WorldWideScience

Sample records for reducing noise emission

  1. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  2. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  3. Aircrafts' taxi noise emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asensio, C.; Pagan Munoz, Raul; López, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted, with the objective of creating a database of inputs that can be used with noise prediction software, to evaluate noise of aircraft taxing movements and community noise exposure levels. The acoustic consultant can use these data with any of the software packages,

  4. Filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2010-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  5. A filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.

    2006-01-01

    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  6. Noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B; Wit, HP; van Dijk, P

    2000-01-01

    Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) and acoustical responses evoked by bandlimited Gaussian noise (noise-evoked otoacoustic emissions; NEOAEs) were measured in three normal-hearing subjects. For the NEOAEs the first- and second-order Wiener kernel and polynomial correlation functions up to

  7. Airfoil optimization for noise emission problem on small scale turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocmen, Tuhfe; Ozerdem, Baris [Mechanical Engineering Department, Yzmir Institute of Technology (Turkey)

    2011-07-01

    Wind power is a preferred natural resource and has had benefits for the energy industry and for the environment all over the world. However, noise emission from wind turbines is becoming a major concern today. This study paid close attention to small scale wind turbines close to urban areas and proposes an optimum number of six airfoils to address noise emission concerns and performance criteria. The optimization process aimed to decrease the noise emission levels and enhance the aerodynamic performance of a small scale wind turbine. This study determined the sources and the operating conditions of broadband noise emissions. A new design is presented which enhances aerodynamic performance and at the same time reduces airfoil self noise. It used popular aerodynamic functions and codes based on aero-acoustic empirical models. Through numerical computations and analyses, it is possible to derive useful improvements that can be made to commercial airfoils for small scale wind turbines.

  8. Reducing noise in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.J. III.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for reducing or removing the background noise caused by thoron gas ( 220 Rn) in uranium exploration conducted by the detection of radon gas ( 222 Rn) emanating from the ground. This is accomplished by the use of a number of alpha particle detectors, each of which is disposed in a protective enclosure. A permselective membrane, which permits, but selectively retards, the passage therethrough of gases is disposed in the path to be traversed before such gases can reach the alpha particle detector. The retarding influence of the membrane should be sufficient to make the concentration of thoron inside the enclosure small relative to the concentration of thoron outside the enclosure. The influence of the membrane of radon should be negligible, i.e., the radon concentration inside and outside the enclosure should be substantially equal

  9. QUIESST Guidebook to Noise Reducing Devices optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clairbois, J.P.; Roo, F. de; Garai, M.; Conter, M.; Defrance, J.; Oltean-Dumbrava, C.A.; Durso, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this guidebook is to become a reference tool for noise mitigation through a better use of Noise Reducing Devices (NRD) (e.g.: Noise Barriers or sound Absorptive Claddings). It targets all the stakeholders involved in NRD projects (designers, manufacturers, authorities, construction

  10. 40 CFR 205.52 - Vehicle noise emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle noise emission standards. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.52 Vehicle noise emission standards. (a) Low Speed Noise Emission Standard. Vehicles which are manufactured after...

  11. Noise source emissions, Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Noise source data and use factors for modeling the environmental noise environment expected from salt-site repository activity were provided by Battelle Columbus Division. This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompasses all phases of activity, from site preparation through construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. Data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided. The equipment inventory, including sound-power levels for each item is included as Appendix A. Emission source terms provided by Parsons Brinckerhoff/PB-KBB for the ESF were used as a basis for the noise source emission inventory development. Where available, research results containing complete spectra were used. In cases where complete data were not available, a sound-pressure spectrum was synthesized from a characteristic spectrum shape from a similar piece of equipment. For example, a front-shovel excavator might be approximated by data from a front-end loader of similar horsepower range. Sound-power-level spectra were then calculated from the sound-pressure-level data. 14 refs

  12. Noise source emissions, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity, from site preparation through the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) and repository construction and operation, and decommissioning. Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided by Bechtel National, Inc. Use of the quietest equipment available within the proven state of the art was assumed, as was the use of acoustical enclosures to the extent practical. The programmatic assumptions are based on the noise-sensitive nature of the Canyonlands National Park. Another feature of the data is the use of 1/3-octave-band rather than 1/1-octave-band resolution of emission spectra. This was done to permit evaluation of audibility of sounds reaching the park

  13. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  14. Research of noise emission sources in railway transport and effective ways of their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the EU conditions attention is systematically paid to noise reduction on the railways. Because TSI rules systematically tighten limits for noise emissions from railway vehicles, noise research must be addressed by all Member States, as the main technical solutions for railway vehicles and construction technological aspects of railway operations can result in lower noise exposure of affected areas or objects. The paper focuses on theoretical investigation of sources and paths of sound propagation, possibilities of noise reduction both on vehicles and by infrastructure and experimental measurements of the situation in transport practice. Methodology for reducing railway noise around tracks has been presented, too.

  15. Magneto acoustic emission and magnetic barkhausen noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyra Astudillo, M R; Nunez, N; Lopez Pumarega, M I; Ruzzante, J

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in the characterization of a sample of A508 Class II steel, are showed. This material is usually used for pressure vessels construction. Two techniques not very spread in our country, but developed at our Research Group were used: Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE). Both techniques only can be used with ferromagnetic materials. A sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field (10 Hz) was applied on the material under test, producing a sudden movement of the magnetic domain walls. This movement produces an induced EMF. In this case it is amplified and filtered in the wide band between 20 kHz and 300 kHz. The electrical signal generated at the sensing coil is called Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN). The MBN was known since 1919 when it was observed for the first time. The movement of the magnetic domain walls generates at the same time elastic waves which propagate inside the material. Fixing a piezoelectric transducer on the sample surface, it is possible to detect these waves. This phenomenon is known as Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) and its frequency band is 20 kHz up to 1 MHz. As it is widely known, the domain structure and their walls movement are deeply influenced by the metal defects and microstructure (stress, grain size, precipitates, etc.). Then studying the domain wall movement it is possible to induce the material state. At the present study, we can infer that the material analyzed with these two techniques, has an anisotropy showed at the polar graphs, but does not totally showed at the metallographic study. Subsequent studies employing the Baumann imprint technique showed that manganese sulphides present an orientation similar to that founded with MNB and MAE. This work is completed with MEB and EDAX (author)

  16. Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denenberg, J.N.; Miller, S.K.; Jay, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency 'rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project

  17. Noise in secondary electron emission: the low yield case

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Luděk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 361-365 ISSN 0022-0744 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1065304 Keywords : secondary electrons * noise * SEM image noise * secondary emission noise * statistics of secondary electrons * non-Poisson factor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2005

  18. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  19. Noise emission corrections at intersections based on microscopic traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coensel, B.de; Vanhove, F.; Logghe, S.; Wilmink, I.; Botteldooren, D.

    2006-01-01

    One of the goals of the European IMAGINE project, is to formulate strategies to improve traffic modelling for application in noise mapping. It is well known that the specific deceleration and acceleration dynamics of traffic at junctions can influence local noise emission. However, macroscopic

  20. Pollutant emission and noise radiation from open and impinging inverse diffusion flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Y.S.; Zhen, H.S.; Leung, C.W.; Li, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of burner geometry (d air and S) on inverse diffusion flames is studied. ► With fixed air/fuel supplies, a smaller d air curtails NO x emission but augments noise radiation. ► With fixed air/fuel supplies, a larger S reduces NO x emission but increases noise radiation. ► Both NO x emission and noise radiation are maximum under stoichiometric combustion. ► Impinging flames are nosier than corresponding open flames due to the mirror effect of the plate. -- Abstract: This paper reports an experimental investigation of the pollutant emission and noise radiation characteristics of both open and impinging inverse diffusion flames (IDFs), produced by five burners of different air port diameter (d air = 5, 6 and 6.84 mm) and air-to-fuel spacing (S = 8, 11.5 and 15 mm). The effects of d air , S, overall equivalence ratio φ and nozzle-to-plate spacing H on the pollutant emissions of CO and NO x and the noise radiation are examined. The results show that at fixed air flow rate, a smaller d air curtails NO x emission but augments noise radiation, indicative of a role played by turbulence, which tends to decrease pollutant emission and increase noise radiation. A larger S reduces NO x emission but increases noise radiation, indicating that different flame zones may be responsible for pollutant emission and noise radiation. When the IDF is under stoichiometric φ = 1.6, both the NO x emission and noise radiation are highest, as a result of maximum heat release rate. A comparison of EINO x for the open and impinging IDFs shows that the impinging IDFs emit more NO x probably due to the absence of NO reburning. The impinging IDFs have higher noise radiation than the corresponding open IDFs. A higher level of noise radiation from the impinging IDFs is observed as the target plate is brought closer to the burner.

  1. Background noise of acoustic emission signals in sodium piping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Aoki, K.; Kuribayashi, K.; Kishi, T.; Sakakibara, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Background noise measurement in the frequency range of acoustic emission (AE) signals was made on the sodium piping loops of a 50 MW steam generator test facility in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). During the dynamic characteristics test of the steam generator over a wide range of operating conditions, the background noise generated on the pipe surface was measured using wideband AE sensor externally mounted with waveguide. Data were obtained for the effect of power loads of steam generator on both amplitude and frequency spectra of background noise signals. Source and nature of background noise were established

  2. Noise emissions of cooling towers; Geraeuschemissionen von Kuehltuermen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkelmann, Dirk [Mueller-BBM GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    Cooling towers are often large structures with high sound emission. The impact of water drops on the water surface in the collecting basin leads to the generation of middle- and high-frequency noise that is emitted via the air intake opening and the outlet. In forced-draft cooling towers, additional noise is generated by drives and fans. The sound emissions can be predicted by means of empirical calculation models. In this way, noise control measures can be taken into account already at an early phase of planning. Different, proven measures for reduction of sound emissions are taken depending on cooling tower design. Regulations on noise acceptance testing for cooling towers are given in various standards. (orig.)

  3. Audio-frequency noise emissions from high-voltage overhead power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, M.; Straumann, U.; Roero, C.; Teich, T. H.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the noise-emissions caused by high-voltage overhead power lines that can occur under certain atmospheric conditions. These emissions, caused by electric discharges around the conductors, can achieve disturbing values, depending on the conditions prevailing at the time in question. The causes of the discharges are examined and the ionisation processes involved are looked at. The parameters influencing the discharges are discussed and measures that can be taken to reduce such audio-frequency emissions are looked at. The authors note that a reduction of peripheral field strengths can reduce emissions and that hydrophilic coatings can lead to faster reduction of such effects after rainfall

  4. Reduced rank adaptive filtering in impulsive noise environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    An impulsive noise environment is considered in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution

  5. Legal and planning framework for the control of noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An examination is offered of the statutory basis for the control of noise emissions. Principal pieces of legislation and some advisory notes have been produced within appendices. The paper briefly examines the controls in other EC countries before discussing the way in which planning controls relate to the jurisdiction of the court. (author)

  6. Reduced Rank Adaptive Filtering in Impulsive Noise Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2014-01-06

    An impulsive noise environment is used in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution. The reduced rank adaptive filter is presented in this environment by using two methods for rank reduction. The minimized objective function is defined using the Lp norm. The results are presented and the efficiency of each algorithm is discussed.

  7. Reduced Rank Adaptive Filtering in Impulsive Noise Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    An impulsive noise environment is used in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution. The reduced rank adaptive filter is presented in this environment by using two methods for rank reduction. The minimized objective function is defined using the Lp norm. The results are presented and the efficiency of each algorithm is discussed.

  8. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  10. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Liang; Xiang, Li; Guo, Huiqiang; Wei, Jian, E-mail: weijian6791@pku.edu.cn [International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Li, D. L.; Yuan, Z. H.; Feng, J. F., E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Han, X. F. [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Coey, J. M. D. [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the low frequency (LF) noise measurements in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) below 4 K and at low bias, where the transport is strongly affected by scattering with magnons emitted by hot tunnelling electrons, as thermal activation of magnons from the environment is suppressed. For both CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB and CoFeB/AlO{sub x}/CoFeB MTJs, enhanced LF noise is observed at bias voltage around magnon emission energy, forming a peak in the bias dependence of noise power spectra density, independent of magnetic configurations. The noise peak is much higher and broader for unannealed AlO{sub x}-based MTJ, and besides Lorentzian shape noise spectra in the frequency domain, random telegraph noise (RTN) is visible in the time traces. During repeated measurements the noise peak reduces and the RTN becomes difficult to resolve, suggesting defects being annealed. The Lorentzian shape noise spectra can be fitted with bias-dependent activation of RTN, with the attempt frequency in the MHz range, consistent with magnon dynamics. These findings suggest magnon-assisted activation of defects as the origin of the enhanced LF noise.

  11. Low frequency noise peak near magnon emission energy in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the low frequency (LF noise measurements in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs below 4 K and at low bias, where the transport is strongly affected by scattering with magnons emitted by hot tunnelling electrons, as thermal activation of magnons from the environment is suppressed. For both CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB and CoFeB/AlOx/CoFeB MTJs, enhanced LF noise is observed at bias voltage around magnon emission energy, forming a peak in the bias dependence of noise power spectra density, independent of magnetic configurations. The noise peak is much higher and broader for unannealed AlOx-based MTJ, and besides Lorentzian shape noise spectra in the frequency domain, random telegraph noise (RTN is visible in the time traces. During repeated measurements the noise peak reduces and the RTN becomes difficult to resolve, suggesting defects being annealed. The Lorentzian shape noise spectra can be fitted with bias-dependent activation of RTN, with the attempt frequency in the MHz range, consistent with magnon dynamics. These findings suggest magnon-assisted activation of defects as the origin of the enhanced LF noise.

  12. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO x emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO x fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO x emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO 2 which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered

  13. Framing sound: Using expectations to reduce environmental noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Petrie, Keith J

    2015-10-01

    Annoyance reactions to environmental noise, such as wind turbine sound, have public health implications given associations between annoyance and symptoms related to psychological distress. In the case of wind farms, factors contributing to noise annoyance have been theorised to include wind turbine sound characteristics, the noise sensitivity of residents, and contextual aspects, such as receiving information creating negative expectations about sound exposure. The experimental aim was to assess whether receiving positive or negative expectations about wind farm sound would differentially influence annoyance reactions during exposure to wind farm sound, and also influence associations between perceived noise sensitivity and noise annoyance. Sixty volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either negative or positive expectations about wind farm sound. Participants in the negative expectation group viewed a presentation which incorporated internet material indicating that exposure to wind turbine sound, particularly infrasound, might present a health risk. Positive expectation participants viewed a DVD which framed wind farm sound positively and included internet information about the health benefits of infrasound exposure. Participants were then simultaneously exposed to sub-audible infrasound and audible wind farm sound during two 7 min exposure sessions, during which they assessed their experience of annoyance. Positive expectation participants were significantly less annoyed than negative expectation participants, while noise sensitivity only predicted annoyance in the negative group. Findings suggest accessing negative information about sound is likely to trigger annoyance, particularly in noise sensitive people and, importantly, portraying sound positively may reduce annoyance reactions, even in noise sensitive individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Acoustical Durability of Thin Noise Reducing Asphalt Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Vuye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the European Noise Directive, traffic noise action plans have been established. One of those actions is to deepen the knowledge about low noise roads, as they are considered the most cost-efficient measure for traffic noise abatement. Therefore, ten test sections were installed in May 2012 in Belgium, with the objective of integrating Thin noise-reducing Asphalt Layers (TAL in the Flemish road surface policy in a later stage. Eight test sections are paved with TAL with a thickness of a maximum of 30 mm and a maximum content of accessible voids of 18%. The other two sections consist of a Double-layer Porous Asphalt Concrete (DPAC and a Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA-10 as a reference section. The acoustical quality of the asphalt surfaces has been monitored in time using Statistical Pass-By (SPB and Close-ProXimity (CPX measurements up to 34 months after construction. Texture measurements performed with a laser profilometer are linked to the noise measurement results. Very promising initial noise reductions were found, up to 6 dB(A, but higher than expected acoustic deterioration rates and the presence of raveling led to noise reductions of a max. of 1 dB(A after almost three years. It is shown that the construction process itself has a large influence on the acoustical quality over time.

  15. Amplitude changes in otoacoustic emissions after exposure to industrial noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradarnfar, Mohammad Hossein; Karamifar, Kayvan; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Gharavi, Marjan; Karimi, Ghasem; Vahidy, Mohammad Reza; Baradarnfar, Amin; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a frequent problem in industrial settings, especially where a high noise level is present. It is permanent, and irreversible, but preventable. Routine audiometry (an objective and time consuming) test is used for NIHL screening. Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are recently proposed as a more sensitive test for early diagnosis of NIHL. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of pure tone audiometry (PTA) with OAE in the diagnosis of NIHL. In a cross-sectional study on 120 workers (in three groups: Not exposed to noise, exposed to noise without NIHL and exposed to noise with NIHL), we compared the results of PTA and OAE. OAE can detect some changes in the function of hearing system in subjects exposed to noise, and these changes are apparently prior to hearing loss, which is diagnosed by PTA. OAE is a more sensitive method for the early diagnosis of cochlear damage than PTA, and can be performed in industrial settings for NIHL screening.

  16. Unexpected role of excess noise in spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamprecht, C.; Ritsch, H.

    2002-01-01

    A single inverted two-level atom is used as a theoretical model for a quantum noise detector to investigate fundamental properties of excess noise in an unstable optical resonator. For a symmetric unstable spherical mirror cavity, we develop an analytic quantum description of the field in terms of a complete set of normalizable biorthogonal quasimodes and adjoint modes. Including the interaction with a single two-level atom leads to a description analogous to the Jaynes-Cummings model with modified coupling constants. One finds a strong position and geometry-dependent atomic decay probability proportional to the square root √(K) of the excess noise factor K at the cavity center. Introducing an additional homogeneous gain one recovers the K-fold emission enhancement that has been predicted before for the linewidth of an unstable cavity laser. We find that excess noise may be viewed as a spatial redistribution of the field quantum noise inside the resonator. Taking a position average of the atomic decay rate over the cavity volume leads to a cancellation of the excess noise enhancement

  17. Reducing high Reynolds number hydroacoustic noise using superhydrophobic coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elboth, Thomas; Reif, Bjørn Anders Pettersson; Andreassen, Øyvind; Martell, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess and quantify the effect of a superhydrophobic surface coating on turbulence-generated flow noise. The study utilizes results obtained from high Reynolds-number full-scale flow noise measurements taken on a commercial seismic streamer and results from low Reynolds-number direct numerical simulations. It is shown that it is possible to significantly reduce both the frictional drag and the levels of the turbulence generated flow noise even at very high Reynolds-numbers. For instance, frequencies below 10 Hz a reduction in the flow noise level of nearly 50% was measured. These results can be attributed to a reduced level of shear stress and change in the kinematic structure of the turbulence, both of which occur in the immediate vicinity of the superhydrophobic surface.

  18. Reducing the extinction risk of stochastic populations via nondemographic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be'er, Shay; Assaf, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We consider nondemographic noise in the form of uncertainty in the reaction step size and reveal a dramatic effect this noise may have on the stability of self-regulating populations. Employing the reaction scheme m A →k A but allowing, e.g., the product number k to be a priori unknown and sampled from a given distribution, we show that such nondemographic noise can greatly reduce the population's extinction risk compared to the fixed k case. Our analysis is tested against numerical simulations, and by using empirical data of different species, we argue that certain distributions may be more evolutionary beneficial than others.

  19. Reducing Indoor Noise Levels Using People's Perception on Greenery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediastika, Christina E.; Binarti, Floriberta

    2013-12-01

    Employees working in cubicles of open-plan offices in Indonesia were studied in regard to their perception on the ability of indoor greenery to reduce noise levels. Sansevieria trifasciata and Scindapsus sp were used. Each was placed in the cubicle and noise levels were measured without plants, with Sansevieria, and with Scindapsus in place. The meters showed very insignificant difference. However, responses to surveys indicated a perception of lower noise in the presence of greenery. This seemed to be supported by prior knowledge and preconception and may be useful in creating a "quieter" indoor environment.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D and E - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures [Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles Recall of noncomplying motorcycles; relabeling of mislabeled motorcycles. Appendix I to Subparts D and E—Motorcycle Noise...

  1. Reducing the ingress of urban noise through natural ventilation openings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, D J; de Salis, M H; Sharples, S

    2004-01-01

    For buildings in busy urban areas affected by high levels of road traffic noise the potential to use natural ventilation can be limited by excessive noise entering through ventilation openings. This paper is concerned with techniques to reduce noise ingress into naturally ventilated buildings while minimizing airflow path resistance. A combined experimental and theoretical approach to the interaction of airflow and sound transmission through ventilators for natural ventilation applications is described. A key element of the investigation has been the development of testing facilities capable of measuring the airflow and sound transmission losses for a range of ventilation noise control strategies. It is demonstrated that a combination of sound reduction mechanisms -- one covering low frequency sound and another covering high frequency sound -- is required to attenuate effectively noise from typical urban sources. A method is proposed for quantifying the acoustic performance of different strategies to enable comparisons and informed decisions to be made leading to the possibility of a design methodology for optimizing the ventilation and acoustic performance of different strategies. The need for employing techniques for combating low frequency sound in tandem with techniques for reducing high frequency sound in reducing the ingress of noise from urban sources such as road traffic to acceptable levels is demonstrated. A technique is proposed for enabling the acoustic and airflow performance of apertures for natural ventilation systems to be designed simultaneously.

  2. Engaging to reduce emissions and solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, M.; Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    1997-01-01

    The different negotiations about the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is studied in this article. The problem of developing countries or fast developing countries such asian countries is evoked. The rate of carbon dioxide emission could be calculated in function of GDP (gross domestic product) to allow to reduce the gaps between the different countries. (N.C.)

  3. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  4. Noise source emissions, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Noise source data and use factors for modeling the noise environment expected from salt site repository activity were provided by Battelle Columbus Division. This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity from site preparation through construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The equipment inventory, including sound-power levels for each item, is included. Emission source terms provided by Parsons Brinckerhoff/PB-KBB for the ESF were used as a basis for the noise-source emission inventory development. Where available, research results containing complete spectra were used. In cases where complete data were not available, a sound-pressure spectrum was synthesized from a characteristic spectrum shape from a similar piece of equipment. For example, a front-shovel excavator might be approximated by data from a front-end loader of similar horsepower range. Sound-power-level spectra were then calculated from the sound-pressure-level data. 2 refs

  5. The Use of Noise Dampening Mats to Reduce Heavy-Equipment Noise Exposures in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Saleh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of sound barriers was evaluated to determine their technical effectiveness and practicality in reducing noise exposures to operating engineers in construction. Commercially purchased sound dampening mats (SDMats were installed inside three heavy-equipment engine compartments. Sound pressure levels (SPLs were measured before and after installing the SDMats while the equipment was on idle and full-throttle settings where it normally operates. SPLs inside the heavy-equipment operator cabs were significantly reduced by 5.6–7.6 dBA on the full-throttle setting following installation of the SDMats (p<0.01. The evaluated engineering control intervention was simple to install, affordable, and substantially reduced the engine noise reaching the heavy-equipment operator, potentially reducing reliance on hearing-protection devices to protect construction workers from noise exposures.

  6. Comparative analysis of emission characteristics and noise test of an I.C. engine using different biodiesel blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Alamgir; Rahman, Fariha; Mamun, Maliha; Naznin, Sadia; Rashid, Adib Bin

    2017-12-01

    Biodiesel is a captivating renewable resource providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compressionignition engines. A comparative study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using biodiesel on exhaust emissions. Exhaust smokiness, noise and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as carbon di oxides, carbon monoxide and oxygen are measured. It is observed that methanol-biodiesel blends (mustard oil, palm oil) cause reduction of emissions remarkably. Most of the harmful pollutants in the exhaust are reduced significantly with the use of methanol blended fuels. Reduction in CO emission is more with mustard oil blend compared to palm oil blend. Comparatively clean smoke is observed with biodiesel than diesel. It is also observed that, there is a decrease of noise while performing with biodiesel blends which is around 78 dB whereas noise caused by diesel is 80 dB. Biodiesel, more importantly mustard oil is a clean burning fuel that does not contribute to the net increase of carbon dioxide.

  7. Reduced rank adaptive filtering in impulsive noise environments

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2014-11-01

    An impulsive noise environment is considered in this paper. A new aspect of signal truncation is deployed to reduce the harmful effect of the impulsive noise to the signal. A full rank direct solution is derived followed by an iterative solution. The reduced rank adaptive filter is presented in this environment by using two methods for rank reduction, while the minimized objective function is defined using the Lp norm. The results are presented and the efficiency of each method is discussed. © 2014 IEEE.

  8. Modeling signal-to-noise ratio of otoacoustic emissions in workers exposed to different industrial noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise is considered as the most common cause of harmful physical effects in the workplace. A sound that is generated from within the inner ear is known as an otoacoustic emission (OAE. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs assess evoked emission and hearing capacity. The aim of this study was to assess the signal-to-noise ratio in different frequencies and at different times of the shift work in workers exposed to various levels of noise. It was also aimed to provide a statistical model for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of OAEs in different frequencies based on the two variables of sound pressure level (SPL and exposure time. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 45 workers during autumn 2014. The workers were divided into three groups based on the level of noise exposure. The SNR was measured in frequencies of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz in both ears, and in three different time intervals during the shift work. According to the inclusion criterion, SNR of 6 dB or greater was included in the study. The analysis was performed using repeated measurements of analysis of variance, spearman correlation coefficient, and paired samples t-test. Results: The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the three exposed groups in terms of the mean values of SNR (P > 0.05. Only in signal pressure levels of 88 dBA with an interval time of 10:30–11:00 AM, there was a statistically significant difference between the right and left ears with the mean SNR values of 3000 frequency (P = 0.038. The SPL had a significant effect on the SNR in both the right and left ears (P = 0.023, P = 0.041. The effect of the duration of measurement on the SNR was statistically significant in both the right and left ears (P = 0.027, P < 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that after noise exposure during the shift, SNR of OAEs reduced from the

  9. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  10. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  11. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  12. Noise Characterization and Performance of MODIS Thermal Emissive Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wu, Aisheng; Wenny, Brian; Chiang, Kwofu; Chen, Na; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a premier Earth-observing sensor of the early 21st century, flying onboard the Terra (T) and Aqua (A) spacecraft. Both instruments far exceeded their six-year design life and continue to operate satisfactorily for more than 15 and 13 years, respectively. The MODIS instrument is designed to make observations at nearly a 100% duty cycle covering the entire Earth in less than two days. The MODIS sensor characteristics include a spectral coverage from 0.41micrometers to 14.4 micrometers, of which those wavelengths ranging from 3.7 micrometers to 14.4 micrometers cover the thermal infrared region which is interspaced in 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs). Each of the TEB contains ten detectors which record samples at a spatial resolution of 1 km. In order to ensure a high level of accuracy for the TEB-measured top-of-atmosphere radiances, an onboard blackbody (BB) is used as the calibration source. This paper reports the noise characterization and performance of the TEB on various counts. First, the stability of the onboard BB is evaluated to understand the effectiveness of the calibration source. Next, key noise metrics such as the noise equivalent temperature difference and the noise equivalent dn difference (NEdN) for the various TEBs are determined from multiple temperature sources. These sources include the nominally controlled BB temperature of 290 K for T-MODIS and 285 K for A-MODIS, as well as a BB warm up-cool down cycle that is performed over a temperature range from roughly 270 to 315 K. The space-view port that measures the background signal serves as a viable cold temperature source for measuring noise. In addition, a well characterized Earth-view target, the Dome Concordia site located in the Antarctic plateau, is used for characterizing the stability of the sensor, indirectly providing a measure of the NEdN. Based on this rigorous characterization, a list of the noisy and inoperable detectors for

  13. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  14. Noise Source Identification of a Ring-Plate Cycloid Reducer Based on Coherence Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bing; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    A ring-plate-type cycloid speed reducer is one of the most important reducers owing to its low volume, compactness, smooth and high performance, and high reliability. The vibration and noise tests of the reducer prototype are completed using the HEAD acoustics multichannel noise test and analysis system. The characteristics of the vibration and noise are obtained based on coherence analysis and the noise sources are identified. The conclusions provide the bases for further noise research and ...

  15. New Jersey proposes rule reducing NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy has proposed a rule requiring utility and industrial sources to significantly reduce their emission levels of nitrogen oxide (NO x ). If approved, it will be the first major rule mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 to affect New Jersey's stationary sources of these air pollutants - primarily electric generating utilities and other large fossil fuel burning facilities. The proposed rule requires all facilities with the potential to emit 25 tons or more of NO x each year to install reasonably available control technology by May 30, 1995. According to Richard Sinding, the environment and energy agency's assistant commissioner for policy and planning, the rule will likely require installation of low-NO x burners or other modifications to the combustion process. Sinding says the proposed rule will reduce the State's NO x emissions by approximately 30,000 tons a year, roughly 30 percent from current levels from these stationary sources. The pollution prevention measures are estimated to cost approximately $1,000 for each ton of NO x removed. The state energy agency estimates the average residential utility customer will see an increase in the monthly electric bill of about 50 cents. The agency said the proposed regulation includes provisions to make implementation more flexible and less costly for achieving the NO x reductions. It has approved the use of natural gas during the ozone season if low-NO x burners are not available. Additionally, emissions may be averaged from all units at the same utility or company location, effectively allowing a company to select the most cost-effective method of achieving the required emissions reductions

  16. Noise-reducing designs of machines and structures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an increase in the levels of noise pollution almost everywhere. The harmful effects of noise are well-known. Exposure to high noise levels can cause hearing loss. Noise can also result in other ill effects such as general annoyance, loss of sleep, headache, stress, constriction of blood vessels and deterioration in work ...

  17. OPERATIONAL RESTRICTIONS FOR REDUCING NOISE AND THE SAFETY OF AIR OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna KWASIBORSKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many European airports are located in close proximity to residential or protected areas. Aircraft noise emissions caused by the landing and taking off of aircraft are a big problem in these areas. From an operational point of view, the method for reducing noise is to reduce traffic volume or change its organization, especially during the night. Some procedures and tools have been developed to support air traffic management in the implementation of operational constraints necessary to maintain noise at an acceptable level. The objective of this paper is to analyse the effectiveness of these tools. For this purpose, we have analysed existing methods of operational noise reduction, taking into account their influence on the structure, smoothness, punctuality and, especially, the safety of air traffic. As a result, existing risks have been identified, while methods have been proposed to combine two important air traffic service tasks: ensuring safety, while taking into account the environmental constraints, especially in relation to the acoustic climate.

  18. Emission noise spectrum in a premixed H2-O2-N2 flame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.; Hooymayers, H.P.; Lijnse, P.L.; Vierbergen, T.J.M.J.

    Experimental noise spectra in the frequency range of 15–105 Hz are reported for the thermal emission of the first resonance doublet of Na and K in a premixed H2-O2-N2 flame, and for the flame background emission. Under certain conditions, low-frequency peaks arise in the noise spectrum below 100 Hz,

  19. Reducing hospital noise: a review of medical device alarm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkani, Avinash; Oakley, Barbara; Bauld, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Increasing noise in hospital environments, especially in intensive care units (ICUs) and operating rooms (ORs), has created a formidable challenge for both patients and hospital staff. A major contributing factor for the increasing noise levels in these environments is the number of false alarms generated by medical devices. This study focuses on discovering best practices for reducing the number of false clinical alarms in order to increase patient safety and provide a quiet environment for both work and healing. The researchers reviewed Pub Med, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar sources to obtain original journal research and review articles published through January 2012. This review includes 27 critically important journal articles that address different aspects of medical device alarms management, including the audibility, identification, urgency mapping, and response time of nursing staff and different solutions to such problems. With current technology, the easiest and most direct method for reducing false alarms is to individualize alarm settings for each patient's condition. Promoting an institutional culture change that emphasizes the importance of individualization of alarms is therefore an important goal. Future research should also focus on the development of smart alarms.

  20. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  1. Characteristics of noise-canceling headphones to reduce the hearing hazard for MP3 users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Maojin; Zhao, Fei; French, David; Zheng, Yiqing

    2012-06-01

    Three pairs of headphones [standard iPod ear buds and two noise-canceling headphones (NCHs)] were chosen to investigate frequency characteristics of noise reduction, together with their attenuation effects on preferred listening levels (PLLs) in the presence of various types of background noise. Twenty-six subjects with normal hearing chose their PLLs in quiet, street noise, and subway noise using the three headphones and with the noise-canceling system on/off. Both sets of NCHs reduced noise levels at mid- and high-frequencies. Further noise reductions occurred in low frequencies with the noise canceling system switched on. In street noise, both NCHs had similar noise reduction effects. In subway noise, better noise reduction effects were found in the expensive NCH and with noise-canceling on. A two way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that both listening conditions and headphone styles were significant influencing factors on the PLLs. Subjects tended to increase their PLLs as the background noise level increased. Compared with ear buds, PLLs obtained from NCHs-on in the presence of background noise were reduced up to 4 dB. Therefore, proper selection and use of NCHs appears beneficial in reducing the risk of hearing damage caused by high music listening levels in the presence of background noise.

  2. Using Kalman Filters to Reduce Noise from RFID Location System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, José; Reis, Luís Paulo; Petry, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many technologies that support location systems involving intrusive and nonintrusive equipment and also varying in terms of precision, range, and cost. However, the developers some time neglect the noise introduced by these systems, which prevents these systems from reaching their full potential. Focused on this problem, in this research work a comparison study between three different filters was performed in order to reduce the noise introduced by a location system based on RFID UWB technology with an associated error of approximately 18 cm. To achieve this goal, a set of experiments was devised and executed using a miniature train moving at constant velocity in a scenario with two distinct shapes—linear and oval. Also, this train was equipped with a varying number of active tags. The obtained results proved that the Kalman Filter achieved better results when compared to the other two filters. Also, this filter increases the performance of the location system by 15% and 12% for the linear and oval paths respectively, when using one tag. For a multiple tags and oval shape similar results were obtained (11–13% of improvement). PMID:24592186

  3. Reducing Statistical Noise in Airborne Gamma-Ray Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens; Grasty, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    By using the Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition (NASVD) technique it is possible to reconstruct the measured airborne gamma-ray spectra with a noise content that is significant smaller than the noise contained in the original measured spectra. The method can be used for improving the out...... the output of the data processing for example mapping of Th, U, and K distribution....

  4. Gasoline tax best path to reduced emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering gasoline consumption is the quickest way to increase energy security and reduce emissions. Three policy initiatives designed to meet such goals are current contenders in Washington, DC: higher gasoline taxes; higher CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards; and an auto registration fee scheme with gas-guzzler taxes and gas-sipper subsidies. Any of these options will give us a more fuel-efficient auto fleet. The author feels, however, the gasoline tax holds several advantages: it is fair, flexible, smart, and honest. But he notes that he is proposing a substantial increase in the federal gasoline tax. Real commitment would translate into an additional 50 cents a gallon at the pump. While the concept of increasing taxes at the federal level is unpopular with voters and, thus, with elected officials, there are attractive ways to recycle the $50 billion in annual revenues that higher gas taxes would produce

  5. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  6. Study of Noise Effects on Rabbit's Hearing Status Using Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Salehnia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Noise-induced hearing loss is the most common problem in industrial areas. This study aimed to determine effects of excessive noise exposure on measurable characteristics of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs in rabbits.Methods: The study was carried out on 12 adult male New Zealand White rabbits including case group - exposed to 500-8000 Hz broadband white noise with 100 dBA SPL for 8 hours per day in 5 consecutive days - and control group. After three days period of acclimatization to the experimental condition, rabbits hearing status in each group were measured by distortion product otoacoustic emissions on days zero means before the study was initiated as a baseline, eight, one hour after the latest exposure to noise, and ten. The recorded results were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: Highest mean distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitudes in case group were allocated to frequencies of 5888.50 Hz, 8166.50 Hz, 9855.00 Hz, 3956.00 Hz, and 3098.50 Hz, respectively. However, the lowest mean distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitude was related to frequency of 588.00 Hz (p=0.001.Conclusion: This study revealed that distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitude shifts due to noise occur first in high and then in middle frequencies. Additionally, exposure to noise can decrease distortion product otoacoustic emissions amplitudes. We conclude that distortion product otoacoustic emissions can be a reliable test for estimating personal susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  8. Noise Source Identification of a Ring-Plate Cycloid Reducer Based on Coherence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A ring-plate-type cycloid speed reducer is one of the most important reducers owing to its low volume, compactness, smooth and high performance, and high reliability. The vibration and noise tests of the reducer prototype are completed using the HEAD acoustics multichannel noise test and analysis system. The characteristics of the vibration and noise are obtained based on coherence analysis and the noise sources are identified. The conclusions provide the bases for further noise research and control of the ring-plate-type cycloid reducer.

  9. Characterization and Impact of Low Frequency Wind Turbine Noise Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, James

    Wind turbine noise is a complex issue that requires due diligence to minimize any potential impact on quality of life. This study enhances existing knowledge of wind turbine noise through focused analyses of downwind sound propagation, directionality, and the low frequency component of the noise. Measurements were conducted at four wind speeds according to a design of experiments at incremental distances and angles. Wind turbine noise is shown to be highly directional, while downwind sound propagation is spherical with limited ground absorption. The noise is found to have a significant low frequency component that is largely independent of wind speed over the 20-250 Hz range. The generated low frequency noise is shown to be audible above 40 Hz at the MOE setback distance of 550 m. Infrasound levels exhibit higher dependency on wind speed, but remain below audible levels up to 15 m/s.

  10. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  11. The Role that Natural Environment Plays in Reducing Noise Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Saber Maash

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is one of the major problems for the present time and it can affect the life of human being. Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Researchers have mentioned a lot of devastating effects of noise that can disrupt the physical and psychological health of human beings. Noise pollution has also been considered as an important issue which needs to be solved in industrial countries and also as a main factor that is required to be minimized in factory construction and also in producing machinery. In the current article we are aimed at discussing some solutions that natural environment can bring to mankind regarding the reduction of noise pollution.

  12. Effects of noise overexposure on distortion product otoacoustic emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda

    are assumed to be equally hazardous for our hearing. Nevertheless, the standard allows adding a +5dB penalty to impulsive and tonal noises based on the presumption that they might pose a higher risk of hearing loss. This PhD thesis investigates the effect of different occupational noise exposures......The risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) at the workplace can be predicted according to the International Standard ISO 1999:1990. The standard is applicable to all types of noise and it is based on measurements of the total acoustic energy (LEX,8ℎ). Therefore, noises with equal energy...... may be more appropriate for tonal exposures. This presentation will also address methodological aspects of DPOAE measurements that might improve hearing diagnosis and detection of hearing loss....

  13. Instrument Variables for Reducing Noise in Parallel MRI Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchou Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA has been a widely used parallel MRI technique. However, noise deteriorates the reconstructed image when reduction factor increases or even at low reduction factor for some noisy datasets. Noise, initially generated from scanner, propagates noise-related errors during fitting and interpolation procedures of GRAPPA to distort the final reconstructed image quality. The basic idea we proposed to improve GRAPPA is to remove noise from a system identification perspective. In this paper, we first analyze the GRAPPA noise problem from a noisy input-output system perspective; then, a new framework based on errors-in-variables (EIV model is developed for analyzing noise generation mechanism in GRAPPA and designing a concrete method—instrument variables (IV GRAPPA to remove noise. The proposed EIV framework provides possibilities that noiseless GRAPPA reconstruction could be achieved by existing methods that solve EIV problem other than IV method. Experimental results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm can better remove the noise compared to the conventional GRAPPA, as validated with both of phantom and in vivo brain data.

