention prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mathematics Anxiety Among 4th And 5th Grade Turkish Elementary School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Yüksel-Şahin

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 4th and 5th graders, this study investigated whether students’ mathematics anxiety differed significantly according to a group of variables. A total of 249 students participated in the study. “The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students” and “The Personal Information Form” were used for data collection. Independent samples t-tests, Oneway Anova and Schefee test were used to analyze the data. Results showed that students’ mathematics anxiety differed signific...

  2. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  3. Reduced heart rate variability in social anxiety disorder: associations with gender and symptom severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail A Alvares

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyvagal theory emphasizes that autonomic nervous system functioning plays a key role in social behavior and emotion. The theory predicts that psychiatric disorders of social dysfunction are associated with reduced heart rate variability, an index of autonomic control, as well as social inhibition and avoidance. The purpose of this study was to examine whether heart rate variability was reduced in treatment-seeking patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, a disorder characterized by social fear and avoidance. METHODS: Social anxiety patients (n = 53 were recruited prior to receiving psychological therapy. Healthy volunteers were recruited through the University of Sydney and the general community and were matched by gender and age (n = 53. Heart rate variability was assessed during a five-minute recording at rest, with participants completing a range of self-report clinical symptom measures. RESULTS: Compared to controls, participants with social anxiety exhibited significant reductions across a number of heart rate variability measures. Reductions in heart rate variability were observed in females with social anxiety, compared to female controls, and in patients taking psychotropic medication compared to non-medicated patients. Finally, within the clinical group, we observed significant associations between reduced heart rate variability and increased social interaction anxiety, psychological distress, and harmful alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm that social anxiety disorder is associated with reduced heart rate variability. Resting state heart rate variability may therefore be considered a marker for social approach-related motivation and capacity for social engagement. Additionally, heart rate variability may provide a useful biomarker to explain underlying difficulties with social approach, impaired stress regulation, and behavioral inhibition, especially in disorders associated with

  4. Social anxiety symptoms and drinking behaviors among college students: the mediating effects of drinking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S

    2014-09-01

    The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  5. Profile of brazilian dental students and its relationship to anxiety levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Cavalcante Ferreira da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of dental students and its relationship to anxiety levels. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to 207 first- to fifth-year undergraduates enrolled in the dentistry program at the School of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were aged 17 to 29 years, and the maiority were women (57.5%. Students had a weekly workload of up to 40 hours and performed at least two complementary activities, in addition to their undergraduate training. Almost all students (95.7% had attended private high schools and 80.6% lived with their parents or spouses. Regarding parental education, 59.4% of mothers and 55.6% of fathers had a higher education degree. Most students showed medium levels of anxiety according to measurements of state anxiety (53.1% and trait anxiety (81.6%. It can be concluded that more than 50% of students in the Dentistry graduation course of the Federal University of Ceará showed an average level of anxiety, and that the excessive workload and enrichment activities necessary to obtain the undergraduate degree in Dentistry probably can be influencing the anxiety levels of students, however, more studies and statistical tests should be performed to identify the root causes in order to preserve the mental health of these future dentists.

  6. Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Mohamed; Hamed, Sherifa A

    2017-09-01

    Poor psychological health in medical students has been reported nationwide. This study estimated the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among medical students who were enrolled in a public university in Upper Egypt and determine the association of these morbidities with the students' basic socio-demographic variables. This cross-sectional study included 700 students. A self-administered, questionnaire for the socio-demographic characteristics, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used for assessment. High frequencies of depression (65%), anxiety (73%) and stress (59.9%) were reported. Stress scores were significantly higher than depression and anxiety (P=0.001). 55.7% were poor sleepers. In univarate analysis, females, those living in the University campus/students' residence facility, in the preclinical years and with lower academic achievement had higher scores of DASS and PSQI compared to their comparative partners. Significant correlations were reported between stress with depression, anxiety and PQSI scores (P=0.0001). In multivariate analysis, stress scores were significantly associated with female sex, depression and anxiety scores. We conclude that depression, anxiety and stress symptoms are common in medical students of Assiut University relative to other schools and female gender was significantly correlated with these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Survey of Anxiety Levels and Its Relation to Students Demographic of Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzinia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.

  8. Reduced reciprocal giving in social anxiety - Evidence from the Trust Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderl, Christine; Steil, Regina; Hahn, Tim; Hitzeroth, Patricia; Reif, Andreas; Windmann, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    Social anxiety is known to impair interpersonal relationships. These impairments are thought to partly arise from difficulties to engage in affiliative interactions with others, such as sharing favors or reciprocating prosocial acts. Here, we examined whether individuals high compared to low in social anxiety differ in giving towards strangers in an economic game paradigm. One hundred and twenty seven non-clinical participants who had been pre-screened to be either particularly high or low in social anxiety played an incentivized Trust Game to assess trustful and reciprocal giving towards strangers in addition to providing information on real life interpersonal functioning (perceived social support and attachment style). We found that reciprocal, but not trustful giving, was significantly decreased among highly socially anxious individuals. Both social anxiety and reciprocal giving furthermore showed significant associations with self-reported real life interpersonal functioning. Participants played the Trust Game with the strategy method; results need replication with a clinical sample. Individuals high in social anxiety showed reduced reciprocal, but intact trustful giving, pointing to a constraint in responsiveness. The research may contribute to the development of new treatment and prevention programs to reduce the interpersonal impairments in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating Active Interventions to Reduce Student Procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Joshua Deckert

    2015-01-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive problem in education. In computer science, procrastination and lack of necessary time management skills to complete programming projects are viewed as primary causes of student attrition. The most effective techniques known to reduce procrastination are resource-intensive and do not scale well to large classrooms. In this thesis, we examine three course interventions designed to both reduce procrastination and be scalable for large classrooms. Reflective writ...

  10. The Relationships between University Students' Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanoglu, N. Izzet; Akin, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships between chemistry laboratory anxiety, chemistry attitudes, and self-efficacy. Participants were 395 university students. Participants completed the Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety Scale, the Chemistry Attitudes Scale, and the Self-efficacy Scale. Results showed that chemistry laboratory anxiety…

  11. Anxiety and Attitude of Graduate Students in On-Campus vs. Online Statistics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVaney, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared levels of statistics anxiety and attitude toward statistics for graduate students in on-campus and online statistics courses. The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics and three subscales of the Statistics Anxiety Rating Scale were administered at the beginning and end of graduate level educational statistic courses.…

  12. College Students' Preferences for Psychotherapy across Depression, Anxiety, Relationship, and Academic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…

  13. Mathematics Anxiety According to Middle School Students' Achievement Motivation and Social Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesici, Sahin; Erdogan, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify whether middle school students' mathematics anxiety differentiates or not, according to their low and high achievement motivation and their level of self-esteem stemming from social comparison. This study also aims to clarify the effects of these two variables on mathematics anxiety. The study groups were…

  14. Foreign Language Anxiety of Students Studying English Language and Literature: A Sample from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaldi, Senel

    2016-01-01

    A considerable number of foreign language learners experience a feeling of anxiety in language learning process. The purpose of this research was to find out foreign language anxiety levels of students studying in the Faculty of English Language and Literature at Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey when they were in preparatory class and when…

  15. An Investigation of Mathematics Anxiety among Sixth through Eighth Grade Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgin, Osman; Baloglu, Mustafa; Catlioglu, Hakan; Gurbuz, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate mathematics anxiety among 220 sixth through eighth grade Turkish students in terms of mathematics achievement levels, perceived enjoyment of the mathematics teaching method, perceived enjoyment of mathematics, and perceived help with mathematics from parents. The Mathematics Anxiety Scale for…

  16. Social Physique Anxiety, Obligation to Exercise, and Exercise Choices among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Wen; Bushman, Barbara A.; Woodard, Rebecca J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined relationships among social physique anxiety, obligation to exercise, and exercise choices. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 337; 200 women, 137 men) volunteered to complete 3 questionnaires: the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire (OEQ), and Physical Activity…

  17. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group of…

  18. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  19. Investigating Foreign Language Learning Anxiety among Students Learning English in a Public Sector University, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopang, Illahi Bux; Bughio, Faraz Ali; Pathan, Habibullah

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated foreign language anxiety among students of Lasbela University, Baluchistan, Pakistan. The study adopted the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz et al., 1986). The respondents were (N = 240) including 26 female and 214 male. The data was run through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)…

  20. Psychological Resources as Stress Buffers: Their Relationship to University Students' Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Fouladi, Rachel T.; Juncker, Brian D.; Matheny, Kenneth B.

    2006-01-01

    The association of protective resources, personality variables, life events, and gender with anxiety and depression was examined with university students. Building on regression analyses, a structural equation model was generated with good fit, indicating that with respect to both anxiety and depression, negative life events and coping resources…

  1. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  2. Comparison of Three Methods of Reducing Test Anxiety: Systematic Desensitization, Implosive Therapy, and Study Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Richard D.; Dilley, Josiah S.

    1973-01-01

    Systematic desensitization, implosive therapy, and study counseling have all been effective in reducing test anxiety. In addition, systematic desensitization has been compared to study counseling for effectiveness. This study compares all three methods and suggests that systematic desentization is more effective than the others, and that implosive…

  3. Is it more effective group relaxation than individual to reduce anxiety in specific phobias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Carretero Román

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is a standard technique used by nurses to reduce the level of anxiety. It seems that their implementation on a group can bring certain benefits compared with individual relaxation. This outline is intended to raise this hypothesis in caring for individuals diagnosed with specific phobia, by approaching the problem from the cognitive behavioural therapy perspective. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the usefulness of the nurse intervention relaxation to reduce the level of anxiety, in turn comparing the results obtained using an indicator of the scale of results NOC and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The phobia is a specific entity underdiagnosed, whose prevalence is about 10%. Those affected can live a really limited and debilitating, deteriorating quality of life. The community mental health nurses are in a unique position to participate in the cognitive behavioural therapy through relaxation, which will allow them to reduce the level of anxiety when people establish contact with the phobic stimulus. Methodology: quasi-experimental study in specific phobia diagnosed, 20 to 40 years old adults attending for the first time to the mental health facility derived from primary care. Both the control group as the pilot will be treated by conducted cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy individualized according to the therapeutic protocol MSC, except in terms of relaxation, which in the experimental group will be conducted at the group level. The effectiveness of treatment will be assessed with the Hamilton anxiety scale and the likert type scale of outcome indicators NOC "stress level" with 3 measurements, before starting, immediately after completing the sessions of relaxation and three months later, checking the decline in the average level of anxiety.

  4. INDIVIDUALIZED YOGA FOR REDUCING DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, AND IMPROVING WELL-BEING: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manincor, Michael; Bensoussan, Alan; Smith, Caroline A; Barr, Kylie; Schweickle, Monica; Donoghoe, Lee-Lee; Bourchier, Suzannah; Fahey, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Depression and anxiety are leading causes of disability worldwide. Current treatments are primarily pharmaceutical and psychological. Questions remain about effectiveness and suitability for different people. Previous research suggests potential benefits of yoga for reducing depression and anxiety. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an individualized yoga intervention. A sample of 101 people with symptoms of depression and/or anxiety participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing a 6-week yoga intervention with waitlist control. Yoga was additional to usual treatment. The control group was offered the yoga following the waitlist period. Measures included Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Short-Form Health Survey (SF12), Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE), Flourishing Scale (FS), and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC2). There were statistically significant differences between yoga and control groups on reduction of depression scores (-4.30; 95% CI: -7.70, -0.01; P = .01; ES -.44). Differences in reduced anxiety scores were not statistically significant (-1.91; 95% CI: -4.58, 0.76; P = .16). Statistically significant differences in favor of yoga were also found on total DASS (P = .03), K10, SF12 mental health, SPANE, FS, and resilience scores (P stress and SF12 physical health scores were not statistically significant. Benefits were maintained at 6-week follow-up. Yoga plus regular care was effective in reducing symptoms of depression compared with regular care alone. Further investigation is warranted regarding potential benefits in anxiety. Individualized yoga may be particularly beneficial in mental health care in the broader community. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Assessing instructor intervention upon the perceptions, attitudes, and anxieties of community college biology students toward cooperative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafford, Kenneth Allen

    The differences between two experimental groups using cooperative learning activities were examined during the initial eight weeks of a biology course. While both groups participated in the same cooperative learning activities, only one group received deliberate instructor interventions. These interventions were designed to help students think positively about working in cooperative learning groups while alleviating anxiety toward cooperative learning. Initially, all students were uncomfortable and reported trouble staying focused during cooperative learning. The final quantitative results indicated that the group who received the interventions had more positive perceptions toward cooperative learning but their attitudes and anxiety levels showed no significant difference from the non-intervention group; advantages occurred specifically for thinking on task, student engagement, perceptions of task importance, and best levels of challenge and skill. Intervention participants had a higher mean score on the class exam administered during the eight-week study but it was not significantly different. Qualitative data revealed that the intervention participants experienced greater overall consequence, mainly in the areas of engagement, believed skill, and self-worth. According to flow theory, when students are actively engaged, the probability of distraction by fears and unrelated ideas is reduced, for instance, how they are perceived by others. These findings corroborate constructivist theories, particularly the ones relative to students working in cooperative groups. Researchers should continue to use appropriate methods to further explore how students of various abilities and developmental levels are affected by their perceptions, attitudes, and anxieties relative to different instructional contexts. Given the highly contextual nature of students' learning and motivation, researchers need to examine a number of meaningful questions by comparing students' perceptions

  6. Efficacy of application technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment to reduce school anxiety first form pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the need to improve the mental state of first-graders and the possibility of achieving this goal, the lesson of physical culture at the expense of proper use of musical accompaniment exercise. Material : participated in the experiment experimental, control and background group (only 55 students of first class. Results : argues that music has a regulating effect on mental and physiological state of a person. It is noted that the combined effects of exercise and music on the body and psyche of a child reduces total anxiety in school. Also reduces the fear in a meaningful situation knowledge test. Found that the effect of exercise without music and with various embodiments use musical accompaniment in the lesson to address interpersonal relations student and the teacher has no significant difference. Conclusions : as a result of the pedagogical experiment to identify significantly positive, confirming the effectiveness of the technology of managing physical exercise by the musical accompaniment for the performance of most indicators of school anxiety.

  7. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Conservation Consciousness and Anxiety From the Persective of Personal Anxiety and Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    保坂, 稔

    2014-01-01

    The system of lifetime employment tends to collapse recently, the rise of anxiety reduces some kinds of aspirations. This paper analyzes the relation between environmental conservation consciousness and anxiety by using the data of 260 university students in Nagasaki. Then I find that the affirmative side which anxiety brings to environmental protection.

  9. Use of music to reduce anxiety during office hysteroscopy: prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioli, Roberto; De Cicco Nardone, Carlo; Plotti, Francesco; Cafà, Ester Valentina; Dugo, Nella; Damiani, Patrizio; Ricciardi, Roberto; Linciano, Francesca; Terranova, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of music on anxiety and perception of pain during office hysteroscopy. Prospective randomized trial (Canadian Task Force classification I). Major university medical center. Three hundred fifty-six patients were enrolled between July 2012 and January 2013. Hysteroscopy was performed in a dedicated ambulatory room, using vaginoscopy and without any type of anesthesia. A Bettocchi hysteroscope 5 mm in diameter was used. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon, a gynecologist with special interest in hysteroscopy. Data collected included age, body mass index, number of vaginal deliveries, educational achievement level, and history of endometrial surgery (curettage and/or hysteroscopy). For each patient, vital parameters such as blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate were recorded 15 minutes before the procedure and during hysteroscopy after traversing the cervix. Wait time before surgery and the duration of the procedure were also recorded. A completed Italian version of the state anxiety questionnaire (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and a visual analog scale (VAS) were administered to each patient before and after the procedure. The t test and Mann-Whitney U test was used when appropriate to compare the 2 groups. Statistical significance was accepted at p = .05. During surgery, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were significantly lower in the music group compared with the no music group. Women in the music group experienced significantly lower anxiety after hysteroscopy and less pain during the procedure, and a significant decrease in both anxiety and pain scores after hysteroscopy. Postoperative State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y1 and VAS scores were significantly lower in the music group. Music can be useful as a complementary method to control anxiety and reduce perception of pain. The patient is more relaxed and experiences less discomfort. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress as negative predictors of life satisfaction in university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, S.R.; Saba, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the role of depression, anxiety and stress in prediction of life satisfaction in male and female university students. Methodology: The study involved 200 students, 100 males and 100 females selected by using purposive sampling technique from different universities of Islamabad. Age range of participants was 19-30 years (mean 21.79+-2.970). Depression anxiety stress scale-21 (DASS-21 and Life Satisfaction scale were administered. Data were analyzed on SPSS version 19. Results: The result of present study indicated that depression anxiety and stress significantly predict life satisfaction among male and female university students. Conclusion: University students who are facing depression, anxiety and stress are more vulnerable to low levels of life satisfaction. (author)

  12. Nursing Students' Attitudes Toward the Aged as a Function of Death Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Norman K.

