WorldWideScience

Sample records for reducing moisture loss

  1. Logging effects on soil moisture losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1978-01-01

    Abstract - The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 15 feet by an isolated mature sugar pine and an adjacent uncut forest in the California Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks for 5 consecutive summers. Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 50...

  2. SHRINKAGE AND MOISTURE LOSS OF DRIED MELON SEEDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of 100g clean, mature, freshly washed melon seeds were dried at intervals of 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2h in an air-oven at 60O C. The experiments were carried out with five different bulk samples of melon seeds. The moisture content of the seeds at each drying stage was determined. The moisture loss in grams per ...

  3. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.; Yeager, J.G.; Ashley, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content on the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria in sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized sludge as well as survival data on bacteria indigenous to sludge. Growth of bacteria was stimulated in sludge during the initial phase of moisture removal by evaporation, but the reduction of moisture content below about 50% by weight caused a proportional decrease in bacterial numbers. The rates of inactivation of bacteria by ionizing radiation in sludge were usually modified to some degree by variations in moisture content. Most bacteria were found to be somewhat protected from ionizing radiation at reduced moisture levels

  4. A comparison of soil-moisture loss from forested and clearcut areas in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Troendle

    1970-01-01

    Soil-moisture losses from forested and clearcut areas were compared on the Fernow Experimental Forest. As expected, hardwood forest soils lost most moisture while revegetated clearcuttings, clearcuttings, and barren areas lost less, in that order. Soil-moisture losses from forested soils also correlated well with evapotranspiration and streamflow.

  5. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p Contents of cytoplasmic (p content increased gradually, and then internal damage occurred. Sweet cherry softening closely correlated with moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A Study of Moisture Induced Material Loss of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    Maine Department of Transportation has noticed the partial or complete loss of material within 2-3 years of construction in the traffic wheel path in the presence of moisture in few of their mixes. Regularly used moisture susceptibility tests are una...

  7. Evaporational losses under different soil moisture regimes and atmospheric evaporativities using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, P.; Chaudhary, T.N.; Mookerji, P.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium as tracer was used in a laboratory study to estimate the contribution of moisture from different soil depths towards actual soil water evaporation. Results indicated that for comparable amounts of free water evaporation (5 cm), contribution of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer towards total soil moisture loss through evaporation increased nearly 1.5 to 3 folds for soils with water table at 90 cm than without water table. Identical initial soil moistures were exposed to different atmospheric evaporativities. Similarly, for a given initial soil moisture status, upward movement of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer under low evaporativity was nearly 8 to 12 times that of under high evaporativity at 5 cm free water evaporation value. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  8. Investigation and Determination of Corn Combine Harvester Losses to Introduce Appropriate Methods to Reduce Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mostofi Sarkari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn harvesting involves some losses. These losses result in decreased benefits. It is almost impossible to lower losses to zero percent but it can be controlled in an acceptable level. As a result of this research, appropriate methods are introduced to decrease losses and reduce waste. In this project, losses in different part of combine were measured and evaluated according to the available standard method (ASAE S396.2 & S343.3. Harvesting losses include preharvest and during harvest losses comprising ear loss and kernal loss in the header, cylinder and cleaning losses. This project was conducted on farmers’ lands in Gazvin province. Some assessments related to yield factors were evaluated in different parts of farm with specified area, e.g. Plant height, ear number, stem diameter, ear diameter, cob diameter, row/ear and seed/row. All losses evaluated in three treatments which they were: seed moisture content (w.b. in three levels of 19%, 23% and 27%, ground speed in three levels of 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 ms-1 and cylinder speed of 400, 600 and 800 rpm. The split plot experimental design based on the randomised complete block design (RCBD was used to evaluate treatments. Measured losses compared with standard values to introduce the proper methods to decrease losses and proper adjustments. The results show that appropriate seed moisture content, cylinder and ground speed were 23%, 400 rpm and 1.2 ms-1, respectively. They had minimum total loss which WAS 1.55%, 2.65% and 2.34%, respectivily. The results also show that there was an ear loss in preharvest loss (because of bad weather condition that was 0.95-5.42%, also kernal loss on the header and cylinder loss which all related to improper adjustment of combine but total loss was in an acceptable level and standard. It was variable from 1.55% to 4.02%. Other parameters such as using inexperienced driver, improper combine adjustment, and also nonuniformity of field and ear moisture content in

  9. Elevated moisture stimulates carbon loss from mineral soils by releasing protected organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjuan; Hall, Steven J

    2017-11-24

    Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C 3 /C 4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as CO 2 and CH 4 to >150% of the control. Stable C isotopes show that mineralization of older C 3 -derived C released following Fe reduction dominates C losses. Counter to theory, elevated moisture may significantly accelerate C losses from mineral soils over weeks to months-a critical mechanistic deficiency of current Earth system models.

  10. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  11. Use of satellite and modeled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, F.; Brocca, L.; Termite, L. F.; Wagner, W.

    2015-09-01

    The potential of coupling soil moisture and a Universal Soil Loss Equation-based (USLE-based) model for event soil loss estimation at plot scale is carefully investigated at the Masse area, in central Italy. The derived model, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), is applied by considering the unavailability of in situ soil moisture measurements, by using the data predicted by a soil water balance model (SWBM) and derived from satellite sensors, i.e., the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). The soil loss estimation accuracy is validated using in situ measurements in which event observations at plot scale are available for the period 2008-2013. The results showed that including soil moisture observations in the event rainfall-runoff erosivity factor of the USLE enhances the capability of the model to account for variations in event soil losses, the soil moisture being an effective alternative to the estimated runoff, in the prediction of the event soil loss at Masse. The agreement between observed and estimated soil losses (through SM4E) is fairly satisfactory with a determination coefficient (log-scale) equal to ~ 0.35 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of ~ 2.8 Mg ha-1. These results are particularly significant for the operational estimation of soil losses. Indeed, currently, soil moisture is a relatively simple measurement at the field scale and remote sensing data are also widely available on a global scale. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying the SM4E model for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.

  12. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospects...... when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....... for which losses are ruled out by design, subjects make the same choices for themselves as for others. In contrast, when losses are possible, we find that the two types of choices differ. In particular, we find that subjects who make choices for themselves take less risk than those who decide for others...

  13. Use of satellite and modelled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, F.; Brocca, L.; Termite, L. F.; Wagner, W.

    2015-03-01

    The potential of coupling soil moisture and a~USLE-based model for event soil loss estimation at plot scale is carefully investigated at the Masse area, in Central Italy. The derived model, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), is applied by considering the unavailability of in situ soil moisture measurements, by using the data predicted by a soil water balance model (SWBM) and derived from satellite sensors, i.e. the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). The soil loss estimation accuracy is validated using in situ measurements in which event observations at plot scale are available for the period 2008-2013. The results showed that including soil moisture observations in the event rainfall-runoff erosivity factor of the RUSLE/USLE, enhances the capability of the model to account for variations in event soil losses, being the soil moisture an effective alternative to the estimated runoff, in the prediction of the event soil loss at Masse. The agreement between observed and estimated soil losses (through SM4E) is fairly satisfactory with a determination coefficient (log-scale) equal to of ~ 0.35 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of ~ 2.8 Mg ha-1. These results are particularly significant for the operational estimation of soil losses. Indeed, currently, soil moisture is a relatively simple measurement at the field scale and remote sensing data are also widely available on a global scale. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying the SM4E model for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.

  14. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  15. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiqi; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  16. The effects of uncoated paper on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss in bedridden patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Moon, Nam-Kyung; Ahn, Young Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Ok

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to measure skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after application of uncoated paper and to compare skin moisture and transepidermal water loss after use of uncoated paper and disposable underpads. The study was a cross-over, prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial. Bedridden patients aged≥18 years at a medical center in Korea were included. Treatment order was randomly assigned using block randomization, with a block size of 4 and an assignment rate of one-by-one. Skin moisture was measured using a Corneometer 825 and transepidermal water loss was measured using a Tewameter 300. Skin moisture after application of an uncoated paper was significantly lower than observed after application of a disposable underpad (mean 40.6 and SD 13.1 vs. mean 64.6 and SD 23.7, p<0.001). Transepidermal water loss also showed greater health scores after using uncoated paper (mean 11.1 and SD 5.7 g/m2/hour) than after applying a disposable underpad (mean 23.2 and SD 11.1 g/m2 /hour, p<0.001). There were no statistical between-group differences in room temperature, relative humidity, and body temperature. We found that uncoated paper was helpful in avoiding excessive moisture without adverse effects. As indicated by the results of this study, uncoated paper can be applied to bed-ridden patients who required incontinence care. Nurses may consider using uncoated paper as one of nursing methods in the routine care of bed-ridden patients for moisture control. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The influence of soil moisture transfer on building heat loss via the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.M.; Carmeliet, J.; Hens, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of soil moisture transfer on building heat loss via the ground is investigated by comparing fully coupled simulations with linear thermal simulations. The observed influences of coupling are (1) the larger amplitude of surface temperature, (2) the variation of thermal

  18. Remifentanil Reduces Blood Loss During Orthognathic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Okamura, Taiki; Ide, Satoko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Remifentanil is reported to reduce oral tissue blood flow. We performed a retrospective investigation using logistic regression analysis of anesthesia records to investigate whether the use of remifentanil infusion in a balanced anesthesia technique was useful as a primary technique to reduce blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Subjects were 80 patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. The variables included gender, age, weight, type of maintenance anesthetic, type and dose or infusion rate of opioid, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP-mean), coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure (CVSBP) during surgery, mean heart rate (HR-mean), duration of surgery, total blood loss, volume of infusion used, amount of local anesthetic used, body temperature, and urine output. Gender, type of maintenance anesthetic, type of opioid, SBP-mean, CVSBP, HR-mean, and duration of surgery were used as candidates for independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the selected independent variables with the total blood loss as the dependent variable. The factors associated with the reduction of blood loss were the use of remifentanil (odds ratio, 3.112; 95% CI, 1.166-8.307; P = .023) and smaller CVSBP (odds ratio, 2.747; 95% CI, 1.07-7.053; P = .036). Use of remifentanil and smaller CVSBP were associated with a reduction of blood loss during orthognathic surgery.

  19. Warming, soil moisture, and loss of snow increase Bromus tectorum’s population growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Compagnoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate change threatens to exacerbate the impacts of invasive species. In temperate ecosystems, direct effects of warming may be compounded by dramatic reductions in winter snow cover. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum is arguably the most destructive biological invader in basins of the North American Intermountain West, and warming could increase its performance through direct effects on demographic rates or through indirect effects mediated by loss of snow. We conducted a two-year experimental manipulation of temperature and snow pack to test whether 1 warming increases cheatgrass population growth rate and 2 reduced snow cover contributes to cheatgrass’ positive response to warming. We used infrared heaters operating continuously to create the warming treatment, but turned heaters on only during snowfalls for the snowmelt treatment. We monitored cheatgrass population growth rate and the vital rates that determine it: emergence, survival and fecundity. Growth rate increased in both warming and snowmelt treatments. The largest increases occurred in warming plots during the wettest year, indicating that the magnitude of response to warming depends on moisture availability. Warming increased both fecundity and survival, especially in the wet year, while snowmelt contributed to the positive effects of warming by increasing survival. Our results indicate that increasing temperature will exacerbate cheatgrass impacts, especially where warming causes large reductions in the depth and duration of snow cover.

  20. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, (var e psilon). So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  1. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Anan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  2. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Yeager, J G; Ashley, C S

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content of the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized slu...

  3. Coupling rainfall observations and satellite soil moisture for predicting event soil loss in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, Francesca; Brocca, Luca; Termite, Loris Francesco; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of water soil loss prediction depends on the ability of the model to account for effects of the physical phenomena causing the output and the accuracy by which the parameters have been determined. The process based models require considerable effort to obtain appropriate parameter values and their failure to produce better results than achieved using the USLE/RUSLE model, encourages the use of the USLE/RUSLE model in roles of which it was not designed. In particular it is widely used in watershed models even at the event temporal scale. At hillslope scale, spatial variability in soil and vegetation result in spatial variations in soil moisture and consequently in runoff within the area for which soil loss estimation is required, so the modeling approach required to produce those estimates needs to be sensitive to those spatial variations in runoff. Some models include explicit consideration of runoff in determining the erosive stresses but this increases the uncertainty of the prediction due to the difficulty in parameterising the models also because the direct measures of surface runoff are rare. The same remarks are effective also for the USLE/RUSLE models including direct consideration of runoff in the erosivity factor (i.e. USLE-M by Kinnell and Risse, 1998, and USLE-MM by Bagarello et al., 2008). Moreover actually most of the rainfall-runoff models are based on the knowledge of the pre-event soil moisture that is a fundamental variable in the rainfall-runoff transformation. In addiction soil moisture is a readily available datum being possible to have easily direct pre-event measures of soil moisture using in situ sensors or satellite observations at larger spatial scale; it is also possible to derive the antecedent water content with soil moisture simulation models. The attempt made in the study is to use the pre-event soil moisture to account for the spatial variation in runoff within the area for which the soil loss estimates are required. More

  4. The influence of soil moisture in the unsaturated zone on the heat loss from buildings via the ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, H.; Carmeliet, J.; Hens, H.

    2002-01-01

    In calculations of building heat loss via the ground, the coupling with soil moisture transfer is generally ignored, an important hypothesis which will be falsified in this paper. Results from coupled simulations - coupled soil heat and moisture transfer equations and complete surface heat and

  5. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus......The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation...... surplus. The measures in the Plan will have to be supplemented by more measures to meet the targets in the EU's Water Framework Directive....

  6. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.

  7. Impact of slurry application method on phosphorus loss in runoff from grassland soils during periods of high soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McConnell D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the trailing shoe application technique reduces phosphorus (P in the runoff postslurry application when compared to the traditional splash-plate application technique. However, the effectiveness of the trailing-shoe technique as a means of reducing P losses has not been evaluated when slurry is applied during periods of high soil moisture levels and lower herbage covers. To address this issue, three treatments were examined in a 3 × 4 factorial design split-plot experiment, with treatments comprising three slurry treatments: control (no slurry, splashplate and trailing-shoe, and four slurry application dates: 7 December, 18 January, 1 March and 10 April. Dairy cow slurry was applied at a rate of 20 m3/ha, while simulated runoff was generated 2, 9 and 16 days later and analysed for a range of P fractions. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff at day two was 41% lower when slurry was applied using the trailing-shoe technique, compared to the splash-plate technique (P < 0.05. In addition, P concentrations in runoff were higher (P < 0.05 from slurry applied in December and March compared to slurry applied in January or April, coinciding with periods of higher soil moisture contents. While the latter highlights that ‘calendar’-based non-spreading periods might not always achieve the desired consequences, the study demonstrated that further field-scale investigations into the trailing shoe as a mitigation measure to reduced P loss from agricultural soils is warranted.

  8. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded....... In contrast, when losses are possible, decisions on behalf of others are more risky. Using structural estimation, we show that this increase in risk stems from a decrease in loss aversion when others are affected by their choices.......We study risk taking on behalf of others, both with and without potential losses. A large-scale incentivized experiment is conducted with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population. On average, decision makers take the same risks for other people as for themselves when losses are excluded...

  9. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight....../obese subjects (N = 10 744), =55 years with cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, received sibutramine plus weight management during a 6-week Lead-in Period before randomization to continue sibutramine (N = 4906) or to receive placebo (N = 4898). The primary endpoint was the time from...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...

  10. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  11. Investigation on Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR Specimen to Predict Moisture Sensitivity of Asphalt Pavements Mixture and Using Polymer to Reduce Moisture Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aziz Hameed Al-Shaybani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage of asphalt concrete is defined as losing the strength and Permanence caused by the active presence of moisture.The most common technique to reduce moisture damage is using modifiers with the asphalt binder or the aggregate.The goal of this study was to explore the effect of various modifiers of polymer on the moisture susceptibility mixture of asphaltic concrete pavement. Modifiers included in this research selected two kinds of polymers Crumb Rubber No 50 (CR No 50 and Methyl Methacrylates (MMA(which are available in the local markets in Iraq and have been used in three percentages for each type. These percentages are (5, 10 and 15% for (CR No 50 and (2.5, 5 and 7.5(% for (MMA.Each type of these polymers is blended with asphalt by wet process at constant blending times for a suitable range of temperatures. The experimental works showed that all polymers modified mixtures have indirect tensile strength higher than control asphalt mixtures, its about (2-15 %, dependent on different type of polymer and polymer concentration under predicted suitable blending time.Test results of indirect tensile strength indicated betterment in modifying the proprieties of mixture, the increased resistance mixture of asphalt concrete pavement versus moisture damage, and reduced the effect of water on asphalt concrete properties. The final result is the addition of (10% CR No 50 and (5% MMA to asphalt mixtures showed an improved mixture of asphalt concrete properties and produced strong mixtures for road construction.One model is predicted for tensile strength ratio [TSR]to estimate the effects of polymer modification on moisture susceptibility mixture of asphalt concrete.