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  15. Auditory white noise reduces postural fluctuations even in the absence of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica Marie; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2015-08-01

    The contributions of somatosensory, vestibular, and visual feedback to balance control are well documented, but the influence of auditory information, especially acoustic noise, on balance is less clear. Because somatosensory noise has been shown to reduce postural sway, we hypothesized that noise from the auditory modality might have a similar effect. Given that the nervous system uses noise to optimize signal transfer, adding mechanical or auditory noise should lead to increased feedback about sensory frames of reference used in balance control. In the present experiment, postural sway was analyzed in healthy young adults where they were presented with continuous white noise, in the presence and absence of visual information. Our results show reduced postural sway variability (as indexed by the body's center of pressure) in the presence of auditory noise, even when visual information was not present. Nonlinear time series analysis revealed that auditory noise has an additive effect, independent of vision, on postural stability. Further analysis revealed that auditory noise reduced postural sway variability in both low- and high-frequency regimes (> or noise. Our results support the idea that auditory white noise reduces postural sway, suggesting that auditory noise might be used for therapeutic and rehabilitation purposes in older individuals and those with balance disorders.

  16. Noise emission from wind turbines in wake. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam Madsen, K.; Plovsing, B. (DELTA, Hoersholm (Denmark)); Soerensen, Thomas (EMD International A/S, Aalborg (Denmark)); Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bertagnolio, F. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    When installing wind turbines in clusters or wind farms the inflow conditions to the wind turbines can be disturbed due to wake effects from other wind turbines. The effect of wake on noise generation from wind turbines are described in this report. The work is based on measurements carried out on a M80 2 MW wind turbine. To investigate the relationship between the far field noise levels and the surface pressure and inflow angles measured by sensors on an instrumented wind turbine blade, a parabolic measurement system (PMMS) was designed and tested as part of this project. Based on the measurement results obtained with surface pressure sensors and results from the far field measurements using the PMMS it is concluded that: The variance of surface pressure at the trailing edge (TE) agrees with the theory with regard to variation of pressure spectra with varying inflow angle (AoA) to the blade. Low frequency TE surface pressure increases with increased AoA and high frequency surface pressure decreases with increased AoA. It seems that the TE surface pressure remains almost unaltered during wake operation. Results from the surface transducers at the leading edge (LE) and the inflow angles determined from the pitot tube indicates that the inflow at LE is more turbulent in wake for the same AoA and with a low frequency characteristic, thereby giving rise to more low frequency noise generated during wake operation. The far field measurements supports that on one hand there will be produced relative more low frequency noise due to a turbulent inflow to the blade and on the other hand there will be produced less noise in the broader frequency range/high frequency range due to a lower inflow angle caused by the wind deficit in the wake. The net effect of wake on the total noise level is unresolved. As a secondary result it is seen that noise observed from a position on the ground is related to directional effects of the noise radiated from the wind turbine blade. For an

  17. Noise Emission of a 200 kW Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Möllerström

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The noise emission from a vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT has been investigated. A noise measurement campaign on a 200 kW straight-bladed VAWT has been conducted, and the result has been compared to a semi-empirical model for turbulent-boundary-layer trailing edge (TBL-TE noise. The noise emission from the wind turbine was measured, at wind speed 8 m/s, 10 m above ground, to 96.2 dBA. At this wind speed, the turbine was stalling as it was run at a tip speed lower than optimal due to constructional constraints. The noise emission at a wind speed of 6 m/s, 10 m above ground was measured while operating at optimum tip speed and was found to be 94.1 dBA. A comparison with similar size horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs indicates a noise emission at the absolute bottom of the range. Furthermore, it is clear from the analysis that the turbulent-boundary-layer trailing-edge noise, as modeled here, is much lower than the measured levels, which suggests that other mechanisms are likely to be important, such as inflow turbulence.

  18. Communicating airport noise emission data to the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Luis; Asensio, Cesar; de Arcas, Guillermo

    2017-05-15

    Despite the efforts that the aviation industry has undertaken during the last few decades, noise annoyance remains high, partly because of the continuous transport demands of modern societies and partly because of changes in citizen expectations and their growing environmental concerns. Although modern aircraft are considerably quieter than their predecessors, the number of complaints has not decreased as much as expected. Therefore, the aeronautical sector has tried more sociological and/or psychological strategies to gain acceptance through awareness and community engagement. In this regard, noise communication to the public is crucial for managers and policy makers. Noise information is a difficult technical topic for non-experts, which is an issue that must first be addressed to take advantage of the new possibilities that have recently been opened by the internet and information and communication technologies. In this review paper, we have compiled the literature that shows the increasing importance of communicating noise information from aircraft and the variety of indicators used to communicate with the public. We also examined the methods of representing noise data, using visualization strategies, and new tools airports are currently using to address this communication problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Proceedings of the 2005 spring conference on environmental and occupational noise : for whom the decibel tolls : reducing the impact of noise. CD ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss innovations in noise control and noise management technologies in order to raise awareness about expanding noise issues. Advancements in research, technology and software were presented along with case studies that highlighted current issues associated with noise management, including occupational noise identification, noise measurement, regulations and noise control. The plenary and technical sessions focused on environmental and occupational noise control, industrial noise control and innovative technology. The objective was to promote responsible industrial development and to identify and promote strategies for reducing workplace noise exposure and promote responsible management of human noise exposure. A special session on noise associated with wind turbines was included with particular reference to wind turbine sound and public concerns. Newly developed sound modeling software that can predict sound energy from turbines was also presented. The conference featured 58 presentations, of which 20 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Proceedings of the 2005 spring conference on environmental and occupational noise : for whom the decibel tolls : reducing the impact of noise. CD ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This conference provided a forum to discuss innovations in noise control and noise management technologies in order to raise awareness about expanding noise issues. Advancements in research, technology and software were presented along with case studies that highlighted current issues associated with noise management, including occupational noise identification, noise measurement, regulations and noise control. The plenary and technical sessions focused on environmental and occupational noise control, industrial noise control and innovative technology. The objective was to promote responsible industrial development and to identify and promote strategies for reducing workplace noise exposure and promote responsible management of human noise exposure. A special session on noise associated with wind turbines was included with particular reference to wind turbine sound and public concerns. Newly developed sound modeling software that can predict sound energy from turbines was also presented. The conference featured 58 presentations, of which 20 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  2. The effectiveness of environmental strategies on noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit: creation of single-patient bedrooms and reducing noise sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol, Emine; Aydın, Perihan; Dursun, Oguz

    2015-07-01

    Noise is a substantial problem for both patients and healthcare workers in hospitals. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of environmental strategies (creating single-patient rooms and reducing noise sources) in noise reduction in a pediatric intensive care unit. Noise measurement in the unit was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, measurements aimed at determining the unit's present level of noise were performed over 4 weeks in December 2013. During the month following the first measurement phase, the intensive care unit (ICU) was moved to a new location and noise-reducing strategies were implemented. The second phase, in May 2014, measured noise levels in the newly constructed environment. The noise levels before and after environmental changes were statistically significant at 72.6 dB-A and 56 dB-A, respectively (p noise-reducing strategies can be effective in controlling environmental noise in the ICU. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT EMISSION: NOISE INVENTORY FOR THE SCINTILLATING PULSAR B0834+06

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwinn, C. R.; Johnson, M. D.; Smirnova, T. V.; Stinebring, D. R.

    2011-01-01

    We compare signal and noise for observations of the scintillating pulsar B0834+06, using very long baseline interferometry and a single-dish spectrometer. Comparisons between instruments and with models suggest that amplitude variations of the pulsar strongly affect the amount and distribution of self-noise. We show that noise follows a quadratic polynomial with flux density, in spectral observations. Constant coefficients, indicative of background noise, agree well with expectation; whereas second-order coefficients, indicative of self-noise, are ∼3 times values expected for a pulsar with constant on-pulse flux density. We show that variations in flux density during the 10 s integration accounts for the discrepancy. In the secondary spectrum, ∼97% of spectral power lies within the pulsar's typical scintillation bandwidth and timescale; an extended scintillation arc contains ∼3%. For a pulsar with constant on-pulse flux density, noise in the dynamic spectrum will appear as a uniformly distributed background in the secondary spectrum. We find that this uniform noise background contains 95% of noise in the dynamic spectrum for interferometric observations; but only 35% of noise in the dynamic spectrum for single-dish observations. Receiver and sky dominate noise for our interferometric observations, whereas self-noise dominates for single-dish. We suggest that intermittent emission by the pulsar, on timescales <300 μs, concentrates self-noise near the origin in the secondary spectrum, by correlating noise over the dynamic spectrum. We suggest that intermittency sets fundamental limits on pulsar astrometry or timing. Accounting of noise may provide means for detection of intermittent sources, when effects of propagation are unknown or impractical to invert.

  4. Reducing Noise by Repetition: Introduction to Signal Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Umer; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes theory and experiments, taken from biophysics and physiological measurements, to illustrate the technique of signal averaging. In the process, students are introduced to the basic concepts of signal processing, such as digital filtering, Fourier transformation, baseline correction, pink and Gaussian noise, and the cross- and…

  5. Intensity of noise in the classroom and analysis of acoustic emissions in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Filho, Nelson de

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise-induced hearing loss is a sensorineural hearing loss, usually bilateral, irreversible and progressive with time of exposure. As the noise made by children in school may be considered detrimental, the study looks of their occurrence in Taubaté's schools. Objective: To determine if students are exposed to noise intensity affecting the cochlea, define the profile of these schoolchildren, demonstrating the occurrence of changes in cochlear activity following exposure to noise in a day of class. Method: Study's way prospective transversal cross sectional cut with 28 elementary school students in the first half of 2009. Questionnaires for assessing preexisting cochlear damage . Evaluation of cochlear function by analysis of acoustic emissions evoked distortion product, made before the students come into class and immediately after the end of these. Measurement of noise inside the classrooms and recreation areas during the interval. Results: 57.1% accused some hearing loss in the examinations before class. By day's end, 04 girls and 03 boys had worsened in relation of the first examination. The noise reached levels higher than recommended at the three class rooms. The largest number of students with worsening, belong to the class room with higher noise level. The noise during the intervals is also excessive. Conclusions: The noise in this school is above the limit. 42.85% of students who had experienced worsening had school performance inadequate. 25% had worse after noise exposure in a school day.

  6. Quantum 1/f noise in non-degerate semiconductors and emission statistics of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kousik, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Charged particle scattering is accompanied by the emission of soft photons. Handel's theory of 1/f noise, based on the infrared divergent coupling of the system to the electromagnetic field or other elementary excitations, states that the current associated with a beam of scattered particles will exhibit 1/f noise. The fraction of the particles scattered with an energy loss epsilon to soft photon emission is proportional to 1/epsilon and herein lies the origin of the quantum theory of 1/f noise. The 1/f noise caused by mobility fluctuations in semiconductors is related to the scattering cross section fluctuation given by Handel's theory, through the relaxation time. Chapters Two through Five of this dissertation presents the results of the detailed calculation of mobility fluctuation 1/f noise and Hooge parameter in nondegenerate semiconductors. Numerical results are given for silicon and gallium arsenide. Data obtained from extensive measurements on counting techniques for alpha-particles radioactive decay from a source containing 94 Pu 239 , 95 Am 241 and 96 Cm 244 are presented in Chapters Six and Seven of this dissertation. These data show that the statistics are non-Poissonian for large counting times (of the order of 1000 minutes) contrary to the popular belief that alpha-decay is an example of Poissonian statistics. Measurements of the Allan variance indicated the presence of a slow Lorentzian flicker noise and 1/f noise and the magnitude of the noise for large counting times is considerably larger than that predicted by Poissonian statistics

  7. World commitment to reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, R.

    1991-01-01

    A meeting of energy experts in Toronto, sponsored by the Canadian World Energy Council (CANWEC), to examine the implications of sustainable development for the energy industry, is reported. Canada, according to the World Resources Institute, ranks second only to the Arab oil producers as the world's worst energy hog. Although it contributes only 2% of total world greenhouse gases, its per capita emissions rank higher than even the United States, and this despite the fact that over 75% of its electrical energy is produced by hydro and nuclear power. Its intentions to stabilize CO 2 emissions by 2000 have already been signalled. Although arguments on the supply side strategies of clean coal and nuclear power were presented at the CANWEC meeting, the accent was firmly on demand side management, through energy conservation and efficiency, to meet the challenge of global warming. (author)

  8. Equatorial noise emissions with quasiperiodic modulation of wave intensity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hrbáčková, Zuzana; Pickett, J. S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2015), s. 2649-2661 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves * quasiperiodic modulation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020816/full

  9. Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butze, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

  10. A Noise and Emissions Assessment of the N3-X Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Analytical predictions of certification noise and exhaust emissions for NASA's N3-X - a notional, hybrid wingbody airplane - are presented in this paper. The N3-X is a 300-passenger concept transport propelled by an array of fans distributed spanwise near the trailing edge of the wingbody. These fans are driven by electric motors deriving power from twin generators driven by turboshaft engines. Turboelectric distributed hybrid propulsion has the potential to dramatically increase the propulsive efficiency of aircraft. The noise and exhaust emission estimates presented here are generated using NASA's conceptual design systems analysis tools with several key modifications to accommodate this unconventional architecture. These tools predict certification noise and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen by leveraging data generated from a recent analysis of the N3-X propulsion system.

  11. Reducing image noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography: effect of an integrated circuit CT detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; Michalak, Gregory J; Vrieze, Thomas J; Duan, Xinhui; Qu, Mingliang; Shiung, Maria M; McCollough, Cynthia H; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether the integrated circuit (IC) detector results in reduced noise in computed tomography (CT) colonography (CTC). Three hundred sixty-six consecutive patients underwent clinically indicated CTC using the same CT scanner system, except for a difference in CT detectors (IC or conventional). Image noise, patient size, and scanner radiation output (volume CT dose index) were quantitatively compared between patient cohorts using each detector system, with separate comparisons for the abdomen and pelvis. For the abdomen and pelvis, despite significantly larger patient sizes in the IC detector cohort (both P 0.18). Based on the observed image noise reduction, radiation dose could alternatively be reduced by approximately 20% to result in similar levels of image noise. Computed tomography colonography images acquired using the IC detector had significantly lower noise than images acquired using the conventional detector. This noise reduction can permit further radiation dose reduction in CTC.

  12. Retrofitting compressor engines to reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Cenovus Energy Inc. is upgrading its natural gas compression facilities at 37 sites it operates in Alberta. The project itself consists of a retrofit of the natural-fas fired engines that power the compressors that fill its natural gas sales pipe-line. Piping to capture fugitive natural gas will also be installed. These emissions will be used as fuel. The efficiency rating of such engine will be the same as a new fuel-injected engine. One of the challenge in the design of the parts of these engines ss to to ensure the least possible downtime to minimize production losses.

  13. The use of wavelet filters for reducing noise in posterior fossa Computed Tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita-Machado, Reinado; Perez-Diaz, Marlen; Lorenzo-Ginori, Juan V.; Bravo-Pino, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    Wavelet transform based de-noising like wavelet shrinkage, gives the good results in CT. This procedure affects very little the spatial resolution. Some applications are reconstruction methods, while others are a posteriori de-noising methods. De-noising after reconstruction is very difficult because the noise is non-stationary and has unknown distribution. Therefore, methods which work on the sinogram-space don’t have this problem, because they always work over a known noise distribution at this point. On the other hand, the posterior fossa in a head CT is a very complex region for physicians, because it is commonly affected by artifacts and noise which are not eliminated during the reconstruction procedure. This can leads to some false positive evaluations. The purpose of our present work is to compare different wavelet shrinkage de-noising filters to reduce noise, particularly in images of the posterior fossa within CT scans in the sinogram-space. This work describes an experimental search for the best wavelets, to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Results showed that de-noising with wavelet filters improved the quality of posterior fossa region in terms of an increased CNR, without noticeable structural distortions

  14. Kalman filtering techniques for reducing variance of digital speckle displacement measurement noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ Target dynamics are assumed to be known in measuring digital speckle displacement. Use is made of a simple measurement equation, where measurement noise represents the effect of disturbances introduced in measurement process. From these assumptions, Kalman filter can be designed to reduce variance of measurement noise. An optical and analysis system was set up, by which object motion with constant displacement and constant velocity is experimented with to verify validity of Kalman filtering techniques for reduction of measurement noise variance.

  15. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  16. Impact of noise barriers on the dispersal of solid pollutants from car emissions and their deposition in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawer Małgorzata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existence of various methods aimed at protecting the environment from the negative influence of roads, there is a lack of adequate techniques for monitoring and reducing the spread of roadside pollution into the air and soils. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of noise barriers (sound walls on the dispersal and soil deposition of solid pollutants from car emissions, based on both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, trace elements analyses, and platinum (Pt and rhodium (Rh content determinations were performed on soil samples collected in the vicinity of various types of noise barrier. Previous investigations have shown that most traffic emissions are deposited in the close vicinity of roads (up to 10 m, with pollution levels decreasing with increasing distance from the road edge. However, the results of the present study indicate that this distribution is disturbed in areas in which noise barriers are located. Moreover, additional soil enrichment with trace elements was observed at approx. 10-15 m behind the barriers. The spatial distribution of trace elements contents in the tested soil samples corresponded to the magnetic susceptibility values. High Fe, Zn, Mn and Pb levels were observed adjacent to noise barriers composed of sawdust concrete and steel panels.

  17. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine

  19. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  20. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  1. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  2. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  3. Policies to reduce carbon emissions from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The two long-term scenarios carried out for Mexico attempt to paint a picture of carbon emissions and energy use in the year 2025. The scenarios reveal that Mexico's current energy path is not optimal; the energy-intensity indicators show an increasing reliance on petroleum products and electricity over the next 40 years. Thus, Mexico must embark on a program of energy conservation in the near future. Mexico recently has undertaken several energy conservation efforts. The Mexican government implemented a National Program for Energy Modernization. This program identifies the promotion of energy conservation in Mexico as one of its top priorities between 1990 and 1994. It incorporates a number of actions geared at improving energy conservation, including: establishing pricing policies which pay special attention to electricity tariffs; setting aside budget appropriations for energy-savings programs; carrying out an energy diagnosis in the transportation and industrial sectors; promoting cogeneration and new legislation in this field; setting efficiency standards for equipment; initiating a public education campaign to inform people about energy conservation; promoting the participation of research institutes and consulting firms in the research of the technological aspects of energy-saving measures; and creating agreement with industrial and commerce associations

  4. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  5. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  6. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options

  7. Reducing local traffic emissions at urban intersection using ITS countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.; Arem, B. van; Pueboobpaphan, R.; Lange, R. de

    2013-01-01

    In many countries traffic emissions have significantly increased during the last two decades because of the increased number of vehicles. As such, traffic emissions have become the main source of air pollution in urban areas, where breaches of the EU limit values frequently occur. To reduce these

  8. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  9. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  11. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  12. A wall for protection against noise and fine dust emissions; Laerm- und Feinstaubschutz aus einer Wand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodler, Johannes; Sturm, Peter; Henn, Mathias [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria)

    2009-12-15

    The Austrian ''Sound and Particle Absorging System'' (SPAS) equips noise protection walls with filter systems to reduce fine dust pollution from road vehicles. The contribution discusses the potential of the project. (orig.)

  13. Reducing Supply Chain GHG Emissions from LCD Panel Manufacturing Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-GHGs) are among the most potent and persistent greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Learn about the manufacturing processes which release F-GHGs, and how LCD suppliers are working to reduce emissions.

  14. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  15. Use of Otoacoustic emissions in noise induced hearing loss prevention

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in laboratory- main clinical use on identification of hearing loss in newborn babies • Clinically sensitive tool for assessing NIHL and the outer hair cells (OHC) • repeatable results • identify cochlear damage before evidenced on an audiogram – normal... audiogram but evidence of OHC loss • Feasible method of evaluating HPD effectiveness using temporary emission shift (TES) • CSIR research developed a prediction model for Hearing Threshold Levels Copy of dancing hair cell.wm © CSIR 2010 Slide 6...

  16. Influence of biofuels on exhaust gas and noise emissions of small industrial diesel engines; Einfluss von Biokraftstoffen auf die Abgas- und Geraeuschemission kleiner Industriedieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spessert, B.M. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Kraft- und Arbeitsmaschinen; Schleicher, A. [Fachhochschule Jena (Germany). Fachgebiet Umweltmesstechnik

    2007-03-15

    At small industrial diesel engines, as they were brought in oftentimes on building sites, in the farming and forest industry and on boats, biofuels are increasingly used. In a research project of the University of Applied Sciences Jena, Germany, thus the changes of the exhaust gas pollutant and noise emissions of these diesel engines were investigated. Test fuels were diesel fuel, and also biofuels as biodiesel (RME), rape seed oil and sun flower oil. Depending on the operating point these biofuels increased or reduced the emissions of exhaust gas and noise of the investigated engines clearly. (orig.)

  17. Using mindfulness to reduce the health effects of community reaction to aircraft noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hede

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper investigates whether mindfulness-based interventions might ameliorate the detrimental health effects of aircraft noise on residential communities. Review: Numerous empirical studies over the past 50 years have demonstrated the increasing negative impact of aircraft noise on residents worldwide. However, extensive database searches have revealed no published studies on psychological interventions that reduce residents’ reactivity to environmental noise. By contrast, there has been extensive research over several decades confirming the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction training in lowering people’s stress from work and life. Considering that stress is a major component of aircraft noise reaction, it would seem worth assessing whether mindfulness-based interventions might be effective in reducing the health effects of aircraft noise. It appears that no existing conceptualization of mindfulness specifically accounts for noise as a stressor. Conceptual Analysis: A new conceptual model is presented here which explains how mindfulness can reduce noise reactivity. Two types of mindfulness are distinguished: an active form (meta-mindfulness and a passive form (supra-mindfulness. It is posited that meta-mindfulness can facilitate “cognitive defusion” which research has confirmed as enabling people to disconnect from their own dysfunctional thoughts. In the case of aircraft noise, negative thinking associated with residents’ reactive experiences can exacerbate the health effects they suffer. The present model further proposes that supra-mindfulness can enable an individual to disengage their own sense of identity from the often overwhelming negative thoughts which can define their existence when they are consumed by extreme noise annoyance. Conclusion: The mindfulness processes of defusion and disidentification are postulated to be the key efficacy mechanisms potentially responsible for reducing reactivity to

  18. On the excess photon noise in single-beam measurements with photo-emissive and photo-conductive cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, C.T.J.

    In this paper the so-called excess photon noise is theoretically considered with regard to noise power measurements with a single, illumined photo-emissive or photo-conductive cell. Starting from a modification of Mandel's stochastic association of the emission of photo-electrons with wave

  19. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  20. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  1. Heat pipes to reduce engine exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel combustor is presented that consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end, and having an opposite exit end. An elongated heat pipe is mounted longitudinally in the casing and is offset from and extends alongside the combustion space. The heat pipe is in heat transmitting relationship with the air intake conduit for heating incoming air. A guide conduit structure is provided for conveying the heated air from the intake conduit into the combustion space. A fuel discharge nozzle is provided to inject fuel into the combustion space. A fuel conduit from a fuel supply source has a portion engaged in heat transfer relationship of the heat pipe for preheating the fuel. The downstream end of the heat pipe is in heat transfer relationship with the casing and is located adjacent to the downstream end of the combustion space. The offset position of the heat pipe relative to the combustion space minimizes the quenching effect of the heat pipe on the gaseous products of combustion, as well as reducing coking of the fuel on the heat pipe, thereby improving the efficiency of the combustor.

  2. Acoustic noise induces attention shifts and reduces foraging performance in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Purser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic noise is known to have a variety of detrimental effects on many animals, including humans, but surprisingly little is known about its impacts on foraging behaviour, despite the obvious potential consequences for survival and reproductive success. We therefore exposed captive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus to brief and prolonged noise to investigate how foraging performance is affected by the addition of acoustic noise to an otherwise quiet environment. The addition of noise induced only mild fear-related behaviours--there was an increase in startle responses, but no change in the time spent freezing or hiding compared to a silent control--and thus had no significant impact on the total amount of food eaten. However, there was strong evidence that the addition of noise increased food-handling errors and reduced discrimination between food and non-food items, results that are consistent with a shift in attention. Consequently, noise resulted in decreased foraging efficiency, with more attacks needed to consume the same number of prey items. Our results suggest that acoustic noise has the potential to influence a whole host of everyday activities through effects on attention, and that even very brief noise exposure can cause functionally significant impacts, emphasising the threat posed by ever-increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in the environment.

  3. Union Gas assessment protocol for power generator air and noise emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complin, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlined a procedure for obtaining data to facilitate air and noise compliance assessments for emergency and other fuel-fired power generators. Facilities with the generators may contain additional sources of nitrogen oxides (NO x ). The assessments are required for each new or modified generator in order to ensure that regulatory requirements in the Air Pollution Local Air Quality Regulation and the Noise Pollution Control documents are met. The air emission assessments follow the Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) report. The paper included a screening process to screen out generators with negligible emissions. A maximum power rating was calculated using AP-2 emission factors and a conservative heat rating assumption. Maximum power ratings for various types of generators were presented. The information requirements included a description of the type of engine used; sound power level data; octave band insertion loss data; and plan and section drawings of the generator room. 2 tabs.

  4. Comprehensive Study of Solar Cell Structure Defects by Means of Noise and Light Emission Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Macku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of silicon solar cells localized defects from metrological and physical points of view. Structure imperfections represent the real problem because of solar cells long-term degradation and conversion efficiency decreasing. To this aim we pay our attention to research relating to the defect light emission and correlation with rectangular microplasma fluctuation. A sensitive CCD camera has been used for mapping of surface photon emission. The operation point of the samples has been set to reverse bias mode, and different electric field intensity was applied. We managed to get interesting information using a combination of optical investigation and electrical noise measurement in time and spectral domain. It will be revealed that a direct correlation between noise and photon emission exists and the results related to several defect spots are presented in detail in this paper.

  5. Otoacoustic emissions in young adults exposed to drums noise of a college band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Botelho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to identify cochlear dysfunction and occurrence of tinnitus in young adults exposed to drums noise of a college band. Methods: the sample included 50 subjects: 25 musicians (study group and 25 non-musicians (control group. The procedures included anamnesis, pure tone audiometry, acoustic impedance and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions and Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Input-Output function. Results: positive correlation between the occurrence of tinnitus and the variables exposure time and use of personal stereos was found. Overall, the study group showed significantly lower Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions, when compared to the control group. In the study group, there was a tendency toward worse response in 6 kHz(f2 in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions in both ears. The Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Input-Output function did not differ between groups nor did its slope. Conclusion: in general, otoacoustic emissions were worse in noise-exposed young people (study group when compared to the unexposed (control group, indicating that the test may be important in early identification of cochlear changes.

  6. Noise reducing screen devices for in-flow pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Fredric (Inventor); Liu, Sandy (Inventor); Jaeger, Stephen (Inventor); Horne, W. Clifton (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An acoustic sensor assembly is provided for sensing acoustic signals in a moving fluid such as high speed fluid stream. The assembly includes one or more acoustic sensors and a porous, acoustically transparent screen supported between the moving fluid stream and the sensor and having a major surface disposed so as to be tangent to the moving fluid. A layer of reduced velocity fluid separating the sensor from the porous screen. This reduced velocity fluid can comprise substantially still air. A foam filler material attenuates acoustic signals arriving at the assembly from other than a predetermined range of incident angles.

  7. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  8. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  9. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  10. Preliminary study of acoustic emission (ae) noise signal identification for crude oil storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Shukri Mohd

    2008-08-01

    This preliminary work was carried out to simulate the Acoustic Emission (AE) signal contributed by pitting corrosion, and noise signal from environment during crude oil storage tanks monitoring. The purpose of this study is to prove that acoustic emission (AE) could be used to detect the formation of pitting corrosion in the crude oil storage tank and differentiated it from other sources of noise signal. In this study, the pitting corrosion was simulated by inducing low voltage and low amperage current onto the crude oil storage tank material (ASTM 516 G 70). Water drop, air blow and surface rubbing were applied onto the specimen surface. To simulate the noise signal produce by rain fall, wind blow and other sources of noise during AE crude oil storage tanks monitoring. AE sensor was attached onto the other surface of specimen to acquire all of these AE signals which then has send to AE DiSP 24 data acquisition system for signal conditioning. AE win software has been used to analyse this entire signal. It is found that, simulated pitting corrosion could be detected by AE system and differentiated from other sources of noise by using amplitude analysis. From the amplitude analysis is shown that 20-30 dB is the range amplitude for the blow test, 50-60 dB for surface rubbing test and over than 60 dB for water drop test. (Author)

  11. Acoustic noise in functional magnetic resonance imaging reduces pain unpleasantness ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Y; Bentley, D E; Watson, A; Jones, A K P

    2006-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used in cognitive studies. Unfortunately, the scanner produces acoustic noise during the image acquisition process. Interference from acoustic noise is known to affect auditory, visual and motor processing, raising the possibility that acoustic interference may also modulate processing of other sensory modalities such as pain. With the increasing use of fMRI in the investigation of the mechanisms of pain perception, particularly in relation to attention, this issue has become highly relevant. Pain is a complex experience, composed of sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitive-evaluative components. The aim of this experiment was to assess the effect of MRI scanner noise, compared to white noise, on the affective (unpleasantness) and the sensory-discriminative (localisation) components of pain. Painful radiant heat from a CO(2) laser was delivered to the skin of the right forearm in 24 healthy volunteers. The volunteers attended to either pain location or pain unpleasantness during three conditions: i) no noise, ii) exposure to MRI scanner noise (85 dB) or iii) exposure to white noise (85 dB). Both MRI scanner noise and white noise significantly reduced unpleasantness ratings (from 5.1 +/- 1.6 in the control condition to 4.7 +/- 1.5 (P = 0.002) and 4.6 +/- 1.6 (P white noise respectively), whereas the ability to localise pain was not significantly affected (from 85.4 +/- 9.2% correct in the control condition to 83.1 +/- 10.3% (P = 0.06) and 83.9 +/- 9.5% (P = 0.27) with MRI scanner and white noise respectively). This phenomenon should be taken into account in the design of fMRI studies into human pain perception.

  12. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  13. Maintaining reduced noise levels in a resource-constrained neonatal intensive care unit by operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, A; Denzil, S B; Linda, R; Josephine, P K; Nagapoornima, M; Suman Rao, P N; Swarna Rekha, A

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of operant conditioning in sustaining reduced noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Quasi-experimental study on quality of care. Level III NICU of a teaching hospital in south India. 26 staff employed in the NICU. (7 Doctors, 13 Nursing staff and 6 Nursing assistants). Operant conditioning of staff activity for 6 months. This method involves positive and negative reinforcement to condition the staff to modify noise generating activities. Comparing noise levels in decibel: A weighted [dB (A)] before conditioning with levels at 18 and 24 months after conditioning. Decibel: A weighted accounts for noise that is audible to human ears. Operant conditioning for 6 months sustains the reduced noise levels to within 62 dB in ventilator room 95% CI: 60.4 - 62.2 and isolation room (95% CI: 55.8 - 61.5). In the preterm room, noise can be maintained within 52 dB (95% CI: 50.8 - 52.6). This effect is statistically significant in all the rooms at 18 months (P = 0.001). At 24 months post conditioning there is a significant rebound of noise levels by 8.6, 6.7 and 9.9 dB in the ventilator, isolation and preterm room, respectively (P =0.001). Operant conditioning for 6 months was effective in sustaining reduced noise levels. At 18 months post conditioning, the noise levels were maintained within 62 dB (A), 60 dB (A) and 52 dB (A) in the ventilator, isolation and pre-term room, respectively. Conditioning needs to be repeated at 12 months in the ventilator room and at 18 months in the other rooms.

  14. Totally impermeable film (TIF reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suduan Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many perennial nursery fields and replanted orchards and vineyards in California are treated with preplant soil fumigants to control soilborne pests. In annual crops, such as strawberry, covering fumigated fields with totally impermeable film (TIF has shown promise in controlling emissions and improving fumigant distribution in soil. The objective of this research was to optimize the use of TIF for perennial crops via three field trials. TIF reduced peak emission flux and cumulative emissions by > 90% relative to polyethylene tarp during a 2-week covering period. After the TIF was cut, emissions were greatly reduced compared to when tarps were cut after 6 days. TIF maintained higher fumigant concentrations under tarp and in the soil than polyethylene film. The results indicate that TIF can increase fumigation efficiency for perennial crop growers.

  15. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-01-01

    In reducing CO 2 emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO 2 released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs

  16. Research of biofuels on performance, emission and noise of diesel engine under high-altitude area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Hua

    2018-05-01

    At high altitudes and with no any adjustment for diesel engine, comparative experiments on a diesel engine about the engine's performance, emission and exhaust noise, are carried out by combusting different biofuels (pure diesel (D100), biodiesel (B100), and ethanol-biodiesel (E20)). The test results show that: compared with D100, the power performance of combusting B100 and E20 decreases, and the average drop of the torque at full-load are 4.5% and 5.7%. The equivalent fuel consumption is lower than that of diesel fuel, The decline of oil consumption rate 3˜10g/ (kW • h); At low load the emission of NOx decreases, Hat high loads, equal and higher than D100; the soot emissions decreases heavier, among them, E20 carbon dioxide emissions improved considerably; An full-load exhaust noise of B100 decreases average 3.6dB(A), E20 decreases average 4.8dB(A); In road simulation experiments exhaust noise max decreases 8.5dB(A).

  17. Statistical noise with the weighted backprojection method for single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Toyama, Hinako.

    1985-01-01

    The weighted backprojection (WBP) method and the radial post-correction (RPC) method were compared with other several attenuation correction methods for single photon emission computed tomography by computer simulation. These methods are the pre-correction method with arithmetic means of opposing projections, the post-correction method with a correction matrix, and the inverse attenuated Randon transform method. Statistical mean square noise in a reconstructed image was formulated, and was displayed two-dimensionally for typical simulated phantoms. The noise image for the WBP method was dependent on several parameters, namely, size of an attenuating object, distribution of activity, the attenuation coefficient, and choise of the reconstruction index, k and position of the reconstruction origin. The noise image for the WBP method with k=0 was almost the same for the RPC method. It has been shown that position of the reconstruction origin has to be chosen appropriately in order to improve the noise properties of the reconstructed image for the WBP method as well as the RPC method. Comparision of the different attenuation correction methods accomplished by using both the reconstructed images and the statistical noise images with the same mathematical phantom and convolving function concluded that the WBP method and the RPC method were more amenable to any radioisotope distributions than the other methods, and had the advantage of flexibility to improve image noise of any local positions. (author)

  18. Accelerated numerical processing of electronically recorded holograms with reduced speckle noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Carlos; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The numerical reconstruction of digitally recorded holograms suffers from speckle noise. An accelerated method that uses general-purpose computing in graphics processing units to reduce that noise is shown. The proposed methodology utilizes parallelized algorithms to record, reconstruct, and superimpose multiple uncorrelated holograms of a static scene. For the best tradeoff between reduction of the speckle noise and processing time, the method records, reconstructs, and superimposes six holograms of 1024 × 1024 pixels in 68 ms; for this case, the methodology reduces the speckle noise by 58% compared with that exhibited by a single hologram. The fully parallelized method running on a commodity graphics processing unit is one order of magnitude faster than the same technique implemented on a regular CPU using its multithreading capabilities. Experimental results are shown to validate the proposal.

  19. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skutsch, M.; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; Jong, B.H.J. de; Laake, P. van; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised

  20. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  1. Comparing climate policies to reduce carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter mainly due to growing consumption of fossil fuels. In 2009, the Chinese government committed itself to reducing domestic carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020 compared to 2005 levels. Therefore, it is a top priority for the Chinese government to adopt efficient policy instruments to reduce its carbon intensity. Against this background, this paper develops a general equilibrium model and seeks to provide empirical contributions by comparing the potential impacts of several different policy options to reduce China's carbon emissions. The main findings are as follows. Firstly, these climate policies would affect the structure of economy and contribute to carbon emissions reduction and carbon intensity reduction. Secondly, there would be significant differences in the economic and environmental effects among different climate policies and hence, the government would trade-off among different economic objectives to overcome any potential resistances. Thirdly, there would be considerable differences in the emissions effects of absolute and intensity-based carbon emissions controls, implying that the government might adopt different climate policies for absolute or intensity-based carbon emissions controls. Looking ahead, the government should trade-off among different objectives when designing climate reforms. - Highlights: • We develop a static general equilibrium model to simulate the impacts of climate policies. • We compare the potential impacts of various climate policies in China. • We discuss how to design these policies to make them more effective

  2. Strategies for enhanced deammonification performance and reduced nitrous oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leix, Carmen; Drewes, Jörg E; Ye, Liu; Koch, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Deammonification's performance and associated nitrous oxide emissions (N 2 O) depend on operational conditions. While studies have investigated factors for high performances and low emissions separately, this study investigated optimizing deammonification performance while simultaneously reducing N 2 O emissions. Using a design of experiment (DoE) method, two models were developed for the prediction of the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions during single-stage deammonification considering three operational factors (i.e., pH value, feeding and aeration strategy). The emission factor varied between 0.7±0.5% and 4.1±1.2% at different DoE-conditions. The nitrogen removal rate was predicted to be maximized at settings of pH 7.46, intermittent feeding and aeration. Conversely, emissions were predicted to be minimized at the design edges at pH 7.80, single feeding, and continuous aeration. Results suggested a weak positive correlation between the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions, thus, a single optimizing operational set-point for maximized performance and minimized emissions did not exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of landfill gas will save money and reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The City of Glendale, California has commenced on a project to transport landfill gas (LFG) from the Scholl Canyon Landfill to the Grayson Power Plant. At the plant the LFG will be used to produce electricity in existing steam electric generating units and combustion turbines. The LFG will reduce the natural gas consumed at the plant resulting in a substantial cost savings for the City. This project also offers significant environmental improvements. First, the elimination of flaring at the landfill will reduce emissions. Second, the LFG will reduce NO x emissions from the power plant. This paper will describe the existing collection system at the landfill as well as the design of the compression and piping system to transport the LFG to the power plant. It will also outline the in-plant modifications to the fuel delivery system and examine some of the emission implications of how the fuel is utilized

  4. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Helicopter Noise of an Active Flap Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ben W.; Janakiram, Ram D.; Barbely, Natasha L.; Solis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Results from a recent joint DARPA/Boeing/NASA/Army wind tunnel test demonstrated the ability to reduce in-plane, low frequency noise of the full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor using active flaps. Test data reported in this paper illustrated that acoustic energy in the first six blade-passing harmonics could be reduced by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition corresponding to advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, in a manner, which generated counteracting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative pressure peaks associated with in-plane, steady thickness noise. These favorable reduced-noise operating states are a strong function of the active flap actuation amplitude, frequency and phase. The associated noise reductions resulted in reduced aural detection distance by up to 18%, but incurred significant vibratory load penalties due to increased hub shear forces. Small reductions in rotor lift-to-drag ratios, of no more than 3%, were also measured

  5. Investigating the Potential of Ridesharing to Reduce Vehicle Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Jalali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As urban populations grow, cities need new strategies to maintain a good standard of living while enhancing services and infrastructure development. A key area for improving city operations and spatial layout is the transportation of people and goods. While conventional transportation systems (i.e., fossil fuel based are struggling to serve mobility needs for growing populations, they also represent serious environmental threats. Alternative-fuel vehicles can reduce emissions that contribute to local air pollution and greenhouse gases as mobility needs grow. However, even if alternative-powered vehicles were widely employed, road congestion would still increase. This paper investigates ridesharing as a mobility option to reduce emissions (carbon, particulates and ozone while accommodating growing transportation needs and reducing overall congestion. The potential of ridesharing to reduce carbon emissions from personal vehicles in Changsha, China, is examined by reviewing mobility patterns of approximately 8,900 privately-owned vehicles over two months. Big data analytics identify ridesharing potential among these drivers by grouping vehicles by their trajectory similarity. The approach includes five steps: data preprocessing, trip recognition, feature vector creation, similarity measurement and clustering. Potential reductions in vehicle emissions through ridesharing among a specific group of drivers are calculated and discussed. While the quantitative results of this analysis are specific to the population of Changsha, they provide useful insights for the potential of ridesharing to reduce vehicle emissions and the congestion expected to grow with mobility needs. Within the study area, ridesharing has the potential to reduce total kilometers driven by about 24% assuming a maximum distance between trips less than 10 kilometers, and schedule time less than 60 minutes. For a more conservative maximum trip distance of 2 kilometers and passenger

  6. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  7. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  8. Light emission and finite-frequency shot noise in molecular junctions: from tunneling to contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Brandbyge, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope induced light emission from an atomic or molecular junction has been probed from the tunneling to contact regime in recent experiments. There, the measured light emission yields suggest a strong correlation with the high-frequency current/charge fluctuations. We show...... that this is consistent with the established theory in the tunneling regime, by writing the finite-frequency shot noise as a sum of inelastic transitions between different electronic states. Based on this, we develop a practical scheme to perform calculations on realistic structures using nonequilibrium Green's functions...

