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Sample records for reducing nonmarital childbearing

  1. Cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, and the marriage process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Musick

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Past work on the relationship between cohabitation and childbearing shows that cohabitation increases fertility compared to being single, and does so more for intended than unintended births. Most work in this area, however, does not address concerns that fertility and union formation are joint processes, and that failing to account for the joint nature of these decisions can bias estimates of cohabitation on childbearing. For example, cohabitors may be more likely to plan births because they see cohabitation as an acceptable context for childbearing; alternatively, they may be more likely to marry than their single counterparts. In this paper, I use a modeling approach that accounts for the stable, unobserved characteristics of women common to nonmarital fertility and union formation as a way of estimating the effect of cohabitation on nonmarital fertility net of cohabitors' potentially greater likelihood of marriage. I distinguish between intended and unintended fertility to better understand variation in the perceived acceptability of cohabitation as a setting for childbearing. I find that accounting for unmeasured heterogeneity reduces the estimated effect of cohabitation on intended childbearing outside of marriage by up to 50%, depending on race/ethnicity. These results speak to cohabitation's evolving place in the family system, suggesting that cohabitation may be a step on the way to marriage for some, but an end in itself for others.

  2. The educational gradient of nonmarital childbearing in Europe : emergence of a pattern of disadvantage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perelli-Harris, B.; Sigle-Rushton, W.; Lappegard, T.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Keizer, R.; Berghammer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using

  3. The educational gradient of nonmarital childbearing in Europe: emergence of a pattern of disadvantage?

    OpenAIRE

    Perelli-Harris, B.; Sigle-Rushton, W.; Lappegard, T.; Kreyenfeld, M.; Keizer, R.; Berghammer, C.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every European country has experienced some increase in nonmarital childbearing, largely due to increasing births within cohabitation. Relatively few studies in Europe, however, investigate the educational gradient of childbearing within cohabitation or how it changed over time. Using retrospective union and fertility histories, we employ competing risk hazard models to examine the educational gradient of childbearing in cohabitation in 8 countries across Europe. In all countries studi...

  4. Marital Quality and Divorce Decisions: How Do Premarital Cohabitation and Nonmarital Childbearing Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M.; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This study used the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,481) to test whether the association between marital quality and divorce is moderated by premarital cohabitation or nonmarital childbearing status. Prior research identified lower marital quality as a key explanation for why couples who cohabit or have children…

  5. Decomposing trends in nonmarital fertility among Latinas.

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    DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.

  6. Decreasing Nonmarital Births and Strengthening Marriage to Reduce Poverty

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    Amato, Paul R.; Maynard, Rebecca A.

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the share of U.S. children growing up in single-parent families has doubled, a trend that has disproportionately affected disadvantaged families. Paul Amato and Rebecca Maynard argue that reversing that trend would reduce poverty in the short term and, perhaps more important, improve children's growth and development over the long…

  7. Examining the antecedents of U.S. nonmarital fatherhood.

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    Carlson, Marcia J; VanOrman, Alicia G; Pilkauskas, Natasha V

    2013-08-01

    Despite the dramatic rise in U.S. nonmarital childbearing in recent decades, limited attention has been paid to factors affecting nonmarital fatherhood (beyond studies of young fathers). In this article, we use data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to examine the antecedents of nonmarital fatherhood, as compared to marital fatherhood. Overall, we find the strongest support across both data sets for education and race/ethnicity as key predictors of having a nonmarital first birth, consistent with prior literature about women's nonmarital childbearing and about men's early/teenage fatherhood. Education is inversely related to the risk of nonmarital fatherhood, and minority (especially black) men are much more likely to have a child outside of marriage than white men. We find little evidence that employment predicts nonmarital fertility, although it does strongly (and positively) predict marital fertility. High predicted earnings are also associated with a greater likelihood of marital childbearing but with a lower likelihood of nonmarital childbearing. Given the socioeconomic disadvantage associated with nonmarital fatherhood, this research suggests that nonmarital fatherhood may be an important aspect of growing U.S. inequality and stratification both within and across generations.

  8. Romania: Childbearing metamorphosis within a changing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Schröder

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1989, the socialist regime in Romania collapsed and the state's coercive pro-natalist policy ended. Since then, fertility has gone through major changes, namely, a massive reduction in fertility and important structural changes: birth postponement, an end to universal childbearing, and the emergence of non-marital births. Family formation has been postponed, but a pattern of early marriage still persists compared to other European countries. Although unmarried cohabitation is rising, it is rarely seen as an alternative to marriage. Modern contraceptive methods are being used increasingly, but traditional contraceptive methods continue to be widespread. Abortion, which was re-legalized in 1989 and made available after two decades of prohibition, has been practiced extensively ever since, especially after first birth. Romanians in 2004 continue to have a universal preference for parenting. However, the preference for the two-child family has declined and the desire for a larger family has become the exception. The transformation of the socialist regime into a democratic society with a market economy generated a socio-economic crisis, and the majority of social benefits have therefore been oriented towards alleviating poverty. Other social policies, including those affecting the family, were redefined. However, fewer funds were made available than for those geared to promote economic development or reduce poverty and, as a consequence, their impact on childbearing has been small.

  9. Declining health disadvantage of non-marital children: Explanation of the trend in the Czech Republic 1990-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Stipkova

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data fro...

  10. Nonmarital First Births, Marriage, and Income Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew J; Ribar, David; Yasutake, Suzumi

    2016-08-01

    Many aggregate-level studies suggest a relationship between economic inequality and socio-demographic outcomes such as family formation, health, and mortality; but individual-level evidence is lacking. Nor is there satisfactory evidence on the mechanisms by which inequality may have an effect. We study the determinants of transitions to a nonmarital first birth as a single parent or as a cohabiting parent compared to transitions to marriage prior to a first birth among unmarried, childless young adults in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort, from 1997 to 2011. We include measures of county-group-level household income inequality and of the availability of jobs typically held by high-school graduates and which pay above-poverty wages. We find that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to marriage prior to a first birth for both women and men. The association between levels of inequality and transitions to marriage can be partially accounted for by the availability of jobs of the type we measured. Some models also suggest that greater income inequality is associated with a reduced likelihood of transitioning to a first birth while cohabiting.

  11. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

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    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  12. Adolescent childbearing.

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    Vernon, M

    1991-05-01

    The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness

  13. Educational differentials in cohabitors' marriage intentions at different childbearing stages in seven European countries.

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    Vergauwen, Jorik; Neels, Karel; Wood, Jonas

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have looked into the socio-economic gradients of cohabitation and non-marital fertility. According to the theory of the Second Demographic Transition, highly educated individuals can be considered as forerunners in the Western European spread of non-marital family forms after the 1970s. In Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), however, research has provided evidence for a Pattern of Disadvantage where those with the lowest education have been the most likely to adopt such family forms. Hitherto, few studies have considered the educational gradient of the intentions underlying these behaviors. This contribution uses information on marriage and fertility intentions from the Generations and Gender Surveys for seven European countries to assess educational differentials. In Western Europe we observe no strong educational gradients in marriage intentions at any childbearing stage (before, during or following). In CEE countries, however, less educated cohabitors more frequently choose for cohabitation during childbearing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Declining health disadvantage of non-marital children: Explanation of the trend in the Czech Republic 1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stipkova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a rapid spread of non-marital childbearing in the Czech Republic during the last two decades. At the same time, the low birth weight rates of children born to married and unmarried mothers have converged. Objective: The goal is to explain the diminishing gap in low birth weight. Two explanations are assessed: the changing selection of unmarried mothers from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups, and increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Methods: Data from birth register are analysed. Marital status (married vs. unmarried disparities in low birth weight are modelled using logistic regression. Further analyses are then performed with a detailed measurement of partnership status. This detailed variable is partially missing and is thus supplemented with multiple imputation. Results: The main explanation for the narrowing gap between the outcomes of children born to married and unmarried mothers is the increasing social support for unmarried mothers. Unmarried motherhood has become less detrimental to a child's birth weight net of maternal demographic characteristics. The decline in selection from disadvantaged socio-demographic groups has also contributed to the convergence. However, the convergence of birth weight trends towards marital children seems to refer mostly to children of partnered mothers, with children of single mothers lagging behind. Conclusions: The positive trends in the health of non-marital children are interpreted as being the result of the increasing institutionalisation of parenthood in non-marital unions. However, this does not apply to unpartnered motherhood, which continues to represent a health disadvantage.

  15. Non-marital cohabitation in the Republic of Serbia

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    Ranđelović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.

  16. Lone mothers and their network support: Sociodemographic research of nonmarital parenthood in Serbia

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    Stanković Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify and describe the difficulties faced by families with nonmarital children (especially single-parent, available help and support, participation of the father in raising a child, and expected institutional help. That represents a first step toward better understanding of these families. The paper presents part of the results of research carried out in Belgrade with the aim of insight into the phenomenon of nonmarital childbearing at the individual level. It was conducted on a sample of 100 respondents, mothers of nonmarital children, who attend preschool. The survey was anonymous, carried out by the interview method. For this purpose a questionnaire with more than 50 questions was made, standardized to a great extent. In this paper, the focus is on the hardships and needs of the group of lone mothers. Though some issues take into account the answers of all respondents (21 cohabited mothers and 79 lone mothers, the analysis is largely related to the experiences and reflections of lone mothers. The 2011 Census data on prevalence of consensual unions and characteristics of persons living in them, as well as earlier data on the acknowledgment of paternity, do not indicate that nonmarital childbearing in Serbia takes place primarily in stable unions. It is realistic to assume that a large percentage of mothers with nonmarital children are lone mothers. The research results are generally consistent with the findings of relevant studies from our and foreign countries. As the largest difficulties, lone mothers emphasize financial problems, unemployment, housing difficulties, and child care, as well as a pronounced feeling of loneliness. Most of them in solving problems and rising children rely on their parents and siblings, with whom they often live in the same household. Every fifth lone mother when faced with a major problem, and every ninth in everyday raising a child can count on the father of the child. About a

  17. Strategies to reduce barriers in reporting herbal use to the health-care provider among women of childbearing age in two communities in Ogun state, Nigeria

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    Florence F Folami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has increased tremendously in the past decades. Herbs in this study involved the use of plant products in their raw or cooked forms which have not been subjected to laboratory investigations for their safety and efficacy. Objective: To explore strategies to reduce barriers in reporting herbal use to the health-care provider among childbearing age women in two communities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used to explore strategies to reduce barriers in reporting herbal use to the health-care provider. The study population constitutes childbearing age women that attend two private hospitals and one comprehensive health center in two communities of Ogun state, Nigeria. Out of the 270 patients who were randomly sampled for the study, 250 agreed to participate (response rate: 92.6%. Results: The mean age of the participants was 29.3 years ± 5.5 and 77.6% were married. The majority (69% had used herbal medicines in the last 6 months before seeking medical care, and 66% did not disclose the use of herbal medicines to health-care providers. Conclusion: Health-care professionals should routinely include herbal remedy category in the list of drug history when asking about the patient's drug. This will help identify herbal remedy use and assist to take precautions relating to safety. Patients and traditional birth attendants should be educated through community mobilization and educational programs about alternative medicines particularly herbal. The disclosure of CAM use and its adverse outcomes should be encouraged by health-care professionals.

  18. Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy has sub items, Reproductive Health & Teen Pregnancy Contraceptive Use STDs Teen Pregnancy & Childbearing Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program Trends Negative Impacts Strategies & Approaches for Prevention Engaging Adolescent Males in Prevention Tips for Parents of Teens ...

  19. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  20. Nonmarital Fertility and the Effects of Divorce Rates on Youth Suicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Steven F.; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Robinson, Bryan K.

    2006-01-01

    Using pooled, time-series data for a sample of 15 developed nations, we assess the effect of divorce rates on gender-specific suicide rates for youths aged 15-19 with models of relative cohort size, lagged nonmarital fertility, and an interaction term for divorce rates and nonmarital fertility. The results reveal that, for young men, relative…

  1. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  2. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan.

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    Mir, Ali M; Wajid, Abdul; Pearson, Stephen; Khan, Mumraiz; Masood, Irfan

    2013-04-11

    In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16-45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0-7.7, p pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5-7.2, p = 0.002). To prevent the spread of STI's in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated men offering them with appropriate counselling and skills to adopt "safe sex practices" through workplace orientation sessions; while for youth in schools, life skills education be included in the curriculum. Through public-private partnership stigmatised groups should be reached through established community networks and provided with information on accessing voluntary counseling and treatment centres.

  3. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

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    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  4. Adolescent childbearing in developing countries: a global review.

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    Singh, S

    1998-06-01

    This article discusses the current levels and recent trends in the rate of adolescent childbearing, the timing of the first birth, and births to unmarried women for 43 developing countries. Differences in rates of adolescent childbearing by residence and level of education are also examined. The analysis is based on nationally representative fertility surveys. Substantial declines in adolescent fertility have occurred in North Africa and Asia, but levels are still high in some countries. Declines are beginning to occur in sub-Saharan Africa, but current levels are still high in most countries of this region, and the proportion of births to unmarried adolescents is increasing in some countries. In Latin America, where the level of teenage childbearing is moderate, declines are less prevalent and some small increases have occurred. Higher education is associated with lower rates of adolescent childbearing, but other socioeconomic changes cancel or reduce this effect in several countries.

  5. Race-Ethnic Differences in the Non-marital Fertility Rates in 2006-2010.

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    Kim, Yujin; Raley, R Kelly

    2015-02-01

    Research in the 1980s pointed to the lower marriage rates of blacks as an important factor contributing to race differences in non-marital fertility. Our analyses update and extend this prior work to investigate whether cohabitation has become an important contributor to this variation. We use data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and to identify the relative contribution of population composition (i.e. percent sexually active single and percent cohabiting) versus rates (pregnancy rates, post-conception marriage rates) to race-ethnic variation in non-marital fertility rates (N=7,428). We find that the pregnancy rate among single (not cohabiting) women is the biggest contributor to race-ethnic variation in the non-marital fertility rate and that contraceptive use patterns among racial minorities explains the majority of the race-ethnic differences in pregnancy rates.

  6. Happiness and Childbearing across Europe

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    Aassve, Arnstein; Goisis, Alice; Sironi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Using happiness as a well-being measure and comparative data from the European social survey we focus in this paper on the link between happiness and childbearing across European countries. The analysis motivates from the recent lows in fertility in many European countries and that economic wellbeing measures are problematic when considering…

  7. Proposed amendments to the legal proposition on establishment of non-marital paternity from 1855

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    Kulauzov Maša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed amendments to the article 130 of Serbian Civil Code (henceforth: SCC of 1844 regarding establishment of non-marital paternity were scrutinized in this paper. Originally, establishment of non-marital paternity was granted, but with significant restriction that presumed parent could have been declared the father of an illegitimate child only if he had recognized paternity. That is the reason why in 1855 the Supreme Court suggested amendment to the provision concerning determination of paternity. According to proposed modification, evidence that presumed father was on intimate terms with child's mother in the time of conception should have been sufficient for establishment of paternity. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, the Ministry of Justice, the State Council and Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević were not interested in bettering their position by widening possibilities of determination of fatherhood. Subsequently, in 1868 the amendment was passed by which non-marital paternity could not have been established by a court order, subject to certain exceptions (if one raped or abducted a woman, and the time of conception coincided with the time of abduction or rape. Since 1868 paternity could have been determined solely subject to the consent, i.e. recognition of the illegitimate father.

  8. Adolescent childbearing: consequences and interventions.

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    Ruedinger, Emily; Cox, Joanne E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent childbearing in the United States continues to occur at high rates compared with other industrialized nations, despite a recent decline. Adolescent mothers and their offspring are at risk for negative outcomes. Recent literature exploring the consequences of teenage childbearing and interventions to ameliorate these consequences are presented. Negative consequences of adolescent childbearing can impact mothers and their offspring throughout the lifespan. These consequences are likely attributable to social and environmental factors rather than solely to maternal age. Increasing educational attainment, preventing repeat pregnancy and improving mother-child interactions can improve outcomes for mothers and their children. Home, community, school and clinic-based programs are all viable models of service delivery to this population. Connecting teen mothers with comprehensive services to meet their social, economic, health and educational needs can potentially improve long-term outcomes for both mothers and their offspring. Programs that deliver care to this population in culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate ways have demonstrated success. Future investigation of parenting interventions with larger sample sizes and that assess multiple outcomes will allow comparison among programs. Explorations of the role of the father and coparenting are also directions for future research.

  9. Socioeconomic Variation in the Effect of Economic Conditions on Marriage and Nonmarital Fertility in the United States: Evidence From the Great Recession.

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    Schneider, Daniel; Hastings, Orestes P

    2015-12-01

    The United States has become increasingly characterized by stark class divides in family structure. Poor women are less likely to marry than their more affluent counterparts but are far more likely to have a birth outside of marriage. Recent theoretical and qualitative work at the intersection of demography and cultural sociology suggests that these patterns are generated because poor women have high, nearly unattainable, economic standards for marriage but make a much weaker connection between economic standing and fertility decisions. We use the events of the Great Recession, leveraging variation in the severity of the crisis between years and across states, to examine how exposure to worse state-level economic conditions is related to poor women's likelihood of marriage and of having a nonmarital birth between 2008 and 2012. In accord with theory, we find that women of low socioeconomic status (SES) exposed to worse economic conditions are indeed somewhat less likely to marry. However, we also find that unmarried low-SES women exposed to worse economic conditions significantly reduce their fertility; economic standing is not disconnected from nonmarital fertility. Our results suggest that economic concerns were connected to fertility decisions for low-SES unmarried women during the Great Recession.

  10. Pornography consumption and non-marital sexual behaviour in a sample of young Indonesian university students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association...... between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious...... countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations...

  11. Planned and Unplanned Childbearing among Unmarried Women.

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    Musick, Kelly

    2002-01-01

    Uses data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to examine social, demographic, and economic correlates of planned and unplanned childbearing among unmarried women. Finds that low education increases the likelihood such childbearing outside of marriage for all race and ethnic groups. Results suggest ways in which the meaning of…

  12. Pornography consumption and non-marital sexual behaviour in a sample of young Indonesian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hald, Gert Martin; Mulya, Teguh Wijaya

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of Indonesian university students and a cross sectional design, this study investigated prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption in Indonesia, a religious, sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws. Further, the association between pornography consumption and common non-marital sexual behaviours was explored. The study found that in this sample, pornography is as widely and readily consumed as in comparable international studies predominantly utilising Western background samples from more sexually liberal and less religious countries with very few laws on pornography. Gender differences in patterns of pornography consumption were pronounced and comparable with findings in international counterpart studies. For men only, pornography consumption was found to significantly predict common sexual behaviours in non-marital relations. The study is the first to provide insights into prevalence rates and patterns of pornography consumption and its association with common non-marital sexual behaviours in a sexually conservative, Muslim-majority nation with strict anti-pornography laws.

  13. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. OBJECTIVE This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. METHODS Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). RESULTS The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. CONTRIBUTION This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and

  14. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Mollborn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. Objective: This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Methods: Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529. Results: The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. Conclusions: The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. Contribution: This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship

  15. A longitudinal examination of US teen childbearing and smoking risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Woo, Juhee; Rogers, Richard G

    2018-01-01

    Teenage motherhood and smoking have important health implications for youth in the United States and globally, but the link between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking is inadequately understood. The selection of disadvantaged young women into early childbearing and smoking may explain higher smoking levels among teen mothers, but teen motherhood may also shape subsequent smoking through compromised maternal depression or socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity may condition these processes. This study examines the relationship between US teen childbearing and subsequent daily smoking, accounting for prior smoking and selection processes related to social disadvantage. Analyses investigate whether socioeconomic status and depression in young adulthood explained any relationship between teen childbearing and daily smoking, as well as examining racial/ethnic heterogeneity in these processes. Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses employ the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health; N = 7,529). The highest daily smoking prevalence occurred among non-Hispanic White teen mothers, with lower prevalence among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black teen mothers. Compared to other women, teenage mothers are 2.5 times as likely to smoke daily in young adulthood. Their greater likelihood of daily smoking is due in part to selection and is also mediated by socioeconomic status in ways that differ by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that preventing teen pregnancy or ameliorating its socioeconomic consequences may decrease daily smoking in this vulnerable population. Reducing teen smoking, especially during pregnancy, could improve teen, maternal, and infant health and thereby increase US health and longevity. This study provides new, nationally representative information about selection, mediation, and heterogeneity processes in the relationship between teen childbearing and subsequent smoking.

  16. EFFECTS OF CHILDBEARING ON RURAL WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    socio-economic characteristics of childbearing women involved in ... an individual is an important factor in determining performance in any situation. ..... for agricultural research institutions; CIMMTT Economics program paper No 99-2 Mexico.

  17. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  18. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. © 2014 FPI, Inc.

  19. Childbearing impeded education more than education impeded childbearing among Norwegian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joel E; Kravdal, Øystein; Keilman, Nico

    2011-07-19

    In most societies, women at age 39 with higher levels of education have fewer children. To understand this association, we investigated the effects of childbearing on educational attainment and the effects of education on fertility in the 1964 birth cohort of Norwegian women. Using detailed annual data from ages 17 to 39, we estimated the probabilities of an additional birth, a change in educational level, and enrollment in the coming year, conditional on fertility history, educational level, and enrollment history at the beginning of each year. A simple model reproduced a declining gradient of children ever born with increasing educational level at age 39. When a counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of childbearing on educational progression or enrollment (without changing the estimated effects of education on childbearing), the simulated number of children ever born decreased very little with increasing completed educational level, contrary to data. However, when another counterfactual simulation assumed no effects of current educational level and enrollment on childbearing (without changing the estimated effects of childbearing on education), the simulated number of children ever born decreased with increasing completed educational level nearly as much as the decrease in the data. In summary, in these Norwegian data, childbearing impeded education much more than education impeded childbearing. These results suggest that women with advanced degrees have lower completed fertility on the average principally because women who have one or more children early are more likely to leave or not enter long educational tracks and never attain a high educational level.

  20. Valproic Acid in Women and Girls of Childbearing Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlib, Dorothy; Ramaswamy, Rachel; Kurlander, Jacob E; DeRiggi, Alana; Riba, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate recent literature on valproic acid (VPA) in women and girls of childbearing age and to emphasize new findings. Recent research confirms VPAs teratogenicity and risk of hormone disruption. VPA exposure in utero increases the risk for a variety of major congenital malformations (MCMs), reduced IQ and behavioral problems. In girls and women, VPA increases the risk of hormone abnormalities, obesity, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Despite guidelines recommending caution, VPA use continues to be prescribed to reproductive-aged women and girls. Despite significant and well-documented risk, adherence to guidelines in VPA use in reproductive-aged girls and women remains low.

  1. High School Dropout and Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Dave E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between high school dropout and teen childbearing is complicated because both are affected by a variety of difficult to control factors. In this paper, I use panel data on aggregate dropout and fertility rates by age for all fifty states to develop insight by instrumenting for dropout using information on state…

  2. Nonmarital romantic relationship commitment and leave behavior: the mediating role of dissolution consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderdrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R; Wilson, Juan E

    2009-09-01

    Two studies investigated the process by which individuals in nonmarital romantic relationships characterized by low commitment move toward enacting leave behaviors. Predictions based on the behavioral, goal, and implementation intention literatures were tested using a measure of dissolution consideration developed for this research. Dissolution consideration assesses how salient relationship termination is for an individual while one's relationship is intact. Study 1 developed and validated a measure of dissolution consideration and Study 2 was a longitudinal test of the utility of dissolution consideration in predicting the enactment of leave behaviors. Results indicated that dissolution consideration mediates the association between commitment and enacting leave behaviors, is associated with taking more immediate action, and provides unique explanatory power in leave behavior beyond the effect of commitment alone. Collectively, the findings suggest that dissolution consideration is an intermediate step between commitment and stay/leave behavior in close relationships.

  3. [Characteristics of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in Miao-Dong Autonomous prefecture of Qiandongnan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q Y; Wang, F L; Xu, P; Wen, H J; Xiong, Y X; Yang, J; Long, Y; He, H J; Shi, J; Lyu, P

    2017-11-06

    Objective: The goal of this research was to understand the demographic distribution and related factors of non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission (non-commercial transmission) for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Methods: Data related to HIV/AIDS infected by non-marital heterosexual transmission and whose present address was in Qian Dongnan, were collected from Information System on the HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control. Information included demographic characteristics, the members of non-marital sex partners, transmission path, detection source, CD4(+)T lymphocyte level, et al. cases belong to homosexual history, injective drug use or non-classified non-marital heterosexuality transmission were excluded, totally collect HIV/AIDS 919 cases. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze potential factors associated with non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual transmission. In addition, in March and June 2017, using a convenience sampling, we conducted one-to-one interviews among 10 HIV/AIDS who were infected by non-marital heterosexuality and had non-marital and non-commercial heterosexual experience in Kaili Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The content of the interview included basic information, sexual orientation, the main place of making friends and sexual behavior, attitude to commercial heterosexuality and non-martial and non-commercial heterosexuality and so on. Results: Out of the 919 cases, 645 (70.2%) were male, the proportion of non-commercial transmission was 55.06% (506). The proportion of female HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission was 84.7% (232), which was higher than male (42.5%(274)) (χ(2)=138.35, Pcommercial transmission was 61.5% (275), which was higher than other religion (52.2%(412)) (χ(2)=6.32, P= 0.012). The proportion of HIV/AIDS with non-commercial transmission who had 0-5 non-marital sexual partners was 58.8% (498), which was higher than who had>5 non-marital

  4. Trends in Attitudes About Marriage, Childbearing, and Sexual Behavior: United States, 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Jill; Copen, Casey

    2016-03-17

    This report describes attitudes about marriage, childbearing, and sexual behavior among men and women aged 15-44 in the United States based on the 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data for all three survey periods were collected through in-person interviews with nationally representative, independent samples of men and women in the household population of the United States. The overall response rate for NSFG was 79% in 2002, 77% in 2006-2010, and 73% in 2011-2013. Attitudinal items examined in this report include those related to marriage, divorce, cohabitation, parenthood, and sexual behavior. Where data from all three survey periods were available, differences were tested using trend analysis. Data from the 2002 survey were not available for some attitude items, and in these cases, comparisons were made only between the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 surveys. Attitudinal differences by age group were analyzed using 2011-2013 data. All results are shown separately for women and men. From 2002 to 2011-2013, there was an increase in the percentages of men and women who agreed with premarital cohabitation, nonmarital childbearing, the right for gay and lesbian adults to adopt children, same-sex sexual relations, and premarital sex for those aged 18. There was a decrease in the percentages of men and women who agreed with divorce. There was no change in the percentages of men and women who agreed with premarital sex for those aged 16. There was no change from 2006-2010 to 2011-2013 in attitudes regarding marriage, cohabitation and the risk of divorce, the necessity of having children for one's happiness, and raising children in a cohabiting union. Several of the attitudinal items varied significantly by age group for both men and women. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  5. Social differentials in speed-premium effects in childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M. Hoem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, parents receive a parental-leave allowance of a high percentage (currently 80% of their pre-birth salary for about a year in connection with any birth. If they space their births sufficiently closely, they avoid a reduction in the allowance caused by any reduced income earned between the births. The gain is popularly called a "speed premium". In previous work we have shown that childbearing was sped up correspondingly. This is clear evidence of a causal effect of a policy change on childbearing behavior. In the present paper, we study how this change in behavior was adopted in various social strata of the Swedish population.

  6. Early adolescent childbearing in low- and middle-income countries: associations with income inequity, human development and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Kalamar, Amanda; Tunçalp, Özge; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-03-01

    Reducing unwanted adolescent childbearing is a global priority. Little is known about how national-level economic and human development indicators relate to early adolescent childbearing. This ecological study evaluates associations of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GINI index, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender-related Development Index (GDI; i.e. the HDI adjusted for gender disparities) with early adolescent childbearing in 27 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) across three time periods. Among women ages 18–24, prevalence estimates for early birth (development adjusted for gender disparities in educational and economic prospects, was more consistently related to early adolescent childbearing than the absolute development prospects as given by the HDI. While creating gender equality is an important goal in and of itself, the findings emphasize the potential for improved national-level gender equitable development as a means to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health.

  7. Fertility and Childbearing Among American Female Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentz, Natalie Clark; Griffith, Kent A; Perkins, Elena; Jones, Rochelle DeCastro; Jagsi, Reshma

    2016-10-01

    Female physicians may experience unique challenges regarding fertility and family planning. We sought to determine childbearing patterns and decision-making among American female physicians. In 2012-2013, we surveyed a random sample of 600 female physicians who graduated medical school between 1995 and 2000. Primary outcome measures included fertility and childbearing history, reflections regarding decision-making, perceptions of workplace support, and estimations of childbearing potential. Response rate was 54.5% (327/600). A majority (82.0%) of the sample were parents, 77.4% had biological children with an average of 2.3 children. Average age at medical school graduation was 27.5 years, at completion of training (completion of medical school, residency, and/or fellowship) was 31.6 years, and at first pregnancy was 30.4 years. Nearly one quarter (24.1%) of respondents who had attempted conception were diagnosed with infertility, with an average age at diagnosis of 33.7 years. Among those with infertility, 29.3% reported diminished ovarian reserve. When asked what they would do differently in retrospect, most respondents (56.8%) would do nothing differently regarding fertility/conception/childbearing, 28.6% would have attempted conception earlier, 17.1% would have gone into a different specialty, and 7.0% would have used cryopreservation to extend fertility. Fewer of those whose first pregnancy was in medical school perceived substantial workplace support (68.2%) than those whose first pregnancies followed training (88.6%). A substantial proportion of female physicians have faced infertility or have regrets about family planning decisions and career decision-making. Combining a medical career with motherhood continues to pose challenges, meriting further investigation and targeted support.

  8. The importance of culture in childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2011-01-01

    In 1972, Mary Lou Moore wrote about the importance of nurses in the United States becoming aware of childbirth traditions of other countries. In 2010, North America has become more culturally diverse, and the dominant culture related to childbirth has become the hospital culture. Nurses must acknowledge this unique culture and work to make women of all cultures comfortable in this setting to ensure a safe and satisfying childbearing experience. © 2011 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  9. Age-varying associations between nonmarital sexual behavior and depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A

    2017-02-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    OpenAIRE

    Bień, Agnieszka; Pieczykolan, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Bień Agnieszka, Pieczykolan Agnieszka. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(3):381-391. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.344548 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4289 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eISSN 2391-8306 7 © Th...

  11. Abortion Legalization and Childbearing in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Vázquez, Edith Y; Parrado, Emilio A

    2016-06-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making it the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. We examine metropolitan-area differences in overall and parity-specific childbearing, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to identify the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends. The influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child, with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the Greater Mexico City Metropolitan area. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Childbearing Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...

  13. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.O.; Spéder, Z.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction techniques

  14. Social age deadlines for the childbearing of women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.C.; Goisis, A.; Liefbroer, A.C.; Settersten, R.A. Jr.; Aassve, A.; Hagestad, G.; Spéder, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether social age deadlines exist for childbearing in women and men, how they vary across countries, whether they are lower than actual biological deadlines and whether they are associated with childbearing at later ages and the availability of assisted reproduction

  15. Childbearing and child care in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K L; Ho, H S; Goodnight, J E

    2001-06-01

    The responsibility for childbearing and child care has a major effect on general surgical residency and subsequent surgical practice. A survey of all graduates from a university general surgical training program between 1989 and 2000. Twenty-seven women and 44 men completed general surgical training at our university during the period, and 42 (59%) responded to our survey. The age at completion of the residency was 34.0 +/- 2.2 years for men and 33.9 +/- 2.8 years for women. During residency, 64% (14/22) of the men and 15% (3/20) of the women had children. At the time of the survey, 21 (95%) of the men and 8 (40%) of the women had children. Most residents (24 [57%] of 42) relied on their spouse for child care. During surgical practice, 18 (43%) indicated that they rely on their spouse; 19 (45%) use day care, home care, or both; and (8%) of 26 are unsatisfied with their current child care arrangement. During training, 38% (5/13) of men and 67% (2/3) of women took time off for maternity leave, paternity leave, or child care. Two of 3 surgeons would like to have had more time off during residency; most men (70%, or 7 of 10) recommended a leave of 1 to 3 months, and all women preferred a 3-month maternity or child care leave of absence. During surgical practice, only 12% (2/17) of men but 64% (7/11) of women have taken time off for either childbearing or child care. Half of the respondents (21/42) have a formal leave of absence policy at work, 52% (11/21) of which are paid leave programs. Although the workweek of our practicing graduates is 69 +/- 16 hours for men and 64 +/- 12 hours for women, 62% (26/42) spend more than 20 hours per week parenting. More than 80% (27/32) would consider a part-time surgical practice for more parenting involvement; one third of the responders suggested that 30 hours a week constitutes a reasonable part-time practice, one third preferred fewer than 30 hours, and one third favored more than 30 hours per week. Data are presented as mean

  16. Childbearing and childrearing practices in Mormonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, L J

    1990-10-01

    Mormons, who have the highest birth rates in the US, have unique childbearing attitudes and practices that should be understood by the health care practitioners who work with this population. There are several million members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the US, and 70% of the population of Utah is Mormon. Family life is the basic unit of the religion, with women expected to serve as childbearers while men preside over the family and provide for the physical and spiritual needs of the children. Both premarital sex and adultery are prohibited, and marriage below the age of 18 years is rare. In keeping with the Mormon belief that heaven is full of millions of spirits awaiting an earthly body, birth control and abortion are also forbidden. Since the female body is regarded as the tabernacle of the spirit and the residence of God's spirit children, a high priority is given to prenatal care. Most Mormons adhere to the hegemonic model in the US physician visits in the prenatal period and delivery in a hospital. In the postpartum period, Mormon women are relieved of routine household and child care duties by extended family and church ward members. Breastfeeding is encouraged for both its health and bonding advantages. From a young age, Mormon children are given responsibilities such as household duties and the tending of younger siblings. Mothers play a key role in their children's religious education, and parents who do not rear their children strictly according to Mormon gospel are condemned. Since most deliveries of Mormon infants occur in hospitals, neonatal nurses should be mindful of the patriarchal structure of the family, expect parents to process medical information in spiritual terms, grant requests for priesthood blessings, requests for priesthood blessings and not advocate contraceptive usage.

  17. Coparenting Experiences in African American Families: An Examination of Single Mothers and their Non-Marital Coparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2015-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their non-marital coparents who participated in a study of African American single mother families with an 11 to 16 year old child. Specifically, the study examines: 1) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; 2) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and 3) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted. PMID:24479612

  18. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-04

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (Ppre-marriage counseling regarding rubella and CRS for young females.

  19. Who meets their intentions to stop childbearing? Results of a longitudinal study in rural eastern Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa; Tavrow, Paula; Abe, Denise

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study from rural Bali, Indonesia, we sought to identify the predictors of birth avoidance among 665 married women of reproductive age who reported the intention to stop childbearing. We found that almost 30% of women who wanted no more children had a subsequent birth during the 4-year study period. Women at highest risk for an unwanted birth were younger, had fewer children, and did not use a long-term contraceptive method. The ability to meet intentions to stop childbearing depended on women's motivation (family size), fecundity (proxied by age), and their use of long-term contraceptive methods. Our results suggest that to reduce unwanted births among rural women, family planning providers should recommend long-term methods to younger women with smaller family sizes who express clear intentions to stop childbearing.

  20. Sweeping Changes in Marriage, Cohabitation, and Childbearing in Central and Eastern Europe: New Insights from the Developmental Idealism Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Philipov, Dimiter

    2009-01-01

    In Central and Eastern Europe following the political transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s there were dramatic declines in marriage and childbearing, significant increases in nonmarital cohabitation and childbearing, and a movement from reliance on abortion to a reliance on contraception for fertility limitation. Although many explanations have been offered for these trends, we offer new explanations based on ideational influences and the intersection of these ideational influences with structural factors. We focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural histories of the region, with particular emphasis on how countries in the region have interacted with and been influenced by Western European and North American countries. Our explanations emphasize the role of developmental models in guiding change in the region, suggesting that developmental idealism influenced family and demographic changes following the political transformations. Developmental idealism provides beliefs that modern family systems help to produce modern political and economic accomplishments and helps to establish the importance of freedom and equality as human rights in both the public and private spheres. The disintegration of the governments and the fall of the iron curtain in the late 1980s and early 1990s brought new understanding about social, economic, and family circumstances in the West, increasing consumption aspirations and expectations which clashed with both old economic realities and the dramatic declines in economic circumstances. In addition, the dissolution of the former governments removed or weakened systems supporting the bearing and rearing of children, and, the legitimacy of the former governments and their programs was largely destroyed, removing government support for old norms and patterns of behavior. In addition, the attacks of previous decades on the religious institutions in the region had in many places left these institutions weak. During this

  1. Teenage Childbearing and its Health Consequences on the Mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    childbearing raise fundamental concerns about the ... on the mother and child in Eritrea, and the social and demographic context in which it occurs. ... A descriptive bivariate analysis is used to estimate the proportion of teenage women ...

  2. Childbearing Differences among Three Generations of U.S. Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCHS Childbearing Differences Among Three Generations of U.S. Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS Data ... System. Keywords: birth cohort, childlessness, total fertility rate Women born in 1935 had on average three births— ...

  3. Aetiology of teenage childbearing: reasons for familial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, P O; Lichtenstein, P; Cnattingius, S

    2000-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the contribution of the genetic and environmental factors to the risk of teenage childbearing, and to study whether life style, socio-economic conditions, and personality traits could explain possible familial effects. We linked two population-based registers: the Swedish Twin Register and the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The study covers female twin pairs born between 1953 and 1958, having their first infant before the age of 30 years (n = 1885). In order to separate familial effects from other environmental influences, and genetic effects from shared environmental effects, only complete twin pairs with known zygosity were included, in all 260 monozygotic and 370 dizygotic twin pairs. We used quantitative genetic analyses to evaluate the importance of genetic and environmental effects for liability to teenage childbearing. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the effects of life style, socio-economic situation, and personality on the probability of teenage childbearing, and to study whether psychosocial factors could explain possible familial effects. Fifty-nine percent (0-76%) of the variance in being a teenage mother was attributable to heritable factors; 0% (0-49%) was due to shared environmental factors; and 41% (23-67%) was explained by non-shared environmental factors. Thus, the data were consistent with the hypothesis that the familial aggregation of teenage childbearing is completely explained by genetic factors, although the alternative hypothesis that familial aggregation is entirely explained by shared environmental factors cannot be ruled out. Significant effects of smoking habits, housing conditions, and educational level were found in relation to liability to teenage childbearing. However, the familial effects on risk of teenage childbearing were not mediated through similarities in life style and socio-economic factors. When studying risk factors for teenage childbearing, it is

  4. Abortion legalization and childbearing in Mexico1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Vazquez, Edith Y.; Parrado, Emilio A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2007 abortion was legalized in the Federal District of Mexico, making the largest jurisdiction in Latin America, outside of Cuba, to allow women to have abortions on request during the first trimester of pregnancy. While the implications of the law for women's health and maternal mortality have been investigated, its potential association with fertility behavior has yet to be assessed. In this paper, we examine metropolitan area differences in overall and parity-specific, as well as the age pattern of childbearing between 2000 and 2010 to more precisely isolate the contribution of abortion legalization to fertility in Mexico. Our statistical specification applies difference-in-difference regression methods that control for concomitant changes in other socioeconomic predictors of fertility to assess the differential influence of the law across age groups. In addition, we account for prior fertility levels and change to better separate the effect of the law from preceding trends. Overall, the evidence suggests a systematic association between abortion legalization and fertility. The law appears to have contributed to lower fertility in Mexico City compared to other metropolitan areas and prior trends, though the influence is mostly visible among women aged 20-34 in connection with the transition to first and second child with limited impact on teenage fertility. There is some evidence that its effect might be diffusing to the greater Mexico City metropolitan area. PMID:27285423

  5. The Educational Consequences of Teen Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B.; Morgan, S. Philip; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Guilkey, David K.