  12. Effect of Chitosan Coating Containing Active Agents on Microbial Growth, Rancidity and Moisture Loss of Meatball During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Pranoto, Yudi; Rakshit, Sudip Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Edible coatings based on chitosan were applied on meatball product in order to preserve quality during storages atambient and refrigeration temperatures. To improve its efficacy, chitosan coatings were incorporated with garlic oil0.2%, potassium sorbate 0.1 % and nisin 51,000 IU. The qualities of meatball assessed were total microbial growth, TBA value and percentage of moisture loss. All chitosan coatings suppressed microbial growth in meatball and strong- ly revealed when stored at refriger...

  13. Reducing fruit losses in India and Sri Lanka using nanotechnology

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reducing fruit losses in India and. Sri Lanka using ... The post-harvest losses — between 35 and 40% and valued at about ... Industrial Technology Institute in Sri Lanka has a bio-wax ... Better jobs and entrepreneurial opportunities for women.

  14. Thinking like a trader selectively reduces individuals' loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Hsu, Ming; Curley, Nina G; Delgado, Mauricio R; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2009-03-31

    Research on emotion regulation has focused upon observers' ability to regulate their emotional reaction to stimuli such as affective pictures, but many other aspects of our affective experience are also potentially amenable to intentional cognitive regulation. In the domain of decision-making, recent work has demonstrated a role for emotions in choice, although such work has generally remained agnostic about the specific role of emotion. Combining psychologically-derived cognitive strategies, physiological measurements of arousal, and an economic model of behavior, this study examined changes in choices (specifically, loss aversion) and physiological correlates of behavior as the result of an intentional cognitive regulation strategy. Participants were on average more aroused per dollar to losses relative to gains, as measured with skin conductance response, and the difference in arousal to losses versus gains correlated with behavioral loss aversion across subjects. These results suggest a specific role for arousal responses in loss aversion. Most importantly, the intentional cognitive regulation strategy, which emphasized "perspective-taking," uniquely reduced both behavioral loss aversion and arousal to losses relative to gains, largely by influencing arousal to losses. Our results confirm previous research demonstrating loss aversion while providing new evidence characterizing individual differences and arousal correlates and illustrating the effectiveness of intentional regulation strategies in reducing loss aversion both behaviorally and physiologically.

  15. Schizophrenia illness severity is associated with reduced loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, James; Buruju, Dheeraj; Perrin, Jennifer S; Reid, Ian C; Steele, J Douglas; Feltovich, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Loss aversion, whereby losses weigh more heavily than equal-sized gains, has been demonstrated in many decision-making settings. Previous research has suggested reduced loss aversion in schizophrenia, but with little evidence of a link between loss aversion and schizophrenia illness severity. In this study, 20 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 control participants, matched by age and sex, played two versions of the Iterated Prisoners' Dilemma, one version with only positive payoffs and another version in which negative payoffs were possible, with the second version being derived from the first by subtracting a constant value from all payoffs. The control group demonstrated significantly lower cooperation rates under negative payoffs, compared with the version with only positive payoffs, indicative of loss aversion. The patient group on average showed no loss aversion response. Moreover, the extent of loss aversion in patients was found to be negatively correlated with schizophrenia illness severity, with less ill patients showing loss aversion more similar to controls. Results were found to be robust to the inclusion of potential confounding factors as covariates within rigorous probit regression analyses. Reduced loss aversion is a feature of schizophrenia and related to illness severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effects of Harvesting Systems and Bole Moisture Loss on Weight Scaling of Douglas-Fir Sawlogs (Pseudotsuga Menziesii var. glauca Franco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred D. Saralecos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the moisture loss from felled trees is essential for determining weight-to-volume (W-V relationships in softwood sawlogs. Several factors affect moisture loss, but research to quantify the effects of bole size and harvest method is limited. This study was designed to test whether bole size, harvest method, environmental factors, and the associated changes in stem moisture content of felled Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca Franco affected the weight-to-volume relationship of sawlogs. Thirty trees in three size classes (12.7–25.4 cm, 25.5–38.1 cm, 38.2–50.8 cm were felled and treated with one of two harvesting processing methods. Moisture content was sampled every two days for four weeks. Results showed 6% greater moisture loss in the crowns of stems that retained limbs after felling compared to stems with limbs removed after harvesting. Additionally, moisture loss rate increased as stem size decreased. The smallest size class lost 58% moisture content compared to 34% in the largest size class throughout the study duration. These stem moisture content changes showed a 17% reduction in average sawlog weight within the largest size class, shifting current W-V relationships from 2.33 tons m−3 to 1.94 tons m−3 during the third seasonal quarter for northern Idaho Douglas-fir and potentially altering relationships year-round.

  17. Distribution grid reconfiguration reduces power losses and helps integrate renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueken, Colleen; Carvalho, Pedro M.S.; Apt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A reconfigurable network can change its topology by opening and closing switches on power lines. We use real wind, solar, load, and cost data and a model of a reconfigurable distribution grid to show that reconfiguration allows a grid operator to reduce operational losses as well as to accept more intermittent renewable generation than a static configuration can. Net present value analysis of automated switch technology shows that the return on investment is negative for this test network when considering only loss reduction, but that the investment is attractive under certain conditions when reconfiguration is used to minimize curtailment. - Highlights: ► Reconfiguration may reduce losses in grids with solar or wind distributed generation. ► Reconfigurable networks can accept more solar or wind DG than static ones. ► Using reconfiguration for loss reduction would not create a positive ROI. ► Using reconfiguration to reduce curtailment usually would create a positive ROI.

  18. Edge effects on moisture reduce wood decomposition rate in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockatt, Martha E; Bebber, Daniel P

    2015-02-01

    Forests around the world are increasingly fragmented, and edge effects on forest microclimates have the potential to affect ecosystem functions such as carbon and nutrient cycling. Edges tend to be drier and warmer due to the effects of insolation, wind, and evapotranspiration and these gradients can penetrate hundreds of metres into the forest. Litter decomposition is a key component of the carbon cycle, which is largely controlled by saprotrophic fungi that respond to variation in temperature and moisture. However, the impact of forest fragmentation on litter decay is poorly understood. Here, we investigate edge effects on the decay of wood in a temperate forest using an experimental approach, whereby mass loss in wood blocks placed along 100 m transects from the forest edge to core was monitored over 2 years. Decomposition rate increased with distance from the edge, and was correlated with increasing humidity and moisture content of the decaying wood, such that the decay constant at 100 m was nearly twice that at the edge. Mean air temperature decreased slightly with distance from the edge. The variation in decay constant due to edge effects was larger than that expected from any reasonable estimates of climatic variation, based on a published regional model. We modelled the influence of edge effects on the decay constant at the landscape scale using functions for forest area within different distances from edge across the UK. We found that taking edge effects into account would decrease the decay rate by nearly one quarter, compared with estimates that assumed no edge effect. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film.

  20. Analyses of moisture deficit grain yield loss in drought tolerant maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of drought tolerant maize cultivars is prerequisite to achieving stable grain yield in drought–prone ecologies of Nigeria's Guinea savanna. However, success has been limited mainly due to lack of maize genotypes that show clear differences in response to well defined moisture deficit condition. Two sets of ...

  1. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in reducing soil nutrient loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Bender, S Franz; Asghari, Hamid R; Heijden, Marcel G A van der

    2015-05-01

    Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils via leaching and as gaseous emissions. These losses can be environmentally damaging and expensive in terms of lost agricultural production. Plants have evolved many traits to optimize nutrient acquisition, including the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), associations of plant roots with fungi that acquire soil nutrients. There is emerging evidence that AM have the ability to reduce nutrient loss from soils by enlarging the nutrient interception zone and preventing nutrient loss after rain-induced leaching events. Until recently, this important ecosystem service of AM had been largely overlooked. Here we review the role of AM in reducing nutrient loss and conclude that this role cannot be ignored if we are to increase global food production in an environmentally sustainable manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Retrospective: Adjusting contaminant concentrations in bird eggs to account for moisture and lipid Loss during their incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    By the 1960s, research and monitoring efforts on chlorinated pesticide residues in tissues of wildlife were well underway in North America and Europe. Conservationists and natural resource managers were attempting to resolve whether pesticide exposure and accumulated residues were related to population declines in several species of predatory and scavenging birds (e.g., bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus, peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus, brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis and osprey Pandion haliaetus). The avian egg was a favored sampling matrix even before the realization that eggshell thinning was linked to population declines (Ratcliffe 1967; Hickey and Anderson 1968) and that the concentration of p,p’-DDE in an egg was associated with the shell thinning phenomenon (e.g., Blus et al. 1972; Wiemeyer et al. 1988). The necessity for making wet-weight concentration adjustments to account for natural moisture loss during incubation of viable eggs was realized. Correction for the more dramatic moisture loss in non-viable decaying eggs was recognized as being paramount. For example, the ∑DDT residues in osprey eggs were reported to vary by as much as eightfold without accounting for moisture loss adjustments (Stickel et al. 1965). In the absence of adjusting concentrations to the fresh wet-weight that was present at the time of egg laying, the uncorrected values exaggerated contaminant concentrations, yielding artifactual results and ultimately incorrect conclusions. The adjustment to fresh wet-weight concentration is equally important for many other persistent contaminants including PCBs, dioxins, furans, and brominated diphenyl ethers.

  3. A novel loss reduced modulation strategy for matrix converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new modulation strategy for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters. The new modulation strategy is applicable whenever the output voltage reference is below half the input voltage. By applying this new modulation method, the switching losses are reduced by 15-35% compa...

  4. Use of Insulated Covers over Product Crates to Reduce Losses in Amaranth during Shipping Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Wheeler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a leafy vegetable with high nutrient content which is sensitive to temperature and low relative humidity. Delays in shipment to market may result in significant losses, therefore improved packaging to minimize mechanical damage and reduce moisture loss are desirable. Amaranth was stored in three types of consumer packages, bunches, clamshells and thin plastic bags, within vented plastic crates. Pallet loads were either covered with insulated material or not, while awaiting transportation. Results indicated covering pallets improved the color and overall quality while reducing weight loss and wilting. Covered crates had a “good” (7.6/9.0 overall quality while uncovered averaged 5.5/9.0 or “moderate” quality. There were significant differences in consumer package type, with the bagged amaranth having almost “excellent” quality (8.8/9.0 compared to “good-fair” quality in clamshells (6.2/9.0 and “poor-fair” quality in the control bunches (4.7/9.0. Amaranth stored in thin plastic bags was better in quality and color, with less weight loss and wilting, however, temperatures at the end of six hours of storage were higher and this may lead to microbial growth. Storage of amaranth in thin bags or clamshell packages, within plastic crates covered with insulated pallet covers while awaiting shipping resulted in improved overall quality and color.

  5. Electromagnetic therapeutic coils design to reduce energy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrek Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of power loss reduction in applicators used in magnetotherapy. To generate magnetic field whose distribution is optimal and to reduce the power loss, the authors establish a set of parameters to evaluate the model of device. Results make it possible to infer that the real power input necessary to operate the magnetic field generator properly may vary significantly depending on construction and localization. The issues raised in this paper should be treated as a basis for further discussion on the construction of applicators used, e.g., in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

  6. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  7. The use of torniquet to reduce blood loss at myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Ezeama, C O; Obiechina, N J A

    2010-06-01

    Fibroids remain the commonest pelvic tumour seen in women with myomectomy being the major form of treatment in our environment. Techniques to minimize blood loss will reduce patient morbidity and the need for blood transfusions. One such technique is the use of a tourniquet during myomectomy operation. This study examines the effectiveness and safety this tourniquet technique. A comparative analysis of the blood loss, transfusion rate and the morbidities associated with the use and non-use of a tourniquet during myomectomy operation at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi Nigeria was undertaken. The Foley's urethral catheter was adapted as a uterine tourniquet and applied as low as possible at the base of the uterus before enucleating the fibroid masses. The patients who had their myomectomy performed with application of a tourniquet [tourniquet group] and those without [no-tourniquet group] were evenly matched for age, parity and presenting symptoms. The overall mean age of patients was 35.7 +/- 6.1 years and parity was 0.40 +/- 1.25. The main presenting symptoms of the patients were lower abdominal mass 65.6%, menorrhagia 38.7%, infertility 33.3%, abdominal pain 19.4% and dysmenorrhoea 14.0%. There was a statistically significant difference [P < 0.001] in mean blood loss for the no-tourniquet group [756.4 +/- 285.7] and the tourniquet group [515.7 +/- 292.8] as well as the mean blood transfusion rate in no-tourniquet group [1.0 units +/- 1.14] and the tourniquet group [0.24 units +/- 0.51]. However there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to complication profile. The Foley's catheter form of tourniquet is cheap, safe, effectively reduces blood loss during myomectomy and significantly reduces transfusion rate while not adding to the complications due to the operation.

  8. Emotion regulation reduces loss aversion and decreases amygdala responses to losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Camerer, Colin F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-03-01

    Emotion regulation strategies can alter behavioral and physiological responses to emotional stimuli and the neural correlates of those responses in regions such as the amygdala or striatum. The current study investigates the brain systems engaged when using an emotion regulation technique during financial decisions. In decision making, regulating emotion with reappraisal-focused strategies that encourage taking a different perspective has been shown to reduce loss aversion as observed both in choices and in the relative arousal responses to actual loss and gain outcomes. In the current study, we find using fMRI that behavioral loss aversion correlates with amygdala activity in response to losses relative to gains. Success in regulating loss aversion also correlates with the reduction in amygdala responses to losses but not to gains. Furthermore, across both decisions and outcomes, we find the reappraisal strategy increases baseline activity in dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the striatum. The similarity of the neural circuitry observed to that seen in emotion regulation, despite divergent tasks, serves as further evidence for a role of emotion in decision making, and for the power of reappraisal to change assessments of value and thereby choices.

  9. Basement radon entry and stack driven moisture infiltration reduced by active soil depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.R. Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    This case study presents measurements of radon and moisture infiltration from soil gases into the basement of an unoccupied research house in Madison, Wisconsin, over two full years. The basement floor and exterior walls were constructed with preservative-treated lumber and plywood. In addition to continuous radon monitoring, measurements included building air...

  10. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndum, S; Muschler, R; Nigussie, A; Magid, J; de Neergaard, A

    2017-07-01

    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect of compost application on nitrogen mineralization. The results showed that delayed addition of poultry manure reduced total nitrogen loss by 33% and increased mineral nitrogen content by >200% compared with early addition. Similarly, less frequent turning reduced total N loss by 12% compared with frequent turning. Stratified placement of compost did not enhance N mineralization compared to a homogeneous mixing. Our results suggested that simple modifications of the composting process (i.e. delayed addition and/or turning frequency) could significantly reduce N losses and improve the plant-nutritional value of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental Conductive Hearing Loss Reduces Modulation Masking Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Antje; Chen, Yi-Wen; Sanes, Dan H

    2016-01-01

    Hearing-impaired individuals experience difficulties in detecting or understanding speech, especially in background sounds within the same frequency range. However, normally hearing (NH) human listeners experience less difficulty detecting a target tone in background noise when the envelope of that noise is temporally gated (modulated) than when that envelope is flat across time (unmodulated). This perceptual benefit is called modulation masking release (MMR). When flanking masker energy is added well outside the frequency band of the target, and comodulated with the original modulated masker, detection thresholds improve further (MMR+). In contrast, if the flanking masker is antimodulated with the original masker, thresholds worsen (MMR-). These interactions across disparate frequency ranges are thought to require central nervous system (CNS) processing. Therefore, we explored the effect of developmental conductive hearing loss (CHL) in gerbils on MMR characteristics, as a test for putative CNS mechanisms. The detection thresholds of NH gerbils were lower in modulated noise, when compared with unmodulated noise. The addition of a comodulated flanker further improved performance, whereas an antimodulated flanker worsened performance. However, for CHL-reared gerbils, all three forms of masking release were reduced when compared with NH animals. These results suggest that developmental CHL impairs both within- and across-frequency processing and provide behavioral evidence that CNS mechanisms are affected by a peripheral hearing impairment.

  12. Developmental Conductive Hearing Loss Reduces Modulation Masking Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Ihlefeld

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing-impaired individuals experience difficulties in detecting or understanding speech, especially in background sounds within the same frequency range. However, normally hearing (NH human listeners experience less difficulty detecting a target tone in background noise when the envelope of that noise is temporally gated (modulated than when that envelope is flat across time (unmodulated. This perceptual benefit is called modulation masking release (MMR. When flanking masker energy is added well outside the frequency band of the target, and comodulated with the original modulated masker, detection thresholds improve further (MMR+. In contrast, if the flanking masker is antimodulated with the original masker, thresholds worsen (MMR−. These interactions across disparate frequency ranges are thought to require central nervous system (CNS processing. Therefore, we explored the effect of developmental conductive hearing loss (CHL in gerbils on MMR characteristics, as a test for putative CNS mechanisms. The detection thresholds of NH gerbils were lower in modulated noise, when compared with unmodulated noise. The addition of a comodulated flanker further improved performance, whereas an antimodulated flanker worsened performance. However, for CHL-reared gerbils, all three forms of masking release were reduced when compared with NH animals. These results suggest that developmental CHL impairs both within- and across-frequency processing and provide behavioral evidence that CNS mechanisms are affected by a peripheral hearing impairment.

  13. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...... generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis.......Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...

  14. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast (www.ShakeAlert.org). In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  15. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie; Muschler, R.; Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    2017-01-01

    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N...... losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry...... manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect...