  9. Reducing Methane Emissions: The Other Climate Change Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard

    2008-08-01

    Climate change studies show that it is vital to massively reduce atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in the coming decades in order to limit the global average temperature rise ultimately to 2 or 3 deg. C and to prevent the occurrence of irreversible phenomena such as the melting of permafrost. To achieve these targets, climate experts construct scenarios estimating the changes in atmospheric concentrations of the different greenhouse gases, and determine the maximum levels that these concentrations should reach. Climate change policy targets are then set in terms of greenhouse gas emission reductions. In order to simplify the global assessment of the impact of emissions of these different greenhouse gases on global warming, the international community has adopted rules of equivalence to make it possible to take into account the emissions of non-CO_2 greenhouse gases within one single unit: the ton of CO_2 equivalent (t CO_2 eq). This is achieved by using the 'Global Warming Potential' (GWP) indicator which indicates the ratio of the respective climate impacts of a pulse emission of the greenhouse gas considered over a given period of time to a pulse emission of CO_2 of the same volume in the same year. A reference period of 100 years was defined and this means therefore that in terms of climate impacts, the emission of 1 ton of CH_4 is 'worth' the emission of 21 tons of CO_2. The study presented in this document shows that the widespread use of this equivalence to calculate not only past emissions, but also future emissions anticipated or emissions avoided over a period in the past or in the future, has led to the climate impact of CH_4 emissions being underestimated. This is because the GWP of CH_4 varies considerably depending on the period under consideration. This underestimation is accentuated even more if the respective impacts of avoided emissions of CO_2 and CH_4 are compared, either on a permanent basis or over a limited period of time. Thus

  10. Technical opportunities to reduce global anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winiwarter, Wilfried; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Klimont, Zbigniew; Schöpp, Wolfgang; Amann, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We describe a consistent framework developed to quantify current and future anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide and the available technical abatement options by source sector for 172 regions globally. About 65% of the current emissions derive from agricultural soils, 8% from waste, and 4% from the chemical industry. Low-cost abatement options are available in industry, wastewater, and agriculture, where they are limited to large industrial farms. We estimate that by 2030, emissions can be reduced by about 6% ±2% applying abatement options at a cost lower than 10 €/t CO2-eq. The largest abatement potential at higher marginal costs is available from agricultural soils, employing precision fertilizer application technology as well as chemical treatment of fertilizers to suppress conversion processes in soil (nitrification inhibitors). At marginal costs of up to 100 €/t CO2-eq, about 18% ±6% of baseline emissions can be removed and when considering all available options, the global abatement potential increases to about 26% ±9%. Due to expected future increase in activities driving nitrous oxide emissions, the limited technical abatement potential available means that even at full implementation of reduction measures by 2030, global emissions can be at most stabilized at the pre-2010 level. In order to achieve deeper reductions in emissions, considerable technological development will be required as well as non-technical options like adjusting human diets towards moderate animal protein consumption.

  11. A carbon tax to reduce CO2 emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Paola; Botteon, Michele; Carraro, Carlo

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of introducing a tax on carbon dioxide emissions produced by combustion processes in OECD-European countries. A sectoral model of energy consumption is constructed to examine energy-saving and inter-fuel substitution effects induced by the introduction of various carbon taxes. The simulation period is 1989-94. Our results provide a mild support to the environmental role of a carbon tax. Energy-saving or inter-fuel substitution processes, that result from the introduction of environmental taxation, stabilize emissions at the 1988 level only in the electricity generation sector, and only if high tax rates are assumed ($100/ton.C). By contrast, total emissions (all sectors and all fuels) keep growing, and the implementation of a tax of $100/ton.C can only reduce the emission growth rate. (Author)

  12. Online Traffic Signal Control for Reducing Vehicle Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Toshihiko; Otokita, Tohru; Niikura, Satoshi

    In Japan, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by vehicles have been increasing year by year and it is well known that CO2 causes a serious global warming problem. For urban traffic control systems, there is a great demand for realization of signal control measures as soon as possible due to the urgency of the recent environmental situation. This paper describes a new traffic signal control for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions on an arterial road. First, we develop a model for estimating the emissions using the traffic delay and the number of stops a driver makes. Second, to find the optimal control parameters, we introduce a random search method with rapid convergence suitable for an online traffic control. We conduct experiments in Kawasaki to verify the effectiveness of our method. The experiments show that our approach decreases not only the emissions but also congestion and travel time significantly, compared to the method implemented in the real system.

  13. Multidisciplinary Conceptual Design for Reduced-Emission Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher; Johnson, Wayne; Solis, Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Python-based wrappers for OpenMDAO are used to integrate disparate software for practical conceptual design of rotorcraft. The suite of tools which are connected thus far include aircraft sizing, comprehensive analysis, and parametric geometry. The tools are exercised to design aircraft with aggressive goals for emission reductions relative to fielded state-of-the-art rotorcraft. Several advanced reduced-emission rotorcraft are designed and analyzed, demonstrating the flexibility of the tools to consider a wide variety of potentially transformative vertical flight vehicles. To explore scale effects, aircraft have been sized for 5, 24, or 76 passengers in their design missions. Aircraft types evaluated include tiltrotor, single-main-rotor, coaxial, and side-by-side helicopters. Energy and drive systems modeled include Lithium-ion battery, hydrogen fuel cell, turboelectric hybrid, and turboshaft drive systems. Observations include the complex nature of the trade space for this simple problem, with many potential aircraft design and operational solutions for achieving significant emission reductions. Also interesting is that achieving greatly reduced emissions may not require exotic component technologies, but may be achieved with a dedicated design objective of reducing emissions.

  14. Note: A new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu-Rong

    2018-03-01

    The sampling jitter noise is one non-negligible noise source of the digital phasemeter used for space gravitational wave detection missions. This note provides a new method for directly reducing the sampling jitter noise of the digital phasemeter, by adding a dedicated signal of which the frequency, amplitude, and initial phase should be pre-set. In contrast to the phase correction using the pilot-tone in the work of Burnett, Gerberding et al., Liang et al., Ales et al., Gerberding et al., and Ware et al. [M.Sc. thesis, Luleå University of Technology, 2010; Classical Quantum Gravity 30, 235029 (2013); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 016106 (2015); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 084502 (2015); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 074501 (2015); and Proceedings of the Earth Science Technology Conference (NASA, USA, 2006)], the new method is intrinsically additive noise suppression. The experiment results validate that the new method directly reduces the sampling jitter noise without data post-processing and provides the same phase measurement noise level (10-6 rad/Hz1/2 at 0.1 Hz) as the pilot-tone correction.

  15. Enhanced Thermionic Emission and Low 1/f Noise in Exfoliated Graphene/GaN Schottky Barrier Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Kashid, Ranjit; Ghosh, Arindam; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Temperature-dependent electrical transport characteristics of exfoliated graphene/GaN Schottky diodes are investigated and compared with conventional Ni/GaN Schottky diodes. The ideality factor of graphene/GaN and Ni/GaN diodes are measured to be 1.33 and 1.51, respectively, which is suggestive of comparatively higher thermionic emission current in graphene/GaN diode. The barrier height values for graphene/GaN diode obtained using thermionic emission model and Richardson plots are found to be 0.60 and 0.72 eV, respectively, which are higher than predicted barrier height ∼0.40 eV as per the Schottky-Mott model. The higher barrier height is attributed to hole doping of graphene due to graphene-Au interaction which shifts the Fermi level in graphene by ∼0.3 eV. The magnitude of flicker noise of graphene/GaN Schottky diode increases up to 175 K followed by its decrease at higher temperatures. This indicates that diffusion currents and barrier inhomogeneities dominate the electronic transport at lower and higher temperatures, respectively. The exfoliated graphene/GaN diode is found to have lower level of barrier inhomogeneities than conventional Ni/GaN diode, as well as earlier reported graphene/GaN diode fabricated using chemical vapor deposited graphene. The lesser barrier inhomogeneities in graphene/GaN diode results in lower flicker noise by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to Ni/GaN diode. Enhanced thermionic emission current, lower level of inhomogeneities, and reduced flicker noise suggests that graphene-GaN Schottky diodes may have the underlying trend for replacing metal-GaN Schottky diodes.

  16. Reduced emissions from inexpensive high-sulphur coal briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Wachter, E.A.; Wade, J.; Wilson, D.L.; Haas, J.W.; Ahmad, N.; Siltain, F.; Raza, M.Z.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne emissions were measured during the combustion of Pakistani high-sulphur coal, cold briquetted with lime and clay; comparison was made to emissions from raw coal and traditional fuels burnt in a native, mud-lined Angethi stove. Compared to raw coal, the amended coal gave fourfold reduced emission of respirable-size particles (RSP) and threefold reduced total releases of SO 2 . In domestic cooking, substitution of the amended coal briquettes for traditional fuels will not worsen indoor air quality with respect to CO, SO 2 , NO x , and RSP. The high peak amounts of CO (100--250 ppm), SO 2 (2--5 ppm), and NO x (1--5 ppm) were limited to the early phase of burning. The high thermal value of the coal briquettes together with a simple briquetting technology, make this fuel an attractive energy alternative in countries that are underdeveloped, developing, or experiencing major restructuring

  17. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  18. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R. [Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  19. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  20. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  1. Damping Resonant Current in a Spark-Gap Trigger Circuit to Reduce Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    DAMPING RESONANT CURRENT IN A SPARK- GAP TRIGGER CIRCUIT TO REDUCE NOISE E. L. Ruden Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, AFRL...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Damping Resonant Current In A Spark- Gap Trigger Circuit To Reduce Noise 5a...thereby triggering 2 after delay 0, is 1. Each of the two rail- gaps (represented by 2) is trig- gered to close after the spark- gap (1) in the

  2. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  3. Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cassandra L; Woods, Noe C; Bilec, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    To determine the carbon footprint of various sustainability interventions used for laparoscopic hysterectomy. We designed interventions for laparoscopic hysterectomy from approaches that sustainable health care organizations advocate. We used a hybrid environmental life cycle assessment framework to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the proposed interventions. We conducted the study from September 2015 to December 2016 at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The largest carbon footprint savings came from selecting specific anesthetic gases and minimizing the materials used in surgery. Energy-related interventions resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon footprint per case but would result in larger savings for the whole facility. Commonly implemented approaches, such as recycling surgical waste, resulted in less than a 5% reduction in greenhouse gases. To reduce the environmental emissions of surgeries, health care providers need to implement a combination of approaches, including minimizing materials, moving away from certain heat-trapping anesthetic gases, maximizing instrument reuse or single-use device reprocessing, and reducing off-hour energy use in the operating room. These strategies can reduce the carbon footprint of an average laparoscopic hysterectomy by up to 80%. Recycling alone does very little to reduce environmental footprint. Public Health Implications. Health care services are a major source of environmental emissions and reducing their carbon footprint would improve environmental and human health. Facilities seeking to reduce environmental footprint should take a comprehensive systems approach to find safe and effective interventions and should identify and address policy barriers to implementing more sustainable practices.

  4. Compact, Lightweight, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Based Acoustic Liners for Reducing Subsonic Jet Aircraft Engine Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, J. Douglas; Grady, Joseph E.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Jones, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments have reduced fan and jet noise contributions to overall subsonic aircraft jet-engine noise. Now, aircraft designers are turning their attention toward reducing engine core noise. The NASA Glenn Research Center and NASA Langley Research Center have teamed to investigate the development of a compact, lightweight acoustic liner based on oxide/oxide ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials. The NASA team has built upon an existing oxide/oxide CMC sandwich structure concept that provides monotonal noise reduction. Oxide/oxide composites have good high temperature strength and oxidation resistance, which could allow them to perform as core liners at temperatures up to 1000C (1832F), and even higher depending on the selection of the composite constituents. NASA has initiated the evaluation of CMC-based liners that use cells of different lengths (variable-depth channels) or effective lengths to achieve broadband noise reduction. Reducing the overall liner thickness is also a major goal, to minimize the volume occupied by the liner. As a first step toward demonstrating the feasibility of our concepts, an oxide/oxide CMC acoustic testing article with different channel lengths was tested. Our approach, summary of test results, current status, and goals for the future are reported.

  5. Ascorbic acid reduces noise-induced nitric oxide production in the guinea pig ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulf-Rüdiger; Fischer, Ilka; Brieger, Jürgen; Rümelin, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Li, Huige; Mann, Wolf J; Helling, Kai

    2008-05-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused, among other causes, by increased nitric oxide (NO) production in the inner ear leading to nitroactive stress and cell destruction. Some studies in the literature suggest that the degree of hearing loss (HL) could be reduced in an animal model through ascorbic acid supplementation. To identify the effect of ascorbic acid on tissue-dependent NO content in the inner ear of the guinea pig, we determined the local NO production in the organ of Corti and the lateral wall separately 6 hours after noise exposure. Prospective animal study in guinea pigs. Over a period of 7 days, male guinea pigs were supplied with minimum (25 mg/kg body weight/day) and maximum (525 mg/kg body weight/day) ascorbic acid doses, and afterwards exposed to noise (90 dB sound pressure level for 1 hour). The acoustic-evoked potentials were recorded before and after noise exposure. The organ of Corti and the lateral wall were incubated differently for 6 hours in culture medium, and the degree of NO production was determined by chemiluminescence. Ascorbic acid treatment reduced the hearing threshold shift after noise exposure depending on concentration. When the maximum ascorbic acid dose was substituted, NO production was significantly reduced in the lateral wall after noise exposure and slightly reduced in the organ of Corti. Oral supplementation of the natural radical scavenger ascorbic acid reduces the NO-production rate in the inner ear in noisy conditions. This finding supports the concept of inner ear protection by ascorbic acid supplementation.

  6. Indian oil company joins efforts to reduce methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    The Oil and Natural Gas Corp, Ltd. (ONGC), headquartered in Dehradun, India, has joined seven U.S. and Canadian oil and natural gas companies as a partner in a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. EPA's Natural Gas STAR International Program aims to reduce methane emissions from the oil and natural gas sector while delivering more gas to markets around the world. With this partnership, ONGC agrees to implement emissions reduction practices and to submit annual reports on progress achieved; EPA agrees to assist ONGC with training technicians in new cost-effective technologies that will help achieve target emissions. The Natural Gas STAR International Program is administered under the Methane to Markets Partnership, a group of 20 countries and 600 companies across the globe that since 2004 has volunteered to cut methane emissions. More information on EPA's agreement with ONGC can be found at http://www.epa.gov/gasstar/index.htm; information about the Methane to Markets Partnership can be found at http://www.methanetomarkets.org.

  7. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  8. Dynamic visual noise reduces confidence in short-term memory for visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Andrade, Jackie

    2012-05-01

    Previous research has shown effects of the visual interference technique, dynamic visual noise (DVN), on visual imagery, but not on visual short-term memory, unless retention of precise visual detail is required. This study tested the prediction that DVN does also affect retention of gross visual information, specifically by reducing confidence. Participants performed a matrix pattern memory task with three retention interval interference conditions (DVN, static visual noise and no interference control) that varied from trial to trial. At recall, participants indicated whether or not they were sure of their responses. As in previous research, DVN did not impair recall accuracy or latency on the task, but it did reduce recall confidence relative to static visual noise and no interference. We conclude that DVN does distort visual representations in short-term memory, but standard coarse-grained recall measures are insensitive to these distortions.

  9. New NOx cleansing technology can reduce industry emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Norwegian, Bergen-based company ECO Energy has recently launched a new cleaning technology halving NO x emissions from industry plants without requiring large investments. Thus, governmental promises to finance NO x cleaning equipment for Norwegian industry have become less expensive to reach. ECO Energy has ensured world patent on the 'stopNOx' technology. Its method consists of adding water and urea to oil before the combustion process. The technology has been applied in Italy, reducing NO x emissions from industry in average with above 50 percent (ml)

  10. Evaluation of complementary technologies to reduce bio engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, J.H.

    2003-09-01

    This report summaries the results of a study examining the technical and economic feasibility of exhaust gas treatment technologies for reducing emissions from diesel engines burning pyrolysis oil to within internationally recognised limits. Details are given of the burning of pyrolysis oils in reciprocating engines, the reviewing of information on pyrolysis oils and engines, and the aim to produce detailed information for securing investment for a British funded diesel project. The burning of the pyrolysis oils in an oxygen-rich atmosphere to allow efficient combustion with acceptable exhaust emission limits is discussed along with the problems caused by the deterioration of the injection system.

  11. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Rivers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth. That’s because many of those same analyses show that in order to reach emissions targets, the price on carbon would have to be so punitive as to be politically unbearable, raising the price of gasoline, for example, by about a dollar a litre. That leads politicians to mix in other policies that are less visible to the consumer but also less efficient, less effective and more expensive in abating carbon dioxide. The recently negotiated Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change intends to follow that model, relying on a blend of different policies to help reach Canada’s Paris climate targets. But while the government seems therefore determined to rule out the possibility of a nothing-but-a-carbon-tax plan, it is possible, through the careful application of just the right sort of emission-reduction approaches, to reduce the costs of abatement in a key policy target — namely, road transportation — to a level that at least approaches the lower cost of a carbon tax. The government will likely consider several options in trying to reduce emissions from road transportation. Typical tools include requiring manufacturers to meet standards for new vehicles that mandate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions; gasoline taxes; taxes on emissions-intensive vehicles; subsidies for low-emission or zero-emission vehicles; and subsidies for public transit. Indications are that a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS will play a significant role in the Pan

  12. A novel approach to reduce environmental noise in microgravity measurements using a Scintrex CG5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Atkins, Phillip; Rodgers, Anthony; Metje, Nicole; Goncharenko, Yuriy; Chapman, David

    2018-05-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of microgravity measurements for surveying purposes are affected by two main sources of noise; instrument noise from the sensor and electronics, and environmental sources of noise from anthropogenic activity, wind, microseismic activity and other sources of vibrational noise. There is little information in the literature on the quantitative values of these different noise sources and their significance for microgravity measurements. Experiments were conducted to quantify these sources of noise with multiple instruments, and to develop methodologies to reduce these unwanted signals thereby improving the accuracy or speed of microgravity measurements. External environmental sources of noise were found to be concentrated at higher frequencies (> 0.1 Hz), well within the instrument's bandwidth. In contrast, the internal instrumental noise was dominant at frequencies much lower than the reciprocal of the maximum integration time, and was identified as the limiting factor for current instruments. The optimum time for integration was found to be between 120 and 150 s for the instruments tested. In order to reduce the effects of external environmental noise on microgravity measurements, a filtering and despiking technique was created using data from noisy environments next to a main road and outside on a windy day. The technique showed a significant improvement in the repeatability of measurements, with between 40% and 50% lower standard deviations being obtained over numerous different data sets. The filtering technique was then tested in field conditions by using an anomaly of known size, and a comparison made between different filtering methods. Results showed improvements with the proposed method performing better than a conventional, or boxcar, averaging process. The proposed despiking process was generally found to be ineffective, with greater gains obtained when complete measurement records were discarded. Field survey results were

  13. Stability investigations of the ASDEX feedback system with filters for reducing thyristor noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisanti, F.; Schneider, F.

    1983-06-01

    A computer program for analysing the absolute and relative stabilities of any complex system by the root-locus method was developed. It is used to reanalyse the present horizontal position feed-back control in the ASDEX tokamak and to select the optimum parameters for this system with RCL filters for reducing thyristor noise. (orig.)

  14. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  15. UK company strategies in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Bentley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated a number of large UK companies’ strategies in reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2 in their supply chain operations. In-depth interviews were conducted with logistics/supply chain (SC managers across different sectors. The research identified the main CO2 reduction strategies, and examined these in the light of existing literature in the research domain. One of the key findings was that there was a strong tension between cost reduction (identified as the major driver for reducing CO2 and lack of resources (the main barrier. It was also found that most CO2 reduction strategies had started only fairly recently, and so far, were mainly operational and tactical in nature. This study makes an empirical contribution to a better understanding of how companies form their CO2 reduction strategies in response to environmental pressures. It has implications for policy makers in terms of how to motivate logistics/SC managers to implement strategies to reduce the environmental impact of CO2 emissions in their business operations. Therefore, it is recommended that logistics/SC managers develop and implement practical initiatives and strategies to reduce CO2 emissions, and to embed these into corporate strategy.

  16. Experimental Research into Noise Emission of A Gear Micropump with Plastic Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, L. V.; Rekadze, P. D.

    2018-01-01

    The previous researches show that it’s possible to replace several parts of gear pump to plastic ones. This substitution leads to cost and noise reduction of the pump. Therefore, the series of acoustic experiments on a test bench were carry-out. Sound pressure levels were recorded with microphone, located in a pipe made of a vacuum rubber. Conducted experiment shows that acoustic characteristics of the micropump depend on the different material of driven rotor. Experimental result indicates that the proposed measures for replacing metal rotor to plastic one reduce micropump noise on the studied modes. The maximum achieved acoustic efficiency on equivalent level is 11 dB.

  17. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Economics of reducing CO2 emissions from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongxin

    1991-01-01

    Relative to the nations of the industrialized world, developing countries emit far lower levels of CO 2 per capita. In coming years, however, as the developing world experiences more rapid rates of economic and population growth, their carbon emissions per capita inevitably will rise. Therefore, developing countries should be encouraged both to adopt more advanced energy technologies in order to improve the efficiency of energy exploration, transportation, generation and end-use and to replace carbon-intensive fuels sources with less carbon-intensive sources (non-fossil fuels and renewable energy). By incorporating methods aimed at curtailing carbon emissions into their energy development strategies, developing nations can reduce the risks posed by higher CO 2 emissions. However, adopting more advanced energy technologies generally entails high costs. These higher prices serve as a particularly large obstacle for developing nations. In order to serve the common interest of protecting the global environment, international funds should be devoted to cover the high costs of reducing developing world CO 2 emissions

  20. Scanning tunnelling microscope light emission: Finite temperature current noise and over cut-off emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J

    2017-06-14

    The spectral distribution of light emitted from a scanning tunnelling microscope junction not only bears its intrinsic plasmonic signature but is also imprinted with the characteristics of optical frequency fluc- tuations of the tunnel current. Experimental spectra from gold-gold tunnel junctions are presented that show a strong bias (V b ) dependence, curiously with emission at energies higher than the quantum cut-off (eV b ); a component that decays monotonically with increasing bias. The spectral evolution is explained by developing a theoretical model for the power spectral density of tunnel current fluctuations, incorporating finite temperature contribution through consideration of the quantum transport in the system. Notably, the observed decay of the over cut-off emission is found to be critically associated with, and well explained in terms of the variation in junction conductance with V b . The investigation highlights the scope of plasmon-mediated light emission as a unique probe of high frequency fluctuations in electronic systems that are fundamental to the electrical generation and control of plasmons.

  1. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  3. Hand-held dynamic visual noise reduces naturally occurring food cravings and craving-related consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2013-09-01

    This study demonstrated the applicability of the well-established laboratory task, dynamic visual noise, as a technique for reducing naturally occurring food cravings and subsequent food intake. Dynamic visual noise was delivered on a hand-held computer device. Its effects were assessed within the context of a diary study. Over a 4-week period, 48 undergraduate women recorded their food cravings and consumption. Following a 2-week baseline, half the participants watched the dynamic visual noise display whenever they experienced a food craving. Compared to a control group, these participants reported less intense cravings. They were also less likely to eat following a craving and consequently consumed fewer total calories following craving. These findings hold promise for curbing unwanted food cravings and craving-driven consumption in real-world settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Signal Amplification Technique (SAT): an approach for improving resolution and reducing image noise in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, M.E.; Huang, S.C.; Hoffman, E.J.; Plummer, D.; Carson, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spatial resolution improvements in computed tomography (CT) have been limited by the large and unique error propagation properties of this technique. The desire to provide maximum image resolution has resulted in the use of reconstruction filter functions designed to produce tomographic images with resolution as close as possible to the intrinsic detector resolution. Thus, many CT systems produce images with excessive noise with the system resolution determined by the detector resolution rather than the reconstruction algorithm. CT is a rigorous mathematical technique which applies an increasing amplification to increasing spatial frequencies in the measured data. This mathematical approach to spatial frequency amplification cannot distinguish between signal and noise and therefore both are amplified equally. We report here a method in which tomographic resolution is improved by using very small detectors to selectively amplify the signal and not noise. Thus, this approach is referred to as the signal amplification technique (SAT). SAT can provide dramatic improvements in image resolution without increases in statistical noise or dose because increases in the cutoff frequency of the reconstruction algorithm are not required to improve image resolution. Alternatively, in cases where image counts are low, such as in rapid dynamic or receptor studies, statistical noise can be reduced by lowering the cutoff frequency while still maintaining the best possible image resolution. A possible system design for a positron CT system with SAT is described

  5. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  6. Audiologic and otoacoustic emission evaluation in individuals exposed to noise and plaguecides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morini, Renata Graziele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The noise induced hearing loss (NIHL has been studied for many years and today the specialized literature also studies the synergic action of chemicals. Objective: To research the audiologic findings and DPOAE in workers exposed to occupational noise and plaguecides and to compare them with data obtained in individuals without exposure to these harmful elements. Method: 51 individuals were evaluated (102 ears, divided into three groups. Group I was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides, all with neurosensorial auditory loss; group II was composed by 17 workers with exposure to noise and plaguecides with audiometric thresholds within normality standards (up to 25 dBNA and group III by 17 healthy individuals without auditory alterations and without exposure to noise and plaguecides, control group. Results: In the audiologic anamnesis, as for groups I and II, we observed that the main auditory complaints presented by the workers were those of recruitment (29.5%, tinnitus (26.5%, allergy (23.5% and arterial hypertension (12%. The findings of the audiometry appointed that the research's individuals did not present with auditory losses in the frequencies of 500 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz, the losses occurred in the frequencies of 3 and 8 kHz. As for the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs, we observed that the individuals in group III had a major incidence of responses when compared to those of groups I and II. Conclusion: The results analysis allowed us to conclude that the DPOAE test represents an important tool for follow up and prevention of NIHL.

  7. Surface trapping phenomena in thermionic emission generating l/f noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanescu, A.

    1975-01-01

    A general expression of the power spectrum of''flicker noise'', involving stochastic trapping phenomena and calculated on the basis of a two parameter model, is applied in the case of thermoionic emission from cathode surface. The fluctuation of the work function over the cathode surface is interpreted as being due to a trapping process of foreign atoms by the cathode. Taking into account the very physical nature of the trapping mechanism, under self-consistent assumptions, a 1/f power spectrum is obtained in a certain range of frequency. The two parameter model removes some discrepancies involved in the preceding theories. (author)

  8. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces; determination of emissions and emission reducing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 382.000 t of wood waste from production processes are fired in Baden-Wuerttemberg per year in 4345 furnaces with capacities of less than 1 MW (field of application of the ''1 BImSchV''). This corresponds to an energy consumption of 5600 TJ. The firings with a totally installed capacity of 594 MW are operated mainly by joiners, carpenters, in sawmills and furniture factories. Certainly there are typical differences between the diverse branches concerning the characteristics of the firings such as capacity, kind of firing, of fuel supply and heat generation. Because of lacking established emission factors, at present time the emissions of these furnaces cannot be calculated. Therefore field measurements are carried out at a representative selection of the registered installations. The emissions are measured in consideration of the usual ways of operation and the commonly used fuels. Supplementarily the compound of the emitted hydrocarbons and their dependence on completeness of the combustion as well as the compound and the grain size distribution of the particle emissions are investigated. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of discharge duct geometry on centrifugal fan performance and noise emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Butrymowicz, William; Thomas, Christopher

    2005-09-01

    Non-ideal inlet and discharge duct geometries can cause significant changes to both the aerodynamic performance (``fan curve'') and specific sound power emission of a fan. A proper understanding of actual installed performance, as well as a good estimate of the system backpressure curve, is critical to achieving flow and acoustic goals as well as other criteria such as power consumption, mass and volume. To this end a battery of ISO 10302 tests was performed on a blower assembly which supports the Advanced Animal Habitat, being developed by ORBITEC for deployment on the International Space Station. The blower assembly consists of (4) identical centrifugal fans that, amongst themselves and across two prototypes, incorporated several discharge geometries. The inlet geometries were identical in all cases. Thus by comparing the dimensionless pressure-flow and noise emission characteristics across the cases, significant insight into the nature and potential magnitude of these effects is gained.

  10. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Miscanthus harvested in April resulted in an emission reduction of 447 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 , growing Miscanthus for harvest in November gave a reduction of 355 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 , and growing triticale gave a reduction of 265 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 . Hence, taking nitrous oxide emissions, C sequestration and energy use into account slightly reduced the value of triticale, but significantly increased the value of Miscanthus as a CO 2 mitigation option. (au)

  11. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  12. Research concepts to reduce CO2 emissions at technical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geigle, K.P.; Lammel, O.; Kutne, P.; Schutz, H.; Luckerath, R.; Aigner, M.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are thought to contribute to climate change and therefore, there is a significant motivation for current gas turbine burner development to reduce those emissions. In order to support burner development, the German Aerospace Center (DLR) utilizes high pressure testing in combination with optical diagnostics enabled by good optical access and numerical simulation. This paper discussed 3 primary activities on CO 2 reduction that have been accomplished recently, notably the simulation of burner development based on the flameless oxidation concept, characterization of syngas combustion behaviour and studying parameters influencing oxyfuel combustion. Enhanced FLOX burner development and flameless oxidation were illustrated and an experimental realization of DLR FLOX burner V1 for operation up to 30 bars was discussed. Several experiments were illustrated and outlined. Computational fluid dynamics and other simulation models were presented. It was concluded that optical diagnostics applicable to high pressure combustion and numerical simulation proved to be extremely helpful for design optimization. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  15. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng, E-mail: yxu06@syr.edu [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States); Schmidtlein, C. Ross [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Vogelsang, Levon [Carestream Health, Rochester, New York 14608 (United States); Shen, Lixin [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Science, School of Mathematics and Computational Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China and Department of Mathematics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: The authors have recently developed a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) with total variation (TV) regularizer for solving the penalized-likelihood optimization model for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. This algorithm belongs to a novel class of fixed-point proximity methods. The goal of this work is to investigate how PAPA performs while dealing with realistic noisy SPECT data, to compare its performance with more conventional methods, and to address issues with TV artifacts by proposing a novel form of the algorithm invoking high-order TV regularization, denoted as HOTV-PAPA, which has been explored and studied extensively in the present work. Methods: Using Monte Carlo methods, the authors simulate noisy SPECT data from two water cylinders; one contains lumpy “warm” background and “hot” lesions of various sizes with Gaussian activity distribution, and the other is a reference cylinder without hot lesions. The authors study the performance of HOTV-PAPA and compare it with PAPA using first-order TV regularization (TV-PAPA), the Panin–Zeng–Gullberg one-step-late method with TV regularization (TV-OSL), and an expectation–maximization algorithm with Gaussian postfilter (GPF-EM). The authors select penalty-weights (hyperparameters) by qualitatively balancing the trade-off between resolution and image noise separately for TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. However, the authors arrived at the same penalty-weight value for both of them. The authors set the first penalty-weight in HOTV-PAPA equal to the optimal penalty-weight found for TV-PAPA. The second penalty-weight needed for HOTV-PAPA is tuned by balancing resolution and the severity of staircase artifacts. The authors adjust the Gaussian postfilter to approximately match the local point spread function of GPF-EM and HOTV-PAPA. The authors examine hot lesion detectability, study local spatial resolution, analyze background noise properties, estimate mean

  16. Effective noise-suppressed and artifact-reduced reconstruction of SPECT data using a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Si; Xu, Yuesheng; Zhang, Jiahan; Lipson, Edward; Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Vogelsang, Levon; Shen, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have recently developed a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) with total variation (TV) regularizer for solving the penalized-likelihood optimization model for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction. This algorithm belongs to a novel class of fixed-point proximity methods. The goal of this work is to investigate how PAPA performs while dealing with realistic noisy SPECT data, to compare its performance with more conventional methods, and to address issues with TV artifacts by proposing a novel form of the algorithm invoking high-order TV regularization, denoted as HOTV-PAPA, which has been explored and studied extensively in the present work. Methods: Using Monte Carlo methods, the authors simulate noisy SPECT data from two water cylinders; one contains lumpy “warm” background and “hot” lesions of various sizes with Gaussian activity distribution, and the other is a reference cylinder without hot lesions. The authors study the performance of HOTV-PAPA and compare it with PAPA using first-order TV regularization (TV-PAPA), the Panin–Zeng–Gullberg one-step-late method with TV regularization (TV-OSL), and an expectation–maximization algorithm with Gaussian postfilter (GPF-EM). The authors select penalty-weights (hyperparameters) by qualitatively balancing the trade-off between resolution and image noise separately for TV-PAPA and TV-OSL. However, the authors arrived at the same penalty-weight value for both of them. The authors set the first penalty-weight in HOTV-PAPA equal to the optimal penalty-weight found for TV-PAPA. The second penalty-weight needed for HOTV-PAPA is tuned by balancing resolution and the severity of staircase artifacts. The authors adjust the Gaussian postfilter to approximately match the local point spread function of GPF-EM and HOTV-PAPA. The authors examine hot lesion detectability, study local spatial resolution, analyze background noise properties, estimate mean

  17. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  18. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  19. Can a unilateral carbon tax reduce emissions elsewhere?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Joshua [Chicago Univ., IL (United States); Fullerton, Don [Illinois Univ., Champaign, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    One country that tries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions may fear that other countries get a competitive advantage and increase emissions (''leakage''). Estimates from computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Elliott et al (2010a,b) indicate that 15% to 25% of abatement might be offset by leakage. Yet the Fullerton et al (2012) analytical general equilibrium model shows an offsetting term with negative leakage. To derive analytical expressions, their model is quite simple, with only one good from each country or sector, a fixed stock of capital, competitive markets, and many identical consumers that purchase both goods. Their model is not intended to be realistic, but only to demonstrate the potential for negative leakage. Most CGE models do not allow for negative leakage. In this paper, we use a full CGE model with many countries and many goods to measure effects in a way that allows for negative leakage. We vary elasticities of substitution and confirm the analytical model's prediction that negative leakage depends on the ability of consumers to substitute into the untaxed good and the ability of firms to substitute from carbon emissions into labor or capital.

  20. Estimating the opportunity costs of reducing carbon dioxide emissions via avoided deforestation, using integrated assessment modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overmars, K.P.; Stehfest, E.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Beltran, A.M.; Kram, T.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates show that, in recent years, deforestation and forest degradation accounted for about 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries) is suggested to provide substantial emission

  1. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Xie, Hui [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Wolska, Beata M. [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Cardiovascular Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K. [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Vidovich, Mladen I., E-mail: miv@uic.edu [Department of Veterans Affairs, Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm{sup 2}). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm{sup 2} ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image-noise

  2. Image noise reduction technology reduces radiation in a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunja, Ateka; Pandey, Yagya; Xie, Hui; Wolska, Beata M.; Shroff, Adhir R.; Ardati, Amer K.; Vidovich, Mladen I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transradial coronary angiography (TRA) has been associated with increased radiation doses. We hypothesized that contemporary image noise reduction technology would reduce radiation doses in the cardiac catheterization laboratory in a typical clinical setting. Methods and results: We performed a single-center, retrospective analysis of 400 consecutive patients who underwent diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterizations in a predominantly TRA laboratory with traditional fluoroscopy (N = 200) and a new image noise reduction fluoroscopy system (N = 200). The primary endpoint was radiation dose (mGy cm"2). Secondary endpoints were contrast dose, fluoroscopy times, number of cineangiograms, and radiation dose by operator between the two study periods. Radiation was reduced by 44.7% between the old and new cardiac catheterization laboratory (75.8 mGy cm"2 ± 74.0 vs. 41.9 mGy cm"2 ± 40.7, p < 0.0001). Radiation was reduced for both diagnostic procedures (45.9%, p < 0.0001) and interventional procedures (37.7%, p < 0.0001). There was no statistically significant difference in radiation dose between individual operators (p = 0.84). In multivariate analysis, radiation dose remained significantly decreased with the use of the new system (p < 0.0001) and was associated with weight (p < 0.0001), previous coronary artery bypass grafting (p < 0.0007) and greater than 3 stents used (p < 0.0004). TRA was used in 90% of all cases in both periods. Compared with a transfemoral approach (TFA), TRA was not associated with higher radiation doses (p = 0.20). Conclusions: Image noise reduction technology significantly reduces radiation dose in a contemporary radial-first cardiac catheterization clinical practice. - Highlights: • Radial arterial access has been associated with higher doses compared to femoral access. • In a radial-first cardiac catheterization laboratory (90% radial) we examined radiation doses reduction with a contemporary image-noise compared to

  3. Possibility of reducing CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dawid; Mamala, Jarosław; Śmieja, Michał; Prażnowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Article defines on the possibility of reduction CO2 of the internal combustion engine and presents the analysis based on originally conducted studies. The increase in overall engine efficiency is sought after by all engineers dealing with engine construction, one of the major ways to reduce CO2 emissions is to increase the compression ratio. The application of the compression ratio that has been increased constructional in the engine will, on one hand, bring about the increase in the theoretical efficiency, but, on the other hand, require a system for pressure control at a higher engine load in order to prevent engine knocking. For the purposes of the article there was carried out a number of studies and compiled results, and on their basis determined what have a major impact on the reducing CO2.