    A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…

  13. Mathematics Motivation, Anxiety, and Performance in Female Deaf/Hard-of-Hearing and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariapooran, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss can be a major detriment to academic achievement among students. The present comparative study examines the differences in mathematics motivation, anxiety, and performance in female students with hearing loss and their hearing peers. A total of 63 female students with hearing loss (deaf and hard-of-hearing) and 63 hearing female…

  14. The "Responsive Classroom" Approach and Fifth Grade Students' Math and Science Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Merritt, Eileen G.; Patton, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as…

  15. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  16. Introduction of a paediatric anaesthesia comic information leaflet reduced preoperative anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, B; Rabilloud, M; Dantony, E; Grousson, S; Revol, O; Malik, S; Ginhoux, T; Touil, N; Chassard, D; Pereira de Souza Neto, E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether the introduction of a paediatric anaesthesia comic information leaflet reduced preoperative anxiety levels of children undergoing major surgery. Secondary objectives were to determine whether the level of understanding of participants and other risk factors influence STAIC-S (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State subscale) score in children. We performed a randomized controlled parallel-group trial comparing preoperative anxiety between two groups of children aged >6 and comic information leaflet at home in addition to routine information given by the anaesthetist at least 1 day before surgery. The control group received the routine information only. The outcome measure was the difference between STAIC-S scores measured before any intervention and after the anaesthetist's visit. A multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the influence of the level of education, the anxiety of parents, and the childrens' intelligence quotient on STAIC-S scores. One hundred and fifteen children were randomized between April 2009 and April 2013. An intention-to-treat analysis on data from 111 patients showed a significant reduction (P=0.002) in STAIC-S in the intervention group (n=54, mean=-2.2) compared with the control group (n=57, mean=0.90). The multiple regression analysis did not show any influence on STAIC-S scores of the level of education, parental anxiety, or the intelligence quotient of the children. A paediatric anaesthesia comic information leaflet was a cheap and effective means of reducing preoperative anxiety, measured by STAIC-S, in children. NCT 00841022. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Metacognition Process of Students with High Mathematics Anxiety in Mathematics Problem-Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Patrisius Afrisno Udil; Tri Atmojo Kusmayadi; Riyadi Riyadi

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to find out students’ metacognition process while solving the mathematics problem. It focuses on analyzing the metacognition process of students with high mathematics anxiety based on Polya’s problem solving phases. This study uses qualitative research with case study strategy. The subjects consist of 8 students of 7th grade selected through purposive sampling. Data in the form of Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) result and recorded interview while solving mathematics problems ...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recrui...

  19. College Adjustment of First Year Students: the Role of Social Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Luh Putu S. Kusumaningsih, Ruseno Arjanggi

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the correlation between social anxiety and college adjustment. 436 undergraduate psychology students of five universities in Central Java were involved in this study. All respondents completed a questionnaire about student adjustment to college, and social anxiety scale. Canonical correlation was conducted to analyze the data. The result showed that fear of negative evaluation correlates with academic and personal-emotional adjustment, but not with social adjustm...

  20. Locus of control, test anxiety, academic procrastination, and achievement among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Randy; Bryant, Courtney; Moss, Rebekah

    2004-10-01

    114 undergraduates completed the Internal-External Locus of Control scale, the Procrastination Scale, and the Achievement Anxiety Test. They also provided a self-report of their cumulative GPA. Students were divided into two groups by a median-split of 10.5, yielding an internally oriented group of 57 and an externally oriented group of 57. The former students showed significantly lower academic procrastination, debilitating test anxiety, and reported higher academic achievement than the latter.

  1. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hamidah; Putri Teesa Santoso; RM Haryadi Karyono

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP), in the Faculty of Medicine, Univers...

  2. Classroom anxiety of year 6 EFL primary school students in correlation with their learning achievements

    OpenAIRE

    Praček, Anja

    2017-01-01

    The Master thesis examines classroom anxiety of the 6th Grade primary School students in relation to their learning achievements in English as a foreign language. In many a thing, the English class differs from other classes and it is precisely this unique learning situation that can provoke anxiety in students. The Master thesis consists of a theoretical and empirical part. The theoretical part reviews the literature available on the current state of teaching and learning English as a for...

  3. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-11-01

    Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exploring needle anxiety among students attending a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Needle anxiety, a form of specific phobia refers to an intense fear of needles used for various medical procedures. It may result in the avoidance of such needle-involving procedures like intramuscular injections or vaccinations. About 4-8% of children and adolescents are said to generally suffer some form of anxiety.

  5. Social Anxiety, Reasons for Drinking, and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Norton, Alice R.; Olivier, Jake; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that social anxiety may be associated with higher rates of alcohol problems in women, yet may be associated with lower levels of drinking in men. The current study investigated putative mechanisms that may underlie potential gender differences in the social anxiety-alcohol relationship. One hundred and eighteen college…

  6. Frequency of depression, anxiety and stress among the undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Annosha; Ali, Syed Shazad; Khan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DAS) among the undergraduate physiotherapy students. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in various Physiotherapy Institutes in Sindh, Pakistan among undergraduate physiotherapy students. The total duration of this study was 4 months from September, 2016 to January, 2017. Data was collected from 267 students with no physical and mental illness; more than half were female students 75.3%. They were selected through Non probability purposive sampling technique. A self-administered standardized DASS (depression, anxiety and stress scale) was used to collect data and result was analyzed using its severity rating index. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics including the frequency of depression, anxiety, stress and demographic characteristic of the participant was collected. The mean age of students was 19.3371±1.18839 years. The Frequency of depression, anxiety and stress found among undergraduates Physiotherapy students was 48.0%, 68.54% and 53.2%, respectively. It was observed that the frequency of depression, anxiety and stress among physiotherapy undergraduates students were high. It suggests the urgent need of carrying out evidence based Psychological health promotion for undergraduate Physiotherapy students to control this growing problem.

  7. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Depression, stress and anxiety in medical students: A cross-sectional comparison between students from different semesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutinho, Ivana Lúcia Damásio; Maddalena, Natalia de Castro Pecci; Roland, Ronald Kleinsorge; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Ezequiel, Oscarina da Silva; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress in medical students from all semesters of a Brazilian medical school and assess their respective associated factors. A cross-sectional study of students from the twelve semesters of a Brazilian medical school was carried out. Students filled out a questionnaire including sociodemographics, religiosity (DUREL - Duke Religion Index), and mental health (DASS-21 - Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale). The students were compared for mental health variables (Chi-squared/ANOVA). Linear regression models were employed to assess factors associated with DASS-21 scores. 761 (75.4%) students answered the questionnaire; 34.6% reported depressive symptomatology, 37.2% showed anxiety symptoms, and 47.1% stress symptoms. Significant differences were found for: anxiety - ANOVA: [F = 2.536, p=0.004] between first and tenth (p=0.048) and first and eleventh (p=0.025) semesters; depression - ANOVA: [F = 2.410, p=0.006] between first and second semesters (p=0.045); and stress - ANOVA: [F = 2.968, p=0.001] between seventh and twelfth (p=0.044), tenth and twelfth (p=0.011), and eleventh and twelfth (p=0.001) semesters. The following factors were associated with (a) stress: female gender, anxiety, and depression; (b) depression: female gender, intrinsic religiosity, anxiety, and stress; and (c) anxiety: course semester, depression, and stress. Our findings revealed high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in medical students, with marked differences among course semesters. Gender and religiosity appeared to influence the mental health of the medical students.

  9. Thinking while drinking: Fear of negative evaluation predicts drinking behaviors of students with social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarosa-Hurlocker, Margo C; Whitley, Robert B; Capron, Daniel W; Madson, Michael B

    2018-03-01

    College students with social anxiety disorder experience more alcohol-related negative consequences, regardless of the amount of alcohol they consume. Social anxiety refers to psychological distress and physiological arousal in social situations due to an excessive fear of negative evaluation by others. The current study examined within-group differences in alcohol-related negative consequences of students who met or exceeded clinically-indicated social anxiety symptoms. In particular, we tested a sequential mediation model of the cognitive (i.e., fear of negative evaluation) and behavioral (protective behavioral strategies) mechanisms for the link between social anxiety disorder subtypes (i.e., interaction and performance-type) and alcohol-related negative consequences. Participants were 412 traditional-age college student drinkers who met or exceeded the clinically-indicated threshold for social anxiety disorder and completed measures of fear of negative evaluation, protective behavioral strategies (controlled consumption and serious harm reduction), and alcohol-related negative consequences. Fear of negative evaluation and serious harm reduction strategies sequentially accounted for the relationship between interaction social anxiety disorder and alcohol-related negative consequences, such that students with more severe interaction social anxiety symptoms reported more fear of negative evaluation, which was related to more serious harm reduction strategies, which predicted fewer alcohol-related negative consequences. Future directions and implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Project Stride: An Equine-Assisted Intervention to Reduce Symptoms of Social Anxiety in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Sarah V; Alfonso, Lauren A; Llabre, Maria M; Fernandez, M Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Although there is evidence supporting the use of equine-assisted activities to treat mental disorders, its efficacy in reducing signs and symptoms of social anxiety in young women has not been examined. We developed and pilot tested Project Stride, a brief, six-session intervention combining equine-assisted activities and cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce symptoms of social anxiety. A total of 12 women, 18-29 years of age, were randomly assigned to Project Stride or a no-treatment control. Participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale at baseline, immediate-post, and 6 weeks after treatment. Project Stride was highly acceptable and feasible. Compared to control participants, those in Project Stride had significantly greater reductions in social anxiety scores from baseline to immediate-post [decrease of 24.8 points; t (9) = 3.40, P = .008)] and from baseline to follow-up [decrease of 31.8 points; t (9) = 4.12, P = .003)]. These findings support conducting a full-scale efficacy trial of Project Stride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  12. Assessment Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Test Anxiety among High School Students in Qom- Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman barmeh ziyar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Test anxiety is a special case of a general anxiety which is of particular importance in students, because students will be the future of the country and the society activists. On the other hand, sleep quality and sleep disorders, have correlation with ailments, poor performance, decreased quality of life and increase of associated costs; This study aimed to determine the quality of sleep and its relationship with test anxiety among students in Qom city, Iran. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study, which was performed among 250 students who were going to pass the exam preparation classes. In order to collect data Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI questionnaires and Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed using SPSS-16 with descriptive statistics and statistical methods, independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results In this study, 50% of participants were boys (n=125 and 50 percent were girls (n=125. 81.4% of subjects had poor sleep quality and 69.6% had average to high score for test anxiety. Based on the results of anxiety test and sleep quality index there was a significant correlation between anxiety and sleep quality with gender (P=0.003, r=0.447. Conclusion School children had poor sleep quality and high test anxiety, and due to their direct and significant correlation, attention to this category of students, especially for girls, is important. Therefore, anxiety and promoting sleep quality control programs are recommended in this group.

  13. Aromatherapy for reducing colonoscopy related procedural anxiety and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pei-Hsin; Peng, Yen-Chun; Lin, Yu-Ting; Chang, Chi-Sen; Ou, Ming-Chiu

    2010-01-01

    Colonoscopy is generally tolerated, some patients regarding the procedure as unpleasant and painful and generally performed with the patient sedated and receiving analgesics. The effect of sedation and analgesia for colonoscopy is limited. Aromatherapy is also applied to gastrointestinal endoscopy to reduce procedural anxiety. There is lack of information about aromatherapy specific for colonoscopy. In this study, we aimed to performed a randomized controlled study to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on relieve anxiety, stress and physiological parameters of colonoscopy. A randomized controlled trail was carried out and collected in 2009 and 2010. The participants were randomized in two groups. Aromatherapy was then carried out by inhalation of Sunflower oil (control group) and Neroli oil (Experimental group). The anxiety index was evaluated by State Trait Anxiety Inventory-state (STAI-S) score before aromatherapy and after colonoscopy as well as the pain index for post-procedural by visual analogue scale (VAS). Physiological indicators, such as blood pressure (systolic and diastolic blood pressure), heart rate and respiratory rate were evaluated before and after aromatherapy. Participates in this study were 27 subjects, 13 in control group and 14 in Neroli group with average age 52.26 +/- 17.79 years. There was no significance of procedural anxiety by STAI-S score and procedural pain by VAS. The physiological parameters showed a significant lower pre- and post-procedural systolic blood pressure in Neroli group than control group. Aromatic care for colonoscopy, although with no significant effect on procedural anxiety, is an inexpensive, effective and safe pre-procedural technique that could decrease systolic blood pressure.

  14. Original sound compositions reduce anxiety in emergency department patients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Tracey J; Jelinek, George A; Macarow, Keely E; Samartzis, Philip; Brown, David M; Grierson, Elizabeth M; Winter, Craig

    2011-12-19

    To determine whether emergency department (ED) patients' self-rated levels of anxiety are affected by exposure to purpose-designed music or sound compositions with and without the audio frequencies of embedded binaural beat. Randomised controlled trial in an ED between 1 February 2010 and 14 April 2010 among a convenience sample of adult patients who were rated as category 3 on the Australasian Triage Scale. All interventions involved listening to soundtracks of 20 minutes' duration that were purpose-designed by composers and sound-recording artists. Participants were allocated at random to one of five groups: headphones and iPod only, no soundtrack (control group); reconstructed ambient noise simulating an ED but free of clear verbalisations; electroacoustic musical composition; composed non-musical soundtracks derived from audio field recordings obtained from natural and constructed settings; sound composition of audio field recordings with embedded binaural beat. All soundtracks were presented on an iPod through headphones. Patients and researchers were blinded to allocation until interventions were administered. State-trait anxiety was self-assessed before the intervention and state anxiety was self-assessed again 20 minutes after the provision of the soundtrack. Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Of 291 patients assessed for eligibility, 170 patients completed the pre-intervention anxiety self-assessment and 169 completed the post-intervention assessment. Significant decreases (all P beats (43; 37) when compared with those allocated to receive simulated ED ambient noise (40; 41) or headphones only (44; 44). In moderately anxious ED patients, state anxiety was reduced by 10%-15% following exposure to purpose-designed sound interventions. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12608000444381.

  15. Social anxiety, alcohol expectancies, and self-efficacy as predictors of heavy drinking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M

    2006-03-01

    Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.

  16. The Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance of Students in Vital Statistics Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test anxiety is a common phenomenon among students and is one of the problems of educational system. The present study was conducted to investigate the test anxiety in vital statistics course and its association with academic performance of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. This study was descriptive-analytical and the study sample included the students studying in nursing and midwifery, paramedicine and health faculties that had taken vital statistics course and were selected through census method. Sarason questionnaire was used to analyze the test anxiety. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings indicated no significant correlation between test anxiety and score of vital statistics course.