  16. Reducing the Influence of Soil Moisture on the Estimation of Clay from Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study Using Simulated PRISMA Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Castaldi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture hampers the estimation of soil variables such as clay content from remote and proximal sensing data, reducing the strength of the relevant spectral absorption features. In the present study, two different strategies have been evaluated for their ability to minimize the influence of soil moisture on clay estimation by using soil spectra acquired in a laboratory and by simulating satellite hyperspectral data. Simulated satellite data were obtained according to the spectral characteristics of the forthcoming hyperspectral imager on board of the Italian PRISMA satellite mission. The soil datasets were split into four groups according to the water content. For each soil moisture level a prediction model was applied, using either spectral indices or partial least squares regression (PLSR. Prediction models were either specifically developed for the soil moisture level or calibrated using synthetically dry soil spectra, generated from wet soil data. Synthetically dry spectra were obtained using a new technique based on the effects caused by soil moisture on the optical spectrum from 400 to 2400 nm. The estimation of soil clay content, when using different prediction models according to soil moisture, was slightly more accurate as compared to the use of synthetically dry soil spectra, both employing clay indices and PLSR models. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the a priori knowledge of the soil moisture class can reduce the error of clay estimation when using hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as those that will be provided by the PRISMA satellite mission in the near future.

  17. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  19. Optimal placement of biomass fuelled gas turbines for reduced losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Francisco; Cano, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the optimal location and sizing of biomass fuelled gas turbine power plants. Both profitability in using biomass and power loss are considered in the cost function. The first step is to assess the plant size that maximizes the profitability of the project. The second step is to determine the optimal location of the gas turbines in the electric system to minimize the power loss of the system

  20. Leveraging geodetic data to reduce losses from earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica R.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Langbein, John O.; Leith, William S.; Minson, Sarah E.; Svarc, Jerry L.; Thatcher, Wayne R.

    2018-04-23

    Seismic hazard assessments that are based on a variety of data and the best available science, coupled with rapid synthesis of real-time information from continuous monitoring networks to guide post-earthquake response, form a solid foundation for effective earthquake loss reduction. With this in mind, the Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Natural Hazards Mission Area (NHMA) engages in a variety of undertakings, both established and emergent, in order to provide high quality products that enable stakeholders to take action in advance of and in response to earthquakes. Examples include the National Seismic Hazard Model (NSHM), development of tools for improved situational awareness such as earthquake early warning (EEW) and operational earthquake forecasting (OEF), research about induced seismicity, and new efforts to advance comprehensive subduction zone science and monitoring. Geodetic observations provide unique and complementary information directly relevant to advancing many aspects of these efforts (fig. 1). EHP scientists have long leveraged geodetic data for a range of influential studies, and they continue to develop innovative observation and analysis methods that push the boundaries of the field of geodesy as applied to natural hazards research. Given the ongoing, rapid improvement in availability, variety, and precision of geodetic measurements, considering ways to fully utilize this observational resource for earthquake loss reduction is timely and essential. This report presents strategies, and the underlying scientific rationale, by which the EHP could achieve the following outcomes: The EHP is an authoritative source for the interpretation of geodetic data and its use for earthquake loss reduction throughout the United States and its territories.The USGS consistently provides timely, high quality geodetic data to stakeholders.Significant earthquakes are better characterized by incorporating geodetic data into USGS

  1. Feeding strategies to reduce methane loss in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J. [Group Animal Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands); Bannink, A.; Zom, R. [Animal Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, Lelystad (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), notably of methane (CH4), by domestic animals and possible ways of abatement have been the subject of many international studies in recent years. From all emission sources of CH4, agriculture is by far the most important source in The Netherlands. Several techniques to measure CH4 losses from farm animals exist. Most widely used among them are respiration calorimetric chambers and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as a tracer gas. Also, there are several ways to express CH4 losses. The most widely used way is to express it as % of GEI. A less popular, but for dairy cows interesting way to express CH4 losses is as gram (or litre) per kg desired product, hence g CH4/kg of milk. Some years ago a series of research projects on the subject of CH4 losses from ruminants in The Netherlands were started, coordinated by the ROB-Agro research programme committee (www.robklimaat.nl). In a 2000 study the role that animal nutrition could play to alleviate the loss of CH4 from ruminant animals, notably from dairy cows, has been reviewed. Several Rob-Agro studies have been performed since and evaluated the effect of nutrition and feed additives on CH4 emission. Simultaneously, a research project, funded by the Dutch Commodity Board of Feedstuffs and the ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV), started at the end of 2002 aiming at the quantification of CH4 emission by dairy cows by applying an integrative modelling approach. The model developed was recently used to deliver estimates for the national emission of CH4 by cows. These estimates were used in the Dutch national inventory of emission of greenhouse gases from agriculture.

  2. Efforts to reduce stratospheric ozone loss affect agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weare, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Research has shown that the increased ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface resulting from stratospheric ozone loss poses a danger to everyone. Concern about ozone loss prompted many nations to ratify the Montreal Protocol, the most comprehensive international environmental agreement ever enacted. Several provisions of this protocol will have substantial, long-term effects on the agricultural industry. Agriculture contributes substantially to ozone depletion, primarily through its use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for refrigeration in processing, storage and transport of meats and produce. This paper is meant to serve as an overview of the scientific basis for ozone depletion concerns, a description of the current international policy agreement, and the possible consequences of that policy for agriculture. (author)

  3. Reducing Nutrient Losses with Directed Fertilization of Degraded Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.; Schneider, R.

    2016-12-01

    Degraded soils around the world are stunting agricultural productivity in places where people need it the most. In China, hundreds of years of agriculture and human activity have turned large swaths of productive grasslands into expanses of sandy soils where nothing can grow. Returning soils such as these to healthy productive landscapes is crucial to the livelihoods of rural families and to feeding the expanding population of China and the world at large. Buried wood chips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity but additional nutrient inputs are crucial to support plant growth and completely restore degraded soils in China and elsewhere. Improperly applied fertilizer can cause large fluxes of soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to pollute groundwater, and reach surface water bodies causing harmful algal blooms or eutrophication. Similarly, fertilization can create increases in nutrient losses in the form of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is imperative that nutrient additions to this system be done in a way that fosters restoration and a return to productivity, but minimizes nutrient losses to adjacent surface water bodies and the atmosphere. The primary objective of this study is to characterize soluble and gaseous N and P losses from degraded sandy soils with wood chip and fertilizer amendments in order to identify optimal fertilization methods, frequencies, and quantities for soil restoration. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to begin examining these questions results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  4. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...... generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis....

  5. DFD-01 Reduces Transepidermal Water Loss and Improves Skin Hydration and Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, J Mark; Grove, Gary L; Allenby, Kent; Houser, Tim

    2017-12-01

    In plaque psoriasis, the benefit of topical steroids is well established. The vehicle formulation of topical steroids may also provide benefit in addition to the effects of the steroid itself. DFD-01 (betamethasone dipropionate spray, 0.05%) is a formulation composed of a topical steroid in an emollient-like vehicle that enhances penetration to the target site of inflammation in the skin. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of DFD-01 and its vehicle on skin hydration and barrier function in compromised skin and to evaluate its effect on flexibility in healthy skin. Eighteen healthy white volunteers were enrolled in each of two studies. In Study 1, dry shaving of volar forearms created a compromised skin barrier, through which transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured using an evaporimeter. Capacitance, a measure of epidermal hydration, was also measured at baseline and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or its vehicle formulation. In Study 2, intact skin flexibility was tested with a cutometer before and at 1, 2 and 4 h after application of DFD-01 or vehicle. In Study 1, both DFD-01 and its vehicle were effective at reducing TEWL through the compromised stratum corneum. Capacitance measurements confirmed this finding; razor-chafed skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle exhibited levels of skin hydration similar to unshaved control skin. Study 2 found softening and greater flexibility of normal skin treated with either DFD-01 or vehicle compared with nontreated control skin samples. These tests suggest that the DFD-01 formulation and its vehicle are each effective at retaining moisture within a damaged skin barrier and for softening and increasing the flexibility of intact skin. Dr. Reddy's Laboratories.

  6. Reducing the moisture effect on the creep deformation of wood by an irradiation-induced polymer impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, L.H.L.; Boey, F.Y.C.; Teoh, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to reduce the sensitivity of creep deformation to moisture adsorption by impregnating a tropical wood with methyl-methacrylate and subsequent polymerization by γ-irradiation. Beam specimens both of untreated wood and polymer impregnated wood were subjected to a three-point bend creep test under a constant load of 300 N at 23 ± 1 0 C, at three different humidity levels of 50 ± 5, 65 ± 5 and 85 ± 5%. A Norton-Bailey (power law) mathematical model successfully described the creep behaviour, with the creep components determined by a non-linear regression analysis. A significant reduction in the sensitivity of creep deformation to the humidity level was attained for the polymer impregnated wood. This could be explained by the ability of the impregnated polymer to form a strongly adhesive interface with the wood cell material, thereby acting as a physical barrier to reduce the movement of water to and from the wood cell material. (author)

  7. Methods to reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors with magnetic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: osami-t@ynu.ac.jp; Sekizawa, S.; Alamgir, A.K.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Miyagi, D. [Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka, 1-Chome, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    HTS coated conductors (CCs) have high potentials as low-cost and long length conductors. However, a question remains as to what influence the magnetic property of the substrates has on the AC losses. In this paper, the influence of magnetic property of substrates on the AC losses in HTS CCs is studied. Based on the study methods to reduce the AC transport current losses and magnetization losses in CCs with magnetic substrates are investigated. It is shown that the losses can be reduced to the same level of those in CCs with non-magnetic substrates.

  8. Methods to reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors with magnetic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Sekizawa, S.; Alamgir, A.K.M.; Miyagi, D.

    2007-01-01

    HTS coated conductors (CCs) have high potentials as low-cost and long length conductors. However, a question remains as to what influence the magnetic property of the substrates has on the AC losses. In this paper, the influence of magnetic property of substrates on the AC losses in HTS CCs is studied. Based on the study methods to reduce the AC transport current losses and magnetization losses in CCs with magnetic substrates are investigated. It is shown that the losses can be reduced to the same level of those in CCs with non-magnetic substrates

  9. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  10. Reducing nutrient losses in Europe and implications for farming -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    kg N in reduced leaching. The farmers have paid 60% of the costs. The paper then describes the measures taken in Denmark and the associated costs for the state and the farmers. The next challenge for European farmers is the Water Framework Directive (WFD) with high environmental goals where only...... a slight deviation from the natural state is accepted. This might have a great affect on farming especially in livestock intensive countries and regions in Europe. The paper describes an example of a regional analysis covering the River Basin of Ringkøbing Fjord in Denmark, which indicates the calculations...... to find the most cost effective location of measures. The WFD covers all water and the task of finding the most cost efficient combinations of measures to achieve the goals for streams, lakes, fjords and groundwater will clearly be a challenge. The paper concludes that exceptions from the WFD will have...

  11. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section: A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr H. Yehia

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  12. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  13. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single...

  14. Thin-Film layers with Interfaces that reduce RF Losses on High-Resistivity Silicon Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evseev, S. B.; Milosavljevic, S.; Nanver, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Radio-Frequency (RF) losses on High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates were studied for several different surface passivation layers comprising thin-films of SiC, SiN and SiO2 In many combinations, losses from conductive surface channels were reduced and increasing the number of interfaces between

  15. Reducing AC-Winding Losses in High-Current High-Power Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Madawala, Udaya K.; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    Foil windings are preferable in high-current high-power inductors to realize compact designs and to reduce dc-current losses. At high frequency, however, proximity effect will cause very significant increase in ac resistance in multi-layer windings, and lead to high ac winding losses. This paper ...

  16. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  17. Investigation of L-leucine in reducing the moisture-induced deterioration of spray-dried salbutamol sulfate power for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Gengenbach, Thomas; Yu, Jiaqi; Gao, Ge Fiona; Tang, Patricia; Zhou, Qi Tony; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of L-leucine (LL) in preventing moisture-induced deterioration in the in vitro aerosolization performance of spray-dried (SD) salbutamol sulfate (SS). Increasing mass fraction of LL (5-80%) were co-spray dried with SS, and the physicochemical properties of the powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS). Furthermore, the surface morphology and chemistry of fine particles was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The in vitro aerosolization performance of powders stored at different relative humidity (RH) was evaluated by a next generation impactor (NGI). The SD SS powders were moderately hygroscopic and amorphous, of which the uptake of moisture upon storage caused a drop in the aerosolization performance. The results showed that 40% (w/w) LL was sufficient to eliminate the effect of moisture on the aerosolization performance at 60% RH. The formulation containing 40% (w/w) LL also maximized the aerosolization performance of SD SS powders (stored in desiccator) with the emitted fraction being 90.0±1.8%, and the fine particle fraction based on the recovered dose (FPF recovered ) and emitted dose (FPF emitted ) being 78.0±3.7% and 86.6±2.9%, respectively. The underlying mechanisms were that the crystalline LL increased the degree of particle surface corrugation, and reduced particle fusion and cohesiveness to facilitate dispersion. However, there is still a great challenge to prevent the moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance at 75% RH due to the recrystallization of SD SS. In conclusion, LL is a potential excipient for reducing moisture-induced deterioration in the aerosolization performance of SD amorphous powders, but still has drawbacks in preventing the recrystallization-induced deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%–60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%–2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail.

  19. Reducing Postharvest Losses during Storage of Grain Crops to Strengthen Food Security in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kalita, Prasanta

    2017-01-15

    While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers' livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%-60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%-2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail.

  20. Moisture desorption in mechanically masticated fuels: effects of particle fracturing and fuelbed compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; J.Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical mastication is increasingly used as a wildland fuel treatment, reducing standing trees and shrubs to compacted fuelbeds of fractured woody fuels. One major shortcoming in our understanding of these fuelbeds is how particle fracturing influences moisture gain or loss, a primary determinant of fire behaviour. To better understand fuel moisture dynamics, we...

  1. The effects of a reduced balanced protein diet on litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of female broiler breeders over three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W; Wang, Y; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-11-02

    Protein content reduction in broiler breeder diets has been increasingly investigated. However, broiler breeders reared on low protein diets are characterized by a deterioration of the feather condition. Furthermore, polydipsia induced by controlled feed intake increases litter moisture and as a consequence pododermatitis. This project aimed to study the litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of breeders fed with a 25% reduced balanced protein (RP) diet during the rearing and laying period over three successive generations. The experiment started with two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group fed with standard C diets and RP group fed with RP diets. The female F0-progeny of each treatment was divided into the two dietary treatments as well, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diet fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diet fed breeders to achieve the same target BW. The female F1-progeny of each treatment were all fed with C diets which resulted in four treatments for the F2 generation: C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C (breeder feed in F0/F1/F2 generation). Litter moisture, footpad and hock dermatitis were recorded at regular intervals throughout the experimental period in all three generations. For the F0 and F1 generation, the pens of breeders receiving C diets had significantly higher litter moisture than the RP diets fed groups (Pdiets had poorer feather condition than those receiving the C diets (Pdiets to broiler breeders improved litter condition and hence reduced FDO whereas impaired feather condition. Furthermore, positive transgenerational effects of the maternal RP diets on the feather condition may be inferred, hence potentially altering the welfare status.

  2. Reducing water losses via intelligent pressure management; Reduzierung von Wasserverlusten durch intelligentes Druckmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppinger, Peter [VAG-Armaturen GmbH, Mannheim (Germany). Marketing

    2008-03-15

    Leaks in water pipes and leaking municipal water-transmission and piping systems, particularly in developing and threshold countries account for water-losses of up to 50% of the water supplied by the waterworks. This article examines three different solutions for effective pressure management on the basis of an intelligent control system, by means of which water-losses can be reduced to a stable and economically rational level. (orig.)

  3. Development of Interior Permanent Magnet Motors with Concentrated Windings for Reducing Magnet Eddy Current Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Katsumi; Kanou, Yuji; Fukushima, Yu; Ohki, Shunji; Nezu, Akira; Ikemi, Takeshi; Mizokami, Ryoichi

    In this paper, we present the development of interior magnet motors with concentrated windings, which reduce the eddy current loss of the magnets. First, the mechanism of the magnet eddy current loss generation is investigated by a simple linear magnetic circuit. Due to the consideration, an automatic optimization method using an adaptive finite element method is carried out to determine the stator and rotor shapes, which decrease the eddy current loss of the magnet. The determined stator and rotor are manufactured in order to proof the effectiveness by the measurement.

  4. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B; Abelson, Klas Sp; Søndergaard, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice without this supplement reached this humane endpoint ( p = 0.0027). Excretion of corticosterone metabolites in faeces was reduced in diabetic mice on softened chow ( p = 0.0007), suggesting lower levels of general stress. Finally, it was demonstrated that the water-softened chow supplement did not significantly affect the induction of key disease parameters, i.e. %HbA1C and albuminuria nor result in abnormal teeth wear. In conclusion, supplementation of softened food is refining the STZ-induced diabetic mouse model significantly by reducing stress, weight loss and the number of animals sacrificed due to humane endpoints, while maintaining the key phenotypes of diabetes and nephropathy.