  4. Reducing Brain Signal Noise in the Prediction of Economic Choices: A Case Study in Neuroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raanju R. Sundararajan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the noise of brain signals, neuroeconomic experiments typically aggregate data from hundreds of trials collected from a few individuals. This contrasts with the principle of simple and controlled designs in experimental and behavioral economics. We use a frequency domain variant of the stationary subspace analysis (SSA technique, denoted as DSSA, to filter out the noise (nonstationary sources in EEG brain signals. The nonstationary sources in the brain signal are associated with variations in the mental state that are unrelated to the experimental task. DSSA is a powerful tool for reducing the number of trials needed from each participant in neuroeconomic experiments and also for improving the prediction performance of an economic choice task. For a single trial, when DSSA is used as a noise reduction technique, the prediction model in a food snack choice experiment has an increase in overall accuracy by around 10% and in sensitivity and specificity by around 20% and in AUC by around 30%, respectively.

  5. Novel precision enhancement algorithm with reduced image noise in cosmic muon tomography applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sangkyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new algorithm that improves muon-based generated tomography images with increased precision and reduced image noise applicable to the detection of nuclear materials. Cosmic muon tomography is an interrogation-based imaging technique that, over the last decade, has been frequently employed for the detection of high-Z materials. This technique exploits a magnitude of cosmic muon scattering angles in order to construct an image. The scattering angles of the muons striking the geometry of interest are non-uniform, as cosmic muons vary in energy. The randomness of the scattering angles leads to significant noise in the muon tomography image. GEANT4 is used to numerically create data on the momenta and positions of scattered muons in a predefined geometry that includes high-Z materials. The numerically generated information is then processed with the point of closest approach reconstruction method to construct a muon tomography image; statistical filters are then developed to refine the point of closest approach reconstructed images. The filtered images exhibit reduced noise and enhanced precision when attempting to identify the presence of high-Z materials. The average precision from the point of closest approach reconstruction method is 13 %; for the integrated method, 88 %. The filtered image, therefore, results in a seven-fold improvement in precision compared to the point of closest approach reconstructed image.

  6. On Certain New Methodology for Reducing Sensor and Readout Electronics Circuitry Noise in Digital Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Miko, Joseph; Bradley, Damon; Heinzen, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and upcoming cosmology science missions carry instruments with multiple focal planes populated with many large sensor detector arrays. These sensors are passively cooled to low temperatures for low-level light (L3) and near-infrared (NIR) signal detection, and the sensor readout electronics circuitry must perform at extremely low noise levels to enable new required science measurements. Because we are at the technological edge of enhanced performance for sensors and readout electronics circuitry, as determined by thermal noise level at given temperature in analog domain, we must find new ways of further compensating for the noise in the signal digital domain. To facilitate this new approach, state-of-the-art sensors are augmented at their array hardware boundaries by non-illuminated reference pixels, which can be used to reduce noise attributed to sensors. There are a few proposed methodologies of processing in the digital domain the information carried by reference pixels, as employed by the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope Projects. These methods involve using spatial and temporal statistical parameters derived from boundary reference pixel information to enhance the active (non-reference) pixel signals. To make a step beyond this heritage methodology, we apply the NASA-developed technology known as the Hilbert- Huang Transform Data Processing System (HHT-DPS) for reference pixel information processing and its utilization in reconfigurable hardware on-board a spaceflight instrument or post-processing on the ground. The methodology examines signal processing for a 2-D domain, in which high-variance components of the thermal noise are carried by both active and reference pixels, similar to that in processing of low-voltage differential signals and subtraction of a single analog reference pixel from all active pixels on the sensor. Heritage methods using the aforementioned statistical parameters in the

  7. Acoustic emissions of digital data video projectors- Investigating noise sources and their change during product aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael Shane

    2005-09-01

    Acoustic emission testing continues to be a growing part of IT and telecommunication product design, as product noise is increasingly becoming a differentiator in the marketplace. This is especially true for digital/video display companies, such as InFocus Corporation, considering the market shift of these products to the home entertainment consumer as retail prices drop and performance factors increase. Projectors and displays using Digital Light Processing(tm) [DLP(tm)] technology incorporate a device known as a ColorWheel(tm) to generate the colors displayed at each pixel in the image. These ColorWheel(tm) devices spin at very high speeds and can generate high-frequency tones not typically heard in liquid crystal displays and other display technologies. Also, acoustic emission testing typically occurs at the beginning of product life and is a measure of acoustic energy emitted at this point in the lifecycle. Since the product is designed to be used over a long period of time, there is concern as to whether the acoustic emissions change over the lifecycle of the product, whether these changes will result in a level of nuisance to the average customer, and does this nuisance begin to develop prior to the intended lifetime of the product.

  8. Low-noise heterodyne receiver for electron cyclotron emission imaging and microwave imaging reflectometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, B., E-mail: bjtobias@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Luo, C.; Mamidanna, M.; Phan, T.; Pham, A.-V.; Wang, Y. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The critical component enabling electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) to resolve 2D and 3D electron temperature and density perturbations is the heterodyne imaging array that collects and downconverts radiated emission and/or reflected signals (50–150 GHz) to an intermediate frequency (IF) band (e.g. 0.1–18 GHz) that can be transmitted by a shielded coaxial cable for further filtering and detection. New circuitry has been developed for this task, integrating gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) mounted on a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrate. The improved topology significantly increases electromagnetic shielding from out-of-band interference, leads to 10× improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio, and dramatic cost savings through integration. The current design, optimized for reflectometry and edge radiometry on mid-sized tokamaks, has demonstrated >20 dB conversion gain in upper V-band (60-75 GHz). Implementation of the circuit in a multi-channel electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) array will improve the diagnosis of edge-localized modes and fluctuations of the high-confinement, or H-mode, pedestal.

  9. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío; López Pumarega, María Isabel; Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo; Pochettino, Alberto; Ruzzante, José

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier - Highlights: • MBN and MAE studied in nuclear power pressure vessel steel. • Comparison with macro graphic study of sulfides and texture analysis of the material. • Connections with magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of material. • Plastic flow direction different from the forging direction indicated.

  10. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío, E-mail: neyra@cnea.gov.ar [IT Sabato, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, UNSAM, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional UTN, Regional Delta, Buenos Aires (Argentina); López Pumarega, María Isabel, E-mail: lopezpum@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo, E-mail: nnunez@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pochettino, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.poch@gmail.com [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental (3iA), Campus Miguelete, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, 1650 San Martín Argentina (Argentina); Ruzzante, José, E-mail: ruzzante@gmail.com [Universidad Tecnológica Nacional UTN, Regional Delta, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero UNTREF, Caseros, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Chilecito, UNdeC, La Rioja (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier - Highlights: • MBN and MAE studied in nuclear power pressure vessel steel. • Comparison with macro graphic study of sulfides and texture analysis of the material. • Connections with magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of material. • Plastic flow direction different from the forging direction indicated.

  11. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  12. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: Visual attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

  13. Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigley, T M.L. [University of East Anglia, Norwich (UK). Climatic Research Unit

    1991-02-07

    When fossil fuel is burned, both carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide are added to the atmosphere. The former should cause warming of the lower atmosphere by enhancing the greenhouse effect, whereas the latter, by producing sulphate aerosols, may cause a cooling effect. The possibility that these two processes could offset each other was suggested many years ago but during most of the intervening period, attention has focused on the greenhouse effect. Interest in tropospheric aerosols has, however, recently been rekindled by the realization that they may influence climate, not only through clear-sky radiative effects, but also by modifying cloud albedo. The author examines the sensitivity of the climate system to simultaneous changes in SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions, as might occur if controls were imposed on fossil-fuel use. Over the next 10-30 years, it is conceivable that the increased radiative forcing due to SO{sub 2} concentration changes could more than offset reductions in radiative forcing due to reduced CO{sub 2} emissions. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Use of natural gas as a contribution to reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrovski, Dame [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Dimeski, Goran [Toplifikacija Inzhenering AD, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Air quality is one of the conditions that affect both humans health also extend to natural ecosystems, stratospheric ozone, biosphere, changing weather conditions and climate. Imbalance in the atmosphere, the appearance of the greenhouse effect, as well as damage the ozone layer is due to the release of large amounts of polluting substances, which give the effect of acidification and ruin the biosphere, soil and affect others. Pollutants emitted into the air from various sources, mix it, and transported on greater distances and affect on air quality. The polluting substances emitted and remain part of the troposphere that is one part of the air that people breathe, with negative effect on human health, especially respiratory. Given the rapid growth of the industry and the growing need for energy, it is necessary to consider the possibilities for the application of alternative fuels as a proposal to reduce emissions. This paper is considered part of the urban area and thus created a comparative analysis of the work of one plant (which is mainly supplying the area with heat energy), in terms of the type of fuel and related emissions. Also consider the possibility and benefits of the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel to meet the needs of households. Prepared analysis is presented also with the benefits of replacing the electrical and thermal energy (taken from the district heating system) with the use of natural gas as energy terms, and the financial and environmental. (Author)

  15. Reducing CO2 Emissions through Lightweight Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Mark A.; Allwood, Julian M.; Milford, Rachel L.

    2011-05-01

    To meet targeted 50% reductions in industrial CO2 emissions by 2050, demand for steel and aluminium must be cut. Many steel and aluminium products include redundant material, and the manufacturing routes to produce them use more material than is necessary. Lightweight design and optimized manufacturing processes offer a means of demand reduction, whilst creating products to perform the same service as existing ones. This paper examines two strategies for demand reduction: lightweight product design; and minimizing yield losses through the product supply chain. Possible mass savings are estimated for specific case-studies on metal-intensive products, such as I-beams and food cans. These estimates are then extrapolated to other sectors to produce a global estimate for possible demand reductions. Results show that lightweight product design may offer potential mass savings of up to 30% for some products, whilst yield in the production of others could be improved by over 20%. If these two strategies could be combined for all products, global demand for steel and aluminium would be reduced by nearly 50%. The impact of demand reduction on CO2 emissions is presented, and barriers to the adoption of new, lightweight technologies are discussed.

  16. Reduced noise susceptibility in littermate offspring from heterozygous animals of the German waltzing guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Åsa; Mannström, Paula

    2015-07-08

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a spontaneously mutated strain with severe auditory and vestibular impairment caused by a so far unknown genetic mutation. The animals are born deaf and show a circling behavior. The heterozygote animals of this guinea pig strain have functionally normal hearing and balance. However, these animals have, in earlier studies, shown an increased resistance to noise compared with normal wild-type guinea pigs. In the present study, we explored the functional hearing with auditory brainstem response thresholds before and at different time points after noise exposure. Symptom-free littermates from heterozygote couples of the German waltzing guinea pigs were exclusively used for the study, which, after the hearing test, were sent back for breeding to confirm their genotype (i.e. heterozygote or normal). The aim of this paper was to ascertain that the previously shown reduced susceptibility to noise trauma in the heterozygote animals of the German waltzing guinea pig was also evident when littermates were used as control animals. The findings are important for further analysis of the heterozygote animals of this strain and for future investigations of the underlying mechanisms behind the diverse susceptibility to exposures of loud sound.

  17. Reducing US carbon emissions: an econometric general equilibrium assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgenson, D.W.; Wilcoxen, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research conducted as part of Energy Modeling Forum 12, a recent study of the costs of limiting carbon dioxide emissions organized by the Energy Modeling Forum at Stanford University. It discusses how this approach differed from that of other participants in EMF-12 and presents several important findings. In particular, it is shown that in the United States the effects of a carbon tax will be very similar to the effects of a tax placed solely on coal. Outside the coal sector, the principal effect of carbon tax will be to raise the cost of electricity and to shift base load electric generating capacity toward fuels other than coal. At the aggregate level, higher energy prices will cause gross national product to fall unless the revenue from tax is used to reduce high marginal tax rates elsewhere in the economy. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  18. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  19. Reburning technology - a means to reduce NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, H.; Lorra, M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen oxide emission control technologies can be classified as either combustion modifications to minimize the NO production or post-combustion flue gas treatment to reduce the NO concentration afterwards. The techniques for minimizing NOx Production includes the use of low-NOx burners, overfire air (staged combustion) and boiler combustion optimization. Procedures for flue gas treatment can be subdivided into selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). The re burning process is a selective non-catalytic technology which is applicable to a wide variety of boilers and can be implemented within a relatively short period of time. The NOx reduction potential of this technique is in the range of 50 % up to 70 %. (author)

  20. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D, McGinnis; Laura S, WIlliams; Amy E, Monte; Jagdish Rughani; Brett A, Niemi; Thomas M, Flicker

    2001-01-01

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board

  1. Process for testing noise emission from containers or pipelines made of steel, particularly for nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, E.; Stipsits, G.; Sommer, R.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for noise emission testing of steel containers or pipelines, particularly for testing primary circuit components of nuclear reactor plants, measuring sensors and/or associated electronic amplifiers are used, which are tuned for receiving the frequency band of the sound emission spectrum above a limiting frequency f G , but are limited or non-resonant for frequency bands less than f G . (orig./HP) [de

  2. Background noise measurements from jet exit vanes designed to reduced flow pulsations in an open-jet wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, D. R.; Martin, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Many open jet wind tunnels experience pulsations of the flow which are typically characterized by periodic low frequency velocity and pressure variations. One method of reducing these fluctuations is to install vanes around the perimeter of the jet exit to protrude into the flow. Although these vanes were shown to be effective in reducing the fluctuation content, they can also increase the test section background noise level. The results of an experimental acoustic program in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel is presented which evaluates the effect on tunnel background noise of such modifications to the jet exit nozzle. Noise levels for the baseline tunnel configuration are compared with those for three jet exit nozzle modifications, including an enhanced noise reduction configuration that minimizes the effect of the vanes on the background noise. Although the noise levels for this modified vane configuration were comparable to baseline tunnel background noise levels in this facility, installation of these modified vanes in an acoustic tunnel may be of concern because the noise levels for the vanes could be well above background noise levels in a quiet facility.

  3. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regulated by EPA EPA or a designated Federal agency regulates noise sources, such as rail and motor carriers, low noise emission products, construction equipment, transport equipment, trucks, motorcycles, and the labeling of hearing ...

  4. Combined influence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on interband emission energy of impurity doped quantum dots in presence of noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Aindrila; Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com

    2016-11-01

    We explore the profiles of interband emission energy (IEE) of impurity doped quantum dots (QDs) under the simultaneous influence of hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) and in presence and absence of Gaussian white noise. Noise has been incorporated to the system additively and multiplicatively. In this regard, modulation of IEE by the variation of several other relevant quantities such as electric field, magnetic field, confinement potential, dopant location, dopant potential and aluminium concentration has also been investigated. Gradual alteration of HP and T affects IEE discernibly. Inclusion of noise has been found to enhance or deplete the IEE depending upon its mode of application. Moreover, under given conditions of temperature and pressure, the difference between the impurity-free ground state energy and the binding energy appears to be crucial in determining whether or not the profiles of IEE would resemble that of binding energy. The findings reveal fascinating role played by noise in tailoring the IEE of doped QD system under conspicuous presence of hydrostatic pressure and temperature. - Highlights: • Interband emission energy (IEE) of doped quantum dot is studied. • Hydrostatic pressure (HP) and temperature (T) affect IEE. • The dot is subjected to Gaussian white noise. • Noise amplifies and suppresses IEE depending on particular condition.

  5. Noise Gating Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.

    2017-08-01

    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  6. Reduced effects of pictorial distinctiveness on false memory following dynamic visual noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew; Kember, Timothy; Dagnall, Neil

    2017-07-01

    High levels of false recognition for non-presented items typically occur following exposure to lists of associated words. These false recognition effects can be reduced by making the studied items more distinctive by the presentation of pictures during encoding. One explanation of this is that during recognition, participants expect or attempt to retrieve distinctive pictorial information in order to evaluate the study status of the test item. If this involves the retrieval and use of visual imagery, then interfering with imagery processing should reduce the effectiveness of pictorial information in false memory reduction. In the current experiment, visual-imagery processing was disrupted at retrieval by the use of dynamic visual noise (DVN). It was found that effects of DVN dissociated true from false memory. Memory for studied words was not influenced by the presence of an interfering noise field. However, false memory was increased and the effects of picture-induced distinctiveness was eliminated. DVN also increased false recollection and remember responses to unstudied items.

  7. Viscoelastic property tuning for reducing noise radiated by switched-reluctance machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millithaler, Pierre; Dupont, Jean-Baptiste; Ouisse, Morvan; Sadoulet-Reboul, Émeline; Bouhaddi, Noureddine

    2017-10-01

    Switched-reluctance motors (SRM) present major acoustic drawbacks that hinder their use for electric vehicles in spite of widely-acknowledged robustness and low manufacturing costs. Unlike other types of electric machines, a SRM stator is completely encapsulated/potted with a viscoelastic resin. By taking advantage of the high damping capacity that a viscoelastic material has in certain temperature and frequency ranges, this article proposes a tuning methodology for reducing the noise emitted by a SRM in operation. After introducing the aspects the tuning process will focus on, the article details a concrete application consisting in computing representative electromagnetic excitations and then the structural response of the stator including equivalent radiated power levels. An optimised viscoelastic material is determined, with which the peak radiated levels are reduced up to 10 dB in comparison to the initial state. This methodology is implementable for concrete industrial applications as it only relies on common commercial finite-element solvers.

  8. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, and VOC, of which CO 2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO 2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO 2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program

  9. Improvement of material decomposition and image quality in dual-energy radiography by reducing image noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.; Choi, S.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.-J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Jo, B.D.; Jeon, P.-H.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.

    2016-01-01

    Although digital radiography has been widely used for screening human anatomical structures in clinical situations, it has several limitations due to anatomical overlapping. To resolve this problem, dual-energy imaging techniques, which provide a method for decomposing overlying anatomical structures, have been suggested as alternative imaging techniques. Previous studies have reported several dual-energy techniques, each resulting in different image qualities. In this study, we compared three dual-energy techniques: simple log subtraction (SLS), simple smoothing of a high-energy image (SSH), and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR) with respect to material thickness quantification and image quality. To evaluate dual-energy radiography, we conducted Monte Carlo simulation and experimental phantom studies. The Geant 4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) v 6.0 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolation polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for simulation studies and digital radiography, and human chest phantoms were used for experimental studies. The results of the simulation study showed improved image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) values and bone thickness estimation accuracy by applying the ACNR and SSH methods. Furthermore, the chest phantom images showed better image quality with the SSH and ACNR methods compared to the SLS method. In particular, the bone texture characteristics were well-described by applying the SSH and ACNR methods. In conclusion, the SSH and ACNR methods improved the accuracy of material quantification and image quality in dual-energy radiography compared to SLS. Our results can contribute to better diagnostic capabilities of dual-energy images and accurate material quantification in various clinical situations.

  10. Reducing Radiation Dose in Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Using Image Noise Reduction Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrati, Mirlind; Langenbrink, Lukas; Piatkowski, Michal; Michaelsen, Jochen; Reimann, Doris; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to quantitatively evaluate the reduction of radiation dose in coronary angiography and angioplasty with the use of image noise reduction technology in a routine clinical setting. Radiation dose data from consecutive 605 coronary procedures (397 consecutive coronary angiograms and 208 consecutive coronary interventions) performed from October 2014 to April 2015 on a coronary angiography system with noise reduction technology (Allura Clarity IQ) were collected. For comparison, radiation dose data from consecutive 695 coronary procedures (435 coronary angiograms and 260 coronary interventions) performed on a conventional coronary angiography system from October 2013 to April 2014 were evaluated. Patient radiation dosage was evaluated based on the cumulative dose area product. Operators and operator practice did not change between the 2 evaluated periods. Patient characteristics were collected to evaluate similarity of patient groups. Image quality was evaluated on a 5-grade scale in 30 patients of each group. There were no significant differences between the 2 evaluated groups in gender, age, weight, and fluoroscopy time (6.8 ± 6.1 vs 6.9 ± 6.3 minutes, not significant). The dose area product was reduced from 3195 ± 2359 to 983 ± 972 cGycm(2) (65%, p technology. Image quality was graded as similar between the evaluated systems (4.0 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, not significant). In conclusion, a new x-ray technology with image noise reduction algorithm provides a substantial reduction in radiation exposure without the need to prolong the procedure or fluoroscopy time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Potential for Forestry to Reduce Net CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Forestry may have an important role to play in attempts to reduce atmospheric CO 2 levels, since countries may choose to account for forest management activities to fulfil their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. However, the effectiveness of such efforts may depend on the forest management strategies applied. This thesis is based on four separate studies in which the potential for forest management strategies to decrease net CO 2 emissions was considered. Long-term field experiments and models were used to: evaluate the impact of different thinning regimes; study broad-leaved stands growing on abandoned farmland with different rotation lengths; predict the effects of using different rotation lengths on carbon accumulation and fossil fuel substitution; and perform an integrated analysis of forest management practices and the potential to substitute fossil fuels by wood products. To evaluate the effects of the management regimes considered, carbon stocks in the investigated stands and the potential of the resulting biomass to substitute fossil fuel were estimated. No significant differences were found in biomass production between the thinning regimes for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands, but the standing biomass was significantly larger in unthinned stands, indicating that to maximize the carbon stock in tree biomass thinnings should be avoided. For Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), thinned and fertilized stands produced significantly more biomass (2.60-2.72 ton d.w./ha/yr) than unthinned and unfertilized stands (2.17-2.34 ton d.w./ha/yr) in the northern regions. These findings indicate that fertilization might be a viable measure to increase production of biomass with the potential to replace fossil fuel and energy-intensive material. In addition, for broad-leaved trees stands on abandoned farmland, management regimes with a short rotation were found to be better for maximizing the substitution of fossil fuel than regimes with a long rotation

  12. The Potential of Road Pricing Schemes for Reducing Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocera, S.; Giaretta, F.; Cavallaro, F.

    2016-07-01

    Road pricing is a transport measure mainly conceived to fund road management, to regulate the demand for traffic and to reduce the number of private vehicles circulating in urban areas. It can also grant benefits in terms of environmental externalities including the reduction of CO2 emissions, which has recently become one of the most important elements defining the sustainability of a transport system. However, the carbon potential granted by road charging is rarely assessed, thus confirming a sort of secondary role attributed to CO2 in urban premises. This paper provides an accurate analysis of the relationship between the different forms of road pricing (including distance-based, congestion-based and pay-as-you-drive) and their effective role in terms of carbon reduction, which in some contexts is higher than 10%. Furthermore, practical suggestions to policy makers in terms of implementation of the measure are discussed, highlighting the precautions necessary to include a fair carbon evaluation into an overall effective analysis. (Author)

  13. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  14. Dynamics and noise emission of laser induced cavitation bubbles in a vortical flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; Choi, Jaehyug; Ceccio, Steven L.

    2004-03-01

    The sound produced by the collapse of discrete cavitation bubbles was examined. Laser-generated cavitation bubbles were produced in both a quiescent and a vortical flow. The sound produced by the collapse of the cavitation bubbles was recorded, and its spectral content was determined. It was found that the risetime of the sound pulse produced by the collapse of single, spherical cavitation bubbles in quiescent fluid exceeded that of the slew rate of the hydrophone, which is consistent with previously published results. It was found that, as collapsing bubbles were deformed by the vortical flow, the acoustic impulse of the bubbles was reduced. Collapsing nonspherical bubbles often created a sound pulse with a risetime that exceeded that of the hydrophone slew rate, although the acoustic impulse created by the bubbles was influenced largely by the degree to which the bubbles became nonspherical before collapse. The noise produced by the slow growth of cavitation bubbles in the vortex core was not detectable. These results have implications for the interpretation of hydrodynamic cavitation noise produced by vortex cavitation.

  15. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Rivers; Randall Wigle

    2018-01-01

    Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth....

  16. Rapid pulse annealing of CdZnTe detectors for reducing electronic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Lars; Conway, Adam; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Swanberg, Jr., Erik Lars

    2018-05-01

    A combination of doping, rapid pulsed optical and/or thermal annealing, and unique detector structure reduces or eliminates sources of electronic noise in a CdZnTe (CZT) detector. According to several embodiments, methods of forming a detector exhibiting minimal electronic noise include: pulse-annealing at least one surface of a detector comprising CZT for one or more pulses, each pulse having a duration of .about.0.1 seconds or less. The at least one surface may optionally be ion-implanted. In another embodiment, a CZT detector includes a detector surface with two or more electrodes operating at different electric potentials and coupled to the detector surface; and one or more ion-implanted CZT surfaces on or in the detector surface, each of the one or more ion-implanted CZT surfaces being independently connected to one of the two or more electrodes and the surface of the detector. At least two of the ion-implanted surfaces are in electrical contact.

  17. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  18. Noise from wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, S.

    2001-12-01

    First, the generation of noise at wind power plants and the character of the sound is described. The propagation of the sound and its dependence on the structure of the ground and on wind and temperature is treated next. Models for calculation of the noise emission are reviewed and examples of applications are given. Different means for reducing the disturbances are described

  19. An examination of methods whereby noise levels in current and new mining equipment may be reduced

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maneylaws, A

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available An extensive literature review of international work of mining equipment noise control has been carried out. The sources of noise on percussion rock drills, continuous miners, dust scrubbers and fans, long wall machinery and trackless vehicles...

  20. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Tournadre, J.

    2015-01-01

    Weaddress the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived shipNOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based onOMI observed troposphericNO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European shipNOx

  1. Clearing the Way for Reducing Emissions from Tropical Deforestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; de Jong, B.H.J.; van Laake, P.E.; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for

  2. Incoherent dictionary learning for reducing crosstalk noise in least-squares reverse time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Bai, Min

    2018-05-01

    We propose to apply a novel incoherent dictionary learning (IDL) algorithm for regularizing the least-squares inversion in seismic imaging. The IDL is proposed to overcome the drawback of traditional dictionary learning algorithm in losing partial texture information. Firstly, the noisy image is divided into overlapped image patches, and some random patches are extracted for dictionary learning. Then, we apply the IDL technology to minimize the coherency between atoms during dictionary learning. Finally, the sparse representation problem is solved by a sparse coding algorithm, and image is restored by those sparse coefficients. By reducing the correlation among atoms, it is possible to preserve most of the small-scale features in the image while removing much of the long-wavelength noise. The application of the IDL method to regularization of seismic images from least-squares reverse time migration shows successful performance.

  3. Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure Thermochemical conversion of biomass storage covers to reduce ammonia emissions from dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure storages, and in particular those storing digested manure, are a source of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Permeable manure storage covers can reduce NH3 emissions, however performance can decline as they degrade. Thermochemical conversion of biomass through pyrolysis and steam treatment could incre...

  4. Gasoline reformulation to reduce exhaust emissions in Finnish conditions. Influence of sulphur and benzene contents of gasoline on exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kytoe, M.; Aakko, P.; Lappi, M.

    1994-01-01

    At earlier stages of the study it was found that the exhaust emissions from cars are reduced when using fuels with no more than 4 wt% of oxygen. At this stage of the study the work focused on impacts of the sulphur and benzene content of gasoline on exhaust emissions in Finland. Sulphur in gasoline retards the operation of the catalyst, and consequently the exhaust emissions of catalyst cars increase if the sulphur content of the fuel increases. In the present study, evaporation during refuelling were measured for fuels with varying vapour pressures and benzene contents of gasoline. The total hydrocarbon evaporation was reduced by 22 % (10 g) when the vapour pressure of gasoline was reduced from 85 kPa to 65 kPa. Correspondingly, benzene evaporation during refuelling was reduced to a third when the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from the level of 3 wt% to 1 wt%. The reduction of the sulphur content of gasoline from 500 ppm to 100 ppm affected regulated exhaust emissions from the catalyst car at +22 deg C as follows: CO emission was reduced on average by 14 % (0.175 g/km), CH emission by 7 % (0.010 g/km) and NO x emission by 9 % (0.011 g/km). At-7 deg C the percentual changes were smaller. When the benzene content of the fuel was reduced from 3 wt% to 1 wt%, the benzene emission from the catalyst cars was reduced by 20-30 % and from the non-catalyst cars on average by 30 % both at +22 deg C and -7 deg C. The benzene emission ranged 3-22 mg/km for the catalyst cars and 40-90 mg/km for the non-catalyst cars at +22 deg C in the FTP test

  5. Realistic simulation of reduced-dose CT with noise modeling and sinogram synthesis using DICOM CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won Kim, Chang; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Reducing the patient dose while maintaining the diagnostic image quality during CT exams is the subject of a growing number of studies, in which simulations of reduced-dose CT with patient data have been used as an effective technique when exploring the potential of various dose reduction techniques. Difficulties in accessing raw sinogram data, however, have restricted the use of this technique to a limited number of institutions. Here, we present a novel reduced-dose CT simulation technique which provides realistic low-dose images without the requirement of raw sinogram data. Methods: Two key characteristics of CT systems, the noise equivalent quanta (NEQ) and the algorithmic modulation transfer function (MTF), were measured for various combinations of object attenuation and tube currents by analyzing the noise power spectrum (NPS) of CT images obtained with a set of phantoms. Those measurements were used to develop a comprehensive CT noise model covering the reduced x-ray photon flux, object attenuation, system noise, and bow-tie filter, which was then employed to generate a simulated noise sinogram for the reduced-dose condition with the use of a synthetic sinogram generated from a reference CT image. The simulated noise sinogram was filtered with the algorithmic MTF and back-projected to create a noise CT image, which was then added to the reference CT image, finally providing a simulated reduced-dose CT image. The simulation performance was evaluated in terms of the degree of NPS similarity, the noise magnitude, the bow-tie filter effect, and the streak noise pattern at photon starvation sites with the set of phantom images. Results: The simulation results showed good agreement with actual low-dose CT images in terms of their visual appearance and in a quantitative evaluation test. The magnitude and shape of the NPS curves of the simulated low-dose images agreed well with those of real low-dose images, showing discrepancies of less than +/−3.2% in

  6. Emission Noise in an Interacting Quantum Dot: Role of Inelastic Scattering and Asymmetric Coupling to the Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépieux, A.; Sahoo, S.; Duong, T. Q.; Zamoum, R.; Lavagna, M.

    2018-03-01

    A theory is developed for the emission noise at frequency ν in a quantum dot in the presence of Coulomb interactions and asymmetric couplings to the reservoirs. We give an analytical expression for the noise in terms of the various transmission amplitudes. Including the inelastic scattering contribution, it can be seen as the analog of the Meir-Wingreen formula for the current. A physical interpretation is given on the basis of the transmission of one electron-hole pair to the concerned reservoir where it emits an energy after recombination. We then treat the interactions by solving the self-consistent equations of motion for the Green functions. The results for the noise derivative versus e V show a zero value until e V =h ν , followed by a Kondo peak in the Kondo regime, in good agreement with recent measurements in carbon nanotube quantum dots.

  7. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  8. Comparison among Wavelet filters and others in the frequency domain for reducing Poisson noise in head CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Diaz, M.; Ruiz Gonzalez, Y.; Lorenzo Ginori, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison among some wavelet filters and other most traditional filters in the frequency domain like Median, Wiener and Butter worth to reduce Poisson noise in Computed Tomography (CT) scans. Five slices of CT containing the posterior fossa from an anthropomorphic phantom and from patients were selected. As their original projections contain noise from the acquisition process, some simulated noise-free lesions were added on the images. After that, the whole images were artificially contaminated with Poisson noise over the sinogram-space. The configurations using wavelets drawn from four wavelet families, using various decomposition levels, and different thresholds, were tested in order to determine de-noising performance as well as the rest of the traditional filters. The quality of the resulting images was evaluated by using Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), HVS absolute norm (H1), and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) as quantitative metrics. We have observed that Wavelet filtering is an alternative to be considered for Poisson noise reduction in image processing of posterior fossa images for head CT with similar behavior to Butter worth and better than Median or Wiener filters for the developed experiment. (Author)

  9. Reduced Pain and Anxiety with Music and Noise-Canceling Headphones During Shockwave Lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalar, Mustafa; Keles, Ibrahim; Doğantekin, Engin; Kahveci, Orhan Kemal; Sarici, Hasmet

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the effects of music and noise-canceling headphones (NCHs) on perceived patient pain and anxiety from extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). Patients with renal calculi scheduled for SWL were prospectively enrolled. All 89 patients between the ages of 19 and 80 years were informed about this study and then randomized into three groups: Group 1 (controls), no headphones and music; Group 2, music with NCHs (patients listened to Turkish classical music with NCHs during SWL); and Group 3, music with non-NCHs (patients listened to Turkish classical music with non-NCHs during SWL). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded before and just after the SWL session. All patient visual analog scale (VAS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores were recorded just after the SWL procedure. There were significant differences in VAS scores among the groups (5.1, 3.6, and 4.5, respectively, p < 0.001), including between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.018). There were also significant differences in STAI-State anxiety scores among the groups (43.1, 33.5, and 38.9, respectively, p = 0.001), including between Groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.04). Music therapy during SWL reduced pain and anxiety. Music therapy with NCHs was more effective for pain and anxiety reduction. To reduce pain and anxiety, nonpharmacologic therapies such as music therapy with NCHs during SWL should be investigated further and used routinely.

  10. European Community Can Reduce CO2 Emissions by Sixty Percent : A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mot, E.; Bartelds, H.; Esser, P.M.; Huurdeman, A.J.M.; Laak, P.J.A. van de; Michon, S.G.L.; Nielen, R.J.; Baar, H.J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the European Community (EC) can be reduced by roughly 60 percent. A great many measures need to be taken to reach this reduction, with a total annual cost of ECU 55 milliard. Fossil fuel use is the main cause of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere; CO2 emissions are

  11. Reduced impact of induced gate noise on inductively degenerated LNAs in deep submicron CMOS technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, P.; Svelto, F.; Mazzanti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Designers of radio-frequency inductively-degenerated CMOS low-noise-amplifiers have usually not followed the guidelines for achieving minimum noise figure. Nonetheless, state-of-the- art implementations display noise figure values very close to the theoretical minimum. In this paper, we point out...... that this is due to the effect of the parasitic overlap capacitances in the MOS device. In particular, we show that overlap capacitances lead to a significant induced-gate-noise reduction, especially when deep sub-micron CMOS processes are used....

  12. Airborne reduced nitrogen: ammonia emissions from agriculture and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Natalie; Strader, Ross; Davidson, Cliff

    2003-06-01

    Ammonia is a basic gas and one of the most abundant nitrogen-containing compounds in the atmosphere. When emitted, ammonia reacts with oxides of nitrogen and sulfur to form particles, typically in the fine particle size range. Roughly half of the PM(2.5) mass in eastern United States is ammonium sulfate, according to the US EPA. Results from recent studies of PM(2.5) show that these fine particles are typically deposited deep in the lungs and may lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality. Also, these particles are in the size range that will degrade visibility. Ammonia emission inventories are usually constructed by multiplying an activity level by an experimentally determined emission factor for each source category. Typical sources of ammonia include livestock, fertilizer, soils, forest fires and slash burning, industry, vehicles, the oceans, humans, pets, wild animals, and waste disposal and recycling activities. Livestock is the largest source category in the United States, with waste from livestock responsible for about 3x10(9) kg of ammonia in 1995. Volatilization of ammonia from livestock waste is dependent on many parameters, and thus emission factors are difficult to predict. Despite a seasonal variation in these values, the emission factors for general livestock categories are usually annually averaged in current inventories. Activity levels for livestock are from the USDA Census of Agriculture, which does not give information about animal raising practices such as housing types and grazing times, waste handling systems, and approximate animal slurry spreading times or methods. Ammonia emissions in the United States in 1995 from sources other than livestock are much lower; for example, annual emissions are roughly 8x10(8) kg from fertilizer, 7x10(7) kg from industry, 5x10(7) kg from vehicles and 1x10(8) kg from humans. There is considerable uncertainty in the emissions from soil and vegetation, although this category may also be significant

  13. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  14. [Intervention to reduce the impact of light and noise on sleep in an emergency department observation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Ordozgoiti, Alberto; Priu Parra, Inmaculada; España Salvador, María Carmen; Torres Valdés, Constancia; Bas Ciutad, María Pilar; Ponce Quílez, María Rosa

    2017-02-01

    To study quality of patient rest before and after an intervention to reduce nighttime light and noise in the emergency department observation area of an urban hospital. Quasi-experimental study in 2 groups before and after the intervention in the observation area of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona. We administered a questionnaire about the quality of nighttime rest to assess the effect of light and noise on sleep. Light and noise were reduced by means of structural changes to the environment and through the introduction of protocols to modify how care plans were carried out at night. Fifty nurses participated in the pre-intervention study and 371 in the post-intervention study. Seventy-two percent and 91.37% of the patients reported resting well before and after the intervention, respectively (P< .001). Factors like pain, nursing care, or daytime naps do not affect sleep quality. Nighttime rest in emergency department observation areas is affected by ambient light and noise more than by other variables. Reducing light and noise at night can measurably improve patients' rest.

  15. Nigerian forest communities act to reduce carbon emissions | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    8 juin 2016 ... The collaborative project between One Sky Canadian Institute for Sustainable Living and the African Integral Development Network assessed the perceptions of local communities about carbon emissions offset ... La majorité des habitants de l'Inde vivent dans des régions soumises à un stress hydrique.

  16. Revision of the vehicle noise emission test method: a serious need for serious changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Roo, F. de; Dittrich, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    In the EU Green Paper on Future Noise Policy of 1996 it was already concluded that the total effect of EU and Member States legislation on environmental road traffic noise was unsatisfactory until then. This was underpinned by extensive studies in the late nineties in the Netherlands, Germany and

  17. Analysis of alternative pathways for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strategies for reducing tropospheric ozone typically include modifying combustion processes to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and applying control devices that remove NOx from the exhaust gases of power plants, industrial sources and vehicles. For portions of the ...

  18. Reducing Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Collegiate Music Ensembles Using Ambient Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jason; Chesky, Kris

    2017-09-01

    Student musicians are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as they develop skills and perform during instructional activities. Studies using longitudinal dosimeter data show that pedagogical procedures and instructor behaviors are highly predictive of NIHL risk, thus implying the need for innovative approaches to increase instructor competency in managing instructional activities without interfering with artistic and academic freedom. Ambient information systems, an emerging trend in human-computer interaction that infuses psychological behavioral theories into technologies, can help construct informative risk-regulating systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of introducing an ambient information system into the ensemble setting. The system used two ambient displays and a counterbalanced within-subjects treatment study design with six jazz ensemble instructors to determine if the system could induce a behavior change that alters trends in measures resulting from dosimeter data. This study assessed efficacy using time series analysis to determine changes in eight statistical measures of behavior over a 9-wk period. Analysis showed that the system was effective, as all instructors showed changes in a combination of measures. This study is in an important step in developing non-interfering technology to reduce NIHL among academic musicians.

  19. Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Noise Pollution With the Use of a Pediatric Delirium Bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yu; Weatherhead, Jeffrey R; Traube, Chani; Owens, Tonie A; Shaw, Brenda E; Fraser, Erin J; Scott, Annette M; Wojczynski, Melody R; Slaman, Kristen L; Cassidy, Patty M; Baker, Laura A; Shellhaas, Renee A; Dahmer, Mary K; Shever, Leah L; Malas, Nasuh M; Niedner, Matthew F

    2017-01-01

    Noise pollution in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) contributes to poor sleep and may increase risk of developing delirium. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends noise pollution, to develop a delirium bundle targeted at reducing noise, and to assess the effect of the bundle on nocturnal noise pollution. This is a QI initiative at an academic PICU. Thirty-five sound sensors were installed in patient bed spaces, hallways, and common areas. The pediatric delirium bundle was implemented in 8 pilot patients (40 patient ICU days) while 108 non-pilot patients received usual care over a 28-day period. A total of 20,609 hourly dB readings were collected. Hourly minimum, average, and maximum dB of all occupied bed spaces demonstrated medians [interquartile range] of 48.0 [39.0-53.0], 52.8 [48.1-56.2] and 67.0 [63.5-70.5] dB, respectively. Bed spaces were louder during the day (10AM to 4PM) than at night (11PM to 5AM) (53.5 [49.0-56.8] vs. 51.3 [46.0-55.3] dB, P noise pollution exists in our PICU, and utilizing the pediatric delirium bundle led to a significant noise reduction that can be perceived as half the loudness with hourly nighttime average dB meeting the EPA standards when compliant with the bundle.