  17. Investigating Efficacy of Melatonin and Gabapentin in Reducing Anxiety and Pain of Lumbar Puncture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fallah

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lumbar puncture is one of the most important diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within children which child’s non-cooperativeness and procedural sedation are regarded necessary to conduct it. This study aimed to compare efficacy and safety of melatonin and gabapentin in reducing anxiety and pain of lumbar puncture in children. Methods: In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, sixty children aged 6 months -7 years, were evaluated in Pediatric Ward of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, in Yazd (Iran in 2012. The children were distributedrandomly into two groups (30 children in each group. In group one, they received 0.3 mg/kg/dose of melatonin and theother group received 15 mg/kg/dose of gabapentin. Primary endpoints were success rate in reducing anxiety (anxiety score of≥ four and reducing pain when the needle was inserted to skin for lumbarpuncture (pain score of less than four. The clinicalside effects were investigated as well. Results: Twenty two girls (36.7% and 38 boys (63.3% with mean age of 2.79 ± 1.92 years were evaluated. Anxiety reduction (achieving the anxiety score of ≥ four was obtained in 43.3% in melatonin and in 36.7% in gabapentin groups, respectively and both drugs were equally effective in anxiety reduction (p.value = 0.598.Pain reduction ( achieving the pain score of less than four was obtained in 23.3% in melatonin and in 50% in gabapentin groups, respectively and thus, gabapentin wasproved to be more effective in pain reduction (p.value = 0.032.Mild side effects were observed in 10% of melatonin group and in 16.7% of gabapentin group. No statistically significant differences were seen from viewpoint of safety between the two drugs (p.value=0.448. Conclusion: Melatonin and gabapentin were not effective drugs in anxiety reduction for lumbar puncture of children. However, gabapentin is a safe and effective drug in pain reduction in painful diagnostic therapeutic procedures.

  18. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choueiry, Nour; Salamoun, Tracy; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disorders (SDs) are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013-2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7). The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8-13.4%), more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76). 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively). Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006) and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003). 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (panxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems.

  19. Interventional strategies to decrease nursing student anxiety in the clinical learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscaritolo, Linda M

    2009-01-01

    The clinical setting is a significant learning environment for undergraduate nursing students. However, the learning that occurs in this environment presents challenges that may cause students to experience stress and anxiety. High levels of anxiety can affect students' clinical performance, presenting a clear threat to success in a clinical rotation. It is crucial for clinical nursing faculty to foster a supportive learning environment conducive to undergraduate nursing student learning. The purpose of this article is to provide clinical nursing faculty with the current literature related to humor, peer instructors and mentors, and mindfulness training as strategies to decrease undergraduate student nurse anxiety in the clinical setting. The Neuman Systems Model is used as a theoretical framework, and the application of this model to humor, peer instructors and mentors, and mindfulness training is examined.

  20. Enhancing student engagement to positively impact mathematics anxiety, confidence and achievement for interdisciplinary science subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette L.; Gyuris, Emma; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to negative emotions like high mathematical anxiety and low mathematical confidence. Here, we present a theoretical framework that investigates linkages between student engagement, mathematical anxiety, mathematical confidence, student achievement and subject mastery. We implement this framework in a large, first-year interdisciplinary science subject and monitor its impact over several years from 2010 to 2015. The implementation of the framework coincided with an easing of anxiety and enhanced confidence, as well as higher student satisfaction, retention and achievement. The framework offers interdisciplinary science educators greater flexibility and confidence in their approach to designing and delivering subjects that rely on mathematical concepts and practices.

  1. Social anxiety and drinking game participation among university students: the moderating role of drinking to cope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Ellen J; George, Amanda M; Brown, Patricia M

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of social anxiety with drinking game participation. Drinking games represent a popular form of drinking in university settings. Due to their structure, games may appeal to socially anxious drinkers, particularly among those seeking to fit in or cope with the social setting. To examine the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation among a university undergraduate sample and to investigate if drinking motives moderate this association. A total of 227 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years (73% female) who had consumed alcohol in the prior year were included in the current investigation. Hierarchical regression examined the influences of social anxiety and drinking motives on frequency of drinking game participation, as well the interactions of social anxiety with drinking for coping motives and conformity motives. Social anxiety failed to emerge as a significant predictor of frequency of drinking game participation. However, drinking to cope moderated the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Socially anxious students who drank to cope were more likely to participate in drinking games on occasions when they consumed alcohol than those who did not endorse this drinking motive. Results demonstrated the influence of drinking to cope in the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Future work should examine the relationship with other indicators of drinking game activity. Intervention efforts addressing social anxiety and drinking should consider motives for drinking, as well as drinking patterns.

  2. Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress predict test anxiety in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Augner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.

  3. Preparation for a postgraduate specialty examination by medical students in Turkey: processes and sources of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Sevgi; Üner, Sarp

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Interns in Turkey must endeavor to study for a specialty exam during their internship. The preparation process for the specialty exam and the effect of this process on the students' anxiety has not been studied comprehensively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interns' preparation time for the specialty exam, their perception of how the preparation process affects their training, and which factors are related to their test anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 6th-year students (interns). A questionnaire asked participants to report health status, academic achievement, exam-related anxiety, and trait anxiety. Two open-ended questions asked about views regarding the specialty exam. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the significant predictors of anxiety level due to the exam. The average duration of exam preparations of participating interns (n = 214) was 16.8 months and 14.3 hours/week. Participating interns' health status, economic level, perception of academic achievement, time allocated to study for the exam, time remaining until the exam, and trait anxiety level demonstrated a relationship with anxiety level due to the exam (R =.35, R(2) =.13, p anxiety level. The internship curriculum, requirements, and timing of the specialty exam should be reconsidered.

  4. Academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety of the underestimated student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhahne, Detlef; Chao, Sheng-Han; Florineth, Maria Luise; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Teachers' judgments of student performance on a standardized achievement test often result in an overestimation of students' abilities. In the majority of cases, a larger group of overestimated students and a smaller group of underestimated students are formed by these judgments. AIMS. In this research study, the consequences of the underestimation of students' mathematical performance potential were examined. SAMPLE. Two hundred and thirty-five fourth grade students and their fourteen mathematics teachers took part in the investigation. METHOD. Students worked on a standardized mathematics achievement test and completed a self-description questionnaire about motivation and affect. Teachers estimated each individual student's potential with regard to mathematics test performance as well as students' expectancy for success, level of aspiration, academic self-concept, learning motivation, and test anxiety. The differences between teachers' judgments on students' test performance and students' actual performance were used to build groups of underestimated and overestimated students. RESULTS. Underestimated students displayed equal levels of test performance, learning motivation, and level of aspiration in comparison with overestimated students, but had lower expectancy for success, lower academic self-concept, and experienced more test anxiety. Teachers expected that underestimated students would receive lower grades on the next mathematics test, believed that students were satisfied with lower grades, and assumed that the students have weaker learning motivation than their overestimated classmates. CONCLUSION. Teachers' judgment error was not confined to test performance but generalized to motivational and affective traits of the students. © 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Decontamination reduces radiation anxiety and improves subjective well-being after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Michio; Harada, Shigeki; Oki, Taikan

    2017-01-01

    Since the 2011 Fukushima accident, rebuilding society to protect against anxiety and improve feelings of well-being has grown in importance. A questionnaire was carried out among residents of Marumori Town, Igu County, Miyagi Prefecture, to evaluate the effects of radiation-related countermeasures implemented by the town to reduce residents' anxiety and improve their subjective well-being (response rate: 31%; valid responses: n = 174). Further, to propose effective countermeasures regarding town planning for the improvement in subjective well-being, we analyzed associations between residents' sense of attachment to the town and subjective well-being, and then identified primary factors behind their sense of attachment. Marumori Town, located about 50 km to the northwest of the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, is a good site for evaluating the effects of countermeasures taken by the town itself to fight anxiety, because there have been limited surveys and professional medical support, and mitigation efforts were primarily initiated by the town. The results suggested that decontamination evaluations were associated with a reduction in anxiety after the accident, which contributed to an increase in residents' subjective well-being. On the other hand, the evaluation of items related to human interactions in the community and the natural environment was found as a primary factor of sense of attachment toward the town, which contributed to an increase of residents' subjective well-being. This is the first study to quantitatively measure the effects of radiation-related countermeasures on reducing anxiety and to propose an effective policy approach for improving subjective well-being. (author)

  6. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Zofeyah L; Dimova, Jiva; Pisansky, Marc T; Sun, Mu; Beppu, Hideyuki; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; O'Connor, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII) in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  7. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofeyah L McBrayer

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  8. Elimination of Kalrn Expression in POMC Cells Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Contextual Fear Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. PMID:25014196

  9. Elimination of Kalrn expression in POMC cells reduces anxiety-like behavior and contextual fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  11. Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-06-01

    The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction.

  12. Relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demi̇rci̇, Kadi̇r; Akgönül, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ± 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n = 71, 22.3%), a low smartphone use group (n = 121, 37.9%), and a high smartphone use group (n = 127, 39.8%). All participants were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory; moreover, participants other than those in the smartphone non-user group were also assessed with the Smartphone Addiction Scale. Results The findings revealed that the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores of females were significantly higher than those of males. Depression, anxiety, and daytime dysfunction scores were higher in the high smartphone use group than in the low smartphone use group. Positive correlations were found between the Smartphone Addiction Scale scores and depression levels, anxiety levels, and some sleep quality scores. Conclusion The results indicate that depression, anxiety, and sleep quality may be associated with smartphone overuse. Such overuse may lead to depression and/or anxiety, which can in turn result in sleep problems. University students with high depression and anxiety scores should be carefully monitored for smartphone addiction. PMID:26132913

  13. Alexithymia and personality in relation to social anxiety among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Coskun, Kerem Senol; Yıldırım, Fatma Gul; Ugurlu, Hilal

    2013-09-30

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship of social anxiety symptoms with alexithymia and personality dimensions in university students and to control the effects of depression and anxiety on this relationship. A total of 319 university students (85 males and 234 females) from two different universities in Ankara were investigated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We found that subscales of the LSAS (fear or anxiety and avoidance) were positively correlated with depression and alexithymia and "difficulty in identifying feelings" (DIF) and "difficulty in describing feelings" (DDF) subscales of the TAS-20. Harm avoidance (HA) showed positive correlations with subscales of the LSAS, whereas self-directedness (SD) showed negative correlations with these subscales. High TAS-20 DDFand HA and low SD predicted fear or anxiety LSAS subscale scores, whereas high TAS-20 DDF, HA and depression scores were predictors for LSAS avoidance subscale scores. Although our sample is not representative of the whole Turkish university student population, we conclude that both fear or anxiety and avoidance were mainly interrelated with DDF and HA, although the causal relationship is not clear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Systematic Desensitization and Assertive Training in the Treatment of Speech Anxiety in Middle-School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tom; And Others

    1971-01-01

    The results indicate that a procedure of desensitization can be implemented successfully in a typical public-school setting and that it would reduce significantly anxiety related to giving talks in front of class. Also revealed is that an informal and relaxed procedure that involved practice with the anxiety-related activity is equally effective.…

  15. Psychometric properties of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version in Spanish secondary education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, José M; Inglés, Cándido J; Marzo, Juan C; Martínez-Monteagudo, María C

    2014-05-01

    The School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) can be applied in different fields of psychology. However, due to the inventory's administration time, it may not be useful in certain situations. To address this concern, the present study developed a short version of the SAI (the SAI-SV). This study examined the reliability and validity evidence drawn from the scores of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version (SAI-SV) using a sample of 2,367 (47.91% boys) Spanish secondary school students, ranging from 12 to 18 years of age. To analyze the dimensional structure of the SAI-SV, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were calculated for SAI-SV scores. A correlated three-factor structure related to school situations (Anxiety about Aggression, Anxiety about Social Evaluation, and Anxiety about Academic Failure) and a three-factor structure related to the response systems of anxiety (Physiological Anxiety, Cognitive Anxiety, and Behavioral Anxiety) were identified and supported. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were determined to be appropriate. The reliability and validity evidence based on the internal structure of SAI-SV scores was satisfactory.

  16. Impact of anxiety, apathy and reduced functional autonomy on perceived quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Vitale, Carmine; Piscopo, Fausta; Baiano, Chiara; Falanga, Anna Paola; Longo, Katia; Amboni, Marianna; Barone, Paolo; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of non-motor symptoms that may impact negatively on the activities of the patient's daily life and reduce Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The present study explored the impact of specific non-motor symptoms on the HRQoL in PD. Eighty-four outpatients underwent the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) assessing global functioning and several questionnaires to assess depression, apathy, impulse control disorders (ICD), anxiety, anhedonia and functional impact of cognitive impairment. The perceived QoL was assessed by Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8). The PD sample was divided into patients with high and low HRQoL around the median of PDQ-8 and compared on clinical features, cognitive and neuropsychiatric variables. A linear regression analysis, in which the global functioning, apathy, depression, anxiety, anhedonia, ICD and the functional autonomy scores were entered as independent variables and PDQ-8 score as dependent variable, was applied. Patients with lower HRQoL were more depressed, apathetic, anxious and showed more severe reduction of functional autonomy and global functioning than patients with high HRQoL. The regression analysis revealed that higher level of anxiety, executive apathy and more reduced functional autonomy were significantly associated with higher score on PDQ-8. The finding indicated that anxiety, apathy associated with impaired planning, attention and organization (i.e., executive apathy evaluated by the Dimensional Apathy Scale) and reduced functional autonomy contribute significantly to reduce the HRQoL in PD. Therefore, early identification and management of these neuropsychiatric symptoms should be relevant to preserve HRQoL in PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Can relaxation interventions reduce anxiety in patients receiving radiotherapy? outcomes and study validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elith, C.A.; Perkins, B.A.; Johnson, L.S.; Skelly, M.H.; Dempsey, S.

    2001-01-01

    This study piloted the use of three relaxation interventions in an attempt to reduce levels of anxiety in patients who are immobilised for radiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers, as well as trying to validate the study methodology. In addition to receiving normal radiation therapy treatment, 14 patients were assigned to either a control group not receiving the relaxation intervention or one of three validated relaxation intervention techniques; music therapy, aromatherapy or guided imagery. Patients in the intervention groups underwent the relaxation technique daily for the first seven days of treatment. On days 1, 3, 5 and 7 of treatment patients were required to complete the State Anxiety Inventory survey. While caution should be taken in accepting the results due to the small numbers of patients involved in the study and the non-randomised assignment of patients within the study, the results of the study demonstrate a clinically significant reduction in anxiety levels in each of the three relaxation interventions compared to the control group. The study demonstrated good study validity due to the ease of implementation, the unambiguous results generated, and the use of already validated anxiety intersections and measurement tools. Copyright (2001) Australian Institute of Radiography

  18. Nonclinical Depression and Anxiety as Predictor of Academic Stress in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Masood

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To measure the role of anxiety and non-clinical depression as predictors of academic stress. In this study, supplementary objective had been gauging the prevalence of anxiety and depression among medical students of first year and final year, sought from six major medical colleges of Punjab. Almost all health professionals, no matter to which part of the world they belong to, face anxiety, depression and stress due to the nature of services they have to extend in medical profession such as time-pressures, workload, multiple roles and emotional issues. Quantitative research designed was employed; and cross sectional research design was used to lay out the research. The data was collected from first year and final year medical students. The duration of data collection was from Sep, 2014 to Sep, 2015. In Faculty of Medicine of five leading medical colleges, with total number of 650 students, the prevalence of anxiety and depression was found to be 83.9% and 67.9%, from first year to fourth year respectively, based on the cut-off points of both questionnaires. There was significant association among anxiety, depression and academic stress as computed through Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The regression analyses revealed that depression was significant predictor of academic stress but this was not the same for anxiety. Females were more anxiety and depression prone and reported greater academic stress than males. The study revealed significant distress among medical students, in terms of both anxiety and depression. It was inferred that the depression acts as pertinent predictor of academic stress. Furthermore, it was noticed that the prevalence of symptoms was higher among females. The findings carry significant implications for highlighting the addressing the need for psychological wellbeing of medical students in order to establish conducive environment of learning for medical professionals.