  5. Reducing phosphorus loss in tile water with managed drainage in a claypan soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Patrick R; Nelson, Kelly A; Motavalli, Peter P; Nathan, Manjula; Dudenhoeffer, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Installing subsurface tile drain systems in poorly drained claypan soils to improve corn ( L.) yields could potentially increase environmental phosphorus (P) loss through the tile drainage system. The objectives of the study were to quantify the average concentration and loss of ortho-P in tile drain water from a claypan soil and to determine whether managed subsurface drainage (MD) could reduce ortho-P loss in tile water compared with free subsurface drainage (FD). Flow-weighted ortho-P concentration in the tile water was significantly lower with MD (0.09 mg L) compared with that of FD (0.15 mg L). Ortho-P loss in the tile water of this study was reduced with MD (36 g ha) by 80% compared with FD (180 g ha). Contrary to previous research, reduced ortho-P loss observed over the 4-yr study was not solely due to the reduced amount of water drained annually (63%) with MD compared with FD. During the spring period, when flow was similar between MD and FD, the concentration of ortho-P in the tile water generally was lower with MD compared with FD, which resulted in significantly less ortho-P loss with MD. We speculate that MD's ability to conserve water during the dry summer months increased corn's uptake of water and P, which reduced the amount of P available for leaching loss in the subsequent springs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Insulator coated magnetic nanoparticulate composites with reduced core loss and method of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Wang, Shihe (Inventor); Xiao, Danny (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A series of bulk-size magnetic/insulating nanostructured composite soft magnetic materials with significantly reduced core loss and its manufacturing technology. This insulator coated magnetic nanostructured composite is comprises a magnetic constituent, which contains one or more magnetic components, and an insulating constituent. The magnetic constituent is nanometer scale particles (1-100 nm) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase (continuous phase). While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase (or coupled nanoparticles) provide the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides the much demanded high resistivity which significantly reduces the eddy current loss. The resulting material is a high performance magnetic nanostructured composite with reduced core loss.

  7. Transport losses in single and assembled coated conductors with textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, N.; Jiang, Z.; Li, Z.; Nakahata, M.; Kato, T.; Ueyama, M.; Kashima, N.; Nagaya, S.; Shiohara, S.

    2008-01-01

    Transport losses in a coated conductor with a textured-metal substrate with reduced magnetism were studied experimentally. The substrate is with a clad structure, and HoBCO superconductor layer is deposited on the substrate with buffer layers. The measured transport loss of a sample whose critical current is 126.0 A falls between Norris's strip value and Norris's ellipse value. The increase in the measured transport loss from Norris's strip value can be attributed to its non-uniform lateral J c distribution. The same buffered clad tape was placed under an IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor with a non-magnetic substrate, and its transport loss was measured. The comparison between the measured transport loss of this sample and that of the identical IBAD-MOCVD coated conductor without the buffered clad tape indicates that the increase in the transport loss due to this buffered clad tape is small. The transport losses of hexagonal assemblies of IBAD-MOCVD coated conductors, whose structure simulates that of superconducting power transmission cables, were also measured where the buffered clad tapes were under-lied or over-lied on the coated conductors. The increase in the transport loss of hexagonal assemblies of coated conductors due to the buffered clad tapes is at an allowable level

  8. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  9. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  10. Diagnosis of an alternative ammonia process technology to reduce exergy losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannadzadeh, Ali; Sadeqzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pinpointed non-efficient units by visualized exergetic ammonia process flowsheets. • Recommended ways towards sustainable ammonia productions based on exergy-loss sources. • Demonstrated applicability of the exergetic solutions panel on an ammonia process. - Abstract: Ammonia production through more efficient technologies can be achieved using exergy analysis. Ammonia production is one of the most important but also one of most energy consuming processes in the chemical industry. Based on a panel of solutions previously developed, this study helps to identify potential areas of improvement using an exergy analysis that covers all aspects of conventional ammonia synthesis and separation. The total internal and external exergy losses are calculated as 3,152 and 6,364 kJ/kg, respectively. The process is then divided into five main functional blocks based on their exergy losses. The reforming block contains the largest exergy loss (3,098 kJ/kg) and thus the largest potential for improvement including preheating cold feed through an economizer, developing technology towards isobaric mixing, and pressure drop reduction in the secondary reformer as the main contributors to the irreversibility (1,302 kJ/kg) in this block. The second largest exergy loss resides in the ammonia synthesis block (3,075 kJ/kg) where solutions such as reduced temperature rise across the compressor, proper compressor isolation, reducing undesired components such as argon in the reactor feed, and using lower temperatures for reactor outlet streams, are proposed to decrease the exergy losses. Throttling process in the syngas separator is the key contributing mechanism for the irreversibility (1,635 kJ/kg exergy losses) in the gas upgrading block. The exergy losses in the residual ammonia removal block (833 kJ/kg exergy losses) are mainly due to the stripper and the absorber column where a modified column design might be helpful. The highest exergy loss in the preheating block

  11. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DOES INTRAVENOUS TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS DURING SURGICALLY ASSISTED RAPID PALATAL EXPANSION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine AKBAŞ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA in reducing blood loss during surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE procedure. Subjects and Methods: A total of 34 patients (12 male, 22 female who had been treated surgically under general anesthesia with SARPE including pterygoid disjunction for transverse maxillary deficiency (TMD were included in this study. The study group (n=17 received intravenous (IV TXA 10 mg/kg as a preoperative bolus; the control group (n=17 received normal saline solution. Preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit values, intraoperative blood loss, and any blood product transfusion were recorded. Results: Blood loss during SARPE was statistically significantly less in the study group than the control group (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Preoperative IV administration of TXA can effectively control blood loss during when SARPE with pterygoid disjunction is performed.

  14. Preoperative methylprednisolone does not reduce loss of knee-extension strength after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, Viktoria; Bandholm, Thomas Q; Zilmer, Camilla K

    2017-01-01

    tests, rescue analgesic requirements, and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) changes. Results - 61 patients completed the follow-up. The loss in quadriceps muscle strength was similar between groups; group MP 1.04 (0.22-1.91) Nm/kg (-89%) vs. group C 1.02 (0.22-1.57) Nm/kg (-88%). Also between......-265) mg/L (p loss of knee-extension strength or other functional outcomes at discharge after fast-track TKA despite a reduced systemic inflammatory response.......Background and purpose - Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) face challenges related to postoperative reduction in knee-extension strength. We evaluated whether inhibition of the inflammatory response by a single preoperative dose of methylprednisolone (MP) reduces the pronounced loss...

  15. Reduced loss of NH 3 by coating urea with biodegradable polymers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In agricultural lands, the loss of NH3 from surface-applied urea and micronutrient deficiencies are the two most common problems, which can be solved by using coated urea with micronutrients and biodegradable natural materials. These coatings can improve the nutrient status in the soil and simultaneously reduce ...

  16. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge...

  17. Evaluating alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce wildfire losses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Salis; Maurizio Laconi; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Olga Lozano; Ana Fernandes de Oliveira; Donatella Spano

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to evaluate by a modeling approach the effectiveness of alternative fuel treatment strategies to reduce potential losses from wildfires in Mediterranean areas. We compared strategic fuel treatments located near specific human values vs random locations, and treated 3, 9 and 15% of a 68,000 ha study area located in Sardinia, Italy. The...

  18. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  19. Reducing N losses through surface runoff from rice-wheat rotation by improving fertilizer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yansheng; Sun, Huifeng; Liu, Yaqin; Fu, Zishi; Chen, Guifa; Zou, Guoyan; Zhou, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    To better understand N runoff losses from rice-wheat rotation and demonstrate the effectiveness of improved fertilizer management in reducing N runoff losses, a field study was conducted for three consecutive rice-wheat rotations. Nitrogen losses through surface runoff were measured for five treatments, including CK without N application, C200, C300 simulating the conventional practices, CO200, and CO300. Optimum N rate was applied for C200 and CO200, and 30% of chemical fertilizer was substituted with organic fertilizer for CO200 and CO300 with respect to C200 and C300, respectively. Rice season had higher runoff coefficients than wheat season. Approximately 52% of total N was lost as NH 4 + -N in rice season, ranging from 21 to 83%, and in wheat season, the proportion of NO 3 - -N in total N averaged 53% with a variation from 38 to 67%. The N treatments lost less total N in rice season (1.67-10.7 kg N ha -1 ) than in wheat season (1.72-17.1 kg N ha -1 ). These suggested that a key to controlling N runoff losses from rice-wheat rotation was to limit NO 3 - -N accumulation in wheat season. In both seasons, N runoff losses for C200 and CO300 were lower than those for C300. CO200 better cut N losses than C200 and CO300, with 64 and 57% less N in rice and wheat seasons than C300, respectively. Compared with the conventional practices, optimum N inputs integrated with co-application of organic and chemical fertilizers could reduce N runoff losses with a better N balance under rice-wheat rotation.

  20. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes: results from the Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes (SCOUT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W; Van Gaal, L F; Maggioni, A P; Torp-Pedersen, C; Sharma, A M; Legler, U F; Shepherd, G M; Rode, R A; Perdok, R J; Renz, C L; James, W P T

    2012-06-01

    The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Overweight/obese subjects (N = 10 744), ≥55 years with cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, received sibutramine plus weight management during a 6-week Lead-in Period before randomization to continue sibutramine (N = 4906) or to receive placebo (N = 4898). The primary endpoint was the time from randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild cardiovascular disease. Modest weight loss over short-term (6 weeks) and longer-term (6-12 months) periods is associated with reduction in subsequent cardiovascular mortality for the following 4-5 years even in those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. While the sibutramine group experienced more primary outcome events than the placebo group, greater weight loss reduced overall risk of these occurring in both groups. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Minocycline reduces neuroinflammation but does not ameliorate neuron loss in a mouse model of neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shanshan; Hou, Jinxing; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Congyu; Wang, Long; Zou, Xiaoxia; Yu, Huahong; Shi, Yun; Yin, Zhenyu; Chen, Guiquan

    2015-01-01

    Minocycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic. A number of preclinical studies have shown that minocycline exhibits neuroprotective effects in various animal models of neurological diseases. However, it remained unknown whether minocycline is effective to prevent neuron loss. To systematically evaluate its effects, minocycline was used to treat Dicer conditional knockout (cKO) mice which display age-related neuron loss. The drug was given to mutant mice prior to the occurrence of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and the treatment had lasted 2 months. Levels of inflammation markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule1 (Iba1) and interleukin6 (IL6), were significantly reduced in minocycline-treated Dicer cKO mice. In contrast, levels of neuronal markers and the total number of apoptotic cells in Dicer cKO mice were not affected by the drug. In summary, inhibition of neuroinflammation by minocycline is insufficient to prevent neuron loss and apoptosis. PMID:26000566

  2. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin [Industrial Technology Research Institute-South, Tainan 709, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Chen, E-mail: fengchiahsu@itri.org.t, E-mail: hsujc@yuntech.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-21

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  3. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2011-01-01

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  4. Viewing sexual images is associated with reduced physiological arousal response to gambling loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Ming; Hsu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Erotic imagery is one highly salient emotional signal that exists everywhere in daily life. The impact of sexual stimuli on human decision-making, however, has rarely been investigated. This study examines the impact of sexual stimuli on financial decision-making under risk. In each trial, either a sexual or neutral image was presented in a picture categorization task before a gambling task. Thirty-four men made gambling decisions while their physiological arousal, measured by skin conductance responses (SCRs), was recorded. Behaviorally, the proportion of gambling decisions did not differ between the sexual and neutral image trials. Physiologically, participants had smaller arousal differences, measured in micro-siemen per dollar, between losses and gains in the sexual rather than in the neutral image trials. Moreover, participants' SCRs to losses relative to gains predicted the proportion of gambling decisions in the neutral image trials but not in the sexual image trials. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of emotionally salient sexual images reduces attentional and arousal-related responses to gambling losses. Our results are consistent with the theory of loss attention involving increased cognitive investment in losses compared to gains. The findings also have potential practical implications for our understanding of the specific roles of sexual images in human financial decision making in everyday life, such as gambling behaviors in the casino.

  5. Reducing blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy by temporary uterine artery clamping using bulldog clamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jo Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine myoma is the most common benign gynecologic tumor worldwide. Mini-invasive surgery has become popular for myomectomy, with advantages over laparotomy. However, reducing blood loss during laparoscopic myomectomy is a major concern for the surgeon because of the limitation in making a quick control bleeding during the operation. Several methods have proved to decrease blood flow, but are not always effective or available. We present a case of uterine myoma with the uterine arteries clamped by bulldog clamps during laparoscopic myomectomy. The myoma was removed successfully with minimal blood loss (<50 ml during the operation. This is an effective, safe, and reliable method for reducing bleeding during laparoscopic myomectomy that does not require ligation of the uterine artery.

  6. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  7. Whole Farm Management to Reduce Nutrient Losses From Dairy Farms: A Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rotz, C.A.; Oenema, J.; Keulen, van, H.

    2006-01-01

    Whole-farm simulation provides a tool for evaluating long-term impacts of nutrient conservation technologies and strategies on dairy farms. A farm simulation model was verified to predict the production and nutrient flows of the De Marke experimental dairy farm in the Netherlands. On this farm, technologies such as a low ammonia emission barn floor, enclosed manure storage, manure injection into the soil, and intraseeding of a grass cover crop on corn land were used to reduce nitrogen loss an...

  8. Role of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Vaginal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priyankur; Sujatha, M S; Bhandiwad, Ambarisha; Biswas, Bivas

    2016-10-01

    Anti-fibrinolytic agents are used to reduce obstetric blood loss as the fibrinolytic system is known to get activated after placental delivery. To evaluate the efficacy of parenteral tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during normal labour and to compare it with the amount of blood loss in patients who received placebo in the third stage of labour. Patients with spontaneous labour or planned for induction of labour and fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study. In each patient, the pre-delivery pulse rate, blood pressure, Hb gm% and PCV% were noted. Labour was monitored carefully using a partogram. The study group received Inj. Oxytocin and Inj. Tranexamic acid. The control group received Inj. Oxytocin and Placebo injection. Immediately after delivery of the baby, when all the liquor was drained, the patient was placed over a blood drape-a disposable conical, graduated plastic collection bag. The amount of blood collected in the blood drape was measured. Then the patient was given pre-weighed pads, which were weighed 2 h post-partum. The blood loss was measured by measuring the blood collected in the drape and by weighing the swabs before and after delivery. The total number of patients studied was 100-equally distributed in both the groups. The age group of the patients and BMI were comparable. There was a significant increase in the pulse rate and decrease in blood pressure in the control group as compared with the study group. The post-delivery haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in the control group as compared to the study group. The mean blood loss at the end of 2 h was 105 ml in the study group and 252 ml in the control group. There was a significant increase in the usage of uterotonics and also in the need for blood transfusion in the control group; 12 % of the patients in the control group had to stay for more than 3 days compared to 2 % in the study group. Tranexamic acid injection, an antifibrinolytic

  9. Theoretical study of soil water balance and process of soil moisture evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Savel'ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly a half of all grain production in the Russian Federation is grown in dry regions. But crop production efficiency there depends on amount of moisture, available to plants. However deficit of soil moisture is caused not only by a lack of an atmospheric precipitation, but also inefficient water saving: losses reach 70 percent. With respect thereto it is important to reveal the factors influencing intensity of soil moisture evaporation and to develop methods of decrease in unproductive moisture losses due to evaporation. The authors researched soil water balance theoretically and determined the functional dependences of moisture loss on evaporation. Intensity of moisture evaporation depends on physicomechanical characteristics of the soil, a consistence of its surface and weather conditions. To decrease losses of moisture for evaporation it is necessary, first, to improve quality of crumbling of the soil and therefore to reduce the evaporating surface of the soil. Secondly - to create the protective mulching layer which will allow to enhance albedo of the soil and to reduce its temperature that together will reduce unproductive evaporative water losses and will increase its inflow in case of condensation from air vapors. The most widespread types of soil cultivation are considered: disk plowing and stubble mulch plowing. Agricultural background «no tillage» was chosen as a control. Subsoil mulching tillage has an essential advantage in a storage of soil moisture. So, storage of soil moisture after a disking and in control (without tillage decreased respectively by 24.9 and 19.8 mm while at the mulching tillage this indicator revised down by only 15.6 mm. The mulching layer has lower heat conductivity that provides decrease in unproductive evaporative water losses.