  20. Optimal learning on climate change: why climate skeptics should reduce emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; Willems, T.

    2015-01-01

    Climate skeptics typically argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous, implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing emissions until we know what drives warming. This paper however shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a

  1. Optimal learning on climate change: why climate skeptics should reduce emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; Willems, T.

    2012-01-01

    Climate skeptics argue that the possibility that global warming is exogenous implies that we should not take additional action towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions until we know more. However this paper shows that even climate skeptics have an incentive to reduce emissions: such a change of

  2. Strategies and costs for reducing CO2 emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtilae, A.; Pirilae, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this study cost-efficient measures for the abatement of energy-related CO 2 emissions in Finland are analyzed, and the direct costs of such measures are estimated. The time frame considered is the period up to the year 2010. Furthermore, the probable impacts of an energy/CO 2 -tax on the Finnish energy system are worked out, and an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of a tax scheme as an economic instrument for achieving CO 2 emission targets. The primary methodological tool in the analyses has been the model of the Finnish energy system developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) within the project. The model facilitates the search for cost-efficient emission control strategies over a period of several decades. Structural and technological changes in the energy system, e.g. fuel and technology substitution, new technologies, efficiency improvements, and energy-saving measures have been allowed for in the model. The results of the analyses show that achieving the target of returning the CO 2 emissions to the 1990 level by the year 2000 would be very difficult and costly in Finland. In the case of a nuclear moratorium it would be reasonable to delay the target by ten years. Even in the delayed cases achieving the target would require extensive structural changes and substantial energy-saving measures in the absence of additional nuclear energy. Coal use would have to be severely restricted, whereas the use of biomass and natural gas should be more than doubled compared to the 1990 levels. According to the results, a CO 2 tax would clearly be a more efficient instrument than a tax based on the energy content of a fuel

  3. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  4. Nonlinear Microstructured Material to Reduce Noise and Vibrations at Low Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavazec, Deborah; Cumunel, Gwendal; Duhamel, Denis; Soize, Christian; Batou, Anas

    2016-01-01

    At low frequencies, for which the wavelengths are wide, the acoustic waves and the mechanical vibrations cannot easily be reduced in the structures at macroscale by using dissipative materials, contrarily to the middle- and high-frequency ranges. The final objective of this work is to reduce the vibrations and the induced noise on a broad low-frequency band by using a microstructured material by inclusions that are randomly arranged in the material matrix. The dynamical regimes of the inclusions will be imposed in the nonlinear domain in order that the energy be effectively pumped over a broad frequency band around the resonance frequency, due to the nonlinearity. The first step of this work is to design and to analyze the efficiency of an inclusion, which is made up of a hollow frame including a point mass centered on a beam. This inclusion is designed in order to exhibit nonlinear geometric effects in the low-frequency band that is observed. For this first step, the objective is to develop the simplest mechanical model that has the capability to roughly predict the experimental results that are measured. The second step, which is not presented in the paper, will consist in developing a more sophisticated nonlinear dynamical model of the inclusion. In this paper, devoted to the first step, it is proved that the nonlinearity induces an attenuation on a broad frequency band around the resonance, contrarily to its linear behavior for which the attenuation is only active in a narrow frequency band around the resonance. We will present the design in terms of geometry, dimension and materials for the inclusion, the experimental manufacturing of this system realized with a 3D printing system, and the experimental measures that have been performed. We compare the prevision given by the stochastic computational model with the measurements. The results obtained exhibit the physical attenuation over a broad low-frequency band, which were expected. (paper)

  5. Electromagnetic Signals and Earthquakes 2.0: Increasing Signals and Reducing Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, J. C.; Bleier, T.; Heraud, J. A.; Muller, S.; Lindholm, C.; Christman, L.; King, R.; Lemon, J.

    2013-12-01

    QuakeFinder has an international network of 150+ Magnetometers and air conductivity instruments located in California, Peru, Chile, Taiwan, and Greece. Since 2000, QuakeFinder has been collecting electromagnetic data and applying simple algorithms to identify and characterize electromagnetic signals that occur in the few weeks prior to earthquakes greater than M4.5. In this presentation, we show refinements to several aspects of our signal identification techniques that enhance detection of pre-earthquake patterns. Our magnetometers have been improved to show longer pulses, and we are now using second generation algorithms that have been refined to detect the proper shape of the earthquake-generated pulses and to allow individual site adjustments. Independent lightning strike data has also now been included to mask out lightning based on amplitude and distance from a given instrument site. Direction of arrival (Azimuth) algorithms have been added to identify patterns of pulse clustering that occur prior to nearby earthquakes. Likewise, positive and negative air ion concentration detection has been improved by building better enclosures, using stainless screens to eliminate insects and some dirt sources, conformal coating PC boards to reduce moisture contamination, and filtering out contaminated data segments based on relative humidity measurements at each site. Infra Red data from the western GOES satellite has been time-filtered, cloud-filtered, and compared to 3 year averages of each pixel's output (by seasonal month) to arrive at a relevant comparison baseline for each night's temperature/cooling slope. All these efforts have helped improve the detection of multiple, nearly simultaneous, electromagnetic signals due to earthquake preparation processes, while reducing false positive indications due to environmental noise sources.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  7. Carbon emissions mapping at Unilever Europe : implementing a structural method to map and reduce carbon emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the CEO of Unilever committed to a 25% reduction of CO2 emissions from global manufacturing operations in 2012. Unilever Europe Logistics has aligned to this target. To achieve this objective, the management of European logistics department decided to build a carbon emission estimation

  8. Reduced emissions of greenhouse gases 2050: Technological wedges - Input to the Commission on Low Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Finden, Per; Hageman, Rolf; Stenersen, Dag

    2006-09-01

    The Commission on Low Emissions was established in March 2005 and has been charged with the task of describing how Norway can achieve a 50-80 percent reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The commission describes the desired total reduction in emissions to be a set of actions or 'wedges', meaning that the reduction in emissions are linked to an array of technological and behavioural changes. The technological wedges are described here, while the behavioural wedges are treated in a different report. The potentials described are based on the Low Emission's reference line. Possible changes in the reference line will result in changed potentials. The technological wedges studied comprise to a great extent a potential of 50-80 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2050. This depends on considerable effort from research and development, and a determination to change external conditions

  9. Examining the Efforts of a Small, Open Economy to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby Pedersen, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    emissions by relatively small, open economies. Although, these economies are small players in international markets, international trade has an important influence on their economies. Investigating the outcome of efforts to curb emissions by these small, open economies provides insights into the situation...... faced by a large set of the world's economies. This paper has three objectives: (1) investigate the outcome of Denmark's efforts to reduce its carbon emissions by characterizing the relationship between Denmark's macroeconomic activity and carbon emissions; (2) determine the carbon content of Danish...... trade and document the important effects that growing trade with China has had on Danish consumption emissions; and (3), investigate the robustness of measures of consumption emissions under varying information requirements. Our analysis of the outcomes of Danish efforts to reduce carbon emissions...

  10. SLMRACE: a noise-free RACE implementation with reduced computational time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Juliet; Provenzi, Edoardo

    2017-05-01

    We present a faster and noise-free implementation of the RACE algorithm. RACE has mixed characteristics between the famous Retinex model of Land and McCann and the automatic color equalization (ACE) color-correction algorithm. The original random spray-based RACE implementation suffers from two main problems: its computational time and the presence of noise. Here, we will show that it is possible to adapt two techniques recently proposed by Banić et al. to the RACE framework in order to drastically decrease the computational time and noise generation. The implementation will be called smart-light-memory-RACE (SLMRACE).

  11. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  12. Reducing of CO2 emissions and its depositing into underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Koudelková

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing CO2 emissions caused especially by the combustion of fossil fuels rises a question of how this can be problem solved in the long term. There is several solutions which differ technically and financially. This paper deals with the CO2 capture from combustion processes or power plant processes, (CO2 can be captured from the flue gas, after combustion in oxygen and recirculated flue gas or from a synthesis gas before combustion. This paper presents possibilities of CO2 storagex captured in this way into underground (deep ocean, oil and gas fields, coal bed, aquifers.

  13. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  14. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified : hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities in this research : are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) solutions ...

  15. About methods to reduce emissions of turbo charged engine gasoline direct injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacsu, D.; Ivan, F.; Niculae, M.

    2017-08-01

    The paper aims to analyse and explain new methods applied on gasoline direct injection to reduce gas emissions and greenhouse effect. There are analysed the composition of emission inside the engine and which are the most harmful emission for the environment. Will be analysed the methods and systems which have a contribution to decrease emissions produced by the mixture of air and fuel. The paper contains details about after treatment systems which are designed to decrease gas emissions without any other negative consequence on the environment.

  16. Economic benefits of reducing emissions from the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Metni, M.; Nuwayhid, M.I.; Kobrossi, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Air pollution has recently been a growing concern in Lebanon particularly around industrial facilities and in urban areas. The cement industry constitutes a major polluting source and its impacts have historically raised considerable local public concern, as was previously the case in many developed countries. In this context, the town of Chekka, which is the site of four cement factories, has been the subject of long-lived controversy with respect to emissions and potential adverse environmental impacts. While field observations and public health complains support the presence of such impacts., scientific data are almost non-existent to adequately evaluate the actual situation. This paper describes recent efforts conducted towards a proper air quality characterization in order to shed light on the extent and nature of the impact of the cement industry in the Chekka region on its immediate vicinity. For this purpose, continuous monitoring of selected air pollutants (particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and carbon monoxide) was conducted during a limited period. In addition, pollutant dispersion modeling was performed to better define exposure areas. Field measurements coupled with simulation results were linked to a survey questionnaire to assess potential health and material damage on a sample area. The economic benefits of emissions reduction of selected pollutants are presented in the context of the results obtained during this study

  17. Methane, a greenhouse gas: measures to reduce and valorize anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This report first presents the greenhouse effect properties of methane (one of the six gases the emissions of which must be reduced according to the Kyoto protocol), comments the available data on methane emission assessment in the World, in Europe and in France, and outlines the possibilities of improvement of data and indicators on a short and middle term. It describes how methane can be captured and valorized, indicates the concerned quantities. Notably, it discussed the management of methane generating and spreading practices (from waste water treatment, from domestic wastes), how to reduce methane emissions in agriculture. It finally proposes elements aimed at elaborating a national and international policy regarding methane emission reductions

  18. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  19. Reduction of external noise of mobile energy facilities by using active noise control system in muffler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivaev, O. I.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Larionov, A. N.; Beliansky, R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a method for the reducing emission of low-frequency noise of modern automotive vehicles into the environment. The importance of reducing the external noise of modern mobile energy facilities made in Russia is substantiated. Standard methods for controlling external noise in technology are of low efficiency when low-frequency sound waves are reduced. In this case, it is in the low-frequency zone of the sound range that the main power of the noise emitted by the machinery lies. The most effective way to reduce such sound waves is to use active noise control systems. A design of a muffler using a similar system is presented. This muffler allowed one to reduce the emission of increased noise levels into the environment by 7-11 dB and to increase acoustic comfort at the operator's workplace by 3-5 dB.

  20. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: a duopoly market pricing competition and cooperation under the carbon emissions cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Ming; He, Hua; Ma, Changsong; Wu, Yan; Yang, Hao

    2017-05-17

    This article studies the price competition and cooperation in a duopoly that is subjected to carbon emissions cap. The study assumes that in a departure from the classical Bertrand game, there is still a market for both firms' goods regardless of the product price, even though production capacity is limited by carbon emissions regulation. Through the decentralized decision making of both firms under perfect information, the results are unstable. The firm with the lower maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation and the firm with the higher maximum production capacity both seek market price cooperation. By designing an internal carbon credits trading mechanism, we can ensure that the production capacity of the firm with the higher maximum production capacity under carbon emissions regulation reaches price equilibrium. Also, the negotiation power of the duopoly would affect the price equilibrium.

  1. How much can wind reduce the French CO2 emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    2010-03-01

    This report analyses the information recently made available by the French electricity transport network RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite). It consists in a detailed data set which gives the time evolution of the power either consumed by the country or generated with the diverse production modes exploited by utilities within France. For the first time the French public is also provided some analytical information on a major renewable energy: wind. Our analysis shows that the French wind-turbine-fleet efficiency over last fall-winter semester is 24.3%. The wind production displays the strong fluctuations expected for this intermittent non-controllable energy. It is observed that the time and energy distributions of the power delivered by the French wind turbines are not related to the increased electricity needs which occurred during a semester where a few cold waves hit the country. As a consequence, the controllable productions which already ensure the balance of consumption versus production had also to carry the extra load associated with the handling of wind fluctuations. In a second part of this report, based on the actual data provided by RTE, the report determines the maximal reduction of the CO 2 emissions which can be expected from the completion of the national wind energy program endorsed by the government. We conclude that in the absence of a significant strengthening of the electric network and an increase of the national energy storage capacity, the wind energy policy decided by the French government will only yield limited results on the reduction of both the GHG emissions and the country reliance on fossil fuel burning plants. (author)

  2. Reducing Sensor Noise in MEG and EEG Recordings Using Oversampled Temporal Projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric; Taulu, Samu

    2018-05-01

    Here, we review the theory of suppression of spatially uncorrelated, sensor-specific noise in electro- and magentoencephalography (EEG and MEG) arrays, and introduce a novel method for suppression. Our method requires only that the signals of interest are spatially oversampled, which is a reasonable assumption for many EEG and MEG systems. Our method is based on a leave-one-out procedure using overlapping temporal windows in a mathematical framework to project spatially uncorrelated noise in the temporal domain. This method, termed "oversampled temporal projection" (OTP), has four advantages over existing methods. First, sparse channel-specific artifacts are suppressed while limiting mixing with other channels, whereas existing linear, time-invariant spatial operators can spread such artifacts to other channels with a spatial distribution which can be mistaken for one produced by an electrophysiological source. Second, OTP minimizes distortion of the spatial configuration of the data. During source localization (e.g., dipole fitting), many spatial methods require corresponding modification of the forward model to avoid bias, while OTP does not. Third, noise suppression factors at the sensor level are maintained during source localization, whereas bias compensation removes the denoising benefit for spatial methods that require such compensation. Fourth, OTP uses a time-window duration parameter to control the tradeoff between noise suppression and adaptation to time-varying sensor characteristics. OTP efficiently optimizes noise suppression performance while controlling for spatial bias of the signal of interest. This is important in applications where sensor noise significantly limits the signal-to-noise ratio, such as high-frequency brain oscillations.

  3. An optimal control model for reducing and trading of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huaying; Liang, Jin

    2016-03-01

    A stochastic optimal control model of reducing and trading for carbon emissions is established in this paper. With considerations of reducing the carbon emission growth and the price of the allowances in the market, an optimal policy is searched to have the minimum total costs to achieve the agreement of emission reduction targets. The model turns to a two-dimension HJB equation problem. By the methods of reducing dimension and Cole-Hopf transformation, a semi-closed form solution of the corresponding HJB problem under some assumptions is obtained. For more general cases, the numerical calculations, analysis and comparisons are presented.

  4. Reduced transposed flicker noise in microwave oscillators using gaas-based feedforward amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Jeremy K A; Broomfield, Carl D

    2007-06-01

    Transposed flicker noise reduction and removal is demonstrated in 7.6 GHz microwave oscillators for offsets greater than 10 kHz. This is achieved by using a GaAs-based feedforward power amplifier as the oscillation-sustaining stage and incorporating a limiter and resonator elsewhere in the loop. 20 dB noise suppression is demonstrated at 12.5 kHz offset when the error correcting amplifier is switched on. Three oscillator pairs have been built. A transmission line feedback oscillator with a Qo of 180 and two sapphire-based, dielectric resonator oscillators (DROs) with a Qo of 44,500. The difference between the two DROs is a change in the limiter threshold power level of 10 dB. The phase noise rolls-off at (1/f)(2) for offsets greater than 10 kHz for the transmission line oscillator and is set by the thermal noise to within 0-1 dB of the theoretical minimum. The noise performance of the DROs is within 6-12 dB of the theory. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are presented.

  5. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: Auditory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  6. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  7. A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

  8. Unity in the problem of reducing carbon dioxide emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byurzhe, R.

    1992-01-01

    Political and economical aspects of the problem of reducing discharges into the atmosphere of gases creating hotbed effect are discussed. Canadian government policy on the power production problem is considered as well as the methods of minimization gaseous wastes due to energy consumption regulation and use of safe and more pure energy sources

  9. The role of photovoltaics in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakers, A.; Green, M.; Leo, T.; Outhred, H.; Robins, B.

    1991-01-01

    This report examines the opportunities that will arise for the Australian photovoltaic industry if external costs of energy conversion are internalized. Such external costs include local pollution, resource depletion and the emission of greenhouse gases. Generation of electricity from photovoltaic (PV) modules is now a widely accepted environmentally friendly energy conversion technology. At present, high capital costs restricts its use to the provision of small amounts of power in remote areas, where it successfully competes against small diesel generators. However, as costs continue to decline, photovoltaic systems will compete successfully with progressively larger diesel-electric systems in Australia, in a market worth more than a billion dollars. Direct competition with electricity generated by conventional means for state grids is possible after the turn of the century. The present Australian photovoltaic industry is export oriented. The market for PV systems in poor rural areas in Asia is potentially very large. The cost of supplying small quantities of electricity to millions of rural households is high, making photovoltaics a competitive option. It is concluded that the Australian photovoltaic industry is in a good position to participate in the growth in this market sector. 48 refs., 28 tabs., 18 figs., ills

  10. Historical review of efforts to reduce noise-induced hearing loss in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Madeleine J; Neitzel, Richard L; Hong, OiSaeng; Sataloff, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a centuries-old problem that is still prevalent in the United States and worldwide. To describe highlights in the development of hearing loss prevention in the U.S. from World War II to the present. Literature review. Approaches to occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention in the United States over the past seven decades are described using a hierarchy of controls framework and an interdisciplinary perspective. Historical timelines and developmental milestones related to occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention are summarized as a life course. Lessons are drawn for other countries in their hearing conservation efforts. Future developments building on the hearing loss prevention work of the past 70 years can prevent the problem of occupational NIHL in the 21st century. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:569-577, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reducing visitor noise levels at Muir Woods National Monument using experimental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, David W; Peter, Newman; Manning, Robert E; Fristrup, Kurt M

    2011-03-01

    Noise impacts resources and visitor experience in many protected natural areas, and visitors can be the dominant source of noise. This experimental study tested the efficacy and acceptability of signs asking visitors to be quiet at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Signs declaring a "quiet zone" (at the park's Cathedral Grove) or a "quiet day" (throughout the park) were posted on a randomized schedule that included control days (no signs). Visitor surveys were conducted to measure the cognitive and behavioral responses of visitors to the signs and test the acceptability of these management practices to visitors. Visitors were highly supportive of these management practices and reported that they consciously limited the amount of noise they produced. Sound level measurements showed substantial decreases on days when signs were posted. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  12. Method and apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Santa Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  13. Potential contribution of the Clean Coal Program to reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental considerations of Clean Coal Program (CCP) initially focused on reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) to the atmosphere. However, it has also become apparent that some Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) may contribute appreciably to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), thereby diminishing the rate of any global warming that may result from greenhouse effects. This is particularly true for CCTs involving replacement of a major portion of an existing facility and/or providing the option of using a different fuel form (the repowering CCTs). Because the subject of global-scale climate warming is receiving increased attention, the effect of CCTs on Co 2 emissions has become a topic of increasing interest. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program projected that with full implementation of those repowering CCTs that would be most effective at reducing CO 2 emissions (Pressurized Fluidized Bed and Coal Gasification Fuel Cell technologies), the national fossil-fuel Co 2 emissions by the year 2010 would be roughly 90% of the emissions that would occur with no implementation of any CCTs by the same date. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the global effect of such a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and to compare that effect with effects of other strategies for reducing global greenhouse gas emissions

  14. Panorama 2018 - Reducing sulfur emissions in shipping: an economic and technological challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumas, Cecile; Marion, Pierre; Saint Antonin, Valerie; Weiss, Wilfried

    2018-01-01

    Sulfur oxides emissions from maritime traffic are constantly rising, unlike those generated by all land-based sources, which are subject to numerous regulations on both fuels and emission caps on equipment that uses them. Accordingly, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a resolution to reduce the sulfur content of marine fuels, but its implementation, set for 2020, could prove complicated. (authors)

  15. New image-processing and noise-reduction software reduces radiation dose during complex endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Melissa L; Guild, Jeffrey B; Arbique, Gary M; Tsai, Shirling; Modrall, J Gregory; Anderson, Jon A; Rectenwald, John; Timaran, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    A new proprietary image-processing system known as AlluraClarity, developed by Philips Healthcare (Best, The Netherlands) for radiation-based interventional procedures, claims to lower radiation dose while preserving image quality using noise-reduction algorithms. This study determined whether the surgeon and patient radiation dose during complex endovascular procedures (CEPs) is decreased after the implementation of this new operating system. Radiation dose to operators, procedure type, reference air kerma, kerma area product, and patient body mass index were recorded during CEPs on two Philips Allura FD 20 fluoroscopy systems with and without Clarity. Operator dose during CEPs was measured using optically stimulable, luminescent nanoDot (Landauer Inc, Glenwood, Ill) detectors placed outside the lead apron at the left upper chest position. nanoDots were read using a microStar ii (Landauer Inc) medical dosimetry system. For the CEPs in the Clarity group, the radiation dose to surgeons was also measured by the DoseAware (Philips Healthcare) personal dosimetry system. Side-by-side measurements of DoseAware and nanoDots allowed for cross-calibration between systems. Operator effective dose was determined using a modified Niklason algorithm. To control for patient size and case complexity, the average fluoroscopy dose rate and the dose per radiographic frame were adjusted for body mass index differences and then compared between the groups with and without Clarity by procedure. Additional factors, for example, physician practice patterns, that may have affected operator dose were inferred by comparing the ratio of the operator dose to procedural kerma area product with and without Clarity. A one-sided Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare groups for radiation doses, reference air kermas, and operating practices for each procedure type. The analysis included 234 CEPs; 95 performed without Clarity and 139 with Clarity. Practice patterns of operators during

  16. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects Compared to Diesel Emissions in Healthy and Allergic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrat...

  17. Intensities and spatiotemporal variability of equatorial noise emissions observed by the Cluster spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Hrbáčková, Zuzana; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2015), s. 1620-1632 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11122 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020814/full

  18. Deka-keV X-ray emission associated with the onset of radio noise storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crosby, N.; Vilmer, N.; Lund, Niels

    1996-01-01

    Radio noise storms show that suprathermal electrons (a few tens of keV) are present in the vicinity of active regions during several hours or even a few days. Where and how these electrons are energized is not yet well known. A flare-like sudden energy release in the active region is in general o...

  19. Reducing CO2 emissions and energy consumption of heat-integrated distillation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Mamdouh A; Olujic, Zarko; Jansens, Peter J; Jobson, Megan; Smith, Robin

    2005-09-01

    Distillation systems are energy and power intensive processes and contribute significantly to the greenhouse gases emissions (e.g. carbon dioxide). Reducing CO2 emissions is an absolute necessity and expensive challenge to the chemical process industries in orderto meetthe environmental targets as agreed in the Kyoto Protocol. A simple model for the calculation of CO2 emissions from heat-integrated distillation systems is introduced, considering typical process industry utility devices such as boilers, furnaces, and turbines. Furnaces and turbines consume large quantities of fuels to provide electricity and process heats. As a result, they produce considerable amounts of CO2 gas to the atmosphere. Boilers are necessary to supply steam for heating purposes; besides, they are also significant emissions contributors. The model is used in an optimization-based approach to optimize the process conditions of an existing crude oil atmospheric tower in order to reduce its CO2 emissions and energy demands. It is also applied to generate design options to reduce the emissions from a novel internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A gas turbine can be integrated with these distillation systems for larger emissions reduction and further energy savings. Results show that existing crude oil installations can save up to 21% in energy and 22% in emissions, when the process conditions are optimized. Additionally, by integrating a gas turbine, the total emissions can be reduced further by 48%. Internal heat-integrated columns can be a good alternative to conventional heat pump and other energy intensive close boiling mixtures separations. Energy savings can reach up to 100% with respect to reboiler heat requirements. Emissions of these configurations are cut down by up to 83%, compared to conventional units, and by 36%, with respect to heat pump alternatives. Importantly, cost savings and more profit are gained in parallel to emissions minimization.

  20. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions.

  1. EBG structures on high permittivity substrate to reduce noise in power distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The noise reduction effect in a Power Distribution Network (PDN) by implementing Electromagnetic Band Gap structures (EBG) on standard and high permittivity substrates has been investigated. Boards with different EBG structures have been modelled and designed. Using the EBG structures the Power

  2. Development of design tools for reduced aerodynamic noise wind turbines (draw)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, S.; Guidati, G.; Ostertag, J.; Bareiss, R.; Wittum, G.; Huurdeman, B.; Braun, K.; Hirsch, C.; Kang, S.; Khodak, A.; Overmeire, M. van; Bladt, G.; Nienhaus, A.; Dassen, A.G.M.; Parchen, R.R.; Looijmans, K.

    1997-01-01

    The major aim of the present project was the development of new predictïon models for the aerodynamic noise generation at wind turbine blades. These models should be transferred to computer codes and should be sensitive enough to consider even small changes in the airfoil geometry. This accuracy is

  3. A modified LLCL-filter with the reduced conducted EMI noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    For a transformerless grid-tied converter using pulse width modulation, the harmonics of grid-injected current, the leakage current, and the electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise are three important issues during designing of the output filter. In this paper, the common mode and the differential...

  4. A modified LLCL-filter with the reduced conducted EMI noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Weimin; Sun, Yunjie; Lin, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    For a transformerless grid-tied converter using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), the harmonics of grid-injected current, the leakage current and the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) noise are three important issues during design of the output filter. In this paper, the Common-Mode (CM...

  5. Continuous White Noise to Reduce Resistance Going to Sleep and Night Wakings in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forquer, LeAnne M.; Johnson, C. Merle

    2005-01-01

    White noise generators were turned on at 75 dB at bedtime and kept on all night to treat resistance going to sleep and night wakings in one-year-old toddlers. In a multiple baseline design four sets of parents recorded duration of resistance going to sleep, number of night wakings, completed surveys of their child's feeding and sleeping patterns…

  6. Do Renewable Energy Policies Reduce Carbon Emissions? On Caps and Intra-Jurisdictional Leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Perino, Grischa; Jarke, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Climate policies overlapping a cap-and-trade scheme are generally considered not to change domestic emissions. In a two-sector general equilibrium model where only one sector is covered by a cap, we find that such policies do have a net impact on carbon emissions through inter-sectoral leakage. Promotion of renewable energy reduces emissions if tax-funded, but can increase emissions if funded by a levy on electricity. Replacing fossil fuels by electricity in uncapped sectors (e.g. power-to-he...

  7. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation: What contribution from carbon markets?

    OpenAIRE

    Bellassen , Valentin; Crassous , R.; Dietzsch , L.; Schwartzman , S.

    2008-01-01

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for 15-20% of total man-made emissions of greenhouse gases. In December 2007, at the international conference of Bali, the United Nations acknowledged that a viable solution to climate change must include a mechanism to limit deforestation and forest degradation. Today, the most widely used economic tool to reduce emissions is carbon markets: caps on emitters, and trade allowed between emitters and reducers, drive a price signal on carbon and provide ince...

  8. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E.; Moore, Brian C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the “clean” speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids. PMID:29708061

  9. Use of a Deep Recurrent Neural Network to Reduce Wind Noise: Effects on Judged Speech Intelligibility and Sound Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mahmoud; Goehring, Tobias; Zakis, Justin; Turner, Richard E; Moore, Brian C J

    2018-01-01

    Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the "clean" speech as a reference. A paired-comparison procedure was used to compare all possible combinations of three conditions for subjective intelligibility and for sound quality or comfort. The conditions were unprocessed noisy speech, noisy speech processed using the RNN, and noisy speech that was high-pass filtered (which also reduced wind noise). Eighteen native English-speaking participants were tested, nine with normal hearing and nine with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment. Frequency-dependent linear amplification was provided for the latter. Processing using the RNN was significantly preferred over no processing by both subject groups for both subjective intelligibility and sound quality, although the magnitude of the preferences was small. High-pass filtering (HPF) was not significantly preferred over no processing. Although RNN was significantly preferred over HPF only for sound quality for the hearing-impaired participants, for the results as a whole, there was a preference for RNN over HPF. Overall, the results suggest that reduction of wind noise using an RNN is possible and might have beneficial effects when used in hearing aids.

  10. Experimental evidence for the reducibility of multifragment emission probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, G.J.; Tso, K.; Phair, L.

    1995-01-01

    Multifragmentation has been studied for 36 Ar-induced reactions on a 197 Au target at E/A = 80 and 110 MeV and for 129 Xe-induced reactions on several targets ( nat Cu, 89 y, 165 ho, 197 Au) and E/A = 40, 50 and 60 MeV. The probability of emitting n intermediate-mass-fragments is shown to be binomial at each transversal energy and reducible to an elementary binary probability p. For each target and at each bombarding energy, this probability p shows a thermal nature by giving linear Arrhenius plots. For the 129 Xe-induced reactions, a nearly universal linear Arrhenius plot is observed at each bombarding energy, indicating a large degree of target independence

  11. Reducing CO2-Emission by using Eco-Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, K.; Bergmeister, K.; Janotka, I.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 concentration in the air is rising constantly. Globally, cement companies are emitting nearly two billion tonnes/year of CO2 (or around 6 to 7 % of the planet's total CO2 emissions) by producing portland cement clinker. At this pace, by 2025 the cement industry will be emitting CO2 at a rate of 3.5 billion tones/year causing enormous environmental damage (Shi et al., 2011; Janotka et al., 2012). At the dawn of the industrial revolution in the mid-eighteenth century the concentration of CO2 was at a level of ca. 280 ppm. 200 years later at the time of World War II the CO2 level had risen to 310 ppm what results in a rate of increase of 0,15 ppm per year for that period (Shi et al., 2011). In November 2011 the CO2 concentration reached a value of 391 ppm (NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, 2011), a rise of ca. 81 ppm in 66 years and an increased rate of around 1,2 ppm/year respectively. In the same period cement production in tons of cement has multiplied by a factor of ca. 62 (Kelly & Oss, US Geological Survey, 2010). Thus new CO2-saving eco-cement types are gaining in importance. In these cement types the energy-consuming portland cement clinker is partially replaced by latent hydraulic additives such as blast furnace slag, fly ash or zeolite. These hydraulic additives do not need to be fired in the rotary furnace. They ony need to be pulverized to the required grain size and added to the ground portland cement clinker. Hence energy is saved by skipping the engery-consuming firing process, in addition there is no CO2-degassing as there is in the case of lime burning. Therefore a research project between Austria and Slovakia, funded by the EU (Project ENVIZEO), was initiated in 2010. The main goal of this project is to develop new CEM V eco-types of cements and certificate them for common usage. CEM V is a portland clinker saving cement kind that allows the reduction of clinker to a proportion of 40-64% for CEM V/A and 20-39% for CEM V/B respectively by the

  12. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  13. Reducing truck emissions at container terminals in a low carbon economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Gang; GOVINDAN, Kannan; Golias, Mihalis M.

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to optimize truck arrival patterns to reduce emissions from idling truck engines at marine container terminals. A bi-objective model is developed minimizing both truck waiting times and truck arrival pattern change. The truck waiting time is estimated via...... a queueing network. Based on the waiting time, truck idling emissions are estimated. The proposed methodology is evaluated with a case study, where truck arrival rates vary over time. We propose a Genetic Algorithm based heuristic to solve the resulting problem. Result shows that, a small shift of truck...... arrivals can significantly reduce truck emissions, especially at the gate....

  14. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  15. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld, and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr(6+). GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer, Regulated Metal Deposition, Cold Metal Transfer, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 50-7800 µg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1-270 µg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13-330 µg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50-300 µg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4-140 µg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as five times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes in this

  16. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  17. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality: Two global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E

    2017-07-01

    There are many good reasons to promote sustainable development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other combustion emissions. The air quality in many urban environments is causing many premature deaths because of asthma, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and dementia associated with combustion emissions. The global social cost of air pollution is at least $3 trillion/year; particulates, nitrogen oxides and ozone associated with combustion emissions are very costly pollutants. Better air quality in urban environments is one of the reasons for countries to work together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. There are many potential benefits associated with limiting climate change. In the recent past, the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and the number of weather and climate disasters with costs over $1 billion has been increasing. The average global temperature set new record highs in 2014, 2015, and 2016. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the transition to electric vehicles and electricity generation using renewable energy must take place in accord with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. This work reviews progress and identifies some of the health benefits associated with reducing combustion emissions. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 982-988, 2017.

  18. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-06-02

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  19. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani; Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  20. Institute a modest carbon tax to reduce carbon emissions, finance clean energy technology development, cut taxes, and reduce the deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, Mark; Rothwell, Jonathan

    2012-11-15

    The nation should institute a modest carbon tax in order to help clean up the economy and stabilize the nation’s finances. Specifically, Congress and the president should implement a $20 per ton, steadily increasing carbon excise fee that would discourage carbon dioxide emissions while shifting taxation onto pollution, financing energy efficiency (EE) and clean technology development, and providing opportunities to cut taxes or reduce the deficit. The net effect of these policies would be to curb harmful carbon emissions, improve the nation’s balance sheet, and stimulate job-creation and economic renewal.

  1. A STRATEGIC PROGRAM TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSIONS PRODUCED FROM FOOD INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kilic [Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, University of Nigde, Nigde (Turkey); A. Midilli [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nigde (Turkey); I. Dincer [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-09-30

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are at every stage of conventional food production (planting, harvesting, irrigation, food production, transportation, and application of pesticides and fertilizers, etc.). In this study, a strategic program is proposed to reduce GHGs emissions resulting during conventional food production. The factors which form the basis of this strategic program are energy, environment and sustainability. The results show that the application of sustainable food processing technologies can significantly reduce GHGs emissions resulting from food industry. Moreover, minimizing the utilization of fossil-fuel energy sources and maximizing the utilization of renewable energy sources results in the reduction of GHGs emissions during food production, which in turn reduces the effect of global warming.

  2. Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions; Wirtschaftliche Aspekte nichttechnischer Massnahmen zur Emissionsminderung im Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Hartwig, Johannes; Senger, Florian; Schade, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Maibach, Markus; Sutter, Daniel; Bertschmann, Damaris [Infrastruktur- und Entwicklungsplanung Umwelt- und Wirtschaftsfragen (INFRAS), Zuerich (Switzerland); Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram; Duennebeil, Frank [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Aim and methodology: This study looks at the impact of selected transport policy measures on environment, transport users, economy and society by the year 2030. Considered are shifts to cycling, walking and public transport, shorter car trips and more efficient car use in passenger travel, as well as more rail in freight transport. Out of the transport user perspective private costs, travel time, health effects, air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, noise and traffic safety are assessed. Macroeconomic impacts are appraised using the system-dynamics transport and economics model ASTRA-D. Results: The environmental impacts of the measures diverge widely and are dominated by the costs of greenhouse gas emissions. Measures, which include long-distance travel, achieve higher impacts than pure urban transport measures. In particular for public transport considerable potentials to reduce its external costs from air pollution were identified. Active mobility enhances personal health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. However, the safety of cyclists and pedestrians in cities requires increased attention. The investment costs for the measures investigated differ strongly, but reach up to 10 billion Euros annually for more attractive local destinations. Accordingly, employment develops positively in almost all measures, and the gross domestic product (GDP) is slightly above the base case in 2030 in four out of the five cases. Recommendations: sensible bundles of measures may clearly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of transport policy. Core elements are ''push-nd-pull'' approaches combining transport shift and funding policies.

  3. A noise-reduction program in a pediatric operation theatre is associated with surgeon's benefits and a reduced rate of complications: a prospective controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Carsten R; Neis, Jan Philipp; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Grote, Gudela; Ure, Benno M

    2014-05-01

    We assessed the impact of a noise-reduction program in a pediatric operating theatre. Adverse effects from noise pollution in theatres have been demonstrated. In 156 operations spatially resolved, sound levels were measured before and after a noise-reduction program on the basis of education, rules, and technical devices (Sound Ear). Surgical complications were recorded. The surgeon's biometric (saliva cortisol, electrodermal activity) and behavioral stress responses (questionnaires) were measured and correlated with mission protocols and individual noise sensitivity. Median noise levels in the control group versus the interventional group were reduced by -3 ± 3 dB(A) (63 vs 59 dB(A), P 0.05). Spontaneous noise during pediatric operations attains the magnitude of a lawn mower and peaks resemble a passing truck. The sound intensity could be reduced by 50% by specific measures. This reduction was associated with a significantly lowered number of postoperative complications. The surgeon's benefits are idiosyncratic with "responders" experiencing marked improvements.

  4. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Jonah [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Strassburg, Bernardo [Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cattaneo, Andrea [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644 (United States); Lubowski, Ruben [Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC (United States); Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick [Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph, E-mail: jbusch@conservation.or [Terrestrial Carbon Group, 900 17th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  5. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonah; Strassburg, Bernardo; Cattaneo, Andrea; Lubowski, Ruben; Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick; Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  6. Utility of otoacoustic emissions and olivocochlear reflex in predicting vulnerability to noise-induced inner ear damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarantis Blioskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to explore the possible utility of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs and efferent system strength to determine vulnerability to noise exposure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 344 volunteers who had just begun mandatory basic training as Hellenic Corps Officers Military Academy cadets. Pure-tone audiograms were obtained on both ears. Participants were also subjected to diagnostic transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs. Finally, they were all tested for efferent function through the suppression of TEOAEs with contralateral noise. Following baseline evaluation, all cadets fired 10 rounds using a 7.62 mm Heckler & Koch G3A3 assault rifle while lying down in prone position. Immediately after exposure to gunfire noise and no later than 10 h, all participants completed an identical protocol for a second time, which was then repeated a third time, 30 days later. Results: The data showed that after the firing drill, 280 participants suffered a temporary threshold shift (TTS (468 ears, while in the third evaluation conducted 30 days after exposure, 142 of these ears still presented a threshold shift compared to the baseline evaluation [permanent threshold shift (PTS ears]. A receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed that OAEs amplitude is predictive of future TTS and PTS. The results were slightly different for the suppression of OAEs showing only a slight trend toward significance. The curves were used to determine cut points to evaluate the likelihood of TTS/PTS for OAEs amplitude in the baseline evaluation. Decision limits yielding 71.6% sensitivity were 12.45 dB SPL with 63.8% specificity for PTS, and 50% sensitivity were 12.35 dB SPL with 68.2% specificity for TTS. Conclusions: Interestingly, the above data yielded tentative evidence to suggest that OAEs amplitude is both sensitive and specific enough to efficiently identify participants who are

  7. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  8. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  9. Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  11. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-01-01

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO_2) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO_2 emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO_2e. A CO_2 tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO_2) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO_2 emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO_2. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO_2 emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO_2-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO_2 emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO_2 tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  12. A warmer policy for a colder climate: Can China both reduce poverty and cap carbon emissions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan, E-mail: taoyuan.wei@cicero.uio.no; Aamaas, Borgar; Lund, Marianne T.; Samset, Bjørn H.