    2013-01-01

    A huge literature shows that teen mothers face a variety of detriments across the life course, including truncated educational attainment. To what extent is this association causal? The estimated effects of teen motherhood on schooling vary widely, ranging from no discernible difference to 2.6 fewer years among teen mothers. The magnitude of educational consequences is therefore uncertain, despite voluminous policy and prevention efforts that rest on the assumption of a negative and presumably causal effect. This study adjudicates between two potential sources of inconsistency in the literature—methodological differences or cohort differences—by using a single, high-quality data source: namely, The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We replicate analyses across four different statistical strategies: ordinary least squares regression; propensity score matching; and parametric and semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation. Results demonstrate educational consequences of teen childbearing, with estimated effects between 0.7 and 1.9 fewer years of schooling among teen mothers. We select our preferred estimate (0.7), derived from semiparametric maximum likelihood estimation, on the basis of weighing the strengths and limitations of each approach. Based on the range of estimated effects observed in our study, we speculate that variable statistical methods are the likely source of inconsistency in the past. We conclude by discussing implications for future research and policy, and recommend that future studies employ a similar multimethod approach to evaluate findings. PMID:24078155

  6. Eating disorders among women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maria Bień

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutrition is one of the fundamental human needs, which allows for the proper functioning of the body. Nowadays, people are increasingly turning attention to the type and quantity of food intake, in order to preserve health and slim. Rigorous adherence to the principles of nutrition only healthy meals can lead to disorder orthorexia nervosa, which can lead to many complications (such as weight loss, vitamin deficiencies and mineral, hormonal disorders, psychological problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders such orthorexia nervosa in women of childbearing age and to check whether there is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders and a global orientation of life of respondents. Material and method. The study included 280 women aged between 18 and 35 years old who voluntarily joined the study. The study used the questionnaire technique, consisting of the author's questionnaire and standardized research tools (ORTO-15 Questionnaire, the SCOFF Eating Disorders Questionnaire and the Sense of Coherence Scale SOC-29. Results. After conducting these studies found an association between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion, and between type of eating disorder anorexia and bulimia and marital status, and body mass index (BMI. It was also shown that the lower the overall level of sense of coherence and its components is more common in individuals at risk of developing anorexia or bulimia. Conclusion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as orthorexia nervosa to religion. There is a relationship between the occurrence of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia marital status and body mass index of women.

  7. Socio-economic and demographic factors influencing nutritional status among early childbearing young mothers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Ashraful; Islam, Nurul; Bharati, Premananda; Aik, Saw; Hossain, Golam

    2016-08-26

    Early childbearing influences women's health. This study aims to examine the effects of socio-demographic factors on nutritional status of early childbearing mothers in Bangladesh based on Body Mass Index (BMI) as the indicator. Data was extracted from Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)-2011. The survey was performed on 17,842 married women aged 15-49. We focused on early childbearing mothers (age ≤ 24, and who had delivered their first child ≤ 20). Mothers who were underweight (BMI ≤ 18.5 kg/m(2)) would be further classified into various grades of chronic energy deficiency (CED): mild (17.0 ≤ BMI Bangladesh is very high (32.1 %), associated with the still common practice of teenage marriage. Education level, wealth index, occupation, place of residence, age at first marriage and parity were important predictors for their nutritional status. The government and non-government organizations should take initiatives to reduce the prevalence of underweight mothers in Bangladesh.

  8. Pathways to adolescent childbearing among Kaqchikel women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Emily; Hennink, Monique; Can Saquic, Nely Amparo

    2017-10-01

    One-in-five children in Guatemala is born to a mother aged 15-19 years, which poses social, economic and health risks to both mother and child. In Guatemala, adolescent childbearing is directly associated with education, ethnicity and poverty, which increases vulnerability among Indigenous young women living in poverty. This study examines the context and experiences of adolescent childbearing from the perspectives of young mothers in the Kaqchikel Indigenous ethnic group of Sololá, Guatemala. Data were collected in 19 qualitative in-depth interviews with women who had given birth to one or more children when aged 15 to 19 years. Grounded theory and narrative analysis were used to develop a conceptual framework of the process and influences on childbearing. Four distinct pathways were identified, which were influenced by gender expectations, limited communication about sex and stigma around sex. The study identifies key sociocultural influences that lead to adolescent childbearing and reveals variability within these. Identifying distinct pathways to early childbearing and their influences enables a clearer understanding of potential opportunities to interrupt these pathways with culturally relevant policies and programmes, in particular those that promote gender equality and intergenerational communication about sex.

  9. Trends in teenage childbearing and schooling outcomes for children born to teens in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Branson; Cally Ardington; Murray Leibbrandt

    2013-01-01

    Teenage childbearing is considered a social problem with costs to the teenage mother, her child and society at large. In South Africa, media attention suggests a contemporary crisis in teen childbearing; often linking this to a fear that the Child Support Grant incentivises motherhood among teens. Despite these assertions, there is little empirical research assessing the trends in teen childbearing over time in South Africa and the intergenerational consequences of teenage childbearing. This ...

  10. Teenage childbearing in the United States, 1960-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, S J; Freedman, M A

    2000-07-01

    Teenage childbearing in the United States has declined significantly in the 1990s. Still the U.S. teen birth rate is higher than in other developed countries; in 1997 it was 52.3 births per 1000 women aged 15 to 19. A steep rise in teen birth rates in the late 1980s generated a great deal of public concern and a variety of initiatives targeted to reducing teen births. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics' National Vital Statistics System are used to review and describe trends and variations in births and birth rates for teenagers for the period 1960-1997. Teen birth rates were much higher in the early 1960s than at present; in fact, rates for 18- to 19-year-olds were double what they are currently. In the 1990s, birth rates for teenagers dropped for younger and older teenagers, with greater declines recorded for younger teens. While rates have fallen in all population groups, the greatest declines have been experienced by black teenagers, whose rates have dropped 24% on average. %Trends in teen births and birth rates since 1960 have been affected by a variety of factors. These include wide swings in the number of female teenagers, substantial declines in marriage among older teens, falling birth rates for married teens concurrent with rapidly rising birth rates for unmarried teens, and sharp increases in sexual activity among teens that have abated only recently, according to the National Center for Health Statistics' National Survey of Family Growth. This review article also tracks changes in contraceptive practice and abortion rates.

  11. State policy and teen childbearing: a review of research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltz, Martha A; Sacks, Vanessa H; Moore, Kristin A; Terzian, Mary

    2015-02-01

    Teen childbearing is affected by many individual, family, and community factors; however, another potential influence is state policy. Rigorous studies of the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates are few in number but represent a body of knowledge that can inform policy and practice. This article reviews research assessing associations between state-level policies and teen birth rates, focusing on five policy areas: access to family planning, education, sex education, public assistance, and access to abortion services. Overall, several studies have found that measures related to access to and use of family planning services and contraceptives are related to lower state-level teen birth rates. These include adolescent enrollment in clinics, minors' access to contraception, conscience laws, family planning expenditures, and Medicaid waivers. Other studies, although largely cross-sectional analyses, have concluded that policies and practices to expand or improve public education are also associated with lower teen birth rates. These include expenditures on education, teacher-to-student ratios, and graduation requirements. However, the evidence regarding the role of public assistance, abortion access, and sex education policies in reducing teen birth rates is mixed and inconclusive. These conclusions must be viewed as tentative because of the limited number of rigorous studies that examine the relationship between state policy and teen birth rates over time. Many specific policies have only been analyzed by a single study, and few findings are based on recent data. As such, more research is needed to strengthen our understanding of the role of state policies in teen birth rates. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ten Reasons to Still Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing. Research Brief, Publication #2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Emily; Peterson, Kristen; Manlove, Jennifer; Scarupa, Harriet J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002, Child Trends drew on statistics and research findings to produce a report called "Ten Reasons to Keep the Focus on Teen Childbearing." That report took note of the steady decline in the nation's teenage pregnancy and childbearing rates, beginning in 1991, while citing multiple reasons to continue to be concerned about teen childbearing.…

  13. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National HIV prevention programs in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana must effectively address the infection rate among childbearing women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This project aims to determine the incidence of HIV infection among pregnant and postpartum women. Researchers from the Botswana ...

  14. Adolescent Childbearing: Whose Problem? What Can We Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Jones, Diane

    1993-01-01

    Understanding of adolescent child-bearing and efforts to ameliorate attendant problems are diminished by unexamined, emotionally charged beliefs regarding race, poverty, gender. Adolescent birth rates that declined from 1970s to 1980s were sharper for African Americans. However, sexually active adolescents in comparison countries have fewer…

  15. Considering childbearing in the age of highly active antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Based on a qualitative study conducted in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, this article examines how the availability of HAART since April 2004 may impact the views and choices of HIV-positive couples on childbearing. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 couples where at least one partner was HIV ...

  16. Individual correlates of sleep among childbearing women in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women of childbearing age (WOCBA) may be at high risk for short or poor sleep. Yet few studies have focused on this population. The study objective was to identify individual correlates of sleep duration and quality among WOCBA. The sample consisted of 9,749 WOCBA aged 18–44 years from the Canadian ...

  17. In search of a face: Childbearing decisions among couples living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper therefore explores factors that influence childbearing decisions of married couples living with HIV in patrilineal and matrilineal kinship communities in rural Malawi. Qualitative exploratory research was conducted in two rural districts in the southern part of Malawi. Data were collected using in-depth interviews ...

  18. Examining the psychosocial determinants of women's decisions to delay childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Allison L; White, Katherine M

    2016-08-01

    What are the psychosocial determinants of women's intentions to delay childbearing until after 35 years? Attitudes, pressure from important others, perceived self-confidence and anticipated regret all influence the decision-making process of women aged 18-30 years to defer their attempts to conceive their first child until 35+ years. Research has consistently demonstrated that, for many women, the decision to delay childbearing can lead to 'unintentional childlessness' due to a failure to consider the impact of age-related fertility decline. A large body of literature has also found strong links between age-related involuntary infertility and negative psychological impacts, including an increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, guilt, stigma and poor mental health. The study initially conducted focus groups designed to ascertain important beliefs informing participants' intentions to delay childbearing. A subsequent larger-scale quantitative questionnaire followed. Participants (n = 358) were female, aged between 18 and 30 years, lived in Australia, identified as being open to the idea of having children, were heterosexual, had not already had children, were not already pregnant, and had not received a diagnosis of medical infertility prior to participating. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed strong support for psychosocial predictors of attitude, pressure from others and perceived self-confidence as predictors of women's intentions to delay childbearing, accounting for 59% of total variance. The extended model that included anticipated regret, accounted for a significant additional 4.4% variance in intention to delay childbearing past the age of 35 years. Proportionally more participants were younger, Caucasian, and were university students, thus limiting the generalizability of results to the wider Australian community. Future research in this domain is recommended to adopt a prospective design and incorporate a measure of behaviour to

  19. Nonmarital romantic relationships and mental health in early adulthood: does the association differ for women and men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robin W; Barrett, Anne E

    2010-06-01

    Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress are considered. These findings have led to the conclusion that there has been a convergence in the importance of intimate relationships for men's and women's mental health. However, these patterns may not be evident for nonmarital romantic relationships among current cohorts of young adults. In this article, we examine the associations among several dimensions of these relationships and symptoms of both depression and substance abuse/dependence in a diverse sample of young adults in Miami, Florida. We find gender differences that vary across dimensions of relationships: While current involvements and recent breakups are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, support and strain in an ongoing relationship are more closely associated with men's than women's emotional well-being. Our findings highlight the need to consider the period in the life course as well as experiences of specific cohorts of men and women when theorizing about gender differences in the importance of intimate relationships for mental health.

  20. Age-varying associations between non-marital sexual behavior and depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how non-marital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. PMID:27854469

  1. Mode of delivery and the probability of subsequent childbearing: a population-based register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvander, C; Dahlberg, J; Andersson, G; Cnattingius, S

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between mode of first delivery and probability of subsequent childbearing. Population-based study. Nationwide study in Sweden. A cohort of 771 690 women who delivered their first singleton infant in Sweden between 1992 and 2010. Using Cox's proportional-hazards regression models, risks of subsequent childbearing were compared across four modes of delivery. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Probability of having a second and third child; interpregnancy interval. Compared with women who had a spontaneous vaginal first delivery, women who delivered by vacuum extraction were less likely to have a second pregnancy (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97), and the probabilities of a second childbirth were substantially lower among women with a previous emergency caesarean section (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.84-0.86) or an elective caesarean section (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80-0.83). There were no clinically important differences in the median time between first and second pregnancy by mode of first delivery. Compared with women younger than 30 years of age, older women were more negatively affected by a vacuum extraction with respect to the probability of having a second child. A primary vacuum extraction decreased the probability of having a third child by 4%, but having two consecutive vacuum extraction deliveries did not further alter the probability. A first delivery by vacuum extraction does not reduce the probability of subsequent childbearing to the same extent as a first delivery by emergency or elective caesarean section. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. The meaning of "control" for childbearing women in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2010-08-01

    Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes "you cannot control birth". Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A narrative literature review of the therapeutic effects of music upon childbearing women and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins Martin, Caroline J

    2014-11-01

    Therapeutic effects of music are well recognised within the literature, with benefits for a variety of health problems documented. This narrative review summarises benefits in terms of reducing stress, anxiety, labour pain and depression in childbearing women. For neonates, music has been shown to reduce number of days to discharge, reduce pain response behaviours, increase weight gain, improve Brazelton scores, improve parent/infant intimacy, improve oxygen saturation, increase formula intake, stabilize vital signs and increase parental reports of calmed infants. The main criticism of the studies reviewed is lack of categorisation of the particulars of the variables within the music that directly influenced outcome variables. A recommendation is made that a music package be developed and relationships with variables rigorously evaluated. The validated product may then be made available for use. Since evidence supports advantages from listening to music, it is suggested that maternity professionals use it in more creative ways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiretroviral Therapy Helps HIV-Positive Women Navigate Social Expectations for and Clinical Recommendations against Childbearing in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Kastner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence pregnancy decision-making and experiences among HIV-positive women is important for developing integrated reproductive health and HIV services. Few studies have examined HIV-positive women’s navigation through the social and clinical factors that shape experiences of pregnancy in the context of access to antiretroviral therapy (ART. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with HIV-positive, pregnant women receiving ART in Mbarara, Uganda in 2011 to explore how access to ART shapes pregnancy experiences. Main themes included: (1 clinical counselling about pregnancy is often dissuasive but focuses on the importance of ART adherence once pregnant; (2 accordingly, women demonstrate knowledge about the role of ART adherence in maintaining maternal health and reducing risks of perinatal HIV transmission; (3 this knowledge contributes to personal optimism about pregnancy and childbearing in the context of HIV; and (4 knowledge about and adherence to ART creates opportunities for HIV-positive women to manage normative community and social expectations of childbearing. Access to ART and knowledge of the accompanying lowered risks of mortality, morbidity, and HIV transmission improved experiences of pregnancy and empowered HIV-positive women to discretely manage conflicting social expectations and clinical recommendations regarding childbearing.

  5. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women of Northwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaii, Mehrangiz; Pourhassan, Aboulfazl; Asle-Rahnamaie-Akbari, Najibeh; Aghebati, Leili; Xie, Juliana Ling; Goldust, Mohammad; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii causes the most common parasitic infection in the world. Congenital transmission, prenatal mortality and abortion are major problems of T. gondii. Prevalence of toxoplasmosis is high in Iran, especially in Azerbaijan. The current literature reviewed in this paper reveal results pertaining to various regions of Iran. The present cross-sectional e-study was designed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in childbearing women in Northwest Iran. We evaluated 1659 women in childbearing age from several cities in Northwestern Iran (Tabriz, Maragheh, Ahar, Marand, Sarab, Miane) from July 2009 to August 2010. Women aged between 20 and 40 years and seeking prenatal care were enrolled in the study. The subjects' sera were probed with indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 1659 subjects were examined. Titres ranged from 1:100 to 1:800. In all, 899 subjects (54.13%) were seropositive. The highest frequency of seropositivity was shown in 1:200 dilution (36.08%) and in subjects from Maragheh (84% of 211 subjects). There was a direct linear relationship between seropositivity and age (p 0.001). Also, seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was higher in subjects with primary school/lower educational level (p 0.001) and subjects living in rural regions (p 0.001). Overall, more than 50% of women in childbearing age were seropositive for toxoplasmosis in northwestern Iran. Increasing seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis with age was a predictable result due to longer exposure to the parasite. The relationship between increasing seroprevalence and lower educational level as well as living in rural areas is in line with the latest epidemiological findings, which also show such relationships due to lower socioeconomic status.

  6. Students’ Perception on Ideal Age of Marriage and Childbearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanambehai Subranmiam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early-age marriage is still common in Indonesia, especially in the rural areas. There are many negative effects of the marriage; the young brides may get lower education, lower social status, minimum reproduction control, higher maternal mortality, higher domestic violence rate and others. Thus, this study is conducted to identify the students’ perception on the ideal age of marriage and childbearing. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to September 2013 in Jatinangor using secondary data from Jatinangor Cohort Survey Team. The data comprised two hundred and twenty students from Jatinangor Senior High School and PGRI Vocational School. A hundred and ten males and a hundred and ten females were chosen by random sampling. Questionnaires were given after the written informed consent was obtained from the students. Results: The results showed 74.55% of the students chose 19¬–24 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a woman and 68.64% students chose 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a man. Moreover, for childbearing, 25–30 years old was chosen to be the ideal age for both man and woman. The percentage of students agreed to this was 74.55% and 54.09% respectively. Conclusions: Majority of the students agreed on 19–24 years old and 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for woman and man respectively. For childbearing, 25–30 years old was concluded as the ideal age for both genders.

  7. Nuptial and childbearing customs of the ethnic minorities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y; Yang, Y

    1989-01-01

    The current nuptial customs of the ethnic minorities in China are examined. "Although monogamous marriage has now been adopted by all but a few ethnic communities, variations still exist between different nationalities in the specific forms of marriage and range of intermarriage owing to the uneven nature of historical development. Such variations are shaped by various factors of the given locality and given time such as the socioeconomy, religion, culture and education, and exert direct influence on the childbearing behavior and reproduction of the ethnic population." excerpt

  8. The Netherlands: Childbearing within the context of a "Poldermodel" society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Van Duin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has seen a considerable decline of the period total fertility rate and delayed childbearing, just like all other European countries. The drop in fertility, however, has not been as sharp as in many other regions of Europe. The period total fertility rate in the Netherlands has stabilized since the late 1970s at around 1.6 children per woman, and it has even risen slightly since 1995. In addition, although the Netherlands has one of the oldest first-time mothers, completed fertility is still rather high compared to other European countries, suggesting a strong "catching up" of births by women in their thirties. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the main driving forces behind specific fertility trends in the Netherlands. Among other factors, it focuses on changing patterns of home leaving and union formation, declining partnership stability, and the growing acceptability and use of contraception. The chapter also looks at prolonged education, rising labor-force participation of women, economic uncertainties, the growing migrant population, and family policies. Data allowing, and to the extent possible, we examine the effects of these factors on decision-making about parenthood and the timing of childbearing.

  9. Association between sleep and overweight/obesity among women of childbearing age in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests of the relationship between sleep and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) among women have been inconsistent. Few studies reporting such associations have focused on women of childbearing age. This paper investigates this association among Canadian women of childbearing age. Data were from the Canadian...

  10. Improving Children's Life Chances through Better Family Planning. CCF Brief #55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel; Venator, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Non-marital childbearing is associated with many adverse outcomes for both the mother and the child. Most of these births are unintended. If these unintended births could be reduced it might improve children's prospects by enabling their mothers to get more education, earn more, and wait to have children within marriage. In this brief, the authors…

  11. Childbearing and Work-Family Balance among Contemporary Russian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Temkina

    2010-01-01

    In depth interview data gathered during the last decade is used to analyze how the two main gender contracts of the professional women and the working mother relate to family planning, child birth, pregnancies, and mothering. Results indicate that while Russian women experience increasing pressure of the double burden and few signs of increasing gender equality in domestic life, the stable identity of Russian mothering contributes to the birth of at least one child. Childbearing does not depend directly on gender roles and division of labor in households. The decision to have a child and care for small children continues to be womens responsibility even as fertility patterns have modernized and gender equality in couple relations is slightly increasing. However, the type of gender contract influences the process of negotiation concerning reproductive matters and the timing of childbirth.

  12. Siblings' premarital childbearing and the timing of first sex in three major cities of Cote d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop-Sidibe, Nafissatou

    2005-06-01

    The association between youths' sexual and reproductive attitudes and behaviors and those of their peers and parents has been documented; however, information on siblings' influence is scarce, especially for developing countries. Data on 1,395 female and 1,242 male survey respondents aged 15-24 from three cities in Côte d'Ivoire were analyzed. Life-table analysis was conducted to examine respondents' probability of remaining sexually inexperienced according to siblings' history of premarital childbearing. Cox multivariate regressions were used to estimate respondents' relative risks of sexual debut by age 17 and by age 24. At any age between 15 and 24 years, the life-table probability of remaining sexually inexperienced was typically lower among persons who had at least one sibling with a premarital birth than among those who had no such sibling. In general, among those with at least one sibling who had had a premarital birth, the probability was lower if the sibling or siblings and the respondent were of the same gender rather than opposite genders, and the probability was lowest among those who had a brother and a sister with a history of premarital childbearing. In the multivariate analysis for males, having one or more brothers only, or having at least one brother and at least one sister, with a history of premarital childbearing was associated with increased relative risks of being sexually experienced by ages 17 and 24. No such association was found for females. Programs that seek to reduce premarital sexual activity among young people should develop strategies that take into account the potential influence of siblings.

  13. Delayed childbearing in contemporary Spain: trends and differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Martin, T

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1985 Spanish Survey of Fertility including 8789 women aged 18-49 years is used to examine the timing of 1st births from marriage. Premarital births are excluded. Life table estimates are used to describe trends and differentials. A piecewise constant hazard model, which assumes a constant transition rate within each duration segment (0-7, 8-12, 13-18, 19-24, 25-36, and 37-48 months), and discrete-time hazard models are used in the analysis. Analysis is devoted to the trends in the timing of 1st birth, differentials in the timing of transition to 1st birth as affected by age at marriage, education, labor force participation before marriage, religiosity, number of siblings, place of residence, and region. Fertility has declined from 2.7 in 1975 to 1.3 in 1990 while the country adapted to a democratic political process, legalization of contraceptives, and relaxation of gender roles. There was rapid family formation during the 1960s and 1970s. Recent marriage cohorts have been delaying the birth of a 1st child and birth control has increased. Premarital conceptions have increased. Differentials in timing of 1st birth did not affect fertility because delayers still had children. Postponement of childbearing is new to Spain and may reflect unstable economic conditions or security of women's position in the labor market. Cultural norms have also changed to define an appropriate time for childbearing as not immediately after marriage. Life table estimates show the median age of women at 1st birth as 25.6 years in the early 1980s compared to 24.6 years in the later 1970s. The interquartile timing of 1st births ranged from 14 months for the 1970-74 birth cohort to 26 months for the 1980-83 cohort. Women who married in the 1960s and early 1970s had their 1st child within the 1st year of marriage. Observations are that motherhood remains unchanged, timing reflects intercohort differences, postponement occurs after 1975, and differentials are not constant across

  14. Experiences and impact of mistreatment and obstetric violence on women during childbearing: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Julie; Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; Watts, Kim; McCloskey, Paula; Evans, Catrin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this review is to synthesize the best available evidence on the experiences of mistreatment and/or obstetric violence in women. Specifically, the objective is to explore, from a woman's point of view, the impacts and consequences of mistreatment and/or obstetric violence during childbearing. The review question is: "What are the experiences and impact of mistreatment and obstetric violence on women during the active period of childbearing?"

  15. Educational differences in early childbearing: A cross-national comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Raymo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research on fertility in industrialized countries focuses primarily on delayed childbearing, despite the facts that large numbers of women continue to enter parenthood at relatively young ages and that early childbearing has been linked to economic disadvantage. Objective: This cross-national comparative study describes relationships between women's educational attainment and young age at first birth and evaluates the extent to which these differences have changed over time for women born 1955-1981. Methods: Defining 'early' childbearing as the age by which 20Š of first births have occurred to women in a given birth cohort and country, we describe differences in early childbearing by educational attainment across three cohorts of women in 20 countries. Results: We find a strong negative educational gradient in early childbearing across all 20 countries and some evidence of an increase in the relative prevalence of early childbearing among the least-educated women. In 10 countries, the relative prevalence of early childbearing among women with low education is significantly higher for one or both of the more recent birth cohorts compared to the earliest cohort. However, many countries show no significant change, and in one country (Poland there is modest evidence of a decreasing educational gap. Conclusions: Evidence that educational differences in early childbearing have grown in some countries is generally consistent with the notion of family bifurcation and 'diverging destinies' by socioeconomic status. However, the pattern is not universal and future work should examine the various factors that shape these patterns, including the role of public policies.

  16. We are mothers too: childbearing experiences of lesbian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Michelle T

    2007-01-01

    To describe lesbians' personal and health care experiences of becoming pregnant, giving birth, and being mothers and comothers within the context of potentially oppressive family, social, and political structures. Critical ethnography. Participants' homes, lesbian mother support group, and prenatal clinics and hospitals in the Pacific Northwest. English-speaking self-identified lesbian women, including 21 interview and six focus-group participants and approximately 43 observed in a support group. In-depth open-ended interviews, focus group, and participant observation. Content/categorical analysis followed by discussion of the mother's stories and a critical conversation about lesbian mothering. The seven organizing themes are as follows: preparing the way: becoming ready; conception: you can't just fall into it; you can hear a heartbeat: pregnancy; birthing our babies; the work of mothers and mothers who work; families who sustain and families who oppose; and sources of support in everyday life. The first four are described in this article. Health care providers, policy makers, and the public can be better informed about the specific needs of childbearing lesbians.

  17. Marriage, childbearing, and migration in Kyrgyzstan: Exploring interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesia Nedoluzhko

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study we investigate interdependencies between entry into a marital union, childbearing, and migration. We apply event-history techniques to retrospective data on women aged 18-29 from a survey conducted in northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to examine how these events can influence one another, with a special focus on the effects of duration of exposure. In addition we analyze the impact of some individual characteristics on the propensity to get married, to become a mother, and to migrate. In our analysis we account for several duration dependences ('clocks'. The results illustrate that months since marriage formation is the most important duration variable in the first-birth propensities model. Out-of-wedlock conception is associated with increased marriage risks. Migration is often a part of the family building process: high first-birth propensities of recent migrants as well as high migration risks among pregnant women are due to marriage-related migration.

  18. Mortality in women in relation to their childbearing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Beral, V.; Moser, K.

    1988-01-01

    With data from the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys' longitudinal study the mortality of currently married women aged under 60 in 1971 was investigated in relation to the number of liveborn children reported at the 1971 census, adjusting for their husbands' social class. Women who had never had children experienced a higher mortality from many causes of death than the parous women, and this was probably due, at least in part, to selective factors. When the analysis was confined to parous women mortality from diabetes mellitus and cervical cancer increased significantly and oesophageal cancer decreased significantly with increasing number of liveborn children. Mortality from all circulatory diseases and from hypertensive disease, ischaemic heart disease, and subarachnoid haemorrhage tended to rise with parity, though the trends were not statistically significant. Mortality from breast cancer decreased significantly with the number of liveborn children, but only when nullipara were included in the analyses. These data suggest that there may be residual and cumulative effects of childbearing which influence patterns of disease in the long term. PMID:3408979

  19. Some (But Not Much) Progress Toward Understanding Teenage Childbearing: A Review of Research From the Past Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Claire A.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    In the decade and a half since Coley & Chase-Lansdale’s (1998) review of teenage childbearing there have been a number of studies investigating teenage childbearing from a developmental psychological perspective. Many of these studies have focused primarily on identifying individual, familial, and socioeconomic risk factors in childhood and adolescence that are highly correlated with teenage sexual behavior and teenage childbearing. We have an emerging understanding of teenage childbearing as the culmination of a complex cascade of experiences and decisions that overlap greatly with the risks for antisocial behavior. Much of this research, however, is limited by its reliance on correlational and cross-sectional research designs, which are not able to rigorously test causal inferences or to identify mechanisms associated with teenage childbearing. Innovative studies using large, nationally representative samples with quasi-experimental and longitudinal designs can expand on such descriptive studies. In particular, quasi-experimental studies can help answer questions about which risk factors are causally associated with teenage childbearing and suggest potential mechanisms that can explain how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes. Future studies also will need to incorporate more precise measures of developmental processes and explore heterogeneity among adolescent mothers. Although advances have been made in the psychological study of teenage childbearing, more research is needed in order to answer important questions about which psychological processes are causally related to teenage childbearing and how teenage childbearing is associated with poor outcomes for young mothers and their offspring. PMID:22675905

  20. Tailoring an Alcohol Intervention for American Indian Alaska Native Women of Childbearing Age: Listening to the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Annika C; Dusek, Marlené L; Ortega, Marina L; Camp-Mazzetti, Alexandrea; Calac, Dan J; Chambers, Christina D

    2017-11-01

    Reduction of risky drinking in women of childbearing age is 1 strategy that may be employed to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, a sequela of prenatal alcohol exposure. Communities differ in risk and protective factors, necessitating culturally informed interventions for maximal efficacy. This article describes the modification of an existing web-based screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment intervention to reduce risky drinking among American Indian Alaska Native (AIAN) women of childbearing age in Southern California into a peer-to-peer-based intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). The modification process was iterative and included various community focus groups, interviews, and a final review. Intervention modification was required for cultural congruence. Components of the peer-to-peer intervention designed by this project included a flip chart used to guide the motivational interviewing, charts of the financial and physical costs of alcohol consumption, revised baseline and follow-up questionnaires, and guidance regarding the application of MI techniques. This study may inform the modification of future interventions among AIAN communities. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Another Baby? Father Involvement and Childbearing in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotila, Letitia E.; Dush, Claire M. Kamp

    2013-01-01

    An historic number of women in the US have children outside of marriage, and with more than one father, yet little research has examined the association between family process and women’s childbearing decisions. Using a subsample of unmarried women from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2028), a study of primarily low-income unmarried parents, we conducted discrete-time survival analysis models to predict whether women had another child with the focal child’s father (same-father birth) or with a new father (new-father birth). Father involvement was measured by engagement, indirect care, accessibility, and financial support. Overall, mothers who reported greater engagement and indirect care from the focal child’s father were more likely to have a same-father birth even when he was not living in her home, and were also less likely to have a new-father birth. Further, mothers who reported greater accessibility and stable financial support from the focal child’s nonresident father were also less likely to have a new-father birth. One pathway through which this may have occurred was that single mothers who perceived less indirect care and accessibility from the focal child’s nonresident father were more likely to begin new romantic relationships. Indeed, whether or not the mother had a new romantic partner partially mediated the association between indirect care and a same-father birth, and fully mediated the association between accessibility and a new-father birth, suggesting that one pathway linking father involvement to a new-father birth was through maternal repartnering. Clinical and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23244460

  2. Hygiene interventions for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection among childbearing women: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jessica; Dennis, Cindy-Lee

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review to examine the effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce congenital cytomegalovirus transmission and infection among women of childbearing age. Congenital cytomegalovirus has been identified as the leading infectious cause of damage to the growing fetus in developed countries, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and spina bifida. Despite the prevalence and consequences of this infection, it has a low profile and pregnant mothers are often unaware of the risks and protective behaviours related to its transmission. Women with children in daycare and nurses working with children are particularly at risk of acquiring the virus. A computerized literature search for articles up to 1 December 2007 was performed using MEDLINE (from 1950); EMBASE (from 1980) and CINAHL (from 1982). Both authors independently reviewed studies that met inclusion criteria and assigned a quality rating determined by the number of validity criteria met. Differences were discussed until consensus was reached. Differences in hygiene behaviour changes were most statistically significant for pregnant, seronegative women. Although the methodological quality of the three included studies was not strong, seroconversion rates consistently decreased as cytomegalovirus education and support increased. Nurses can act as preventive agents for cytomegalovirus infection through education about hygiene precautions during antenatal care and through preventive measures in the workplace. The review findings suggest educational interventions in hygiene practices have the potential to be a feasible, large-scale, primary prevention strategy.

  3. How Neighborhood Effects Vary: Childbearing and Fathering among Latino and African American Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Lucero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines what neighborhood conditions experienced at age 15 and after are associated with teen childbearing and fathering among Latino and African American youth and whether these neighborhood effects vary by gender and/or ethnicity. Administrative and survey data from a natural experiment are used for a sample of 517 Latino and African American youth whose families were quasi-randomly assigned to public housing operated by the Denver (CO Housing Authority (DHA. Characteristics of the neighborhood initially assigned by DHA to wait list applicants are utilized as identifying instruments for the neighborhood contexts experienced during adolescence. Cox Proportional Hazards (PH models reveal that neighborhoods having higher percentages of foreign-born residents but lower levels of social capital robustly predict reduced odds of teen parenting though the magnitude of these effects was contingent on gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the presence of foreign-born neighbors on the risk of teen parenting produced a stronger dampening effect for African American youth when compared to Latino youth. Additionally, the effects of social capital on teen parenting were stronger for males than females.

  4. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  5. Interrelationships between childbearing and housing transitions in the family life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, Hill; Steele, Fiona

    2013-10-01

    Research has examined the effect of family changes on housing transitions and childbearing patterns within various housing types. Although most research has investigated how an event in one domain of family life depends on the current state in another domain, the interplay between them has been little studied. This study examines the interrelationships between childbearing decisions and housing transitions. We use rich longitudinal register data from Finland and apply multilevel event history analysis to allow for multiple births and housing changes over the life course. We investigate the timing of fertility decisions and housing choices with respect to each other. We model childbearing and housing transitions jointly to control for time-invariant unobserved characteristics of women, which may simultaneously influence their fertility behavior and housing choices, and we show how joint modeling leads to a deeper understanding of the interplay between the two domains of family life.

  6. Social Stigma and Childbearing for Women Living With HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Rose, Carol Dawson

    2016-09-01

    As more women become infected with HIV, the issue of childbearing becomes increasingly salient. A more nuanced understanding of women's situations is needed to provide high-quality and relevant services and support. We examined reproductive decision making among 20 women living with HIV through in-depth interviews. These women made decisions within situations of chaos, instability, and trauma, which often limited their ability to make truly informed choices about their lives and childbearing. Despite their HIV, many of the women wanted children, but experienced stigmatization related both to their HIV and to their decisions to have children. This stigmatization came from multiple sources, including health care providers, some of whom encouraged their patients to abort pregnancies because of their HIV. Participants, however, demonstrated resistance to stigmatization, through building supportive communities and developing trusting relationships with HIV providers. These results support the need for specialized HIV care for women of childbearing age. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. A comparison of folate status in women of child-bearing age in Korea and in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Taisun Hyun,1 Suguna Badiga,2 Han Byul Jang,1 Young-Hee Han,1 Chandrika J Piyathilake21Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea; 2Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USABackground: Even though several studies have demonstrated that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid (FA reduces the occurrence of neural tube defects, FA fortification has been a topic of intense debate due to the possible adverse effects of higher folate status on several health conditions. Several countries, including Korea, have been indecisive as to whether fortification is warranted or not. It is therefore helpful for these countries to compare folate concentrations in their populations with populations exposed to mandatory FA fortification.Purpose: To evaluate the differences in the distribution of circulating concentrations of folate in Korea and the United States (US at different time points.Methods: The Korean study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in 1999 and in 2009. The US study populations consisted of women of child-bearing age recruited in the post FA fortification era (2005 and 2009. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC folate concentrations were measured using the Lactobacillus casei microbiological assay.Results: The percentage of US women with neural tube defect-protective levels of RBC folate was significantly higher compared to Korean women in 1999 and 2009. However, in 2009, when FA supplements became readily available for Koreans, 50% of Korean women in the study achieved the neural tube defect-protective level of RBC folate; 11% of them demonstrating supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate. Even though FA fortification in the US resulted in more than 80of women achieving >400 ng/mL of RBC folate by 2009, nearly 50% also demonstrated having supraphysiologic concentrations of plasma folate, which prompted some researchers to

  8. Limited socioeconomic opportunities and Latina teen childbearing: a qualitative study of family and structural factors affecting future expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Marchi, Kristen; Ralph, Lauren; Biggs, M Antonia; Combellick, Sarah; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D; Braveman, Paula

    2013-04-01

    The decrease in adolescent birth rates in the United States has been slower among Latinas than among other ethnic/racial groups. Limited research has explored how socioeconomic opportunities influence childbearing among Latina adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 65 pregnant foreign- and US-born Latina women (31 adolescents; 34 adults) in two California counties. We assessed perceived socioeconomic opportunities and examined how family, immigration and acculturation affected the relationships between socioeconomic opportunities and adolescent childbearing. Compared with women who delayed childbearing into adulthood, pregnant adolescents described having few resources for educational and career development and experiencing numerous socioeconomic and social barriers to achieving their goals. Socioeconomic instability and policies limiting access to education influenced childbearing for immigrant adolescents. In contrast, family disintegration tied to poverty figured prominently in US-born adolescents' childbearing. Limited socioeconomic opportunities may play a large role in persistently high pregnancy rates among Latina adolescents.

  9. "To be taken seriously" : women's reflections on how migration and resettlement experiences influence their healthcare needs during childbearing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Eva K

    2015-06-01

    To use an intersectional approach to analyze women's reflections on how their migration and resettlement experiences to Sweden influenced their health and healthcare needs during childbearing. Focus-group discussions, pair interviews and individual interviews were conducted in southern Sweden between 2006 and 2009, with 25 women originating from 17 different countries with heterogeneous backgrounds that had experienced childbirth in Sweden. Qualitative content analysis was used with an intersectional approach, taking into consideration intersections of ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and gender. The hardships of migration, resettlement, and constraints in the daily life made the women feel overstrained, tense, and disembodied. Being treated as a stranger and ignored or rejected in healthcare encounters was devaluing and discriminating. The women stressed that they felt stronger and had fewer complications during pregnancy and labor when they were "taken seriously" and felt that they had a confident, caring relationship with caregivers/midwives. This, therefore, enabled the women to boost their sense of self, and to recognize their capabilities, as well as their "embodied knowledge". Caregivers/midwives should be aware of the hardships the women face. Hardships stem from experiences of migration and resettlement as well as from structural constraints such as the "triple jeopardy" of ethnicity, SES and gender, which increase women's needs of support in childbearing. Such awareness is necessary when promoting health and reducing the unnecessary suffering and victimization of women, their children, and their families. It is a matter of patient safety and equity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H E; Rydzak, C E; Cotich, K L; Wang, B; Sax, P E; Losina, E; Freedberg, K A; Goldie, S J; Lu, Z; Walensky, R P

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify the benefits (life expectancy gains) and risks (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the USA. We used data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Use of non-efavirenz-based initial ART in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a trade-off between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers.