  10. Epsilon Aminocaproic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Juliann C; Welsby, Ian J; Green, Cynthia L; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Wellman, Samuel S

    2018-01-01

    Total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA) are associated with significant blood loss and some patients require postoperative blood transfusion. While tranexamic acid has been studied extensively among this population, we tested the hypothesis that epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) can reduce blood loss and transfusion after joint arthroplasty. In April 2014, our Veterans Affairs Medical Center introduced a protocol to administer EACA during THA and TKA. No antifibrinolytics were used previously. We retrospectively compared blood loss and incidence of transfusion among patients who underwent primary arthroplasty in the year before standardized administration of EACA with patients having the same procedures the following year. Blood loss was measured as delta hemoglobin (preoperative hemoglobin - hemoglobin on postoperative day 1). All patients undergoing primary THA or TKA were included. Patients having revision surgery were excluded. We identified 185 primary arthroplasty patients from the year before and 184 from the year after introducing the EACA protocol. There were no changes in surgical technique or attending surgeons during this period. Delta hemoglobin was significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared to the control group (3.4 ± 1.1 mg/dL) (P blood transfusion was also significantly lower in the EACA group (2.7%) compared to the control group (25.4%) (P transfusion following introduction of the EACA protocol in patients undergoing primary arthroplasty. EACA offers a lower cost alternative to TXA for reducing blood loss and transfusion in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Managing tile drainage, subirrigation, and nitrogen fertilization to enhance crop yields and reduce nitrate loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Reynolds, W D; Welacky, T W; Oloya, T O; Gaynor, J D

    2009-01-01

    Improving field-crop use of fertilizer nitrogen is essential for protecting water quality and increasing crop yields. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlled tile drainage (CD) and controlled tile drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS) for mitigating off-field nitrate losses and enhancing crop yields. The CD and CDS systems were compared on a clay loam soil to traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD) under a corn (Zea Mays L.)-soybean (Glycine Max. (L.) Merr.) rotation at two nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (N1: 150 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, no N applied to soybean; N2: 200 kg N ha(-1) applied to corn, 50 kg N ha(-1) applied to soybean). The N concentrations in tile flow events with the UTD treatment exceeded the provisional long-term aquatic life limit (LT-ALL) for freshwater (4.7 mg N L(-1)) 72% of the time at the N1 rate and 78% at the N2 rate, whereas only 24% of tile flow events at N1 and 40% at N2 exceeded the LT-ALL for the CDS treatment. Exceedances in N concentration for surface runoff and tile drainage were greater during the growing season than the non-growing season. At the N1 rate, CD and CDS reduced average annual N losses via tile drainage by 44 and 66%, respectively, relative to UTD. At the N2 rate, the average annual decreases in N loss were 31 and 68%, respectively. Crop yields from CDS were increased by an average of 2.8% relative to UTD at the N2 rate but were reduced by an average of 6.5% at the N1 rate. Hence, CD and CDS were effective for reducing average nitrate losses in tile drainage, but CDS increased average crop yields only when additional N fertilizer was applied.

  12. The Potential to Reduce Nitrogen Loss Through Rotating Different Sorghum Varieties in Greenhouse Vegetable Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG Ling-yun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In North China plain, excessive fertilization in vegetable greenhouse always results in nitrate accumulation in soil and possible nitrogen leaching with potential environmental risk. It is necessary to rotate appropriate catch crop to absorb surplus nitrogen in fallow season and reduce rootzone nitrate level. An experiment was carried out to select suitable sorghum variety as catch crop to reduce nitrogen loss in Beijing suburb. Six common varieties were used in the experiment as conventional catch crop, sweet corn as the control. The results indicated that the biomass, root growth and nitrogen accumulation in shoots of sorghum Jinza 12 were highest in the catch crops. It demonstrated that the variety Jinza 12 was an appropriate catch crop for reducing nitrogen accumulation in surface soil layer compared with sweet corn. Meanwhile, variety Jiliang 2 maintained highest proportion of soil NH4+-N content after urea application, which might be related to the biological nitrification inhibitors (BNI released by the root system of sorghum. It implied that sorghum could be used as catch crop to reduce nitrogen loss through plant extraction i.e. nitrogen uptake and stabilization i.e. BNI inhibition, in comparison with sweet corn.

  13. Weight Loss and Melatonin Reduce Obesity-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of weight loss and melatonin on the obesity-induced oxidative damage in rat testes. Materials and Methods. 28 male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each consisting of 7 rats: control group (Group 1, obesity group (Group 2, obesity + MLT group (Group 3, and weight loss group (Group 4. Rats were weighed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed and 5 cc blood samples were obtained from all of the rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PC levels were analysed in the testicular tissues and serum. Spermatogenesis was evaluated with the Johnsen scoring system. Results. The testicular tissue and serum levels of MDA, PC, and SOD activity were increased in the obesity group in comparison to the sham operated group (P<0.05. Weight loss and melatonin treatment ameliorated MDA, PC, and SOD levels in testicular tissue and serum significantly (P<0.05. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of mean Johnsen score (P=0.727. Conclusion. Experimentally created obesity caused oxidative stress and both melatonin and weight loss reduced oxidative stress parameters in rat testes.

  14. Does reducing food losses and wastes in sub-Saharan Africa make economic sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragie, Emerta; Balié, Jean; MoralesOpazo, Cristian

    2018-06-01

    Reducing food losses and waste (FLW) is one of the sustainable ways of closing the food requirement gap in developing countries. However, there is not yet adequate knowledge on the extent of FLW by commodity type and stage of the food supply chain (FSC). Focusing on ten agrarian countries in Africa and building mainly on the Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Balance Sheets (FBSs), this study generates some new insights on the level of FLW by country, FSC and food type. Across the FSC, we find that these countries lose a cumulative amount equivalent to 28% (641 kilocalories per capita per day - kcal/cap/day) of the current calorie intake. Within the FSC, the production and post-harvest handling stages contribute the greater shares of the total losses with 38% or 244 kcal/cap/day and 34% or 218 kcal/cap/day, respectively. Our results also show that farm incomes would increase by 20% if the avoidable losses and waste were recovered. These results are troublesome given the level of poverty and food insecurity in these countries and suggest inefficient and unsustainable use of natural resources (water and cropland) associated with the FSC losses.

  15. Can Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss during Major Cardiac Surgery? A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Frances; Wahed, Amer; Gregoric, Igor; Kar, Biswajit; Dasgupta, Amitava; Tint, Hlaing

    2017-09-01

    We examined the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in preventing intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery. Out of initial 81 patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (both coronary artery bypass and valve repair procedures) at our teaching hospital, sixty-seven patients were selected for this study. We compared estimated blood loss, decrease in percent hemoglobin and hematocrit following surgery between two groups of patients (none of them received any blood product during surgery), one group receiving no tranexamic acid (n=17) and another group receiving tranexamic acid (n=25). In the second study, we combined these patients with patients receiving modest amounts of blood products (1-2 unit) and compared these parameters between two groups of patients (25 patients received no tranexamic acid, 42 patients received tranexamic acid). In patients who received no blood product during surgery, those who received no tranexamic acid showed statistically significant (independent t-test two tailed at p tranexamic acid (mean: 987.2 mL, SD: 459.9, n=25). We observed similar results when the patients receiving no blood products and patients receiving modest amount of blood products were combined based on the use of tranexamic acid or not. No statistically significant difference was observed in percent reduced hemoglobin or hematocrit following surgery in any group of patients. We conclude that intraoperative antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid does not reduce intraoperative blood loss during major cardiac surgery which contradicts popular belief. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  16. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  17. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing postharvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage losses of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygienic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region

  18. Food irradiation - a viable technology for reducing post harvest losses of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, O.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development in the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. Twenty-seven countries have approved over 40 irradiated foods or groups of related food items for human consumption, either on an unconditional or a restricted basis. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. Its wide application in solving microbial spoilage loss of food, insect disinfestation, improving hygenic qualities, slowing down physiological processes of foods is reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on applications of direct relevance to countries in Asia and the Pacific region. (author)

  19. Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideaki; Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Cattaneo, Lia R; Cattell Noll, Laura; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing; Liang, Xia; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ma, Lin; Dalgaard, Tommy; Graversgaard, Morten; Chen, Deli; Nansai, Keisuke; Shindo, Junko; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Oita, Azusa; Su, Ming-Chien; Mishima, Shin-Ichiro; Bleeker, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint (calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita -1 year -1 . The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries' N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).

  20. Evaluation of mitigation strategies to reduce ammonia losses from slurry fertilisation on arable lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzi, M., E-mail: marco.carozzi@unimi.it [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrara, R.M.; Rana, G. [Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Research Unit for Cropping Systems in Dry Environments, via C. Ulpiani, 5 – 70125 Bari (Italy); Acutis, M. [University of Milan, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the best practices in reducing ammonia (NH{sub 3}) losses from fertilised arable lands, six field trials were carried out in three different locations in northern Italy. NH{sub 3} emissions from cattle slurry were estimated considering the spreading techniques and the field incorporation procedures. The measurements were performed using long term exposure samplers associated to the determination of the atmospheric turbulence and the use of the backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLS) model WindTrax. The results obtained indicate that the NH{sub 3} emission process was exhausted in the first 24–48 h after slurry spreading. The slurry incorporation technique was able to reduce the NH{sub 3} losses with respect to the surface spreading, where a contextual incorporation led to reductions up to 87%. However, the best abatement strategy for NH{sub 3} losses from slurry applications has proved to be the direct injection into the soil, with a reduction of about 95% with respect to the surface spreading. The results obtained highlight the strong dependence of the volatilisation phenomenon by soil and weather conditions. - Highlights: ► Ammonia emissions from land-application of slurry were quantified. ► We examined and compared six different agronomic treatments in three locations. ► The faster was the soil-incorporation of slurry, the lower was the ammonia loss. ► The direct injection of slurry was found to be the best abatement strategy. ► The environmental factors were able to strongly influence the ammonia emission.

  1. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  2. Effectiveness of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during cytoreductive surgery for advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Supoken, Amornrat; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake

    2016-01-23

    Ovarian cancer is the third most common gynaecological cancer worldwide, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 6.1 per 10,000 women. Standard therapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) includes a combination of cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Cytoreductive surgery aims to remove as much of the visible tumour as possible. As extensive intraperitoneal metastases are typical of advanced EOC, cytoreductive surgery is usually an extensive procedure with the risk of excessive bleeding. Tranexamic acid given perioperatively is effective in reducing blood loss and allogeneic blood transfusion requirements in a variety of surgical settings. Therefore, tranexamic acid seems to be a promising agent for minimising blood loss and the need for blood transfusion among women with advanced EOC undergoing cytoreductive surgery. To assess the effects of tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss associated with cytoreductive surgery in women with advanced EOC (stage III to IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological, Neuro-oncology and Orphan Cancers Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 5, 2015), MEDLINE, EMBASE and conference proceedings to May 2015. We also checked registers of clinical trials, citation lists of included studies, key textbooks and previous systematic reviews for potentially relevant studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing tranexamic acid given during surgery versus placebo or no treatment, in adult women diagnosed with advanced EOC. Two review authors (CK, AS) independently selected potentially relevant trials, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, compared results and resolved disagreements by discussion. We found only one study that met our inclusion criteria. This was a randomised double blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of intravenous tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg body weight) versus

  3. Helping to reduce turbomachinery losses through advanced technology and on-line expertise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feigel, R.E. [Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co., Hartford, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It`s clear that turbomachinery poses a set of unique problems for risk managers. The size of the equipment, the role it often takes in production and the severity of a loss all combine to make a risk manager`s job that much more difficult. But while the job may be difficult, it`s not impossible. Through a combination of advanced technology, regular predictive maintenance and some expert advice, today`s risk managers, working with plant operational personnel, are reducing major turbomachinery losses. There are several telltale signs that warn plant personnel of an impending turbomachinery failure. One is vibration. All turbomachinery will vibrate at some level, even when in good working condition. But a change in the vibration level usually indicates a change in the machine`s performance. If plant personnel can detect a change early enough, they may be able to avoid an unscheduled shutdown. Hartford Steam Boiler recently introduced a periodic vibration data collection program called DATALERT{trademark} to help its customers separate problem from non-problem machines. As a result, companies can focus resources on equipment that needs immediate attention. And equipment in good working condition doesn`t tie up resources unnecessarily at the next maintenance turnaround. DATALERT is an integrated machinery vibration data collecting and expert analysis system developed by Hartford Steam Boiler to assist customers in preventing rotating machine downtime or losses. The data collection program is described.

  4. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Zofeyah L; Dimova, Jiva; Pisansky, Marc T; Sun, Mu; Beppu, Hideyuki; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; O'Connor, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII) in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  5. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofeyah L McBrayer

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  6. Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates

  7. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  8. A conservation paradox in the Great Basin—Altering sagebrush landscapes with fuel breaks to reduce habitat loss from wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Coates, Peter S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Pilliod, David S.; Vaillant, Nicole M.

    2018-03-15

    Interactions between fire and nonnative, annual plant species (that is, “the grass/fire cycle”) represent one of the greatest threats to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and associated wildlife, including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). In 2015, U.S. Department of the Interior called for a “science-based strategy to reduce the threat of large-scale rangeland fire to habitat for the greater sage-grouse and the sagebrush-steppe ecosystem.” An associated guidance document, the “Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan,” identified fuel breaks as high priority areas for scientific research. Fuel breaks are intended to reduce fire size and frequency, and potentially they can compartmentalize wildfire spatial distribution in a landscape. Fuel breaks are designed to reduce flame length, fireline intensity, and rates of fire spread in order to enhance firefighter access, improve response times, and provide safe and strategic anchor points for wildland fire-fighting activities. To accomplish these objectives, fuel breaks disrupt fuel continuity, reduce fuel accumulation, and (or) increase plants with high moisture content through the removal or modification of vegetation in strategically placed strips or blocks of land.Fuel breaks are being newly constructed, enhanced, or proposed across large areas of the Great Basin to reduce wildfire risk and to protect remaining sagebrush ecosystems (including greater sage-grouse habitat). These projects are likely to result in thousands of linear miles of fuel breaks that will have direct ecological effects across hundreds of thousands of acres through habitat loss and conversion. These projects may also affect millions of acres indirectly because of edge effects and habitat fragmentation created by networks of fuel breaks. Hence, land managers are often faced with a potentially paradoxical situation: the need to substantially alter sagebrush habitats with fuel breaks

  9. Reducing Digging Losses by Using Automated Steering to Plant and Invert Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vellidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GPS guidance of farm machinery has been increasingly adopted by farmers because of the perceived gains in efficiency that it provides. In the southeastern USA one of the reasons farmers adopt GPS guidance, and specifically automated steering (auto-steer, is that it can theoretically result in large yield gains when used to plant and invert peanuts—one of the region’s most important crops. The goal of our study was to quantify the yield benefit of using real time kinematic (RTK-based auto-steer to plant and invert peanuts under a variety of terrain conditions. Yield benefits result from reduced digging losses. The study was conducted for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011 on a private farm in Georgia, USA. When all data are grouped together, auto-steer outperformed conventional by 579 kg/ha in 2010 and 451 kg/ha in 2011. We also evaluated the performance of auto-steer under different curvature conditions using low, medium, and high curvature rows. The results showed that auto-steer outperformed conventional under all curvature by a minimum of 338 kg/ha. Finally, we evaluated passive implement guidance in combination with auto-steer and found that it holds tremendous potential for further reducing digging losses. In many cases, auto-steer will pay for itself within a year.

  10. Biological evaluation of devices used for reducing entrainment and impingement losses at thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cada, G.F.; Szluha, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey of fish protection devices either in use or proposed for water intake structures was conducted for the purpose of assessing their potential for reducing impingement and entrainment. All the designs examined can be divided into two basic categories: behavioral screening systems and physical screening systems. The behavioral screening devices rely upon the ability of fish to sense artificial stimuli and respond by swimming away from hazardous areas. These systems are of little or no value in protecting planktonic fish eggs, larvae, and disoriented, heat-shocked, or lethargic adult fishes. Many of the physical screening devices, on the other hand, require the impingement of organisms against a screen before they can be removed from the intake system, thus subjecting survival. Some of the designs incorporate both behavioral and physical sceening concepts. Six devices were selected for further consideration based on their potential or demonstrated effectiveness in reducing impingement and entrainment losses at a variety of intake situations. The structures evaluated were modified vertical traveling screens, louvers, angled vertical traveling screens, horizontal traveling screens, center-flow screens, and wedge-wire screens. Since some of these intake structures represent new concepts, few laboratory or in situ biological studies have been carried out. For others, actual reductions in fish losses have been demonstrated. The design features and status of biological testing is discussed for each device, and an evaluation of their fish protection potential is presented

  11. Continuation of metformin reduces early pregnancy loss in obese Pakistani women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Fauzia Haq; Rizvi, Javed

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility worldwide. In addition to a poor conception rate, pregnancy loss rates are significantly higher (30-50%) during the first trimester in women with PCOS. Insulin resistance (IR) in this syndrome is not only implicated toward early pregnancy loss (EPL) but also pathognomic for various obstetrical complications during pregnancy. We evaluated the role of Metformin in the reduction of EPL in women with PCOS who conceived spontaneously or after induction ovulation with or without Metformin. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of Metformin in the reduction of EPL in women with PCOS. Secondary outcomes like gestational diabetes, pregnancy-induced hypertension and intrauterine growth restriction were also analyzed at the end of the study. This case-control study was conducted from March 2005 to March 2008 in the infertility and antenatal clinics of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 197 infertile women with PCOS were included. 'Cases' were women with PCOS who conceived while taking Metformin and it whom it was continued throughout pregnancy. 'Controls' were women in whom Metformin was either stopped in first trimester after confirmation of pregnancy (by serum betaHCG or by ultrasound) or they conceived spontaneously without the use of Metformin. All 197 women in this study had a confirmed diagnosis of PCOS (Rotterdam criteria). These women were followed till the final outcome of pregnancy was achieved. Both groups were compared for risk of EPL. It was found that continuation of Metformin during pregnancy reduces EPL, i.e. 8.8 vs. 29.4% in cases and controls, respectively (p pregnancy loss rate was 12.5% in the Metformin versus 49.4% in control group (p = 0.002). Metformin continuation during pregnancy significantly reduces EPL in women with PCOS. IR may play a significant role in EPL. Copyright 2009

  12. Seasonal and long-term effects of CO2 and O3 and their interaction with climate and soil moisture on water loss in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is driven by evaporative demand, available solar energy and soil moisture as well as by physiological plant activity which may be substantially affected by elevated CO2 and O3. A multi-year study was conducted in outdoor sun-lit controlled-environment cha...