    2016-10-15

    Reducing global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is often thought to be at odds with economic growth and poverty reduction. Using an integrated assessment modeling approach, we find that China can cap CO{sub 2} emissions at 2015 level while sustaining economic growth and reducing the urban-rural income gap by a third by 2030. As a result, the Chinese economy becomes less dependent on exports and investments, as household consumption emerges as a driver behind economic growth, in line with current policy priorities. The resulting accumulated greenhouse gas emissions reduction 2016–2030 is about 60 billion ton (60 Mg) CO{sub 2}e. A CO{sub 2} tax combined with income re-distribution initially leads to a modest warming due to reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. However, the net effect is eventually cooling when the effect of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions dominates due to the long-lasting climate response of CO{sub 2}. The net reduction in global temperature for the remaining part of this century is about 0.03 ± 0.02 °C, corresponding in magnitude to the cooling from avoiding one year of global CO{sub 2} emissions. - Highlights: • China can cap CO{sub 2}-emissions at 2015 level without harming economic growth. • Poverty reduction is compatible with policy to cap CO{sub 2} emissions. • Rural poverty reduction financed by CO{sub 2} tax revenue increases domestic consumption. • One year of the global emissions is avoided. • The global mean temperature is reduced by 0.03 (± 0.02) °C.

  13. Wind farms on undegraded peatlands are unlikely to reduce future carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jo; Nayak, Dali Rani; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Onshore wind energy is a key component of the renewable energies used by governments to reduce carbon emissions from electricity production, but will carbon emissions be reduced when wind farms are located on carbon-rich peatands? Wind farms are often located in uplands because most are of low agricultural value, are distant from residential areas, and are windy. Many UK uplands are peatlands, with layers of accumulated peat that represent a large stock of soil carbon. When peatlands are drained for construction there is a higher risk of net carbon loss than for mineral soils. Previous work suggests that wind farms sited on peatlands can reduce net carbon emissions if strictly managed for maximum retention of carbon. Here we show that, whereas in 2010, most sites had potential to provide net carbon savings, by 2040 most sites will not reduce carbon emissions even with careful management. This is due to projected changes in the proportion of fossil fuels used to generate electricity. The results suggest future policy should avoid constructing wind farms on undegraded peatlands unless drainage of peat is minimal and the volume excavated in foundations can be significantly reduced compared to energy output. - Highlights: • Future wind farms located on undegraded peats will not reduce carbon emissions. • This is due to projected changes in fossil fuels used to generate electricity. • Future policy should avoid constructing wind farms on undegraded peats

  14. Fiscal Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions from New Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Cowi A/S

    2002-01-01

    Model based calculations constitute the core output of this study. The calculations assess the extent to which vehicle related taxes (mainly acquisition taxes and ownership taxes) can be effective means to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars. More specifically, the model calculations have assessed the ability of vehicle taxes to support the target to reduce average CO2 emissions from new cars down to a level of 120 g/km. This is the agreed target of the Community Strategy to reduce CO2 emissio...

  15. Hennessy reduces its greenhouse gas emissions; Hennessy reduit ses emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, S.

    2004-09-01

    Hennessy, the French cognac manufacturer and dealer is one of the first company that has tested the 'Bilan Carbone{sup TM}' method developed by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) for the estimation of the direct or indirect emissions of greenhouse gases (explained in tons of carbon equivalent, TeqC). Thanks to a quantitative and qualitative measurement of its effluents, the company can act on the direct and induced effects of its production: abatement of fertilizers and pesticides additions for wine production, combustion optimization in the distillation process, lightening of bottles weight (glass saving), choice of the transportation system for the delivery of final products to spirits dealers. (J.S.)

  16. Greatly reduced emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The strong support for biomass energy in the Norwegian wood-processing industry during the last 10-15 years has contributed greatly to a considerable reduction of the emission of greenhouse gases. The potential for further reductions is primarily linked with the use of oil and involves only a few works. Oil can be replaced by other fuels, and process-technical improvements can reduce the emissions. According to prognoses, emissions will go on decreasing until 2007, when the total emission of greenhouse gases from the wood-processing industry will be about 13 per cent less than in 1998. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) amounts to 90 per cent of the total emission, the remaining parts being methane (CH 4 ) from landfills and dumps, and small amounts of N 2 O

  17. AMPLITUDE FLUCTUATIONS OF SPONTANEOUS OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS CAUSED BY INTERNAL AND EXTERNALLY APPLIED NOISE SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIT, HP

    1993-01-01

    The simplest description for the generator of a spontaneous otoacoustic emission (SOAE) is that of a single (isolated) limit-cycle oscillator. Evidence is given that this description is too simple. And it is concluded that study of systems of coupled oscillators is needed to obtain more insight in

  18. Light emission probing quantum shot noise and charge fluctuations at a biased molecular junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, N.L.; Lu, Jing Tao; Brandbyge, M.

    2012-01-01

    The emission of plasmonic light from a single C60 molecule on Cu(111) is probed in a scanning tunneling microscope from the weak-coupling, tunneling range to strong coupling of the molecule to the electrodes at contact. At positive sample voltage the photon yield decreases owing to shot...

  19. Does Financial Development Reduce CO2 Emissions in Malaysian Economy? A Time Series Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Solarin, Sakiru Adebola; Mahmood, Haider

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the question whether financial development reduces CO2 emissions or not in case of Malaysia. For this purpose, we apply the bounds testing approach to cointegration for long run relations between the variables. The study uses annual time series data over the period 1971-2008. Ng-Perron stationarity test is applied to test the unit root properties of the series. Our results validate the presence of cointegration between CO2 emissions, financial development, energy co...

  20. Opportunities for reducing environmental emissions from forage-based dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Misselbrook

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern dairy production is inevitably associated with impacts to the environment and the challenge for the industry today is to increase production to meet growing global demand while minimising emissions to the environment. Negative environmental impacts include gaseous emissions to the atmosphere, of ammonia from livestock manure and fertiliser use, of methane from enteric fermentation and manure management, and of nitrous oxide from nitrogen applications to soils and from manure management. Emissions to water include nitrate, ammonium, phosphorus, sediment, pathogens and organic matter, deriving from nutrient applications to forage crops and/or the management of grazing livestock. This paper reviews the sources and impacts of such emissions in the context of a forage-based dairy farm and considers a number of potential mitigation strategies, giving some examples using the farm-scale model SIMSDAIRY. Most of the mitigation measures discussed are associated with systemic improvements in the efficiency of production in dairy systems. Important examples of mitigations include: improvements to dairy herd fertility, that can reduce methane and ammonia emissions by up to 24 and 17%, respectively; diet modification such as the use of high sugar grasses for grazing, which are associated with reductions in cattle N excretion of up to 20% (and therefore lower N losses to the environment and potentially lower methane emissions, or reducing the crude protein content of the dairy cow diet through use of maize silage to reduce N excretion and methane emissions; the use of nitrification inhibitors with fertiliser and slurry applications to reduce nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching by up to 50%. Much can also be achieved through attention to the quantity, timing and method of application of nutrients to forage crops and utilising advances made through genetic improvements.

  1. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollicone, D.; Freibauer, A.; Schulze, E. D.; Braatz, S.; Grassi, G.; Federici, S.

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need—and can be—overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles.

  2. Reducing CO2 emissions of conventional fuel cars by vehicle photovoltaic roofs

    OpenAIRE

    LODI CHIARA; SEITSONEN ANTTI; PAFFUMI ELENA; DE GENNARO MICHELE; HULD THOMAS; MALFETTANI STEFANO

    2017-01-01

    The European Union has adopted a range of policies aiming at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from road transport, including setting binding targets for tailpipe CO2 emissions for new light-duty fleets. The legislative framework for implementing such targets allows taking into account the CO2 savings from innovative technologies that cannot be adequately quantified by the standard test cycle CO2 measurement. This paper presents a methodology to define the average productivity of vehicle-moun...

  3. Elements for the expected mechanisms on 'reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation, REDD' under UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollicone, D; Freibauer, A; Schulze, E D; Braatz, S; Grassi, G; Federici, S

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from deforestation and degradation account for about 20% of global anthropogenic emissions. Strategies and incentives for reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) have emerged as one of the most active areas in the international climate change negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). While the current negotiations focus on a REDD mechanism in developing countries, it should be recognized that risks of carbon losses from forests occur in all climate zones and also in industrialized countries. A future climate change agreement would be more effective if it included all carbon losses and gains from land use in all countries and climate zones. The REDD mechanism will be an important step towards reducing emissions from land use change in developing countries, but needs to be followed by steps in other land use systems and regions. A national approach to REDD and significant coverage globally are needed to deal with the risk that deforestation and degradation activities are displaced rather than avoided. Favourable institutional and governance conditions need to be established that guarantee in the long-term a stable incentive and control system for maintaining forest carbon stocks. Ambitious emission reductions from deforestation and forest degradation need sustained financial incentives, which go beyond positive incentives for reduced emissions but also give incentives for sustainable forest management. Current data limitations need-and can be-overcome in the coming years to allow accurate accounting of reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation. A proper application of the conservativeness approach in the REDD context could allow a simplified reporting of emissions from deforestation in a first phase, consistent with the already agreed UNFCCC reporting principles

  4. Strategies for reducing emissions and depositions in Central and Eastern European countries: The case of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.; Stoffer, A.; De Kruijk, H.; Salamonova, A.

    1995-06-01

    A detailed case study on developments and reduction of acidifying SO 2 and NO x emissions from the energy system was conducted for Slovakia. Scenarios and the Energy Flow Optimization Model - Environment (EFOM-ENV) of the European Union (DG 12) were applied for the first time in Slovakia and were similar to those that were used in the other European country studies in preparation of the Second Sulphur Protocol. Slovak SO 2 emissions can be reduced at low marginal costs but high total national costs compared with e.g. the Netherlands. The main reasons for this are the high sulphur content of (brown) coal that has a high share in national energy consumption, a relatively high energy intensity, lower wages, and the fact that most Western countries already have reduced their SO 2 emissions in the past. Marginal NO x emission reduction costs are similar to those of Western countries and national total NO x reduction costs are relatively high. In contrast with fuel switching, retrofitting of existing technologies is an attractive SO 2 and NO x reduction option in the short term. High interest and discount rates due to capital scarcity increases emissions and emission reduction costs. Therefore, short term involvement of Western investors could lead to European cost-effective emission reduction. 17 figs., 5 tabs., 2 appendices, 20 refs

  5. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO 2 intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO 2 emissions from electricity production through simple benchmarking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO 2 emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. - Research highlights: → We study variations in emissions per kWh of electricity generated among countries. → We analyze emissions from electricity production through benchmarking. → Estimates of reduction in emissions are made based on different assumptions.

  6. Assessment of possible strategies to reduce mobile sources emissions in Costa Rica, 2010-2015 projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera-Murillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of the possible strategies to reduce the emissions from mobile sources in Costa Rica were evaluated for the 2010-2015 period. The total emissions were estimated using emission factors obtained from Mobile 6 model and activity data like fuel and vehicle type distribution. This study found that 50% substitution of public transport vehicles was the most effective measure to lower the anual rate increase for NOx and Total Organic Gases (TOG. Both around 14,3% and 11,7% anually, respectively.

  7. Development of AIM for analysing policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    1999-01-01

    AIM (Asian-Pacific Integrated Model) has been developed for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating policy measures to reduce them. Two socio-economic scenarios were assumed and CO 2 emissions were predicted based on these scenarios and policy intervention assumptions. It is found that mitigating CO 2 emissions without scaling back productive activities or standards of living in Japan is possible. However, if one relies on the market mechanism alone, it cannot be done. The analysis has shown that it is essential to introduce new policies and measures such as carbon tax and subsidies. (author)

  8. Measurement and modelling of noise emission of road vehicles for use in prediction models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonasson, H.G.

    2000-07-01

    The road vehicle as sound source has been studied within a wide frequency range. Well defined measurements have been carried out on moving and stationary vehicles. Measurement results have been checked against theoretical simulations. A Nordtest measurement method to obtain input data for prediction methods has been proposed and tested in four different countries. The effective sound source of a car has its centre close to the nearest wheels. For trucks this centre seems to be closer to the centre of the car. The vehicle as sound source is directional both in the vertical and the horizontal plane. The difference between SEL and L{sub pFmax} during a pass-by varies with frequency. At low frequencies interference effects between correlated sources may be the problem. At high frequencies the directivity of tyre/road noise affects the result. The time when L{sub pFmax} is obtained varies with frequency. Thus traditional maximum measurements are not suitable for frequency band applications. The measurements support the fact that the tyre/road noise source is very low. Measurements on a stationary vehicle indicate that the engine source is also very low. Engine noise is screened by the body of the car. The ground attenuation, also at short distances, will be significant whenever we use low microphone positions and have some 'soft' ground in between. Unless all measurements are restricted to propagation over 'hard' surfaces only it is necessary to use rather high microphone positions. The Nordtest method proposed will yield a reproducibility standard deviation of 1-3 dB depending on frequency. High frequencies are more accurate. In order to get accurate results at low frequencies large numbers of vehicles are required. To determine the sound power level from pass-by measurement requires a proper source and propagation model. As these models may change it is recommended to measure and report both SEL and L{sub pFmax} normalized to a specified distance.

  9. Carbon footprint of telemedicine solutions--unexplored opportunity for reducing carbon emissions in the health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmner, Asa; Ebi, Kristie L; Lazuardi, Lutfan; Nilsson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The healthcare sector is a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, in part due to extensive travelling by patients and health workers. To evaluate the potential of telemedicine services based on videoconferencing technology to reduce travelling and thus carbon emissions in the healthcare sector. A life cycle inventory was performed to evaluate the carbon reduction potential of telemedicine activities beyond a reduction in travel related emissions. The study included two rehabilitation units at Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. Carbon emissions generated during telemedicine appointments were compared with care-as-usual scenarios. Upper and lower bound emissions scenarios were created based on different teleconferencing solutions and thresholds for when telemedicine becomes favorable were estimated. Sensitivity analyses were performed to pinpoint the most important contributors to emissions for different set-ups and use cases. Replacing physical visits with telemedicine appointments resulted in a significant 40-70 times decrease in carbon emissions. Factors such as meeting duration, bandwidth and use rates influence emissions to various extents. According to the lower bound scenario, telemedicine becomes a greener choice at a distance of a few kilometers when the alternative is transport by car. Telemedicine is a potent carbon reduction strategy in the health sector. But to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation, a paradigm shift might be required where telemedicine is regarded as an essential component of ordinary health care activities and not only considered to be a service to the few who lack access to care due to geography, isolation or other constraints.

  10. Reduced α-stable dynamics for multiple time scale systems forced with correlated additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William F.; Kuske, Rachel A.; Monahan, Adam H.

    2017-11-01

    Stochastic averaging problems with Gaussian forcing have been the subject of numerous studies, but far less attention has been paid to problems with infinite-variance stochastic forcing, such as an α-stable noise process. It has been shown that simple linear systems driven by correlated additive and multiplicative (CAM) Gaussian noise, which emerge in the context of reduced atmosphere and ocean dynamics, have infinite variance in certain parameter regimes. In this study, we consider the stochastic averaging of systems where a linear CAM noise process in the infinite variance parameter regime drives a comparatively slow process. We use (semi)-analytical approximations combined with numerical illustrations to compare the averaged process to one that is forced by a white α-stable process, demonstrating consistent properties in the case of large time-scale separation. We identify the conditions required for the fast linear CAM process to have such an influence in driving a slower process and then derive an (effectively) equivalent fast, infinite-variance process for which an existing stochastic averaging approximation is readily applied. The results are illustrated using numerical simulations of a set of example systems.

  11. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  12. Emissions of nitrous oxide from Irish arable soils: effects of tillage and reduced N input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdalla, M.; Jones, M.B.; Ambus, Per

    2010-01-01

    and reduced N fertilizer on seasonal fluxes and emission factors of N2O and to study the relationship between crop yield and N-induced fluxes of N2O. The soil is classified as a sandy loam with a pH of 7.4 and a mean organic carbon and nitrogen content at 15 cm of 19 and 1.9 g kg(-1) dry soil, respectively....... Reduced tillage had no significant effect on N2O fluxes from soils or crop grain yield. Multiple regression analysis revealed that soil moisture and an interaction between soil moisture and soil nitrate are the main significant factors affecting N2O flux. The derived emission factor was 0...... nitrogen fertilizer by 50% compared to the normal field rate, N2O emissions could be reduced by 57% with no significant decrease on grain yield or quality. This was consistent over the 2 years of measurements....

  13. Tropical protected areas reduced deforestation carbon emissions by one third from 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Butt, Nathalie

    2017-10-25

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for around one tenth of total anthropogenic carbon emissions, and tropical protected areas (PAs) that reduce deforestation can therefore play an important role in mitigating climate change and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. While the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation has been estimated, the impact on global carbon emissions remains unquantified. Here we show that tropical PAs overall reduced deforestation carbon emissions by 4.88 Pg, or around 29%, between 2000 and 2012, when compared to expected rates of deforestation controlling for spatial variation in deforestation pressure. The largest contribution was from the tropical Americas (368.8 GgC y -1 ), followed by Asia (25.0 GgC y -1 ) and Africa (12.7 GgC y -1 ). Variation in PA effectiveness is largely driven by local factors affecting individual PAs, rather than designations assigned by governments.

  14. Potential biodiversity benefits from international programs to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikamäki, Juha; Newbold, Stephen C

    2012-01-01

    Deforestation is the second largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide emissions and options for its reduction are integral to climate policy. In addition to providing potentially low cost and near-term options for reducing global carbon emissions, reducing deforestation also could support biodiversity conservation. However, current understanding of the potential benefits to biodiversity from forest carbon offset programs is limited. We compile spatial data on global forest carbon, biodiversity, deforestation rates, and the opportunity cost of land to examine biodiversity conservation benefits from an international program to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation. Our results indicate limited geographic overlap between the least-cost areas for retaining forest carbon and protecting biodiversity. Therefore, carbon-focused policies will likely generate substantially lower benefits to biodiversity than a more biodiversity-focused policy could achieve. These results highlight the need to systematically consider co-benefits, such as biodiversity in the design and implementation of forest conservation programs to support international climate policy.

  15. Improved Magnetron Stability and Reduced Noise in Efficient Transmitters for Superconducting Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Johnson, R. [MUONS Inc., Batavia; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Yakovlev, V. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    State of the art high-current superconducting accelerators require efficient RF sources with a fast dynamic phase and power control. This allows for compensation of the phase and amplitude deviations of the accelerating voltage in the Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities caused by microphonics, etc. Efficient magnetron transmitters with fast phase and power control are attractive RF sources for this application. They are more cost effective than traditional RF sources such as klystrons, IOTs and solid-state amplifiers used with large scale accelerator projects. However, unlike traditional RF sources, controlled magnetrons operate as forced oscillators. Study of the impact of the controlling signal on magnetron stability, noise and efficiency is therefore important. This paper discusses experiments with 2.45 GHz, 1 kW tubes and verifies our analytical model which is based on the charge drift approximation.

  16. Low frequency noise fiber delay stabilized laser with reduced sensitivity to acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argence, B.; Clivati, C.; Dournaux, J.-L.; Holleville, D.; Faure, B.; Lemonde, P.; Santarelli, G.

    2017-11-01

    Lasers with sub-hertz line-width and fractional frequency instability around 1×10-15 for 0.1 s to 10 s averaging time are currently realized by locking onto an ultra-stable Fabry-Perot cavity using the Pound-Drever-Hall method. This powerful method requires tight alignment of free space optical components, precise polarization adjustment and spatial mode matching. To circumvent these issues, we use an all-fiber Michelson interferometer with a long fiber spool as a frequency reference and a heterodyne detection technique with a fibered acousto optical modulator (AOM)1. At low Fourier frequencies, the frequency noise of our system is mainly limited by mechanical vibrations, an issue that has already been explored in the field of optoelectronic oscillators.2,3,4

  17. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N_2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N_2O and CH_4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N_2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH_4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N_2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH_4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al"3"+ toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N_2O and CH_4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH_4 emissions and, under CT, abate N_2O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N_2O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N_2O and CH_4 emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT. • NT and liming provide an opportunity for N_2O and CH_4 mitigation.

  18. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  19. Testing climate-smart irrigation strategies to reduce methane emissions from rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Approximately 11% of the global 308 Tg CH4 anthropogenic emissions are currently attributed to rice cultivation. In this study, the impact of water conservation practices on rice field CH4 emissions was evaluated in Arkansas, the leading state in US rice cultivation. While conserving water, the Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) irrigation practice can also reduce CH4 emissions through the deliberate, periodic introduction of aerobic conditions. Seasonal CH4emissions from a pair of adjacent, production-sized rice fields were estimated and compared during the 2015 to 2017 growing seasons using the eddy covariance method on each field. The fields were alternately treated with continuous flood (CF) and AWD irrigation. In 2015, the seasonal cumulative carbon losses by CH4 emission were 30.3 ± 6.3 and 141.9 ± 8.6 kg CH4-C ha-1 for the AWD and CF treatments, respectively. Data from 2016 and 2017 will be analyzed and shown within this presentation; an initial view demonstrates consistent findings to 2015. When accounting for differences in field conditions and soils, the AWD practice is attributable to a 36-51% reduction in seasonal emissions. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD supports previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in Arkansas rice production. The AWD practice has enabled the sale of credits for carbon offsets trading and this new market could encourage CH4 emissions reductions on a national scale. These eddy covariance towers are being placed into a regional perspective including crop and forest land in the three states comprising the Mississippi Delta: Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

  20. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  1. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de, M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions of airborne dust, total bacteria, ammonia, and CO2 from pig houses in winter. The three multi-stage scrubbers were one double-stage scrubber (acid stage+ bio-filter), one double-stage ...

  2. Equatorial noise emissions observed by the DEMETER spacecraft during geomagnetic storms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej

    121, 10 (2016), s. 9744-9757 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : altitude satellite Demeter * proton ring distributions * fast magnetosonic waves * Van Allen probes * cluster spacecraft * elf emissions * ULF waves * spatiotemporal variability * inner magnetosphere * magnetic equator Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA023145/full

  3. Potential of Windbreak Trees to Reduce Carbon Emissions by Agricultural Operations in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ballesteros-Possu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with sequestering C in forest, trees on farms are able to contribute to greenhouse mitigation through emission avoidance mechanisms. To evaluate the magnitude of these contributions, emission avoidance contributions for field and farmstead windbreak designs in regions across the United States were estimated, along with greenhouse gas (GHG emission budgets for corn, soybean, winter wheat, and potato operations. We looked at farming scenarios with large (600 ha, mid (300 ha, and small-size (60 ha farms containing farmsteads built before and after 2000, and growing different cropping systems. Windbreak scenarios were assumed to be up to 5% of the crop area for field windbreaks, while emission avoidance for farmstead windbreaks were assumed to provide a 10% and 25% reduction in energy usage for space conditioning and heating, respectively. Total reduction of C equivalent (CE emissions by windbreaks on farm systems ranged from a low of 0.9 Mg CE year−1 for a 60-ha farm with a home built before 2000 to 39.1 Mg CE year−1 for a 600-ha farm with a home built after 2000. By reducing fossil fuel usage from farm operations, windbreaks provide a promising strategy for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture in the USA.

  4. An assessment of nitrification inhibitors to reduce nitrous oxide emissions from UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misselbrook, T H; Cardenas, L M; Camp, V; Thorman, R E; Williams, J R; Rollett, A J; Chambers, B J

    2014-01-01

    A trial was conducted consisting of 14 experiments across sites in England of contrasting soil type and annual rainfall to assess the effectiveness of nitrification inhibitors (predominantly dicyandiamide (DCD) but limited assessment also of 3, 4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and a commercial product containing two pyrazole derivatives) in reducing direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from fertilizer nitrogen (N), cattle urine and cattle slurry applications to land. Measurements were also made of the impact on ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization, nitrate (NO 3 − ) leaching, crop yield and crop N offtake. DCD proved to be very effective in reducing direct N 2 O emissions following fertilizer and cattle urine applications, with mean reduction efficiencies of 39, 69 and 70% for ammonium nitrate, urea and cattle urine, respectively. When included with cattle slurry a mean, non-significant reduction of 56% was observed. There were no N 2 O emission reductions observed from the limited assessments of the other nitrification inhibitors. Generally, there were no impacts of the nitrification inhibitors on NH 3 volatilization, NO 3 − leaching, crop yield or crop N offtake. Use of DCD could give up to 20% reduction in N 2 O emissions from UK agriculture, but cost-effective delivery mechanisms are required to encourage adoption by the sector. Direct N 2 O emissions from the studied sources were substantially lower than IPCC default values and development of UK country-specific emission factors for use in inventory compilation is warranted. (paper)

  5. The impact of optimal respiratory gating and image noise on evaluation of intra-tumor heterogeneity in 18F-FDG positron emission tomography imaging of lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, W.; Tixier, F.; Vos, C.S. van der; Vriens, D.; Rest, C.C. Le; Bussink, J.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Visvikis, D.; Visser, E.P.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of measurement accuracy of intra-tumor heterogeneity using texture features in positron emission tomography (PET) images is essential to characterize cancer lesions with high precision. In this study, we investigated the influence of respiratory motion and varying noise levels on

  6. Reducing radiation dose in liver enhanced CT scan by setting mAs according to plain scan noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shangwen; He Jian; Yang Xianfeng; Zhou Kefeng; Xin Xiaoyan; Hu Anning; Zhu Bin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of setting mAs in liver enhanced CT scan according to plain scan noise with fixed mA CT scanner, in order to reduce the radiation dose. Methods: One hundred continuous patients underwent liver enhanced CT scan (group A) prospectively. Two hundred and fifty mAs was used in plain and enhanced CT scans. Noises of plain and venous phase CT images were measured, and the image quality was evaluated. The equation between mAs of enhanced scan and noise of plain scan image was derived. Another 100 continuous patients underwent liver enhanced CT scan (group B). Enhanced scan mAs was calculated from noise on plain scan by using the equation above. Noises on venous phase images were measured and the image quality was measured. Based on body mass index (BMI), patients in groups A and B were divided into three subgroups respectively: BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 , 18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 and BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 . Image quality score was compared with nonparametric rank sum test, CT dose index (CTDI) and effective dose (ED) were measured and compared between each subgroup with 2 independent samples t or t' test. Results: The equation between enhanced scan mAs (mAsX) and plain scan noise (SDp) was as follows: mAsX = mAs1 × [(0.989 × SDp + 1.06) /SDx] 2 , mAs1 = 250 mAs, SDx = 13. In patients with BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 , ED of group A [(6.86 ± 0.38) mSv, n = 12] was significantly higher than group B [(2.66 ± 0.46) mSv, n = 10)] (t = 18.52, P < 0.01). In patients with 18.5 kg/m 2 ≤ BMI < 25.0 kg/m 2 , ED of group A [(7.08 ± 0.91) mSv, n = 66] was significantly higher than group B [(4.50 ± 1.41) mSv, n = 73] (t' = 10.57, P < 0.01). In patients with BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2 , there was no significant difference between EDs of group A (7.54 ± 0.62 mSv, n = 22) and group B [(8.19 ± 3.16) mSv, n = 17] (t' = 0.89, P = 0.39). Image quality of 5 patients in group A and none in group B did not meet the diagnostic requirement

  7. Delay-feedback control strategy for reducing CO2 emission of traffic flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Dong; Zhu, Wen-Xing

    2015-06-01

    To study the signal control strategy for reducing traffic emission theoretically, we first presented a kind of discrete traffic flow model with relative speed term based on traditional coupled map car-following model. In the model, the relative speed difference between two successive running cars is incorporated into following vehicle's acceleration running equation. Then we analyzed its stability condition with discrete control system stability theory. Third, we designed a delay-feedback controller to suppress traffic jam and decrease traffic emission based on modern controller theory. Last, numerical simulations are made to support our theoretical results, including the comparison of models' stability analysis, the influence of model type and signal control on CO2 emissions. The results show that the temporal behavior of our model is superior to other models, and the traffic signal controller has good effect on traffic jam suppression and traffic CO2 emission, which fully supports the theoretical conclusions.

  8. New technology on Otto engines for reducing the exhaust emission toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikarovska, Vesna; Stojanovski, Vasko

    2003-01-01

    The exhaust emission from the Otto engines with internal combustion contains a lot of toxicant components for human being as well as for the surrounding. There are a lot of possibilities to realize the engine work with minimum emission of toxicant components. However, all solutions could not be racial, especially if the engine should work with minimum fuel consumption. The engineers look for the solutions where the reducing of the exhaust emission toxicity could be done with the total fuel utilization in the engine's cylinder, without additionally combustion in catalytic or thermal reactors. The paper describes the new technologies for detail investigation of the combustion processes and optimization of all influence parameters on exhaust gases emission. (Original)

  9. Application of an EGR system in a direct injection diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Serio, D.; De Oliveira, A.; Sodré, J. R.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents the application of an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system in a direct injection diesel engine operating with diesel oil containing 7% biodiesel (B7). EGR rates of up to 10% were applied with the primary aim to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. The experiments were conducted in a 44 kW diesel power generator to evaluate engine performance and emissions for different load settings. The use of EGR caused a peak pressure reduction during the combustion process and a decrease in thermal efficiency, mainly at high engine loads. A reduction of NOx emissions of up to 26% was achieved, though penalizing carbon monoxide (CO) and total hydrocarbons (THC) emissions.

  10. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW incinerator emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Though activated carbon is, by no means, a newcomer to the pollution control field, having been used as a water purifier and more recently demonstrated as a flue gas cleaner on power plants, it is now attracting considerable attention in Europe as a means to reduce further the quantity of toxic organic and metal emissions from new and existing municipal waste combustors. Since activated carbon is a potentially important future emissions control technology for MWCs in the US, particularly for removal of mercury and dioxin, this paper discusses the impetus which has motivated the experimentation with various activated carbon technologies which is now taking place, will describe how some of the activated carbon systems (e.g., post-emissions control fixed carbon bed and injection of carbon with scrubber reagent) being tested now function and where they fit in existing pollution control trains, and will present available performance data and emissions reductions actually achieved for each system

  11. Distributed generation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions : a case study for residential sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, P.S. [Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Mallela, V.S. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Sciences Shaikpet, Hyderabad (India); Allan, M.; Zhou, C. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a case study undertaken in Oman involving the use of a proposed hybrid diesel-photovoltaic distributed power system to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. A model of the hybrid power system comprising a photovoltaic module, a diesel generator, and essential auxiliary devices was presented. Solar energy was selected for the Distributed Generation Technology (DGT) because Oman has an abundance of direct solar radiation. A typical house located in a remote area was considered to determine the potential greenhouse gas reduction and the economic feasibility when it is powered by the proposed hybrid system, the diesel system alone, and the main interconnected grid. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electricity Renewables (HOMER) software was used for energy simulation, economic analysis, and the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results of the simulation indicated that the proposed hybrid system would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 38 percent relative to the stand-alone diesel system and by 2.67 percent compared to the main grid. The hybrid system has lower operating costs and a lower per-unit energy cost than the diesel system, but the per-unit energy cost estimated for the main interconnected system is better. The latter system is less favourable for GHG emissions. Extending the hybrid system to the entire residential sector has the potential to substantially reduce GHG emissions. The proposed hybrid system is also a cost effective choice for remote locations. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  12. An analytic study of applying Miller cycle to reduce NOx emission from petrol engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yaodong; Lin Lin; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Zeng Shengchuo; Huang, Jincheng; He Yunxin; Huang Xiaodong; Huang Huilan; Wei Haiyan; Li Shangping; Yang Jing

    2007-01-01

    An analytic investigation of applying Miller cycle to reduce nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from a petrol engine is carried out. The Miller cycle used in the investigation is a late intake valve closing version. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the cycle is presented. A comparison of the characters of Miller cycle with Otto cycle is presented. From the results of thermodynamic analyses, it can be seen that the application of Miller cycle is able to reduce the compression pressure and temperature in the cylinder at the end of compression stroke. Therefore, it lowers down the combustion temperature and NO x formation in engine cylinder. These results in a lower exhaust temperature and less NO x emissions compared with that of Otto cycle. The analytic results also show that Miller cycle ratio is a main factor to influence the combustion temperature, and then the NO x emissions and the exhaust temperature. The results from the analytic study are used to analyse and to compare with the previous experimental results. An empirical formula from the previous experimental results that showed the relation of NO x emissions with the exhaust temperature at different engine speed is presented. The results from the study showed that the application of Miller cycle may reduce NO x emissions from petrol engine

  13. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  14. Residential demand response reduces air pollutant emissions on peak electricity demand days in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbraith, Nathaniel; Powers, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    Many urban areas in the United States have experienced difficulty meeting the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), partially due to pollution from electricity generating units. We evaluated the potential for residential demand response to reduce pollutant emissions on days with above average pollutant emissions and a high potential for poor air quality. The study focused on New York City (NYC) due to non-attainment with NAAQS standards, large exposed populations, and the existing goal of reducing pollutant emissions. The baseline demand response scenario simulated a 1.8% average reduction in NYC peak demand on 49 days throughout the summer. Nitrogen oxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter emission reductions were predicted to occur (−70, −1.1 metric tons (MT) annually), although, these were not likely to be sufficient for NYC to meet the NAAQS. Air pollution mediated damages were predicted to decrease by $100,000–$300,000 annually. A sensitivity analysis predicted that substantially larger pollutant emission reductions would occur if electricity demand was shifted from daytime hours to nighttime hours, or the total consumption decreased. Policies which incentivize shifting electricity consumption away from periods of high human and environmental impacts should be implemented, including policies directed toward residential consumers. - Highlights: • The impact of residential demand response on air emissions was modeled. • Residential demand response will decrease pollutant emissions in NYC. • Emissions reductions occur during periods with high potential for poor air quality. • Shifting demand to nighttime hours was more beneficial than to off-peak daytime hours

  15. Swedish biomass strategies to reduce CO2 emission and oil use in an EU context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Jonas; Gustavsson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Swedish energy strategies for transportation, space heating and pulp industries were evaluated with a focus on bioenergy use. The aims were to 1) study trade-offs between reductions in CO 2 emission and oil use and between Swedish reductions and EU reductions, 2) compare the potential contributions of individual reduction measures, 3) quantify the total CO 2 emission and oil use reduction potentials. Swedish energy efficiency measures reduced EU CO 2 emission by 45–59 Mt CO 2 /a, at current biomass use and constant oil use. Doubling Swedish bioenergy use yielded an additional 40 Mt CO 2 /a reduction. Oil use could be reduced, but 36–81 kt of reductions in CO 2 emission would be lost per PJ of oil use reduction. Swedish fossil fuel use within the studied sectors could be nearly eliminated. The expansion of district heating and cogeneration of heat with a high electricity yield were important measures. Plug-in hybrid electric cars reduced CO 2 emission compared with conventional cars, and the difference was larger with increasing oil scarcity. The introduction of black liquor gasification in pulp mills also gave large CO 2 emission reduction. Motor fuel from biomass was found to be a feasible option when coal is the marginal fuel for fossil motor fuel production. -- Highlights: ► Bioenergy is compared to optimized fossil fuel use under different oil availability constraints. ► Swedish strategies are evaluated with respect to CO 2 emission and oil use reduction within Sweden and the EU. ► Efficiency measures give the largest reductions but increased bioenergy use is also important. ► District heating expansion, high electricity yield CHP, increased vehicle efficiency and PHEVs are important options. ► The studied sectors in Sweden could become nearly fossil-fuel free and yield an energy surplus.

  16. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO 2 , while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m 3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO 2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  17. Reducing the sound emission of TR 07 and effects on the German regulation ``Schall-Transrapid``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, K P [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany); Wolters, C [Industrieanlagen-Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Magnetbahn-Versuchsanlage, Lathen/Ems (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    To introduce a new maglev train systems in modern Germany it is important to know its sound emission. Conventional sound measurements were done on the maglev train TRANSRAPID 07 (TR07) to get all the values that are important for planning a new line. Furthermore a microphone array equipment was used to detect the dominant sound sources and their positions on the surface of the train. In a second step the shape was optimazed based on the acoustical investigations. The changes were made especially in the lower part of the bow. This configuration was measured again; the reduction of the noise emission was 3 dB(A) for the changed vehicle. As an example for the low sound emissions the planned schedule for the in service trains of the link between Hamburg and Berlin is reflected on the german regulations for the sound immissions. The result is that there is nearly no need of sound barriers. To use a speed of 200 km/h within the cities a distance of 16 m from the centreline to an immission point is needed. Outside the cities speeds of 400 km/h are possible for a distance of more than 53 m during the nighttime and of more than 23 m during the daytime. (orig.)

  18. Kinetics of fast short-term depression are matched to spike train statistics to reduce noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Nesse, William H; Longtin, Andre; Maler, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Short-term depression (STD) is observed at many synapses of the CNS and is important for diverse computations. We have discovered a form of fast STD (FSTD) in the synaptic responses of pyramidal cells evoked by stimulation of their electrosensory afferent fibers (P-units). The dynamics of the FSTD are matched to the mean and variance of natural P-unit discharge. FSTD exhibits switch-like behavior in that it is immediately activated with stimulus intervals near the mean interspike interval (ISI) of P-units (approximately 5 ms) and recovers immediately after stimulation with the slightly longer intervals (>7.5 ms) that also occur during P-unit natural and evoked discharge patterns. Remarkably, the magnitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials appear to depend only on the duration of the previous ISI. Our theoretical analysis suggests that FSTD can serve as a mechanism for noise reduction. Because the kinetics of depression are as fast as the natural spike statistics, this role is distinct from previously ascribed functional roles of STD in gain modulation, synchrony detection or as a temporal filter.

  19. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  20. Use of videoconferencing in Wales to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, travel costs and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Delyth; Tranter, Glynis; Axford, Alan T

    2009-01-01

    In September 2005 a telemedicine service was started to assist multidisciplinary teams in Wales to improve cancer services. In October 2006 and October 2007 users of videoconferencing equipment at one site completed questionnaires. During October 2006 a total of 18,000 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 1696 kg of CO(2) emission. During October 2007 a total of 20,800 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 2590 kg of CO(2) emission. We estimate that 48 trees would take a year to absorb that quantity of CO(2). The results of the surveys show that exploiting telemedicine makes better use of staff time, reduces the time spent travelling and assists in reducing climate change by limiting the emissions of CO(2).

  1. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e yr−1 by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21–40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates...... that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from......More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We...

  2. The economics of reducing CO2 emissions by solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakmann, G.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity to reduce CO 2 -emissions on a global scale is being recognized by scientists and politicians. If no scientific proof of a climate catastrophe due to CO 2 -emissions can be established, it would nevertheless be prudent to implement a form of global survival insurance policy, the premium of which is the required effort to reduce CO 2 -emissions. The implementation of such a policy without a considerable reduction in the living standard requires the replacement of fossil fuels by capital and/or know-how. It should be performed in the most economical manner. This leads to the replacement of the classical ''least cost power expansion strategy'' by the ''least cost power expansion/pollution limiting strategy''. Thereby projects have to compete no longer exclusively on low cost of energy production but on low cost of pollution reduction as well. (Author)

  3. Reducing health risk assigned to organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laman, David M; Weiler, B Douglas; Skeen, Rodney S

    2013-03-01

    Organic emissions from a chemical weapons incinerator have been characterized with an improved set of analytical methods to reduce the human health risk assigned to operations of the facility. A gas chromatography/mass selective detection method with substantially reduced detection limits has been used in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared microscopy to improve the speciation of semi-volatile and non-volatile organics emitted from the incinerator. The reduced detection limits have allowed a significant reduction in the assumed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and aminobiphenyl (ABP) emission rates used as inputs to the human health risk assessment for the incinerator. A mean factor of 17 decrease in assigned human health risk is realized for six common local exposure scenarios as a result of the reduced PAH and ABP detection limits.