  19. Humor and Anxiety: Effects on Class Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael A. R.; Mahoney, Peggy

    1981-01-01

    Measures of anxiety and achievement were obtained on a sample of undergraduate students. Highly anxious students had lower achievement on humorous tests. Students with low anxiety had higher achievement on humorous tests. Results indicate that humor is not a positive factor in reducing high anxiety associated with academic evaluations. (Author)

  20. Viva Survivors--The Effect of Peer-Mentoring on Pre-Viva Anxiety in Early-Years Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rachael-Anne; Dipper, Lucy; Cruice, Madeline

    2018-01-01

    "Viva voce" exams are used in many disciplines as a test of students' knowledge and skills. Whilst acknowledged as a useful form of assessment, vivas commonly lead to a great deal of anxiety for students. This anxiety is also apparent for vivas in phonetics, where the students must produce and recognise sounds drawn from across the…

  1. The presence of mathematics and computer anxiety in nursing students and their effects on medication dosage calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Karen

    2007-05-01

    To determine if the presence of mathematical and computer anxiety in nursing students affects learning of dosage calculations. The quasi-experimental study compared learning outcomes at differing levels of mathematical and computer anxiety when integrative and computer based learning approaches were used. Participants involved a cohort of second year nursing students (n=97). Mathematical anxiety exists in 20% (n=19) of the student nurse population, and 14% (n=13) experienced mathematical testing anxiety. Those students more anxious about mathematics and the testing of mathematics benefited from integrative learning to develop conditional knowledge (F(4,66)=2.52 at pComputer anxiety was present in 12% (n=11) of participants, with those reporting medium and high levels of computer anxiety performing less well than those with low levels (F(1,81)=3.98 at pmathematical and computer anxiety when planning an educational program to develop competency in dosage calculations.

  2. The Relationship of Gender and Self-Efficacy on Social Physique Anxiety among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberger, Sara M; Harris, Brandonn S; Czech, Daniel R; Melton, Bridget

    The anxiety or fear associated with physique evaluation is defined as Social Physique Anxiety (SPA). Numerous studies have examined this construct, yet a gap exists exploring this phenomenon among current college students with SPA, self-efficacy, and gender concurrently. Therefore, the purposes of this study included quantitatively analyzing the association between SPA, gender, and self-efficacy. Participants included 237 students at a Southeastern university participating in jogging, body conditioning, or weight training courses. Analysis of Variance yielded a significant main effect for self-efficacy as well, as those with lower self-efficacy displayed higher levels of SPA ( p college student population.

  3. Evaluation of Exam Anxiety Level among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Students and its Association with Demographic Characteristics in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test -anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems among the students that can impair performance and leads to failure of the exam. So, this study aimed to determine the rate of exam-anxiety among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences' students. Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was conducted on 510 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by convenience sampling method in 2014. In this study, data collection tool was Test-Anxiety questionnaire includes 25 questions. Data were analyzed with the Pearson correlation and t-test using SPSS 16 software. Results: 198 students (38. 8% had mild exam-anxiety, 140 students (27. 5% moderate exam-anxiety and 172 students (33. 7% had severe exam-anxiety. The difference between the mean of anxiety scores was significant at various fields of study (P <0. 05.  Midwifery students experienced more stress in comparison with the students of other fields. There was a significant relationship between exam anxiety level, and the variables of gender, location, age and total grades average of students (P<0/05. There was not a significant relationship between exam anxiety level and marital status, parental occupation, semester entrance and employment of students. Conclusion: Due to the high level of exam anxiety among the different fields of medicine as well as the negative effect of this type of anxiety on academic performance of students, the necessity of the use of psychological services, counseling, identification of causes of anxiety, and planning for decreasing this problem was recommended. Obviously, in this regard, more attention should be paid to the highest-risk groups such as female midwifery students.

  4. Attitudes and Anxieties of Business and Education Students towards English: Some Data from the Basque Country

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    Santos, Alaitz; Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this article is to focus on university students' attitudes towards English and their anxieties concerning the use of English in the Basque Country, a multilingual context where exposure to English is limited but internationalisation is an important aim. Participants were 360 undergraduate university students of business (N = 180) and…

  5. Investigation of High School Students' Attitude and Anxiety Levels towards Mathematics in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…

  6. Sexuality and Student Development: Sexual Anxiety As It Relates to Chickering's Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouse, Roy H.; Doebbeling, Brad

    Psychological stress has been identified as a main variable related to adjustment in college and to college attrition. Five of Chickering's seven areas of development for college students have been related directly to sexuality. Although a major concern of college students is the anxiety associated with sexual issues, little research has been…

  7. Physical and Physiological Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety in College Students

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    Yaman, Çetin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the relationship among social physique anxiety, physical measures such as body fat and physical self-concept. 367 (226 male and 141 female) college students ranging in age from 21 to 33 participated in the study. Participants were randomly chosen among the healthy students without any metabolic and…

  8. Anxiety and Self-Efficacy as Sequential Mediators in US College Students' Career Preparation

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    Deer, LillyBelle K.; Gohn, Kelsey; Kanaya, Tomoe

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Current college students in the USA are reporting higher levels of anxiety over career planning than previous generations, placing pressure on colleges to provide effective career development opportunities for their students. Research has consistently found that increasing career-related self-efficacy is particularly effective at…

  9. Fearless Improvisation: A Pilot Study to Analyze String Students' Confidence, Anxiety, and Attitude toward Learning Improvisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the confidence, anxiety, and attitude of novice string student improvisers. A form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales, as modified for improvisation by Wehr-Flowers, was given to middle school and high school string students (N = 121) after their participation in a 4-month improvisation…

  10. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  11. The Effect of Diffused Aromatherapy on Test Anxiety among Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative, randomized, pretest, posttest study was conducted to assess the effect of aromatherapy on cognitive test anxiety among nursing students. Sophomore nursing students (n = 39) from a private, 4-year college, were randomized into either the control group (n = 18) or the experimental group (n = 21). Each participant completed the…

  12. Emphasis on Conceptual Knowledge and Its Impact on Mathematics Anxiety for Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoule, Alioune

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between conceptual knowledge and mathematics anxiety of remedial mathematics students in an urban community college. The impact that conceptual understanding has on mathematics achievement was also examined. The study sample consisted of 105 remedial mathematics students from four elementary algebra courses.…

  13. Teacher Immediacy and Decreased Student Quantitative Reasoning Anxiety: The Mediating Effect of Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Stephanie; Rice, Christopher; Wyatt, Bryce; Ducking, Johnny; Denton, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    There is global concern regarding the increased prevalence of math anxiety among college students, which is credited for a decrease in analytical degree completion rates and lower self-confidence among students in their ability to complete analytical tasks in the real world. The present study identified that, as expected, displays of instructional…

  14. Correlation between Substance Use and Anxiety-Depression Spectrum among Senior High School Students in Bandung

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    Achmad Samjunanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both substance use and anxiety-depression spectrum are the problem that currently faced by adolescents especially among Senior High School students. Moreover, there is a high comorbidity between both problems. This study was conducted to discover the substance use’s prevalence and to find out anxiety-depression spectrum proportion among adolescent, and more importantly to determine whether there is correlation between both variables. Methods: During October–November 2013, four hundred and fifty two students from five Senior High Schools located in Karees Sub-District, Bandung were included in this cross-sectional analytic study. Among whom, only 425 students filled the questionnaire properly. Data were collected using Kessler-10 (K10 to explore anxiety-depression spectrum and addiction severity index lite version (ASI-Lite to identify substance use. The correlation between both variables was analyzed by Gamma correlation test. Results: The study revealed that there were 93 (21.9% students that used substance. In addition, there were 244 students (57.4% that screened as having anxiety-depression spectrum. Statistical analysis, according to Gamma correlation test, showed that there was a weak correlation between alcohol use and anxiety-depression spectrum (p=0.041; r=0.316. The remaining substances gave no statistically significant result (p>0.05. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence in substance use and psychological distress in anxiety-depression spectrum among high school student. In addition, alcohol is the only substances that correlated with anxiety-depression spectrum.

  15. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study.

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    Nour Choueiry

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders (SDs are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety.An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013-2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7.The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8-13.4%, more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76. 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively. Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006 and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003. 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (p<0.0001.The magnitude of SDs in this sample of Lebanese university students demonstrate the importance of examining sleep health in this population. Moreover, the link between SD and anxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems.

  16. Relation Between Early Maladaptive Schemes and Anxiety and Depression Features in University Students

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    Diana Lucía Sánchez-Ortíz***

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and depression are important health problems, because of the high prevalence rates in normal population and in clinical population. This non-experimental study intends to identify the cognitive profile, through the early maladaptive schemes in students from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Bucaramanga, related with depression and anxiety scores. Thegoal is to contribute to the identification of cognitive characteristics that could help in the prevention of these disorders. 259 psychology students of the first seven semesters were evaluated by means from the following questionnaires: BDI, ST/DEP, STAI and YSQ-L2. The results don’t show the presence of specific schemes as a function of the presence of State/ Trait depression or State/Trait anxiety, which might suggest, through the dimensional paradigm, the presence of a cognitive pattern for an anxiety and depression mix disorder. It is suggested that further research should be carried out with other samples, including clinical population.

  17. Depression anxiety stress and substance use in medical students in a 5year curriculum

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    Paulina van Zyl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes.Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined.Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression.Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.

  18. Study of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among the Medical Students in two Medical Colleges of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, D; Risal, A; Koirala, S

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical education is intended to prepare graduates for a promoting health and caring for the sick. Medical students are confronted with significant academic, psychological and existential stressors. There is insufficient information regarding psychological morbidity among Nepalese medical students. Objective To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress, among the medical students in Nepal, and its association with sociodemographic characteristics. Method A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted including all students from first to fifth year of student using convenience method of sampling from Kathmandu University Medical School (KUSMS), Dhulikhel and Manipal College of Medical Sciences (MCOMS), Pokhara, Nepal. Depression, Anxiety and stress were assessed using Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS). Additional questions regarding demographic variables were also included in the survey. Data analysis was done on Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 16. Result A total of 538 students participated in the study giving a response rate of 89.6%. Aamong them 56.5% were from age group 21-25 years, 42.2% were below 20 years and only 1.3% were above 25 years of age. Among them 52% were female and 48% were male. Our study found that the overall prevalence of depression was 29.9%, anxiety was 41.1% and stress was 27% among all participated medical students. Depression was significantly associated (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.43-3.47, pdepression 29.9%, anxiety 41.1% and stress 27% among undergraduate medical students warrants needs for strategic plans to alleviate depression anxiety and the stressors right from the time they join medical school and has to be continued till they finish the course.

  19. Depression, anxiety, stress and substance use in medical students in a 5-year curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Maria van Zyl

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The mental health of medical students is a global concern, and medical training has been described by some as being detrimental to the health of medical students, affecting both their student experience and professional life. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and substance use among preclinical students in a 5-year outcomes-based medical curriculum. The study also investigated the association of selected demographic factors with these outcomes. Methods. All University of the Free State medical students in semesters 3 (n=164 and 5 (n=131 during 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Depression, anxiety and stress levels were measured by means of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21. Demographic questions were included in an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Lifetime and past month substance use were determined. Results. A prevalence of 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe depression, 26.5% for moderate to extremely severe anxiety, and 29.5% for moderate to extremely severe stress was recorded. Female students had significantly higher stress levels, but not increased anxiety. Relationship status and accommodation were not associated with these outcomes. Lifetime use of methylphenidate, lifetime use of alcohol, and past month use of alcohol were associated with depression. Conclusion. The study revealed high levels of depression, anxiety and stress in 2nd- and 3rd-year medical students compared with the general population, but the levels were comparable to those of medical students elsewhere in the world. Past month substance use of alcohol and cannabis was lower than in international studies, but nicotine use was higher.

  20. Factors Associated with Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Among Medical Students in Bahrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroon, Zaid A; Borgan, Saif M; Kamel, Charlotte; Maddison, Wendy; Royston, Maeve; Donnellan, Claire

    2018-02-01

    Medical training can be a stressful experience and may negatively impact mental health for some students. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among medical students in one international medical university in the Kingdom of Bahrain and to determine associations between these symptoms, the students' characteristics, and their satisfaction with life. This is a cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire, distributed to 350 enrolled medical students. We used Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to measure global cognitive judgments of one's life satisfaction. Sociodemographic details including social background and academic information were also documented. Forty percent (n = 124) of the participants had depressive symptoms, of which 18.9% (n = 58) met the criteria for mild, 13% (n = 40) for moderate, and 8.5% (n = 26) for severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with Arab ethnicity (χ 2  = 5.66, p = .017), female gender (χ 2  = 3.97, p = .046), relationship with peers (p Anxiety symptoms were present in 51% (n = 158) of students. Anxiety symptoms were associated with female gender (χ 2  = 11.35, p anxiety symptoms among medical students was high. Medical universities in the Middle East may need to allocate more resources into monitoring and early detection of medical student distress. Medical education providers are encouraged to provide adequate pastoral and psychological support for medical students, including culturally appropriate self-care programs within the curriculum.

  1. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.

  2. Systematic Review: Audiovisual Interventions for Reducing Preoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Dobson, Kathleen G.; Buckley, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of Audiovisual (AV) interventions at reducing preoperative anxiety and its associated outcomes in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies where the primary outcome was children’s preoperative anxiety was conducted. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain, behavioral changes, recovery, induction compliance, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness. The risk of bias of each study was assessed. Results In all, 18 studies were identified. A meta-analytic approach and narrative synthesis of findings were used to summarize the results of the studies. Conclusions This systematic review suggests that AV interventions can be effective in reducing children’s preoperative anxiety. Videos, multi-faceted programs, and interactive games appear to be most effective, whereas music therapy and Internet programs are less effective. While AV interventions appear potentially useful, adequately powered RCTs are required to conclusively pinpoint the components and mechanisms of the most effective AV interventions and guide practice. PMID:26476281

  3. [Predictors and longitudinal changes of depression and anxiety among medical college students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ji; Jang, Eun-Young; Park, Yong-Chon; Kim, Daeho

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to examine the change in depression and anxiety and their predictors over 1 year among premedical and medical students. We compared depression and anxiety from 2 waves and determined the predictive power of personality, narcissism, social comparison, and social reward value on them. Two hundred twenty-six students at a medical school in Seoul were divided into 4 groups according to academic year and completed a questionnaire at the end of 2010 and 2011. The questionnaire included the Zung Depression Scale; Zung Anxiety Scale; scales for social comparison, narcissism, and social reward value; and Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Among first- and second-year medical students, depression and anxiety increased significantly over the previous year. However, irrespective of academic year, depression increased significantly after 1 year. Also, social reward value had a moderating effect. Specifically, among students with low social reward value who entered their first year of medical school, the negative impact of the tendency toward depression and anxiety was amplified compared with older students. Because the predictors of mental health differ between groups, each group must receive specific, appropriate education. Also, because social reward value is important moderating factor of mental health, education and intervention programs that focus on social reward value are needed.

  4. Comparison of Writing Anxiety and Writing Dispositions of Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

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    Rifat Ramazan Berk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine sixth, seventh and eighth grade students’ writing anxiety and dispositions and to examine to what extent they predict each other. The basis of this study is to determine whether writing disposition is the significant predictor of writing anxiety or not and whether students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictor of writing anxiety and dispositions or not. The research was designed according to survey model. The study group, selected through simple sampling method, is made up of 860 students studying at 6th, 7th and 8th grades in elementary schools of Şarkışla District, Sivas. While “Writing Anxiety Scale”, adapted into Turkish by Özbay and Zorbay (2011, was administered to determine the study group’s writing anxiety level, “Writing Disposition Scale”, adapted into Turkish by İşeri and Ünal (2010, was used to determine the writing disposition level. At the end of the study, it was found that writing disposition is a significant predictor of writing anxiety and students’ grade levels and genders are significant predictors of writing anxiety and dispositions. An education environment to create a strong writing disposition for students is recommended. Also, similar studies on different dimensions of the issue can be conducted.

  5. Correlation between Substance Use and Anxiety-Depression Spectrum among Senior High School Students in Bandung

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    Achmad Samjunanto; Lucky Saputra; RA. Retno Ekowati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Both substance use and anxiety-depression spectrum are the problem that currently faced by adolescents especially among Senior High School students. Moreover, there is a high comorbidity between both problems. This study was conducted to discover the substance use’s prevalence and to find out anxiety-depression spectrum proportion among adolescent, and more importantly to determine whether there is correlation between both variables. Methods: During October–November 2013, four...