  11. Quantifying the risks and benefits of efavirenz use in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, HE; Rydzak, CE; Cotich, KL; Wang, B; Sax, PE; Losina, E; Freedberg, KA; Goldie, SJ; Lu, Z; Walensky, RP

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We quantified the benefits (life expectancy gains) and harms (efavirenz-related teratogenicity) associated with using efavirenz in HIV-infected women of childbearing age in the United States. Methods We used data from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study in an HIV disease simulation model to estimate life expectancy in women who receive an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral regimen compared with those who delay efavirenz use and receive a boosted protease inhibitor-based initial regimen. To estimate excess risk of teratogenic events with and without efavirenz exposure per 100,000 women, we incorporated literature-based rates of pregnancy, live births, and teratogenic events into a decision analytic model. We assumed a teratogenicity risk of 2.90 events/100 live births in women exposed to efavirenz during pregnancy and 2.68/100 live births in unexposed women. Results Survival for HIV-infected women who received an efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy regimen was 0.89 years greater than for women receiving non-efavirenz-based initial therapy (28.91 vs. 28.02 years). The rate of teratogenic events was 77.26/100,000 exposed women, compared with 72.46/100,000 unexposed women. Survival estimates were sensitive to variations in treatment efficacy and AIDS-related mortality. Estimates of excess teratogenic events were most sensitive to pregnancy rates and number of teratogenic events/100 live births in efavirenz-exposed women. Conclusions Use of non-efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women of childbearing age may reduce life expectancy gains from antiretroviral treatment, but may also prevent teratogenic events. Decision-making regarding efavirenz use presents a tradeoff between these two risks; this study can inform discussions between patients and health care providers. PMID:20561082

  12. Sociodemographic and dietary profile of 4,471 childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Marta; Goni, Leticia; Santiago, Susana; Zazpe, Itziar; García, Aquilino; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-02-01

    The maintenance of healthy lifestyles is of great importance to prevent pregnancy-related diseases at early stages. For this reason, the knowledge of the overall wellbeing of women at childbearing-age is necessary to provide appropriate advice to maintain or improve the nutritional status. The aim of this research was to assess the lifestyles of childbearing-age women planning a pregnancy and to examine the difference between primiparae and multiparae women on these lifestyles. This cross-sectional survey involved 4,471 Spanish women at childbearing-age that were planning a pregnancy. Information was collected through a questionnaire by community health professionals. The profile of childbearing-age recruited women planning a pregnancy were in her early thirties (31.4 ± 4.8 years) and 72.5% were seeking for her first baby. They had a good self-perception of their nutritional and health status and followed a balanced diet. Interestingly, primiparae women had lower risk of health complications but they were greater consumers of tobacco and alcohol (p pregnancies underlying modifiable or preventable factors. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Gender Equality and Outsourcing of Domestic Work, Childbearing, and Relationship Stability among British Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Pia S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether gender inequality in the division of housework and child care may be an obstacle to childbearing and relationship stability among different groups of British couples. Furthermore, it explores whether outsourcing of domestic labor ameliorates any negative effects of domestic work inequality. The empirical…

  14. Adolescent Childbearing, Poverty, and Siblings: Taking New Direction from the New Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Jacobson, Leanne J.

    2000-01-01

    Article critically appraises the sibling-comparison method by discussing its limitations: it assumes within-family homogeneity; it neglects naturally occurring heterogeneity across siblings; it overlooks unique effects of a teen's childbearing for her family and siblings; it underappreciates the selectivity of sisters of teenage mothers who delay…

  15. Anatomical characterisation of the cricothyroid membrane in females of childbearing age using computed tomography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Long, N

    2014-02-01

    In the event of failure to secure the airway by conventional means, it may be necessary to perform invasive airway access via the cricothyroid membrane. No studies have addressed anatomy of this structure in the obstetric population. We aimed to review the anatomical variation of this structure in a population of childbearing age.

  16. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Gustavo Glotz de; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident

  17. Latina Daughters' Childbearing Attitudes: The Role of Maternal Expectations and Education Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls' and their mothers' expectations for their daughters' college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters' early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we…

  18. Childbearing traditions of Indian women at home and abroad: An integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Young-Oak; Dietsch, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    The percentage of overseas-born mothers giving birth in Australia has increased to 31.5% in 2012 and Indian women represent 10% (the highest proportion). It is important for midwives in Australia to be aware of the childbearing traditions of Indian women and how these influence Indian women birthing in Australia. To explore childbearing practices in India and Indian women's experience of giving birth abroad; and to discuss the relevant findings for midwives working with Indian women in Australia. An integrative literature review was employed. 32 items, including 18 original research articles were thematically reviewed to identify commonly occurring themes relating to Indian women's childbearing traditions. Five themes relating to traditional childbearing practices of women birthing in India were identified. These themes included diversity and disparity; social context of childbirth and marriage; diet based on Ayurveda; pollution theory and confinement; and finally, rituals and customs. Indian women giving birth abroad and by implication in Australia experience a transition to motherhood in a new culture. While adjusting to motherhood, they are also negotiating between their old and new cultural identities. To provide culturally safe care, it is essential that midwives reflect on their own culture while exploring what traditions are important for Indian women. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of Ionizing Radiation in Women of Childbearing Age undergoing Radiofrequency Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Gustavo Glotz de, E-mail: gglima.pesquisa@gmail.com; Gomes, Daniel Garcia; Gensas, Caroline Saltz; Simão, Mariana Fernandez; Rios, Matheus N.; Pires, Leonardo Martins; Kruse, Marcelo Lapa; Leiria, Tiago Luiz Luz [Instituto de Cardiologia, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    The International Commission of Radiology recommends a pregnancy screening test to all female patients of childbearing age who will undergo a radiological study. Radiation is known to be teratogenic and its effect is cumulative. The teratogenic potential starts at doses close to those used during these procedures. The prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in patients undergoing electrophysiological studies and/or catheter ablation in our midst is unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of positive pregnancy tests in female patients referred for electrophysiological study and/or radiofrequency ablation. Cross-sectional study analyzing 2,966 patients undergoing electrophysiological study and/or catheter ablation, from June 1997 to February 2013, in the Institute of Cardiology of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 1490 procedures were performed in women, of whom 769 were of childbearing age. All patients were screened with a pregnancy test on the day before the procedure. Three patients tested positive, and were therefore unable to undergo the procedure. The prevalence observed was 3.9 cases per 1,000 women of childbearing age. Because of their safety and low cost, pregnancy screening tests are indicated for all women of childbearing age undergoing radiological studies, since the degree of ionizing radiation needed for these procedures is very close to the threshold for teratogenicity, especially in the first trimester, when the signs of pregnancy are not evident.

  20. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Je; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Bang, So-Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Young Mo; Lee, Won Kyung; Park, Hyesook; Lee, Jisoo

    2016-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE.

  1. Periodontal status and associated risk factors among childbearing age women in Cixi City of China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-min; Liu, Jia; Sun, Wei-lian; Chen, Li-li; Chai, Li-guo; Xiao, Xiang; Cao, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the periodontal status and associated risk factors among women of childbearing age to increase the awareness of oral health. Methods: The study was conducted on childbearing age women in Cixi, a city in Zhejiang Province in the southeast of China. A total of 754 women participated in periodontal examination while receiving prenatal care. Data of the women were collected from the Cixi Family Planning Commission and during an interview. Clinical periodontal indices, such as bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured during the examination. Statistical analysis on subject-based data was performed. Results: The prevalence of periodontal disease among childbearing age women in Cixi was high (84.7%). A significant association was found between the disease and educational level, pregnancy, taking oral contraceptives, stress, alcohol consumption, overweight, dental visit, and teeth brushing (Pperiodontal disease showed deep PD, obvious BOP, and clinical attachment loss. Among this population, pregnancy was closely associated with higher BOP percentage; teeth brushing no more than once per day or brushing for less than 1 min (Pperiodontal status of childbearing age women in Cixi needs to be improved urgently. Attention towards the periodontal health should be warranted, especially for those in special statuses and with poor awareness. PMID:23463766

  2. Why Wait? The Effect of Marriage and Childbearing on the Wages of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2-4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female…

  3. Love, marriage, then the baby carriage? Marriage timing and childbearing in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The

  4. Changes in the age pattern of childbearing in Serbia and EU countries - comparative analysis

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    Magdalenić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most European countries nowadays are characterized by a fertility level, which by earlier theoretical considerations was not even assumed as the lower limit for childbearing. The focus of this paper are the changes in reproductive behavior of women during the second half of the 20th and beginning of the 21st century as well as the changes in the age model of childbearing which resulted from that. The comparative analysis between Serbia and 28 EU member countries covers the period 1960-2012. The distribution of live births according to mother's age was analyzed, as well as the phenomena of postponing births and increasing the average age of mothers at childbirth, changes in the structure of female population according to the number of live births, and the decrease of higher birth orders. Demographic potentials of fertility through age structures of the fertile cohort were also pointed out. The similarities and differences in the fertility patterns in the Republic of Serbia and the EU countries were considered in order to determine the specificities of the reproductive model of women in Serbia and the widespread phenomena of postponing births. The fertility transition in Serbia in the second half of the 20th century had the same trend as in the EU countries evolving in the direction of constant lowering of the childbirth levels. Nevertheless, in relation to the sixties of the 20th century, Serbia shifted towards the lower part of the scale at which the EU countries are ranked according to total fertility rate. Almost all EU member countries (except for Luxembourg, Malta, Cyprus and Portugal marked an increase in fertility in the 2000-2011 period, while the fertility level in Serbia, with some oscillations, continued to decrease. The turnabout in total fertility rate registered in most European countries is attributed to the effect of postponed childbirths, while it is assumed that its impact will be marked in Serbia during the next decade. Changes

  5. The Meaning of “Control” for Childbearing Women in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namey, Emily E; Lyerly, Anne D

    2010-01-01

    Childbearing women, healthcare providers, and commentators on birth broadly identify control as an important issue during childbirth; however, control is rarely defined in literature on the topic. Here we seek to deconstruct the term control as used by childbearing women to better understand the issues and concepts underpinning it. Based on qualitative interviews with 101 parous women in the United States, we analyze meanings of control within the context of birth narratives. We find these meanings correspond to five distinct domains: self-determination, respect, personal security, attachment, and knowledge. We also find ambivalence about this term and concept, in that half our sample recognizes “you cannot control birth”. Together, these findings call into question the usefulness of the term for measuring quality or improving maternity care and highlight other concepts which may be more fruitfully explored. PMID:20579792

  6. Understanding the Social Meaning of Infertility and Childbearing: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Childbearing and Childlessness in Northern Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2013-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major medical condition that affects many married couples in sub-Saharan African and as such associated with several social meanings. This study therefore explored community's perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. Methods The study was exploratory and qualitative using in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Fifteen marriage unions with infertility (childless), forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guides. Three focus group discussions were also carried out, one for childless women, one for women with children and one with men with children. The data collected were transcribed, coded, arranged, and analyzed for categories and themes and finally triangulated. Results The study revealed that infertility was caused by both social and biological factors. Socially couples could become infertile through supernatural causes such as bewitchment, and disobediences of social norms. Abortion, masturbation and use of contraceptives were also identified as causes of infertility. Most childless couples seek treatment from spiritualist, traditional healers and hospital. These sources of treatment are used simultaneously. Conclusion Childbearing is highly valued in the community and Childlessness is highly engendered, and stigmatised in this community with manifold social consequences. In such a community therefore, the concept of reproductive choice must encompass policies that make it possible for couples to aspire to have the number of children they wish. PMID:23342158

  7. Understanding the social meaning of infertility and childbearing: a qualitative study of the perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Teg-Nefaah Tabong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infertility is a major medical condition that affects many married couples in sub-Saharan African and as such associated with several social meanings. This study therefore explored community's perception of childbearing and childlessness in Northern Ghana using the Upper West Region as a case study. METHODS: The study was exploratory and qualitative using in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Fifteen marriage unions with infertility (childless, forty-five couples with children, and eight key informants were purposively sampled and interviewed using a semi-structured interview guides. Three focus group discussions were also carried out, one for childless women, one for women with children and one with men with children. The data collected were transcribed, coded, arranged, and analyzed for categories and themes and finally triangulated. RESULTS: The study revealed that infertility was caused by both social and biological factors. Socially couples could become infertile through supernatural causes such as bewitchment, and disobediences of social norms. Abortion, masturbation and use of contraceptives were also identified as causes of infertility. Most childless couples seek treatment from spiritualist, traditional healers and hospital. These sources of treatment are used simultaneously. CONCLUSION: Childbearing is highly valued in the community and Childlessness is highly engendered, and stigmatised in this community with manifold social consequences. In such a community therefore, the concept of reproductive choice must encompass policies that make it possible for couples to aspire to have the number of children they wish.

  8. Damned if you do: culture, identity, privilege, and teenage childbearing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T

    2003-09-01

    Why is the broad American public disapproving of urban African American teen mothers and unaware that the scientific evidence on the consequences of teen childbearing, per se, is equivocal? I focus on the links between culture, identity, and privilege. I argue that the broader society is selective in its attention to the actual life chances of urban African Americans and how these chances shape fertility-timing norms, in part, because this selective focus helps maintain the core values, competencies, and privileges of the dominant group. Delayed childbearing is an adaptive practice for European Americans and an intensely salient goal they have for their children. Yet early fertility-timing patterns may constitute adaptive practice for African American residents of high-poverty urban areas, in no small measure because they contend with structural constraints that shorten healthy life expectancy. European Americans put their cultural priorities into action ahead of the needs of African Americans and employ substantial resources to disseminate the social control message meant for their youth that teenage childbearing has disastrous consequences. Their ability to develop a more nuanced understanding of early childbearing is limited by their culturally mediated perceptions. Thus, cultural dominance can be perpetuated by well-meaning people consciously dedicated to children's well-being, social justice, and the public good. The entrenched cultural interdependence of and social inequality between European and African Americans leads African Americans to be highly visible targets of moral condemnation for their fertility behavior, and also sets up African Americans to pay a particularly high political, economic, psychosocial, and health price.

  9. Trends in low birth weight infants and changes in Baltimore's childbearing population, 1972–77

    OpenAIRE

    Strobino, Donna M.

    1982-01-01

    Linked birth and death records provided the population for a study of trends in low birth weight (LBW) rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977 and of the effect of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on these trends. The impact of shifts in the birth weight distribution on neonatal mortality rates was also investigated. Trends were analyzed for unstandardized LBW rates as well as for rates standardized on the distributions of maternal age, education, gravidity, prio...

  10. Child-Bearing Decision Making Among Women Previously Treated for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-04-01

    this kind of study is an essential preliminary step to developing meaningful theory-driven psychosocial research on the issues of childbearing among...than older women with the disease and may experience unique vulnerability factors. Adult developmental theory ( Erikson , 1963; Levinson, Darrow, Klein...variety of developmental tasks characterize different stages of the adult life cycle. Several significant tasks for younger women are likely to be

  11. Stigma gets in my way: Factors affecting client-provider communication regarding childbearing among people living with HIV in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Beyeza-Kashesya

    Full Text Available Many HIV-affected couples living in sub-Saharan Africa desire to have children, but few quantitative studies have examined support for their childbearing needs. Our study explored client-provider communication about childbearing and safer conception among HIV clients in Uganda.400 Ugandan HIV clients in committed relationships and with intentions to conceive were surveyed. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to childbearing, and use of safer conception methods were assessed, including communication with providers about childbearing needs, the correlates of which were examined with bivariate statistics and logistic multivariate analysis.75% of the sample was female; 61% were on antiretroviral therapy; and 61% had HIV-negative or unknown status partners. Nearly all (98% reported the desire to discuss childbearing intentions with their HIV provider; however, only 44% reported such discussions, the minority (28% of which was initiated by the provider. Issues discussed with HIV providers included: HIV transmission risk to partner (30%, HIV transmission risk to child (30%, and how to prevent transmission to the child (27%; only 8% discussed safer conception methods. Regression analysis showed that those who had communicated with providers about childbearing were more likely to have been diagnosed with HIV for a longer period [OR (95% CI = 1.09 (1.03, 1.15], while greater internalized childbearing stigma was associated with lower odds of this communication [OR (95% CI = 0.70 (0.49, 0.99], after controlling for all bivariate correlates and basic demographics.Communication between HIV clients and providers about childbearing needs is poor and associated with stigma. Innovations to mitigate stigma among clients as well as training to improve health worker communication and skills related to safer conception counseling is needed.

  12. Low prevalence of iron deficiency anemia between 1981 and 2010 in Chilean women of childbearing age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Ríos-Castillo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of anemia and iron status among Chilean women of childbearing age between 1981 and 2010. Materials and methods. Calculation of the prevalence of anemia and iron status was based on multiple cross-sectional iron absorption studies performed in 888 women during this period of time. All studies included measurements of hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, zinc protoporphyrin, percentage of transferrin saturation and serum ferritin. Data were grouped by decade (1981-1990,1991-2000, and 2001-2010. Results. Prevalence of anemia for these decades was 9, 6 and 10%, respectively (p=NS. Iron deficiency anemia was the main cause of anemia in all periods (55, 85 and 75%, respectively; p=NS. A high prevalence of women with normal iron status was observed for all periods (64, 69, and 67, respectively; p=NS. Prevalence of iron deficiency without anemia in 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2010 was 7, 20 and 12%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Finally, prevalence of iron depleted stores was 20, 6 and 10%, respectively (p menor que 0.05. Conclusions. Prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Chilean women of childbearing age was mild between 1981 and 2010. More than 60% of childbearing age women presented normal iron status in all periods. However, prevalence of iron depleted stores was moderate during 1981-1990, and was mild during 1991-2000 and 2001-2010.

  13. Fertility and the fast-track: Continued childbearing among professionals in Sweden, 1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stanfors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: During recent decades women have made considerable advances in education and the labor market, even in fast-track professions such as law, medicine, and academia. While women have entered high-status professions, the career paths of some jobs have changed little and are still inflexible, which implies that professional gains may be offset by familial losses. Objective: We investigate continued childbearing, focusing on the relationship between occupation and second and third births, among highly educated men and women in three high-status professions. Methods: We analyze the determinants of having a second or a third birth using longitudinal data from population registers in Sweden, 1991-2009. We use descriptive statistics and logistic models. Results: Net of demographic and socioeconomic controls, medical doctors are more likely to continue childbearing than lawyers and academics, irrespective of parity and gender. The patterns that emerge are independent of income. Public sector work is conducive to continued childbearing, especially for women. Conclusions: Although there are more opportunities to combine career and family in Sweden than in many other countries, this does not hold equally for all. The results indicate that working conditions and career structures contribute to making it easier for some groups than others to combine a professional career and children. Patterns that emerge reflect that women and men are not equally sensitive to career structures that imply a tradeoff between career and children at an early stage of the career. This puts policies promoting work and family for all into perspective.

  14. [Awareness and infection of Toxoplasma gondii in married childbearing women in Chengde Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-jing; Xu, Tao; Song, Ren-hao

    2014-08-01

    To understand Toxoplasma gondii infection and awareness condition of married childbearing women in Chengde Region, so as to provide the evidence for the establishment of control measures. Totally 733 married childbearing women who took physical examination in Chengde Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from July to December in 2013 were investigated by questionnaire to understand the awareness condition on T. gondii infection, then 490 women among them from 3 counties and 2 districts were randomly chosen to detect the Toxoplasma antibodies by ELISA. A total of 733 questionnaires were returned, and 126 women knew related knowledge about T. gondii infection, and the awareness rate was 17.19%( 126/733). Sixty-three women were determined as infected cases, and the infection rate was 12.86%( 63/490). The infection rates of the women who with higher educational level, working as medical staff and living in urban were lower, and the awareness rates of them were higher. The infection rate of T. gondii among the married childbearing women in Chengde Region is high, and the awareness rate of them is low. In order to decrease the infection rate as well as to increase the awareness rate of the population, the health education should be strengthened.

  15. Predictors of anemia among haitian children aged 6 to 59 months and women of childbearing age and their implications for programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag A; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Mamadoultaibou, Aissa; Durandisse, Emmanuela Blain; Pierre, Joseline Marhone

    2013-12-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy prioritizes prevention and treatment of anemia among mothers and young children, but there are few available data to support planning for scale-up of anemia interventions. To describe the prevalence and predictors of anemia among Haitian women (15 to 49 years) and children (6 to 59 months) and to draw implications for national nutrition programming. Descriptive and univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models were performed using data from the nationally representative Haitian Demographic Health Survey 2005/06. The prevalence of mild (hemoglobin 11.0 to 11.9 g/dL), moderate (hemoglobin 8.0 to 10.9 g/dL), and severe (hemoglobin education level, p = .022) were different from those in rural women (wealth quintile, p < .05; employment, p = .003). Anemia in urban and rural children aged 6 to 59 months increased with child age (p < .05) and maternal anemia status (p = .004; p < .001). Female sex (p = .007) and maternal overweight (p = .009) were associated with reduced risk of anemia in rural children only. Anemia among Haitian young children and women of childbearing age is a severe public health problem. The findings suggest the need for context-specific rural and urban strategies, reinforcement of anemia prevention in health services reaching women of childbearing age, and targeted interventions for young children.

  16. [Hepatitis B prevalence among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Liu, J Y; Lyu, J J; Yan, B Y; Feng, Y; Wu, W L; Song, L Z; Xu, A Q

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To know the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among women in child-bearing age in Shandong Province, China, providing references to the improvement of HBV control strategy. Methods: The participants were randomly selected by two-stage sampling method from 12 counties which were representative for the whole province. Firstly two townships were selected from each county by probability proportional to size sampling (PPS) method. Then participants aged 1-4 years, 5-14 years, 15-29 years and 30-59 years were selected by stratified random sampling method. The women in child-bearing age (20-49 years) were involved in this study. Questionnaire survey and 5 ml blood collection were conducted among all participants. Blood samples were detected for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Those who were positive for HBsAg were further detected for hepatitis e antigen (HBeAg), antibody against HBeAg (anti-HBe) and the load of HBV DNA. The basic information of the participants including age, gender, occupation, nationality and residence place were collected. The prevalence of HBV infection indicators after weight adjustment were calculated and compared between participants with different demographic characteristics. Results: A total of 1 151 women in child-bearing age were involved in this study. Twenty-seven participants were positive for HBsAg and the prevalence rate was 2.10% (95 % CI: 0.97%-3.23%). Five participants were positive for both HBsAg and HBeAg and the prevalence rate was 0.36% (95 % CI: 0-0.84%). There were 567 and 291 participants who were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc respectively and the corresponding prevalence rates were 47.72% (95 %CI: 41.68%-53.75%) and 24.40% (95 % CI: 18.50%-30.30%). The number of participants susceptible for HBV was 527 and the percentage of HBV susceptible women was 47.55% (95 % CI: 41.63%-53.47%). Conclusion: HBV infection among

  17. Diet quality and history of gestational diabetes mellitus among childbearing women, United States, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui S; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Person, Sharina D; Goldberg, Robert J; Waring, Molly E

    2015-02-26

    Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Diet quality plays an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We compared diet quality among childbearing women with a history of GDM with the diet quality of childbearing women without a history of GDM. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2007 through 2010. We included women without diabetes aged 20 to 44 years whose most recent live infant was born within the previous 10 years and who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 estimated overall and component diet quality. Multivariable linear regression models estimated the association between a history of GDM and current diet quality, adjusting for age, education, smoking status, and health risk for diabetes. A history of GDM was reported by 7.7% of women. Compared with women without a history of GDM, women with a history of GDM had, on average, 3.4 points lower overall diet quality (95% confidence interval [CI], -6.6 to -0.2) and 0.9 points lower score for consumption of green vegetables and beans (95% CI, -1.4 to -0.4). Other dietary component scores did not differ by history of GDM. In the United States, women with a history of GDM have lower diet quality compared with women who bore a child and do not have a history of GDM. Improving diet quality may be a strategy for preventing type 2 diabetes among childbearing women.

  18. The Social Environment and Childbearing Expectations: Implications for Strength-Based Sexual Health Interventions for Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanDommelen-Gonzalez, Evan; Deardorff, Julianna; Herd, Denise; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2016-06-01

    In the United States, adolescent childbearing is disproportionately higher among Latino youth, a growing population facing substantial social exclusion. Exploring the relationship between the social environment and sexual health outcomes among Latino youth may offer insights into the development of novel interventions. In this study, Latino youth in partnerships were recruited from neighborhood venues in San Francisco and completed in-depth interviews. Youth reported a desire to complete higher education goals prior to starting a family to improve future opportunities and further personal development. Youth stated that social network members, family and partners, were supportive of their individual childbearing expectations. Social environment barriers tied to poverty, immigration status, and gang violence hindered educational attainment. Some differences were noted by gender and immigrant generation. Building on protective social ties and creating avenues in poor, urban neighborhoods for Latino youth to fully access educational opportunities may counter early childbearing and improve sexual health.

  19. Childbearing patterns among immigrant women and their daughters in Spain: Over-adaptation or structural constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo González-Ferrer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spain, a country with one of the lowest fertility levels in the world, has recently received intense immigration flows that may contribute to fertility recovery. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine whether the childbearing behaviour of immigrant women and their descendants shows a pattern of convergence with that of Spanish women born in or after 1950. Methods: After merging data from the Fertility and Values Survey (2006 and the National Immigrants Survey (2007, we analyse the transition to first, second, and third birth using event history models, to identify variations in timing and incidence of birth transitions between native Spanish women and immigrant groups. Results: Previous literature has found that migration disrupts immigrants' fertility only temporarily; however, in the case of Spain, most migrant women who moved before starting family formation do not seem to fully compensate for migration-related disruption of fertility at a later stage. Our findings challenge the widespread belief that immigrants' childbearing alone will allow Spain to leave behind the current lowest-low and latest-late fertility scenario. Contribution: This article analyzes for the first time the fertility of different immigrant generations in Spain compared to native women, applying event history techniques. Our findings challenge conventional wisdom that immigration will improve very low fertility levels in Spain.

  20. Corpus luteum mimics a pelvic lesion on FDG PET in women of childbearing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.W.; Sim, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the nature of incidental single pelvic lesion on F-18 FDG PET scan in the women of childbearing age, further investigation were done. Methods: Three women who had a single round hypermetabolic lesion in the pelvic cavity on FDG PET were further investigated through follow up PET scan or MRI scan. The purposes of PET scan were routine follow up of breast cancer after surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for a patient and cancer screening for two women. The ages were 39, 45, and 48 years old respectively. The last menstrual periods (LMP) were 21, 22 and 24 days before PET examinations. The size and peak SUVs (standard uptake values) of lesions are presented. Results: The lesion in pelvic cavity disappeared in a patients with breast cancer on a follow up PET scan 2 months and 1 week later. The lesions in two women were proved to be corpus luteum cysts on MRI examination on the same day of PET examination. Conclusion: Single pelvic lesion in women of childbearing age should be ruled out a normal corpus luteum cyst. Also, schedule of PET imaging should be adjusted according to her menstrual period

  1. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  2. Determinants of vitamin D status in fair-skinned women of childbearing age at northern latitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Hedlund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Poor vitamin D status during pregnancy has been associated with unfavorable outcomes for mother and child. Thus, adequate vitamin D status in women of childbearing age may be important. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD serum concentrations in women of childbearing age living in Sweden, at latitude 57-58° north. METHOD: Eighty four non-pregnant, non-lactating, healthy, fair-skinned women aged between 25-40 years were included. All subjects provided blood samples, four day food records and answered questionnaires about sun exposure and lifestyle. Total serum 25(OHD was analyzed using Roche Cobas® electrochemoluminiescent immunoassay. RESULTS: Mean 25(OHD was 65.8±19.9 nmol/l and 23% of the subjects had concentrations <50 nmol/l. Only 1% had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Determinants of 25(OHD concentrations were recent sunbed use, recent travel to southern latitude, season, estrogen contraceptive use and use of supplementary vitamin D (R(2 = 0.27. CONCLUSION: Every fifth woman had 25(OHD concentrations <50 nmol/l. About 30% of the variation in vitamin D status was explained by sun exposure, use of vitamin D supplements and use of estrogen contraceptives. Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis seems to be a major contributor to vitamin D status, even at northern latitudes. Thus, recommendations on safe UV-B exposure could be beneficial for vitamin D status.

  3. Yearning, learning, and conceding: reasons men and women change their childbearing intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovou, Maria; Tavares, Lara Patrício

    2011-01-01

    People's childbearing intentions change over the course of their reproductive lives. These changes have been conceptualized as occurring in response to the realization that an individual is unlikely to achieve his or her intended fertility, because of constraints such as the "biological clock" or lack of a partner. In this article, we find that changes to child-bearing plans are influenced by a much wider range of factors than this. People change their plans in response to the wishes of their partners, in response to social norms, as the result of repartnering, and as the result of learning about the costs and benefits of parenthood; there are also differences between the factors that influence men's and women's decision-making. In a departure from existing studies in this area, we use a flexible analytical framework that enables us to analyze increases in planned fertility separately from decreases. This allows us to uncover several complexities of the decision-making process that would otherwise be hidden, and leads us to conclude that the determinants of increases in planned fertility are not simply equal and opposite to the determinants of decreases.

  4. Balancing the benefits and costs of traditional food substitution by indigenous Arctic women of childbearing age: Impacts on persistent organic pollutant, mercury, and nutrient intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnington, Matthew J; Curren, Meredith S; Chan, Hing Man; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    For indigenous Arctic Canadians, traditional food consumption represents a key source of nutrients and environmental contaminants. Particularly, ingestion of marine mammal blubber and meat may lead to persistent organic pollutant levels and mercury intakes that exceed regulatory thresholds for sensitive populations. We investigated whether temporary adjustments to the consumption of traditional food derived from marine mammals appreciably impacted contaminant exposure and nutrient intakes among indigenous women of childbearing age. Such adjustments can be motivated by the desire to lower contaminant exposure or to increase nutrition, or by the diminishing availability of other traditional food sources. We combined the contaminant fate and transport model GloboPOP with the food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-Human Arctic to simulate polychlorinated biphenyl exposures in female 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey participants. We also calculated daily mercury and nutrient intake rates. Our results suggest that a temporary decrease in marine mammal consumption is largely ineffective at reducing exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, because of their long elimination half-lives. In contrast, substitution of marine mammals was highly efficient at reducing mercury intake, but also appreciably lowered intakes of iron, manganese, selenium, and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The impact of increasing intake of traditional food derived from marine mammals during childbearing age greatly depended on baseline consumption rates; replacement is ill-advised for those who already consume a lot of traditional food due to greater polychlorinated biphenyl and mercury exposures, while replacement was potentially beneficial for those with very limited marine mammal consumption due to increased nutrient intakes. Our calculations primarily suggest that considering baseline traditional food intake rates is critical to devising reproductive dietary adjustment strategies that maximize nutrient

  5. Media Influences on Social Outcomes: The Impact of MTV’s 16 and Pregnant on Teen Childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Melissa S; Levine, Phillip B

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the impact of the introduction of the widely viewed MTV reality show 16 and Pregnant on teen childbearing. Our main analysis relates geographic variation in changes in teen childbearing rates to viewership of the show. We implement an instrumental variables (IV ) strategy using local area MTV ratings data from a pre-period to predict local area 16 and Pregnant ratings. The results imply that this show led to a 4.3 percent reduction in teen births. An examination of Google Trends and Twitter data suggest that the show led to increased interest in contraceptive use and abortion.

  6. Motivations for childbearing and fertility behavior among urban and rural families of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, F; Kabacoff, R I; Klein, H E

    1983-01-01

    A sample of 384 husbands and wives were randomly selected and interviewed to investigate the implication of fertility norms and motivations for childbearing on fertility and family planning behavior among Iranian families in urban and rural areas of Iran, after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The term "fertility behavior" refers to actual family size, which is defined as number of children the respondent has living at the time of the interview. "Family planning behavior" refers to the duration of time that the subject has used any birth control method(s). Rural families demonstrated larger actual and ideal family sizes than urban families. The rural sample had a median actual family size of 3.5 children and a median ideal family size of 4.7 children. For the urban sample these figures were 2.2 and 2.3, respectively. The median number of years married was 12.33 for rural and 13.91 for urban respondents. Urban respondents tended to emphasize the psychological and emotional benefits and liabilities associated with having children while rural respondents tended to emphasize both economic and security related motivations. Both groups endorsed infant mortality as a motivation for having more children. Male and female respondents were remarkably similar in their endorsed motivations. There was a significant positive correlation between desired and ideal family size. The correlations among ideal/desired family size and practicing birth control methods were the same and significant at the .001 level. The relationship between motivations for childbearing and years of practicing birth control methods was also significant at the .001 level. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to examine the important predictors of fertility and family planning behavior. For both actual family size and years on birth control, males and females were very similar in terms of predictor importance. Those respondents with less education and large ideal family size tended to have larger

  7. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Szostak-Węgierek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. Methods One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20–49 years who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study in 2013–2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20–29 years (n = 403, 30–39 years (n = 600 and 40–49 years (n = 585. Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Results Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Conclusions Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with

  8. Evaluation of ovary dose for woman of childbearing age woman with breast cancer in tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo Hyeong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Jong Suk

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of 64.94±0.84 mGy and 37.64±1.20 mGy in left ovary part and average of 64.38±1.85 mGy and 32.96±1.11 mGy in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required

  9. Evaluation of ovary dose for woman of childbearing age woman with breast cancer in tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Hyeong; Park, Soo Yeon; Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Kim, Jong Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate unwanted scattered dose to ovary by scattering and leakage generated from treatment fields of Tomotherapy for childbearing woman with breast cancer. The radiation treatments plans for left breast cancer were established using Tomotherapy planning system (Tomotherapy, Inc, USA). They were generated by using helical and direct Tomotherapy methods for comparison. The CT images for the planning were scanned with 2.5 mm slice thickness using anthropomorphic phantom (Alderson-Rando phantom, The Phantom Laboratory, USA). The measurement points for the ovary dose were determined at the points laterally 30 cm apart from mid-point of treatment field of the pelvis. The measurements were repeated five times and averaged using glass dosimeters (1.5 mm diameter and 12 mm of length) equipped with low-energy correction filter. The measures dose values were also converted to Organ Equivalent Dose (OED) by the linear exponential dose-response model. Scattered doses of ovary which were measured based on two methods of Tomo helical and Tomo direct showed average of 64.94±0.84 mGy and 37.64±1.20 mGy in left ovary part and average of 64.38±1.85 mGy and 32.96±1.11 mGy in right ovary part. This showed when executing Tomotherapy, measured scattered dose of Tomo Helical method which has relatively greater monitor units (MUs) and longer irradiation time are approximately 1.8 times higher than Tomo direct method. Scattered dose of left and right ovary of childbearing women is lower than ICRP recommended does which is not seriously worried level against the infertility and secondary cancer occurrence. However, as breast cancer occurrence ages become younger in the future and radiation therapy using high-precision image guidance equipment like Tomotherapy is developed, clinical follow-up studies about the ovary dose of childbearing women patients would be more required.

  10. Metabolic syndrome and its components in Polish women of childbearing age: a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak-Węgierek, Dorota; Waśkiewicz, Anna; Piotrowski, Walerian; Stepaniak, Urszula; Pająk, Andrzej; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena; Nadrowski, Paweł; Niklas, Arkadiusz; Puch-Walczak, Aleksandra; Drygas, Wojciech

    2017-07-13

    Abnormal body mass and related metabolic disorders may affect female reproductive health. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of underweight, overweight, obesity, lipid and glucose metabolism disorders, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome, among Polish women of childbearing age. One thousand five hundred eighty-eight non-pregnant Polish women of childbearing age (20-49 years) who participated in the Multi-Centre National Population Health Examination Survey (WOBASZ II study) in 2013-2014, were assigned to 3 age groups: 20-29 years (n = 403), 30-39 years (n = 600) and 40-49 years (n = 585). Measurements of weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose were taken. For statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Cohran-Armitage tests were used. Of the participants, 4.3% were determined to be underweight, 25.2% were overweight, 15% were obese, and 53.1% had abdominal obesity. With age, the prevalence of both excessive body mass and abdominal obesity tended to increase, and that of underweight to decrease. Frequency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia found in the whole group were 50% and 12.6% respectively, and also tended to rise with age. Low serum HDL-cholesterol (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels were found in 15.1% of the participants. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in the whole group was 8.2% and tended to increase with age. Diabetes was found in 1.2% of the participants and its prevalence also tended to rise with age, at the borderline of significance. Frequency of arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the whole group was 15.7% and 14.1% respectively and both tended to increase with age. Overweight and obesity, especially of abdominal type, and the related metabolic abnormalities are common in Polish women of childbearing age. Their prevalence tends to increase with age. Underweight is relatively common in the youngest age group.

  11. Mapping for maternal and newborn health: the distributions of women of childbearing age, pregnancies and births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Campbell, James; Guerra-Arias, Maria; de Bernis, Luc; Moran, Allisyn; Matthews, Zoë

    2014-01-04

    The health and survival of women and their new-born babies in low income countries has been a key priority in public health since the 1990s. However, basic planning data, such as numbers of pregnancies and births, remain difficult to obtain and information is also lacking on geographic access to key services, such as facilities with skilled health workers. For maternal and newborn health and survival, planning for safer births and healthier newborns could be improved by more accurate estimations of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Moreover, subnational estimates of projected future numbers of pregnancies are needed for more effective strategies on human resources and infrastructure, while there is a need to link information on pregnancies to better information on health facilities in districts and regions so that coverage of services can be assessed. This paper outlines demographic mapping methods based on freely available data for the production of high resolution datasets depicting estimates of numbers of people, women of childbearing age, live births and pregnancies, and distribution of comprehensive EmONC facilities in four large high burden countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Tanzania. Satellite derived maps of settlements and land cover were constructed and used to redistribute areal census counts to produce detailed maps of the distributions of women of childbearing age. Household survey data, UN statistics and other sources on growth rates, age specific fertility rates, live births, stillbirths and abortions were then integrated to convert the population distribution datasets to gridded estimates of births and pregnancies. These estimates, which can be produced for current, past or future years based on standard demographic projections, can provide the basis for strategic intelligence, planning services, and provide denominators for subnational indicators to track progress. The datasets produced are part of national midwifery

  12. The relation of the dynamics of anthropometric data in obese women of childbearing age with treatment type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim was to study efficiency of pathogenetic therapy and dynamics of anthropometric indexes in obese women of childbearing age having different endocrine patho­logy before and 6 months later after treatment. Materials and methods. Under an etiologic factor the obese patients were divided into three groups: with polycystic syndrome of ovaries (PCOS (n = 30, hypothalamic obesity (n = 21 and with obesity and primary hypothyroidism (n = 20. All patients were examined using biochemical, hormonal methods of research, magnetic resonance tomography of pituitary. Results. The patients of the first and second groups had significant decrease of body mass index (BMI after 6 months of treatment, while patients of the third group did not attain significant decrease of BMI over 6 months of treatment. In addition, 10 patients of the first group became pregnant (19.5 %. The patients of the first and second groups had significant improvement of indexes as compared to average data of waist circumference and waist — hip ratio against the treatment, while the patients of the third group did not find significant changes of those indexes over 6 months of treatment. Conclusions. The treatment with metformine in obese patients significantly improves clinical indices and declines BMI. Optimization of treatment of obesity in women of reproductive age is based on the individual programs, the choice of which is determined by the values of anthropometric indices, hormonal and metabolic status, features of food behavior and personality-emotional sphere, menstrual and reproductive functioning. Realization of curative measures complex considering the worked out algorithm of individual selection of obesity therapy allows reduce effectively and retain the attained body weight, improves somatic and reproductive health for the women of reproductive age.