  13. Seasonal and long-term effects of CO2 and O3 on water loss in ponderosa pine and their interaction with climate and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is driven by evaporative demand, available solar energy and soil moisture (SM) as well as by plant physiological activity which may be substantially affected by elevated CO2 and O3. A multi-year study was conducted in outdoor sunlit-controlled environment ...

  14. Experimental Demyelination and Axonal Loss Are Reduced in MicroRNA-146a Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nellie A; Molnar, Viktor; Szilagyi, Gabor T; Elkjaer, Maria L; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Okarmus, Justyna; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Thygesen, Eva K; Palkovits, Miklos; Gallyas, Ferenc; Larsen, Martin R; Lassmann, Hans; Benedikz, Eirikur; Owens, Trevor; Svenningsen, Asa F; Illes, Zsolt

    2018-01-01

    reduced in the demyelinating corpus callosum of the KO mice. During demyelination, absence of miR-146a reduced inflammatory responses, demyelination, axonal loss, the number of infiltrating macrophages, and increased the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes. The number of OPCs was slightly higher in the WT mice during remyelination, indicating a complex role of miR-146a during in vivo de- and remyelination.

  15. Experimental Demyelination and Axonal Loss Are Reduced in MicroRNA-146a Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie A. Martin

    2018-03-01

    Iba1+ macrophages/microglia was reduced in the demyelinating corpus callosum of the KO mice.ConclusionDuring demyelination, absence of miR-146a reduced inflammatory responses, demyelination, axonal loss, the number of infiltrating macrophages, and increased the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes. The number of OPCs was slightly higher in the WT mice during remyelination, indicating a complex role of miR-146a during in vivo de- and remyelination.

  16. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent.

  17. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  18. Simulation of water management for fodder beet to reduce yield losses under late season drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Noreldin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to calibrate CropSyst model for fodder beet grown under full and late season drought and to use the simulation results to analyze the relationship between irrigation amount and yield, as well as in water management to reduce yield losses under full and late season drought. For this reason, two field experiments were implemented at El-Serw Agricultural Research Station in Demiatte governorate, during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. Two irrigation treatments were studied: full irrigation and late season drought. The model was calibrated using the data obtained from the two seasons. Results indicated that the reduction in fodder beet yield under late season drought was 11 and 12% in 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons, respectively. Calibration of CropSyst revealed that the percentage of difference between measured and predicted values were low in both growing seasons. The results also indicated that changing irrigation schedule after examining water stress index under full and late season drought led to increase in fodder beet yield, as well as water and land productivity. Thus, CropSyst model can give insight into when to apply irrigation water to minimize yield losses under late season drought.

  19. Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Iqra; Jadoon, Khan; Mai, Paul Martin; Al-Mashharawi, Samir; Missimer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth.

  20. Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Mughal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth.

  1. Experimental Measurement of Diffusive Extinction Depth and Soil Moisture Gradients in a Dune Sand Aquifer in Western Saudi Arabia: Assessment of Evaporation Loss for Design of an MAR System

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Iqra

    2015-12-10

    A component of designing a managed aquifer recharge system in a dune aquifer is the control of diffusive evaporative loss of water which is governed by the physical properties of the sediments and the position of the water table. A critical water table position is the “extinction depth”, below which no further loss of water occurs via diffusion. Field experiments were conducted to measure the extinction depth of sediments taken from a typical dune field in the region. The soil grain size characteristics, laboratory porosity, and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured. The sand is classified as well-sorted, very fine sand with a mean grain diameter of 0.15 mm. Soil moisture gradients and diffusion loss rates were measured using sensors in a non-weighing lysimeter that was placed below land surface. The sand was saturated carefully with water from the bottom to the top and was exposed to the natural climate for a period of about two months. The moisture gradient showed a gradual decline during measurement until extinction depth was reached at about 100 cm below surface after 56 days. Diurnal temperature changes were observed in the upper 75 cm of the column and were negligible at greater depth.

  2. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  3. Diversity in forest management to reduce wildfire losses: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Charnley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how federal, state, and private corporate forest owners in a fire-prone landscape of southcentral Oregon manage their forests to reduce wildfire hazard and loss to high-severity wildfire. We evaluate the implications of our findings for concepts of social-ecological resilience. Using interview data, we found a high degree of "response diversity" (variation in forest management decisions and behaviors to reduce wildfire losses between and within actor groups. This response diversity contributed to heterogeneous forest conditions across the landscape and was driven mainly by forest management legacies, economics, and attitudes toward wildfire (fortress protection vs. living with fire. We then used an agent-based landscape model to evaluate trends in forest structure and fire metrics by ownership. Modeling results indicated that, in general, U.S. Forest Service management had the most favorable outcomes for forest resilience to wildfire, and private corporate management the least. However, some state and private corporate forest ownerships have the building blocks for developing fire-resilient forests. Heterogeneity in social-ecological systems is often thought to favor social-ecological resilience. We found that despite high social and ecological heterogeneity in our study area, most forest ownerships do not exhibit characteristics that make them resilient to high-severity fire currently or in the future under current management. Thus, simple theories about resilience based on heterogeneity must be informed by knowledge of the environmental and social conditions that comprise that heterogeneity. Our coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach enabled us to understand connections among the social, economic, and ecological components of a multiownership, fire-prone ecosystem, and to identify how social-ecological resilience to wildfire might improve through interventions to address key constraints in the system. Our

  4. The costs of reducing loss to follow-up in South African cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Louise

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to quantify the resources used in reestablishing contact with women who missed their scheduled cervical cancer screening visits and to assess the success of this effort in reducing loss to follow-up in a developing country setting. Methods Women were enrolled in this Cape Town, South Africa-based screening study between 2000 and 2003, and all had scheduled follow-up visits in 2003. Community health worker (CHW time, vehicle use, maintenance, and depreciation were estimated from weekly logs and cost accounting systems. The percentage of women who attended their scheduled visit, those who attended after CHW contact(s, and those who never returned despite attempted contact(s were determined. The number of CHW visits per woman was also estimated. Results 3,711 visits were scheduled in 2003. Of these, 2,321 (62.5% occurred without CHW contact, 918 (24.8% occurred after contact(s, and 472 (12.7% did not occur despite contact(s. Loss to follow-up was reduced from 21% to 6%, 39% to 10%, and 50% to 24% for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. CHWs attempted 3,200 contacts in 530 trips. On average, 3 CHWs attempted to contact 6 participants over each 111 minute trip. The per-person cost (2003 Rand for these activities was 12.75, 24.92, and 40.50 for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. Conclusion CHW contact with women who missed scheduled visits increased their return rate. Cost-effectiveness analyses aimed at policy decisions about cervical cancer screening in developing countries should incorporate these findings.

  5. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  6. Polyethylene Nanocomposites for the Next Generation of Ultralow-Transmission-Loss HVDC Cables: Insulation Containing Moisture-Resistant MgO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourrahimi, Amir Masoud; Pallon, Love K H; Liu, Dongming; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Gubanski, Stanislaw; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Olsson, Richard T; Gedde, Ulf W

    2016-06-15

    The use of MgO nanoparticles in polyethylene for cable insulation has attracted considerable interest, although in humid media the surface regions of the nanoparticles undergo a conversion to a hydroxide phase. A facile method to obtain MgO nanoparticles with a large surface area and remarkable inertness to humidity is presented. The method involves (a) low temperature (400 °C) thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2, (b) a silicone oxide coating to conceal the nanoparticles and prevent interparticle sintering upon exposure to high temperatures, and (c) heat treatment at 1000 °C. The formation of the hydroxide phase on these silicone oxide-coated MgO nanoparticles after extended exposure to humid air was assessed by thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles showed essentially no sign of any hydroxide phase compared to particles prepared by the conventional single-step thermal decomposition of Mg(OH)2. The moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles showed improved dispersion and interfacial adhesion in the LDPE matrix with smaller nanosized particle clusters compared with conventionally prepared MgO. The addition of 1 wt % moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles was sufficient to decrease the conductivity of polyethylene 30 times. The reduction in conductivity is discussed in terms of defect concentration on the surface of the moisture-resistant MgO nanoparticles at the polymer/nanoparticle interface.

  7. Reduced efficacy of fluoxetine following MDMA ("Ecstasy")-induced serotonin loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Prendergast, Alison; Harkin, Andrew

    2008-12-12

    Long-term serotonin (5-HT) neuronal loss is currently a major cause of concern associated with recreational use of the substituted amphetamine 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy"). Such loss may be problematic considering that psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety and responses to first line treatments for these disorders are associated with 5-HT. In this study the effects of prior exposure to MDMA on behavioural and central neurochemical changes induced by the serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor and antidepressant fluoxetine were examined in rats. Animals were administered MDMA (10 mg/kg. i.p.) four times daily for two consecutive days. One week later the animals were subjected to treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine treatment groups received either acute (saline injections for 20 days followed by 3 fluoxetine treatments over 24 h) or chronic (once daily fluoxetine for 21 days) drug administration. Prior exposure to MDMA resulted in an attenuation of fluoxetine-induced swimming behaviour in the modified forced swimming test (FST); a behavioural test of antidepressant action. In parallel MDMA treatment resulted in significant regional depletions of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) accompanied by a reduction in cortical [3H] paroxetine binding to nerve terminal 5-HT transporters. MDMA-induced 5-HT loss was enhanced in animals following chronic fluoxetine administration. Elimination of fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine from the brain abolished this interaction between MDMA and fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine administration reduced both 5-HIAA and the 5-HIAA:5-HT metabolism ratio, which was attenuated in animals pre-treated with MDMA. Overall the results show that MDMA induces long-term 5-HT loss in the rodent brain and consequently diminishes behaviour and reductions in 5-HT metabolism induced by the antidepressant fluoxetine. These results have potential clinical relevance

  8. Effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates to reduce post-fire soil and organic matter losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavio; Prats, Sergio; Vieira, Diana; Puga, João; Lopes, Rita; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Caetano, Ana; Campos, Isabel; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire-affected soils can reveal strong responses in runoff generation and associated soil (fertility) losses, thereby constituting a major threat to the typically shallow and poor forest soils of the Portuguese mountain areas. Mulching with logging residues from these forests has proven to provide a protective soil cover that is highly effective in reducing post-fire runoff and especially erosion (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2016a, 2016b). However, these past experiments have all applied comparatively large amounts of forest residues, in the order of 10 Mg ha-1, so that the relationship between application rate and effectiveness is still poorly known. Such relationship would nonetheless be of crucial importance for the employment of forest residue mulching in practice, as one of the possible emergency stabilization measures to be contemplated in post-fire land management of a recently-burned area. Further research gaps that exist in relation to post-fire forest residue mulching include its effectiveness in reducing soil fertility losses (C, N, P; Ferreira et al., 2016a, 2016b) and in minimizing export of contaminants (especially PAHs and metals; Campos et al., 2016), and its (secondary) impacts on soil biological activity and diversity (Puga et al., 2016) and on forest productivity (including through the addition of organic matter to the soil surface, partially replacing the burned litter layer; Prats et al. 2016b). In the framework of the EU-project RECARE, the effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates with forest logging residues has been tested following a wildfire that on August 9th - 10th 2015 consumed some 715 ha of eucalypt plantations in the Semide municipality, central Portugal. Commercially-available logging residues (chopped bark and twigs) from eucalypt plantations were purchased, transported to the study site and applied to six out of nine 16 m2 erosion bounded plots that had been installed in a burned eucalypt plantation using a randomized

  9. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    ]). The data indicate that CCs do not substantially reduce total P losses by runoff and leaching. The effects of CCs on total P leaching varied between a relative increase of 86% and a decrease of 43%. Climate conditions involving freezing-thawing during winter increased the risk of losses of dissolved P from...

  10. Reducing the porosity and reflection loss of silicon nanowires by a sticky tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junjun; Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Engineering the porosity of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) is of fundamental importance, and this work introduces a new method for doing so. Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of heavily doped Si(100) creates mesoporous silicon nanowires (mp-SiNWs). mp-SiNWs are transferred from the MACE-treated wafer to a sticky tape, leaving residues composed of broken mp-SiNWs and a mesoporous Si layer on the wafer. Then the taped wafer is re-treated by MACE, without changing the etching conditions. The second MACE treatment generates mp-SiNWs that are less porous and longer than those generated by the first MACE treatment, which can be attributed to the difference in the surface topography at the beginning of the etching process. Less porous mp-SiNWs reduce optical scattering from the porous Si skeletons, and vertically protrude on the wafer without aggregation to facilitate optical trapping. Consequently, less porous mp-SiNWs effectively reduce ultraviolet-visible reflection loss. (paper)

  11. Endocannabinoid receptor blockade reduces alanine aminotransferase in polycystic ovary syndrome independent of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Alison J; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Coady, Anne-Marie; Elshewehy, Abeer M M; Dakroury, Youssra; Ahmed, Lina; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2017-07-14

    Evidence suggests that endocannabinoid system activation through the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is associated with enhanced liver injury, and CB1 antagonism may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of rimonabant (CB1 antagonist) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), a hepatocellular injury marker, and a hepatic inflammatory cytokine profile. Post hoc review of 2 studies involving 50 obese women with PCOS and well matched for weight, randomised to weight reducing therapy; rimonabant (20 mg od) or orlistat (120 mg tds), or to insulin sensitising therapy metformin, (500 mg tds), or pioglitazone (45 mg od). No subject had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Treatment with rimonabant for 12 weeks reduced both ALT and weight (p weight. There was a significant reduction of weight with orlistat (p weight loss and hepatic inflammatory markers in obese women with PCOS without NAFLD. ISRCTN58369615 (February 2007; retrospectively registered) ISRCTN75758249 (October 2007; retrospectively registered).

  12. Icariin Reduces Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss and Microglia-Mediated Inflammation in Vivo and in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases characterized with a gradual loss of midbrain substantia nigra (SN dopamine (DA neurons. An excessive evidence demonstrated that microglia-mediated inflammation might be involved in the pathogenesis of PD. Thus, inhibition of neuroinflammation might possess a promising potential for PD treatment. Icariin (ICA, a single active component extracted from the Herba Epimedii, presents amounts of pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-aging. Recent studies show ICA produced neuroprotection against brain dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying ICA-exerted neuroprotection are fully illuminated. In the present study, two different neurotoxins of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced rat midbrain DA neuronal damage were applied to investigate the neuroprotective effects of ICA. In addition, primary rat midbrain neuron-glia co-cultures were performed to explore the mechanisms underlying ICA-mediated DA neuroprotection. In vitro data showed that ICA protected DA neurons from LPS/6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal damage and inhibited microglia activation and pro-inflammatory factors production via the suppression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway activation. In animal results, ICA significantly reduced microglia activation and significantly attenuated LPS/6-OHDA-induced DA neuronal loss and subsequent animal behavior changes. Together, ICA could protect DA neurons against LPS- and 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro. These actions might be closely associated with the inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation.

  13. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. DOES TRANEXAMIC ACID REDUCE BLOOD LOSS IN OFF-PUMP CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehr-Aein

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Tranexamic acid is now used on a routine basis for on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. We assessed the hemostatic effects of tranexamic acid to decrease bleeding tendency and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. A total of 66 patients were enrolled to elective OPCAB in a double-blind, prospective randomized study. Of these, 33 patients received tranexamic acid (15 mg/kg before the infusion of heparin and 15 mg/kg after protamin infusion, and 33 patients received only saline. Preoperative hematologic variables, postoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusions were considered. D-dimer plasma levels were also evaluated to monitor the activation of fibrinolysis. Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in the tranexamic acid group compared with the control group (320 ± 38 mL vs. 480 ± 75 mL at 12 hour, P < 0.001. The tranexamic acid group had significantly lesser need for allogeneic blood products (0.46 units/patients vs. 0.94 units/patients, P < 0.001. They had also lower post-operative D-dimer plasma levels. No postoperative thrombotic complications were observed in either group. The defective hemostasis occurs even in the OPCABG. Tranexamic acid effectively reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products after OPCAB is decreased.

  15. Reducing Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Collegiate Music Ensembles Using Ambient Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jason; Chesky, Kris

    2017-09-01

    Student musicians are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as they develop skills and perform during instructional activities. Studies using longitudinal dosimeter data show that pedagogical procedures and instructor behaviors are highly predictive of NIHL risk, thus implying the need for innovative approaches to increase instructor competency in managing instructional activities without interfering with artistic and academic freedom. Ambient information systems, an emerging trend in human-computer interaction that infuses psychological behavioral theories into technologies, can help construct informative risk-regulating systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of introducing an ambient information system into the ensemble setting. The system used two ambient displays and a counterbalanced within-subjects treatment study design with six jazz ensemble instructors to determine if the system could induce a behavior change that alters trends in measures resulting from dosimeter data. This study assessed efficacy using time series analysis to determine changes in eight statistical measures of behavior over a 9-wk period. Analysis showed that the system was effective, as all instructors showed changes in a combination of measures. This study is in an important step in developing non-interfering technology to reduce NIHL among academic musicians.