  6. Effects of a Peer Evaluation Technique on Nursing Students' Anxiety Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia; Greene, Debbie; Coke, Sallie

    2017-11-16

    Techniques to help decrease students' stress and anxiety during a nursing program can be beneficial to their overall health and mental well-being. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine if a peer evaluation technique during clinical skill practice sessions decreases anxiety prior to skill performance evaluation with nursing faculty. Participant feedback supports the integration of a peer evaluation technique when learning clinical skills.

  7. Social Anxiety and Sociometric Nomination in Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Beatriz; Inglés, Cándido J.; Aparisi Sierra, David; García-Fernández, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with social anxiety can manifest great interference in their relationship with classmates and other peers, as well as in their school performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociometric nominations and assessment of students with high social anxiety by their peers and teachers, and to determine whether these assessments differ significantly between evaluators (peers vs. teachers), in a sample of 2022 (51.1% male) Spanish adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years. Soci...

  8. The Association Between Muslim Religiosity and Young Adult College Students' Depression, Anxiety, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Mohammad; Ali, Akhtar; Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub

    2017-08-01

    Depression, anxiety, and stress are among major psychological disorders being predominant in present day. This study proposed to analyze the role of Muslim religiosity in male students showing these mental indications. A sample including 723 Pakistani young adults enrolled at college level was randomly chosen. Muslim Religiosity Measurement Scale and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were utilized to gather information. Discoveries uncover an inverse relationship between conduct and affiliation with the symptoms of mental disorders, anxiety and stress among the respondents. Results bolster the incorporation of religious dimensions in psychological wellness and mental well-being thought of young adults in Pakistan.

  9. Measuring Social Anxiety in College Students: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the SPAI-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; White, Susan W.

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is 1 of the most prevalent psychological disorders, and among college students in particular, social anxiety has been associated with other problems such as substance use problems and increased vulnerability to other psychiatric disorders. The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory-23 (SPAI-23; Roberson-Nay, Strong, Nay,…

  10. Testing Faith: A Mixed Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Prayer and Test Anxiety amongst College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Drey

    2016-01-01

    Test anxiety is problem that affects college students. Explanatory mixed methods research was completed with the objective of understanding the interrelationship of prayer and test anxiety as well as the potential therapeutic effects of Christian prayer on test anxiety. It was hypothesized that Christian prayer would have significant effects on…

  11. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  12. Maladjustment to Academic Life and Employment Anxiety in University Students with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

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    Jun Tayama

    Full Text Available The present study tested our hypothesis that university students with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS may experience less satisfactory academic lives than those of students without IBS. We also verified the hypothesis that university students with IBS might have higher employment anxiety than students without IBS might. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,686 university students. Presence or absence of IBS was assessed via the Rome III Questionnaire. Two original items were used to evaluate academic life. The prevalence rates of IBS with diarrhea, IBS with constipation, mixed IBS, and unsubtyped IBS in the study population were 5%, 2%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Regarding academic life, the proportions of participants who experienced maladjustment and employment anxiety were 29% and 50%, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and faculty, the odds ratios for maladjustment and employment anxiety were significantly higher in students who screened positively, relative to those who screened negatively, for IBS (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.24-2.21; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.68-2.81, respectively. In conclusion, maladjustment and anxiety over future employment were higher in university students with IBS relative to those without.

  13. Maladjustment to Academic Life and Employment Anxiety in University Students with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayama, Jun; Nakaya, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Toyohiro; Saigo, Tatsuo; Takeoka, Atsushi; Sone, Toshimasa; Fukudo, Shin; Shirabe, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested our hypothesis that university students with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may experience less satisfactory academic lives than those of students without IBS. We also verified the hypothesis that university students with IBS might have higher employment anxiety than students without IBS might. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,686 university students. Presence or absence of IBS was assessed via the Rome III Questionnaire. Two original items were used to evaluate academic life. The prevalence rates of IBS with diarrhea, IBS with constipation, mixed IBS, and unsubtyped IBS in the study population were 5%, 2%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Regarding academic life, the proportions of participants who experienced maladjustment and employment anxiety were 29% and 50%, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and faculty, the odds ratios for maladjustment and employment anxiety were significantly higher in students who screened positively, relative to those who screened negatively, for IBS (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.24-2.21; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.68-2.81, respectively). In conclusion, maladjustment and anxiety over future employment were higher in university students with IBS relative to those without.

  14. Maladjustment to Academic Life and Employment Anxiety in University Students with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested our hypothesis that university students with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may experience less satisfactory academic lives than those of students without IBS. We also verified the hypothesis that university students with IBS might have higher employment anxiety than students without IBS might. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,686 university students. Presence or absence of IBS was assessed via the Rome III Questionnaire. Two original items were used to evaluate academic life. The prevalence rates of IBS with diarrhea, IBS with constipation, mixed IBS, and unsubtyped IBS in the study population were 5%, 2%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Regarding academic life, the proportions of participants who experienced maladjustment and employment anxiety were 29% and 50%, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and faculty, the odds ratios for maladjustment and employment anxiety were significantly higher in students who screened positively, relative to those who screened negatively, for IBS (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.24–2.21; OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.68–2.81, respectively). In conclusion, maladjustment and anxiety over future employment were higher in university students with IBS relative to those without. PMID:26083662

  15. Reflections from teachers and students on speaking anxiety in an EFL classroom

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    Akkakoson Songyut

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on part of the research project in which instructor perspectives on the role of anxiety in an EFL speaking classroom and anxiety-coping strategies students employ when speaking English have been investigated. The existence of students’ speaking anxiety was revealed via a teacher interview. A total of 88 students from the intact classes also responded to an interview form for an analysis of anxiety-coping strategies they utilised when speaking English in class. The qualitative data from both instruments was analysed using the content analysis. The findings of the teacher interview data put forward that students of this study have experienced speaking-in-class anxiety. This anxiety may influence their grades, to some extent. Three factors that may hinder students’ development of oral skills emerge, including their lack of self-confidence, having poor English background and having neither intrinsic nor extrinsic motivation to use English. Using the target language as the medium of communication in class is viewed by the teachers as a must in theory, but flexibility is allowed in practice. Moreover, the results of the student interview data show a wide range of strategies employed to deal with anxiety (ie social, affective, meta-cognitive, compensatory, cognitive and memory-related strategies. Social strategies are the most frequently-used techniques. Suggestions for improvement in the overall oral English (ie vocabulary focus, audiovisual focus, self-practice, social focus, auditory focus, meta-cognitive focus, compensatory focus and affective focus have also been given by the student participants. An increased repertoire of vocabulary is viewed as the most effective tool for such improvement.

  16. Impact of Psychological Interventions on Reducing Anxiety, Fear and the Need for Sedation in Children Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Giganti, Fiorenza; Rossi, Arianna; Di Feo, Daniele; Vagnoli, Laura; Calcagno, Giovanna; Defilippi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i) whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii) whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear) of the children was evaluated before and after the activities through a rating scale questionnaire. The results showed that the activities had high effectiveness in reducing the level of anxiety and fear and decreased the need for sedation in the experimental group compared to the control group. This approach proved to be a positive patient experience, helping to alleviate children’s anxiety and fear, decreasing the need for sedation, and was cost-effective. PMID:25918624

  17. Impact of psychological interventions on reducing anxiety, fear and the need for sedation in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Viggiano

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear of the children was evaluated before and after the activities through a rating scale questionnaire. The results showed that the activities had high effectiveness in reducing the level of anxiety and fear and decreased the need for sedation in the experimental group compared to the control group. This approach proved to be a positive patient experience, helping to alleviate children’s anxiety and fear, decreasing the need for sedation, and was cost-effective.

  18. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

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    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  19. College Adjustment of First Year Students: The Role of Social Anxiety

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    Ruseno Arjanggi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the correlation between social anxiety and college adjustment. 436 undergraduate psychology students of five universities in Central Java were involved in this study. All respondents completed a questionnaire about student adjustment to college, and social anxiety scale. Canonical correlation was conducted to analyze the data. The result showed that fear of negative evaluation correlates with academic and personal-emotional adjustment, but not with social adjustment and institutional adjustment, while social avoidance and distress correlate with all of the dependent variables. This study suggests about the role of social anxiety to college adjustment. These findings investigate further discussion about appropriate intervention to address adjustment problems among college students.

  20. Depression, anxiety, and tobacco use: Overlapping impediments to sleep in a national sample of college students.

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    Boehm, Matthew A; Lei, Quinmill M; Lloyd, Robin M; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2016-10-01

    To examine how tobacco use and depression/anxiety disorders are related to disturbed sleep in college students. 85,138 undergraduate respondents (66.3% female, 74.5% white, non-Hispanic, ages 18-25) from the Spring 2011 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II database. Multivariate analyses of tobacco use (none, intermediate, daily) and mental health (diagnosed and/or symptomatic depression or anxiety) were used to predict sleep disturbance. Daily tobacco use was associated with more sleep problems than binge drinking, illegal drug use, obesity, gender, and working >20 hours/week. Students with depression or anxiety reported more sleep disturbances than individuals without either disorder, and tobacco use in this population was associated with the most sleep problems. Tobacco use and depression/anxiety disorders are both independently associated with more sleep problems in college students. Students with depression and/or anxiety are more likely to be daily tobacco users, which likely exacerbates their sleep problems.

  1. The influence of gender on social anxiety spectrum symptoms in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano; Carpita, Barbara; Carlini, Marina; Mengali, Francesco; Tognetti, Rosalba; Rivetti, Francesco; Massimetti, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore social anxiety spectrum gender differences, in a sample of university students. Overall, 823 University of Pisa students were assessed by Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report Questionnaire (SHYSR). Using a total score of 68 as the optimal diagnostic threshold, we classified students into two groups with levels of severity: low scorers (60%), significant gender differences emerged for 6 items: females reported higher rates of items related to “Performance fears”, that seemed to confirm the new DSM-5 specifier named “Performance only”, while males reported higher rate in a single item related to “Behavioural inhibition”. Females showed a significant higher total score and “Specific anxieties and phobic features” and “Interpersonal sensitivity” domain scores compared to males, in low severity subgroup, and males showed significant higher “Social phobic traits during childhood and adolescence” and “Behavioural inhibition and somatic symptoms” domain scores compared to females in the high severity subgroup. Finally, rate of individuals declaring to consume alcohol was significantly higher in males than females. Among university students, social anxiety spectrum seems to be more frequent in females than males. In males, social anxiety spectrum is more frequently associated with an early onset, behavioural inhibition and somatic symptoms and, consequently, with higher severity.

  2. Role of Alexithymia, Anxiety, and Depression in Predicting Self-Efficacy in Academic Students

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    Mahbobeh Faramarzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Little research is available on the predictive factors of self-efficacy in college students. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression in predicting self-efficacy in academic students. Design. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 133 students at Babol University of Medical Sciences (Medicine, Dentistry, and Paramedicine participated in the study between 2014 and 2015. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES, and 14 items on anxiety and depression derived from the 28 items of the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ. Results. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed negative significant relationships between alexithymia and the three subscales with student self-efficacy. There was no significant correlation between anxiety/depression symptoms and student self-efficacy. A backward multiple regression analysis revealed that alexithymia was a negative significant predictor of self-efficacy in academic students (B=-0.512, P<0.001. The prevalence of alexithymia was 21.8% in students. Multiple backward logistic analysis regression revealed that number of passed semesters, gender, mother’s education, father’s education, and doctoral level did not accurately predict alexithymia in college students. Conclusion. As alexithymia is prevalent in college students and affects self-efficacy and academic functioning, we suggest it should be routinely evaluated by mental physicians at universities.

  3. Role of Alexithymia, Anxiety, and Depression in Predicting Self-Efficacy in Academic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Little research is available on the predictive factors of self-efficacy in college students. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression in predicting self-efficacy in academic students. Design. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 133 students at Babol University of Medical Sciences (Medicine, Dentistry, and Paramedicine) participated in the study between 2014 and 2015. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES), and 14 items on anxiety and depression derived from the 28 items of the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ). Results. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed negative significant relationships between alexithymia and the three subscales with student self-efficacy. There was no significant correlation between anxiety/depression symptoms and student self-efficacy. A backward multiple regression analysis revealed that alexithymia was a negative significant predictor of self-efficacy in academic students (B = −0.512, P students. Multiple backward logistic analysis regression revealed that number of passed semesters, gender, mother's education, father's education, and doctoral level did not accurately predict alexithymia in college students. Conclusion. As alexithymia is prevalent in college students and affects self-efficacy and academic functioning, we suggest it should be routinely evaluated by mental physicians at universities. PMID:28154839

  4. Why is everyone so anxious?: an exploration of stress and anxiety in genetic counseling graduate students.

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    Jungbluth, Chelsy; Macfarlane, Ian M; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Leroy, Bonnie S

    2011-06-01

    Stress is an inevitable part of daily life. Studies of graduate student stress exist, but none include genetic counseling students. The present mixed-methods study investigated 225 genetic counseling students' stress and anxiety levels using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al. 1983), frequency and intensity of stressors associated with their graduate experience, positive and challenging aspects of their experience, and their stress management advice for prospective students. Principal axis factor analysis yielded five conceptual factors underlying the stressors: Professional Uncertainty, Personal Life Events, Interpersonal Demands, Academic Demands, and Isolating Circumstances. Exploratory model fitting using regression yielded four significant predictors accounting for 19% of the variance in state anxiety: (1) trait anxiety, (2) the Interpersonal Demands factor, (3) the Isolating Circumstances factor, and (4) the interaction between the Professional Uncertainty factor and advanced student status. Content analysis of open-ended responses identified several themes. For instance, most students enjoyed what they were learning, interactions with colleagues, and affirmation of their career choice, while certain academic and professional challenges were particularly stressful (e.g., workload, time constraints, clinical rotations). Additional findings, program implications, and research recommendations are provided.

  5. Reducing children's social anxiety symptoms: exploring a novel parent-administered cognitive bias modification training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Pettit, Eleanor; Creswell, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    Social fears and worries in children are common and impairing. Yet, questions have been raised over the efficacy, suitability and accessibility of current frontline treatments. Here, we present data on the effectiveness of a novel parent-administered Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretations (CBM-I) training tool. CBM-I capitalises on findings demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and biased interpretations, the tendency to interpret ambiguous situations negatively. Through CBM-I training, participants are exposed to benign resolutions, and reinforced for selecting these. In adults and adolescents, CBM-I training is effective at reducing symptoms and mood reactivity. In the present study, we developed a novel, child-appropriate form of CBM-I training, by presenting training materials within bedtime stories, read by a parent to the child across three consecutive evenings. Compared to a test-retest control group (n = 17), children receiving CBM-I (n = 19) reported greater endorsement of benign interpretations of ambiguous situations post-training (compared to pre-training). These participants (but not the test-retest control group) also showed a significant reduction in social anxiety symptoms. Pending replication and extensions to a clinical sample, these data may implicate a cost-effective, mechanism-driven and developmentally-appropriate resource for targeting social anxiety problems in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Power and death: Mortality salience increases power seeking while feeling powerful reduces death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmi, Peter; Pfeffer, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    According to Terror Management Theory, people respond to reminders of mortality by seeking psychological security and bolstering their self-esteem. Because previous research suggests that having power can provide individuals a sense of security and self-worth, we hypothesize that mortality salience leads to an increased motivation to acquire power, especially among men. Study 1 found that men (but not women) who wrote about their death reported more interest in acquiring power. Study 2A and Study 2B demonstrated that when primed with reminders of death, men (but not women) reported behaving more dominantly during the subsequent week, while both men and women reported behaving more prosocially during that week. Thus, mortality salience prompts people to respond in ways that help them manage their death anxiety but in ways consistent with normative gender expectations. Furthermore, Studies 3-5 showed that feeling powerful reduces anxiety when mortality is salient. Specifically, we found that when primed to feel more powerful, both men and women experienced less mortality anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Group Reality Therapy in Addicts Rehabilitation Process to Reduce Depression, Anxiety and Stress

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    Omid Massah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Substance abuse is one of the most outstanding socio-psychological hazards that can easily wreck one’s personal, family and social life. Reality Therapy is a type of Cognitive rehabilitation (known as psychosocial rehabilitation, and the application of this method in the treatment of different disorders has recently been the topic of research. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of group reality therapy on the reduction of stress, anxiety and depression in addicts. Methods: A quasi-experimental study of pretest-posttest design, with a control group was conducted. The study population consisted of all addicts attending Tehran’s ‘Neda’ Rehab Clinic. First, the DASS-21 questionnaire was administered and then 40 people were selected from those who had scored average and higher. They were then randomly assigned to two test and control groups of 20 each. Analysis of co-variance was used to analyze the data, with which pretest scores were controlled, and the effect of the independent variable on posttest scores was evaluated. Results: Following the intervention, there were significant decreases in the mean scores of all three variables, i.e. stress, anxiety and depression in the test group (P<0.05. Discussion: Psychosocial rehabilitation based on reality therapy can be considered as an effective method for reducing stress, anxiety and depression in addicts and also as an adjunctive therapy in treating other ailments.