  13. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1 – 15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (N=2,066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51% white, 27% black, 22% Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  14. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  15. The Experience of Childbearing Women in the Workplace: The Impact of Family-Friendly Policies and Practices. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; And Others

    Secondary analyses of data collected in the Mothers in the Workplace study examined how family-relevant workplace policies and practices may influence childbearing women's labor force participation during pregnancy and after childbirth. It focused on 2,375 women who held wage and salary jobs during pregnancy and 1,761 of these women who were…

  16. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Latino Siblings: Changes in Family Dynamics and Feelings toward the Teen Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia L.; Slonim, Ashley; Horn, Emily J.; Reyes, Barbara T.

    2011-01-01

    Latinos have had the highest teenage birthrate of any racial or ethnic group in the United States for the past 15 years, yet little is known about how Latino families are affected by a teenage daughter's childbearing. In-depth interviews were conducted with 32 Mexican American younger siblings of parenting teens to discern how their sister's…

  17. A SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHILDBEARING COEFFICIENT IN THE ALTAI REGION BASED ON METHOD OF FUZZY LINEAR REGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Vladimirovich Varaksin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Construction of a mathematical model of the dynamics of childbearing change in the Altai region in 2000–2016, analysis of the dynamics of changes in birth rates for multiple age categories of women of childbearing age. Methodology. A auxiliary analysis element is the construction of linear mathematical models of the dynamics of childbearing by using fuzzy linear regression method based on fuzzy numbers. Fuzzy linear regression is considered as an alternative to standard statistical linear regression for short time series and unknown distribution law. The parameters of fuzzy linear and standard statistical regressions for childbearing time series were defined with using the built in language MatLab algorithm. Method of fuzzy linear regression is not used in sociological researches yet. Results. There are made the conclusions about the socio-demographic changes in society, the high efficiency of the demographic policy of the leadership of the region and the country, and the applicability of the method of fuzzy linear regression for sociological analysis.

  18. The timing of marriage vis-à-vis coresidence and childbearing in Europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Holland (Jennifer)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE These descriptive findings extend Holland's (2013) marriage typology by linking the timing of marriage, childbearing, and cohabitation, and apply it to a range of European countries and the United States. The meaning of marriage is organized around six ideal types: Direct

  19. Internet use, needs and expectations of web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Marie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the childbearing period women use the internet both to seek information and as an important source of communication. For women with type 1 diabetes, pregnancy and early motherhood constitute a more complex situation than for women in general. This implies need for support from various professionals and a way of bridging any discontinuity in care would be to develop a website providing complementary social support and information. The objective of this study was to explore internet use, needs, and expectations regarding web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes. Methods Data were collected via a web-based survey with an explorative and descriptive design, in which 105 of 139 eligible mothers with type 1 diabetes and recent childbearing experience participated. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics, and open answers with a directed content analysis. Results Of the 105 women, 22% never used the internet to search for information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood. 12% searched for information every day, 29% one or more times a week, and 38% one or more times a month. Of the women 44% declared themselves to be passive participants on social websites, and 45% to be active participants. 45% had specific expectations of web-based support directed towards childbearing, especially those with higher educational level (P = .01. Expectations of instrumental and informational support included an expert-controlled website with reliable, updated, and information focused on childbearing and diabetes, improved access to diabetes care professionals and alternative ways to communicate and to receive childbearing-related support. The women also asked for online technical devices to manage the frequent monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy. Informal, emotional, and appraisal support from women in similar situations was suggested as a way to provide an

  20. Internet use, needs and expectations of web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Ranerup, Agneta; Berg, Marie

    2011-07-07

    In the childbearing period women use the internet both to seek information and as an important source of communication. For women with type 1 diabetes, pregnancy and early motherhood constitute a more complex situation than for women in general. This implies need for support from various professionals and a way of bridging any discontinuity in care would be to develop a website providing complementary social support and information. The objective of this study was to explore internet use, needs, and expectations regarding web-based information and communication in childbearing women with type 1 diabetes. Data were collected via a web-based survey with an explorative and descriptive design, in which 105 of 139 eligible mothers with type 1 diabetes and recent childbearing experience participated. The data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical statistics, and open answers with a directed content analysis. Of the 105 women, 22% never used the internet to search for information concerning pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood. 12% searched for information every day, 29% one or more times a week, and 38% one or more times a month. Of the women 44% declared themselves to be passive participants on social websites, and 45% to be active participants. 45% had specific expectations of web-based support directed towards childbearing, especially those with higher educational level (P = .01). Expectations of instrumental and informational support included an expert-controlled website with reliable, updated, and information focused on childbearing and diabetes, improved access to diabetes care professionals and alternative ways to communicate and to receive childbearing-related support. The women also asked for online technical devices to manage the frequent monitoring of blood glucose during pregnancy. Informal, emotional, and appraisal support from women in similar situations was suggested as a way to provide an arena for belonging instead of creating feelings of

  1. Changes in Hair Mercury Levels Among Women of Child-Bearing Age Following an Educational Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Michelle; Christensen, Krista Y; Thompson, Brooke; Anderson, Henry

    2017-06-01

    Describe mercury exposures among women of childbearing age before and after an educational intervention. Women age 18 to 45 were recruited to participate in an educational intervention concerning fish consumption. Fish consumption habits and total mercury concentration in hair were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Regression models examined associations between mercury, fish consumption, and demographics. Overall, 234 women completed the study. On average, mercury concentrations increased by 0.01 ppm (parts per million) following the intervention, despite declines in fish consumption; however, women in the 90th percentile for mercury at baseline decreased concentrations significantly while maintaining high rates of fish consumption. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with fish consumption and certain demographic characteristics. The intervention reached individuals most at-risk. Healthcare providers should discuss fish consumption habits with women to encourage consumption of low-risk fish, and identify women needing education and counseling.

  2. Parents' experience of unintended childbearing: A qualitative study of factors that mitigate or exacerbate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Megan L; Kost, Kathryn; Frohwirth, Lori; Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Gor, Vivian

    2017-02-01

    Births resulting from an unintended pregnancy affect individuals differentially, and some may experience more negative consequences than others. In this study, we sought to describe the mechanisms through which the severity of effects may be mitigated or exacerbated. We conducted in-depth interviews with 35 women and 30 men, all with a youngest child born resulting from an unintended pregnancy, in two urban sites in the United States. Respondents described both negative and positive effects of the child's birth in the areas of school; work and finances; partner relationships; personal health and outlook on life trajectories. Mechanisms through which unintended pregnancies mitigated or exacerbated certain effects fell at the individual (e.g. lifestyle modification), interpersonal (e.g. partner support) and structural (e.g. workplace flexibility) levels. These qualitative findings deepen understanding of the impact of unintended childbearing on the lives of women, men and families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Harm to offspring of women of childbearing age employed in the the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    This report evaluates risk arising from employing women of childbearing age in occupations where exposure to ionizing radiation is likely. It was assumed that about seven percent of women employed in the nuclear industry would give birth to a child in a given year, and that the period of unrecognized pregnancy is 60 days. Using data on risk factors per rem, critical periods for individual end points, and the proportion of women pregnant per year, the risk of harm to offspring was calculated. The forms of harm considered were failure to implant, mental retardation, and induction of cancer. Calculated risk factors were applied to exposure data from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station from 1981. The maximum harm that can be expected to be produced as a result of exposure of 100 women as mechanical maintenance workers under these conditions would be three cases of either congenital malformation or cancer per 100 years

  4. Environmental, Behavioral, and Cultural Factors That Influence Healthy Eating in Rural Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Mabry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing recognition of the role nutrition plays in the health of current and future generations, many women struggle to eat healthy. We used the PhotoVoice method to engage 10 rural women in identifying perceived barriers and facilitators to healthy eating in their homes and community. They took 354 photographs, selected and wrote captions for 62 images, and explored influential factors through group conversation. Using field notes and participant-generated captions, the research team categorized images into factors at the individual, relational, community/organizational, and societal levels of a socioecological model. Barriers included limited time, exposure to marketing, and the high cost of food. Facilitators included preparing food in advance and support from non-partners; opportunities to hunt, forage, and garden were also facilitators, which may be amplified in this rural environment. Nutritional interventions for rural women of childbearing age should be multi-component and focus on removing barriers at multiple socioecological levels.

  5. Emergence of group B Streptococcus serotype IV in women of child-bearing age in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, R A

    2011-02-01

    This study determined the carriage rate and serotype distribution of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women of child-bearing age in the southern region of Ireland. A total of 2000 vaginal swabs collected in two periods in 2004 and 2006 were examined and revealed a GBS carriage rate of 16·1%. Serotyping of isolates showed that serotypes Ia, II, III, IV, and V were the most prevalent. A high prevalence of serotype IV was found, increasing from 7·6% to 15·2% between 2004 and 2006. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis demonstrated considerable genetic heterogeneity in the serotype IV isolates. This serotype should be considered for inclusion in potential vaccines for use in Ireland.

  6. Employment after childbearing and women's subsequent labour force participation: evidence from the British 1958 birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H; Macran, S; Dex, S

    1996-01-01

    "Data on women from the British 1958 Cohort Study is used as evidence on the determinants of their labour force participation at age 33. A conventional cross-sectional model of full or part-time employment makes use of some longitudinal material not normally included in such models. Whether the woman made the hitherto customary break from employment at the time of the first maternity is included in recognition that this cohort was among the first generation to be offered Statutory Maternity Leave. Results suggest that the presence of children (still) inhibits full-time employment and raises the probability of part-time employment; that income effects on participation have continued to weaken while wage elasticity for full-time employment is high. Continuity of employment straight after childbearing raises the chances of subsequent full-time employment, but by no means guarantees it. Gains from maternity leave and other family friendly employment policies have been far from uniform." excerpt

  7. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Indian women of childbearing age do not metabolically conserve arginine as do American and Jamaican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Christina C; Hsu, Jean W; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Karnes, Jeffrey M; Baker, Tameka M; Bohren, Kurt M; Badaloo, Asha; Thame, Minerva M; Kurpad, Anura V; Jahoor, Farook

    2015-05-01

    In a previous study in pregnant American women, we reported that arginine flux and nitric oxide synthesis increased in trimester 2. More recently, we reported that Indian women do not increase arginine flux during pregnancy as their American or Jamaican counterparts do. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Indian women of childbearing age are producing less arginine and/or catabolizing more arginine and therefore have less available for anabolic pathways than do Jamaican and American women. Thirty healthy women aged 28.3 ± 0.8 y from the United States, India, and Jamaica (n = 10/group) were given 6 h primed, constant intravenous infusions of guanidino-¹⁵N₂-arginine, 5,5-²H₂-citrulline, ¹⁵N₂-ornithine, and ring-²H₅-phenylalanine, in addition to primed, oral doses of U-¹³C₆-arginine in both the fasting and postprandial states. An oral dose of deuterium oxide was also given to determine fat-free mass (FFM). Compared with American women, Indian and Jamaican women had greater ornithine fluxes (μmol · kg fat FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting and postprandial states (27.3 ± 2.5 vs. 39.6 ± 3.7 and 37.2 ± 2.0, respectively, P = 0.01), indicating greater arginine catabolism. However, Jamaican women had a higher endogenous arginine flux than did Indian and American women in the fasting (66.1 ± 3.1 vs. 54.2 ± 3.1 and 56.1 ± 2.1, respectively, P = 0.01) and postprandial (53.8 ± 2.2 vs. 43.7 ± 4.9 and 42.8 ± 3.1, respectively, P = 0.06) states. As a consequence, Indian women had lower arginine bioavailability (μmol · kg FFM⁻¹ · h⁻¹) in the fasting state (42.0 ± 2.6) than did American (49.9 ± 1.3, P = 0.045) and Jamaican (55.5 ± 3.5, P = 0.004) women, as well as in the postprandial state (40.7 ± 3.5 vs. 51.8 ± 1.2 and 57.5 ± 3.2, respectively, P = 0.001). Compared with American and Jamaican women, Indian women of childbearing age have a decreased arginine supply because of increased arginine catabolism without an

  9. Dietary adequacy and alcohol consumption of Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahdooz, F; Spearing, K; Corriveau, A; Sharma, S

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies highlight a possible association between alcohol-drinking patterns and dietary inadequacies, which may have negative implications, particularly for women of child-bearing age. The present study aimed to compare dietary adequacy among alcohol drinkers versus nondrinkers in Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age. A cross-sectional survey of 92 randomly selected women of childbearing age (19-44 years) was conducted in three communities in the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada, using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analysed to compare mean daily energy and nutrient intakes, dietary adequacy and nutrient densities (per 4184 kJ) between alcohol drinkers and nondrinkers, as well as heavy drinkers and nonheavy drinkers, using the nonparametric Wilcoxen rank sum test. The response rate was between 65% and 85% depending on the community sampled. Of the study participants, 54% (n = 49) were drinkers and 46% (n = 42) were nondrinkers. Of the drinkers, 45% (n = 22) were heavy drinkers. Mean energy intakes were high among all women, although they were significantly higher among drinkers [17,179 kJ (4106 kcal)] compared to nondrinkers [13,317 kJ (3183 kcal)]. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake between the two groups; however, drinkers had a lower nutrient density for most nutrients. Heavy drinkers had a significantly lower nutrient density for all nutrients, except protein, iron, and vitamins B6 , C and D, compared to nonheavy drinkers. The findings of the present study provide evidence of inadequate dietary intake among Inuvialuit of child-bearing age, regardless of alcohol-drinking behaviour. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Evaluating Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions that Affect Fertility and Childbearing: How Health Effects are Measured Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.; Brandeau, Margaret L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current guidelines for economic evaluations of health interventions define relevant outcomes as those accruing to individuals receiving interventions. Little consensus exists on counting health impacts on current and future fertility and childbearing. Objective To characterize current practices for counting such health outcomes. Design We developed a framework characterizing health interventions with direct and/or indirect effects on fertility and childbearing and how such outcomes are reported. We identified interventions spanning the framework and performed a targeted literature review for economic evaluations of these interventions. For each article, we characterized how the potential health outcomes from each intervention were considered, focusing on QALYs associated with fertility and childbearing. Results We reviewed 108 studies, identifying seven themes: 1) Studies were heterogeneous in reporting outcomes. 2) Studies often selected outcomes for inclusion that tend to bias toward finding the intervention to be cost-effective. 3) Studies often avoided the challenges of assigning QALYs for pregnancy and fertility by instead considering cost per intermediate outcome. 4) Even for the same intervention, studies took heterogeneous approaches to outcome evaluation. 5) Studies employed multiple, competing rationales for whether and how to include fertility-related QALYs and whose QALYs to include. 6) Studies examining interventions with indirect effects on fertility typically ignored such QALYs. 7) Even recent studies had these shortcomings. Limitations The review was targeted rather than systematic. Conclusions Economic evaluations inconsistently consider QALYs from current and future fertility and childbearing in ways that frequently appear biased towards the interventions considered. As the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine updates its guidelines, making the practice of cost-effectiveness analysis more consistent is a priority. Our

  11. Premarital childbearing in sub-Saharan Africa: Can investing in women’s education offset disadvantages for children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Smith-Greenaway

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Premarital childbearing is common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and may become increasingly so with the rise in women’s age at first marriage. These trends are concerning given the severe childhood health consequences associated with being born premaritally. However, women’s could condition the experience of having a premarital birth in a way that lessens its consequences for children. Extending the large literature on the child health benefits of mothers’ education—including her educational attainment and acquisition of key educational skills – I analyze whether the consequences of being born premaritally are lessened among children whose mothers are more highly-educated. The study focuses on Malawi, a southeast African country where child mortality rates remain high. I use Demographic and Health Survey data to estimate discrete-time logistic regression models (N=30,411 children younger than age five of the relationships between premarital childbearing, mothers’ educational background, and child mortality. The findings confirm that though being born premaritally is associated with higher child mortality, this is only true for children whose mothers have never been to school or discontinued at the primary level and/or never learned how to read. There is no evidence that being born premaritally is associated with elevated mortality among children whose mothers have been to secondary school and/or know how to read. The results demonstrate that analyzing how premarital childbearing intersects with other sources of health inequality enhances our understanding of the circumstances under which it poses the greatest risk to child well-being in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Child health, Child mortality, Premarital childbearing, Education, Literacy, Africa, Malawi

  12. PERCEPTION OF WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE (15-45years) ON CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF INFERTILITY IN OSOGBO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OSUN STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Onasoga, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Adewale O; Salawu, R.A

    2012-01-01

    Infertility brings about low self-esteem, sense of powerlessness, discrimination and stigmatization as well as threatens the woman’s identity, status, marital and emotional security. This study examined the perception of women of childbearing age on causes and consequences of infertility. A descriptive non experimental research design was used. A sample frame of 40 respondents was selected using purposive sampling technique among women of childbearing age. Data were analyzed using descriptive...

  13. Teen pregnancy: a public health issue or political football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M P

    1996-08-01

    Politicians in the US have made adolescent parents the scapegoat of changing cultural patterns by suggesting punitive solutions to nonmarital births rather than addressing underlying causes of premature child-bearing. It is known that the percentages of young people of all races and all social classes reporting early, nonmarital sexual intercourse have increased dramatically, while adolescent fertility rates peaked in the 1950s. Improved access to contraception and abortion caused a decline in teen pregnancy and birth rates from 1970 to 1986. During 1986-91, service providers could not match growing demand, and the birth rate increased 25%. Increased rates of sexual activity have also led to increases in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV/AIDS among adolescents. This situation was exacerbated by Reagan and Bush policies, which reduced funding for services to adolescents and supported abstinence-only sex education courses. The concern voiced by policy-makers today centers on nonmarital childbearing by low-income adolescents who will rely on public assistance to survive. A proper response to this situation would involve the following policy actions: 1) mandating comprehensive sexuality education from kindergarten through high school, 2) funding mentoring programs, 3) improving economic and educational opportunities, 4) expanding STD and HIV/AIDS prevention programs, 5) increasing access to confidential health services (including mental health care and substance abuse treatment), 6) expanding child sexual abuse prevention and intervention programs, and 7) increasing access to and acceptability of teen contraceptive usage and abortion.

  14. [Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ana María; Miranda, Marianella; Campos, Miguel; Sánchez, José R

    2010-06-01

    To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area). The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5%) of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95%) and higher in Lima (100%). The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it lower in the jungle areas (206 μg/L) and higher in the rest of the coast (302 μg/L), these values are above the level recommended by the World Health Organization in all domains (average higher than 200 μg/L), value that ensures control over the iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Control of IDD associated with iodized salt consumption is good, and monitoring of the presence of iodine in salt, particularly in the areas with lowest access, should continue.

  15. Effect of rotating shift work on childbearing and birth weight: a study of women working in a semiconductor manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Chen, Mei-Huei; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-05-01

    Stable circadian rhythm is important for both maternal and fetal health. This retrospective analysis of women in a semiconductor factory evaluated the effect of shift work exposure on childbearing and birth weight. Records of 440 female employees (initial mean age: 28.4 years) including 111 mothers who had 158 live births during the period of observation (1997-2007) were reviewed. The data analyzed included maternal age, general health condition, highest educational level, life-style and occupational factors, as well as newborn gender, birth weight, birth order and gestational age. The childbearing rates of female workers on three different work schedules (consistent daytime work (CDW), intermittent (i-) or persistent (p-) rotating shift works (RSW)) were 32.1%, 20.0% and 25.4%, respectively (P=0.047). After controlling for potential confounding factors, childbearing rates among women with CDW exceeded those of shift workers (odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.0). The birth weights of newborns from mothers on the three work schedules (CDW, i-RSW and p-RSW) were significantly different (3271.7±395.4, 3251.3±460.9, and 2998.5±381.2 g, respectively (Pmanufacturing factory. Work schedules should be carefully planned for female employees who are pregnant or preparing for pregnancy. Prenatal evaluations for mothers with persistent day-night rotating shift work exposures are especially necessary.

  16. Physical child abuse potential in adolescent girls: associations with psychopathology, maltreatment, and attitudes toward child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajer, Kathleen A; Gardner, William; Lourie, Andrea; Chang, Chien-Ni; Wang, Wei; Currie, Lisa

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent mothers are at increased risk of mistreating their children. Intervening before they become pregnant would be an ideal primary prevention strategy. Our goal was to determine whether psychopathology, exposure to maltreatment, preparedness for child-bearing, substance use disorders (SUDs), IQ, race, and socioeconomic status were associated with the potential for child abuse in nonpregnant adolescent girls. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) was administered to 195 nonpregnant girls (aged 15 to 16 years; 54% African American) recruited from the community. Psychiatric diagnoses from a structured interview were used to form 4 groups: conduct disorder (CD), internalizing disorders (INTs; that is, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, or both), CD + INTs, or no disorder. Exposure to maltreatment was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Childbearing Attitudes Questionnaire measured maternal readiness. CAPI scores were positively correlated with all types of psychopathology, previous exposure to maltreatment, and negative attitudes toward child-bearing. IQ, SUDs, and demographic factors were not associated. Factors associated with child abuse potential interacted in complex ways, but the abuse potential of CD girls was high, regardless of other potentially protective factors. Our study demonstrates that adolescent girls who have CD or INT are at higher risk of perpetrating physical child abuse when they have children. However, the core features of CD may put this group at a particularly high risk, even in the context of possible protective factors. Treatment providers should consider pre-pregnant counselling about healthy mothering behaviours to girls with CD.

  17. Analysis of Factors Affecting Women of Childbearing Age to Screen Using Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabutar, Sondang; Martini, Santi; Wahyuni, Chatarina Umbul

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient factors such as knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socio-economic status and travel time to health facilities and assess how these factors affected patients' decision to pursue cervical cancer screening with visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). A total of 80 women of childbearing age who visited Kenjeran and Balongsari Public Health Centers for health assessments were involved in this study. Patients who agreed to participate in the study underwent a verbal questionnaire to evaluate various factors. Bivariate analysis concluded that knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socioeconomic status, and travel time to health facilities were significantly different between women who received VIA screening and women who did not receive VIA screening ( p motivation, perception, socio-economic status, and the travel time to health facilities accounted for 2.920-fold, 2.043-fold, 3.704-fold, 2.965-fold, 3.198-fold and 2.386-fold possibility, respectively, of patients to pursue cervical cancer screening with VIA. Multivariate analysis showed that perception, socio-economic status, and travel time to health facilities were the most important factors influencing whether or not women pursued VIA screening. Knowledge, attitude, motivation, perception, socio-economic status, and travel time to health facilities appears to affect women's' decision to pursue cervical cancer screening with VIA, with the largest intake being the motivational factor.

  18. Women with epilepsy in childbearing age: Pregnancy-related knowledge, information sources, and antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Latica; Sruk, Ana; Bielen, Ivan

    2018-03-01

    Pregnancy-related issues in epilepsy (PRIE) are essential for management of epilepsy in women. We conducted a study among women with epilepsy (WWE) aged 15-45years about their knowledge, sources, and needs for information regarding PRIE, which included their current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) usage. Women with epilepsy, visitors of Croatian Association for Epilepsy webpage, were offered an online questionnaire, and 200 responses were analyzed. The mean number of correct answers about PRIE was 3.5 out of 5. Main predictors of knowledge on PRIE were a prior consultation with a neurologist and higher usage of books/brochures. A prior neurologist consultation on PRIE was stated by 45% of subjects. As the preferred future mode of being informed on PRIE, majority of women (61%) chooses their neurologist, 22% written materials distributed by a neurologist, and only 13% Internet. Levetiracetam was the most commonly used AED (34.5%). Valproate was used by 26%, and of those 59% stated no previous consultation on PRIE with their neurologist. In summary, we believe our study shows that knowledge of PRIE among WWE in their childbearing age is unsatisfactory, as are the neurologist consultation rates about PRIE. Our results demonstrate that, despite modern technologies, educational activities should be based on neurologist consultations and providing the patients with appropriate written materials. This is especially true for the relatively large proportion of women still taking valproate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of tobacco smoke on the oral health of U.S. women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Hiroko; Kumar, Jayanth V; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T; Billings, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the oral health status of US women of childbearing age and to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke on their oral health. Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were evaluated for women 15-44 years of age. The association of exposure to tobacco smoke with untreated caries, mean DMFS, gingivitis, and periodontitis were examined in bivariate and regression analyses controlling for potential confounders. The prevalence of untreated caries was 25%, for gingivitis 49%, and for periodontitis 6%. After adjusting for potential confounders, self-reported current smoking was a strong independent risk indicator for untreated caries, periodontitis, and to a lesser extent for greater DMFS count. Women with detectable cotinine levels below 15 ng/mL presented with an increased risk for gingivitis. Independent factors associated with increased risk for untreated caries were being Black, having less than a high school education, Medicaid or no health insurance, previous live births, and infrequent and episodic dental visits. Characteristics associated with gingivitis were being Mexican-American, obese, pregnant, and having infrequent dental visits. Older age, no insurance, and the last dental visit for treatment were independently associated with periodontitis. Dental caries and periodontitis were prevalent among certain subgroups of women of reproductive age. Smoking was found to be a significant risk indicator for various negative oral health outcomes. Barriers to accessing to dental care that were manifested by untreated caries among Black women, mothers, and Medicaid beneficiaries must be better understood.

  20. Social dimensions related to anaemia among women of childbearing age from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Smita; Bhide, Pradnya; Puranik, Bhairavi; Kanade, Asawari

    2011-02-01

    To examine various sociodemographic aspects related to consumption of micronutrient-rich foods like green leafy vegetables (GLV), which will be helpful in modifying dietary habits, a strategy that merits consideration for prevention of anaemia. Cross-sectional study for collecting data on socio-economic and anthropometric (weight, height) variables, Hb, dietary pattern (FFQ) and peripheral smear examination for classifying nutritional and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA). Three villages near Pune city, Maharashtra, India. Rural women (n 418) of childbearing age (15-35 years). Mean Hb was 11·07 g/dl. Seventy-seven per cent of the women were anaemic (Hb women had nutritional anaemia. Higher prevalence of IDA was associated with several sociodemographic and maternal parameters, but multiple logistic regression analysis showed significant (P lack of awareness about different recipes for GLV. Our findings highlight that low consumption of GLV, which are treasures of micronutrients including Fe, is associated with genuine social reasons. This indicates a need for developing action programmes to improve nutritional knowledge and awareness leading to enhanced consumption of Fe-rich foods for preventing anaemia in rural India.

  1. Fragile Families and the Reproduction of Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    McLanahan, Sara

    2009-01-01

    In 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan warned that non-marital childbearing and marital dissolution were undermining the progress of African Americans. I argue that what Moynihan identified as a race-specific problem in the 1960s has now become a class-based phenomena as well. Using data from a new birth cohort study, I show that unmarried parents come from much more disadvantaged populations than married parents. I further argue that non-marital childbearing reproduces class and racial disparities...

  2. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qiao-Yu; Li, Jue; Zheng, Liang; Wang, Guang-Hua; Wang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health education, and dietary education), especially during the women who do

  3. The measurement of childbearing motivation in couples considering the use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warren B; Millstein, Susan G; Pasta, David J

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the motivational antecedents to the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this paper we measure the fertility motivations of infertile couples who are considering the use of ART, using an established instrument, the Childbearing Questionnaire (CBQ). Our sample consists of 214 men and 216 women who were interviewed at home after an initial screening for ART but before making a final decision. We conducted two sets of analyses with the obtained data. In one set, we compared the scores on scales and subscales of the CBQ for the males and females in our sample with the scores for males and females from a comparable normative sample. For these analyses we first examined sample and gender differences with a four-group analysis of variance. We then conducted a series of linear models that included background characteristics as covariates and interactions between sample, gender, and age and between those three variables and the background characteristics. The results showed the expected higher positive and lower negative motivations in the ART sample and a significant effect on positive motivations of the interaction between sample and age. In the second set of analyses, we developed several new subscales relevant to facets of the desire for a child that appear to be important in ART decision-making. These facets include the desire to be genetically related to the child and the desire to experience pregnancy and childbirth. A third facet, the desire for parenthood, is already well covered by the existing subscales. The results showed the new subscales to have satisfactory reliability and validity. The results also showed that the original and new subscales predicted the three facets of the desire for a child in a multivariate context. We conclude with a general discussion of the way our findings relate both to ART decision-making and to further research on the motivations that drive it.

  4. Constitution of traditional chinese medicine and related factors in women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Yu Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. Methods: This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. Results: The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. Conclusion: The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health

  5. [Socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and heavy metals exposure in women of childbearing age in Cali, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Roger; Caicedo, Diana; Echeverry, Ghisliane; Peña, Miguel; Méndez, Fabián

    2017-09-01

    Global increase in food and water pollution is associated with health risk, which depends on the concentration, the dose, and the exposure time. This has raised concerns about the possible long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals, such as lead, cadmium and mercury. To explore the relationship among socioeconomic status, eating patterns, and exposure to heavy metals among a population of women in Cali, Colombia. A total of 233 non-pregnant women of childbearing age living in the Aguablanca district of Cali, Colombia, were enrolled in the study. We gathered sociodemographic data, as well as information on housing conditions, exposure to heavy metals, frequency of food intake, and anthropometric measurements. Samples of lettuce, cabbage and fish (tilapia and butterfish) were collected to determine lead, cadmium, and mercury concentrations. Descriptive and multiple correspondence analyses were performed to establish eating patterns. Fish was served in each of the three main meals of the day, with a bigger serving at lunch time. Cadmium was found in three samples of butterfish at levels below the acceptable. Of those who ate fish more than once a week, 11.1% bought the product at a cadmium-positive store. The multiple correspondence analysis showed a positive relationship between being black and consuming butterfish and tilapia more than once per week. The findings showed that the studied population had access to heavy metal-contaminated food, which combined with the women's cultural eating patterns, socioeconomic status, and metabolic characteristics led to a greater vulnerability to the effects of heavy metals exposure.

  6. Childbearing and Economic Work: The Health Balance of Women in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Philippa; Hill, Allan G; Hinde, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to investigate (1) whether the health of working women with young children differs from that of working women without young children, and (2) which social factors mediate the relationship between economic and maternal role performance and health among mothers with young children. The analyses uses panel data from 697 women present in both waves of the Women's Health Study for Accra (WHSA-I and WHSA-II); a community based study of women aged 18 years and older in the Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana conducted in 2003 and 2008-2009. Change in physical and mental health between the survey waves is compared between women with a biological child alive at WHSA-II and born since WHSA-I and women without a living biological child at WHSA-II born in the interval. To account for attrition between the two survey waves selection models were used with unconditional change score models being used as the outcome model. We found in our sample of working women that those who had a child born between WHSA-I and WHSA-II who was still alive at WHSA-II did not experience a change in mental or physical health different from other women. Among working women with young children, educational status, relationship to the household head and household demography were associated with change in mental health at the 5 % level, whilst migration status and household demography was associated with change in physical health scores. The results suggest there are no health penalties of combining work and childbearing among women with young children in Accra, Ghana.

  7. Declines in Crime and Teen Childbearing: Identifying Potential Explanations for Contemporaneous Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colen, Cynthia G.; Ramey, David M.; Browning, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The previous 25 years have witnessed remarkable upheavals in the social landscape of the United States. Two of the most notable trends have been dramatic declines in levels of crime as well as teen childbearing. Much remains unknown about the underlying conditions that might be driving these changes. More importantly, we do not know if the same distal factors that are responsible for the drop in the crime rate are similarly implicated in falling rates of teen births. We examine four overarching potential explanations: fluctuations in economic opportunity, shifting population demographics, differences in state-level policies, and changes in expectations regarding health and mortality. Methods We combine state-specific data from existing secondary sources and model trajectories of violent crime, homicides, robberies, and teen fertility over a 20-year period from 1990 to 2010 using simultaneous fixed-effects regression models. Results We find that 4 of the 21 predictors examined - growth in the service sector of the labor market, increasing racial diversity especially among Hispanics, escalating levels of migration, and the expansion of family planning services to low-income women – offer the most convincing explanations for why rates of violent crime and teen births have been steadily decreasing over time. Moreover, we are able to account for almost a quarter of the joint declines in violent crime and teen births. Conclusions Our conclusions underscore the far reaching effects that aggregate level demographic conditions and policies are likely to have on important social trends that might, at first glance, seem unrelated. Furthermore, the effects of policy efforts designed to target outcomes in one area are likely to spill over into other domains. PMID:27695160

  8. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170 from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02, and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002. Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004. Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States.

  9. 'Informed and uninformed decision making'--women's reasoning, experiences and perceptions with regard to advanced maternal age and delayed childbearing: a meta-synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Alison; Mills, Tracey A; Lavender, Tina

    2010-10-01

    To identify what factors affect women's decisions to delay childbearing, and to explore women's experiences and their perceptions of associated risks. Systematic procedures were used for search strategy, study selection, data extraction and analysis. Findings were synthesised using an approach developed from meta-ethnography. We included qualitative papers, not confined to geographical area (1980-2009). Databases included CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, ASSIA, MIDIRS, British Nursing Index and the National Research Register. We selected qualitative empirical studies exploring the views and experiences of women of advanced maternal age who were childless or primigravidae with a singleton pregnancy or primiparous. Twelve papers fulfilled the selection criteria and were included for synthesis. Women appear to face an issue of 'informed and uninformed decision making'; those who believe they are informed but may not be, those who are not informed and find out they are at risk once pregnant, and those who are well informed but choose to delay pregnancy anyway. Maternity services could provide information to enable informed choice regarding timing of childbearing. Health professionals need to be mindful of the fact that women delay childbearing for various reasons. A strategy of pre-conception education may be beneficial in informing childbearing decisions. Obstetricians and midwives should be sensitive to the fact that women may not be aware of all the risks associated with delayed childbearing. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of the distribution of household and childrearing tasks between men and women on childbearing intentions in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Buber

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to look at the extent to which the division of household work and childrearing and the perception of how fair these tasks are divided influence plans of further childbearing. We concentrate on women with one child and want to look at the question whether a woman whose partner shares the domestic responsibilities with her wishes to have a second child more often than a woman with a partner who does not help out. The data used in this study are drawn from the Austri...

  11. A Room to Grow: The Residential Density-dependence of Childbearing in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Lauster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that cultural processes linked to the demographic transition produce new density-dependent fertility dynamics. In particular, childbearing becomes dependent upon residential roominess. This relationship is culturally specific, and I argue that the cultural nature of this relationship means that professional and managerial classes are likely to be particularly influenced by residential roominess, while immigrants are less likely to be influenced. I test hypotheses linking residential roominess to the presence of an “own infant” in the household using census data from the Austria, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and the United States. Roominess predicts fertility in all countries, but to differing degrees.

  12. Place of Delivery Associated With Postnatal Care Utilization Among Childbearing Women in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Chungu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePostnatal care (PNC utilization is critical to the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite its importance, the proportion of women utilizing this service is still low in Zambia. We investigated if place of delivery was associated with PNC utilization in the first 48 h among childbearing women in Zambia.MethodsData from the 2013/14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey for women, aged 15–49 years, who reported giving birth in the 2 years preceding the survey was used. The data comprised of sociodemographic and other obstetric data, which were cleaned, recoded, and analyzed using STATA version 13 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of place of delivery and other background variables.ResultsWomen who delivered in a health facility were more likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h compared to those who did not deliver in a health facility: government hospital (AOR 7.24, 95% CI 4.92–11.84, government health center/clinic (AOR 7.15 95% CI 4.79–10.66, other public sector (AOR 23.2 95% CI 3.69–145.91, private hospital/clinic (AOR 10.08 95% CI 3.35–30.35, and Mission hospital/clinic (AOR 8.56 95% CI 4.71–15.53. Additionally, women who were attended to by a skilled personnel during delivery of the baby were more likely to utilize PNC (AOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.57–3.37. Women from rural areas were less likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53–0.90.ConclusionPlace of delivery was found to be linked with PNC utilization in this population although access to health care is still driven by inequity-related dynamics and imbalances. Given that inequity stresses are heaviest in the rural and poor groups, interventions should aim to reach this group.SignificanceThe study results will help program managers to increase access to health facility delivery and direct interventional efforts toward the affected subpopulations

  13. Place of Delivery Associated With Postnatal Care Utilization Among Childbearing Women in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chungu, Charles; Makasa, Mpundu; Chola, Mumbi; Jacobs, Choolwe Nkwemu

    2018-01-01

    Postnatal care (PNC) utilization is critical to the prevention of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite its importance, the proportion of women utilizing this service is still low in Zambia. We investigated if place of delivery was associated with PNC utilization in the first 48 h among childbearing women in Zambia. Data from the 2013/14 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey for women, aged 15-49 years, who reported giving birth in the 2 years preceding the survey was used. The data comprised of sociodemographic and other obstetric data, which were cleaned, recoded, and analyzed using STATA version 13 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association of place of delivery and other background variables. Women who delivered in a health facility were more likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h compared to those who did not deliver in a health facility: government hospital (AOR 7.24, 95% CI 4.92-11.84), government health center/clinic (AOR 7.15 95% CI 4.79-10.66), other public sector (AOR 23.2 95% CI 3.69-145.91), private hospital/clinic (AOR 10.08 95% CI 3.35-30.35), and Mission hospital/clinic (AOR 8.56 95% CI 4.71-15.53). Additionally, women who were attended to by a skilled personnel during delivery of the baby were more likely to utilize PNC (AOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.57-3.37). Women from rural areas were less likely to utilize PNC in the first 48 h (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.90). Place of delivery was found to be linked with PNC utilization in this population although access to health care is still driven by inequity-related dynamics and imbalances. Given that inequity stresses are heaviest in the rural and poor groups, interventions should aim to reach this group. The study results will help program managers to increase access to health facility delivery and direct interventional efforts toward the affected subpopulations, such as the young and rural women. Furthermore, results will help

  14. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P postpartum. Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  15. Tetanus in women of childbearing age in the infectious disease department in the national hospital of Conakry (Guinea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traore, F A; Sako, F B; Sylla, D; Traore, M; Kpamy, D O; Doumbouya, M; Sylla, A O; Diallo, M O S

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the hospital prevalence rate of tetanus in women of childbearing age in the infectious disease department of Donka CHU in Conakry and to describe their sociodemographic characteristics and outcomes. This descriptive retrospective study examined the records of all patients aged 15 to 495 years hospitalized for tetanus over a 10-year period. During the study period, 74555 patients were hospitalized - 239 for tetanus. In all, 22 woman of childbearing age had tetanus, that is, 9.2%. Their mean age was 325 years. Most of the women were married (13/22) and lived in Conakry (18/22); 165 were housewives, and 65 patients had begun but not completed the required vaccinations. The incubation period was >75 days for 165 patients. Tetanus infection resulted from medical procedures for 9 women and trauma for 6. We recorded 125 deaths. The average duration of hospitalization was 215 days. Preventing tetanus requires a reinforcement of vaccination drives and especially the implementation of policies for booster reminders.