  16. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  17. Mechanisms causing reduced Arctic sea ice loss in a coupled climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. West

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The fully coupled climate model HadGEM1 produces one of the most accurate simulations of the historical record of Arctic sea ice seen in the IPCC AR4 multi-model ensemble. In this study, we examine projections of sea ice decline out to 2030, produced by two ensembles of HadGEM1 with natural and anthropogenic forcings included. These ensembles project a significant slowing of the rate of ice loss to occur after 2010, with some integrations even simulating a small increase in ice area. We use an energy budget of the Arctic to examine the causes of this slowdown. A negative feedback effect by which rapid reductions in ice thickness north of Greenland reduce ice export is found to play a major role. A slight reduction in ocean-to-ice heat flux in the relevant period, caused by changes in the meridional overturning circulation (MOC and subpolar gyre in some integrations, as well as freshening of the mixed layer driven by causes other than ice melt, is also found to play a part. Finally, we assess the likelihood of a slowdown occurring in the real world due to these causes.

  18. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  19. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients’ views of interventions to reduce treatment loss to follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupasi, T.; Garfin, A. M. C. G.; Mangan, J. M.; Orillaza-Chi, R.; Naval, L. C.; Balane, G. I.; Basilio, R.; Golubkov, A.; Joson, E. S.; Lew, W-J.; Lofranco, V.; Mantala, M.; Pancho, S.; Sarol, J. N.; Blumberg, A.; Burt, D.; Kurbatova, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING Patients who initiated treatment for multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) at 15 Programmatic Management of Drug-resistant Tuberculosis (PMDT) health facilities in the Philippines between July and December 2012. OBJECTIVES To describe patients’ views of current interventions, and suggest changes likely to reduce MDR-TB loss to follow-up. METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted between April and July 2014 with MDR-TB patients who were undergoing treatment, had finished treatment at the time of the interview (controls), or had been lost to follow-up (LTFU). Responses were thematically analyzed. RESULTS Interviews were conducted with 182 patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment and 91 LTFU patients. Views and suggestions could be thematically categorized as approaches to facilitate adherence or address barriers to adherence. The top themes were the need for transportation assistance or improvements to the current transportation assistance program, food assistance, and difficulties patients encountered related to their medications. These themes were addressed by respectively 63%, 60%, and 32% of the participants. CONCLUSIONS A more patient-centered approach is needed to improve MDR-TB treatment adherence. Programs should strive to provide assistance that considers patient preferences, is adequate to cover actual costs or needs, and is delivered in a timely, uninterrupted manner. PMID:28157461

  20. [Effect of reduced N application on soil N residue and N loss in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Wen-Yu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2012, including three planting pattern (maize-soybean relay strip intercropping, mono-cultured maize and soybean) and three nitrogen application level [0 kg N x hm(-2), 180 kg N x hm(-2) (reduced N) and 240 kg N x hm(-2) (normal N)]. Fields were assigned to different treatments in a randomized block design with three replicates. The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of planting patterns and nitrogen application rates on plant N uptake, soil N residue and N loss. After fertilization applications, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N levels increased in the soil of intercropped maize but decreased in the soil of intercropped soybean. Compared with mono-crops, the soil N residue and loss of intercropped soybean were reduced, while those of intercropped maize were increased and decreased, respectively. With the reduced rate of N application, N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate of the maize-soybean intercropping relay strip system were decreased by 17.7%, 21.5% and 0.4% compared to mono-cultured maize, but increased by 2.0%, 19.8% and 0.1% compared to mono-cultured soybean, respectively. Likewise, the reduced N application resulted in reductions in N residue, N loss, and the N loss via ammonia volatilization in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system compared with the conventional rate of N application adopted by local farmers, and the N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate reduced by 12.0%, 15.4% and 1.2%, respectively.

  1. Lining bunker walls with oxygen barrier film reduces nutrient losses in corn silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L M; Dos Santos, J P; Casagrande, D R; Ávila, C L S; Lara, M S; Bernardes, T F

    2017-06-01

    (1,258.3 and 1,294.0 kg/t, respectively). Regarding the distances from the walls, the effects were more pronounced from 0 to 101 cm. The OB50 and OB100 silages had better quality and lower mold counts and DM losses than ST50 and ST100. The OB system reduced DM and nutrient losses at the shoulders in farm bunker corn silages compared with no sidewall plastic. The OB film should lap onto the crop for at least 200 cm so that 150 cm are covered outward from the wall. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The loss of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) reduces bone toughness and fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Wadeer, Sandra A; Whitehead, Jack M; Rowland, Barbara J; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S

    2014-05-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of these important factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4-/- littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4-/- mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective of age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4-/- mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also in maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Helichrysum and Grapefruit Extracts Boost Weight Loss in Overweight Rats Reducing Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Haslberger, Alexander; Aumueller, Eva; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is characterized by an increased production of inflammatory markers. High levels of circulating free fatty acids and chronic inflammation lead to increased oxidative stress, contributing to the development of insulin resistance (IR). Recent studies have focused on the potential use of flavonoids for obesity management due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of helichrysum and grapefruit extracts in overweight insulin-resistant rats. Thirty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in two groups: control group (n=8) and high-fat sucrose (HFS) group (n=30). After 22 days of ad libitum water and food access, the rats fed HFS diet changed to standard diet and were reassigned into three groups (n=10 each group): nonsupplemented, helichrysum extract (2 g/kg bw), and grapefruit extract (1 g/kg bw) administered for 5 weeks. Rats supplemented with both extracts gained less body weight during the 5-week period of treatment, showed lower serum insulin levels and liver TBARS levels. Leptin/adiponectin ratio, as an indicator of IR, was lower in both extract-administered groups. These results were accompanied by a reduction in TNFα gene expression in epididymal adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa, and TLR2 expression in intestinal mucosa. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts might be used as complement hypocaloric diets in weight loss treatment. Both extracts helped to reduce weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, and IR, improved inflammation markers, and decreased the HFS diet-induced oxidative stress in insulin-resistant rats.

  4. The Loss of Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4) Reduces Bone Toughness and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Alexander J.; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Waader, Sandra A.; Whitehead, Jack M.; Rowland, Barbara J.; Granke, Mathilde; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Yang, Xiangli; Nyman, Jeffry S.

    2014-01-01

    Even though age-related changes to bone tissue affecting fracture risk are well characterized, only a few matrix-related factors have been identified as important to maintaining fracture resistance. As a gene critical to osteoblast differentiation, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is possibly one of the seimportant factors. To test the hypothesis that the loss of ATF4 affects the fracture resistance of bone beyond bone mass and structure, we harvested bones from Atf4+/+ and Atf4−/− littermates at 8 and 20 weeks of age (n≥9 per group) for bone assessment across several length scales. From whole bone mechanical tests in bending, femurs from Atf4−/− mice were found to be brittle with reduced toughness and fracture toughness compared to femurs from Atf4+/+ mice. However, there were no differences in material strength and in tissue hardness, as determined by nanoindentation, between the genotypes, irrespective age. Tissue mineral density of the cortex at the point of loading as determined by micro-computed tomography was also not significantly different. However, by analyzing local composition by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), bone tissue of Atf4−/− mice was found to have higher mineral to collagen ratio compared to wild-type tissue, primarily at 20 weeks of age. From RS analysis of intact femurs at 2 orthogonal orientations relative to the polarization axis of the laser, we also found that the organizational-sensitive peak ratio, ν1 Phosphate per Amide I, changed to a greater extent upon bone rotation for Atf4-deficient tissue, implying bone matrix organization may contribute to the brittleness phenotype. Target genes of ATF4 activity are not only important to osteoblast differentiation but also maintaining bone toughness and fracture toughness. PMID:24509412

  5. Historical review of efforts to reduce noise-induced hearing loss in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Madeleine J; Neitzel, Richard L; Hong, OiSaeng; Sataloff, Robert T

    2017-06-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a centuries-old problem that is still prevalent in the United States and worldwide. To describe highlights in the development of hearing loss prevention in the U.S. from World War II to the present. Literature review. Approaches to occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention in the United States over the past seven decades are described using a hierarchy of controls framework and an interdisciplinary perspective. Historical timelines and developmental milestones related to occupational noise-induced hearing loss prevention are summarized as a life course. Lessons are drawn for other countries in their hearing conservation efforts. Future developments building on the hearing loss prevention work of the past 70 years can prevent the problem of occupational NIHL in the 21st century. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:569-577, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  7. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p 0.05). The combined administration of low-dose epinephrine and tranexamic acid demonstrated an increased effect in reducing perioperative blood loss and the inflammatory response compared with tranexamic acid alone, with no apparent increased incidence of thromboembolic and other complications. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  8. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Local loss and spatial homogenization of plant diversity reduce ecosystem multifunctionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental studies show that local plant species loss decreases ecosystem functioning and services, but it remains unclear how other changes in biodiversity, such as spatial homogenization, alter multiple processes (multifunctionality) in natural ecosystems. We present a global analysis of eight ...

  10. Climate change reduces water availability for agriculture by decreasing non-evaporative irrigation losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Keyvan; Adam, Jennifer C.; Stöckle, Claudio O.; Peters, R. Troy

    2018-06-01

    Irrigation efficiency plays an important role in agricultural productivity; it affects farm-scale water demand, and the partitioning of irrigation losses into evaporative and non-evaporative components. This partitioning determines return flow generation and thus affects water availability. Over the last two decades, hydrologic and agricultural research communities have significantly improved our understanding of the impacts of climate change on water availability and food productivity. However, the impacts of climate change on the efficiency of irrigation systems, particularly on the partitioning between evaporative and non-evaporative losses, have received little attention. In this study, we incorporated a process-based irrigation module into a coupled hydrologic/agricultural modeling framework (VIC-CropSyst). To understand how climate change may impact irrigation losses, we applied VIC-CropSyst over the Yakima River basin, an important agricultural region in Washington State, U.S. We compared the historical period of 1980-2010 to an ensemble of ten projections of climate for two future periods: 2030-2060 and 2060-2090. Results averaged over the watershed showed that a 9% increase in evaporative losses will be compensated by a reduction of non-evaporative losses. Therefore, overall changes in future efficiency are negligible (-0.4%) while the Evaporative Loss Ratio (ELR) (defined as the ratio of evaporative to non-evaporative irrigation losses) is enhanced by 10%. This higher ELR is associated with a reduction in return flows, thus negatively impacting downstream water availability. Results also indicate that the impact of climate change on irrigation losses depend on irrigation type and climate scenarios.

  11. Optimization of loss and gain multilayers for reducing the scattering of a perfect conducting cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Zhong, Yu; Guo-Shu, Zhao; Gang, Sun; Hai-Fei, Si; Zhong, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of electromagnetic scattering from a conducting cylinder could be achieved by covering it with optimized multilayers of normal dielectric and plasmonic material. The plasmonic material with intrinsic losses could degrade the cloaking effect. Using a genetic algorithm, we present the optimized design of loss and gain multilayers for reduction of the scattering from a perfect conducting cylinder. This multilayered structure is theoretically and numerically analyzed when the plasmonic material with low loss and high loss respectively is considered. We demonstrate by full-wave simulation that the optimized nonmagnetic gain-loss design can greatly compensate the decreased cloaking effect caused by loss material, which facilitates the realization of practical electromagnetic cloaking, especially in the optical range. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Jinling Institute of Technology, China (Grant No. JIT-B-201426), the Jiangsu Modern Education and Technology Key Project, China (Grant No. 2014-R-31984), the Jiangsu 333 Project Funded Research Project, China (Grant No. BRA2010004), and the University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB520010).

  12. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can be the re......Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  13. Vermicomposting as a technology for reducing nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions from small-scale composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuijper, Thomas; Bruun, Sander; Neergaard, de Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic composting produces a significant amount of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of vermicomposting to reduce nitrogen losses and greenhouse gases emissions compared to thermophilic composting, and (ii) to determine the effect of

  14. Reduced loss aversion in pathological gambling and alcohol dependence is associated with differential alterations in amygdala and prefrontal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genauck, Alexander; Quester, Saskia; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Mörsen, Chantal; Heinz, Andreas; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina

    2017-11-24

    Diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and alcohol dependence (AD) include repeated addictive behavior despite severe negative consequences. However, the concept of loss aversion (LA) as a facet of value-based decision making has not yet been used to directly compare these disorders. We hypothesized reduced LA in pathological gamblers (PG) and AD patients, correlation of LA with disorder severity, and reduced loss-related modulation of brain activity. 19 PG subjects, 15 AD patients and 17 healthy controls (HC) engaged in a LA task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging setting. Imaging analyses focused on neural gain and loss sensitivity in the meso-cortico-limbic network of the brain. Both PG and AD subjects showed reduced LA. AD subjects showed altered loss-related modulation of activity in lateral prefrontal regions. PG subjects showed indication of altered amygdala-prefrontal functional connectivity. Although we observed reduced LA in both a behavioral addiction and a substance-related disorder our neural findings might challenge the notion of complete neuro-behavioral congruence of substance-use disorders and behavioral addictions.

  15. A simple method for reducing inevitable dielectric loss in high-permittivity dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    elastomer matrix, with high dielectric permittivity and a low Young's modulus, aligned with no loss of mechanical stability, was prepared through the use of commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil mixed into a tough commercial liquid silicone rubber silicone elastomer. The addition...... also decreased the dielectric losses of an elastomer containing dielectric permittivity-enhancing TiO2 fillers. Commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil thus constitutes a facile method for improved silicone DEs, with very low dielectric losses.......Commercial viability of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is currently limited by a few obstacles, including high driving voltages (in the kV range). Driving voltage can be lowered by either decreasing the Young's modulus or increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers, or a combination...

  16. Effect of a heat and moisture exchanger on heat loss in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing single-limb orthopedic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik H; Brainard, Benjamin M; Braun, Christina; Figueiredo, Juliana P

    2011-12-15

    To determine whether a heat and moisture exchange device (HME) prevents a decrease in body temperature in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing orthopedic procedures. Blinded randomized controlled clinical trial. 60 privately owned dogs weighing at least 15 kg (33 lb). Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 20/group): HME placed immediately after anesthetic induction with isoflurane, after transfer to the operating room, or not at all. The device consisted of a hygroscopic filter placed between the endotracheal tube and the Y piece of the anesthesia circuit. Each dog was positioned on a circulating warm water blanket and had a forced-air warming blanket placed over its body. Body temperature was monitored after transfer to the operating room with a probe placed in the thoracic aspect of the esophagus. Study groups did not differ significantly with respect to body weight, body condition score, reproductive status, breed, surgical procedure, preoperative sedative and opioid administration, anesthetic induction drug, local nerve block technique, or operating room assignment. There were no significant differences among groups in esophageal temperature variables, interval between anesthetic induction and surgery, surgery duration, anesthesia duration, or oxygen flow rate. However, the relationship between temperature delta and body weight was significant and relevant (R(2) = 0.23), as was the association between temperature nadir and body weight (R(2)= 0.10). As body weight increased, the temperature delta decreased and temperature nadir increased. No other significant relationships were identified. Inclusion of an HME in healthy dogs undergoing anesthesia for an elective orthopedic surgery did not facilitate maintenance of body temperature throughout the procedure.

  17. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.S. corn belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, J S; Porter, P M; Russelle, M P

    2004-01-01

    Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen (N) application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop following corn (Zea mays L.) would reduce NO3(-)-N losses through subsurface tile drainage in a corn-soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.] cropping system in the northern Corn Belt (USA) in a moderately well-drained soil. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in 1998 in a Normania clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll) soil at Lamberton, MN. Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration (FWMNC), and NO3(-)-N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. Three-year average drainage discharge was lower with a winter rye cover crop than without (p = 0.06). Over three years, subsurface tile-drainage discharge was reduced 11% and NO3(-)-N loss was reduced 13% for a corn-soybean cropping system with a rye cover crop following corn than with no rye cover crop. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3(-)-N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

  18. Can surface-applied zeolite reduce ammonia losses from feedyard manure? A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emission from beef cattle feedyard manure results in losses of nitrogen (N), which may negatively affect air, soil, and water quality. The magnitude and rate of ammonia volatilization from feedyards partially depends on the amount of urinary urea excreted and dissociation of ionic ammonium ...

  19. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. BACKGROUND: Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius...

  20. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas; Mateker, William R.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Vandewal, Koen; Bartelt, Jonathan A.; Burke, Timothy M.; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which

  1. RCS pressure under reduced inventory conditions following a loss of residual heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmrose, D.E.; Hughes, E.D.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic response of a closed-reactor coolant system to loss of residual heat removal (RHR) cooling is investigated. The processes examined include: core coolant boiling and steam generator reflux condensation, pressure increase on the primary side, heat transfer mechanisms on the steam generator primary and secondary sides, and effects of noncondensible gas on heat transfer processes

  2. Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, G.; Garbeva, P.; Hordijk, C.; Hundscheid, M.P.J.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Agtmaal, van M.; Boer, de W.

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the

  3. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...

  4. Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment Ambio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shibata, H.; Galloway, J.N.; Leach, A.M.; Noll, C.; Erisman, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the

  5. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. Amstrup; Eric T. DeWeaver; David C. Douglas; Bruce G. Marcot; George M. Durner; Cecilia M. Bitz; David A. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible...