  8. A videotaped intervention to enhance child control and reduce anxiety of the pain of dental injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, P; Raadal, M; Naidu, S; Yoshida, T; Kvale, G; Milgrom, P

    2003-12-01

    While the psychological literature shows that perceptions of uncontrollability contribute to anxiety and other pathologies, interventions that enhance perceived control have been shown to reduce anxiety. This study attempted to assess a brief videotape to enhance child perceived control in a dental setting. 101 children aged 7-9 years completed warm-up procedures and viewed either: a) the experimental intervention, a 2 minutes video of a dentist explaining what an injection will feel like and proposing hand raising as a signal mechanism; or b) the control condition, a 2 minutes video of Disneyland. Fear of dental injections was assessed on a 10 cm visual analogue scale before and after the intervention. In the experimental group there was a significant fear reduction from pre- to post-intervention, while this was not the case in the control group. Children with higher pre-existing levels of fear benefited more from the intervention than children with lower levels of fear. The results of this pilot study suggest that intervention packages that impact child control have promise in lowering anxiety.

  9. Effectiveness of integrating individualized and generic complementary medicine treatments with standard care versus standard care alone for reducing preoperative anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Samuel; Keinan Boker, Lital; Arnon, Zahi; Ben-Arye, Eran; Bar'am, Ayala; Sroka, Gideon; Matter, Ibrahim; Somri, Mostafa; Schiff, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Preoperative anxiety is commonly reported by people undergoing surgery. A significant number of studies have found a correlation between preoperative anxiety and post-operative morbidity. Various methods of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) were found to be effective in alleviating preoperative anxiety. This study examined the relative effectiveness of various individual and generic CAM methods combined with standard treatment (ST) in relieving preoperative anxiety, in comparison with ST alone. Randomized controlled trial. Holding room area Three hundred sixty patients. Patients were randomly divided into 6 equal-sized groups. Group 1 received the standard treatment (ST) for anxiety alleviation with anxiolytics. The five other groups received the following, together with ST (anxiolytics): Compact Disk Recording of Guided Imagery (CDRGI); acupuncture; individual guided imagery; reflexology; and individual guided imagery combined with reflexology, based on medical staff availability. Assessment of anxiety was taken upon entering the holding room area (surgery preparation room) ('pre-treatment assessment'), and following the treatment, shortly before transfer to the operating room ('post-treatment assessment'), based on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire. Data processing included comparison of VAS averages in the 'pre' and 'post' stages among the various groups. Preoperatively, CAM treatments were associated with significant reduction of anxiety level (5.54-2.32, peffective than individualized CAM (Peffective than generic CDRGI. In light of the scope of preoperative anxiety and its implications for public health, integration of CAM therapies with ST should be considered for reducing preoperative anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

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    Zahra Hamidah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to 64 students who joined and did not join Pendas XXI AMP. Thirty six students (12 females and 20 males who joined Pendas XXI AMP participated in aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions lasting for 30 minutes per session, three times in 5 months. The control group was 32 students who did not join Pendas XXI AMP, with matching gender composition as the case group (12 females and 20 males. Two questionnaires, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale questionnaire and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale questionnaire, were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: : There were statistically significant differences in anxiety level (p=0.016 and self-esteem level (p=0.039 between case and control groups. The students who joined Pendas XXI AMP have lower anxiety and higher self-esteem levels. Conclusions: Planned, structured, and repeated physical activities have a positive influence in anxiety and self-esteem levels.

  11. Predictors and characteristics of anxiety among adolescent students: a Greek sample.

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    Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Vlassopoulos, M; Charbilas, D; Rotsika, V; Tsakanikos, E; Tzavara, Ch; Dikeos, D

    2013-01-01

    In the Greek society, there is a strong cultural tendency to overestimate the value of University studies. So students are under high emotional pressure during the long lasting period of the preparation for the university entrance exams. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of anxiety in a general adolescent population of senior high school students in Athens, Greece. Also to examine the association between the anxiety's severity with various demographic and socio-cultural factors, as well as with academic performance, extracurricular activities, sleep duration and presence of somatic problems. The sample consisted of 696 adolescent students of three Senior High Schools (SHS) (391 girls and 305 boys). Two of the schools were general education institutions (GE1 and GE2, N=450), while the third was a technical one (TE, N=246). The school sample was selected to reflect the proportion between the two different types of SHSs in Athens as well as other major urban areas in Greece. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered and personal data were also collected. Statistical significance was set at pmiddle for 154, high for 195 and mother's was low for 135, middle for 417, high for 140. The average sleep duration was 7.5 hours per day (SD=1.3). The average time per week spent in school related activities was 7.94 hours (SD=7.56) and in extracurricular activities was 9.02 hours (SD=12.44). 107 adolescents reported somatic complaints in the last year The academic achievement was poor for 233, good for 264, excellent for 196 students. Adolescents with extracurricular activities for more than 11 hours per week had lower scores, both on State and Trait scales. More hours in school-related activities were associated with greater levels of Trait anxiety. Adolescents whose father had a high educational level had lower scores on State anxiety compared to those whose father had a low educational level. Adolescents who reported the presence of somatic

  12. Stress and anxiety among nursing students: A review of intervention strategies in literature between 2009 and 2015.

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    Turner, Katrina; McCarthy, Valerie Lander

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate nursing students experience significant stress and anxiety, inhibiting learning and increasing attrition. Twenty-six intervention studies were identified and evaluated, updating a previous systematic review which categorized interventions targeting: (1) stressors, (2) coping, or (3) appraisal. The majority of interventions in this review aimed to reduce numbers or intensity of stressors through curriculum development (12) or to improve students' coping skills (8). Two studies reported interventions using only cognitive reappraisal while three interventions combined reappraisal with other approaches. Strength of evidence was limited by choice of study design, sample size, and lack of methodological rigor. Some statistically significant support was found for interventions focused on reducing stressors through curriculum development or improving students' coping skills. No statistically significant studies using reappraisal, either alone or in combination with other approaches, were identified, although qualitative findings suggested the potential benefits of this approach do merit further study. Progress was noted since 2008 in the increased number of studies and greater use of validated outcome measures but the review concluded further methodologically sound, adequately powered studies, especially randomized controlled trials, are needed to determine which interventions are effective to address the issue of excessive stress and anxiety among undergraduate nursing students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sandra; Marco, José H; Andani, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Sick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave. The sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder. The total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled. It is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Masseter muscle surface electromyography in college students with a high degree of anxiety and temporomandibular disorder

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    Eduarda de Lima Amarante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the electrical activity of masseter muscles, bilaterally, according to the presence or absence of Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD in college students with a high degree of anxiety. Methods: the study was conducted with a randomized sample of 31 Speech Therapy students aged between 17 and 32 years; 61.3% (n = 19 were females and 38.7% (n = 12 were males. They were divided into two groups, Group 1 (G1, comprising 11 students with TMD, and Group 2 (G2, composed of 20 students without TMD. The college students answered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI for anxiety investigation, and were evaluated by the protocol Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD for TMD diagnosis. The evaluation of muscular electrical activity took into account the records in the conditions of rest, Sustained Maximum Voluntary Activity (SMVA and habitual chewing (HC. The data were analyzed using the version 22 IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software. The statistical analysis was performed using Student t test to compare means between groups, considering < 0,05 as the significant p-value. Results: college students, of both groups, presented high levels of anxiety traits. Significant statistical differences were observed on the percentage of electrical activity of right masseter muscle in chewing function, as well as muscle fibers recruitment during chewing, which were higher on the group without TMD. Conclusion: college students with TMD and a high degree of anxiety presented lower means of masseter muscle electromyografic activity during chewing, in most conditions assessed, as compared to volunteers without TMD, except for the left masseter muscle in rest and chewing.

  15. Suicidal Ideation, Depression, Anxiety, Stress, And Life Satisfaction Of Medical, Engineering, And Social Sciences Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseem, Sabahat; Munaf, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Pursuing higher education is not an easy task as it requires hard work, dedication, and motivation. Although there are many rewards involved in growing up academically, nevertheless, it contains a few hazards too. For instance, suicidal ideation is associated with presence of depression, anxiety, and stress with low level of satisfaction with life in students finding difficulty in handling educational demands of higher education. Therefore, the present study focused on the query that whether there is any difference or not among medical, engineering, and social sciences students of city of Karachi, Pakistan in the level of suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction. Using comparative group design, total 300 students (150 males and 150 females) with age range of 19-26 were selected from faculties of medical, engineering, and social sciences of different universities of Karachi, Pakistan, through purposive sampling. Respondent Profile Form, The Suicide Behaviours Questionnaire-Revised, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, and Satisfaction with Life Scale were administered to assess suicidal ideation; depression, anxiety, stress; and life satisfaction, respectively, of the students. Scores were analysed through ANOVA and Post Hoc (Tukey's HSD) test using SPSS. Social sciences and engineering students were significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and stress than medical students [F (2, 297) =8.701, p=.000] whereas insignificant differences in the level of suicidal ideation [F (2, 297) =1.914, p=.149] and life satisfaction [F (2, 297) = .726, p = .485] among these students were found. With the help of these findings, it would be easier to counsel students of different disciplines in time on the lines of suggested preventive measures.

  16. The impact of social anxiety on student learning and well-being in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G.; Topham, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This paper reports findings from two complementary web-surveys conducted in the UK, in\\ud which 787 university students described their experiences of social anxiety.\\ud \\ud Aims: The aim was to explore the impact of social anxiety on student learning and well-being in the context of higher education.\\ud \\ud Method: Participants self-selected using a screening tool and completed a web-based questionnaire.\\ud \\ud Results: The findings are consistent with previous research on social...

  17. Can smartphone mental health interventions reduce symptoms of anxiety? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Joseph; Torous, John; Nicholas, Jennifer; Carney, Rebekah; Rosenbaum, Simon; Sarris, Jerome

    2017-08-15

    Various psychological interventions are effective for reducing symptoms of anxiety when used alone, or as an adjunct to anti-anxiety medications. Recent studies have further indicated that smartphone-supported psychological interventions may also reduce anxiety, although the role of mobile devices in the treatment and management of anxiety disorders has yet to be established. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting the effects of psychological interventions delivered via smartphone on symptoms of anxiety (sub-clinical or diagnosed anxiety disorders). A systematic search of major electronic databases conducted in November 2016 identified 9 eligible RCTs, with 1837 participants. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the standardized mean difference (as Hedges' g) between smartphone interventions and control conditions. Significantly greater reductions in total anxiety scores were observed from smartphone interventions than control conditions (g=0.325, 95% C.I.=0.17-0.48, psmartphone interventions were significantly greater when compared to waitlist/inactive controls (g=0.45, 95% C.I.=0.30-0.61, psmartphone interventions can match (or exceed) the efficacy of recognised treatments for anxiety has yet to established. This meta-analysis shows that psychological interventions delivered via smartphone devices can reduce anxiety. Future research should aim to develop pragmatic methods for implementing smartphone-based support for people with anxiety, while also comparing the efficacy of these interventions to standard face-to-face psychological care. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A comparison of the effects of a special gynaecological garment and music in reducing the anxiety related to gynaecological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocabaş, Pembegül; Khorshid, Leyla

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a special gynaecological garment and music plus the special gynaecological garment on reducing the state anxiety related to gynaecological examination. Gynaecological examination is one of the most common anxiety-producing medical procedures and causes embarrassment and discomfort. Few studies have focused on the effect of a gynaecological garment on anxiety associated with gynaecological examinations. The patients were allocated to one of three groups, one control and two experimental. While the patients in the control group were subjected to the normal outpatient procedure, the patients in the first experimental group were dressed in a special gynaecological garment. In the control group, gynaecological examinations were performed with a traditional one-piece drape. In addition to wearing the special gynaecological garment, the women in the garment + music group listened to music during the gynaecological examination. The State Anxiety Inventory Form was applied to the patients in all three groups before and after gynaecological examination. The state anxiety level after gynaecological examination in patients in the control group was found to be higher, but it was found to be lower in patients in both the first experimental group (garment) and the second experimental group (garment + music). The state anxiety level was found to be more reduced in the experimental groups than in the control group. The state anxiety level after gynaecological examination was found to be higher in single patients in the second experimental group. The special gynaecological garments are effective in reducing the state anxiety associated with gynaecological examination. It should be taken into consideration that women perceived state anxiety during the gynaecological examinations. To allay anxiety associated with gynaecological examination in women, a special garment may be considered. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Academic anxiety, academic procrastination, and parental involvement in students and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgram, N; Toubiana, Y

    1999-09-01

    The study investigated the relationship between academic anxiety and procrastination in children and parents, and parents' direct involvement in their children's schoolwork. Children reported their current anxiety and procrastination and parents reported their anxiety and procrastination when they were children (a measure of indirect influence on their children's schoolwork habits), and on their current involvement in their children's schoolwork (a measure of direct influence). Self-report measures were administered to 354 Israeli adolescents (ages 13, 14, and 16) and their parents. Students were less anxious about homework than the other academic assignments. Older adolescents were less anxious about their schoolwork overall and procrastinated more than younger on homework. Parents of late adolescents were less involved in their children's schoolwork than parents of younger adolescents. Parents participated equally in school-related interactions that demanded high investment of time and effort, but mothers engaged more than fathers in low investment activities. These direct and indirect parental influences on their children's procrastination were of low magnitude overall, but appeared relatively stronger for mothers. The more students were anxious about preparing for examinations and writing papers, the more they procrastinated on these assignments, confirming the appraisal-anxiety avoidance (AAA) model. The inverse relationship of anxiety and procrastination with regard to homework led to our making a post hoc distinction between task-centred and consequence-centred anxiety.

  20. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  1. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Hong Kong: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic r...