  16. Childbearing across borders: Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions among breast cancer survivors in USA and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vânia; Hudson, Janella; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Morris, Julie; Lee, M Catherine; Donovan, Kristine A; Sutton, Steven K; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2018-04-16

    To compare fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions of Portuguese and American female reproductive aged breast cancer survivors. This was a cross-sectional study of 102 young breast cancer survivors (59 from Portugal and 43 from USA). Demographic, clinical and reproductive information were collected. Fertility and parenthood attitudes and decisions were assessed through a self-report questionnaire devised specifically for the study. Fertility issues became very important after the diagnosis for most of the women (51%). Few differences existed between USA and Portuguese participants. USA participants were more likely to undergo FP (23% USA vs Portugal 5%, p = 0.01). Portuguese women were more dissatisfied with their physician's explanations about fertility (Portugal: 23% vs USA: 3%; p = 0.01). Overall, women relied on their oncologist for fertility information (70%); only Portuguese women discussed fertility with their family medicine physician (11%). Overall, women showed positive attitudes towards motherhood. Portuguese women were more likely to report their partners placed more value on the family after their illness (Portuguese agree: 55% vs USA agree: 14%; p USA and Portuguese samples were found on fertility and childbearing attitudes and decisions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parity and carotid atherosclerosis in men and women: insights into the roles of childbearing and child-rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Sérusclat, André; Begg, Lisa M; Moulin, Philippe; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2009-04-01

    Parity appears to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis in women aged 45 years and older. Studying this association among younger women and men may provide insight into whether this association relates predominantly to childbearing or child-rearing. The association between parity and carotid atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and presence of plaques) was assessed in a cohort consisting of 750 women and 1164 men, all with at least one traditional cardiovascular risk factor, aged 18 to 80 years of age. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were also assessed, and the Framingham Risk Score calculated. In age-adjusted analyses, the number of children was associated with adiposity, fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, Framingham risk score, and carotid atherosclerosis in women, but not in men. Multivariate linear regression models indicate that the prevalence of plaques was increased by 15% (95% CI, 2 to 29) per child among women, and 0% (95% CI, -10 to 11) among men, after adjustment for age, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors (including waist circumference). The association between parity and carotid intima-media thickness was similar in younger and older women (P(Heterogeneity)=0.20). A higher number of children is associated with increased carotid atherosclerosis in both younger and older women, but not among men. These findings indicate that childbearing, but not child-rearing, may be a risk factor for atherosclerosis, and suggest the potential importance of considering the number of children when assessing the level of cardiovascular risk in women.

  18. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    analyze several dominant riskfactors related to obesity in childbearing age women living in urban areas in Indonesia.Methods: This analysis used a part of Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2007 data. The samples werederived from 258366 households. Riskesdas data on socio-demographic and other factors was collectedby questionnaire. Nutritional status was measured using body mass index (BMI. Cox regression withconstant time analysis was used for the analysis.Results: This analysis noted that there are 14357 (18.8% of women were obese and 62052 (81.2%normal. Compared with the respective reference groups, women aged 25-49 had a 3.5-fold greater riskof becoming obese [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 3.49; P = 0.000, and divorced or married had 2.5-foldhigher risk to be obese (RRa = 2.58; P= 0.000 and RRa = 2.62; P = 0.000, respectively. Furthermore,unemployed women had higher risk to be obese (RRa = 1.06; P = 0.000, and consuming excess proteinas well as often consume fatty foods made women had a higher risk of obesity (RRa = 1.09; P = 0.000 andRRa = 1.17; P = 0.000, respectively.Conclusion: Women aged 25-49, divorced or married, unemployed, consumed excess protein, and often consumefatty foods have a higher risk for becoming obese. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Key words: obesity, urban, women

  19. Male gender preference, female gender disadvantage as risk factors for psychological morbidity in Pakistani women of childbearing age - a life course perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Pakistan, preference for boys over girls is deeply culturally embedded. From birth, many women experience gendered disadvantages; less access to scarce resources, poorer health care, higher child mortality, limited education, less employment outside of the home and circumscribed autonomy. The prevalence of psychological morbidity is exceptionally high among women. We hypothesise that, among women of childbearing age, gender disadvantage is an independent risk factor for psychological morbidity Methods A cross-sectional catchment area survey of 525 women aged 18 to 35 years living in Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The effect of gender disadvantage was assessed as a latent variable using structural equation modelling. Indicators were parental gender preference, low parental care, parental overprotection, limited education, early age at marriage, marital dissatisfaction and low autonomy. Psychological morbidity was assessed using the 20 item Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ. Results Gender disadvantage was independently predictive of psychological morbidity. Among married women, socio-economic status did not predict psychological morbidity, and the effect of education was mediated through gender disadvantage rather than socioeconomic status (SES. The women's own preference for a male child was strongly predicted by their perceptions of having been disadvantaged by their gender in their families of origin. Conclusions The high prevalence of psychological morbidity among women in Pakistan is concerning given recently reported strong associations with low birth weight and infant stunting. Social action, public policies and legislation are indicated to reduce culturally embedded preferences. Neglect of these fundamentals will entrench consequent inequities including gender bias in access to education, a key millennium development goal.

  20. [The course of recurrent urinary tract infections in non-pregnant women of childbearing age, the consequences for daily life and the ideas of the patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, S.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the natural history of recurrent urinary tract infections in women of childbearing age and to gain insight into their consequences and the ideas of the patients. DESIGN: Historical cohort-study and interviews with patients. METHOD: All non-pregnant women in the age-range

  1. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission: Precarious Hopes and Childbearing Choices Among HIV-Infected Women in a Northern Province of Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke; Bui, Kim Chi

    2012-01-01

    's faith in their futures and childbearing capacities. Based on the findings, the authors discuss the new forms of gendered uncertainty that arise in the era of HIV/AIDS in Vietnam. They conclude that prevention of mother-to-child transmission, including the counseling offered by health providers, plays...

  2. Socioeconomic, cultural and demographic determinants of childbearing desires among married women attending health centers in Hamedan (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Hosseini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Changes in values and attitudes of the Iranian society during the past few decades have greatly influenced the reproductive decisions and actions of individuals and families, especially women. The aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of childbearing desires of married women attending Health Centers in Hamedan. Methods: Data were collected through a survey which was conducted during November and December, 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 273 eligible women who were selected randomly. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Results showed that 70.7 percent of women did not want to have another child in addition to the children they had at the time of survey. Among these women, 55 percent and 84.3 percent had one and two children, respectively. Further, 78.4 percent of respondents stated that two children were the ideal number of children for the households. The most important reasons for the two-children pattern were economic problems and families’ problems in rearing and training the children, respectively. Results of multivariate analysis showed that the likelihood of stopping childbearing was higher among working women,women with more children, women at the end of reproduction age, women evaluating children’s benefits lower than their expenditures, and women with little tendency to prefer sons to daughters. Conclusion: Population policies to prevent further decline in fertility should be focused on employment, family, and quality of life, especially among women without children, women with one child and newly married couples.

  3. [Prescribing valproate to girls and women of childbearing age in Germany : Analysis of trends based on claims data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Nadine; Haug, Ulrike; Schink, Tania; Engel, Susanne; Liebentraut, Judith; Linder, Roland; Onken, Marlies; Schaefer, Christof; Dathe, Katarina

    2018-06-19

    Measures to raise awareness of the teratogenic potential of valproate and restrict its use in girls/women of childbearing age have been intensified. For Germany, the impact of these measures on valproate prescription rates remains unknown. Trends in prescribing valproate, the underlying treatment indication, and the specialty of the prescribing physician are analyzed. With claims data from several statutory health insurance providers from 2004 to 2016 (approximately 3.5 million insured persons per year) considering treatment indication and medical specialties of prescribing physicians, we assessed the rate of girls/women (12 to 50 years) with at least one valproate dispensation per year. The age-standardized rate of girls/women with at least one valproate dispensation declined by 28% between 2004 and 2016 (2.91/1000 vs. 2.09/1000). For 2015, the indications were epilepsy (66.9%), bipolar disorder (13.6%), migraine/headache (5.6%), schizoaffective disorder (4.3%), and other mental disorders (8.9%). Among epilepsy patients, the proportion treated with valproate declined from 26.2 to 16.8%, but changed little in patients with bipolar disorder (9.3% vs. 8.0%). A total of 46.3% of valproate dispensations were issued by neurologists or psychiatrists and 29.6% by general practitioners, internal medicine specialists, or family doctors. Based on German claims data, a decline of valproate dispensations was shown for epilepsy patients of childbearing age, while the proportion in other indications has hardly changed since 2004.

  4. A UK clinical audit addressing the quality of prescribing of sodium valproate for bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Carol; Cookson, John; Ferrier, I Nicol; Bhatti, Sumera; Fagan, Elizabeth; Barnes, Thomas R E

    2018-04-12

    To review prescribing practice concerning valproate, an established human teratogen, for the management of bipolar disorder in women of childbearing age. The Prescribing Observatory for Mental Health conducted a baseline clinical audit in the UK, as part of a quality improvement programme. Six hundred and forty-eight clinical teams from 55 mental health Trusts submitted retrospective treatment data relating to patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the audit sample of 6705 patients, 3854 were 50 years of age or younger. Valproate was prescribed for 24% of women and 43% men in this age group, and the mean dose of valproate was lower in women (1196 mg) than in men (1391 mg). For only half of such women was there documented evidence that information had been provided on the risks for the unborn child and the need for adequate contraception. Valproate was more often used in men to treat mania and aggression, while the most common treatment targets in women were hypomania and relapse prevention. Despite explicit recommendations in national treatment guidelines and published safety alerts and warnings regarding the use of valproate in women of childbearing age, current prescribing of this medication to such women in the context of the treatment of bipolar disorder falls short of best practice, particularly with regard to provision of information regarding the risks associated with exposure to valproate during pregnancy. While women younger than 50 years of age were less likely to be prescribed valproate than men in the same age group, and at a lower dosage, it is unclear to what extent this reflects clinicians' concerns about teratogenicity or is driven by perceptions of the indication for valproate, and the dosage required, for the treatment of different phases of the disorder in men and women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  5. The Risk Effect of Primary Dysmenorrhea on Women of Childbearing Age in Ploso Subdistrict of Tambaksari Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulya Rohima Ammar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Primary dysmenorrhea was menstrual pain without any real abnormalities in genitals and could be a sign of reproductive system disorders. Prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was quite high, but the lack of attention from the medical world, whereas primary dysmenorrhea can lead to decreased productivity and hinder daily activities. This  study  aimed  to  analyze  the  risk factors  of  primary  dysmenorrhea  in  Ploso  subdistrict  of Tambaksari Surabaya. The study was an observational analytic cross sectional design. Sampling was done by multistage cluster sampling. Respondents were 80 women of childbearing age 15-35 years old. Based on the results the prevalence of primary dysmenorrhea was at 71.3% . Most of the impact of primary dysmenorrhea that respondents perceived were declining productivity that is equal to 77.2%. Most of respondents not been examined primary dysmenorrhea to the doctor or midwife (84.2% with the majority reason was respondents think that symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea perceived is reasonable (54.2% . The highest proportion of respondents characteristics are aged 15-25 years (51.3%, had family history (52.5%, never given birth (60%, duration of menstruation 3-7 days (86%, age of menarche 12-13 years (53.8%, not did exercise (53.8%, had a normal nutritional status (38.8%, and severe stress (25%. The results of the bivariate analysis showed that there was a relationship between age and family history with primary dysmenorrhea, and there was no relationship between the experience of childbirth, length of menstruation, age of menarche, exercise habits, nutritional status, and state of stress with primary dysmenorrhea. The advice is to check primary dysmenorrhea to the doctor or midwife if find symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea to get treatment (psychotherapy or medication therapy, so that respondents could still work or do activities and productivity is not compromised. Keywords : primary dysmenorrhea

  6. Web-Based Intervention for Alcohol Use in Women of Childbearing Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Katia Delrahim

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for more effective assessment and primary prevention programs aimed at accurately measuring and reducing alcohol consumption among women before conception in underserved, high-risk populations. Health Information Technology (HIT) may serve this purpose; however, the effectiveness of such tools is not known. We conducted a…

  7. Nutritional status as assessed by nutrient intakes and biomarkers among women of childbearing age--is the burden of nutrient inadequacies growing in America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Deshanie; Bird, Julia K; McBurney, Michael I; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding nutrient intakes among women of childbearing age within the USA is important given the accumulating evidence that maternal body weight gain and nutrient intakes prior to pregnancy may influence the health and well-being of the offspring. The objective of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to ascertain the influence of ethnicity and income on nutrient intakes. Nutritional status was assessed using data on nutrient intakes through foods and supplements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Biomarker data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to assess nutritional status for selected nutrients. Poverty-income ratio was used to assess family income. White (n 1560), African-American (n 889) and Mexican-American (n 761) women aged 19-30 and 31-50 years were included. A nationally representative sample of non-pregnant women of childbearing age resident in the USA. African-American women had the lowest intakes of fibre, folate, riboflavin, P, K, Ca and Mg. Women (31-50 years) with a poverty-income ratio of ≤ 1.85 had significantly lower intakes of almost all nutrients analysed. Irrespective of ethnicity and income, a significant percentage of women were not consuming the estimated recommended amounts (Estimated Average Requirement) of several key nutrients: vitamin A (~80%), vitamin D (~78%) and fibre (~92%). Nutrient biomarker data were generally reflective of nutrient intake patterns among the different ethnic groups. Women of childbearing age in the USA are not meeting nutrient intake guidelines, with differences between ethnic groups and socio-economic strata. These factors should be considered when establishing nutrition science advocacy and policy.

  8. Intake of game birds in the UK: assessment of the contribution to the dietary intake of lead by women of childbearing age and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caroline M; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2014-05-01

    Concern has recently been expressed about Pb levels in Pb-shot game meat. Our aim was to determine the consumption of game birds in a representative sample population in the UK, and in children and women of childbearing age in particular. Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Data from 4 d diet diaries from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS; 2008-2010) were extracted to analyse data on game bird consumption in the sample population, in women of childbearing age (15-45 years old) and in children ≤6 years old. Home-based study in representative areas of the UK. Participants in the NDNS (2008-2010; n 2126, age 1·5 to >65 years). Fifty-eight participants (2·7 %) reported eating game birds. The mean intake was 19·5 (sd 18·1) g/d (median 15·6, range 1·3-92·9 g/d). In women of childbearing age (15-45 years), 11/383 (2·9 %) reported eating game birds, with a mean intake of 22·4 (sd 25·8) g/d (median 15·6, range 2·0-92·9 g/d). In children aged ≤6 years old, 3/342 (0·9 %) were reported as eating game birds, with a mean intake of 6·8 (sd 9·7) g/d (median 2·4, range 1·3-23·2 g/d). The prevalence of consumption of game birds by women of childbearing age and children ≤6 years old was relatively low and intakes were small. However, any exposure to Pb in these two groups is undesirable. As are uncertainties about the ability of the diet diary method to capture the consumption of food items that are infrequently consumed, alternative methods of capturing these data should be used in future studies.

  9. Dietary Intakes of EPA and DHA Omega-3 Fatty Acids among US Childbearing-Age and Pregnant Women: An Analysis of NHANES 2001-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying; Fulgoni, Victor L; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels

    2018-03-28

    The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend that the general population should consume about 8 ounces (oz.) per week of a variety of seafood, providing approximately 250 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and that pregnant and lactating women should consume 8–12 oz. per week of seafood. We determined the usual intakes, percentage not meeting recommendations, and trends in EPA and DHA intakes among childbearing-age and pregnant women (15–44 years of age) using the NHANES cycles 2001–2002 through 2013–2014. For the childbearing-age women, the mean usual intake of seafood was 0.44 ± 0.02 oz. equivalent per day and 100% of the population was below the DGA recommendation. Mean usual intakes of EPA, DHA, and combined EPA and DHA from foods and dietary supplements combined were 26.8 ± 1.4, 62.2 ± 1.9, and 88.1 ± 3.0 mg per day, respectively. Over 95% of the sample did not meet the daily intakes of 250 mg EPA and DHA. Similar results were observed for pregnant women. After controlling for covariates, there were slight but significant increases in EPA and DHA intakes from foods and dietary supplements over the 14-year span among childbearing-age ( p = 0.005) and pregnant women ( p = 0.002). It was estimated that a majority of U.S. childbearing-age and pregnant women consumed significantly lower amounts of seafood than what the DGA recommends, which subsequently leads to low intakes of EPA and DHA; in addition, dietary supplement use has not eliminated the nutrient shortfall.

  10. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-11-17

    Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes' to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha District, SNNPR, Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional survey was conducted in Cheha District from Dec 22, 2012 to Jan 11, 2013. Multistage sampling method was employed and 816 women who gave birth within the past 2 years and lived in Cheha district for minimum of one year prior to the survey were involved in the study. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info Version 7 and SPSS Version 16. Frequencies and binary logistic regression were done. Factors affecting institutional delivery were determined using multivariate logistic regression. A total of 31 % of women gave birth to their last child at health facility. Place of residence, ability to afford for the whole process to get delivery service at health facility, traveling time that takes to reach to health institution which provides delivery service, husband's attitude towards institutional delivery, counseling about where to deliver during ANC visit and place of birth of the 2(nd) youngest child were found to have statistically significant association with institutional delivery. Institutional delivery is low in the study area. Access to health service was found to be the most important predictor of institutional delivery among others. Accessing health facility within reasonable travel time; providing health education and BCC services to husbands and the community at large on importance of using health institution for delivery service

  11. Educational attainment, perception of workplace support and its influence on timing of childbearing for Canadian women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-09-01

    Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women.

  12. Childbearing dynamics of couples in a universalistic welfare state: The role of labor-market status, country of origin, and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Scott

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies childbearing dynamics by labor-market status of co-residing parents in Sweden. We apply event-history techniques to longitudinal register data on the life histories of foreign-born mothers from ten different countries and the partners to these women, as well as to a sample of Swedish-born mothers and their partners. The context is a universalistic welfare state geared towards gender and social equality where formal social rights are largely independent of a person's civil status, citizenship, and country of origin. We investigate the extent to which the associations of parents' labor-market status with childbearing in Sweden differ between women and men and by country of origin. We find that the patterns of association are fairly similar on both of these individual dimensions. As measured by the way the labor-market activity of parents is related to their subsequent childbearing, we find evidence of equality by gender and at least some evidence of integration of immigrants into the dynamics of Swedish society.

  13. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  15. Childbearing trends in Iceland, 1982-2013: Fertility timing, quantum, and gender preferences for children in a Nordic context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Klængur Jónsson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iceland is one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, but one that does not seem to have experienced the same fertility fluctuations as most other countries, following the enhanced role of women in society. Objective: In this study we examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982-2013 by analysing the progressions to parities one, two, and three. We also investigate whether there is evidence of gender preferences for children among Icelandic parents. Methods: Official individual longitudinal register data is used, covering the total female population born in Iceland between 1941 and 1997. The data is analysed by means of event history analysis. Results: We find evidence of tendencies to postpone motherhood during the period, with increases in fertility for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and a third child has not declined; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. Estimates suggest that Icelandic parents prefer to have daughters. Conclusions: During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. Contribution: The study provides the first comprehensive overview of fertility trends in Iceland.

  16. Overview Chapter 5: Determinants of family formation and childbearing during the societal transition in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Frejka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Societal conditions for early and high rates of childbearing were replaced by conditions generating late and low levels of fertility common in Western countries. Central among factors shaping the latter behaviour (job insecurity, unstable partnership relationships, expensive housing, and profound changes in norms, values and attitudes were the following: increasing proportions of young people were acquiring advanced education, a majority of women were gainfully employed, yet women were performing most household maintenance and childrearing duties. Two theories prevailed to explain what caused changes in family formation and fertility trends. One argues that the economic and social crises were the principal causes. The other considered the diffusion of western norms, values and attitudes as the prime factors of change. Neither reveals the root cause: the replacement of state socialist regimes with economic and political institutions of contemporary capitalism. The extraordinarily low period TFRs around 2000 were the result of low fertility of older women born around 1960 overlapping with low fertility of young women born during the 1970s.

  17. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntz, Sandra W.; Hill, Wade G.; Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary; Larsson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  18. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Poor thiamin and riboflavin status is common among women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Liu, Yazheng; McCann, Adrian; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Kroeun, Hou; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene; Lynd, Larry D; Kitts, David D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Thiamin deficiency in infancy is the underlying cause of beriberi, which can be fatal without rapid treatment. Reports of thiamin deficiency are common in Cambodia; however, population representative data are unavailable. Because B-complex vitamin deficiencies commonly occur in combination, riboflavin was also investigated. We determined the biomarker status of thiamin and riboflavin in women of childbearing age in rural and urban Cambodia. We measured thiamin (erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate; TDP) and riboflavin (erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient; EGRac) status in a representative sample of Cambodian women (aged 20-45 y) in urban Phnom Penh (n = 146) and rural Prey Veng (n = 156), Cambodia, and, for comparison purposes, in a convenience sample of women in urban Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (n = 49). Thiamin insufficiency (TDP ≤ 90 nmol/L) was common among both urban (39%) and rural (59%) Cambodian women (P Cambodia. The unexpected finding of high riboflavin inadequacy status in Vancouver women warrants further investigation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Advertising exposure and use of e-cigarettes among female current and former tobacco users of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin; Rayens, Emily; Wiggins, Amanda T; Rayens, Mary Kay; Fallin, Amanda; Sayre, Molly Malany

    2017-09-01

    The study examined the relationship between exposure to e-cigarette advertising and e-cigarette use by pregnancy status, including use of flavored e-cigarette products, among women of childbearing age. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. Female current or former tobacco users in Central and Eastern Kentucky, 18-45 years old (N = 194, 52% pregnant). Demographics, pregnancy status, cigarette and e-cigarette use, and exposure to e-cigarette advertising. Younger age, white non-Hispanic race, and greater exposure to e-cigarette advertising were associated with a higher likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes (p advertisements or information about e-cigarettes on social media, compared to those who used unflavored e-cigarettes only (p = .016). There is a link between advertising exposure and ever use of e-cigarettes. Pregnancy status is not significantly associated with ever use. Use of flavored e-cigarettes is associated with younger age. E-cigarette users with greater exposure to advertising on social media were more likely to use flavored products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Differences in partnership and marital status at first birth by women’s and partners’ education: Evidence from Britain 1991-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Peri Rotem, Nitzan; Scott, J

    2017-01-01

    Non-marital childbearing, especially within cohabitation, has become increasingly common in Britain as in other Western countries. Nonetheless, births outside marriage occur more frequently among the relatively disadvantaged in terms of income potential. Building upon previous research in family formation patterns, we examine differences by education and employment status in the proportion of marital and non-marital first births among British women and couples over the past two decades. In pa...

  2. On low fertility from the aspect of the economic activity of female population: Possibilities and restrictions in encouragement of childbearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šobot Ankica

    2014-01-01

    (Ignjatović, et al., 2011. The gender inequality on the micro level represents an unfavorable social framework for making childbearing decisions due to relatively high economic activity of women. Apart from that, high unemployment of both female and male population in Serbia is yet another adverse circumstance for forming a family and making decisions on births. Also, a challenge in reversal of low birth rates are regional differences of socio-economic characteristics of the female population. In that sense, the share of economically inactive among women of reproductive age in Vojvodina and two regions in Central Serbia area (excluding the region of Belgrade, as well as lower fertility of employed and unemployed women in the Belgrade region, are imposed. Economic activity and employment of female population form a positive framework in reproductive behavior, if the conditions regarding the characteristics of gender regime are fulfilled. In such circumstances fertility is around the replacement rate, which represents the highest birth rate values in European welfare states. Having in mind high valuation of family and parenthood on one hand, and economic characteristics of the female population in Serbia on the other, the question is whether the economic activity of women is the area where encouragement of childbearing to more than two children could be influenced. The reply requires more in-depth analysis of relevant data, as well as more concrete empirical and better quality research.

  3. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  4. Anti-thyrotropin receptor antibody levels after radioiodine therapy in patients of childbearing age with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mizuho; Tojo, Katsuyoshi; Tajima, Naoko; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ito, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Following radioiodine therapy for Graves' disease, transient elevation of anti-thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) is observed. Elevation of TRAb causes neonatal hyperthyroidism. Serum TRAb levels before radioiodine therapy, 2 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 3 years, and 3 to 4 years after radioiodine therapy were retrospectively analyzed in 25 women of childbearing age with Graves' disease. The normal range for TRAb is ≤15%. The one patient with serum TRAb levels <10% before radioiodine therapy did not have TRAb levels ≥50% after radioiodine therapy. However, in patients with serum TRAb levels of 10% to 30% before radioiodine therapy (n=8), TRAb were ≥50% in 75.0% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 25.0% 1 to 2 years after, and in 37.5% 2 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels of 30% to 50% before radioiodine therapy (n=3), TRAb levels were ≥50% in 33.3% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy and in 0.0% 1 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels of 50% to 70% before radioiodine therapy (n=6), TRAb were ≥50% in 83.3% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 66.6% 1 to 2 years after, and in 33.3% 2 to 4 years after. In patients with serum TRAb levels ≥70% before radioiodine therapy (n=7), TRAb levels were ≥50% in 100% 2 months to 1 year after radioiodine therapy, in 85.7% 1 to 2 years after, in 71.4% 2 to 3 years after, and in 57.1% 3 to 4 years after. Serum TRAb levels are more likely to be ≥50% after radioiodine therapy in patients with high serum TRAb levels before radioiodine therapy. (author)

  5. e-Cigarette Use and Perceived Harm Among Women of Childbearing Age Who Reported Tobacco Use During the Past Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Kristin; Wiggins, Amanda; Butler, Karen; Ickes, Melinda; Rayens, Mary Kay; Hahn, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of electronic cigarette use grows. Amid increased e-cigarette use nationwide, this paper attempts to identify underlying risk factors for the most vulnerable populations. The purpose of the study was to assess predictors of e-cigarette use among female current and former tobacco users of childbearing age-specifically to determine whether demographic factors, pregnancy status, conventional cigarette smoking, and perceived e-cigarette harm are associated with e-cigarette use. Reasons for using e-cigarettes were also measured. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used; 194 current and former female tobacco users, 18-45 years of age, from two university-affiliated prenatal clinics and one women's health clinic in Kentucky took part. Slightly more than half were pregnant. Age, race/ethnicity, education, pregnancy status, use history for cigarettes and e-cigarettes, and perception of health hazard from e-cigarettes were measured, and associations with e-cigarette use were made with Mann-Whitney U-tests or Spearman's rank correlations. Predictors of e-cigarette use were determined using proportional odds modeling. Most current e-cigarette users were also current cigarette smokers (88%). Nearly half of current and former e-cigarette users were pregnant. Most women perceived e-cigarettes as a minor (38%) or moderate (31%) health hazard. In the proportional odds model, younger women were at greater risk for e-cigarette use, whereas minority women and those who were pregnant were less likely to be e-cigarette users. Pregnant women were less likely to be more recent e-cigarette users, compared with nonpregnant women. However, nearly all current e-cigarette users were dual tobacco users, including pregnant women. It is both imperative and timely to determine the impact of e-cigarette use on maternal and infant health, thus improving healthcare provider confidence to discuss the health implications of e-cigarette use with their patients.

  6. Impact of parental ages and other characteristics at childbearing on congenital anomalies: Results for the Czech Republic, 2000-2007

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    Jitka Rychtarikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND If the impact of maternal age at childbearing on congenital anomalies is well-known for the occurrence of Down syndrome, less is known concerning its effects on other major anomalies. Information is even scarcer for the possible effects of other maternal characteristics and of age of the father. OBJECTIVE We present new results on the associations between parental ages and other maternal characteristics, on the one hand, and congenital anomalies, on the other hand, using data linkage between three Czech registries on mother, newborn, and malformations, for the period 2000-2007. METHODS As the variables are in categorical format, binary logistic regression is used in order to investigate the relationship between presence/absence of a congenital anomaly, for each of the eleven types of anomalies considered, and the set of predictors. RESULTS This research confirms the impact of a higher age of the mother on Down syndrome and on other chromosomal anomalies. Paternal age is not associated with chromosomal anomalies and, in this Czech population, has a rather slight effect on some of the congenital anomalies examined. Another finding of the present study is the possible role of various other maternal characteristics on congenital malformations. CONCLUSIONS Based on a large data set, this study concludes that both parental ages can be associated with congenital anomalies of the child, and that maternal characteristics other than age have also to be considered. COMMENTS Risk factors can be tentatively proposed if they are based on a plausible and suitably tested explanatory mechanism. Unfortunately, in the majority of individual cases of congenital anomaly, the cause of the condition is still unknown and suspected to be an interaction of multiple environmental and genetic factors.

  7. Screening of Toxoplasma gondii infection among childbearing age females and assessment of nurses' role in prevention and control of toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Megahed Ahmed; Ali, Hisham abd El-Raouf; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohamed; Hosny, Samah Mostafa; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular zoonotic protozoan parasite, with a worldwide distribution particularly in Arab countries including Egypt. The study evaluated toxoplasmosis infection among childbearing age Egyptian females and assessed the military nursing staff knowledge, attitude and compliance to toxoplasmosis prevention and control measures. The study was conductedin a general military hospital. CROSS-section descriptive research design was used to conduct this study. The subjects consisted of 14 young females (11 were in-patients undergoing gynecological treatment in a military hospital and 3 were staff nurses. On the other hand, 44 staff nurses were available for assessment who met the inclusion criteria. 4 tools were used for data collection: first consisted of self-administered questionnaires to assess nurses' socio-demographic data and knowledge, second rating scale to assess nurses' attitude towards toxoplasmosis infection and its prevention, third performance check list to measure nurses' compliance to infection control measures, and fourth measured the anti-Toxoplasma antibodies by commercial indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). The results showed that almost half of the nurses had satisfactory levels of knowledge, attitude, and compliance to toxoplasmosis infection control measures. 22.2% of the pregnant women and 20% of non-pregnant ones showed antibodies against T. gondii. Thus health education about toxoplasmosis should be tailored to women whether married or single to help in avoiding the risk of infection. Frequent periodic IHAT should be done for people who continuously contact with cats. Adherence to strict infection prevention measures is a must to eliminate exposure to toxoplasmosis infection. Training intervention should be implemented to achieve successful improvement in knowledge, attitude, and compliance of toxoplasmosis control measures.

  8. Educational differences in timing and quantum of childbearing in Britain: A study of cohorts born 1940−1969

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Berrington

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased postponement of fertility, especially among higher-educated women, means it is important to know whether women recuperate births at older ages, but evidence for the UK is lacking. The extent to which the timing and quantum of mothers' fertility underlie the strong educational gradient in completed family size is also unclear. Objective: We investigate the relative contributions of childlessness, timing, and quantum to educational differences in completed fertility within cohorts born between 1940 and 1969. Methods: We analyse retrospective fertility histories from 44,351 women, born 1940-1969, interviewed in the British General Household Survey (1979-2009 and the UK Household Longitudinal Study (2009-2010. After describing educational differences in the timing of first birth and parity distributions, we quantify the relative contributions of childlessness, delayed entry into motherhood, and fertility rates conditional upon age at entry into motherhood, to educational differences in completed family size. Results: Within each cohort, the educational gradient in completed family size is explained, in demographic accounting terms, almost entirely by educational differences in the proportions remaining childless and the age distribution of mothers at entry into motherhood. Conditional upon age at entry into motherhood, subsequent fertility rates are similar across educational groups and across cohorts. Conclusions: Unlike for some other European countries, the postponement of motherhood to later ages in Britain has not resulted in a significant increase in childbearing among more-educated women who enter motherhood at later ages. The stability of aggregate measures of completed fertility in Britain is not the result of a straightforward process of postponement followed by recuperation.

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disorders and Reporting of Trouble Sleeping Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.

  10. Serum and erythrocyte folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following a countrywide voluntary programme by the baking industry to fortify bread with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Williams, Sheila M; Mann, Jim I; Oey, Indrawati; Aitchison, Cindy; Parnell, Winsome; Fleming, Liz; Brown, Rachel C; Skeaff, C Murray

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the folate status of New Zealand women of childbearing age following the introduction, in 2010, of a new voluntary folic acid fortification of bread programme. The 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey was a cross-sectional survey of women aged 18-44 years carried out in 2011. The survey used a stratified random sampling technique with the Electoral Roll as the sampling frame. Women were asked about consumption of folic-acid-fortified breads and breakfast cereals in a telephone interview. During a clinic visit, blood was collected for serum and erythrocyte folate measurement by microbiological assay. A North Island (Wellington) and South Island (Dunedin) city centre in New Zealand. Two hundred and eighty-eight women, of whom 278 completed a clinic visit. Geometric mean serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations were 30 nmol/l and 996 nmol/l, respectively. Folate status was 30-40 % higher compared with women of childbearing age sampled as part of a national survey in 2008/09, prior to the introduction of the voluntary folic acid bread fortification programme. In the 2011 Folate and Women's Health Survey, reported consumption of fortified bread and fortified breakfast cereal in the past week was associated with 25 % (P=0·01) and 15 % (P=0·04) higher serum folate concentrations, respectively. Serum and erythrocyte folate concentrations have increased in New Zealand women of childbearing age since the number of folic-acid-fortified breads was increased voluntarily in 2010. Consumption of fortified breads and breakfast cereals was associated with a higher folate status.

  11. Effectiveness of a girls' empowerment programme on early childbearing, marriage and school dropout among adolescent girls in rural Zambia: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Mudenda, Mweetwa; Zulu, Joseph; Munsaka, Ecloss; Blystad, Astrid; Makasa, Mpundu C; Mæstad, Ottar; Tungodden, Bertil; Jacobs, Choolwe; Kampata, Linda; Fylkesnes, Knut; Svanemyr, Joar; Moland, Karen Marie; Banda, Richard; Musonda, Patrick

    2016-12-09

    Adolescent pregnancies pose a risk to the young mothers and their babies. In Zambia, 35% of young girls in rural areas have given birth by the age of 18 years. Pregnancy rates are particularly high among out-of-school girls. Poverty, low enrolment in secondary school, myths and community norms all contribute to early childbearing. This protocol describes a trial aiming to measure the effect on early childbearing rates in a rural Zambian context of (1) economic support to girls and their families, and (2) combining economic support with a community intervention to enhance knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and supportive community norms. This cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) will have three arms. The clusters are rural schools with surrounding communities. Approximately 4900 girls in grade 7 in 2016 will be recruited from 157 schools in 12 districts. In one intervention arm, participating girls and their guardians will be offered cash transfers and payment of school fees. In the second intervention arm, there will be both economic support and a community intervention. The interventions will be implemented for approximately 2 years. The final survey will be 4.5 years after recruitment. The primary outcomes will be "incidence of births within 8 months of the end of the intervention period", "incidence of births before girls' 18th birthday" and "proportion of girls who sit for the grade 9 exam". Final survey interviewers will be unaware of the intervention status of respondents. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat and adjusted for cluster design and confounders. Qualitative process evaluation will be conducted. This is the first CRCT to measure the effect of combining economic support with a community intervention to prevent adolescent childbearing in a low- or middle-income country. We have designed a programme that will be sustainable and feasible to scale up. The findings will be relevant for programmes for adolescent reproductive health in

  12. Dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada: a growing concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Kolahdooz

    Full Text Available Arctic populations are at an increased risk of vitamin D inadequacy due to geographic latitude and a nutrition transition. This study aimed to assess the adequacy of dietary vitamin D and calcium among women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada.This study collected data from 203 randomly selected women of child-bearing age (19-44 years in Nunavut and the Northwest Territories of Arctic Canada. Cross-sectional surveys using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire were analysed to determine the dietary adequacy of vitamin D and calcium and summarize the top foods contributing to vitamin D and calcium intake among traditional food eaters (TFE and non-traditional food eaters (NTFE.The response rate was between 69-93% depending on the community sampled. Mean BMIs for both TFE and NTFE were above the normal range. Traditional food eaters had a significantly higher median vitamin D intake compared with non-traditional eaters (TFE=5.13 ± 5.34 µg/day; NTFE=3.5 ± 3.22 µg/day, p=0·004. The majority of women (87% were below the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR for vitamin D. Despite adequate median daily calcium intake in both TFE (1,299 ± 798 mg/day and NTFE (992 ± 704 mg/day; p=0.0005, 27% of the study population fell below the EAR for calcium. Dairy products contributed the most to intake of vitamin D (TFE=30.7%; NTFE=39.1% and calcium (TFE=25.5%; NTFE=34.5%.Inadequate dietary vitamin D intake is evident among Inuit and Inuvialuit women of child-bearing age in Arctic Canada. Promotion of nutrient-rich sources of traditional foods, supplementation protocols and/or expanded food fortification should be considered to address this nutrition concern.

  13. The impact of a meat- versus a vegetable-based diet on iron status in women of childbearing age with small iron stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Bendtsen, K.M.; Henriksen, M.

    2007-01-01

    about dietary intake before and during intervention, meat/fish intake, menstruation and contraceptive methods were recorded. Results: The women who consumed the meat-based diet had a significantly (P ... on iron status of women of childbearing age. Methods: For 20 weeks, 57 women aged 19-39 years with low iron stores (serum ferritin = 120 g/l) consumed either a meat-based or a vegetable-based diet. Haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were measured at baseline, after 10 and 20 weeks. Information...