  4. A policy instruments working paper on reducing CO2 emissions from the transportation sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The cost effectiveness of policy instruments for reducing CO 2 emissions from transportation was studied. Cost effectiveness analyzed the impact of the policy instruments in reducing CO 2 emissions against the costs that were incurred while obtaining CO 2 reductions. The approach to defining sustainable transportation was identified which integrates three different visions of the transportation challenge: (1) changing urban form to reduce the need for transportation, (2) advancing technology to reduce the ecological impact of transportation, and (3) changing prices of transportation so that users pay for the full social and environmental costs of their decisions. The general consensus was that while fuel tax on gasoline for automobiles appeared to be the most cost effective option available, all revenue generating options, (e.g.,parking pricing, reference energy factor-related rebates, full cost road pricing and taxation) rated higher on the cost effectiveness indexes than any of the other policy instruments considered. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Effectiveness of multi-stage scrubbers in reducing emissions of air pollutants from pig houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2011-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from livestock houses may raise environmental problems and pose hazards to public health. They can be reduced by scrubbers installed at the air outlets of livestock houses. In this study, three multi-stage scrubbers were evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in

  6. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  7. The economics of reducing emissions from community managed forests in Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karky, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The climate change agenda is more important in global politics today than ever before. This research set out to examine whether community forest management (CFM) can play a signifi cant role in reducing global emissions, by taking Nepal’s community forestry sector as a case. The thesis selects three

  8. Can Biochar Covers Reduce Emissions from Manure Lagoons While Capturing Nutrients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique physical and chemical properties of biochars make them promising materials for odor, gas, and nutrient sorption. Floating covers made from organic materials (biocovers) are one option for reducing odor and gas emissions from livestock manure lagoons. This study evaluat...

  9. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  10. In which sectors could new illumination technology strategically reduce CO2 emissions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-01-01

    , is engaged in several actions to reduce its CO2 emissions. The problem severity demands a capacity to react quickly and efficiently to better reach the international goals.   Traditionally, the efforts have concentrated on the residential sector. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to contribute...

  11. The 2D Hotelling filter - a quantitative noise-reducing principal-component filter for dynamic PET data, with applications in patient dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Jan; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the principal-component analysis filter (Hotelling filter) to reduce noise from dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) patient data, for a number of different radio-tracer molecules. We furthermore show how preprocessing images with this filter improves parametric images created from such dynamic sequence. We use zero-mean unit variance normalization, prior to performing a Hotelling filter on the slices of a dynamic time-series. The Scree-plot technique was used to determine which principal components to be rejected in the filter process. This filter was applied to [ 11 C]-acetate on heart and head-neck tumors, [ 18 F]-FDG on liver tumors and brain, and [ 11 C]-Raclopride on brain. Simulations of blood and tissue regions with noise properties matched to real PET data, was used to analyze how quantitation and resolution is affected by the Hotelling filter. Summing varying parts of a 90-frame [ 18 F]-FDG brain scan, we created 9-frame dynamic scans with image statistics comparable to 20 MBq, 60 MBq and 200 MBq injected activity. Hotelling filter performed on slices (2D) and on volumes (3D) were compared. The 2D Hotelling filter reduces noise in the tissue uptake drastically, so that it becomes simple to manually pick out regions-of-interest from noisy data. 2D Hotelling filter introduces less bias than 3D Hotelling filter in focal Raclopride uptake. Simulations show that the Hotelling filter is sensitive to typical blood peak in PET prior to tissue uptake have commenced, introducing a negative bias in early tissue uptake. Quantitation on real dynamic data is reliable. Two examples clearly show that pre-filtering the dynamic sequence with the Hotelling filter prior to Patlak-slope calculations gives clearly improved parametric image quality. We also show that a dramatic dose reduction can be achieved for Patlak slope images without changing image quality or quantitation. The 2D Hotelling-filtering of dynamic PET data is a computer

  12. 4.5 Tesla magnetic field reduces range of high-energy positrons -- Potential implications for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirrwar, A.; Vosberg, H.; Herzog, H.; Halling, H.; Weber, S.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

    1997-01-01

    The authors have theoretically and experimentally investigated the extent to which homogeneous magnetic fields up to 7 Tesla reduce the spatial distance positrons travel before annihilation (positron range). Computer simulations of a noncoincident detector design using a Monte Carlo algorithm calculated the positron range as a function of positron energy and magnetic field strength. The simulation predicted improvements in resolution, defined as full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the line-spread function (LSF) for a magnetic field strength up to 7 Tesla: negligible for F-18, from 3.35 mm to 2.73 mm for Ga-68 and from 3.66 mm to 2.68 mm for Rb-82. Also a substantial noise suppression was observed, described by the full-width at tenth-maximum (FWTM) for higher positron energies. The experimental approach confirmed an improvement in resolution for Ga-68 from 3.54 mm at 0 Tesla to 2.99 mm FWHM at 4.5 Tesla and practically no improvement for F-18 (2.97 mm at 0 Tesla and 2.95 mm at 4.5 Tesla). It is concluded that the simulation model is appropriate and that a homogeneous static magnetic field of 4.5 Tesla reduces the range of high-energy positrons to an extent that may improve spatial resolution in positron emission tomography

  13. Optimizing CT technique to reduce radiation dose: effect of changes in kVp, iterative reconstruction, and noise index on dose and noise in a human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kevin J; Collins, Scott; Li, Baojun; Mayo-Smith, William W

    2017-06-01

    For assessment of the effect of varying the peak kilovoltage (kVp), the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction technique (ASiR), and automatic dose modulation on radiation dose and image noise in a human cadaver, a cadaver torso underwent CT scanning at 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp, each at ASiR settings of 0, 30 and 50 %, and noise indices (NIs) of 5.5, 11 and 22. The volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ), image noise, and attenuation values of liver and fat were analyzed for 20 data sets. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDEs) and liver-to-fat contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated. Values for different combinations of kVp, ASiR, and NI were compared. The CTDI vol varied by a power of 2 with kVp values between 80 and 140 without ASiR. Increasing ASiR levels allowed a larger decrease in CTDI vol and SSDE at higher kVp than at lower kVp while image noise was held constant. In addition, CTDI vol and SSDE decreased with increasing NI at each kVp, but the decrease was greater at higher kVp than at lower kVp. Image noise increased with decreasing kVp despite a fixed NI; however, this noise could be offset with the use of ASiR. The CT number of the liver remained unchanged whereas that of fat decreased as the kVp decreased. Image noise and dose vary in a complicated manner when the kVp, ASiR, and NI are varied in a human cadaver. Optimization of CT protocols will require balancing of the effects of each of these parameters to maximize image quality while minimizing dose.

  14. Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20% reduction from 1988 levels, and 50% reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of $32, $113, $161, and $517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively $40, $178, $253, and $848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were $32, $55, $59, and $135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50% or 20% relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth

  15. Economic implications of reducing carbon emissions from energy use and industrial processes in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-H Henry; Timilsina, Govinda R; Landis, Florian

    2013-11-30

    This study assesses the economy-wide impacts of cutting CO2 emissions on the Brazilian economy. It finds that in 2040, the business-as-usual CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes would be almost three times as high as those in 2010 and would account for more than half of total national CO2 emissions. The current policy aims to reduce deforestation by 70 percent by 2017 and lower emissions intensity of the overall economy by 36-39 percent by 2020. If the policy were implemented as planned and continued to 2040, there would be no need to cut CO2 emissions from energy use and industrial processes until 2035, as emissions reduction through controlling deforestation would be enough to meet the voluntary carbon mitigation target of Brazil. The study also finds that using the carbon tax revenue to subsidize wind power can effectively increase the country's wind power output if that is the policy priority. Further, it finds evidence supporting the double dividend hypothesis, i.e., using revenue from a hypothetical carbon tax to finance a cut in labor income tax can significantly lower the GDP impacts of the carbon tax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K; Flury, S; Jayakumar, R; Fiener, P; Steger, K; Arya, V; Wilken, F; van Geldern, R; Premke, K

    2016-02-05

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km(2)) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  17. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  18. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K.; Flury, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Fiener, P.; Steger, K.; Arya, V.; Wilken, F.; van Geldern, R.; Premke, K.

    2016-02-01

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km2) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  19. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  20. Policy options to reduce passenger car CO2 emissions after 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    The EU has set emission targets for new cars up to 2020 and is now preparing the post 2020 legislation. The present study aims to give insight in the design of policies to further reduce passenger car emissions after 2020. Internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are now expected to enable deeper and less costly CO2 emission reductions than envisioned until recently. However, even advanced ICE vehicles will not enable to meet the very stringent long term emission reduction targets for passenger cars. Therefore transport policies need not only to reduce emissions of ICE vehicles, but also ensure that electric and hydrogen vehicles are phased in timely, along with low-CO2 electricity and hydrogen. Current legislation to regulate tank-to-wheel vehicle emissions is based on CO2-limits, expressed in g CO2/km. On the short term it is important to maximize the efficiency of conventional vehicles. At the same time it is essential to foster the market introduction of electric and hydrogen vehicles, given their potential to reach eventually much deeper overall CO2-reductions. When the market share of electric and hydrogen vehicles grows it becomes increasingly important to maximize their efficiency and to minimize their upstream CO2 emissions. Maximizing both efficiency and overall CO2-performance of all vehicle types - ICE, electric, and hydrogen - will be complicated to achieve with a single CO2-based standard. At this point an efficiency-based standard is more effective, and may offer some additional benefits too. The current report provides basic directions of how such legislation could be shaped.

  1. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  2. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  3. Animal board invited review: genetic possibilities to reduce enteric methane emissions from ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, N K; Oddy, V H; Basarab, J; Cammack, K; Hayes, B; Hegarty, R S; Lassen, J; McEwan, J C; Miller, S; Pinares-Patiño, C S; de Haas, Y

    2015-09-01

    Measuring and mitigating methane (CH4) emissions from livestock is of increasing importance for the environment and for policy making. Potentially, the most sustainable way of reducing enteric CH4 emission from ruminants is through the estimation of genomic breeding values to facilitate genetic selection. There is potential for adopting genetic selection and in the future genomic selection, for reduced CH4 emissions from ruminants. From this review it has been observed that both CH4 emissions and production (g/day) are a heritable and repeatable trait. CH4 emissions are strongly related to feed intake both in the short term (minutes to several hours) and over the medium term (days). When measured over the medium term, CH4 yield (MY, g CH4/kg dry matter intake) is a heritable and repeatable trait albeit with less genetic variation than for CH4 emissions. CH4 emissions of individual animals are moderately repeatable across diets, and across feeding levels, when measured in respiration chambers. Repeatability is lower when short term measurements are used, possibly due to variation in time and amount of feed ingested prior to the measurement. However, while repeated measurements add value; it is preferable the measures be separated by at least 3 to 14 days. This temporal separation of measurements needs to be investigated further. Given the above issue can be resolved, short term (over minutes to hours) measurements of CH4 emissions show promise, especially on systems where animals are fed ad libitum and frequency of meals is high. However, we believe that for short-term measurements to be useful for genetic evaluation, a number (between 3 and 20) of measurements will be required over an extended period of time (weeks to months). There are opportunities for using short-term measurements in standardised feeding situations such as breath 'sniffers' attached to milking parlours or total mixed ration feeding bins, to measure CH4. Genomic selection has the potential to

  4. Assessment of pathways to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger car fleets: Case study in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Md. Saniul; Hyde, Bernard; Duffy, Paul; McNabola, Aonghus

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of models provides a robust estimation of tailpipe CO 2 emissions. • Taxation impact of vehicle fleet dieselisation was modelled. • A scenario development approach was proposed for policy analysis. • EV provided the largest cost saving option than that of the other fuel technologies. - Abstract: This study modelled the Passenger (PC) fleet and other categories of road transport in Ireland from 2015 to 2035 to assess the impact of current and potential greenhouse gas mitigation policies on CO 2 emissions. Scenarios included the shift of purchasing towards diesel PCs over gasoline PCs. Scrappage rates were also calculated and applied to the fleet to predict future sales of PCs. Seven future policy scenarios were examined using different penetrations of PC sales for different vehicle technologies under current and alternative bio-fuel obligations. Tank to Wheel (T2W) tailpipe and Well to Wheel (W2W) CO 2 emissions, and energy demand were modelled using COPERT 4v11.3 and a recently published W2W CO 2 emissions model. A percentage reduction of conventional diesel and petrol vehicles, in different scenarios compared to a baseline scenario in the W2W model was applied to estimate the likely changes in T2W emissions at the tailpipe up to 2035. The results revealed that the biofuel policy scenario was insufficient in achieving a significant reduction of CO 2 emissions. However, without a fixed reduction target for CO 2 from the road transport sector, the success of policy scenarios in the long run is difficult to compare. The current Electric vehicle (EV) policy in Ireland is required to be implemented to reduce CO 2 emissions by a significant level. Results also show that a similar achievement of CO 2 emission reduction could be possible by using alternative vehicle technologies with higher abatement cost. However, as EV based policies have not been successful so far, Ireland may need to search for alternative pathways.

  5. Local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the context of national action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Municipalities can play a number of important roles to complement national actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions: (i) by facilitating comprehensive, city-wide building retrofit activities; (ii) by facilitating the development and/or expansion of community integrated energy systems involving district heating, district cooling, and cogeneration of electricity; and (iii) by promoting urban intensification to reduce the need to use the private automobile. Innovative institutional and financial mechanism are needed to overcome some of the persistent barriers to more efficient energy use in buildings and a number of concepts, which are currently being considered by the City of Toronto as part of its programme to reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% from the 1988 level by 2005, are discussed here. These concepts involve using public securitization funds to leverage private sector funds for energy efficiency retrofits and a number of measures to reduce financing and retrofit transaction costs. Even where surplus electricity generating capacity exists at the regional scale, reduced electricity demand can still result in avoided utility system costs if transmission bottlenecks and future transmission and transformer upgrade costs are reduced. Finally, given the need to replace or modify many of the existing commercial chillers due to the phase out of CFC's, a window of opportunity exists during the next few years to provide alternative, chlorocarbon-free district cooling systems based on absorption chillers using waste heat from electricity generation, with significant (30-65%) CO 2 emission savings. (au)

  6. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low-carbon electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Hales, Simon; Chiabai, Aline; Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Tonne, Cathryn; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-12

    In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim to reduce total carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions by 50% by 2050 globally compared with the effect of emissions in 1990. We use three models: the POLES model, which identifies the distribution of production modes that give the desired CO(2) reductions and associated costs; the GAINS model, which estimates fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) concentrations; and a model to estimate the effect of PM(2.5) on mortality on the basis of the WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment methods. Changes in modes of production of electricity to reduce CO(2) emissions would, in all regions, reduce PM(2.5) and deaths caused by it, with the greatest effect in India and the smallest in the EU. Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation, especially in India where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low. Our estimates are approximations but suggest clear health gains (co-benefits) through decarbonising electricity production, and provide additional information about the extent of such gains.

  7. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  8. Reducing refinery CO2 emissions through amine solvent upgrade and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Thiago V.; Valenzuela, Michelle [The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Regional initiatives are underway to reduce and limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With CO2 emissions making up over 80% of the greenhouse gases, cap-and-trade programs will focus on those industries that consume the most energy. Refineries are among the top energy consumers and are seeking opportunities to reduce usage. With tightening margins, energy management programs will not only help refineries meet CO{sub 2} emission regulations, but can also provide a competitive advantage. With the trend towards heavier and higher sulfur containing crudes, refineries are increasing processing capabilities, which can include capital-intensive projects and additional energy consumption. Energy conservation plans should include optimization of these processes. One area to consider includes the acid gas removal systems in refineries. Through the selection and use of optimal solvents and implementation of energy efficiency techniques, which require minimal capital investment and expenditures, refineries can reduce energy usage, overall CO{sub 2} emissions, and total cost in acid gas systems. This paper will discuss these approaches and share case studies detailing the implementation and results. (author)

  9. Reducing CO2 Emissions in the Production of Porous Fired Clay Bricksks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš ŠVEDA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A plan to reduce CO2 emissions is a priority these days. Brick industry contributes to the increase of these emissions mainly through the use of combustible pore-forming agents such as sawdust, cellulose, and coal sludge. These agents are used to improve the thermal insulation properties of brick products, and the suppliers regularly increase the prices of these agents based on their high consumption. Therefore, in an effort to reduce raw material expenses and CO2 emissions, brick manufacturers are looking for new possibilities while maintaining the quality of their products. This article discusses the possibility of using industrially manufactured product Vuppor as an additive as a replacement for combustible pore-forming agents. The presence of this additive in the fired clay body increases the proportion of pores, especially with a size range between 0.1 and 5 µm, having a positive impact on the reduction of its thermal conductivity. With a 0.5 wt.% dose of Vuppor additive, the brick production costs and thermal conductivity can be reduced by 20 % and 12 %, respectively, while also achieving reductions in CO2 emissions over 60 %. Consequently, the combustible pore-forming agents can be used in a more environmentally friendly manner, for example in the furniture industry, the biogas production, and the like.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15103

  10. Actions to reduce radioactive emissions: prevention of containment failure by flooding Containment and Reactor Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornos Herrando, J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor cavity of Asco and Vandellos II is dry type, thus a severe accident leading to vessel failure might potentially end up resulting in the loss of containment integrity, depending on the viability to cool the molten core. Therefore, significant radioactive emissions could be released to outside. In the framework of Fukushima Stress Tests, ANAV has analyzed the convenience of carrying out different actions to prevent failure of the containment integrity in order to reduce radioactive emissions. The aim of this paper is to present and describe the main phenomenological aspects associated with two of these actions: containment flooding and reactor cavity flooding.

  11. Barriers to reducing carbon emissions in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe accounted for 27% of global carbon emissions in 1986. Although the recent opening of the former planned economies offers numerous opportunities to improve energy use efficiency in these regions and reduce their energy-related carbon emissions, various barriers hinder changes in Eastern European energy use. These barriers include the following: lack of incentives; insufficient infrastructure; scarce human resources; and heavy reliance on low quality fuels. Energy intensity in these countries far surpasses the estimated energy intensity in the United States and Western Europe. However, substantial potential exists for improving the efficiency of energy use in these regions

  12. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  13. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.; Pierret, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have mov...

  14. Reduced linear noise approximation for biochemical reaction networks with time-scale separation: The stochastic tQSSA+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Narmada; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2018-03-01

    Biochemical reaction networks often involve reactions that take place on different time scales, giving rise to "slow" and "fast" system variables. This property is widely used in the analysis of systems to obtain dynamical models with reduced dimensions. In this paper, we consider stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction networks modeled using the Linear Noise Approximation (LNA). Under time-scale separation conditions, we obtain a reduced-order LNA that approximates both the slow and fast variables in the system. We mathematically prove that the first and second moments of this reduced-order model converge to those of the full system as the time-scale separation becomes large. These mathematical results, in particular, provide a rigorous justification to the accuracy of LNA models derived using the stochastic total quasi-steady state approximation (tQSSA). Since, in contrast to the stochastic tQSSA, our reduced-order model also provides approximations for the fast variable stochastic properties, we term our method the "stochastic tQSSA+". Finally, we demonstrate the application of our approach on two biochemical network motifs found in gene-regulatory and signal transduction networks.

  15. Pre-service Acoustic Emission Testing for Metal Pressure Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Jong Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The field application of acoustic emission(AE) testing for brand-new metal pressure vessel were performed. We will introduce the test procedure for acoustic emission test such as instrument check distance between sensors, sensor location, whole system calibration, pressurization sequence, noise reduction and evaluation. The data of acoustic emission test contain many noise signal, these noise can be reduced by time filtering which based on the description of observation during AE test

  16. Differences in the suppression of distortion product otoacoustic emissions by contralateral white noise between patients with acute or chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, Maria; Komis, Agis; Marangoudakis, Pavlos; Naxakis, Stefanos; Ferekidis, Eleftherios; Kandiloros, Dimitrios; Danielides, Vasilios

    2017-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the shift from acute tinnitus to chronic remain obscure. An association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) reflex dysfunction has been hypothesised by several studies. The differences between participants with acute and chronic tinnitus have not yet been investigated. Participants were examined with distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) suppression elicited by contralateral white noise. They were compared in terms of frequency regions with non-recordable DPOAEs, suppression amplitudes and the presence of DPOAE enhancement. Eighteen participants with acute tinnitus, 40 age-matched adults with chronic tinnitus and 17 controls were included. All participants (aged 34.7 ± 9.6years; mean ± Standard deviation) had normal hearing. Tinnitus was bilateral in 22 participants and unilateral in 36. Ears with chronic tinnitus presented significantly lower DPOAE suppression amplitudes than ears with acute tinnitus (p tinnitus ears present a high prevalence of enhancement, significantly different from controls (p tinnitus and control groups (p tinnitus becomes chronic, DPOAEs suppression presents changes that might reveal corresponding steps in tinnitus pathophysiology. Treatment implications are discussed.

  17. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  18. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  19. Assessing the potential of hybrid energy technology to reduce exhaust emissions from global shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedes, Eleftherios K.; Hudson, Dominic A.; Turnock, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    The combination of a prime mover and an energy storage device for reduction of fuel consumption has successfully been used in automotive industry. The shipping industry has utilised this for conventional submarines. The potential of a load levelling strategy through use of a hybrid battery–diesel–electric propulsion system is investigated. The goal is to reduce exhaust gas emissions by reducing fuel oil consumption through consideration of a re-engineered ship propulsion system. This work is based on operational data for a shipping fleet containing all types of bulk carriers. The engine loading and the energy requirements are calculated, and sizing of suitable propulsion and the battery storage system are proposed. The changes in overall emissions are estimated and the potential for fuel savings identified. The efficiency of the system depends on the storage medium type, the availability of energy and the displacement characteristics of the examined vessels. These results for the global fleet indicate that savings depending on storage system, vessel condition and vessel type could be up to 0.32 million tonnes in NO x , 0.07 million tonnes in SO x and 4.1 million tonnes in CO 2 . These represent a maximum 14% of reduction in dry bulk sector and 1.8% of world's fleet emissions. - Highlights: ► Global shipping makes a significant contribution to CO 2 , SO x and NO x emissions. ► We examine noon reports from a fleet of bulk carriers to identify the amount engine is operating off design. ► A hybrid propulsion system is proposed that uses multiple diesel–electric generators and battery storage. ► Analysis indicates hybrid may give an attractive rate of return as well as emissions savings in emissions. ► Implementation will require review of class society regulations.

  20. The benefits and costs of reducing emissions from the electricity sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen; Burtraw, Dallas; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2007-04-01

    Recent federal policy proposals to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury from the US electricity sector promise important improvements in air quality and reductions in acid deposition. The cost of achieving these reductions depends on the form and stringency of the regulation. In this research, we analyze the economic benefits and costs of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as characterized in the supplemental rule proposed in June 2004, and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed in February 2004. The assessment integrates a model of the electricity sector, two models of atmospheric transport of air pollutants, and a model of environmental and public health endpoints affected by pollution. We model explicitly the emissions of SO(2), NO(x), mercury and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and the effects of changes in emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) on environmental and public health. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications not only for the cost of the regulation, but also for emission levels for SO(2) and NO(x) and where those emissions are located. We find the economic benefits of CAIR and CAMR are far greater than the costs. Recent estimates of benefits of reductions in mercury and acidification indicate that our model captures the lion's share of quantifiable benefits. We also find that the EPA would have been justified on economic grounds in pursuing additional SO(2) emissions reductions beyond the requirements of CAIR.

  1. Reducing carbon emissions through improved household energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekins, P.; Hargreaves, C.

    2002-01-01

    A number of schemes to increase household energy efficiency have operated in the UK over the last 5-10 years. This paper evaluates their effectiveness in terms of reducing household energy use, carbon emissions and fuel poverty. It then draws on the quantitative results of these schemes, and published plans for their continuation, to model an extended and expanded Household Energy Efficiency Scenario to 2020, using an integrated economy-energy-environment model of the UK. The results suggest that while such schemes can play a significant role in reducing carbon emissions from households, much more ambitious schemes than those currently implemented will be necessary to offset the underlying growth in these emissions. Finally, the results are compared with the UK government's own estimates, in its Climate Change Programme, of carbon emission reductions from such schemes to 2010. The paper concludes that the government's estimates are somewhat optimistic, and that it will need substantial new policy measures beyond those already announced if its carbon reduction targets in this area are to be met. (author)

  2. Potential for reducing global carbon emissions from electricity production-A bench marking analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.; Tay, L.P. [National University of Singapore (Singapore). Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

    2011-05-15

    We present five performance indicators for electricity generation for 129 countries using the 2005 data. These indicators, measured at the national level, are the aggregate CO{sub 2} intensity of electricity production, the efficiencies of coal, oil and gas generation and the share of electricity produced from non-fossil fuels. We conduct a study on the potential for reducing global energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production through simple bench marking. This is performed based on the last four performance indicators and the construction of a cumulative curve for each of these indicators. It is found that global CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity production would be reduced by 19% if all these indicators are benchmarked at the 50th percentile. Not surprisingly, the emission reduction potential measured in absolute terms is the highest for large countries such as China, India, Russia and the United States. When the potential is expressed as a percentage of a country's own emissions, few of these countries appear in the top-five list. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. H2 production by reforming route in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphaelle Imbault

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays the most common way to produce hydrogen is the Steam Methane Reforming route from natural gas. With the pressure of new environmental rules, reducing CO 2 emissions becomes a key issue. The European project Ulcos (Ultra Low CO 2 Steelmaking) has targeted to reduce of at least 50% the CO 2 emissions in steelmaking. The H 2 route (and in particular the reforming process) is one of the solutions which have been explored. The results of this study have shown that the two main ways (which can be combined) of limiting CO 2 emissions in H 2 production are to improve the energetic efficiency of the plant or to capture CO 2 . With the first way, a reduction of 20% of emissions compared to conventional plant can be reached. The second one enables to achieve a decrease of 90%. However the CO 2 capture is much more expensive and this kind of solution can be economically competitive only if high CO 2 taxes are implemented (≥40 Euros/ton). (author)

  4. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution.

  6. Brake noise measurements on mixed freight trains with composite brake blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, E.H.W.; Dittrich, M.G.; Sikma, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    Brake noise is known to be a major contributor to the total sound emission of railway yards and areas near stations. It has been established that composite brake blocks reduce rolling noise, but it is not known if this is also the case for braking noise. Therefore, in order to investigate this,

  7. Nitrogen rate strategies for reducing yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Nafziger, Emerson D.; Pittelkow, Cameron M.

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating nitrogen (N) losses from agriculture without negatively impacting crop productivity is a pressing environmental and economic challenge. Reductions in N fertilizer rate are often highlighted as a solution, yet the degree to which crop yields and economic returns may be impacted at the field-level remains unclear, in part due to limited data availability. Farmers are risk averse and potential yield losses may limit the success of voluntary N loss mitigation protocols, thus understanding field-level yield tradeoffs is critical to inform policy development. Using a case study of soil N2O mitigation in the US Midwest, we conducted an ex-post assessment of two economic and two environmental N rate reduction strategies to identify promising practices for maintaining maize yields and economic returns while reducing N2O emissions per unit yield (i.e. yield-scaled emissions) compared to an assumed baseline N input level. Maize yield response data from 201 on-farm N rate experiments were combined with an empirical equation predicting N2O emissions as a function of N rate. Results indicate that the economic strategy aimed at maximizing returns to N (MRTN) led to moderate but consistent reductions in yield-scaled N2O emissions with small negative impacts on yield and slight increases in median returns. The economic optimum N rate strategy reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions in 75% of cases but increased them otherwise, challenging the assumption that this strategy will automatically reduce environmental impacts per unit production. Both environmental strategies, one designed to increase N recovery efficiency and one to balance N inputs with grain N removal, further reduced yield-scaled N2O emissions but were also associated with negative yield penalties and decreased returns. These results highlight the inherent tension between achieving agronomic and economic goals while reducing environmental impacts which is often overlooked in policy discussions. To enable the

  8. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongel, Aybike; Sezgin, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  9. Assessing the effects of noise abatement measures on health risks: A case study in Istanbul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ongel, Aybike, E-mail: aybike.ongel@eng.bahcesehir.edu.tr [Bahcesehir University, Department of Civil Engineering, Istanbul 34353 (Turkey); Sezgin, Fatih, E-mail: fatih.sezgin@ibb.gov.tr [Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, Environmental Protection Agency, Istanbul 34169 (Turkey)

    2016-01-15

    In recent decades, noise pollution caused by industrialization and increased motorization has become a major concern around the world because of its adverse effects on human well-being. Therefore, transportation agencies have been implementing noise abatement measures in order to reduce road traffic noise. However, limited attention is given to noise in environmental assessment of road transportation systems. This paper presents a framework for a health impact assessment model for road transportation noise emissions. The model allows noise impacts to be addressed with the health effects of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions from road transportation. The health damages assessed in the model include annoyance, sleep disturbance, and cardiovascular disease in terms of acute myocardial infarction. The model was applied in a case study in Istanbul in order to evaluate the change in health risks from the implementation of noise abatement strategies. The noise abatement strategies evaluated include altering pavement surfaces in order to absorb noise and introducing speed limits. It was shown that significant improvements in health risks can be achieved using open graded pavement surfaces and introducing speed limits on highways. - Highlights: • Transportation noise has a significant effect on health. • Noise should be included in the environmental assessment of transportation systems. • Traffic noise abatement measures include noise reducing pavements and speed limits. • Noise abatement measures help reduce the health risks of transportation noise. • Speed limit reduction on uncongested roads is an effective way to reduce health risks.

  10. Equity and efficiency in policies to reduce carbon emissions in the domestic sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Johnstone, N.

    1993-01-01

    It is frequently asserted that the distribution effects of a carbon/energy tax - such as that proposed by the Commission of the European Communities - will be largely regressive: that the burden of the tax will fall disproportionately on lower income households. Such an assertion, although valid within the confines of the respective analyses, is based upon an unduly limited treatment of the fiscal implications of such a tax as well as a simplification of the demand for energy services in the domestic sector. It will be argued that such analyses, by implicitly assuming that efficiency objectives (reducing carbon emissions at lowest cost) and equity objectives (ensuring that lower-income households do not suffer welfare losses) are to be separately achieved, overstate the cost of reducing emissions in terms of both objectives. (Author)

  11. Reducing the Effects of Background Noise during Auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Speech Processing: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparisons between Two Image Acquisition Schemes and Noise Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Graham A.; Hall, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The intense sound generated during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) complicates studies of speech and hearing. This experiment evaluated the benefits of using active noise cancellation (ANC), which attenuates the level of the scanner sound at the participant's ear by up to 35 dB around the peak at 600 Hz. Method: Speech and…

  12. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  13. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  14. Recombination region improvement for reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent OLEDs with dual emissive layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhu; Zhou, Shunliang [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China); Hu, Song [Chengdu Institute of Optics and Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610209 (China); Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-10-15

    High-performance phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) by using dual-emissive-layer (DEL) structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. The DEL was comprised of a hole-transport-type host of N, N′-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N, N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (NPB) and a bipolar host of 4,4′-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl (CBP), which were both doped with an orange phosphorescent dopant of bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-benzothiazolato-N,C2′]iridium (acetylacetonate) [(t-bt){sub 2}Ir(acac)]. After the optimization of doping concentration of the first emissive layer (FEL), the device with DEL exhibited 11% lower roll-off power efficiency than single emissive layer devices (SED) when the luminance increased from 1000 cd/m{sup 2} to 10,000 cd/m{sup 2}. The hole–electron recombination zone in DEL was illuminated by inserting an ultrathin fluorescent probe of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6 (1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) in different emissive regions. The performance improvement was attributed to the optimization of energy barrier and the expansion of exciton formation zone within the DEL. - Highlights: • PhOLEDs by using a dual-emissive-layer structure to reduce efficiency roll-off were fabricated. • The DED exhibited 11% lower efficiency roll-off, 57% lower turn-on voltage, and 174% higher brightness than SED. • A DCJTB fluorescent probe was inserted at different positions of DED to investigate the expansion of exciton formation zone.

  15. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  16. A stochastic optimization approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karan, Ebrahim; Asadi, Somayeh; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of building- and transportation-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions makes the adoption of all-EVs (electric vehicles) powered with renewable power as one of the most effective strategies to reduce emission of GHGs. This paper formulates the problem of GHG mitigation strategy under uncertain conditions and optimizes the strategies in which EVs are powered by solar energy. Under a pre-specified budget, the objective is to determine the type of EV and power generation capacity of the solar system in such a way as to maximize GHG emissions reductions. The model supports the three primary solar systems: off-grid, grid-tied, and hybrid. First, a stochastic optimization model using probability distributions of stochastic variables and EV and solar system specifications is developed. The model is then validated by comparing the estimated values of the optimal strategies and actual values. It is found that the mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a hybrid solar system lead to the best cost-expected reduction of CO_2 emissions ratio. The results show an accuracy of about 4% for mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a grid-tied or hybrid solar system and 11% when applied to estimate the CO_2 emissions reductions of an off-grid system. - Highlights: • The problem of GHG mitigation is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem. • The objective is to maximize CO_2 emissions reductions within a specified budget. • The stochastic model is validated using actual data. • The results show an estimation accuracy of 4–11%.

  17. Noise immission from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The project has dealt with practical ways to reduce the influence of background noise caused by wind acting on the measuring microphones. The uncertainty of measured noise emission (source strength) has been investigated. The main activity was a Round Robin Test involving measurements by five laboratories at the same wind turbine. Each laboratory brought its own instrumentation and performed the measurements and analyses according to their interpretation. The tonality of wind turbine noise is an essential component of the noise impact on the environment. In the present project the uncertainty in the newest existing methods for assessing tonality was investigated. The project included noise propagation measurements in different weather conditions around wind turbines situated in different types of terrain. The results were used to validate a noise propagation model developed in the project. Finally, the project also included a study with listeners evaluating recordings of wind turbine noise. The results are intended as guidance for wind turbine manufacturers in identifying the aspects of wind turbine noise most important to annoyance. (author)

  18. System and method for making metallic iron with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Richard F; Englund, David J; Schlichting, Mark; Meehan, John; Crouch, Jeremiah; Wilson, Logan

    2014-10-14

    A method and system for making metallic iron nodules with reduced CO.sub.2 emissions is disclosed. The method includes: assembling a linear hearth furnace having entry and exit portions, at least a conversion zone and a fusion zone, and a moving hearth adapted to move reducible iron bearing material through the furnace on contiguous hearth sections; assembling a shrouded return substantially free of air ingress extending adjacent at least the conversion and fusion zones of the furnace through which hearth sections can move from adjacent the exit portion to adjacent the entry portion of the furnace; transferring the hearth sections from the furnace to the shrouded return adjacent the exit portion; reducing reducible material in the linear hearth furnace to metallic iron nodules; and transporting gases from at least the fusion zone to the shrouded return to heat the hearth sections while in the shrouded return.

  19. Reducing CO2 emissions on the electric grid through a carbon disincentive policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the operation of an electric grid with renewable wind generation and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). In particular, PEVs will be the controllable demand that can mitigate the intermittency in wind generation and improve the capacity factors of the non-renewable generation assets on the grid. Optimization problems are formulated to minimize the costs of electricity generation, and two approaches are proposed to address the grid CO 2 emission in the optimization. The first approach directly penalizes CO 2 in the objective function, and the second approach adopts a carbon disincentive policy to alter the dispatch order of power plants, so that expensive low-CO 2 plants can replace cheap high-CO 2 plants. These two approaches result in very different outcomes: the first approach affects only the PEV charging demand on the grid and does not result in significant CO 2 reduction, whereas the second approach controls both the generation and load, and CO 2 can be reduced substantially. In addition, the carbon disincentive policy, unlike a carbon tax, does not collect any revenue; therefore, the increase in electricity cost is minimal. The effect of the proposed algorithms on the grid electricity cost and carbon emission is analyzed in details and reported. - Highlights: • We study the tradeoff between CO 2 emissions and generation cost on an electric grid. • The tradeoff was shown by Pareto fronts obtained from optimizations. • Pareto fronts shows that a carbon disincentive is effective in reducing emissions. • Controlling both supply and demand on the grid is necessary to reduce CO 2 and costs

  20. Coal cleaning: a viable strategy for reduced carbon emissions and improved environment in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Wei Taoyuan

    2005-01-01

    China is a dominant energy consumer in global context and current energy forecasts emphasise that China's future energy consumption also will rely heavily on coal. The coal use is the major source of the greenhouse gas CO 2 and particles causing serious health damage. This paper looks into the question if coal washing might work as low cost strategy for both CO 2 and particle emission reductions. Coal washing removes dirt and rock from raw coal, resulting in a coal product with higher thermal energy and less air pollutants. Coal cleaning capacity has so far not been developed in line with the market potential. In this paper an emerging market for cleaned coal is studied within a CGE model for China. The macro approach catches the repercussions of coal cleaning through increased energy efficiency, lower coal transportation costs and crowding out effect of investments in coal washing plants. Coal cleaning stimulates economic growth and reduces particle emissions, but total energy use, coal use and CO 2 emissions increase through a rebound effect supported by the vast reserve of underemployed labourers. A carbon tax on fossil fuel combustion has a limited effect on total emissions. The reason is a coal leakage to tax exempted processing industries

  1. The potential role of alcohol fuels in reducing carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, S.J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of CO 2 have increased from 280 to 350 mg/l over the past two hundred years. One of the principal causes has been the increased reliance on combustion of fossil fuels to generate energy. Higher CO 2 levels have been historically correlated with warming of the earth. While attempts have been made to quantify and model the relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, and global climate changes, the state of the current knowledge base is such that large uncertainties persist. It is precisely these uncertainties which has evoked justifiable concern among the scientific community. The use of biomass fuels such as alcohols can provide a partial solution to the problem of increasing emissions of CO 2 . Combustion of biomass fuels releases carbon previously sequestered from the atmosphere during growth. There is a cycling of carbon, with net additions to the atmosphere resulting only from losses, or the use of fossil fuels for process energy. Alcohol fuels can make their biggest impact in the transportation sector, which, in industrial nations, contributes up to 32% of CO 2 emissions. While not the complete answer, alcohol fuels can make a significant impact, and will no doubt be one factor in a multidimensional approach to reducing CO 2 emissions. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  3. Phytoremediation Reduces Dust Emissions from Metal(loid)-Contaminated Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Loaiza, Juliana; Field, Jason P; White, Scott A; Csavina, Janae; Felix, Omar; Betterton, Eric A; Sáez, A Eduardo; Maier, Raina M

    2018-04-27

    Environmental and health risk concerns relating to airborne particles from mining operations have focused primarily on smelting activities. However, there are only three active copper smelters and less than a dozen smelters for other metals compared to an estimated 500000 abandoned and unreclaimed hard rock mine tailings in the US that have the potential to generate dust. The problem can also extend to modern tailings impoundments, which may take decades to build and remain barren for the duration before subsequent reclamation. We examined the impact of vegetation cover and irrigation on dust emissions and metal(loid) transport from mine tailings during a phytoremediation field trial at the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund (IKMHSS) site. Measurements of horizontal dust flux following phytoremediation reveals that vegetated plots with 16% and 32% canopy cover enabled an average dust deposition of 371.7 and 606.1 g m -2 y -1 , respectively, in comparison to the control treatment which emitted dust at an average rate of 2323 g m -2 y -1 . Horizontal dust flux and dust emissions from the vegetated field plots are comparable to emission rates in undisturbed grasslands. Further, phytoremediation was effective at reducing the concentration of fine particulates, including PM 1 , PM 2.5 , and PM 4 , which represent the airborne particulates with the greatest health risks and the greatest potential for long-distance transport. This study demonstrates that phytoremediation can substantially decrease dust emissions as well as the transport of windblown contaminants from mine tailings.