  2. Harm avoidance and depression, anxiety, insomnia, and migraine in fifth-year medical students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen CY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1–3 Nan-Wen Yu,2–4 Tien-Hao Huang,4 Wei-Shin Wang,4 Ji-Tseng Fang2,3,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan; 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 3Medical Education Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 5Department of Nephrology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan Purpose: During medical school training, increased stress, depression, and anxiety are common. Certain personality traits, particularly harm avoidance (HA, may increase the risk of psychopathological disorders, insomnia, and migraine among medical students. This study evaluated the role HA may play on levels of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia among Taiwanese medical students starting their fifth and final year of medical school.Patients and methods: A series of self-report questionnaires were used to measure the severity of anxiety, depression, and insomnia, as well as somatic symptoms, particularly migraine headache, among 143 Taiwanese fifth-year medical students (94 males and 49 females. Most had normal or mild levels of anxiety, depression, insomnia, and migraine.Results: HA personality trait was significantly associated with depression (all P ≤ 0.001 after adjusting for other factors. HA was not significantly associated with anxiety, insomnia, or migraine headache days.Conclusion: HA personality trait was significantly associated with depression among fifth-year medical students in Taiwan. Keywords: anxiety, depression, harm avoidance, psychological stress, sleep initiation and maintenance disorders, migraine, students, medical

  3. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  4. Academic Buoyancy Mediates Academic Anxiety's Effects on Learning Strategies: An Investigation of English- and Chinese-Speaking Australian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Papworth, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A primary goal our study was to explore whether relations between academic anxiety and students' use of a range of learning strategies (memorisation, elaboration, personal best [PB] goals and cooperation) were mediated by academic buoyancy. We were also interested in extending knowledge of anxiety and its role in students' learning strategy use.…

  5. Perceived Instructor Argumentativeness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Classroom Communication Climate in Relation to Student State Motivation and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Durbin, James M.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how student perceptions of math/statistics instructors' argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness are related to student perceptions of classroom communication climate, student state motivation, and student math anxiety. A total of 216 completed questionnaires were returned by the student participants (96 males and 120…

  6. Music Performance Anxiety: Causes, Symptoms and Coping Strategies for Flute Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Sinico

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the causes, symptoms and coping strategies used by undergraduate flute students from three universalities in Brazil to cope with music performance anxiety (MPA during jury recitals. The data collection and analysis procedures used were similar to a study by Siw Nielsen (1999, i.e., recital participant behavioral observation and verbal reports using semi-structured interviews. Both procedures were recorded in audio and video. As a result, the study highlights sixteen causes, nineteen symptoms, and eighteen strategies used by flute students to cope with MPA. Anxiety among the participants was constantly present to a greater or lesser degree. Its main cause was the repertoire for solo flute; nervousness was the symptom most reported by the participants; and positive self-talk was the most used coping strategy. The research concluded that, since anxiety is an inherent emotion in performing music, musicians must use a broad range of strategies—before and during the performance—to thoroughly deal with the causes and symptoms of anxiety. The article also highlights the importance of music professors in knowing the causes of MPA and its symptoms so that they can plan a strategy consistent with the needs of their students that will help them cope with the negative effects of anxiety.

  7. [Academic and psycho-socio-familiar factors associated to anxiety and depression in university students. Reliability and validity of a questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanza Galindo, Serafín; Morales Moreno, Isabel; Guerrero Muñoz, Joaquín; Conesa Conesa, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The high frequency of anxiety and depression in university students is related to social, family factors and academic stress. The aim of this research is to determine the internal consistency and validity of a questionnaire on socio-familiar and academic situations which may be related to psychopathological situations in university students. The research was carried out at the Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia with 700 students, to whom a questionnaire made by the researchers was given. This questionnaire included items which evaluated academic and socio-familiar aspects. Variables regarding various stressful situations amongst students, and the Goldbergs level of anxiety and depression scale were used as independent facts of research in order to measure the validity of the questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire was shown after obtaining an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.819. The original questionnaire with 19 items was reduced to 15 items after the homogeneity analysis, obtaining a Cronbach alpha of 0.758. The validity of constructio was evaluated with the factor analysis of the questionnaire, with a result of two factors which represented academic aspects and socio-familiar aspects. Those students with a positive anxiety and depression test were the ones who obtained the higher score on the global questionnaire and in both factors, proving the validity of the criteria. The research questionnaire is an agile and easy to use tool for the assessment and early detection of anxiety and depression in university students.

  8. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  9. Feasibility and potential effect of a low-cost virtual reality system on reducing pain and anxiety in adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Linzette Deidré; Louw, Quinette Abegail; Crous, Lynette Christine

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the feasibility and potential effect of a low-cost VR system (eMagin Z800 3DVisor), used in conjunction with pharmacological analgesia, on reducing pain and anxiety in adult burn patients undergoing physiotherapy treatment, compared to pharmacologic analgesia alone at a South African hospital. Single-blind, within-subject study design. Pain and anxiety outcome measures were measured by a blinded assessor using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale and Burn Specific Pain and Anxiety Scale. Box-and-whisker plot method, Chi-square tests as well as the Student's paired t-test were used to analyze data. Eleven eligible adult burn patients consented to participate in this study (3 female, 8 male; median age 33 years: range 23-54 years). A marginal (p=0.06) to insignificant (p=0.13) difference between the two sessions (analgesia with VR and analgesia without VR) in reducing pain was found. No significant difference (p=0.58) was found between the two sessions (analgesia with VR and analgesia without VR) for anxiety. There seems to be a trend that the low-cost VR system, when added to routine pharmacological analgesics, is a safe technique and could be of considerable benefit if implemented into the pain management regime of burn units at a South African hospital.

  10. [Effects of using an information leaflet in reducing perioperative anxiety and pain in patients undergoing urological surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel Romeo, M Carmen; Sagardoy Muniesa, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    The preoperative anxiety state is mainly caused by the fear of the circumstances surrounding the intervention. Anxiety causes increased postoperative pain, and a prolonged length of stay in hospital, which directly affect the cost of care. To evaluate the effects of providing an anaesthesia information leaflet on postoperative anxiety and pain in patients undergoing urological surgery in the Miguel Servet Hospital. A prospective quasi-experimental study of 100 cases, 51 of whom made up the intervention group who received the information leaflet, with the remaining 49 cases being in the control group. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the visual analogue scale for pain were assessed in both groups, before and after surgery. Of the 100 patients, 72% were male and 28% female, with an average age of 67.3 years (standard deviation, 9.7). In the intervention group, 21.6% showed anxiety before surgery and 0% in the postoperative period. In the control group 30.6% presented anxiety during the preoperative period and 4% in the postoperative period (χ(2) Pearson 5.20, P=.023). The study showed a direct relationship between preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain (χ(2) Pearson 10.519, P=.001). Good information about the surgical process reduces anxiety levels in the postoperative period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of health anxiety and its related factors in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuqun Zhang,1,2 Yueqiu Zhao,3 Shengqin Mao,1 Guohong Li,4 Yonggui Yuan1 1Department of Psychosomatics and Psychiatry, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Nursing Faculty of Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Nanjing Health School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 4Nursing Department, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Objective: To explore health anxiety in a sample of nursing students to determine the relationships between health anxiety and life satisfaction, personality, and alexithymia.Methods: Two thousand and eighty-six nursing students in junior college, which were divided into five groups, were evaluated by questionnaires, including the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students, the Chinese version of the Short Health Anxiety Inventory, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Results: The mean age, whether the individual was an only child, residence (urban or rural, and were significantly different between the groups. The self-assessment scores were also significantly different between the groups. The Short Health Anxiety Inventory total score and the factor of fearing the likelihood of becoming ill were significantly negatively correlated with the Life Satisfaction Scales Applicable to College Students total score and its two factors, but were significantly positively correlated with psychoticism, neuroticism, and TAS-20 total scores and its scores of the three TAS-20 factors. The negative consequence scale of Short Health Anxiety Inventory was not significantly correlated with externally oriented thinking, but was significantly negatively correlated with extraversion. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that objective satisfaction, subjective satisfaction, neuroticism, and the three

  12. Foreign Students: Catalyst for Reducing Parochialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, James E.

    Foreign students make up an important, and growing, segment of higher education in the United States. Reasons why foreign students come to the United States to study include the following: (1) the United States offers a serious approach to higher education in which students receive appropriate training and generally are able to complete the…

  13. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Pecha Kucha Presentations on Students' English Public Speaking Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the Pecha Kucha presentation format on English as foreign language learners' public speaking anxiety. The participants were 49 students in the English Translation and Interpretation Department of a state university in Turkey. A pre- and post-test experimental research design was used in…

  15. A Note on Anxiety, Depression, and Religiousness in American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richek, Herbert G.

    This paper presents a study in which Welsh's A and R scale scores have been related to religiousness. The A factor has been defined as "anxiety proneness versus ego resiliency" while the R factor is defined as "impulsivity versus control." Subjects were 150 college students, 91 females and 59 males. The sole statistical…

  16. Self-Esteem and Social Appearance Anxiety: An Investigation of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study published in "Elementary Education Online", Dogan (2011) examined the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample after his first adaptation study on undergraduate students in Turkey (Dogan, 2010). He recommended that researchers do further research to investigate the…

  17. "Build Your Social Confidence": A Social Anxiety Group for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damer, Diana E.; Latimer, Kelsey M.; Porter, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety, a common concern among college students, carries significant negative consequences. Group therapy is an efficient and cost-effective way to provide treatment, and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT; Heimberg & Becker, 2002) is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety…

  18. Relationship between Mathematics Anxiety and Multiple Intelligences among Rural and Suburban Sixth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carla F.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that mathematics anxiety interferes with solving math problems in everyday life as well as academic situations. In classrooms across the country, educators have utilized different methods to help students alleviate their irrational fears of completing even basic math problems. Critical constructivist educators have utilized…

  19. Effects of Death Education on Nursing Students' Anxiety and Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study was done to determine the impact of a death education course on the relationship between nursing students' death anxiety and locus of control. No significant changes occurred in death avoidance, death fear, death denial, and the reluctance to interact with the dying after the 15-week course. (JN)

  20. College Students and Financial Distress: Exploring Debt, Financial Satisfaction, and Financial Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L.; Dale, Anita; Spann, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of financial concerns on overall mental health has become a popular topic among researchers and practitioners. In this exploratory study, possible associations of financial anxiety were explored using a sample of 180 college students who sought services at a university peer financial counseling center in a Midwestern state. Of…

  1. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Achievement among Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Eman; Al Ghadeer, Hind; Mitsu, Rufa; Almutary, Nadiah; Alenezi, Brouj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety is a common phenomenon that constitutes a universal cause of poor academic performance among students worldwide. It is a kind of self preoccupation which is manifested as self-minimization and results in negative cognitive evaluation, lack of concentration, unfavorable physiological reactions and academic failure. Test…

  2. Effect of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety on Turkish University Students' Academic Achievement in Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Murat; Dogan, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to identify to what extent the Turkish students' English classroom anxiety affects their academic achievement in English language. In this quantitative descriptive study, a correlational survey model was employed, and the convenience sampling was done. In order to collect data, the Foreign Language Classroom…

  3. Skype Videoconferencing for Less Commonly Taught Languages: Examining the Effects on Students' Foreign Language Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terantino, Joe

    2014-01-01

    This study compared students' foreign language anxiety levels while completing oral assessments administered face-to-face (F2F) and via Skype videoconferencing for university courses delivered under the self-instructional language program (SILP) model (Dunkel, Brill, & Kohl, 2002). Data were gathered by administering a modified Foreign…

  4. Need for Social Approval and Happiness in College Students: The Mediation Role of Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasar, Burcu; Baytemir, Kemal

    2018-01-01

    The reflection of the presence or absence of social relationships as a basic human need on the individual has been investigated in different ways. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the mediation role of social anxiety in the relationship between the need for social approval and happiness. A total of 285 students, of whom 212…

  5. Anxiety and Adaptive behaviour of fresh students: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the relationship between anxiety level and adaptive behaviour of one hundred and fifty randomly selected fresh students of Covenant University. There were a total of seventy-five (75) males with mean age of 17.59 and SD = 1.54 and seventy-five (75) females with mean age of 17.24 and SD = 1.51 ...

  6. Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers on Student Burnout, Occupational Anxiety and Faculty Life Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin; Cansoy, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of pre-service teachers on burnout, occupational anxiety and faculty life quality were investigated in this research. The research group consisted of 461 pre-service teachers in total studying at Afyon Kocatepe University faculty of education. "Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Form," "Faculty Life Quality Scale"…

  7. Competition, Anxiety, and Depression in the College Classroom: Variations by Student Identity and Field of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, Julie R.; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen

    2016-01-01

    In light of rising academic stress and an increase in diagnosed mental illnesses among adolescents and young adults, this article offers the first comprehensive analysis of relationships between perceived competition and depression/anxiety among college students. Analyses were conducted by using clinically validated instruments for depression and…

  8. Procrastination in College Students: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Laurel A.; McCarthy, Patricia; Skay, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The relationships among procrastination, efficacy expectations, anxiety, gender, and age variables were examined in 141 university students. Participants rated their efficacy regarding the skills needed to accomplish a major project. A multiple regression analysis was used to distinguish variables predicting procrastination. Results indicate that…

  9. How Do Students' Mastery and Performance Goals Relate to Math Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Joseph M.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    A changing, economically competitive world has necessitated reform in mathematics education. Yet mathematics anxiety has been a prevalent concern among educators and others in our society for decades. Some students tend to be more anxious about the testing process and can often freeze up, others just cringe when they are confronted with any form…

  10. Gender Differences in Factors Pertaining to Math Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Math anxiety has been seen as one of the biggest obstacles to student success in mathematics. The nature of this condition, as well as its relationships with numerous predictors, has been investigated for decades. However, there is still a significant lack of agreement among the findings of these research studies. The current study examines gender…

  11. A randomized trial of Internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard; Ekselius, Lisa; Furmark, Tomas; Lewenhaupt, Susanne; Karlsson, Anders; Carlbring, Per

    2011-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown effective for university students with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and public speaking fears. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the promising results can be transferred to high school students suffering from this condition. A total of 19 speech-anxious high school students with SAD were randomized either into 9 weeks of Internet-delivered CBT or to a wait-list control group. Significant improvements were found on measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Effects were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The average within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the primary social anxiety scales at posttest were 0.98 and 1.38, respectively. However, the average number of completed modules in the CBT program was low. Although compliance can be improved, the results suggest that Internet-based guided self-help is effective in the treatment of high school students with SAD.

  12. Future Anxiety and Its Relationship to Students' Attitude toward Academic Specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Mahammad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Future anxiety is considered one of the main features as a result of economic and social changes, and increasingly emerges among university students not only because of the fear of failure in the study, but also because of the fear of lack of job opportunities--the thing that affects joining their specializations. Hence this study examines the…

  13. An Investigation of the Prevalence of Insomnia in College Students and Its Relationship to Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, Micah R.; Himmanen, Sharon A.; Scepansky, James A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of empirical studies have established that insomnia, poor or inefficient sleep, can significantly impact physical and psychological well-being of college students, as well as interfere with their academic success. A major contributor to the experience of insomnia is that of persistent anxiety. In this study, we investigated the prevalence…

  14. [The relationship among depression, anxiety, stress and addictive substance use behavior in 5 935 secondary vocational students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X D; Yu, J C; Wu, Q F; Chen, J Y; Wang, Y C; Yan, D; Teng, S W; Zhao, Y T; Cao, J P; Li, S Q; Yan, Y Q; Gong, J; Yao, K; Zhou, H; Wang, Z Z

    2017-03-06

    Objective: To investigate the relationship among depression, anxiety, stress and addictive substance use behavior in secondary vocational students. Methods: Cluster sampling method and the Adolescent Health-related Behaviors Questionnaire were used to collect demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, and addictive substance usage among 5 935 students in nine vocational schools in Chongqing, Zhaoqing, Ningbo, and Taiyuan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the addictive substance use behavior and psychological factors. Results: The detection rates of depression, anxiety and stress were 46.5% ( n= 2 762), 58.7% ( n= 3 483), and 29.8% ( n= 1 770), respectively. The prevalence of addictive substances was 74.8% ( n =4 440), traditional drugs was 0.8% ( n= 50), new drugs was 2.8% ( n= 166), other addictive drugs was 4.1% ( n= 241). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with the normal psychological states of secondary vocational students, the OR value of mild depression tendency alcohol and tobacco use behavior of secondary vocational students was 1.45; the OR values of mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety and very serious anxiety were 1.46, 1.46, 1.71, and 1.83, respectively; the traditional drugs use behaviors were 5.51, and 2.61, respectively, for the severe anxiety and very serious anxiety. Compared with the normal psychological state of secondary vocational students, the OR values of the severe anxiety and very severe anxiety were 2.56, and 2.66, respectively, for severe anxiety and very serious anxiety. Compared with normal psychological status of secondary vocational students, the OR values of mild, moderate, severe, and very severe anxiety were 2.14, 2.47, 2.39, and 3.45, respectively; all P values Anxiety and mild depression were risk factors of tobacco and alcohol use in secondary vocational students; severe and above anxiety were the risk factors of drug use in

  15. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  16. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF COPING WITH PRE-EXAMS ANXIETY AND UNCERTAINTY (COPEAU) IN PERUVIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Lara, Sergio Alexis; Merino Soto, César A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was analyze the internal structure of Coping with Pre-Exam Anxiety and Uncertainty (COPEAU) in Peruvian college students from a private institution. Participated 312 psychology students (227 women) from from the first to sixth term, with age between 16 and 49 (M = 20.54; SD = 4.29). Using the structural equation modeling, five models were assessed, among which the four oblique factor model shows greater theoretical and empirical coherence.. Also, the reliability...