  14. Validation of a short food frequency questionnaire specific for iodine in U.K. females of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, E; Lean, M E J

    2014-12-01

    Widespread subclinical iodine insufficiency has recently been reported in Europe, based on urinary iodine using World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization criteria, in particular among young women. Although urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a useful measurement of the iodine status in a population, it does not provide an insight into the habitual iodine intake of this population. This is compounded by the fact that very few iodine-specific food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) have been validated so far. The present study aimed to develop and validate a new, simple, rapid survey tool to assess dietary iodine exposure in females of childbearing age. Iodine was measured in a duplicate 24-h urine collection. Iodine intake was measured with duplicate 4-day semi-quantitative food diaries and the FFQ. Correlation, cross-classification and Bland-Altman analyses were used to estimate agreement, bias and the reliability of the method. The triangular (triad) method was used to calculate validity coefficients. Forty-three women, aged 19-49 years, took part in the validation of the 17-items FFQ. Median (interquartile range) UIC was 74 (47-92) μg L(-1) , which is indicative of mild iodine insufficiency. The FFQ showed good agreement with food diaries with respect to classifying iodine intake (82% of subjects were classified in the same or adjacent quartile). The FFQ was moderately correlated with the food diaries (rs  = 0.45, P = 0.002) and urinary excretion in μg L(-1) (rs  = 0.34, P = 0.025) but not in μg day(-1) (P = 0.316). The validity coefficients were 0.69, 0.66 and 0.52 for the food diaries, FFQ and urinary iodine excretion, respectively. The FFQ provides a rapid and reliable estimate of dietary iodine exposure to identify those population subgroups at risk of iodine deficiency. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  15. Childbearing among Canadian Stepfamilies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heintz-Martin, V.; Le Bourdais, C.; Hamplová, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 41, 1-2 (2014), s. 61-77 ISSN 0380-1489 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/11/0145 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : stepfamilies * child bearing * life course Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.194, year: 2014

  16. Serum Folate Shows an Inverse Association with Blood Pressure in a Cohort of Chinese Women of Childbearing Age: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue Shen

    Full Text Available It has been reported that higher folate intake from food and supplementation is associated with decreased blood pressure (BP. The association between serum folate concentration and BP has been examined in few studies. We aim to examine the association between serum folate and BP levels in a cohort of young Chinese women.We used the baseline data from a pre-conception cohort of women of childbearing age in Liuyang, China, for this study. Demographic data were collected by structured interview. Serum folate concentration was measured by immunoassay, and homocysteine, blood glucose, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured through standardized clinical procedures. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression model were applied in the analysis.A total of 1,532 healthy normotensive non-pregnant women were included in the final analysis. The mean concentration of serum folate was 7.5 ± 5.4 nmol/L and 55% of the women presented with folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L. Multiple linear regression and principal component regression showed that serum folate levels were inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP, after adjusting for demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical factors.Serum folate is inversely associated with BP in non-pregnant women of childbearing age with high prevalence of folate deficiency.

  17. Experience of Southern Chinese: new challenges in treating young female breast cancer patients at child-bearing age--a call for multi-disciplinary collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Chu, Annie Tsz-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Compared with western populations, Southern Chinese, especially those residing in Hong Kong, are experiencing increasing breast cancer incidence and also a younger onset of breast cancer. Combating this problem and treating young women with breast cancer poses specific challenges and complicated considerations. With reference to the postponement in the age of marriage and reproduction in modern societies, the issue of fertility after breast cancer, especially for high-risk young patients, is one significant quality of life concern that cannot be underestimated as a secondary medical topic. While the issue has its significance and is confronting front-line breast cancer care teams of different disciplines, related research is mostly on Caucasians. In cultures where the traditional expectation on women for child-bearing is still prominent, young breast cancer patients may endure significant distress over fertility options after breast cancer. There is a lack of related data on Asian breast cancer survivors at child-bearing age, which calls for a pressing need to encourage qualitative groundwork, case reports, and cohort experiences in hope for providing insight and arouse research interest. In order to provide a long-term comprehensive multidisciplinary management service with encouragement to encompass prospects for a positive future among young breast cancer survivors, relevant disciplines need to collaborate and work efficaciously together both on clinical and research aspects of cancer-related fertility issues.

  18. The Spanish Society of Neurology's official clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy. Special considerations in epilepsy: comorbidities, women of childbearing age, and elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri Llerda, J A; Suller Marti, A; de la Peña Mayor, P; Martínez Ferri, M; Poza Aldea, J J; Gomez Alonso, J; Mercadé Cerdá, J M

    2015-10-01

    The characteristics of some population groups (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly) may limit epilepsy management. Antiepileptic treatment in these patients may require adjustments. We searched articles in Pubmed, clinical practice guidelines for epilepsy, and recommendations by the most relevant medical societies regarding epilepsy in special situations (patients with comorbidities, women of childbearing age, the elderly). Evidence and recommendations are classified according to the prognostic criteria of Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (2001) and the European Federation of Neurological Societies (2004) for therapeutic interventions. Epilepsy treatment in special cases of comorbidities must be selected properly to improve efficacy with the fewest side effects. Adjusting antiepileptic medication and/or hormone therapy is necessary for proper seizure management in catamenial epilepsy. Exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AED) during pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects and may affect fetal growth and/or cognitive development. Postpartum breastfeeding is recommended, with monitoring for adverse effects if sedative AEDs are used. Finally, the elderly are prone to epilepsy, and diagnostic and treatment characteristics in this group differ from those of other age groups. Although therapeutic limitations may be more frequent in older patients due to comorbidities, they usually respond better to lower doses of AEDs than do other age groups. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Reducing ionizing radiation doses during cardiac interventions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver

    2012-09-01

    There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.

  20. The power of social connection and support in improving health: lessons from social support interventions with childbearing women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Rhonda

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Social support interventions have a somewhat chequered history. Despite evidence that social connection is associated with good health, efforts to implement interventions designed to increase social support have produced mixed results. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the relationship between social connectedness and good health, by examining social support interventions with mothers of young children and analysing how support was conceptualised, enacted and valued, in order to advance what we know about providing support to improve health. Context and approach First, we provide a brief recent history of social support interventions for mothers with young children and we critically examine what was intended by ‘social support’, who provided it and for which groups of mothers, how support was enacted and what was valued by women. Second, we examine the challenges and promise of lay social support approaches focused explicitly on companionship, and draw on experiences in two cluster randomised trials which aimed to improve the wellbeing of mothers. One trial involved a universal approach, providing befriending opportunities for all mothers in the first year after birth, and the other a targeted approach offering support from a ‘mentor mother’ to childbearing women experiencing intimate partner violence. Results Interventions providing social support to mothers have most often been directed to women seen as disadvantaged, or ‘at risk’. They have also most often been enacted by health professionals and have included strong elements of health education and/or information, almost always with a focus on improving parenting skills for better child health outcomes. Fewer have involved non-professional ‘supporters’, and only some have aimed explicitly to provide companionship or a listening ear, despite these aspects being what mothers receiving support have said they valued most. Our trial

  1. 2486例育龄妇女流产现况分析%Abortion status of 2 486 women of child-bearing age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆兰; 李敏; 张香玲; 吕爱青

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status and causes of abortion and factors influencing mode selection of abortion in women of child-bearing age.Methods Altogether 2 486 women of child-bearing age seeking for induced abortion in Wendeng Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from January 1 to December 31 in 2016 were collected.Data such as patient's age, marital status, gestation history, abortion history, delivery mode and abortion causes was analyzed.Status of abortion and factors influencing abortion mode selection in women of child-bearing age in Wendeng District were explored.Results Among 2 486 cases undergoing abortion, 1 883 cases were married (75.74%).Among 2 346 patients who received induced abortion with gestational age0.05).There was difference in abortion causes between patients who chose drug abortion or artificial abortion, and number of patients whose causes were emergency contraception failure, lack of contraception knowledge, taking no contraception measures thinking of leaving it to chance was more in patients choosing artificial abortion than in those choosing medical abortion (χ2 value was 8.08, 8.75 and 4.19, respectively, all P2次以上的患者倾向于选择人工流产;育龄妇女的生育状况对选择流产方式有影响(χ2 =28.88,P0.05);选择药物流产和人工流产患者的流产原因有差异,选择人工流产患者中因紧急避孕失败、避孕知识缺乏及因侥幸心理未避孕而流产者多于选择药物流产者(χ2值分别为8.08、8.75、4.19,均P<0.05);选择药物流产患者中因节育器脱落导致流产者高于选择人工流产者(χ2=22.36,P=0.00).结论 育龄妇女的流产与避孕意识淡薄,避孕知识缺乏或抱有侥幸心理未避孕造成意外妊娠,应加强对流产术后生殖健康服务和避孕指导,避免和减少流产的发生.

  2. High prevalence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early childhood among a nationally representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age and their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Smith, Geoffry; Chamnan, Chhoun

    2017-01-01

    the thiamine status (measured as erythrocyte thiamine diphosphate concentrations; eThDP) among a representative sample of Cambodian women of childbearing age (15-49 y) and their young children (6-69 mo). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Samples for this cross-sectional analysis were collected as part...... of a national micronutrient survey linked to the Cambodian Demographic and Health Survey (CDHS) 2014. One-sixth of households taking part in the CDHS were randomly selected and re-visited for additional blood sampling for eThDP analysis (719 women and 761 children). Thiamine status was assessed using different...... cut-offs from literature. Women were mean (SD) 30 (6) y, and children (46% girls) were 41 (17) mo. Women had lower mean (95% CI) eThDP of 150 nmol/L (146-153) compared to children, 174 nmol/L (171-179; P

  3. Motivations of women in Uganda living with rheumatic heart disease: A mixed methods study of experiences in stigma, childbearing, anticoagulation, and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew Y; Nabbaale, Juliet; Nalubwama, Haddy; Okello, Emmy; Ssinabulya, Isaac; Longenecker, Christopher T; Webel, Allison R

    2018-01-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a leading cause of premature mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Women of reproductive age are a unique and vulnerable group of RHD patients, due to increased risk of cardiovascular complications and death during pregnancy. Yet, less than 5% of women of childbearing age with RHD in LMICs use contraceptives, and one in five pregnant women with RHD take warfarin despite known teratogenicity. It is unclear whether this suboptimal contraception and anticoagulant use during pregnancy is due to lack of health system resources, limited health literacy, or social pressure to bear children. We conducted a mixed methods study of 75 women living with RHD in Uganda. Questionnaires were administered to 50 patients. Transcripts from three focus groups with 25 participants were analyzed using qualitative description methodology. Several themes emerged from the focus groups, including pregnancy as a calculated risk; misconceptions about side-effects of contraceptives and anticoagulation; reproductive decision-making control by male partners, in-laws, or physicians; abandonment of patients by male partners; and considerable stigma against heart disease patients for both their reproductive and financial limitations (often worse than that directed against HIV patients). All questionnaire respondents were told by physicians that their hearts were not strong enough to support a pregnancy. Only 14% used contraception while taking warfarin. All participants felt that society would look poorly on a woman who cannot have children due to a heart condition. To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study of female RHD patients and their attitudes toward cardiovascular disorders and reproduction. Our results suggest that health programs targeting heart disease in LMICs must pay special attention to the needs of women of childbearing age. There are opportunities for improved family/societal education programs and community engagement

  4. Sociodemographic Status, Parental Background, Childhood Family Structure, and Attitudes toward Family Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Katherine; South, Scott J.

    1992-01-01

    Used data from National Survey of Families and Households to investigate effects of individual characteristics, parental background, and childhood living arrangements on adults' attitudes toward marriage, divorce, and nonmarital childbearing. Strongest predictors were age, sex, and marital status, with older persons, men, and married persons…

  5. Navigating the "New" Marriage Market: How Attitudes toward Partner Characteristics Shape Union Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldscheider, Frances; Kaufman, Gayle; Sassler, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Trends in divorce and nonmarital childbearing suggest that the marriage market is increasingly filled with people who have been married and/or have children. This study examines the effect of personal attitudes on entrance into a union with a partner who has been previously married or has children. Using data from two waves of the National Survey…

  6. Births outside of Marriage: Perceptions vs. Reality. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-Humen, Elizabeth; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin A.

    Research supports the anecdotal observation that unmarried mothers and their children face greater obstacles and suffer greater strains than married couples and their children. Less is known about the specific characteristics of the women who have births outside of marriage. This research brief paints a fuller picture of nonmarital childbearing.…

  7. Mortality Associated With Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting-South Africa, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Information on the mortality burden associated with seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection among pregnant women is scarce in most settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where pregnancy and maternal mortality rates as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence are elevated. We used an ecological study design to estimate the seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza-associated mortality among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15-49 years) by HIV serostatus during 1999-2009 in South Africa. Mortality rates were expressed per 100 000 person-years. During 1999-2009, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates were 12.6 (123 deaths) and 7.3 (914 deaths) among pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively. Among pregnant women, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates were 74.9 (109 deaths) among HIV-infected and 1.5 (14 deaths) among HIV-uninfected individuals. Among nonpregnant women, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rate was 41.2 (824 deaths) among HIV-infected and 0.9 (90 deaths) among HIV-uninfected individuals. Pregnant women experienced an increased risk of seasonal influenza-associated mortality compared with nonpregnant women (relative risk [RR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.9). In 2009, the estimated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated mortality rates were 19.3 (181 deaths) and 9.4 (1189 deaths) among pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.3-4.1). Among women of childbearing age, the majority of estimated seasonal influenza-associated deaths occurred in HIV-infected individuals. Pregnant women experienced an increased risk of death associated with seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection compared with nonpregnant women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados Características de las mujeres con infección por VIH que dan a luz en Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Valmay Bent

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group ...

  9. Influence of gender preference and sex composition of surviving children on childbearing intention among high fertility married women in stable union in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Stephen Ayo; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch

    2015-03-01

    Child's gender preference (GP) frequently leads to high fertility which has adverse effect on family health. The link between women's fertility intention, GP and Living Children's Sex Composition (LCSC) as found in this study is less explored in Malawi. We examined the relationship between GP, LCSC and fertility intention. This study utilized 2010 MDHS dataset and focused on married women aged 15-49 years (n=1739) in stable unions who currently have at least 5 living children. Data was analyzed at bivariate and multivariate levels (α=0.05). About 39.7% of the women have GP and higher proportion (23.3%) has preference for females. Age, region, wealth-quintile, religion, residence and family planning programmes were significantly associated with fertility intention. Women who have GP and same LCSC were 1.35 and 2.4 times significantly more likely to have intention to bear more children than those who have no GP and different sexes composition respectively. These odd ratios changed to 1.38 for GP and 2.44 for LCSC after adjusting for other socio-demographic variables. We find that GP and LCSC significantly influence women's intention to bear more children. Women should stop childbearing after attaining their desired number irrespective of the LCSC.

  10. The Prevalence of Traditional Malpractice during Pregnancy, Child Birth, and Postnatal Period among Women of Childbearing Age in Meshenti Town, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haileyesus Gedamu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cultural practices, beliefs, and taboos are often implicated in determining the care received by mothers during pregnancy and child birth which is an important determinant of maternal mortality. Objective. To assess prevalence of cultural malpractice during pregnancy, child birth, and postnatal period among women of childbearing age in Meshenti town, Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia, in 2016. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among women of reproductive age group interviewed during the study period from May 10 to June 17, 2016. Total sample size was 318 women of reproductive age group. Systematic sampling technique was conducted. Result. Overall, 50.9% of the respondents had cultural malpractices during their pregnancy. Out of 318 women, 62 (19.5% practiced nutrition taboo, 78 (24.5% practiced abdominal massage, 87 (29.7% delivered their babies at home, 96 (32.8% avoided colostrums, 132 (45.2% washed their baby before 24 hr after delivery, and 6 (6.9% cut the cord by unclean blade. Conclusion and Recommendation. The findings of this study show that different traditional malpractice during perinatal period is still persisting in spite of modern developments in the world. Health education and promoting formal female education are important to decrease or avoid these cultural malpractices.

  11. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Blanco-Rojo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142. Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC. Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene; rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene; and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively. Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26; women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59 and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57. Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001. In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  12. Molecular evaluation of 7 sexually transmissible microorganisms in symptomatic and asymptomatic Italian childbearing age women: is Ureaplasma parvum a real innocent bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Avolio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Symptoms of most common bacterial and parasitic sexually transmitted infections tend to be non-specific and typically have a variety of different potential causal agents that may require different treatments. In this field the pathogenic potential of genital Ureaplasma species is still uncertain and debated. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG, Mycoplasma hominis (MH, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Ureaplasma parvum (UP in a cohort of symptomatic and asymptomatic childbearing age women and to assess the relationships between bacterial vaginosis and symptoms with both UU and UP. Materials and Methods: DNA of 2735 endocervical specimens was consecutively analysed by a commercial multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of 7 multiple target sequences simultaneously: CT, NG, TV, MG, MH, UU and UP. Results: Out of the total number of population studied (n=2735, UP was found to be the species with highest prevalence (30.9% followed by MH (6.5%, UU (6.3%, CT (2.6%, MG (0.8% and TV (0.9%. UP single species detection was extremely significant in symptomatic women with normal flora (P<0.0001. The correlation of UP in symptomatic women with bacterial vaginosis was not significant (P=0.3387. Conclusions: Our results suggest a potential specific etiological role to UP, still considered rightly or wrongly innocent bystander, despite the lack so far of specific-species culture tests.

  13. Influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status: a cross-sectional study in Spanish women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2014-03-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.

  14. The Supplementation Effects of Iron and Folic Acid Compared with the Multivitamin and Mineral on Female Workers of Childbearing Age in the Pineapple Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaktiworo Indriani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Female workers of childbearing age (WUS as a major of human resources in many agribusiness exposed to anemia. This study aims to improve the iron status of anemic WUS workers with low hemoglobin (Hb levels, who work in a pineapple agribusiness by iron supplementation. This study was conducted two periods, using a double-blind randomized trial design. Subjects were divided into two treatment groups supplements, namely IF that was given iron + folic acid and MVM that was given multi vitamin and mineral containing 15 different vitamins and minerals including iron and folic acid. The subjects of period-1 were 25 married WUS (IF=13, MVM=12 and of period-2 were 15 single WUS (BF=7, MVM=8. Supplementation performed three times weekly for 10 weeks. After supplementation, the levels of Hb, haematocrit (Hc and serum ferritin of BF-group increased, whereas there were declines in MVM-group. The increase in Hb and Hc in married WUS was higher than the single. However, their Hb was fallen down when supplementation was continued without supervision and getting down when not given the supplements anymore. Supplementation with iron is a must for WUS workers, because they are not able to increase their Hb if only rely on their food.

  15. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Non-pregnant Women of Childbearing-Age in Guatemala 2009-2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15-49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009-2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. National prevalence estimates for deficient serum [Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations.

  16. Folate and Vitamin B12 Deficiency Among Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in Guatemala 2009–2010: Prevalence and Identification of Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Jorge; Lopez-Pazos, Eunice; Dowling, Nicole F.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Mulinare, Joe; Vellozzi, Claudia; Zhang, Mindy; Lavoie, Donna J; Molina, Roberto; Ramirez, Nicte; Reeve, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Information on folate and vitamin B12 deficiency rates in Guatemala is essential to evaluate the current fortification program. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies among women of childbearing age (WCBA) in Guatemala and to identify vulnerable populations at greater risk for nutrient deficiency. Methods A multistage cluster probability study was designed with national and regional representation of nonpregnant WCBA (15–49 years of age). Primary data collection was carried out in 2009–2010. Demographic and health information was collected through face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected from 1,473 WCBA for serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate and serum vitamin B12. Biochemical concentrations were normalized using geometric means. Prevalence rate ratios were estimated to assess relative differences among different socioeconomic and cultural groups including ethnicity, age, education level, wealth index and rural versus urban locality. Results National prevalence estimates for deficient serum (Guatemala, folate deficiency was more prevalent among indigenous rural and urban poor populations. Vitamin B12 deficiency was widespread among WCBA. Our results suggest the ongoing need to monitor existing fortification programs, in particular regarding its reach to vulnerable populations. PMID:26002178

  17. Early childbearing, human capital attainment and mortality risk: Evidence from a longitudinal demographic surveillance area in rural-KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardington, Cally; Menendez, Alicia; Mutevedzi, Tinofa

    2014-01-01

    Using a rich longitudinal dataset, we examine the relationship between teen fertility and both subsequent educational outcomes and HIV related mortality risk in rural South Africa. Human capital deficits among teen mothers are large and significant, with earlier births associated with greater deficits. In contrast to many other studies from developed countries, we find no clear evidence of selectivity into teen childbearing in either schooling trajectories or pre-fertility household characteristics. Enrolment rates among teen mothers only begin to drop in the period immediately preceding the birth and future teen mothers are not behind in their schooling relative to other girls. Older teen mothers and those further ahead in school for their age pre-birth are more likely to continue schooling after the birth. In addition to adolescents’ higher biological vulnerability to HIV infection, pregnancy also appears to increase the risk of contracting HIV. Following women over an extended period, we document a higher HIV related mortality risk for teen mothers that cannot be explained by household characteristics in early adulthood. Controlling for age at sexual debut, we find that teen mothers report lower condom use and older partners than other sexually active adolescents. PMID:26028690

  18. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data. Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme. Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  19. Nonmarital Unions, Family Definitions, and Custody Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Mellisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships that have not been formalized by marriage but that function like marriage are increasingly common among couples. Many of these relationships involve children who are related to only one of the adults but who have established parent-child relationships with both adults. This raises questions about how best to preserve children's…

  20. Reducing the Teen Birth Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Teen childbearing affects young people at both ends of childhood. When teens have children, their own health may be jeopardized and their chances to build productive lives are often diminished. Compared to women who postpone childbearing until they are older, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and to live in poverty. At the same…

  1. Investigation of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among married women of childbearing age in Taizhou%浙江台州已婚育龄妇女阴道毛滴虫感染状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金慧晶; 葛爱玲; 林干

    2014-01-01

    To explore the Trichomonas vaginalis infection status of married women of child-bearing age in Taizhou and the risk factors,in order to reduce the incidence of such infection in Taizhou.Methods:The 1 1268 married women visited the gynecological outpatients of many hospitals in Taizhou from October 2009 to November 2013 were studied through research and analysis of the vaginal discharge specimens collected,to detect the infection rate.The most important risk factors were identified through statistical analysis between various types of risk factors and the incidence rate of infection.Results:880 ones of the 1 1 ,268 examined women showed a positive result,with Trichomonas vaginalis infection rate of 7.81%.Women between 36 to 40 years old had the highest inci-dence rate of infection;Trichomonas vaginalis infection rate reached the highest of 1 1 .80%in spring;Trichomonas vaginalis infection rate of women in agriculture was highest of 11.18%,followed by those in service industry;in ad-dition,the more frequent genital cleansings was accompanied with lower infection rate.Therefore,risk factors for infection included age between 3 1 and 45 ,spring,engaged in agriculture and lower frequency of genital cleansings. Conclusion:There are many risk factors for married women to be infected with Trichomonas vaginalis in our city. Therefore,health education for married women of childbearing age,especially women engaged in agriculture,should be strengthened and health knowledge should be timely promoted,for women to develop good health habits in an ef-fort to reduce the incidence of infection in the city.%目的:探讨浙江台州已婚育龄期妇女出现阴道毛滴虫感染的现况以及发生此类感染的危险因素,降低本市已婚妇女阴道毛滴虫感染发生率。方法:将2009年10月至2013年11月我市多家医院的妇科门诊患者11268人为本试验的研究对象,对实验患者阴道后穹隆处所采集阴道分泌物的标本进行研究分

  2. Healthy Eating and Harambee: curriculum development for a culturally-centered bio-medically oriented nutrition education program to reach African American women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Srimathi; Sparks, Arlene V; Webster, J DeWitt; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Lumeng, Julie

    2010-07-01

    The purpose was to develop, implement and evaluate a peer-led nutrition curriculum Healthy Eating and Harambee that addresses established objectives of maternal and infant health and to shift the stage for African American women of childbearing age in Genesee County toward healthier dietary patterns using a socio-cultural and biomedical orientation. The PEN-3 model, which frames culture in the context of health promotion interventions, was integrated with the Transtheoretical Model to guide this 13-week pre-test/post-test curriculum. Materials developed included soul food plate visuals, a micronutrient availability worksheet, a fruit stand, and gardening kits. Learning activities included affirmations, stories, case-scenarios, point-of-purchase product recognition, church health teams, and community health fairs. We investigated health-promoting dietary behaviors (consumption of more fruits and vegetables (F&V), serving more F&V to their families, and moderating dietary sodium and fat intakes), and biomedical behaviors (self-monitoring blood pressure and exercising) across five stages of change. Session attendance and program satisfaction were assessed. N = 102 women participated (mean age = 27.5 years). A majority (77%) reported adopting at least one healthy eating behavior (moderating sodium, serving more F&V to their families), 23% adopted at least two such behaviors (reading food labels for sodium; using culinary herbs/spices; serving more F&V to their families), and 45% adopted both dietary (moderating sodium; eating more fruits) and biomedical behaviors. Participants and facilitators favorably evaluated the curriculum and suggested improvements. A multi-conceptual approach coupled with cultural and biomedical tailoring has potential to promote young African American women's movement to more advanced stages of change and improve self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable intake, dietary sodium moderation, and self-monitoring blood pressure and physical activity.

  3. Use of traditional and modern contraceptives among childbearing women: findings from a mixed methods study in two southwestern Nigerian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Akpan, Wilson

    2018-05-09

    Contraceptive use has numerous health benefits such as preventing unplanned pregnancies, ensuring optimum spacing between births, reducing maternal and child mortality, and improving the lives of women and children in general. This study examines the level of contraceptive use, its determinants, reasons for non-use of contraception among women in the reproductive age group (18-49 years) in two southwestern Nigerian states. The study adopted an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect data from 809 participants selected using a 3-stage cluster random sampling technique. We also conducted 46 in-depth interviews. In order to investigate the association between the socio-demographic variables and use of contraceptive methods, we estimated the binary logistic regression models. The findings indicated that knowledge of any methods of contraception was almost universal among the participants. The rates of ever use and current use of contraception was 80 and 66.6%, respectively. However, only 43.9% of the participants had ever used any modern contraceptive methods, considered to be more reliable. The fear of side effects of modern contraceptive methods drove women to rely on less effective traditional methods (withdrawal and rhythm methods). Some women employed crude and unproven contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancies. Our findings show that the rate of contraceptive use was high in the study setting. However, many women chose less effective traditional contraceptive methods over more effective modern contraceptive methods due to fear of side effects of the latter. Patient education on the various options of modern contraceptives, their side effects and management would be crucial towards expanding the family planning services in the study setting.

  4. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  5. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  6. The Health and Social Impacts of Easy Access to Alcohol and Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements Among Women of Childbearing Age in Urban and Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanuel, Hanna; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie

    2017-03-07

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of easy access to alcohol and exposure to alcohol advertisements on women's alcohol consumption, reproductive history, and health and social outcomes in an urban and rural site in South Africa. Trained fieldworkers conducted face-to-face interviews with 1,018 women of childbearing age in the Moot, Mamelodi, and Eesterus areas of the City of Tshwane (Gauteng province) and in the rural Cederberg, Bergrivier, and Swartland municipalities (Western Cape province), recruited through random sampling and stratified cluster random sampling, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted, stratified according to the urban and rural sites and controlled for four demographic factors. In Tshwane, complications in the last pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 7.84, 95% CI [1.77, 34.80]), interpartner binge drinking (OR = 6.50, 95% CI [3.85, 10.94]), and community drinking (OR = 7.92, 95% CI [4.59, 13.65]) were positively associated with alcohol accessibility. Interpartner violence (OR = 4.16, 95% CI [1.99, 8.70]) and community drinking (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [2.07, 5.53]) were positively associated with exposure to alcohol advertisements. In Western Cape, community drinking (OR = 10.26, 95% CI [4.02, 26.20]) was positively associated with alcohol accessibility, whereas ability to pay for health care (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.24, 0.96]) was inversely associated. Hazardous drinking on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.03, 4.95]) and CAGE (OR = 4.51, 95% CI [1.30, 15.61]), interpartner violence (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.04, 2.76]), and community drinking (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [2.07, 5.53]) were positively associated with exposure to alcohol advertisements. Easy access to alcohol and exposure to alcohol advertisements are positively associated with adverse health and social outcomes. Although further studies are needed, these findings lend support to emphasizing upstream policy

  7. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and childbearing desires among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana: across-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayondi, Gloria K; Wirth, Kathleen; Morroni, Chelsea; Moyo, Sikhulile; Ajibola, Gbolahan; Diseko, Modiegi; Sakoi, Maureen; Magetse, Jane Dipuo; Moabi, Kebaiphe; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Kammerer, Betsy; Lockman, Shahin

    2016-01-16

    Little is known about the impact of knowledge of HIV serostatus on pregnancy intention and contraceptive use in high-HIV-burden southern African settings in the era of widespread antiretroviral treatment availability. We analyzed interview data collected among 473 HIV-uninfected and 468 HIV-infected pregnant and recently postpartum women at two sites in southern Botswana. Participants were interviewed about their knowledge of their HIV status prior to pregnancy, intendedness of the pregnancy, contraceptive use, and future childbearing desires. The median age of the 941 women was 27 years, median lifetime pregnancies was 2, and 416 (44%) of pregnancies were unintended. Among women reporting unintended pregnancy, 36% were not using a contraceptive method prior to conception. Among contraception users, 81% used condoms, 13% oral contraceptives and 5% an injectable contraceptive. In univariable analysis, women with unintended pregnancy had a higher number of previous pregnancies (P = HIV-infected, 48% reported knowing they were HIV-uninfected, and 22% reported not knowing their HIV status prior to conception. In multivariable analysis, women who did not know their HIV status pre-conception were more likely to report their pregnancy as unintended compared to women who knew that they were HIV-uninfected (aOR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.2-2.5). After controlling for other factors, unintended pregnancy was not associated with knowing one's HIV positive status prior to conception (compared with knowing one's negative HIV status prior to conception). Among women with unintended pregnancy, there was no association between knowing their HIV status and contraceptive use prior to pregnancy in adjusted analyses. Sixty-one percent of women reported not wanting any more children after this pregnancy, with HIV-infected women significantly more likely to report not wanting any more children compared to HIV-uninfected women (aOR = 3.9; 95%CI: 2.6-5.8). The high rates of reported unintended

  8. Nutrition in the childbearing years

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derbyshire, Emma

    2011-01-01

    ... Other concerns 2.23 Application in practice 2.24 Conclusion xi xvii xviii xix xx 1 1 2 12 20 25 26 26 28 29 29 30 31 33 33 34 34 36 38 38 39 39 41 41 42 43 43 43 44 44vi Contents 3 4 5 6 Hormonal an...

  9. An ecological analysis of the effects of deviant peer clustering on sexual promiscuity, problem behavior, and childbearing from early adolescence to adulthood: an enhancement of the life history framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Ha, Thao; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène

    2012-05-01

    The authors propose that peer relationships should be included in a life history perspective on adolescent problem behavior. Longitudinal analyses were used to examine deviant peer clustering as the mediating link between attenuated family ties, peer marginalization, and social disadvantage in early adolescence and sexual promiscuity in middle adolescence and childbearing by early adulthood. Specifically, 998 youths, along with their families, were assessed at age 11 years and periodically through age 24 years. Structural equation modeling revealed that the peer-enhanced life history model provided a good fit to the longitudinal data, with deviant peer clustering strongly predicting adolescent sexual promiscuity and other correlated problem behaviors. Sexual promiscuity, as expected, also strongly predicted the number of children by ages 22-24 years. Consistent with a life history perspective, family social disadvantage directly predicted deviant peer clustering and number of children in early adulthood, controlling for all other variables in the model. These data suggest that deviant peer clustering is a core dimension of a fast life history strategy, with strong links to sexual activity and childbearing. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the need to integrate an evolutionary-based model of self-organized peer groups in developmental and intervention science.

  10. ‘You try to play a role in her pregnancy’ - a qualitative study on recent fathers’ perspectives about childbearing and encounter with the maternal health system in Kigali, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Påfs

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rwanda has raised gender equality on the political agenda and is, among other things, striving for involving men in reproductive health matters. With these structural changes taking place, traditional gender norms in this setting are challenged. Deeper understanding is needed of men's perceptions about their gendered roles in the maternal health system. Objective: To explore recent fathers’ perspectives about their roles during childbearing and maternal care-seeking within the context of Rwanda's political agenda for gender equality. Design: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 men in Kigali, Rwanda, between March 2013 and April 2014. A framework of naturalistic inquiry guided the overall study design and analysis. In order to conceptualize male involvement and understand any gendered social mechanisms, the analysis is inspired by the central principles from relational gender theory. Results: The participants in this study appeared to disrupt traditional masculinities and presented ideals of an engaged and caring partner during pregnancy and maternal care-seeking. They wished to carry responsibilities beyond the traditional aspects of being the financial provider. They also demonstrated willingness to negotiate their involvement according to their partners’ wishes, external expectations, and perceived cultural norms. While the men perceived themselves as obliged to accompany their partner at first antenatal care (ANC visit, they experienced several points of resistance from the maternal health system for becoming further engaged. Conclusions: These men perceived both maternal health system policy and care providers as resistant toward their increased engagement in childbearing. Importantly, perceiving themselves as estranged may consequently limit their engagement with the expectant partner. Our findings therefore recommend maternity care to be more responsive to male partners. Given the number of men already taking

  11. Overnight Custody Arrangements, Attachment, and Adjustment Among Very Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tornello, Samantha L.; Emery, Robert; Rowen, Jenna; Potter, Daniel; Ocker, Bailey; Xu, Yishan

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of infants and toddlers have parents who live apart due to separation, divorce, or nonmarital/noncohabiting child-bearing, yet this important topic, especially the controversial issue of frequent overnights with nonresidential parents, is understudied. The authors analyzed data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal investigation of children born to primarily low-income, racial/ethnic minority parents that is representative of 20 U.S. cities with pop...

  12. Factores asociados con la actividad física en mujeres mexicanas en edad reproductiva Factors associated with physical activity among Mexican women of childbearing age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Hernández

    2003-10-01

    practicing sports and 1.25 hours per day on heavy physical activities. Only 16% of the women reported that they regularly practiced some sport. After adjusting for all the independent variables, the women older than 30 years had a lower OR of practicing sports in comparison to women who were 20 years of age or less (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.84, as was also true for women 21­30 years old (OR = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.54. Having the highest level of schooling and not having had children were both directly associated with practicing a sport. While the area of residence (urban or rural, marital status, and socioeconomic level showed differences among the groups, such differences were not significant after adjusting for the other study variables. In terms of physical activity measured in METs, the time spent on sports made up 10% of the total for heavy activity and 0.7% of the overall total. In terms of the possibility of being among the 10% of the women who expended the fewest METs per day, that was more likely for women under 21 years of age than it was for women 31 or older, and it was also more likely for women who had a primary level of schooling than for women with a secondary education. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that practicing sports is not a frequent form of physical activity among women of childbearing age in Mexico, especially those who are over 20 years of age and those with a low level of schooling. This situation could contribute to increases in the prevalence of obesity and chronic diseases.

  13. The pregnancy question: a survey regarding the establishment of whether females of childbearing age are or may be pregnant prior to radiation exposures in diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine departments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.; Arscott, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the UK, the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 state that 'the written procedure for medical exposures shall include...procedures for making enquiries of females of childbearing age to establish whether the individual is or may be pregnant...'. Despite the importance of this question and the potential for causing great distress and anxiety if an examination involving ionising radiation is performed on a pregnant patient, the guidance available is vague and there is no universally accepted procedure on when and how to ask this difficult question. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the procedure for enquiring about possible pregnancy varies from department to department. To investigate this further, we devised a questionnaire to send out to diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine departments across the UK. Questions asked related to the department's written procedure, the examinations for which the question would be asked, the age of women asked and the recording of whether the question was asked and the outcome. Responses were received from over 300 individuals from 66 different hospitals. The majority (73.5%) were from X-ray departments, 14.0% were from nuclear medicine and the remaining 12.5% included computed tomography, neuroradiology, angiography and cardiac catheter labs. 97.0% have a written procedure, 1.2% do not, 0.9% do not know and 0.9% gave no response. Of the responses from X-ray departments, 17% ask the question for all examinations, while 83% ask for examinations of specific body regions. Several body regions were stated and were divided into 9 categories with the main one being diaphragm to knees (45%). Nuclear medicine departments ask for all examinations. With regard to establishing the 'childbearing age', 5% state that for younger and older patients they ascertain whether the female has started/stopped menstruation before asking the pregnancy question (no age range given), and 95% state an age range of the females

  14. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  15. Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados Características de las mujeres con infección por VIH que dan a luz en Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group of HIV-negative childbearing women. Routine information recorded during antenatal care was obtained from the women's case records. Additional data were collected from interviews with the women. RESULTS: There were 182 HIV-infected women who delivered during the study period, and a group of 202 childbearing women served as controls. In comparison to the control group, the HIV-infected women were younger, more often multiparous, and more likely to have been unemployed at the time of their pregnancy. The HIV-infected women also had had an earlier onset of sexual activity, had had more sexual partners during their lifetime, and were more likely to be involved with an older sexual partner. At the time of giving birth most of the HIV-infected women were asymptomatic for AIDS and were living with either their parents (mother or father or both or the baby's father. In addition, at the time of their six-weeks-postnatal visit, the large majority of the HIV-infected women were involved in caring for their children. The proportion of HIV-infected women who were diagnosed prior to childbirth increased significantly over the study period, rising from 25% during 1986-1990 to 82% during 1996-2000. Slightly over one-fifth of the HIV-infected women had had one or more subsequent pregnancies after they had learned that they were infected. CONCLUSIONS: The early age of sexual activity as well as repeated pregnancies, especially from different and older partners, may have

  16. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  17. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  18. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. © 2012 The Authors  Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Maternal postnatal care utilization and associated factors: A community-based study among women of child-bearing age in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I P Okafor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nigeria has one of the highest maternal and child death rates in the world. Postnatal care is one of the major interventions recommended to reduce maternal and newborn deaths globally. The aim of this study is to determine the utilization of postnatal health services and identify the factors which affect this utilization among mothers of under-fives in Lagos. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study among women of child bearing age in Lagos using structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Six hundred women selected by multi stage sampling method were interviewed and data analyzed with EPI-info Version 3.5.1. Results: Two thirds (66.2% of the respondents utilized postnatal health services. Factors which significantly influenced postnatal health services utilization were: number of children (p=0.031, maternal education (p=0.001, religion (Fisher′s exact p= 0.004, number of antenatal care visits (p<0.001 and skilled attendance at birth (p<0.001. Maternal occupation and time taken to the health facility were not significant determinants of utilization. Conclusion: Utilization of postnatal care services was high but not optimal. Interventions to increase family planning use and improve maternal educational status should be undertaken as well as increasing use of focused antenatal care and skilled delivery services.