  4. Feasibility Analysis of Sustainability-Based Measures to Reduce VOC Emissions in Office Partition Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, aimed at contributing to efforts to improve the sustainability of the process. A pollution prevention methodology is utilized. The purpose is to provide practical options for VOC emissions reductions during the manufacturing of office furniture partitions, but the concepts can be generally applied to the wood furniture industry. Baseline VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. The feasibility analysis expands on a preliminary screening to identify viable pollution prevention options using realistic criteria and weightings, and is based on technical, environmental and economic considerations. The measures deemed feasible include the implementation of several best management practices, ceasing the painting of non-visible parts, switching to hot melt backwrapping glue, application of solvent recycling and modification of the mechanical clip attachment. Implementation, measurement and control plans are discussed for the measures considered feasible, which can enhance the sustainability of the manufacturing of office furniture partitions. Reducing VOC emissions using the measures identified can, in conjunction with other measures, improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process.

  5. Methane - quick fix or tough target? New methods to reduce emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; Brownlow, R.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is a cost-effective target for greenhouse gas reduction efforts. The UK's MOYA project is designed to improve understanding of the global methane budget and to point to new methods to reduce future emissions. Since 2007, methane has been increasing rapidly: in 2014 and 2015 growth was at rates last seen in the 1980s. Unlike 20thcentury growth, primarily driven by fossil fuel emissions in northern industrial nations, isotopic evidence implies present growth is driven by tropical biogenic sources such as wetlands and agriculture. Discovering why methane is rising is important. Schaefer et al. (Science, 2016) pointed out the potential clash between methane reduction efforts and food needs of a rising, better-fed (physically larger) human population. Our own work suggests tropical wetlands are major drivers of growth, responding to weather changes since 2007, but there is no acceptable way to reduce wetland emission. Just as sea ice decline indicates Arctic warming, methane may be the most obvious tracker of climate change in the wet tropics. Technical advances in instrumentation can do much in helping cut urban and industrial methane emissions. Mobile systems can be mounted on vehicles, while drone sampling can provide a 3D view to locate sources. Urban land planning often means large but different point sources are typically clustered (e.g. landfill or sewage plant near incinerator; gas wells next to cattle). High-precision grab-sample isotopic characterisation, using Keeling plots, can separate source signals, to identify specific emitters, even where they are closely juxtaposed. Our mobile campaigns in the UK, Kuwait, Hong Kong and E. Australia show the importance of major single sources, such as abandoned old wells, pipe leaks, or unregulated landfills. If such point sources can be individually identified, even when clustered, they will allow effective reduction efforts to occur: these can be profitable and/or improve industrial safety, for example in the

  6. Organic Rankine cycle saves energy and reduces gas emissions for cement production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huarong; Xu, Jinliang; Yang, Xufei; Miao, Zheng; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We investigated ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) integrated with typical China cement production line. The dry air at the kiln cooler outlet with the temperature of 220 °C was the waste heat. The fluids of hexane, isohexane, R601, R123 and R245fa were selected for ORCs based on the critical temperature criterion. The developed ORC verified the thermodynamics analysis. The NPV (net present value) and PBP (payback period) methods were applied to evaluate the economic performance. The LCA (life cycle assessment) was applied to evaluate the environment impacts. ORCs could generate 67,85,540–81,21,650 kWh electricity per year, equivalent to save 2035–2436 tons standard coal and reduce 7743–9268 tons CO 2 emission, for a 4000 t/d cement production line. ORCs reduced gas emissions of CO 2 by 0.62–0.74%, SO 2 by 3.83–4.59% and NO x by 1.36–1.63%. The PBP (payback period) was 2.74–3.42 years. The ORCs had the reduction ratios of EIL (environment impact load) by 1.49–1.83%, GWP (global warming potential) by 0.74–0.92%, AP (acidification potential) by 2.34–2.84%, EP (eutrophication potential) by 0.96–1.22% and HTP (human toxicity potential) by 2.38–2.89%. The ORC with R601 as the fluid had the best economic performance and significant gas emission reductions. ORCs had good economic performance and reduce the gas emissions. - Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycles were integrated with the cement production line. • Five organic fluids were used as the working fluids for ORCs. • Thermal, economic and gas emission performances were analyzed. • R601 was the best fluid for ORC with the heat source temperature of 220 °C. • ORCs had good economic and gas emission reduction performances

  7. Can conservation tillage reduce N2O emissions on cropland transitioning to organic vegetable production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Kolb, Lauren; Cavigelli, Michel A; Weil, Ray R; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2018-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N 2 O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N 2 O emissions. Each year, a winter cover crop mixture (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, crimson clover: Trifolium incarnatum L., and rye: Secale cereale L.) was grown and flail-mowed in the spring. Nearly 80% of annual N 2 O-nitrogen (N) emissions occurred during the vegetable growing season for all treatments. Annual N 2 O-N emissions were greater in CT-BP than in ST and NT, and greater in CT-BG than in NT, but not different between CT-BG and CT-BP, ST and NT, or CT-BG and ST. Conventional tillage promoted N mineralization and plastic mulch increased soil temperature, which contributed to greater N 2 O-N fluxes. Though water filled porosity in NT was higher and correlated well with N 2 O-N fluxes, annual N 2 O-N emissions were lowest in NT suggesting a lack of substrates for nitrification and denitrification processes. Crop yield was lowest in NT in Year 1 and CT-BP in Year 3 but yield-scaled N 2 O-N emissions were consistently greatest in CT-BP and lowest in NT each year. Our results suggest that for coarse-textured soils in the coastal plain with winter cover crops, conservation tillage practices may reduce N 2 O emissions in organic

  8. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  9. Reducing NOx emissions from a biodiesel-fueled engine by use of low-temperature combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tiegang; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Foong, Tien Mun; Lee, Chia-Fon

    2008-12-01

    Biodiesel is popularly discussed in many countries due to increased environmental awareness and the limited supply of petroleum. One of the main factors impacting general replacement of diesel by biodiesel is NOx (nitrogen oxides) emissions. Previous studies have shown higher NOx emissions relative to petroleum diesel in traditional direct-injection (DI) diesel engines. In this study, effects of injection timing and different biodiesel blends are studied for low load [2 bar IMEP (indicated mean effective pressure)] conditions. The results show that maximum heat release rate can be reduced by retarding fuel injection. Ignition and peak heat release rate are both delayed for fuels containing more biodiesel. Retarding the injection to post-TDC (top dead center) lowers the peak heat release and flattens the heat release curve. It is observed that low-temperature combustion effectively reduces NOx emissions because less thermal NOx is formed. Although biodiesel combustion produces more NOx for both conventional and late-injection strategies, with the latter leading to a low-temperature combustion mode, the levels of NOx of B20 (20 vol % soy biodiesel and 80 vol % European low-sulfur diesel), B50, and B100 all with post-TDC injection are 68.1%, 66.7%, and 64.4%, respectively, lower than pure European low-sulfur diesel in the conventional injection scenario.

  10. Improving the Sustainability of Office Partition Manufacturing: Balancing Options for Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Options are examined to improve the sustainability of office partition manufacturing by reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions. Base VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. Pollution prevention and sustainability measures are assessed using realistic criteria and weightings. Sustainability has been considered from an industry perspective, considering factors like economics, environmental impact, quality, health and safety. Through a case study, it is demonstrated that several advantageous options are available for reducing VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, and thereby enhancing the sustainability of that industrial operation. The measures deemed most viable include implementing several best management practices, not painting of non-visible parts, switching gluing processes, recycling solvent and modifying attachments. The results are intended to be balanced so as to improve their acceptability and adoptability by industry. It appears that it would be advantageous for manufacturers of office panels to evaluate the feasibility of these measures and to implement the most appropriate. The results are likely extendable to other operations in the wood furniture industry, and would improve their sustainability.

  11. Improving the use of principal component analysis to reduce physiological noise and motion artifacts to increase the sensitivity of task-based fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltysik, David A; Thomasson, David; Rajan, Sunder; Biassou, Nadia

    2015-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series are subject to corruption by many noise sources, especially physiological noise and motion. Researchers have developed many methods to reduce physiological noise, including RETROICOR, which retroactively removes cardiac and respiratory waveforms collected during the scan, and CompCor, which applies principal components analysis (PCA) to remove physiological noise components without any physiological monitoring during the scan. We developed four variants of the CompCor method. The optimized CompCor method applies PCA to time series in a noise mask, but orthogonalizes each component to the BOLD response waveform and uses an algorithm to determine a favorable number of components to use as "nuisance regressors." Whole brain component correction (WCompCor) is similar, except that it applies PCA to time-series throughout the whole brain. Low-pass component correction (LCompCor) identifies low-pass filtered components throughout the brain, while high-pass component correction (HCompCor) identifies high-pass filtered components. We compared the new methods with the original CompCor method by examining the resulting functional contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), sensitivity, and specificity. (1) The optimized CompCor method increased the CNR and sensitivity compared to the original CompCor method and (2) the application of WCompCor yielded the best improvement in the CNR and sensitivity. The sensitivity of the optimized CompCor, WCompCor, and LCompCor methods exceeded that of the original CompCor method. However, regressing noise signals showed a paradoxical consequence of reducing specificity for all noise reduction methods attempted. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of reducing emissions from tropical deforestation, 2016-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Engelmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is potentially a large-scale and low-cost strategy for mitigating climate change. Yet previous efforts to project the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from future deforestation across the tropics were hampered by crude available data on historical forest loss. Here we use recently available satellite-based maps of annual forest loss between 2001-2012, along with information on topography, accessibility, protected status, potential agricultural revenue, and an observed inverted-U-shaped relationship between forest cover loss and forest cover, to project tropical deforestation from 2016-2050 under alternative policy scenarios and to construct new marginal abatement cost curves for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation. We project that without new forest conservation policies 289 million hectares of tropical forest will be cleared from 2016-2050, releasing 169 GtCO2. A carbon price of US20/tCO2 (50/tCO2) across tropical countries would avoid 41 GtCO2 (77 GtCO2) from 2016-2050. By comparison, we estimate that Brazil’s restrictive policies in the Amazon between 2004-2012 successfully decoupled potential agricultural revenue from deforestation and reduced deforestation by 47% below what would have otherwise occurred, preventing the emission of 5.2 GtCO2. All tropical countries enacting restrictive anti-deforestation policies as effective as those in the Brazilian Amazon between 2004-2012 would avoid 58 GtCO2 from 2016-2050.

  13. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  14. Reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides when burning Kuznetsk bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1983-02-01

    Bituminous coals from the Kuzbass have a high nitrogen content. As a result, emissions of NO/SUB/x from power stations burning these coals frequently exceed the existing Standard. In order to reduce NO/SUB/x emissions tests were carried out using stage-wise combustion, supplying to the burners only part of the air required for complete combustion. The remaining air is supplied via tertiary nozzles situated about 14 m above the burners. As a result of the tests, this method of combustion is recommended for low-sulphur Kuznetsk coals for all sub-critical boilers having dry-bottom furnaces. Extension to boilers with wet-bottom furnaces and to supercritical boilers requires further investigation.

  15. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellassen, Valentin; Gitz, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  16. Decentralized production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons with reduced CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Cunping Huang; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most of the industrial hydrogen production is based on steam methane reforming process that releases significant amount of CO 2 into the atmosphere. CO 2 sequestration is one approach to solving the CO 2 emission problem for large centralized hydrogen plants, but it would be impractical for decentralized H 2 production units. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas without (or drastically reduced) CO 2 emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermo-catalytic decomposition (TCD) of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane) to hydrogen gas and elemental carbon. The paper discusses some technological aspects of the TCD process development: (1) thermodynamic analysis of TCD using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (2) heat input options to the endothermic process, (3) catalyst activity issues, etc. Production of hydrogen and carbon via TCD of methane was experimentally verified using carbon-based catalysts. (authors)

  17. Are car manufacturers on the way to reduce CO2 emissions?: A DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltes-Dorta, Augusto; Perdiguero, Jordi; Jiménez, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    One of the pillars of the fight against climate change is reducing the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere. In that regard, curtailing CO 2 emissions from transport activities is a major objective. In its attempts of “decarbonising” transport, the European Commission set in 2009 different emission limits on the vehicles sold in Europe. With this background, this paper aims to test the ability of the major car manufacturers to meet these present and future targets with the existing technological trends. To that end, we provide an in-depth analysis on the temporal evolution of emission efficiencies in the Spanish car market. The well-known DEA-Malmquist method is applied over a large sample of car models sold in Spain between 2004 and 2010. A second-stage regression allows us to identify the main drivers of efficiency, catch-up and technical change over the period. Finally, the estimated trends are extrapolated to predict future emission levels for the car manufacturers. Using post-regulation rates of technical change, results show that the vast majority of companies would meet the 2015 target, 27% of the current market would meet the 2020 target, and around 3% would be able to comply with the 2025 target. Thus, since all targets are technologically feasible, stricter regulation is the recommended approach to encourage manufacturers to meet the goals set by the European Commission. - Highlights: • We test the ability of car manufacturers to meet emission targets. • A DEA-Malmquist model is estimated using panel data between 2004 and 2010. • With post-2007 technical change, the vast majority of companies beat the 2015 target. • 27% of the market meets the 2020 target, and 3% meets the 2025 target. • More stringent regulation is needed to meet the goals set by the European Authorities

  18. Experimental characterization of cooled EGR in a gasoline direct injection engine for reducing fuel consumption and nitrogen oxide emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Ki; Lee, Jungkoo; Kim, Kyungcheol; Park, Seongho; Kim, Hyung-Man

    2015-11-01

    The emphasis on increasing fuel economy and reducing emissions is increasing. Attention has turned to how the performance of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine can be improved to achieve lower fuel consumption and NOx emission. Therefore, positive effects can reduce fuel consumption and NOx emission as well as knock suppression. The cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ranges within the characteristic map are characterized from the experimental results at various speeds and brake mean effective pressures in a GDI engine. The results show that the application of cooled EGR system brought in 3.63 % reduction as for the fuel consumption and 4.34 % as for NOx emission.

  19. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  20. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  1. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  2. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  3. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  4. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  5. New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

    2007-12-01

    The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has

  6. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  7. Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed.

  8. Ensemble clustering in visual working memory biases location memories and reduces the Weber noise of relative positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Timothy F; Vul, Edward

    2015-01-01

    People seem to compute the ensemble statistics of objects and use this information to support the recall of individual objects in visual working memory. However, there are many different ways that hierarchical structure might be encoded. We examined the format of structured memories by asking subjects to recall the locations of objects arranged in different spatial clustering structures. Consistent with previous investigations of structured visual memory, subjects recalled objects biased toward the center of their clusters. Subjects also recalled locations more accurately when they were arranged in fewer clusters containing more objects, suggesting that subjects used the clustering structure of objects to aid recall. Furthermore, subjects had more difficulty recalling larger relative distances, consistent with subjects encoding the positions of objects relative to clusters and recalling them with magnitude-proportional (Weber) noise. Our results suggest that clustering improved the fidelity of recall by biasing the recall of locations toward cluster centers to compensate for uncertainty and by reducing the magnitude of encoded relative distances.

  9. A Simultaneous and Continuous Excitation Method for High-Speed Electrical Impedance Tomography with Reduced Transients and Noise Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Dupré

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept for soft field tomographic scan of all the projections of electromagnetic waves emanating from an array of electrodes. Instead of the sequential excitation of all pairs of electrodes in the list of all projections, the new method present here consists of a single and continuous excitation. This excitation signal is the linear combination of the excitation signals in the projection set at different AC frequencies. The response to a given projection is discriminated by selecting the corresponding AC frequency component in the signal spectra of the digitally demodulated signals. The main advantage of this method is the suppression of transients after each projection, which is particularly problematic in electrical impedance tomography due to contact impedance phenomena and skin effect. The second benefit over the sequential scan method is the increased number of samples for each measurement for reduced noise sensitivity with digital demodulation. The third benefit is the increased temporal resolution in high-speed applications. The main drawback is the increased number of signal sources required (one per electrode. This paper focuses on electrical impedance tomography, based on earlier work by the authors. An experimental proof-of-concept using a simple 4-electrodes electrical impedance tomographic system is presented using simulations and laboratory data. The method presented here may be extended to other modalities (ultrasonic, microwave, optical, etc..

  10. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro, E-mail: aruizp@correo.ugr.es [Industrial Engineering and Transportation Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Osvaldo Aranha, 99 – 5° andar, Porto Alegre - CEP 90.035-190, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Civil Engineering Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Ruiz, Diego P., E-mail: druiz@ugr.es [Information Technology and Communication Research Center (CITIC-UGR), Applied Physics Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Torija, Antonio J., E-mail: ajtorija@ugr.es [ISVR, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Ramos-Ridao, Ángel, E-mail: ramosr@ugr.es [Civil Engineering Department, University of Granada, Av. Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  11. Selection of suitable alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of road traffic noise using a fuzzy multi-criteria decision model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Padillo, Alejandro; Ruiz, Diego P.; Torija, Antonio J.; Ramos-Ridao, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the most significant environmental impacts generated by transport systems. To this regard, the recent implementation of the European Environmental Noise Directive by Public Administrations of the European Union member countries has led to various noise action plans (NAPs) for reducing the noise exposure of EU inhabitants. Every country or administration is responsible for applying criteria based on their own experience or expert knowledge, but there is no regulated process for the prioritization of technical measures within these plans. This paper proposes a multi-criteria decision methodology for the selection of suitable alternatives against traffic noise in each of the road stretches included in the NAPs. The methodology first defines the main criteria and alternatives to be considered. Secondly, it determines the relative weights for the criteria and sub-criteria using the fuzzy extended analytical hierarchy process as applied to the results from an expert panel, thereby allowing expert knowledge to be captured in an automated way. A final step comprises the use of discrete multi-criteria analysis methods such as weighted sum, ELECTRE and TOPSIS, to rank the alternatives by suitability. To illustrate an application of the proposed methodology, this paper describes its implementation in a complex real case study: the selection of optimal technical solutions against traffic noise in the top priority road stretch included in the revision of the NAP of the regional road network in the province of Almeria (Spain).

  12. Study of Thermal-Field Emission Properties and Investigation of Temperature dependent Noise in the Emission Current form vertical Carbon nanotube emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu; Patole, Shashikant P.; Patil, Sumati; Yoo, J.B.; Dharmadhikari, C.V.

    2017-01-01

    We have investigated temperature dependent field electron emission characteristics of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The generalized expression for electron emission from well defined cathode surface is given by Millikan and Lauritsen [1

  13. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  14. Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of India’s Power Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2006-01-01

    If India were to participate in any international effort towards mitigating CO2 emissions, the power sector which is one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the country would be required to play a major role. In this context the study estimates the marginal abatement costs, which correspond to the costs incurred by the power plants to reduce one unit of CO2 from the current level. The study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to derive these costs...

  15. Study of Thermal-Field Emission Properties and Investigation of Temperature dependent Noise in the Emission Current form vertical Carbon nanotube emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Kolekar, Sadhu

    2017-05-05

    We have investigated temperature dependent field electron emission characteristics of vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The generalized expression for electron emission from well defined cathode surface is given by Millikan and Lauritsen [1] for the combination of temperature and electric field effect. The same expression has been used to explain the electron emission characteristics from vertical CNT emitters. Furthermore, this has been applied to explain the electron emission for different temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1500 K. The real-time field electron emission images at room temperature and 1500 K are recorded by using Charge Coupled Device (CCD), in order to understand the effect of temperature on electron emission spots in image morphology (as indicated by ring like structures) and electron emission spot intensity of the emitters. Moreover, the field electron emission images can be used to calculate the total number of emitters per cm2 for electron emission. The calculated number of emitters per cm2 is 4.5x107 and, the actual number emitters per cm2 present for electron emission calculated from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data is 1.2x1012. The measured Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics obey the Folwer-Nordheim (F-N) type behavior. The fluctuations in the emission current are recorded at different temperatures and, temperature dependence of power spectral density obeys power law relation s(f)=I2/f2 with that of emission current and frequency.

  16. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO 2 -e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using $/metric-ton CO 2 -e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment. (paper)

  17. An Improved Cuckoo Search for a Patient Transportation Problem with Consideration of Reducing Transport Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many government agencies and business organizations have realized that it is necessary to consider not only the economic cost but also the road transport emissions when they determine the transport policies and operations. In this study, a patient transportation problem with the aim of reducing transport emissions has been formulated by implementing CVRP model. In order to determine the routes of patient transportation with optimized emissions for targeted hospital, an improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm is proposed. In this study, a ‘split’ procedure has been implemented to simplify the individual’s representation. A new category of cuckoos has been introduced to improve the ICS’s search ability. Two heuristics have been applied to improve the quality of initial population. A local search mechanism has been embedded in the search procedure to improve the quality of solutions obtained at the end of each iteration. The computational results were encouraging and demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed solution method.

  18. A comparative assessment of different options to reduce CO2 emissions. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messner, S.; Nakicenovic, N.

    1992-03-01

    The IIASA research project on Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies includes the assessment of options and measures for mitigating global CO 2 emissions. The basis of this assessment is the comparative inventory of technological and economic measures including efficiency improvement, conservation, enhanced use of low-carbon fuels, carbon free sources of energy and measures for removing carbon from fuels, flue gases and also from the atmosphere such as afforestation, and finally also measures for enhancement of carbon sinks. To include all potential options, the comparison is based on energy end-use accounting for the fully interlinked energy conversion chain up to energy resources. The analysis is supported by a fully interactive data bank system, CO2DB, that is capable of evaluating full energy chains with respect to their economic, technical and environmental parameters. The paper reports energy requirements, cost and CO 2 emissions for different energy chains providing industrial drives, cooling and air transport services. At additional cost, emissions can be reduced drastically on all these end-use categories. (authors)

  19. Nitrous oxide emissions could reduce the blue carbon value of marshes on eutrophic estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughan, Brittney L.; Kellman, Lisa; Smith, Erin; Chmura, Gail L.

    2018-04-01

    The supply of nitrogen to ecosystems has surpassed the Earth’s Planetary Boundary and its input to the marine environment has caused estuarine waters to become eutrophic. Excessive supply of nitrogen to salt marshes has been associated with shifts in species’ distribution and production, as well as marsh degradation and loss. Our study of salt marshes in agriculturally intensive watersheds shows that coastal eutrophication can have an additional impact. We measured gas fluxes from marsh soils and verified emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) in nitrogen-loaded marshes while the reference marsh was a sink for this gas. Salt marsh soils are extremely efficient carbon sinks, but emissions of N2O, a greenhouse gas 298 times more potent than CO2, reduces the value of the carbon sink, and in some marshes, may counterbalance any value of stored carbon towards mitigation of climate change. Although more research is merited on the nitrogen transformations and carbon storage in eutrophic marshes, the possibility of significant N2O emissions should be considered when evaluating the market value of carbon in salt marshes subject to high levels of nitrogen loading.

  20. Engineered Solutions to Reduce Occupational Noise Exposure at the NASA Glenn Research Center: A Five-Year Progress Summary (1994-1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.; Hange, Donald W.; Mikulic, John J.

    1999-01-01

    to reducing occupational and community noise exposure. The organization and mission of this Program were documented shortly after its inception, and individual programmatic components have been the subject of subsequent papers. This paper summarizes the status and accomplishments of the engineering aspects of the Program from a five-year retrospective viewpoint and includes a review of retrofit noise control solution strategies, which have not been previously documented.

  1. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India. Financial mechanisms and opportunities for EU-India collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Nilsson Axberg, Goeran; Goel, Nitu; Kumar, Atul; Lazarus, Michael; Ostwald, Madelene; Polycarp, Clifford; Tollefsen, Petter; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Upadhyaya, Prabhat; Zetterberg, Lars

    2009-10-15

    This report illuminates potential areas for collaboration between the EU and India on actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in India. If human-induced climate change is to have any hope of being limited to 2 degrees, it is essential that ways are found to address rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions in India, as elsewhere. This is a challenging proposition: even though India's per capita emissions are very low, her 1.15 billion people are collectively a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. This fact, coupled with the immediate task of tackling widespread poverty, means that the international community must play a major role in providing financial and technological resources to support India's domestic efforts. As India's 2008 National Action Plan on Climate Change recognises, tackling the country's greenhouse gas emissions means not least finding ways to transform a rapidly growing energy sector. International financial mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Global Environment Facility have been unable to deliver the scale of transformative change needed to shift India's emissions trajectory. While the Indian government has already initiated some ambitious policy measures - particularly pertaining to solar energy and energy efficiency- the effectiveness of international finance mechanisms and other forms of international partnership will be crucial in determining the success of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. The EU India Summit is held a month before COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen. While this provides challenges in terms of seeking concrete agreements on questions of finance, it is also an important opportunity to devise complementary efforts outside the UNFCCC process. Genuine, productive collaboration could not only be used to foster the sorts of transformative changes that are needed in India's growing economy but could also create a spirit of cooperation that spills over into UNFCCC

  2. Simulation-based design of a steerable acoustic warning device to increase (H)EV detectability while reducing urban noise pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Genechten, B.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the simulation-based design methodology used in the eVADER project for the development of targeted acoustic warning devices for increased detectability of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (HEVs) while, at the same time, reducing urban noise pollution compared to conventional

  3. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  4. Climate, duration, and N placement determine N2 O emissions in reduced tillage systems: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Chris; Venterea, Rodney; Six, Johan; Adviento-Borbe, Maria Arlene; Linquist, Bruce; van Groenigen, Kees Jan

    2013-01-01

    No-tillage and reduced tillage (NT/RT) management practices are being promoted in agroecosystems to reduce erosion, sequester additional soil C and reduce production costs. The impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions, however, has been variable with both increases and decreases in emissions reported. Herein, we quantitatively synthesize studies on the short- and long-term impact of NT/RT on N2 O emissions in humid and dry climatic zones with emissions expressed on both an area- and crop yield-scaled basis. A meta-analysis was conducted on 239 direct comparisons between conventional tillage (CT) and NT/RT. In contrast to earlier studies, averaged across all comparisons, NT/RT did not alter N2 O emissions compared with CT. However, NT/RT significantly reduced N2 O emissions in experiments >10 years, especially in dry climates. No significant correlation was found between soil texture and the effect of NT/RT on N2 O emissions. When fertilizer-N was placed at ≥5 cm depth, NT/RT significantly reduced area-scaled N2 O emissions, in particular under humid climatic conditions. Compared to CT under dry climatic conditions, yield-scaled N2 O increased significantly (57%) when NT/RT was implemented <10 years, but decreased significantly (27%) after ≥10 years of NT/RT. There was a significant decrease in yield-scaled N2 O emissions in humid climates when fertilizer-N was placed at ≥5 cm depth. Therefore, in humid climates, deep placement of fertilizer-N is recommended when implementing NT/RT. In addition, NT/RT practices need to be sustained for a prolonged time, particularly in dry climates, to become an effective mitigation strategy for reducing N2 O emissions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  6. EVALUATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION OPTIONS TO REDUCE STYRENE EMISSIONS FROM FIBER-REINFORCED PLASTIC OPEN MOLDING PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce styrene emissions, such as new materials, and application equipment, are commercially available to the operators of open molding processes. However, information is lacking on the emissions reduction that these options can achieve. To me...

  7. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T.

    2005-09-15

    Societal dependence on oil leads to increasingly negative social consequences throughout the world, including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability, and habitat degradation. Reliance on the automobile for transportation also contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, an obesity epidemic and poor health. These problems are particularly pronounced in the USA, which currently consumes c. 27% of global oil production and produces c. 25% of global carbon emissions, and where c. 65% of adults are overweight or obese. Other countries throughout the world that replicate or hope to replicate the automobile-based lifestyle of the USA face similar problems now or in the near future. This paper develops and applies calculations relating the distances that could be travelled through recommended daily walking or cycling with weight loss, oil consumption and carbon emissions. These straightforward calculations demonstrate that widespread substitution of driving with distances travelled during recommended daily exercise could reduce the USA's oil consumption by up to 38%. This saving far exceeds the amount of oil recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, suggesting that exercise can reduce foreign oil dependence and provide an alternative to oil extraction from environmentally sensitive habitat. At the same time, an average individual who substitutes this amount of exercise for transportation would burn respectively c. 12.2 and 26.0 kg of fat per year for walking and cycling. This is sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without dangerous or draconian diet plans. Furthermore, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of c. 35% is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. As a result, exercise-based transportation may constitute a favourable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently being implemented in the USA and may

  8. Development of the Croatian Energy Sector by 2050 in Terms of Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Pesut, D.; Tot, M.; Juric, Z.; Horvath, L.; Bacan, A.; Kulisic, B.; Majstorovic, G.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes the question: is it possible to achieve and what would be the consequences of energy development while reducing CO 2 emissions by 80% by year 2050. Thereby, the growth of costs is not the only expected consequence, but there are also desirable and possible impacts of the energy sector on technological development, science, the economy and increasing the added value. In paper, the development of the energy sector by 2050 is modeled and simulated using two models for the evaluation of the energy systems: model for the analysis of energy consumption (MAED - Model for Energy System Analysis ) and model for optimization of energy supply systems (MESSAGE - Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts ). MESSAGE use the results of MAED model as input assumptions and data. Development opportunities in the sectors of industry, households, services and transport were modeled in the simulation, i.e. possible trajectories of development were considered, in order to achieve the objectives of the sectoral reducing of CO 2 emissions in line with the stated objectives which are discussed at the EU level. The average cost of electricity production in year 2050 will increase by nearly 140% compared to the year 2015. The answer is: the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Croatia by 80% in total and by 95% in the power sector is possible from a technical and technological point of view, but with the high financial impact and significant changes in the energy sector, to which should precede changes in scientific and industrial development.(author)

  9. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Technological methods of reducing the emissions of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    For protecting the atmosphere from emissions of toxic NO /SUB x/ during combustion of fuel in boilers the amount of NO /SUB x/ can be reduced in the process of combustion, or the flue gases (FG) from the boiler can be cleaned. The latter method is bound up with the necessity for treatment of a large quantity of FG with a comparatively low concentration in them of nitrogen oxides, chemically stable and poorly soluble in water. The problem is complicated by the presence in the FG of SO /SUB x/, O/sub 2/, and solid particles. The method of purifying the FG is complicated and requires large capital investment and operating expenses. By laboratory studies in the All-Union Institute of Heat Engineering im. F.E. Dzerzhinskiy (VTI) it was established that thermal NO /SUB x/ is formed at a combustion temperature greater than or equal to 1550 /sup 0/C and that the 0/sub 2/ concentration and considerably less the temperature strongly affect NO /SUB x/ formation. On the basis of laboratory studies and industrial tests in the VTI, methods of reducing NO /SUB x/ emissions by large-scale boilers are recommended.

  11. Acoustic plane waves normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct. [to explain noise reduction curves for reducing interior noise in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unz, H.; Roskam, J.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of acoustic plane wave normally incident on a clamped panel in a rectangular duct is developed. The coupling theory between the elastic vibrations of the panel (plate) and the acoustic wave propagation in infinite space and in the rectangular duct is considered. The partial differential equation which governs the vibration of the panel (plate) is modified by adding to its stiffness (spring) forces and damping forces, and the fundamental resonance frequency and the attenuation factor are discussed. The noise reduction expression based on the theory is found to agree well with the corresponding experimental data of a sample aluminum panel in the mass controlled region, the damping controlled region, and the stiffness controlled region. All the frequency positions of the upward and downward resonance spikes in the sample experimental data are identified theoretically as resulting from four cross interacting major resonance phenomena: the cavity resonance, the acoustic resonance, the plate resonance, and the wooden back panel resonance.

  12. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase III final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  13. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase II, final report, March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  14. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  15. Reducing noise and vibration of hydraulic hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles : phase I final report, March 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The University of Toledo University Transportation Center (UT-UTC) has identified hybrid vehicles as one of the three areas of the research. The activities proposed in this research proposal are directed towards the noise, vibration, and harshness (N...

  16. Spatial analysis of noise emission at the Los Azufres geothermal field, Mich.; Analisis espacial de emision de ruido en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarena Magana, Emilio; Ordaz Mendez, Christian A. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia de Los Azufres, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: emilio.camarena@cfe.gob.mx

    2010-01-15

    To verify noise emissions from the usual activities in an operating geothermal field, noise measurements were carried out in a 4.2 km{sup 2} area in the southern zone of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. There are seven production wells operating here and three abandoned wells. The average noise emission in the southern zone was 36.5 decibels (dB), regarded as the natural reading of environmental-noise emission. In the Christmas (valves) tree for operating production wells, the noise ranges from 70.9 to 91.7 dB, while in open discharging valves for steam-pipes, the noise can reach 118 dB. In Mexico the maximum permissible limit of noise on the periphery of a property is 68 dB in daytime and 65 dB at night. Based on measurements made at the periphery of lots where the geothermal wells are located, four out of seven production wells measured do not exceed the maximum allowable level, while the other three seem to exceed it. However no definite limits exist for the lots. It is recommended that the measurement points as indicated by the official standard in environmental matters be re-established, which will enable noise emissions by several wells that have exceeded the permissible limit, to actually fall within it. [Spanish] Se realizaron mediciones sonicas en un area de 4.2 km{sup 2} localizada en la zona sur del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., a fin de verificar la emision de ruido asociada a las actividades usuales en un campo geotermico en operacion. En esta area se encuentran siete pozos productores en operacion y tres pozos abandonados. La emision promedio de ruido en estos ultimos fue de 36.5 decibeles (dB), considerandose como la condicion natural de emision de ruido ambiental. En el arbol de valvulas de los pozos productores en operacion el ruido va de los 70.9 a los 91.7 dB, mientras que en valvulas abiertas de descarga de vaporductos la emision puede llegar hasta los 118 dB. En Mexico el limite maximo permisible de ruido en la periferia de

  17. Algorithmic-Reducibility = Renormalization-Group Fixed-Points; ``Noise''-Induced Phase-Transitions (NITs) to Accelerate Algorithmics (``NIT-Picking'') Replacing CRUTCHES!!!: Gauss Modular/Clock-Arithmetic Congruences = Signal X Noise PRODUCTS..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J.; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    Cook-Levin computational-"complexity"(C-C) algorithmic-equivalence reduction-theorem reducibility equivalence to renormalization-(semi)-group phase-transitions critical-phenomena statistical-physics universality-classes fixed-points, is exploited with Gauss modular/clock-arithmetic/model congruences = signal X noise PRODUCT reinterpretation. Siegel-Baez FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS(SON of ``TRIZ''): Category-Semantics(C-S) tabular list-format truth-table matrix analytics predicts and implements "noise"-induced phase-transitions (NITs) to accelerate versus to decelerate Harel [Algorithmics(1987)]-Sipser[Intro. Theory Computation(1997) algorithmic C-C: "NIT-picking" to optimize optimization-problems optimally(OOPO). Versus iso-"noise" power-spectrum quantitative-only amplitude/magnitude-only variation stochastic-resonance, this "NIT-picking" is "noise" power-spectrum QUALitative-type variation via quantitative critical-exponents variation. Computer-"science" algorithmic C-C models: Turing-machine, finite-state-models/automata, are identified as early-days once-workable but NOW ONLY LIMITING CRUTCHES IMPEDING latter-days new-insights!!!

  18. Use of a hybrid iterative reconstruction technique to reduce image noise and improve image quality in obese patients undergoing computed tomographic pulmonary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, Seth; Mehta, Dhruv; Farnadesh, Mahmmoudreza; Jeudy, Jean; Olsen, Kathryn; White, Charles

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether an iterative reconstruction (IR) technique (iDose, Philips Healthcare) can reduce image noise and improve image quality in obese patients undergoing computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant and approved by our institutional review board. A total of 33 obese patients (average body mass index: 42.7) underwent CTPA studies following standard departmental protocols. The data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and 3 iDose strengths (iDoseL1, iDoseL3, and iDoseL5) for a total of 132 studies. FBP data were collected from 33 controls (average body mass index: 22) undergoing CTPA. Regions of interest were drawn at 6 identical levels in the pulmonary artery (PA), from the main PA to a subsegmental branch, in both the control group and study groups using each algorithm. Noise and attenuation were measured at all PA levels. Three thoracic radiologists graded each study on a scale of 1 (very poor) to 5 (ideal) by 4 categories: image quality, noise, PA enhancement, and "plastic" appearance. Statistical analysis was performed using an unpaired t test, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear weighted κ. Compared with the control group, there was significantly higher noise with FBP, iDoseL1, and iDoseL3 algorithms (Pnoise in the control group and iDoseL5 algorithm in the study group. Analysis within the study group showed a significant and progressive decrease in noise and increase in the contrast-to-noise ratio as the level of IR was increased (Pnoise and PA enhancement with increasing levels of iDose. The use of an IR technique leads to qualitative and quantitative improvements in image noise and image quality in obese patients undergoing CTPA.

  19. Clinical evaluation of reducing acquisition time on single-photon emission computed tomography image quality using proprietary resolution recovery software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Matthew D; Waddington, Wendy W; Dickson, John C; Prakash, Vineet; Ell, Peter J; Bomanji, Jamshed B

    2013-11-01

    A three-dimensional model-based resolution recovery (RR) reconstruction algorithm that compensates for collimator-detector response, resulting in an improvement in reconstructed spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images, was tested. The software is said to retain image quality even with reduced acquisition time. Clinically, any improvement in patient throughput without loss of quality is to be welcomed. Furthermore, future restrictions in radiotracer supplies may add value to this type of data analysis. The aims of this study were to assess improvement in image quality using the software and to evaluate the potential of performing reduced time acquisitions for bone and parathyroid SPECT applications. Data acquisition was performed using the local standard SPECT/CT protocols for 99mTc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate bone and 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile parathyroid SPECT imaging. The principal modification applied was the acquisition of an eight-frame gated data set acquired using an ECG simulator with a fixed signal as the trigger. This had the effect of partitioning the data such that the effect of reduced time acquisitions could be assessed without conferring additional scanning time on the patient. The set of summed data sets was then independently reconstructed using the RR software to permit a blinded assessment of the effect of acquired counts upon reconstructed image quality as adjudged by three experienced observers. Data sets reconstructed with the RR software were compared with the local standard processing protocols; filtered back-projection and ordered-subset expectation-maximization. Thirty SPECT studies were assessed (20 bone and 10 parathyroid). The images reconstructed with the RR algorithm showed improved image quality for both full-time and half-time acquisitions over local current processing protocols (Pimproved image quality compared with local processing protocols and has been

  20. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-09-20

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as "Blue Carbon"), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH 4 ) and CO 2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH 4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.