  17. Depression, anxiety, and smartphone addiction in university students- A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Matar Boumosleh, Jocelyne; Jaalouk, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The study aims to assess prevalence of smartphone addiction symptoms, and to ascertain whether depression or anxiety, independently, contributes to smartphone addiction level among a sample of Lebanese university students, while adjusting simultaneously for important sociodemographic, academic, lifestyle, personality trait, and smartphone-related variables. Methods A random sample of 688 undergraduate university students (mean age = 20.64 ?1.88 years; 53% men) completed a survey co...

  18. Relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Demi?rci?, Kadi?r; Akg?n?l, Mehmet; Akpinar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The usage of smartphones has increased rapidly in recent years, and this has brought about addiction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between smartphone use severity and sleep quality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Methods In total, 319 university students (203 females and 116 males; mean age = 20.5 ? 2.45) were included in the study. Participants were divided into the following three groups: a smartphone non-user group (n...

  19. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall R Walker

    Full Text Available Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3 is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1, which is required for production of the Alzheimer's disease (AD-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC. Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates.

  20. Genetic Deletion of the Clathrin Adaptor GGA3 Reduces Anxiety and Alters GABAergic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kendall R; Modgil, Amit; Albrecht, David; Lomoio, Selene; Haydon, Philip G; Moss, Stephen J; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF binding protein 3 (GGA3) is a monomeric clathrin adaptor that has been shown to regulate the trafficking of the Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE1), which is required for production of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid βpeptide. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that depletion of GGA3 results in increased BACE1 levels and activity owing to impaired lysosomal trafficking and degradation. We further demonstrated the role of GGA3 in the regulation of BACE1 in vivo by showing that BACE1 levels are increased in the brain of GGA3 null mice. We report here that GGA3 deletion results in novelty-induced hyperactivity and decreased anxiety-like behaviors. Given the pivotal role of GABAergic transmission in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, we performed electrophysiological recordings in hippocampal slices and found increased phasic and decreased tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGC). Moreover, we found that the number of inhibitory synapses is increased in the dentate gyrus of GGA3 null mice in further support of the electrophysiological data. Thus, the increased GABAergic transmission is a leading candidate mechanism underlying the reduced anxiety-like behaviors observed in GGA3 null mice. All together these findings suggest that GGA3 plays a key role in GABAergic transmission. Since BACE1 levels are elevated in the brain of GGA3 null mice, it is possible that at least some of these phenotypes are a consequence of increased processing of BACE1 substrates.

  1. Sleep disturbances and reduced work functioning in depressive or anxiety disorders.

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    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between sleep disturbances and work functioning in an epidemiologic cohort study in subjects with or without depressive or anxiety disorders. There were 707 subjects included in our analyses with depressive or anxiety disorders and 728 subjects without current depressive or anxiety disorders. Insomnia was defined as a score ≥9 using the Insomnia Rating Scale. Self-reported sleep duration was categorized in short, normal, and long (≤6, 7-9, and ≥10 h, respectively). Work absenteeism was defined as none, short (≤2 weeks), or long (>2 weeks). Work performance was defined as not impaired, reduced, or impaired. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep disturbances with work functioning. In subjects with psychopathology, insomnia and short sleep duration were significantly associated with impaired work performance (odds ratio [OR] for insomnia, 2.20; [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.50-3.22]; OR for short sleep, 2.54 [95% CI, 1.66-3.88] compared to normal sleep duration). Insomnia (OR, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.67-3.69]) and short sleep duration (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.23-2.78]) also were associated with long-term absenteeism. These findings remained the same after considering clinical characteristics including medication use and symptom severity. In subjects without psychopathology, no significant associations were found between insomnia and short sleep duration on work functioning after considering subthreshold depression symptoms. In subjects with psychopathology, sleep disturbances were negatively associated with work functioning, independent of disorder severity and use of psychotropic medication. Further research is needed to determine if treatment of sleep disturbances in subjects with psychopathology improves work functioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Volitional Strategies and Social Anxiety among College Students

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    Shepherd, Robin-Marie

    2006-01-01

    This study administered the Academic Volitional Strategy Inventory to investigate volitional strategies amongst socially anxious college students. Volitional strategies regulate motivation and emotion to aid in the achievement of academic tasks. It was important to examine this phenomenon based upon the premise that socially anxious students have…

  3. Role of Alexithymia, Anxiety, and Depression in Predicting Self-Efficacy in Academic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Khafri, Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Objective . Little research is available on the predictive factors of self-efficacy in college students. The aim of the present study is to examine the role of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression in predicting self-efficacy in academic students. Design . In a cross-sectional study, a total of 133 students at Babol University of Medical Sciences (Medicine, Dentistry, and Paramedicine) participated in the study between 2014 and 2015. All participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (CASES), and 14 items on anxiety and depression derived from the 28 items of the General Health Questionnaire (28-GHQ). Results . Pearson correlation coefficients revealed negative significant relationships between alexithymia and the three subscales with student self-efficacy. There was no significant correlation between anxiety/depression symptoms and student self-efficacy. A backward multiple regression analysis revealed that alexithymia was a negative significant predictor of self-efficacy in academic students ( B = -0.512, P academic functioning, we suggest it should be routinely evaluated by mental physicians at universities.

  4. Attitudes and anxiety levels of medical students towards the acquisition of competencies in communication skills.

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    Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress, Depression, and Anxiety among Transitioning College Students: The Family as a Protective Factor

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    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Kasky-Hernández, Lynda M.; Ambrose, Pamm; French, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Stress associated with the college transition can bring about depression and anxiety symptoms, but family relationships can reduce the impact of stress. We hypothesized that secure attachment to parents, comfort with talking about stressors, and family support would reduce the strength of the relationships between transition-related stress and…

  6. Adverse consequences of student drinking: the role of sex, social anxiety, drinking motives.

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    Norberg, Melissa M; Olivier, Jake; Alperstein, Dion M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Norton, Alice R

    2011-08-01

    This study examined whether biological sex, social anxiety, and drinking motives relate differently to distinct types of alcohol-related consequences using Poisson regression. One hundred eighteen college students completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives and social anxiety and an interview assessing alcohol consumption and consequences. Highly socially anxious women were particularly apt to experience adverse role functioning consequences, while men were particularly apt to experience physical consequences. Although highly socially anxious women reported more personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety, men with low to moderate social anxiety reported experiencing more social and personal consequences than did women with low to moderate social anxiety. When taking into consideration the above associations, coping motives were statistically associated with social consequences and marginally related to personal consequences, while enhancement motives were significantly associated with physical consequences. Targeting these factors may lead to effective interventions for individuals with co-occurring social anxiety and drinking problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preexamination period is an exceptionally stressful time for schoolgoing children and adolescents, and the propensity of having anxiety symptoms increases. Aim: This study aimed to assess the presence of anxiety symptoms in students in preexamination period. Materials and Methods: The study was carried on 619 children from Class VIII to XI. All of them were given a structured questionnaire for sociodemographic profile and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders questionnaire. Association of various variables with presence of anxiety symptoms was assessed. Statistics was analyzed with SPSS version 17.0 software. Results: Totally 170 children (27.5% had anxiety symptoms, similarly the various subgroups had increased frequency compared to the known prevalence in this age group. Age, years spent in the current school, living with parents, presence of domestic stressors, and grade deterioration, all were significantly associated with increased frequency of these symptoms. Similarly, association with various subgroups is described. Conclusion: This study attempts to give evidence of increased anxiety symptoms, during preexamination phase, compared to the reported prevalence in this age group, and thus to address this becomes imperative which will improve their performance and also the mental health preventing distress along with psychological and behavioral problems.

  8. Association between joint hypermobility and anxiety in Brazilian university students: gender-related differences.

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    Sanches, S B; Osório, F L; Louzada-Junior, P; Moraes, D; Crippa, J A S; Martín-Santos, R

    2014-12-01

    Anxiety disorders may be associated with several non-psychiatric disorders. Current literature has been investigating the association between anxiety and joint hypermobility (JHM), with special interest in non-articular symptoms that may be related to autonomic dysfunction. This study investigated the association between anxiety and JHM in a sample of Brazilian university students. Data were cross-sectionally collected in two Brazilian universities (N=2600). Participants completed three validated self-rating anxiety scales: Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and the brief-version of SPIN (Mini-SPIN). They also answered the self-rating screening questionnaire for JHM: the Five-part Questionnaire for Identifying Hypermobility. Hypermobile women showed significantly higher scores in all the anxiety scales, when compared with men: BAI total score (t=3.77; panxiety and JHM in women, showing specific gender-related features in this field. It also directs attention to non-articular symptoms that may be enrolled in this association. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Meta-Analysis: Reduced Risk of Anxiety with Psychostimulant Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Catherine G; Cohen, Stephanie C; Mulqueen, Jilian M; Ferracioli-Oda, Eduardo; Stuckelman, Zachary D; Bloch, Michael H

    2015-10-01

    Anxiety is a commonly reported side-effect of psychostimulant treatment. Our goal was to quantify the risk of anxiety as a side effect of psychostimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a PubMed search to identify all double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy of psychostimulant medications in the treatment of children with ADHD. We used a fixed-effects meta-analysis to examine the risk ratio of anxiety reported as a side effect in children treated with psychostimulants compared with those treated with placebo. We used stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression to examine the effects of stimulant type, dosage, duration of use, and trial design on the measured risk of anxiety. We identified 23 studies involving 2959 children with ADHD for inclusion in our meta-analysis. The risk of anxiety associated with psychostimulant treatment was significantly lower than that experienced with placebo (relative risk [RR] = 0.86 [95% CI: 0.77, 0.95], z = -2.90, p anxiety of psychostimulants when compared with placebo (β = -0.0039 [95% CI: -0.00718, -0.00064], z = -2.34, p = 0.019). Meta-analysis suggests that treatment with psychostimulants significantly reduced the risk of anxiety when compared with placebo. This finding does not rule out the possibility that some children experience increased anxiety when treated with psychostimulants, but suggests that those risks are outweighed by the number of children who experience improvement in anxiety symptoms (possibly as a secondary effect of improved control of ADHD symptoms). Clinicians should consider rechallenging children with ADHD who report new-onset or worsening anxiety with psychostimulants, as these symptoms are much more likely to be coincidental rather than caused by psychostimulants.

  10. Associations among perceptual anomalies, social anxiety, and paranoia in a college student sample.

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    Tone, Erin B; Goulding, Sandra M; Compton, Michael T

    2011-07-30

    Recent evidence suggests that normal-range paranoid ideation may be particularly likely to develop in individuals disposed to both social anxiety and perceptual anomalies. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that among college students in an unselected sample, social anxiety and experience of perceptual anomalies would not only each independently predict the experience of self-reported paranoid ideation, but would also interact to predict paranoid patterns of thought. A diverse sample of 644 students completed a large battery of self-report measures, as well as the five-factor Paranoia/Suspiciousness Questionnaire (PSQ). We conducted hierarchical multiple regression analyses predicting scores on each PSQ factor from responses on measures of social anxiety, perceptual aberration, and the interaction between the two constructs. Current general negative affect was covaried in all analyses. We found that both social anxiety and perceptual aberrations, along with negative affect, predicted multiple dimensions of paranoia as measured by the PSQ; the two constructs did not, however, interact significantly to predict any dimensions. Our findings suggest that perceptual aberration and anxiety may contribute to normal-range paranoid ideation in an additive rather than an interactive manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bathla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing amount of stress in undergraduate dental students leading to anxiety, depression, and suicidal attempts/suicide. Aims: This study aims to evaluate anxiety, depression and suicidal intent in undergraduate dental students and to find out the various areas of stress. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire (to assess academic and nonacademic areas of stress and three scales-Hamilton scale for anxiety (HAM-A; Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS and Beck′s Suicide Intent Scale (BSI. Descriptive statistics; Pearson′s Chi-square test; Multiple ANOVA; Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data at the significant level of P ≤ 0.05. Results: In a total of 258 dental undergraduate students, academic areas of stress that were found to be statistically significant were long teaching hours (P = 0.002; high workload (P ≤ 0.001; frequency of tests (P ≤ 0.001 and competition/fear of failure (P = 0.009. Lack of interest in the profession was a statistically significant nonacademic area for stress (P ≤ 0.001. The students of first and final year reported higher anxiety (HAM-A 13.93 ± 6.908 and 16.44 ± 7.637 respectively and depression (HDRS 14.29 ± 6.302 and 14.22 ± 5.422; whereas suicidal intent was reported almost the same throughout the study sample (BSI 5.65 ± 5.465. Conclusion: An increasing level of anxiety, depression and suicidal intent due to various stressors in undergraduate dental students indicate a need to modify current education system and timely help to have psychological healthy dental professionals in future.

  12. Working memory load reduces the late positive potential and this effect is attenuated with increasing anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Ferri, Jamie; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Emotion regulation decreases the processing of arousing stimuli, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical component that varies in amplitude with emotional arousal. Emotion regulation increases activity in the prefrontal areas associated with cognitive control, including the dosolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study manipulated working memory load, known to activate the DLPFC, and recorded the LPP elicited by aversive and neutral IAPS pictures presented during the retention interval. The LPP was larger on low-load compared to high-load trials, and on trials with aversive compared to neutral pictures. These LPP data suggest that emotional content and working memory load have opposing effects on attention to distracting stimuli. State anxiety was associated with reduced modulation of the LPP by working memory load. Results are discussed in terms of competition for attention between emotion and cognition and suggest a relationship between DLPFC activation and the allocation of attentional resources to distracting visual stimuli-a relationship that may be disrupted with increasing anxiety.

  13. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Study on the current situation and influential factors of anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Da-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ting; Feng, Zheng-Zhi; Wu, Ming-Xia

    2007-09-01

    To explore the status and influencing factors on anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing. 58 classes from 12 schools were randomly selected in four administrative districts of Chongqing city. A total number of 2700 students was included for final analysis including 48.5% from junior high school and 51.5% from senior high school students with 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls. The Chinese version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revision, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. (1) There was no significant difference between grade groups (P = 0.49). (2) The level of girl's anxiety sensitivity was always higher than boy's (P < 0.001). (3) Data from multiple linear regression showed that the influential factors to the degree of anxiety sensitivity were: state of anxiety, trait anxiety, life events, sex, stress from learning, etc (standard coefficients of regression were 0.258, 0.163, 0.112, 0.093, 0.124, -0.096, 0.096). The major influential factors of anxiety sensitivity would include: sex, stress from learning, life events, interpersonal relationship, state of anxiety and trait anxiety.

  15. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  16. students' anxiety towards the learning of chemistry in some ...

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    Chemistry is a very important science subject in senior secondary school curricula ... one from guidance and counseling and the third from test and measurement). Of the .... This is responsible for the opinion of about 72% of them that students.

  17. Anxiety and Self-Efficacy's Relationship with Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Use of Metacognitive Writing Strategies

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    Stewart, Graeme; Seifert, Tricia Anne; Rolheiser, Carol

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in promoting metacognition among college and university students, as this has been linked with positive student learning outcomes. This study explores the relationship between student writing anxiety and self-efficacy on undergraduate students' self-reported use of metacognitive writing strategies. Using undergraduate…

  18. Measuring and Reducing College Students' Procrastination

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    Perrin, Christopher J.; Miller, Neal; Haberlin, Alayna T.; Ivy, Jonathan W.; Meindl, James N.; Neef, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    We examined college students' procrastination when studying for weekly in-class quizzes. Two schedules of online practice quiz delivery were compared using a multiple baseline design. When online study material was made available noncontingently, students usually procrastinated. When access to additional study material was contingent on completing…

  19. Reducing Truancy in Students with Mild Handicaps.

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    Hess, Albert M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Contingency contracting and group counseling were provided to 26 mildly to moderately handicapped middle school students with high rates of truancy. Subjects exhibited attendance gains after treatment; gains were not maintained at followup but attendance rates were still higher than the rates of control students. Measures of academic performance…

  20. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

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    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.