  20. Molecular sensitivity threshold of wet mount and an immunochromatographic assay evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR for diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a low-risk population of childbearing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Castronari, Roberto; Levorato, Lucia; Luciano, Eugenio; Pistoni, Eleonora; Perito, Stefano; Bozza, Silvia; Mencacci, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    Vaginal trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellated protozoan. Diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection is mainly performed by wet mount microscopy, with a sensitivity ranging from 38% to 82%, compared to culture, still considered the gold standard. Commercial immunochromatographic tests for monoclonal-antibody-based detection have been introduced as alternative methods for diagnosis of T. vaginalis infection and have been reported in some studies to be more sensitive than wet mount. Real-time PCR methods have been recently developed, with optimal sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a molecular sensitivity threshold for both wet mount and imunochromatographic assays. To this aim, a total of 1487 low-risk childbearing women (median age 32 years, interquartile range 27-37) were included in the study, and underwent vaginal swab for T. vaginalis detection by means of a quantitative real-time PCR assay, wet mount and an immunochromatographic test. Upon comparing the results, prevalence values observed were 1.3% for real-time PCR, 0.5% for microscopic examination, and 0.8% for the immunochromatographic test. Compared to real-time PCR, wet mount sensitivity was 40% (95% confidence interval 19.1% to 63.9%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI 99.7% to 100%). The sensitivity and specificity of the immunochromatographic assay were 57.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 79.8%) and 99.9% (95% CI 99.6% to 100%), respectively. Evaluation of the wet mount results and those of immunochromatographic assay detection in relation to the number of T. vaginalis DNA copies detected in vaginal samples showed that the lower identification threshold for both wet mount (chi-square 6.1; P = 0.016) and the immunochromatographic assay (chi-square 10.7; P = 0.002) was ≥100 copies of T. vaginalis DNA/5 mcl of eluted DNA.

  1. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  2. Direct oxide reducing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwai, Moriyasu.

    1995-01-01

    Calcium oxides and magnetic oxides as wastes generated upon direct reduction are subjected to molten salt electrolysis, and reduced metallic calcium and magnesium are separated and recovered. Then calcium and magnesium are used recyclically as the reducing agent upon conducting direct oxide reduction. Even calcium oxides and magnesium oxides, which have high melting points and difficult to be melted usually, can be melted in molten salts of mixed fluorides or chlorides by molten-salt electrolysis. Oxides are decomposed by electrolysis, and oxygen is removed in the form of carbon monoxide, while the reduced metallic calcium and magnesium rise above the molten salts on the side of a cathode, and then separated. Since only carbon monoxide is generated as radioactive wastes upon molten salt electrolysis, the amount of radioactive wastes can be greatly reduced, and the amount of the reducing agent used can also be decreased remarkably. (N.H.)

  3. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  4. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  5. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  6. Reducing The Nuclear Danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    off convention • Eliminate the civil use of HEU (includes RERTR ) • Reduce stockpiles of civil HEU and plutonium • Promote alternatives to the...these countries. ANL supports the Department’s Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor ( RERTR ) Program by providing the technical means to...scientists and engineers at 60 institutes in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. The United States and Russia have agreed to pursue a joint RERTR

  7. Using reduce in supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.P. dos.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure which allows one to do Supersymmetry calculus in REDUCE is described. Using the concept of an eight-dimensional 'superspace' (spanned by four space-time and four anticommuting coordinates) and of 'superfields' (which represent an entire supermultiplet of particles that transform among themselves), covariant derivatives with respect to supersymmetry are defined. Then, combining the vector facility and LET statement in REDUCE, spinors are simulated in a way to control the algebraic manipulation. (G.D.F.) [pt

  8. EFFECTS OF CHILDBEARING ON RURAL WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    , 63.8 % of the ... women contribute from 50-90% of the labour for rice cultivation. And in .... farming activities before marriage.14.4% had primary education,18.6% had ... Higher National Diploma while 10.2% had Bachelor of Science certificate.

  9. Trends in Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Adolescent Friendship LGBTQ Youth Healthy Parent-Child Relationships Parenting Styles and Healthy Parent-Child Relationships Communicating Setting Limits Additional Resources Mental Health has sub items, Mental Health Adolescent Mental Health ...

  10. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  11. Radiodiagnosis for the woman of childbearing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemette-Artur, P.; Feuillet, B.; Duchateau, C.; Feidt, C.; Reynaud, J.P.; Le Bot, Y.; Marjou, F.

    2009-01-01

    The pregnancy irradiation must be avoided wherever possible, this pregnancy known or not. A safe radiodiagnosis can be realised when the uterus is out of the irradiated field. The risks for the child are variables in function of the pregnancy term and the irradiation itself. Wearing a lead apron does not change significantly the dose received at uterus, but may be useful to the psychological comfort. (N.C.)

  12. Tank closure reducing grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-01-01

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr 90 , the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel

  13. Reduced Braginskii equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm`s law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0.

  14. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1993-11-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0

  15. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  16. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  17. Reduced Braginskii equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Horton, W.

    1994-01-01

    A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation

  18. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  19. Why reduce health inequalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I

    2000-12-01

    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  20. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  1. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  2. Macierzyństwo nastoletnich kobiet w aspekcie społecznym, psychologicznym i prawnym = Childbearing among teenage women as seen from the social, psychological and legal points of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bałanda-Bałdyga

    2016-06-01

    children in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The reason for this may be a faster development of teenagers as well as changes in sexual behaviour, especially earlier sexual initiation.             The issue has to be looked upon from different standpoints due to various consequences of premature motherhood. Those consequences are not only of personal nature of a mother, but they affect family, school and society too. The moment of creating a new life, together with pregnancy and child delivery, seems to be one of the most important events that will shape the future of a mother, her child and close family. This article focuses on teenage childbearing as it is seen by sociologist, psychologist and lawyers. It also presents the most crucial consequences of becoming a parent too early in life which originate in being financially dependant and the student status. The aim of this study is to present the problem of teenage motherhood from sociological, psychological and legal standpoint.   Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, social support, adaptation psychological, law.

  3. Reduced cost of ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, W.H.; Newton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    There is common drive throughout industry towards reduced costs of ownership of plant and equipment. Rolls-Royce and Associates Ltd. has developed the systems and expertise necessary to achieve these objectives. This Paper outlines the methods being used on existing facilities, and describes a new all embracing process called Planned Lifetime Management. This process, based on the military standard Integrated Logistic Support, ensures that all aspects of support are clearly identified at the design stage and that support is monitored to allow through-life support costs to be optimized. (author)

  4. Early salpingectomy (TUbectomy) with delayed oophorectomy to improve quality of life as alternative for risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers (TUBA study): a prospective non-randomised multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmsen, Marline G.; Arts-de Jong, Marieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Maas, Angela H. E. M.; Prins, Judith B.; Bulten, Johan; Teerenstra, Steven; Adang, Eddy M. M.; Piek, Jurgen M. J.; Doorn, Helena C van; Beurden, Marc van; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.; Slangen, Brigitte F. M.; Vos, M. Caroline; Lonkhuijzen, Luc R. C. W. van; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Hermens, Rosella P. M. G.; Hullu, Joanne A. de

    2015-01-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) around the age of 40 is currently recommended to BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. This procedure decreases the elevated ovarian cancer risk by 80–96 % but it initiates premature menopause as well. The latter is associated with short-term and long-term morbidity, potentially affecting quality of life (QoL). Based on recent insights into the Fallopian tube as possible site of origin of serous ovarian carcinomas, an alternative preventive strategy has been put forward: early risk-reducing salpingectomy (RRS) and delayed oophorectomy (RRO). However, efficacy and safety of this alternative strategy have to be investigated. A multicentre non-randomised trial in 11 Dutch centres for hereditary cancer will be conducted. Eligible patients are premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers after completing childbearing without (a history of) ovarian carcinoma. Participants choose between standard RRSO at age 35–40 (BRCA1) or 40–45 (BRCA2) and the alternative strategy (RRS upon completion of childbearing and RRO at age 40–45 (BRCA1) or 45–50 (BRCA2)). Women who opt for RRS but do not want to postpone RRO beyond the currently recommended age are included as well. Primary outcome measure is menopause-related QoL. Secondary outcome measures are ovarian/breast cancer incidence, surgery-related morbidity, histopathology, cardiovascular risk factors and diseases, and cost-effectiveness. Mixed model data analysis will be performed. The exact role of the Fallopian tube in ovarian carcinogenesis is still unclear. It is not expected that further fundamental research will elucidate this role in the near future. Therefore, this clinical trial is essential to investigate RRS with delayed RRO as alternative risk-reducing strategy in order to improve QoL. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02321228

  5. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  6. Reduced NOX combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method for combusting fuel and oxidant to achieve reduced formation of nitrogen oxides. It comprises: It comprises: heating a combustion zone to a temperature at least equal to 1500 degrees F.; injecting into the heated combustion zone a stream of oxidant at a velocity within the range of from 200 to 1070 feet per second; injecting into the combustion zone, spaced from the oxidant stream, a fuel stream at a velocity such that the ratio of oxidant stream velocity to fuel stream velocity does not exceed 20; aspirating combustion gases into the oxidant stream and thereafter intermixing the aspirated oxidant stream and fuel stream to form a combustible mixture; combusting the combustible mixture to produce combustion gases for the aspiration; and maintaining the fuel stream substantially free from contact with oxidant prior to the intermixture with aspirated oxidant

  7. Method of reducing zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megy, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for making nuclear-grade zirconium from a zirconium compound, which ismore economical than previous methods since it uses aluminum as the reductant metal rather than the more expensive magnesium. A fused salt phase containing the zirconium compound to be reduced is first prepared. The fused salt phase is then contacted with a molten metal phase which contains aluminum and zinc. The reduction is effected by mutual displacment. Aluminum is transported from the molten metal phase to the fused salt phase, replacing zirconium in the salt. Zirconium is transported from the fused salt phase to the molten metal phase. The fused salt phase and the molten metal phase are then separated, and the solvent metal and zirconium are separated by distillation or other means. (DN)

  8. Generalized reduced magnetohydrodynamic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-Alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson. The equations have been programmed into a spectral initial value code and run with shear flow that is consistent with the equilibrium input into the code. Linear results of tearing modes with shear flow are presented which differentiate the effects of shear flow gradients in the layer with the effects of the shear flow decoupling multiple harmonics

  9. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Reuschle, K.; Baier, B.

    2002-01-01

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.) [de

  10. Generalized reduced MHD equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, S.E.; Hegna, C.C.; Callen, J.D.

    1998-07-01

    A new derivation of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is presented. A multiple-time-scale expansion is employed. It has the advantage of clearly separating the three time scales of the problem associated with (1) MHD equilibrium, (2) fluctuations whose wave vector is aligned perpendicular to the magnetic field, and (3) those aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The derivation is carried out without relying on a large aspect ratio assumption; therefore this model can be applied to any general toroidal configuration. By accounting for the MHD equilibrium and constraints to eliminate the fast perpendicular waves, equations are derived to evolve scalar potential quantities on a time scale associated with the parallel wave vector (shear-alfven wave time scale), which is the time scale of interest for MHD instability studies. Careful attention is given in the derivation to satisfy energy conservation and to have manifestly divergence-free magnetic fields to all orders in the expansion parameter. Additionally, neoclassical closures and equilibrium shear flow effects are easily accounted for in this model. Equations for the inner resistive layer are derived which reproduce the linear ideal and resistive stability criterion of Glasser, Greene, and Johnson

  11. Reducing the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahathir, M

    1997-01-01

    In Asia, attempts to control HIV/AIDS through education have not achieved the necessary behavior changes. This is especially true for young women who are unable to apply their knowledge to their sex behavior because of inequalities in gender relations. Thus, the impact of AIDS on women is significantly greater in settings where the status of women is low. Women in developing countries are at greatest risk because the epidemic is fueled by poverty, lack of information, and lack of autonomy. Prosperity in a developing country, such as Malaysia, entails its own risks because it creates new social norms and values that exist in tandem with debilitating old norms, such as the patriarchy that disempowers women and a resurgence in polygamy and wife abandonment. Subservient gender roles not only increase women's chances of infection, they also target women as the primary caregivers for infected individuals. Young girls may have to abandon school to care for infected parents, and female health care providers are assigned to the lowest ranks of the profession. While most women have been infected by their husbands, they must also bear the stigma of being considered immoral infectors of their husbands. The futures of AIDS widows and orphans is jeopardized by the discrimination that attends the disease, and if the mother dies, her young children face a higher death rate. In settings new to the epidemic, it is difficult to convince men of the importance of addressing women's needs and of seeking the input of women in policy and program development. Only by empowering both sexes to work together to protect society will there be a reasonable chance of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS.

  12. Review of pump suction reducer selection: Eccentric or concentric reducers

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, R M; van Vuuren, S J

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric reducers are traditionally recommended for the pump suction reducer fitting to allow for transportation of air through the fitting to the pump. The ability of a concentric reducer to provide an improved approach flow to the pump while still allowing air to be transported through the fitting is investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were utilised to analyse six concentric and six eccentric reducer geometries at four different inlet velocities to determine the flow velocity ...

  13. Shrinkage Reducing Admixture for Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Concrete shrinkage cracking is a common problem in all types of concrete structures, especially for structures and environments where the cracks are prevalent and the repercussions are most severe. A liquid shrinkage reducing admixture for concrete, developed by GRACE Construction Products and ARCO Chemical Company, that reduces significantly the shrinkage during concrete drying and potentially reduces overall cracking over time.

  14. Systematic review of effect of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeks Jonathan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to provide a systematic review of the effectiveness of community-level interventions to reduce maternal mortality. Methods We searched published papers using Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, CINAHL, BNI, CAB ABSTRACTS, IBSS, Web of Science, LILACS and African Index Medicus from inception or at least 1982 to June 2006; searched unpublished works using National Research Register website, metaRegister and the WHO International Trial Registry portal. We hand searched major references. Selection criteria were maternity or childbearing age women, comparative study designs with concurrent controls, community-level interventions and maternal death as an outcome. We carried out study selection, data abstraction and quality assessment independently in duplicate. Results We found five cluster randomised controlled trials (RCT and eight cohort studies of community-level interventions. We summarised results as odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI, combined using the Peto method for meta-analysis. Two high quality cluster RCTs, aimed at improving perinatal care practices, showed a reduction in maternal mortality reaching statistical significance (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98. Three equivalence RCTs of minimal goal-oriented versus usual antenatal care showed no difference in maternal mortality (1.09, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.25. The cohort studies were of low quality and did not contribute further evidence. Conclusion Community-level interventions of improved perinatal care practices can bring about a reduction in maternal mortality. This challenges the view that investment in such interventions is not worthwhile. Programmes to improve maternal mortality should be evaluated using randomised controlled techniques to generate further evidence.

  15. Ingesta de sal yodada en hogares y estado nutricional de yodo en mujeres en edad fértil en Perú, 2008 Iodized salt intake in households and iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age in Peru, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Higa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar el estado nutricional de yodo en mujeres en edad fértil y evaluar la ingesta de sal adecuadamente yodada en sus hogares en el Perú. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado con un muestreo probabilístico multietápico por conglomerados que incluyó 1573 hogares y 2048 mujeres en edad fértil, distribuidas en cinco dominios (Lima, resto de costa, sierra rural, sierra urbana y selva. Se evaluó el uso de sal yodada en hogares y el yodo urinario en mujeres en edad fértil. Resultados. El 97,5% (IC95%: 96,7 - 98,5% de hogares peruanos consumen sal yodada, siendo menor en sierra rural (95% y mayor en Lima metropolitana (100%. La mediana de yoduria nacional fue de 266 μg/L, siendo menores en la selva (206 μg/L y mayores en el resto de costa (302 μg/L, estos valores se encuentran por encima del lνmite recomendado por la Organizaciσn Mundial de la Salud en todos los dominios (mediana mayor a 200 μg/L, valor que asegura un control de desσrdenes por deficiencia de yodo (DDI. Conclusiones. En control de los DDI por el consumo de sal yodado es bueno, se debe continuar con la vigilancia de la presencia de yodo en la sal, particularmente en las αreas con menor acceso.Objective. To estimate the iodine nutritional status in women of childbearing age and to evaluate the intake of salt adequately iodized in their households in Peru. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study performed with a multistage, probabilistic, cluster sampling that included 1573 households and 2048 women in childbearing age, distributed in five domains (Lima, rest of the coast, rural highlands and jungle area. The use of iodized salt was evaluated in the households and the urinary iodine was evaluated in the childbearing age women. Results. 97.5% (95%CI. 96.7-98.5% of peruvian households have iodized salt consumption, being it lower in the rural highland (95% and higher in Lima (100%. The national mean of urinary iodine was 266 μg/L, being it

  16. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  17. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  18. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just

    2013-01-01

    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  19. System for actively reducing sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2005-01-01

    A system for actively reducing sound from a primary noise source, such as traffic noise, comprising: a loudspeaker connector for connecting to at least one loudspeaker for generating anti-sound for reducing said noisy sound; a microphone connector for connecting to at least a first microphone placed

  20. The Decoupling of Marriage and Parenthood? Trends in the Timing of Marital First Births, 1945–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayford, Sarah R.; Guzzo, Karen Benjamin; Smock, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Family formation changed dramatically over the twentieth century in the United States. The impact of these changes on childbearing has primarily been studied in terms of nonmarital fertility. However, changes in family formation behavior also have implications for fertility within marriage. We use data from ten fertility surveys to describe changes in the timing of marital childbearing from the 1940s through the 21st century for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black women. Based on harmonized data from the Integrated Fertility Survey Series, our results suggest increasing divergence in fertility timing for white women. A growing proportion of marriages begin with a premarital conception; at the same time, an increasing proportion of white women are postponing fertility within marriage. For black women, marital fertility is increasingly postponed beyond the early years of marriage. Evaluating the sequencing of marriage and parenthood over time is critical to understanding the changing meaning of marriage. PMID:24791019

  1. Risk factors for childbearing during adolescence in a population-based birth cohort in southern Brazil Factores de riesgo asociados con ser madre adolescente en una cohorte de nacimiento tomada de la población en el sur del Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise P. Gigante

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To use a case-control study to analyze risk factors associated with teenage childbearing among adolescents who were in a birth cohort study that began in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: Adolescent mothers in Pelotas who gave birth between January 1995 and March 2001 and who had been born in 1982 were identified through the local birth information system. These subjects from the 1982 birth cohort were compared to adolescents from the same cohort who had not given birth before March 2001. Standardized interviews were used in 2001 to obtain information about socioeconomic, maternal reproductive, demographic, and lifestyle characteristics. This information was combined with data obtained in earlier phases of this 1982 birth cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors associated with childbearing during adolescence. RESULTS: A total of 420 parous adolescents from the 1982 birth cohort were identified and then compared with 408 cohort adolescents who had not given birth by March 2001. Higher family income in 1982 and more parental schooling in 1982 were inversely related to childbearing among the birth cohort adolescents. Cohort girls whose mothers were under age 20 when they gave birth in 1982 had a higher risk of becoming pregnant while still an adolescent. Cohort girls who, during childhood, lived with siblings from different fathers were twice as likely to become an adolescent mother. Compared to cohort adolescents who had not failed during the first four years of school, those girls who had done so had twice the risk of giving birth during adolescence. Among the cohort girls a positive association was found between younger age at first intercourse and childbearing in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the educational level of the adolescent mothers must be considered in planning policies that attempt to disrupt successive cycles of socioeconomic

  2. Reducing the Burden of Price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janet S.

    1984-01-01

    Setting prices for undergraduate education and assessing their effects on consumers and institutions is complicated by widespread price discounting. Student aid programs, credit, subsidized employment, and tax policy can reduce the actual costs paid by students and their families. (MSE)

  3. Filtering reducer of flushing fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secu, P; Apostu, M; Basarabescu, T; Popescu, F

    1981-02-28

    This is a patent of a filtering reducer of flushing fluid on a water base with low content of solid particles used at temperatures of roughly 200/sup 0/C. With the use of the proposed filtering reducer, there is no excessive increase in viscosity and gelatinization of the flushing fluids without restriction in the quantity of reducer needed to guarantee the required filtering. There is a possibility of recovering the polyalkylphenol vat residues obtained in the production of nonyl phenol. It is possible to reduce the time of treatment and dissolving of the product; there is no danger of plugging of the productive oil beds. The process of hydration of clay is excluded.

  4. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  5. Learning to REDUCE: A Reduced Electricity Consumption Prediction Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor

    2016-02-12

    Utilities use Demand Response (DR) to balance supply and demand in the electric grid by involving customers in efforts to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. To implement and adapt DR under dynamically changing conditions of the grid, reliable prediction of reduced consumption is critical. However, despite the wealth of research on electricity consumption prediction and DR being long in practice, the problem of reduced consumption prediction remains largely un-addressed. In this paper, we identify unique computational challenges associated with the prediction of reduced consumption and contrast this to that of normal consumption and DR baseline prediction.We propose a novel ensemble model that leverages different sequences of daily electricity consumption on DR event days as well as contextual attributes for reduced consumption prediction. We demonstrate the success of our model on a large, real-world, high resolution dataset from a university microgrid comprising of over 950 DR events across a diverse set of 32 buildings. Our model achieves an average error of 13.5%, an 8.8% improvement over the baseline. Our work is particularly relevant for buildings where electricity consumption is not tied to strict schedules. Our results and insights should prove useful to the researchers and practitioners working in the sustainable energy domain.

  6. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  7. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  8. Six ways to reduce inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, T

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to help you reduce the inventory in your operation. We will accomplish that task by discussing six specific methods that companies have used successfully to reduce their inventory. One common attribute of these successes is that they also build teamwork among the people. Every business operation today is concerned with methods to improve customer service. The real trick is to accomplish that task without increasing inventory. We are all concerned with improving our skills at keeping inventory low.

  9. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob

    2007-01-01

      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... and willingness to continue gambling. The results may have important implications for understanding how to reduce gambling behavior in pathological gamblers.   [1] Griffiths, M. 1999. Gambling Technologies: Prospects for Problem Gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, vol. 15(3), pp. 265-283.    ...

  10. DOES FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT REDUCE CORRUPTION?

    OpenAIRE

    John Thornton

    2009-01-01

    I estimate the impact of bank cred it to the private sector on corruption using indicators of a country's legal origin as instrumental variables to assess causality. I find that bank credit reduces corruption, with the result robust to instrumenting for bank credit and for different controls.

  11. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  12. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  13. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  14. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  15. Ways to reduce miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Discussion is presented of the use of attendance programs at mines, to reduce interruptions to production, decrease labour costs, and to improve safety. Techniques described include use of absentee charts, frequency of attendance charts, and rewards for good attendance. 3 figs.

  16. SURFACE PROPERTIES OF ELECTROCHEMICALLY REDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    A viscose rayon based activated carbon cloth (ACC) was electrochemically reduced ..... bath of liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 77 K. ... that above 59,400 c/g extent of oxidation, the ..... ACC react with aldehyde groups to produce ether.

  17. Análise dos fatores de risco relacionados ao tromboembolismo venoso em mulheres de idade fértil em Itajubá – Minas Gerais / Analysis of risk factors related to venous thromboembolism in women of childbearing age in Itajubá – Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva,

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O tromboembolismo venoso (TEV incide em mulheres de idade fértil e a identificação dos fatores de risco é ponto crucial para sua prevenção. Objetivos: Identificar e correlacionar os fatores de risco mais comuns para o desencadeamento de TEV em mulheres de 14 a 50 anos. Métodos: Analisadas 30 mulheres com diagnóstico recente de trombose venosa profunda (TVP de membros inferiores por meio de ultrassonografia com Doppler colorido e de seus prontuários, no período de julho de 2011 a julho de 2016. Os fatores de risco foram descritos em proporções e comparados através de teste exato de Fisher. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 37,4 anos. O índice de massa corpórea médio foi de 27,4 kg/m2 e a média de gestações foi de 2,3 por paciente. Setenta por cento apresentaram TVP, e a prevalência em ambos os membros foi igual. Cirurgias recentes, história familiar de TEV, doenças associadas e uso de contraceptivos orais (CO foram os mais prevalentes na população estudada (53,8%, 42,3%, 42,3% e 38,5%, respectivamente. Uso de CO, cirurgia recente e varizes de grosso calibre foram os fatores mais relacionados à recorrência da trombose (p<0,05. Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que a presença de varizes, cirurgia recente e história familiar são os fatores de risco mais associados à presença de TVP em mulheres de idade fértil. Uso de CO, cirurgia recente e presença de varizes são os fatores de risco mais estatisticamente relacionados à recorrência da TVP. Introduction: Venous thromboembolism (VTE affects women of childbearing age and the identification of risk factors is a key point for preventing its development. Aims: To identify and correlate the most common risk factors for the development of VTE in women aged 14-50 years. Meth-ods: We analyzed 30 women with recent diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT of the lower limbs using Doppler color ultrasonography and their medical records from July 2011 to July 2016

  18. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  19. 东莞地区已婚育龄妇女人乳头状瘤病毒感染因素及分布情况%Infection factors and distribution of human papilloma virus in married women of childbearing age in Dongguan area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧玲; 韩临晓; 刘燕燕; 袁秀英; 蒲育栋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors and its subtype distribution characteristics of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in married women of childbearing age in Dongguan area. Methods 4 332 married women of childbearing age were surveyed by confidentiality-style questionnaire. PCR-reverse dot blot hybridization method was adopted to detect 19 kinds of cervical HPV virus subtype, including HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 33, HPV 35, HPV 39, HPV 45, HPV 51, HPV 52, HPV 53, HPV 56, HPV 58, HPV 59, HPV 66, HPV 68, HPV CP8304, HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 43, at the same time liquid-based thin-layer cytology check was adopted. Results Among 4 332 married women of childbearing age, subtype HPV infection was detected in 398 cases, the total infection rate was 9.19%, high-risk infection rate was 7.55%. The high-risk subtypes standing in the front fifth place were HPV 16 (2.216%), HPV 58 (1.293%), HPV 52 (0.877%), HPV 53 (0.646%), HPV 33 (0.600%). Single infections were in 340 cases (85.43%), double infections were in 49 cases (9.88%), three overlapping infections were in 5 cases (1.01%), and four overlapping infection were in 4 cases (0.815%), the differences among the groups were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion HPV infection associated with age, occupation, frequency of sexual life, education level, early sexual life and pregnancy number. The HPV infection of women with low educational level is higher, it is necessary to strengthen the health knowledge propaganda in low educational level women, in order to prevent HPV infection and the incidence of cervical cancer.%目的 探讨东莞地区已婚育龄妇女人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)感染的相关因素及其亚型分布特点.方法 对4 332名生育年龄女性采用保密式问卷调查;采用PCR反向点杂交法进行HPV16、HPV 18、HPV 31、HPV 33、HPV 35、HPV 39、HPV 45、HPV 51、HPV 52、HPV 53、HPV 56、HPV 58、HPV 59、HPV 66、HPV 68、CP8304、HPV 6、HPV 11、HPV 43 19种宫颈HPV病毒亚

  20. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T.; Warren, William L.; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Dimos, Duane B.; Pike, Gordon E.

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  1. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  2. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Macko, Anna; Stańczak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Several years ago, Cohen et al. (1958) demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly (Camerer and Weber, 1992). The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar), where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  3. Rheological measurements in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.

  4. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  5. BCJ numerators from reduced Pfaffian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yi-Jian [Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University,No. 299 Bayi Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Teng, Fei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah,115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2017-04-07

    By expanding the reduced Pfaffian in the tree level Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) integrands for Yang-Mills (YM) and nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), we can get the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators in Del Duca-Dixon-Maltoni (DDM) form for arbitrary number of particles in any spacetime dimensions. In this work, we give a set of very straightforward graphic rules based on spanning trees for a direct evaluation of the BCJ numerators for YM and NLSM. Such rules can be derived from the Laplace expansion of the corresponding reduced Pfaffian. For YM, the each one of the (n−2)! DDM form BCJ numerators contains exactly (n−1)! terms, corresponding to the increasing trees with respect to the color order. For NLSM, the number of nonzero numerators is at most (n−2)!−(n−3)!, less than those of several previous constructions.

  6. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  7. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  8. Increasing sales by reducing procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Gjedrem, William Gilje

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance In this paper I analyze whether an intervention program increases productivity and sales, by reducing potential procrastination problems that employees face at work. The intervention was introduced to stores in a large retail chain in Norway, and contained different tools that could lead to lower perceived costs of higher effort. In a difference-in-differences analysis I find that the intervention increases sales after a 14 weeks long implementation period. Fu...

  9. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  10. Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru

  11. Reduced embodied simulation in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Haddad, Leila; Diers, Kersten; Dressing, Harald; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Psychopathy is characterized by severe deficits in emotion processing and empathy. These emotional deficits might not only affect the feeling of own emotions, but also the understanding of others' emotional and mental states. The present study aims on identifying the neurobiological correlates of social-cognitive related alterations in psychopathy. We applied a social-cognitive paradigm for the investigation of face processing, emotion recognition, and affective Theory of Mind (ToM) to 11 imprisoned psychopaths and 18 healthy controls. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure task-related brain activation. While showing no overall behavioural deficit, psychopathy was associated with altered brain activation. Psychopaths had reduced fusiform activation related to face processing. Related to affective ToM, psychopaths had hypoactivation in amygdala, inferior prefrontal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, areas associated with embodied simulation of emotions and intentions. Furthermore, psychopaths lacked connectivity between superior temporal sulcus and amygdala during affective ToM. These results replicate findings of alterations in basal face processing in psychopathy. In addition, they provide evidence for reduced embodied simulation in psychopathy in concert with a lack of communication between motor areas and amygdala which might provide the neural substrate of reduced feeling with others during social cognition.

  12. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  13. Reduced Vlasov-Maxwell simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helluy, P.; Navoret, L.; Pham, N.; Crestetto, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Maxwell-Vlasov system is a fundamental model in physics. It can be applied to plasma simulations, charged particles beam, astrophysics, etc. The unknowns are the electromagnetic field, solution to the Maxwell equations and the distribution function, solution to the Vlasov equation. In this paper we review two different numerical methods for Vlasov-Maxwell simulations. The first method is based on a coupling between a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) Maxwell solver and a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) Vlasov solver. The second method only uses a DG approach for the Vlasov and Maxwell equations. The Vlasov equation is first reduced to a space-only hyperbolic system thanks to the finite-element method. The two numerical methods are implemented using OpenCL in order to achieve high performance on recent Graphic Processing Units (GPU). We obtained interesting speedups, but we also observe that the PIC method is the most expensive part of the computation. Therefore we propose another fully Eulerian approach. Thanks to a decomposition of the distribution function on velocity basis functions, we obtain a reduced Vlasov model, which appears to be a hyperbolic system of conservation laws written only in the (x,t) space. We can thus adapt very easily our DG solver to the reduced model

  14. Nonmarital Fertility, Family Structure, and the Early School Achievement of Young Children from Different Race/Ethnic and Immigration Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, this study examined the links between mothers' fertility and relationship statuses and children's early school achievement and how these links varied by race/ethnicity and immigration status. Analyses of nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort revealed…

  15. Nonmarital Romantic Relationships and Mental Health in Early Adulthood: Does the Association Differ for Women and Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robin W.; Barrett, Anne E.

    2010-01-01

    Although social scientists have long assumed that intimate social relationships are more closely associated with women's than men's mental health, recent research indicates that there are no gender differences in the advantages of marriage and disadvantages of unmarried statuses when males' and females' distinct expressions of emotional distress…

  16. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  17. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  18. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  19. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  20. Will sex selection reduce fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S F

    1994-01-01

    Population control is one of the primary policies applied against poverty in many low income countries. The widespread prevalence of son preference in some countries such as China and India, however, works against any reduction of fertility. This is so because parents often continue to have children until they obtain the number of sons which they desire. The bias against girls has also led to higher abortion and mortality rates of female children. It is frequently argued that if sex selection methods are made available to parents so that they can control the gender of their children, population growth would be lowered and women's welfare improved. The author investigates both theoretically and numerically the impact of sex selection on fertility. A static quantity-quality model of fertility is used to compare fertility choices when parents cannot choose the gender of children versus a situation in which parents can choose gender. Empirical data are drawn from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. Analysis found that whether sex selection reduces fertility depends upon the second and third derivatives of the utility function and the child expenditure function. A numerical dynamic analysis is also presented. The simulation shows, using empirical dynamic models of fertility and the Monte Carlo integration technique, that sex selection on the firstborn child among the Chinese in Malaysia could reduce fertility by about 3%.

  1. Reduced prefrontal connectivity in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2011-11-30

    Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However, to date there is limited brain imaging data to directly test whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area. In this study, we employ two complementary imaging techniques to assess the structural and functional connectivity of vmPFC in psychopathic and non-psychopathic criminals. Using diffusion tensor imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced structural integrity in the right uncinate fasciculus, the primary white matter connection between vmPFC and anterior temporal lobe. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that psychopathy is associated with reduced functional connectivity between vmPFC and amygdala as well as between vmPFC and medial parietal cortex. Together, these data converge to implicate diminished vmPFC connectivity as a characteristic neurobiological feature of psychopathy.

  2. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T

    2017-08-01

    Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Hypothermia reduces sulphur mustard toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi Lei; Gong Wenrong; Nelson, Peggy; Martin, Leanne; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the development of sulphur mustard (HD)-induced toxicity was investigated in first passage cultures of human skin keratinocytes and on hairless guinea pig skin. When cells exposed to HD were incubated at 37 deg. C, a concentration-dependent decline in viability was observed that was maximal by 2 days. In contrast, no significant HD-induced toxicity was evident up to 4 days posttreatment when the cells were incubated at 25 deg. C. However, these protective effects were lost by 24 h when the cells were switched back to 37 deg. C. The protective effects of hypothermia were also demonstrated when apoptotic endpoints were examined. The HD concentration-dependent induction of fragmented DNA (as quantitated using soluble DNA and the TUNEL reaction), morphology, and p53 expression were all significantly depressed when cell cultures were incubated at 25 deg. C compared to 37 deg. C. When animals were exposed to HD vapour for 2, 4, and 6 min and left at room temperature, lesions were produced whose severity was dependent on exposure time and that were maximal by 72 h posttreatment. Moderate cooling (5-10 deg. C) of HD exposure sites posttreatment (4-6 h) significantly reduced the severity of the resultant lesions. However, in contrast to the in vitro results, these effects were permanent. It appears that the early and noninvasive act of cooling HD-exposed skin may provide a facile means of reducing the severity of HD-induced cutaneous lesions

  4. Reducing noise in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.J. III.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing or removing the background noise caused by thoron gas ( 220 Rn) in uranium exploration conducted by the detection of radon gas ( 222 Rn) emanating from the ground. This is accomplished by the use of a number of alpha particle detectors, each of which is disposed in a protective enclosure. A permselective membrane, which permits, but selectively retards, the passage therethrough of gases is disposed in the path to be traversed before such gases can reach the alpha particle detector. The retarding influence of the membrane should be sufficient to make the concentration of thoron inside the enclosure small relative to the concentration of thoron outside the enclosure. The influence of the membrane of radon should be negligible, i.e., the radon concentration inside and outside the enclosure should be substantially equal

  5. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila

    2018-06-01

    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  6. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  7. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  8. The ITER reduced cost design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2000-01-01

    Six years of joint work under the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) EDA agreement yielded a mature design for ITER which met the objectives set for it (ITER final design report (FDR)), together with a corpus of scientific and technological data, large/full scale models or prototypes of key components/systems and progress in understanding which both validated the specific design and are generally applicable to a next step, reactor-oriented tokamak on the road to the development of fusion as an energy source. In response to requests from the parties to explore the scope for addressing ITER's programmatic objective at reduced cost, the study of options for cost reduction has been the main feature of ITER work since summer 1998, using the advances in physics and technology databases, understandings, and tools arising out of the ITER collaboration to date. A joint concept improvement task force drawn from the joint central team and home teams has overseen and co-ordinated studies of the key issues in physics and technology which control the possibility of reducing the overall investment and simultaneously achieving the required objectives. The aim of this task force is to achieve common understandings of these issues and their consequences so as to inform and to influence the best cost-benefit choice, which will attract consensus between the ITER partners. A report to be submitted to the parties by the end of 1999 will present key elements of a specific design of minimum capital investment, with a target cost saving of about 50% the cost of the ITER FDR design, and a restricted number of design variants. Outline conclusions from the work of the task force are presented in terms of physics, operations, and design of the main tokamak systems. Possible implications for the way forward are discussed

  9. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  10. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  11. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  12. Asociación entre la ingesta de nutrientes hematopoyéticos y el origen nutricional de la anemia en mujeres en edad fértil en Colombia Association between hematopoietic nutrient intake and the origin of nutritional anemia in women of childbearing age in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Mariela Manjarrés

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar el origen de la anemia nutricional según las variables sociodemográficas y analizar su asociación con la deficiencia en la ingesta de nutrientes hematopoyéticos. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó la base de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional de Colombia, 2005. Los datos se obtuvieron por muestreo complejo representativo de la población y se procesaron con el programa SPSS, v.15. Se seleccionaron mujeres en edad fértil con anemia y se clasificaron en dos grupos según la ferritina sérica. Se determinó la ingesta usual de nutrientes hematopoyéticos y el riesgo de deficiencia. Se compararon las proporciones de los tipos de anemia según las variables sociodemográficas utilizando la prueba F de Rao-Scott de segundo orden (P OBJECTIVES: Compare the nutritional origin of anemia by sociodemographic variables and analyze its association with deficient hematopoietic nutrient intake. METHODS: The database of Colombia's 2005 National Survey of Nutritional Status was used. The data were obtained through complex representative sampling of the population and processed using SPSS v.15. Anemic women of childbearing age were selected and divided into two groups according to serum ferritin levels. Their customary hematopoietic nutrient intake and risk of deficiency were determined. The proportions of anemia types were compared by sociodemographic variables using the F-distribution, the Rao-Scott second order correction (P < 0.05. The association between the origin of the anemia and classification of the nutrient was analyzed using the odds ratio (OR. RESULTS: Sample: 595 women. Non-hypoferric anemia (67.2% predominated, with no statistical difference by sociodemographic variable, except in the Pacific region (hypoferric anemia, 52.1%. The prevalence of deficiency in the customary intake of hematopoietic nutrients was high. There was no significant association between the deficit in consumption and the origin of the anemia

  13. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. Results We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact

  14. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; Hood, C; Harrison, K

    1994-07-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment.

  15. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2015-07-01

    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; Hood, C.; Harrison, K.

    1994-01-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  17. Quantifying and Reducing Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Vayujeet; Caples, David; Goins, Jordan; Herdman, Ashley; Pankey, Steven; Wren, Emily

    2018-06-01

    We describe the current level of light pollution in and around Kirksville, Missouri and around Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, Arizona. We quantify the amount of light that is projected up towards the sky, instead of the ground, using Unihedron sky quality meters installed at various locations. We also present results from DSLR photometry of several standard stars, and compare the photometric quality of the data collected at locations with varying levels of light pollution. Presently, light fixture shields and ‘warm-colored’ lights are being installed on Truman State University’s campus in order to reduce light pollution. We discuss the experimental procedure we use to test the effectiveness of the different light fixtures shields in a controlled setting inside the Del and Norma Robison Planetarium.Apart from negatively affecting the quality of the night sky for astronomers, light pollution adversely affects migratory patterns of some animals and sleep-patterns in humans, increases our carbon footprint, and wastes resources and money. This problem threatens to get particularly acute with the increasing use of outdoor LED lamps. We conclude with a call to action to all professional and amateur astronomers to act against the growing nuisance of light pollution.

  18. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: michael.kraus@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: tassi@cpt.univ-mrs.fr [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.grasso@infm.polito.it [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2016-09-15

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  19. Reducing power usage on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  20. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  1. Employment, Family Union, and Childbearing Decisions in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arnstein Aassve; Simon Burgess; Matt Dickson; Carol Propper

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between work and family life in Britain. Using appropriate statistical techniques we estimate a five-equation model, which includes birth events, union formation, union dissolution, employment and non-employment events. The model allows for unobserved heterogeneity that is correlated across all five equations. We use information from the British Household Panel Survey, including the retrospective histories concerning work, union, and child bearing, to e...

  2. Stereotypes of childbearing women: a look at some evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J M; Kitzinger, J V; Coupland, V A

    1990-09-01

    We all use stereotypes to help us to behave in what we hope will be appropriate ways towards people that we have not met before. On the labour ward midwives are likely to use such stereotypes to make assumptions about what a particular woman is likely to want during labour and delivery. Two commonly encountered stereotypes are those of the 'well educated, middle-class NCT type' and the 'uneducated working class woman'. This paper explores evidence for these two stereotypes drawing on data from a large scale prospective survey of women's expectations of childbirth. The stereotypes were not supported in a number of important respects. In particular: women of different levels of education were equally likely to subscribe to the ideal of avoiding drugs during labour; the less educated women did not want to hand over all control to the staff; it was less educated women who had the highest expectations that birth would be a fulfilling experience.

  3. Alloantibodies, Anti-D, Childbearing age, Women, Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative phenotype rates among Cameroonian women of reproductive age (15 – 44 years), in order to evaluate the importance of. D alloimmunization. Analysis of the haematology laboratory records from January 2006 to December 2007 ...

  4. Women's experiences of a follow up childbearing journey with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the lived experiences of the follow up journey of a pregnant woman by listening to the voices of women as they reflect on their journey. A qualitative, descriptive and contextual design was used to examine into each woman's experience of her world from pregnancy to ...

  5. Childbearing and family planning choices of women living with HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on ART in the urban health centres within Lusaka. Methods: Nine hundred and fifty six HIV-positive women receiving care in the zoned health centres were randomly sampled and 12 health care workers who were ...

  6. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Infection aiguë et précoce par le VIH-1 chez les femmes durant la grossesse et la période post-partum en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana. Les programmes nationaux de prévention du VIH en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana doivent s'attaquer de manière efficace au taux d'infection des femmes durant la ...

  7. The opportunity costs of childbearing: more than mothers' business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H

    1998-01-01

    "This paper is an argument about gender relations. It takes the entwined themes of men's interests in parenthood, the sex division of labour and its evolution, policy for gender equity and policy to support the level of social reproduction. The emphasis on women's employment as a determinant of low fertility has to be supplemented by an examination of the assumption that only women's time use is affected by child-rearing.... Descriptive evidence about the paid and unpaid work of couples and parents is presented, largely secondary material from the UK." excerpt

  8. Child-bearing function in women with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vusik, I.M.; Kogan, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    Study on a generating function in 393 women working in the sphere of ionizing radiation effect has shown that when working without exceeding the permissible irradiation level of 5 rem/year, some strengthening of this function is observed while working, with a considerable excess of permissible irradiation doses at the reproductive age, the decrease of childbirth and the increase in the number of miscarriages and premature birth are noted. The growth of girl childbirth as compared with boy childbirth is proportional to radiation load during the work with radiation sources. The secondary sterility appears in the same number of women exposed to the occupational irradiation and women of a control group

  9. The Netherlands: childbearing within the context of a "Poldermodel" society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, C.M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; de Beer, J.A.A.; van Duin, C.

    2008-01-01

    Just like all other European countries, the Netherlands has experienced a considerable decline in fertility. The decline, however, is not as sharp as in most other parts of Europe. While especially Southern and Central Eastern Europe is faced with a persistent and pronounced drop in the TPFR to a

  10. 18. Childbearing and Family Planning Choices of Women Living ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    the reproductive choices for Women Living with HIV on. ART in the urban health ... sampled using a review register as a sampling frame. Health care workers were .... level of 0.05, the p value was 0.000 and we were able to reject the null ...

  11. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  12. Process for reducing the pertechnetate anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddock, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    Process for reducing the 'pertechnetate' ion TcO 4 - , whereby an aqueous solution of 'pertechnetate' is mixed with tin metal or a tin alloy as 'pertechnetate' reducing agent, and a soluble salt of a metal below tin in the electro-chemical tension scale, as activator for the reducing tin. This reduced 'pertechnetate' is used for forming usable complexes in medical diagnosis exploration [fr

  13. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  14. Servo Reduces Friction In Flexure Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingman, W. Dean

    1991-01-01

    Proposed servocontrol device reduces such resistive torques as stiction, friction, ripple, and cogging in flexure bearing described in LAR-14348, "Flexure Bearing Reduces Startup Friction". Reduces frictional "bump" torque encountered when bearing ball runs into buildup of grease on bearing race. Also used as cable follower to reduce torque caused by cable and hoses when they bend because of motion of bearing. New device includes torquer across ball race. Torquer controlled by servo striving to keep flexure at null, removing torque to outer ring. In effect, device is inner control loop reducing friction, but does not control platforms or any outer-control-loop functions.

  15. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  16. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; S. P. Korolev; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  17. 40 CFR 141.623 - Reduced monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reduced monitoring. 141.623 Section....623 Reduced monitoring. (a) You may reduce monitoring to the level specified in the table in this paragraph (a) any time the LRAA is ≤0.040 mg/L for TTHM and ≤0.030 mg/L for HAA5 at all monitoring locations...

  18. Reduced kinetic equations: An influence functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wio, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses a scheme for obtaining reduced descriptions of multivariate kinetic equations based on the 'influence functional' method of Feynmann. It is applied to the case of Fokker-Planck equations showing the form that results for the reduced equation. The possibility of Markovian or non-Markovian reduced description is discussed. As a particular example, the reduction of the Kramers equation to the Smoluchwski equation in the limit of high friction is also discussed

  19. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  20. Why the CDM can reduce carbon leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, S.

    2006-04-01

    Carbon leakage is an important concern because it can reduce the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms allowed under the protocol, has the potential to reduce carbon leakage significantly because it reduces the relative competitive disadvantage to Annex B countries of restricting greenhouse gas emissions. The economic intuition behind this mechanism is explored in a theoretical analysis. It is then analyzed numerically using a CGE model. The results indicate that, assuming appropriate accounting for leakage and under realistic assumptions on CDM activity, the CDM has the potential to reduce the magnitude of carbon leakage by around three fifths

  1. Austria: Persistent low fertility since the mid-1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Engelhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter offers an in-depth analysis of fertility in Austria, a country which has experienced a low and relatively stable fertility level and a gradual postponement of childbearing since the mid-1980s. We begin by summarising Austrian population trends in the post-World War II period and highlighting recent relatively high migration levels. We outline the long history of sub-replacement fertility and high childlessness in Austria and look in detail at recent parity-specific developments, trends in family size, delayed childbearing and persistent fertility differences by education level, country of origin and religious affiliation. The chapter then summarises main trends in family-related behaviour, including the changing patterns of leaving parental home, the rise in cohabitation, the decline in marriage and the rise of divorce and the diversity in non-marital childbearing, which has a long tradition in many parts of the country. We discuss the development of family policies in Austria and their relationship to fertility during the past decades. Social policies in Austria provide only a limited support for a reconciliation of childrearing and employment among mothers with children below the age of three. A combination of one of the highest family spending rates among the OECD countries and the low fertility rates indicate that structural constraints (such as the availability of childcare constitute part of the explanation of low fertility.

  2. Solar Cels With Reduced Contact Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.; Kachare, A. H.; Lewis, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells increased about 20 percent using smaller metal-contact area on silicon at front and back of each cell. Reduction in contact area reduces surface recombination velocity under contact and thus reduces reverse saturation current and increases opencircuit voltage..

  3. Filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  4. A filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2006-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  5. Extending OFDM Symbols to Reduce Power Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Existing communication standards have limited capabilities to adapt to low SNR environments or to exploit low data rate requirements in a power efficient way. Existing techniques like e.g. control coding do not reduce the computational load when reducing data rates. In this paper, we introduce

  6. Nonperturbative treatment of reduced model with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    A nonperturbative method is presented to show that the reduced model produces the correct leading large-N contribution to the fermion Green's functions. A new form of the reduced model is introduced, which avoids the quenching procedure. Also the equation for the meson bound states is discussed. The method is illustrated in the case of two-dimensional QCD

  7. Reduced Worktime: Tool to Fight Umemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Sar A.; Belous, Richard S.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of reduced worktime, including work sharing, as a strategy in combating unemployment. Covers the experiences of Western European countries in using this strategy to reduce unemployment. It also covers the negative aspects of work sharing, Americans' desires for increased leisure time, and, finally, some issues and answers. (EM)

  8. Sludge displacement verification for reducing grout report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, T.B.; Langton, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    To support the closure of HLW tanks at SRS, a reducing grout was developed that is formulated to reduce the mobility of radionuclides left in each tank. During non-radioactive flow tests of the grout, it was discovered that, in addition to its desired properties, the grout has the ability to move residual waste a considerable distance across the tank floor

  9. Holonomy-reduced dynamics of triatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftci, Uenver; Waalkens, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Whereas it is easy to reduce the translational symmetry of a molecular system using, e.g., Jacobi coordinates, the situation is much more involved for rotational symmetry. In this paper, we address the latter problem using holonomy reduction. We suggest that the configuration space may be considered as the reduced holonomy bundle with a connection induced by the mechanical connection. Using the fact that for the special case of the three-body problem the holonomy group is SO(2) (as opposed to SO(3) like in systems with more than three bodies), we obtain a holonomy-reduced configuration space of topology R + 3 xS 1 . The dynamics then takes place on the cotangent bundle over the holonomy-reduced configuration space. On this phase space, there is an S 1 symmetry action coming from the conserved reduced angular momentum which can be reduced using the standard symplectic reduction method. Using a theorem by Arnold it follows that the resulting symmetry-reduced phase space is again a natural mechanical phase space, i.e. a cotangent bundle. This is different from what is obtained from the usual approach where symplectic reduction is used from the outset. This difference is discussed in some detail, and a connection between the reduced dynamics of a triatomic molecule and the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field is established.

  10. Holonomy-reduced dynamics of triatomic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciftci, Uenver [Department of Mathematics, Namik Kemal University, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Waalkens, Holger, E-mail: uciftci@nku.edu.tr, E-mail: h.waalkens@rug.nl [Johann Bernoulli Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Groningen, PO Box 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-04-22

    Whereas it is easy to reduce the translational symmetry of a molecular system using, e.g., Jacobi coordinates, the situation is much more involved for rotational symmetry. In this paper, we address the latter problem using holonomy reduction. We suggest that the configuration space may be considered as the reduced holonomy bundle with a connection induced by the mechanical connection. Using the fact that for the special case of the three-body problem the holonomy group is SO(2) (as opposed to SO(3) like in systems with more than three bodies), we obtain a holonomy-reduced configuration space of topology R{sub +}{sup 3}xS{sup 1}. The dynamics then takes place on the cotangent bundle over the holonomy-reduced configuration space. On this phase space, there is an S{sup 1} symmetry action coming from the conserved reduced angular momentum which can be reduced using the standard symplectic reduction method. Using a theorem by Arnold it follows that the resulting symmetry-reduced phase space is again a natural mechanical phase space, i.e. a cotangent bundle. This is different from what is obtained from the usual approach where symplectic reduction is used from the outset. This difference is discussed in some detail, and a connection between the reduced dynamics of a triatomic molecule and the motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field is established.

  11. REDUCE system in elementary particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This preprint is the first part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains the review of the necessary formulae and examples of using REDUCE for calculations with vectors and Dirac matrices. 5 refs.; 11 figs

  12. Method and container for reducing pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddock, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing the pertechnetate in TcO 4 - comprises mixing together an aqueous solution of pertechnetate, e.g. the eluant from a technetium generator, metallic tin or an alloy thereof as a reducing agent for the pertechnetate, and a soluble salt of a metal below tin in the electrochemical series, e.g. copper, as an activator for the tin metal reducing agent. A complexing agent for the reduced technetium or a colloid stabiliser may also be included. The pH is preferably 3 to 12. Also claimed is a closed container containing the tin reducing agent, the activator, and the complexant or colloid stabiliser if used, preferably in a freeze-dried sterile state, to which the pertechnetate solution may be added. (author)

  13. Using REDUCE in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This book describes the use of the symbolic manipulation language REDUCE in particle physics. There are several general purpose mathematics packages available to physicists, including Mathematica, Maple, and REDUCE. Each has advantages and disadvantages, but REDUCE has been found to be both powerful and convenient in solving a wide range of problems. This book introduces the reader to REDUCE and demonstrates its utility as a mathematical tool in physics. The first chapter of the book describes the REDUCE system, including some library packages. The following chapters show the use of REDUCE in examples from classical mechanics, hydrodynamics, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. The rest of the book systematically presents the Standard Model of particle physics (QED, weak interactions, QCD). A large number of scattering and decay processes are calculated with REDUCE. All example programs from the book can be downloaded via Internet. The emphasis throughout is on learning through worked examples. This will be an essential introduction and reference for high energy and theoretical physicists. (author)

  14. Mothers’ Partnership Instability and Coparenting among Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Carey E.; Beck, Audrey N.; Högnäs, Robin S.; Swanson, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The rise in nonmarital childbearing has raised concerns about coparenting among unmarried parents with increasingly complicated relationship trajectories. We address this issue by examining associations between mothers’ partnership transitions and coparenting and the moderating role of maternal race/ethnicity and child gender. Methods Data from the Fragile Families Study and ordinary least squares regression techniques are used to examine whether mothers’ partnership transitions are related to coparenting. Lagged and fixed effects models are employed to test the robustness of the findings to selection. Results Coresidential and nonresidential, dating transitions are negatively associated with coparenting, but the association is stronger for coresidential transitions than for dating transitions. Coresidential transitions are stronger predictors of coparenting for White parents than for Black parents and for parents of sons than for parents of daughters. Conclusions Policies aimed at strengthening families should emphasize relationship stability, regardless of the type of union, to promote high quality coparenting among at-risk populations. PMID:26538770

  15. ROMANIAN FAMILY BETWEEN TRADITIONS AND MODERNISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca MARDARE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Families and living arrangements have changed dramatically since the 1960s in the majority of European countries. Family life and the meaning of family have undergone a profound change. Relationships between partners or spouses, but also the relationships between parents and their children, have moved away from the realm of normative control and institutional canons, into the ideal of reflexive ‘pure relationships’ based on mutual consent and the recognition of individual autonomy. Following the collapse of communism, Romania has experienced dramatic changes in family formation. Common patterns include delays and/or declines in marriage and fertility, increasing rates of cohabitation and non-marital childbearing, rising rates of divorce. This paper aims to document the main stages of the evolution of marital behaviours in Romania from the traditional family of the 19th century to present days.

  16. Effects of state contraceptive insurance mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dills, Angela K; Grecu, Anca M

    2017-02-01

    Using U.S. Natality data for 1996 through 2009 and an event analysis specification, we investigate the dynamics of the effects of state insurance contraceptive mandates on births and measures of parental investment: prenatal visits, non-marital childbearing, and risky behaviors during pregnancy. We analyze outcomes separately by age, race, and ethnicity. Among young Hispanic women, we find a 4% decline in the birth rate. There is evidence of a decrease in births to single mothers, consistent with increased wantedness. We also find evidence of selection into motherhood, which could explain the lack of a significant effect on birth outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  18. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  19. Reducing health inequalities for older LGBTQ+ people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ben

    2016-10-26

    The recent LGBTQ+ history exhibition Speak Out London, Diversity City presented a fantastic collection of stories, documents and photographs from LGBTQ+ Londoners. It also provided a reminder of how far we have come in reducing stigma, prejudice and discrimination.

  20. Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Reducing the Vulnerability, Poverty and Environmental Load in ... 000 lives in closely constructed houses built right up to the edge of the Rimac River. ... and the Lima Metropolitan Urban Plan will be updated in light of the results.

  1. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  2. Does ethamsylate reduce haemorrhage in transurethral prostatectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyth, D R; Booth, C M

    1990-12-01

    A double-blind, randomised trial of 44 consecutive patients undergoing transurethral prostatectomy demonstrated that ethamsylate (Dicynene) did not reduce blood loss during either the operative or the post- operative periods.

  3. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  4. REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozin, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs

  5. Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of morphological and allozyme data for identifying Oreochromis niloticus , O. mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) and their hybrids in the Pafuri reach of the Luvuvhu River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

  6. Synthesis of battery grade reduced silver powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadeer, R.; Hameed, M.; Ikram, S.; Munir, A.

    2002-01-01

    Process for production of battery grade reduced silver powder, an active positive material for zinc-silver oxide batteries, having specific characteristics has been optimized and the synthesized reduced silver powder was characterized. Results reveal that the values of bulk density (1.25 0.1 g/cm3) and activity (73.27 %) of synthesized reduced silver powder lies within the recommended range for use as battery material. It has purity ≥ 98% and contains Fe and Cu as traces in the concentration range of 30 5 ppm and 15 7 ppm respectively. Others determined values of surface and pores parameters are: surface area 2.6 .4 m2/g: pore volume 3.10 cm3/g: pore diameter 0.043 mu m and porosity 20%. XRD studies reveal that reduced silver powder has a cubic structure. (author)

  7. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Winnable Battles Social Media at CDC Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates among Teens Aged 15–19 ... Pregnancy Prevention Community-Wide Initiative. National Rates and Disparities Nationally, the teen birth rate (number of births ...

  8. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  9. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, S.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP)

  10. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  11. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  12. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Chris

    2011-10-01

    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  13. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  14. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim

    2011-11-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  15. The role of preschool in reducing inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Children from disadvantaged families have lower levels of school readiness when they enter school than do children from more advantaged families. Many countries have tried to reduce this inequality through publicly provided preschool. Evidence on the potential of these programs to reduce inequality in child development is now quite strong. Long-term studies of large publicly funded programs in Europe and Latin America, and newer studies on state and local prekindergarten programs implemented ...

  16. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  17. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim; El Sayed, Tamer S.; Ramadan, Hany E.

    2011-01-01

    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop's task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application's latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  18. Evaluating Active Interventions to Reduce Student Procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Joshua Deckert

    2015-01-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive problem in education. In computer science, procrastination and lack of necessary time management skills to complete programming projects are viewed as primary causes of student attrition. The most effective techniques known to reduce procrastination are resource-intensive and do not scale well to large classrooms. In this thesis, we examine three course interventions designed to both reduce procrastination and be scalable for large classrooms. Reflective writ...

  19. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, C.J.; Cremer, M.A.; Heap, M.P.; Chen, J-Y.; Westbrook, C.K.; Maurice, L.Q.

    1999-01-01

    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, a variety of different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for ethylene and n-heptane have been generated. The reduced mechanisms have been compared to detailed chemistry calculations in simple homogeneous reactors and experiments. Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant improvement over currently used global mechanisms. The performance of reduced mechanisms derived from a large detailed mechanism for n-heptane was compared to results from a reduced mechanism derived from a smaller semi-empirical mechanism. The semi-empirical mechanism was advantageous as a starting point for reduction for ignition delay, but not for PSR calculations. Reduced mechanisms with as few as 12 species gave excellent results for n-heptane/air PSR calculations but 16-25 or more species are needed to simulate n-heptane ignition delay

  20. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states ''Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction

  1. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  2. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution. Chemical extractions of the reduced sediments have also been performed, to determine the rate of Fe(II) and U(IV) accumulation.

  3. Bioremediation: Effectiveness in reducing the ecological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, M.C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Bioremediation becomes an important technique in oil spill combat programmes. The purpose is to shorten the exposure time of biota to oil compounds, in order to reduce long term environmental effects. Although bioremediation products have the advantage of stimulating the natural capacity to degrade oil, there are some limitations to be considered. Application as a technique for first emergency actions following an oil spill is not effective, and can therefore be no alternative for dispersion or mechanical removal of floating or freshly stranded oil slicks. Acute toxic effects are related to the short term exposure to unweathered oils. An immediate removal of oil is necessary to reduce the extent of the environmental impact of an oil spill. Physical processes (transport, dilution and evaporation) are determining the initial fate of environmentally released oil. Biodegradation only becomes important as a process of removing oil in the next phase. It is the only effective way to further reduce the concentration of oil that is left in (intertidal) coastal areas. Bioremediation thus reduces the duration of the environmental impact of an oil spill. This is especially important in ecosystems with a low recovery potential (e.g., salt marshes, rocky shores). The experimental evaluation of bioremediation products is mainly based on the capacity to reduce fresh oil and the acute toxicity of the product itself, rather than on the capacity to enhance the further reduction of weathered oil and the toxicological consequences of higher release rates of intermediate metabolites produced during the biotransformation processes

  4. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  5. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River (https://binational.net/2016/02/22/ finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  6. Reducing longitudinal emittance growth in RFQ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1994-08-01

    Bunching and capture of a monochromatic beam into an rf bucket inevitably lead to substantial emittance growth through the mechanisms of filamentation and non-adiabatic variation of parameters. We describe a three step strategy for minimizing this growth, based on a clear understanding of the non-linear beam dynamics, and apply to acceleration of heavy ions with Z/A = 1/60 (and initial kinetic energy 60 keV/u) in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) operating at 25 MHz. We also describe a scheme, to further reduce the emittance, based upon the use of an external RFQ-type prebuncher before the main accelerator. The external unit permits the bunching voltage to be reduced, to inject into a moving bucket, and to reduce the structure length. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  7. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  8. Reducing online identity disclosure using warnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Sandra; Zhu, Feng; Kolimi, Swapna

    2014-09-01

    In an experimental design, we tested whether written warnings can reduce the amount of identity information exposure online. A psychological attack on information privacy that has been shown to be effective in previous research was launched. This attack took advantage of the fact that people respond to certain types of requests in a relatively automatic, or mindless, fashion. The experiment manipulated the word that was used in the alert header: "warning", "caution", or "hazard". All warnings proved to be effective in reducing disclosure, but "hazard" proved to be most effective. Also warnings were more effective in reducing disclosure of driver's license numbers than email addresses. The discussion (a) provides tentative conclusions why these patterns were obtained, (b) suggests how to design warnings in cyber-environments, and (c) addresses future possibilities for research on this topic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum Entanglement and Reduced Density Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Agus; Sukamto, Heru; Yuwana, Lila

    2018-05-01

    We investigate entanglement and separability criteria of multipartite (n-partite) state by examining ranks of its reduced density matrices. Firstly, we construct the general formula to determine the criterion. A rank of origin density matrix always equals one, meanwhile ranks of reduced matrices have various ranks. Next, separability and entanglement criterion of multipartite is determined by calculating ranks of reduced density matrices. In this article we diversify multipartite state criteria into completely entangled state, completely separable state, and compound state, i.e. sub-entangled state and sub-entangledseparable state. Furthermore, we also shorten the calculation proposed by the previous research to determine separability of multipartite state and expand the methods to be able to differ multipartite state based on criteria above.

  10. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  11. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  12. Hierarchical Traces for Reduced NSM Memory Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Torbjørn S.

    This paper presents work on using hierarchical long term memory to reduce the memory requirements of nearest sequence memory (NSM) learning, a previously published, instance-based reinforcement learning algorithm. A hierarchical memory representation reduces the memory requirements by allowing traces to share common sub-sequences. We present moderated mechanisms for estimating discounted future rewards and for dealing with hidden state using hierarchical memory. We also present an experimental analysis of how the sub-sequence length affects the memory compression achieved and show that the reduced memory requirements do not effect the speed of learning. Finally, we analyse and discuss the persistence of the sub-sequences independent of specific trace instances.

  13. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  14. Reducing dust and allergen exposure in bakeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard J Mason

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bakers have a continuing high incidence of occupational allergic asthma. In factory bakeries they are exposed not only to flour dust containing allergens, but also improvers whose ingredients enhance the strength and workability of the dough and its speed of rising. Improvers are flour-based but can contain added soya, fungal or bacterial enzymes that are also allergenic, as well as vegetable oil, calcium sulphate/silicate and organic esters. This study investigated the dustiness of the components used in factory bakeries and whether altering improver ingredients could reduce dust and allergen exposure. A standardised rotating drum test was employed on the individual components, as well as a representative improver and three practicable improver modifications by decreasing calcium sulphate, calcium silicate or increasing oil content. Levels of dust, the allergens wheat flour amylase inhibitor (WAAI and soya trypsin inhibitor (STI were measured in the generated inhalable, thoracic and respirable sized fractions. A “scooping and pouring” workplace simulation was also performed. Initial tests showed that dustiness of several wheat flours was relatively low, and even lower for soya flour, but increased in combination with some other improver components. All three improver modifications generally reduced levels of dust, STI and WAAI, but increasing oil content significantly decreased dust and STI in comparison to the standard improver and those improvers with reduced calcium silicate or sulphate. The simulation demonstrated that increased oil content reduced inhalable levels of gravimetric dust, STI and WAAI. Changing improver formulation, such as increasing oil content of flour by a small amount, may represent a simple, practical method of reducing bakery workers’ exposure to dust and allergens where improvers are used. It may be a useful adjunct to engineering control, changes to work practices and appropriate training in reducing the risk to

  15. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...... function was defined as a GFR ofcreatinine (SCr-ratio), and eight published GFR-models were compared for their ability to correctly classify renal function as normal or reduced. Cut-off levels were determined so as to give 99 % certainty outside the gray zone...

  16. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: mggonza@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  17. Electron microscopy at reduced levels of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, I.A.M.

    1975-05-01

    Specimen damage by electron radiation is one of the factors that limits high resolution electron microscopy of biological specimens. A method was developed to record images of periodic objects at a reduced electron exposure in order to preserve high resolution structural detail. The resulting image would tend to be a statistically noisy one, as the electron exposure is reduced to lower and lower values. Reconstruction of a statistically defined image from such data is possible by spatial averaging of the electron signals from a large number of identical unit cells. (U.S.)

  18. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1989-01-01

    than 0.0001). The lowest values (18 ml/kg) were found in patients with gross ascites and a reduced systemic vascular resistance. In patients with cirrhosis central blood volume was inversely correlated to the hepatic venous pressure gradient (r = -0.41, p less than 0.01), and the total blood volume...... was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral...

  19. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP p...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate...

  20. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  1. The reduced enrichment program for JRR-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, M.

    1992-01-01

    Japan Research Reactor No. 4(JRR-4) with the rated power of 3.5 MW, swimming pool type research reactor, 93 % enriched uranium ETR-type fuel used, light water moderated and cooled. The first criticality reached on 28th January, 1965. The reactor has operated for about 26 years. However, it was planed to the reduced enrichment of the fuels to low enrichment according to the International Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. This paper describes the program for conversion of the enrichment of fuel from 93 % to less than 20 %. (author)

  2. Preparation of potassium-reduced tantalum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosov, V.N.; Miroshnichenko, M.N.; Orlov, V.M.; Prokhorova, T.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of tantalum powders prepared by reduction of molten potassium heptafluorotantalate with liquid potassium are studied in a temperature range of 750 - 850 deg C using potassium chloride as a flux at a ratio of K 2 TaF 7 : KCl = 1, 2, and 3. The use of potassium as a reducing agent facilitates washing of tantalum powders for impurity salt removal, reduces sodium content and leakage currents in the anodes. As compared to sodium process, the potassium reduction results in a high yield of sponge material, a decrease in the specific surface area and yield of tantalum powder suitable for manufacture of capacitor anodes [ru

  3. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Martín G.; Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N"2, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  4. Novel Reduced-Feedback Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad Obaidah; Alnuweiri, Hussein; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    We have recently contributed to this field and published several journal and conference papers. We are the pioneers to propose a novel reduced-feedback opportunistic scheduling scheme that combines many desired features including fairness in resources distribution across the active terminals and distributed processing at the MAC layer level. In addition our scheme operates close to the upper capacity limits of achievable transmission rates over wireless links. We have also proposed another hybrid scheme that enables adjusting the feedback load flexibly based on rates requirements. We are currently investigating other novel ideas to design reduced-feedback communication systems.

  5. Does Formal Employment Reduce Informal Caregiving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daifeng; McHenry, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine the impact of formal employment on informal caregiving. We instrument for individual work hours with state unemployment rates. We find that, among women of prime caregiving ages (40-64 years), working 10% more hours per week reduces the probability of providing informal care by about 2 percentage points. The effects are stronger for more time-intensive caregiving and if care recipients are household members. Our results imply that work-promoting policies have the unintended consequence of reducing informal caregiving in an aging society. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Youngsuk; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Jessee, Matthew A.; Mertyurek, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reducing computational cost in engineering calculations. • Reduced order modeling algorithm for multi-physics problem like assembly calculation. • Non-intrusive algorithm with random sampling. • Pattern recognition in the components with high sensitive and large variation. - Abstract: While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.

  7. Cost reducing investments and spatial competition

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Scalera; Alberto Zazzaro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between competition and cost reducing investments in the context of a location model. In particular, we derive the symmetric subgame-perfect equilibrium of a three-stage circular city model with closed-loop strategies, and study the effects of changes in competition fundamentals under both a given number of firms and free entry

  8. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  9. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains

  10. Hybrid reduced order modeling for assembly calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Youngsuk, E-mail: ysbang00@fnctech.com [FNC Technology, Co. Ltd., Yongin-si (Korea, Republic of); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S., E-mail: abdelkhalik@purdue.edu [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jessee, Matthew A., E-mail: jesseema@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur, E-mail: mertyurek@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Reducing computational cost in engineering calculations. • Reduced order modeling algorithm for multi-physics problem like assembly calculation. • Non-intrusive algorithm with random sampling. • Pattern recognition in the components with high sensitive and large variation. - Abstract: While the accuracy of assembly calculations has considerably improved due to the increase in computer power enabling more refined description of the phase space and use of more sophisticated numerical algorithms, the computational cost continues to increase which limits the full utilization of their effectiveness for routine engineering analysis. Reduced order modeling is a mathematical vehicle that scales down the dimensionality of large-scale numerical problems to enable their repeated executions on small computing environment, often available to end users. This is done by capturing the most dominant underlying relationships between the model's inputs and outputs. Previous works demonstrated the use of the reduced order modeling for a single physics code, such as a radiation transport calculation. This manuscript extends those works to coupled code systems as currently employed in assembly calculations. Numerical tests are conducted using realistic SCALE assembly models with resonance self-shielding, neutron transport, and nuclides transmutation/depletion models representing the components of the coupled code system.

  11. Reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The March 2005 'International conference on nuclear security, global directions for the future' noted that nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to society. Eminent members of a multi-national panel stated that there is no one principal activity to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and that a combination of activities is required. This paper seeks to identify those activities by analyzing the elements that comprise the risk of nuclear terrorism. For the purpose of the analysis, risk is the product of the probability of a terrorist attack (A p ), the success of a terrorist act (S p ) and the consequence (C) of the attack: R=A p * S p * C. The paper examines each of these three elements of risk with the objective of identifying what we are doing and what else we could be doing to reduce risk. It takes into consideration some historic catastrophes, examines how they might have been prevented or their consequences reduced, and if there are lessons that are applicable to reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism. The paper demonstrates that we have concentrated on only one of the three elements of risk and offer suggestions for diminishing the risk of nuclear terrorism by addressing all the elements. (author)

  12. How to reduce your fire insurance rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubain, M.

    1971-01-01

    Construction procedures and utilization of materials to reduce the cost of insuring large buildings against losses from fire are discussed. Examples of good and bad techniques in building construction and fire safety management are provided. The inadequacies of building codes and the hazards resulting from improper construction are examined.

  13. Strategies for Reducing Criminal Violence among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staffo, Donald F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the serious problem of criminal violence in the personal lives of athletes, suggesting strategies that physical educators, coaches, and school systems can implement with young athletes which could reduce the incidence and severity of violence later in life (e.g., teaching unconditional respect for others, continually reinforcing social…

  14. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-01-30

    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  15. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  16. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  17. Engaging to reduce emissions and solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, M.; Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    1997-01-01

    The different negotiations about the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is studied in this article. The problem of developing countries or fast developing countries such asian countries is evoked. The rate of carbon dioxide emission could be calculated in function of GDP (gross domestic product) to allow to reduce the gaps between the different countries. (N.C.)

  18. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  19. QUIESST Guidebook to Noise Reducing Devices optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clairbois, J.P.; Roo, F. de; Garai, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Oltean-Dumbrava, C.A.; Durso, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this guidebook is to become a reference tool for noise mitigation through a better use of Noise Reducing Devices (NRD) (e.g.: Noise Barriers or sound Absorptive Claddings). It targets all the stakeholders involved in NRD projects (designers, manufacturers, authorities, construction

  20. Reducing Depression in Pregnancy: Designing Multimodel Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…

  1. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  2. Reducing cardiovascular risk : protecting the kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobre, Daniela; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Progressive decline of renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD), measured by a reduced glomerular filtration rate or albuminuria, is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), most

  3. Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without impairing physical capacity in the rat. Viviane Costa Silva Zaffani, Carolina Cauduro Bensabath Carneiro-Leão, Giovana Ermetice de Almeida Costa, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Emilianne Miguel Salomão, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, ...

  4. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  5. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  6. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-03

    This podcast is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  7. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  8. Factorial and reduced K-means reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Marieke E.; Ceulemans, Eva; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Vichi, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Factorial K-means analysis (FKM) and Reduced K-means analysis (RKM) are clustering methods that aim at simultaneously achieving a clustering of the objects and a dimension reduction of the variables. Because a comprehensive comparison between FKM and RKM is lacking in the literature so far, a

  9. Reducing operational costs through MIPS management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwiatkowski, L.M.; Verhoef, C.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on an approach to reducing the costs of running applications. MIPS, which is a traditional acronym for millions of instructions per second, have evolved to become a measurement of processing power and CPU resource consumption. The need for controlling MIPS attributed costs is indispensable

  10. The 'polypill' to reduce cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patel, Vinod; Pedersen, Oluf; Morrissey, John

    2004-01-01

    This article considers data from the Steno-2 multifactorial intervention study in type 2 diabetes to which are applied the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine. Mathematical analyses support the use of a 'polypill' to reduce cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes. It is s...

  11. General Reducibility and Solvability of Polynomial Equations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    General Reducibility and Solvability of Polynomial Equations. ... Unlike quadratic, cubic, and quartic polynomials, the general quintic and higher degree polynomials cannot be solved algebraically in terms of finite number of additions, ... Galois Theory, Solving Polynomial Systems, Polynomial factorization, Polynomial Ring ...

  12. Reducing nitrogen oxides from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheller, W.

    1986-12-01

    The report contains 17 individual lectures of the seminar included in databanks. The lectures concern combustion and waste gas measures for reducing the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission from coal-fired and gas-fired power stations. (PW) [de

  13. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  14. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  15. Software system for reducing PAM-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    A software system for reducing PAM-II data was constructed. The data reduction process concatenates data tapes; determines ephemeris; and inverts full sun extinction data. Tests of this data reduction process show that PAM-II data can be compared with data from other, similar satellites.

  16. Quasi-equilibria in reduced Liouville spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Meghan E; Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Emsley, Lyndon

    2012-06-14

    The quasi-equilibrium behaviour of isolated nuclear spin systems in full and reduced Liouville spaces is discussed. We focus in particular on the reduced Liouville spaces used in the low-order correlations in Liouville space (LCL) simulation method, a restricted-spin-space approach to efficiently modelling the dynamics of large networks of strongly coupled spins. General numerical methods for the calculation of quasi-equilibrium expectation values of observables in Liouville space are presented. In particular, we treat the cases of a time-independent Hamiltonian, a time-periodic Hamiltonian (with and without stroboscopic sampling) and powder averaging. These quasi-equilibrium calculation methods are applied to the example case of spin diffusion in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. We show that there are marked differences between the quasi-equilibrium behaviour of spin systems in the full and reduced spaces. These differences are particularly interesting in the time-periodic-Hamiltonian case, where simulations carried out in the reduced space demonstrate ergodic behaviour even for small spins systems (as few as five homonuclei). The implications of this ergodic property on the success of the LCL method in modelling the dynamics of spin diffusion in magic-angle spinning experiments of powders is discussed.

  17. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  18. Interventions: Employees’ Perceptions of What Reduces Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To build upon research evaluating stress interventions, this qualitative study tests the framework of the extended Job Demands-Resources model to investigate employees’ perceptions of the stress-reduction measures implemented at 13 Australian universities. Methods. In a cross-sectional survey design, tenured and contract staff indicated whether their overall level of stress had changed during the previous three-four years, and, if so, they described the major causes. A total of 462 staff reported that their level of stress had decreased; the study examines commentary from 115 academic and 304 nonacademic staff who provided details of what they perceived to be effective in reducing stress. Results. Thematic analyses show that the key perceived causes were changes in job or work role, new heads of departments or supervisors, and the use of organizational strategies to reduce or manage stress. A higher percentage of academic staff reported reduced stress due to using protective coping strategies or their increased recognition and/or success, whereas a higher percentage of nonacademic staff reported reduced stress due to increases in staffing resources and/or systems. Conclusion. These results identify the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to enhance employees’ well-being. Nonacademic staff, in particular, specified a variety of organizational stress-reduction interventions.

  19. Reducible cationic lipids for gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzer, B; Byk, G; Frederic, M; Airiau, M; Blanche, F; Pitard, B; Scherman, D

    2001-01-01

    One of the main challenges of gene therapy remains the increase of gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. We tested whether intracellular DNA release, an essential step for gene transfer, could be facilitated by using reducible cationic DNA-delivery vectors. For this purpose, plasmid DNA was complexed with cationic lipids bearing a disulphide bond. This reduction-sensitive linker is expected to be reduced and cleaved in the reducing milieu of the cytoplasm, thus potentially improving DNA release and consequently transfection. The DNA--disulphide-lipid complexation was monitored by ethidium bromide exclusion, and the size of complexes was determined by dynamic light scattering. It was found that the reduction kinetics of disulphide groups in DNA--lipid complexes depended on the position of the disulphide linker within the lipid molecule. Furthermore, the internal structure of DNA--lipid particles was examined by small-angle X-ray scattering before and after lipid reduction. DNA release from lipid complexes was observed after the reduction of disulphide bonds of several lipids. Cell-transfection experiments suggested that complexes formed with selected reducible lipids resulted in up to 1000-fold higher reporter-gene activity, when compared with their analogues without disulphide bonds. In conclusion, reduction-sensitive groups introduced into cationic lipid backbones potentially allow enhanced DNA release from DNA--lipid complexes after intracellular reduction and represent a tool for improved vectorization. PMID:11389682

  20. Holonomy-reduced dynamics of triatomic molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çiftçi, Ünver; Waalkens, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Whereas it is easy to reduce the translational symmetry of a molecular system using, e.g., Jacobi coordinates, the situation is much more involved for rotational symmetry. In this paper, we address the latter problem using holonomy reduction. We suggest that the configuration space may be considered