  6. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  7. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell polarization losses at elevated temperature 120 C and reduced relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui; Kunz, H. Russell [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Fenton, James M. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Polarization losses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at 120 C and reduced relative humidity (RH) were analyzed. Reduced RH affects membrane and electrode ionic resistance, catalytic activity and oxygen transport. For a cell made of Nafion {sup registered} 112 membrane and electrodes that have 35 wt.% Nafion {sup registered} and 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} platinum supported on carbon, membrane resistance at 20%RH was 0.407 {omega} cm{sup 2} and electrode resistance 0.203 {omega} cm{sup 2}, significantly higher than 0.092 and 0.041 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 100%RH, respectively. In the kinetically controlled region, 20%RH resulted in 96 mV more cathode activation loss than 100%RH. Compared to 100%, 20%RH also produced significant oxygen transport loss across the ionomer film in the electrode, 105 mV at 600 mA/cm{sup 2}. The significant increase in polarization losses at elevated temperature and reduced RH indicates the extreme importance of designing electrodes for high temperature PEM fuel cells since membrane development has always taken most emphasis. (author)

  9. An Optimal Domestic Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Reducing Network Transmission Loss While Taking Seasonal Factors into Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of domestic electric vehicle charging loads, the peak-valley gap and power fluctuation rate of power systems increase sharply, which can lead to the increase of network losses and energy efficiency reduction. This paper tries to regulate network loads and reduce power system transmission loss by optimizing domestic electric vehicle charging loads. In this paper, a domestic electric vehicle charging loads model is first developed by analyzing the key factors that can affect users’ charging behavior. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo method is proposed to simulate the power consumption of a cluster of domestic electric vehicles. After that, an optimal electric vehicle charging strategy based on the 0-1 integer programming is presented to regulate network daily loads. Finally, by taking the IEEE33 distributed power system as an example, this paper tries to verify the efficacy of the proposed optimal charging strategy and the necessity for considering seasonal factors when scheduling electric vehicle charging loads. Simulation results show that the proposed 0-1 integer programming method does have good performance in reducing the network peak-valley gap, voltage fluctuation rate, and transmission loss. Moreover, it has some potential to further reduce power system transmission loss when seasonal factors are considered.

  10. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  11. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  12. Evaluation of Loss Resources during Sugarcane Production Process and Provide Solutions to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zakidizaji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction No use of advanced mechanization and weakness in post harvesting technology are the main reasons of agricultural losses. Some of these wastes (agricultural losses are related to crop growing conditions in field and the remaining to processing of sugar in mill. The most useful priority setting methods for agricultural projects are the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. So, this study presents an introduction of application manner of the AHP as a mostly common method of setting agricultural projects priorities. The purpose of this work is studying the sugarcane loss during production process using AHP in Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods The resources of sugarcane waste have been defined based on expert’s opinions. A questionnaire and personal interviews have formed the basis of this research. The study was applied to a panel of qualified informants made up of thirty-two experts. Those interviewed were distributed in Sugarcane Development and By-products Company in 2015-2016. Then, with using the analytical hierarchy process, a questionnaire was designed for defining the weight and importance of parameters effecting on sugarcane waste. For this method of evaluation, three main criteria considered, were yield criteria, cost criteria and income criteria. Criteria and prioritizing of them was done by questionnaire and interview with sophisticated experts. This technique determined and ranked the importance of sugarcane waste resources based on attributing relative weights to factors with respect to comments provided in the questionnaires. Analytical Hierarchy Process was done by using of software (Expert choice and the inconsistency rate on expert judgments was investigated. Results and Discussion How to use agricultural implements and machinery during planting and harvesting of sugarcane, can increase or decrease the volume of waste. In planting period, the losses mainly consists of loss of setts during cutting them by machine

  13. Hilar somatostatin interneuron loss reduces dentate gyrus inhibition in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabrielle; Balgooyen, Laura; Mattis, Joanna; Deisseroth, Karl; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, seizures usually start in the hippocampus, and dentate granule cells are hyperexcitable. Somatostatin interneurons are a major subpopulation of inhibitory neurons in the dentate gyrus, and many are lost in patients and animal models. However, surviving somatostatin interneurons sprout axon collaterals and form new synapses, so the net effect on granule cell inhibition remains unclear. The present study uses optogenetics to activate hilar somatostatin interneurons and measure the inhibitory effect on dentate gyrus perforant path-evoked local field potential responses in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In controls, light activation of hilar somatostatin interneurons inhibited evoked responses up to 40%. Epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice exhibited loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons and less light-induced inhibition of evoked responses. These findings suggest that severe epilepsy-related loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons can overwhelm the surviving interneurons' capacity to compensate by sprouting axon collaterals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  14. Integration of internet of things to reduce various losses of jatropha seed supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Anitha, J.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of bio fuel supply chain has revolutionized the organization by restructuring the practices of the traditional management. A flexible distribution system is becoming the need of our society. The main focus of this paper is to integrate IoT technologies into a cultivation, extraction and management of Jatropha seed. It was noticed that major set-back of farmers due to poor supply chain integration. The various losses like information about the Jatropha seed availability, the location of esterification plants and distribution details are identified through this IoT. This enables the farmers to reorganize the land resources, yield estimation and distribution functions. The wastage and the scarcity of energy can be tackled by using the smart phone technologies. This paper is proposes a conceptual frame work on various losses involved in the supply chain of Jatropha seed.

  15. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, David C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, George M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  17. Neuroligin-1 loss is associated with reduced tenacity of excitatory synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zeidan

    Full Text Available Neuroligins (Nlgns are postsynaptic, integral membrane cell adhesion molecules that play important roles in the formation, validation, and maturation of synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. Given their prominent roles in the life cycle of synapses, it might be expected that the loss of neuroligin family members would affect the stability of synaptic organization, and ultimately, affect the tenacity and persistence of individual synaptic junctions. Here we examined whether and to what extent the loss of Nlgn-1 affects the dynamics of several key synaptic molecules and the constancy of their contents at individual synapses over time. Fluorescently tagged versions of the postsynaptic scaffold molecule PSD-95, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 and the presynaptic vesicle molecule SV2A were expressed in primary cortical cultures from Nlgn-1 KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates, and live imaging was used to follow the constancy of their contents at individual synapses over periods of 8-12 hours. We found that the loss of Nlgn-1 was associated with larger fluctuations in the synaptic contents of these molecules and a poorer preservation of their contents at individual synapses. Furthermore, rates of synaptic turnover were somewhat greater in neurons from Nlgn-1 knockout mice. Finally, the increased GluA2 redistribution rates observed in neurons from Nlgn-1 knockout mice were negated by suppressing spontaneous network activity. These findings suggest that the loss of Nlgn-1 is associated with some use-dependent destabilization of excitatory synapse organization, and indicate that in the absence of Nlgn-1, the tenacity of excitatory synapses might be somewhat impaired.

  18. Method for reducing heat loss during injection of hot water into an oil stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evgenev, A E; Kalashnikov, V N; Raiskii, Yu D

    1968-07-01

    A method is described for reduction of heat loss during the injection of hot water into an oil stratum. During the transportation of the hot water to the face of the bore holes, it has high-molecular polymers added to it. The high-molecular polymer may be guanidine or polyoxyethylene in the quantity of 0.01 to 0.03% by wt.

  19. Varicose vein surgery using a pneumatic tourniquet: reduced blood loss and improved cosmesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, J. F.; Royle, G. T.; Farrands, P. A.; Najmaldin, A.; Clifford, P. C.; Webster, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective controlled randomised study has been performed of 100 consecutive patients undergoing varicose vein surgery. One group underwent saphenofemoral flush ligation and multiple lower leg avulsions with the leg exsanguinated with a Rhys-Davies cuff, and ischaemia maintained with a pneumatic tourniquet. The other group underwent identical surgery but with a 30 degree head down tilt only. Blood loss was significantly less (13.5 +/- 12 ml vs 133 +/- 78 ml; P less than 0.01) and postopera...

  20. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    and to study joint exposure to both. Methods Birth cohort study of smoking cessation of 6232 Danish men born in 1953 with a follow-up at age 51 (response rate 66.2%). History of unemployment and cohabitation was measured annually using register data. Information on smoking cessation was obtained...... by a questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...

  2. Biochar-amended filter socks reduce herbicide losses via tile line surface inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing water in depressions and behind terraces in fields with subsurface drainage systems can result in reduced crop yields. This concern can be partially alleviated by installing surface inlets that reduce the duration of ponding. Unfortunately, these inlets provide an open conduit for surface w...

  3. Moisture absorption and retention properties, and activity in alleviating skin photodamage of collagen polypeptide from marine fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Xue, Changhu; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Jingfeng; Bao, Yuming; Bu, Lin; Sun, Jiang; Peng, Zhe; Su, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Collagen polypeptides were prepared from cod skin. Moisture absorption and retention properties of collagen polypeptides were determined at different relative humidities. In addition, the protective effects of collagen polypeptide against UV-induced damage to mouse skin were evaluated. Collagen polypeptides had good moisture absorption and retention properties and could alleviate the damage induced by UV radiation. The action mechanisms of collagen polypeptide mainly involved enhancing immunity, reducing the loss of moisture and lipid, promoting anti-oxidative properties, inhibiting the increase of glycosaminoglycans, repairing the endogenous collagen and elastin protein fibres, and maintaining the ratio of type III to type I collagen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. L. Boersma; D. Kirkham; D. Norum; R. Ziemer; J. C. Guitjens; J. Davidson; J. N. Luthin

    1971-01-01

    Infiltration continues to occupy the attention of soil physicists and engineers. A theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of surface sealing on infiltration by Edwards and Larson [1969] showed that raindrops reduced the infiltration rate by as much as 50% for a two-hour period of infiltration. The effect of raindrops on the surface infiltration rate of...

  5. Reduced basal autophagy and impaired mitochondrial dynamics due to loss of Parkinson's disease-associated protein DJ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Krebiehl

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and degradation takes a central role in current paradigms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD. Loss of DJ-1 function is a rare cause of familial PD. Although a critical role of DJ-1 in oxidative stress response and mitochondrial function has been recognized, the effects on mitochondrial dynamics and downstream consequences remain to be determined.Using DJ-1 loss of function cellular models from knockout (KO mice and human carriers of the E64D mutation in the DJ-1 gene we define a novel role of DJ-1 in the integrity of both cellular organelles, mitochondria and lysosomes. We show that loss of DJ-1 caused impaired mitochondrial respiration, increased intramitochondrial reactive oxygen species, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and characteristic alterations of mitochondrial shape as shown by quantitative morphology. Importantly, ultrastructural imaging and subsequent detailed lysosomal activity analyses revealed reduced basal autophagic degradation and the accumulation of defective mitochondria in DJ-1 KO cells, that was linked with decreased levels of phospho-activated ERK2.We show that loss of DJ-1 leads to impaired autophagy and accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that under physiological conditions would be compensated via lysosomal clearance. Our study provides evidence for a critical role of DJ-1 in mitochondrial homeostasis by connecting basal autophagy and mitochondrial integrity in Parkinson's disease.

  6. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyhani, Sohrab; Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV) and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg), topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline) and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P=0.031). Also, the rate of transfusion was significantly greater in the control group (P=0.013). However, IV and topical groups did not differ significantly in terms of measured variables. No patient experienced a thromboembolic event in our study. Tranexamic acid is a useful antifibrinolytic drug to reduce postoperative blood loss, Hb drop, and rate of blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. The route of tranexamic acid administration did not affect the efficacy and safety.

  7. Reducing Stiffness and Electrical Losses of High Channel Hybrid Nerve Cuff Electrodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schuettler, M

    2001-01-01

    .... Interconnection lines were made of only 300 nm of sputtered gold, which led to high line drops. Cold electroplating was used to thicken the lines to 3 microns, which reduced the mean track resistance from 480 ohms to 10 ohms...

  8. The Role of Geoscience Information in Reducing Catastrophic Loss Using a Web-Based Economics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Brookshire, David S.; Ganderton, Philip T.

    2003-01-01

    What role can geoscience information play in the assessment of risk and the value of insurance, especially for natural hazard type risks? In an earlier, related paper Ganderton and others (2000) provided subjects with relatively simple geoscience information concerning natural hazard-type risks. Their research looked at how subjects purchase insurance when faced with relatively low probability but high loss risks of the kind that characterize natural hazards and now, increasingly, manmade disasters. They found evidence to support the expected utility theory (definitions of economics terms can be found in a glossary at the end of report), yet there remained the implication that subjects with excessive aversion to risk were willing to pay considerably more for insurance than the actuarially fair price plus any reasonable risk premium. Here, we report the results of additional experiments that provide further support for the basic postulates of expected utility theory. However, these new experiments add considerably to the decision environment facing subjects by offering an option to purchase geoscientific information that would assist them when calculating expected losses from hazards more accurately. Using an Internet-based mechanism to present information and gather data in an experimental setting, this research provided subjects with considerable textual and graphical information, and time to process it. Over a period of three months, almost 400 subjects participated in on-line experiments that generated approximately 22,000 usable data points for the empirical analysis discussed in this report. In the design of the experiment, we modeled the decisions to purchase (1) a detailed map giving subjects more information regarding the distribution of losses from a hazard and (2) insurance to indemnify them from any losses should they occur. On the basis of this design, we find strong evidence in support of the expected utility theory. Many of the findings reinforce

  9. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  10. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer's disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soricelli, A; Postiglione, A; Grivet-Fojaja, M R

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABAA receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (Vd) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminat...... simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex Vd was significantly (P...

  11. Skin moisturization mechanisms: new data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonté, F

    2011-05-01

    The main function of the skin is to protect the body against exogenous substances and excessive water loss. The skin barrier is located in the outermost layer of the skin, called the stratum corneum, which is composed of corneocytes, originating from the keratinocytes differentiation process, embedded in organized complex lipid domains. Moisturizing of the skin is recognized as the first anti-aging skin care. Skin moisturization is essential for its appearance, protection, complexion, softness and the reinforcement of its barrier properties against deleterious and exogenous environmental factors. The intrinsic water binding capacity of skin is not only due to the complex natural moisturizing factor present in corneocytes, but also to hyaluronic acid and a regulated water transport within the skin. Recent data shows that the water movements between the cells at the different levels of the epidermis are due to dedicated water and glycerol transport proteins named aquaporins. Their role in the skin moisturization is completed by corneodesmosomes and tight junctions. Water and pH are now shown to be of prime importance in the regulation of the epidermal enzymes linked to corneocytes desquamation and lipid synthesis. Furthermore, the level of moisturization of the skin is important in its protection against repeated exposure to various irritant agents or phenomena such as very frequent washing with strong tensioactive materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Sabine; Zittermann, Armin; Berthold, Heiner K; Götting, Christian; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Stehle, Peter; Körtke, Heinrich

    2009-07-18

    We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and Bluetooth technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg) in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg) in the low-fat group (p = 0.065). In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005-0.037). Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387.

  13. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  14. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  15. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  16. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice–wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-01-01

    In the Tailake region of China, heavy nitrogen (N) loss of rice–wheat rotation systems, due to high fertilizer-N input with low N use efficiency (NUE), was widely reported. To alleviate the detrimental impacts caused by N loss, it is necessary to improve the fertilizer management practices. Therefore, a 3 yr field experiments with different N managements including organic combined chemical N treatment (OCN, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , 20% organic fertilizer), control–released urea treatment (CRU, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , 70% resin-coated urea), reduced chemical N treatment (RCN, 390 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer), and site-specific N management (SSNM, 333 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer) were conducted in the Taihu Lake region with the ‘farmer’s N’ treatment (FN, 510 kg N ha −1 yr −1 , all common chemical fertilizer) as a control. Grain yield, plant N uptake (PNU), NUE, and N losses via runoff, leaching, and ammonia volatilization were assessed. In the rice season, the FN treatment had the highest N loss and lowest NUE, which can be attributed to an excessive rate of N application. Treatments of OCN and RCN with a 22% reduced N rate from FN had no significant effect on PNU nor the yield of rice in the 3 yr; however, the NUE was improved and N loss was reduced 20–32%. OCN treatment achieved the highest yield, while SSNM has the lowest N loss and highest NUE due to the lowest N rate. In wheat season, N loss decreased about 28–48% with the continuous reduction of N input, but the yield also declined, with the exception of OCN treatment. N loss through runoff, leaching and ammonia volatilization was positively correlated with the N input rate. When compared with the pure chemical fertilizer treatment of RCN under the same N input, OCN treatment has better NUE, better yield, and lower N loss. 70% of the urea replaced with resin-coated urea had no significant effect on yield and NUE improvement, but

  17. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  18. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  19. Azathioprine reduces the risk of audiometric relapse in immune-mediated hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Castro, Nieves; Gavilanes-Plasencia, Javier; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; García-Fernández, Alfredo; García-Berrocal, José Ramón

    2018-03-01

    Current schemes for treatment of immune-mediated hearing loss with sporadic short-course, low-dose corticosteroids, are insufficient. To determine the role of azathioprine in the control of auditory impairment, a longitudinal, observational, descriptive study was performed with 20 patients treated with azathioprine (1.5-2.5mg/kg/day into two doses) for 1year. The loss of 10dB on two consecutive frequencies or 15dB on an isolated frequency was considered as relapse. The mean age of the patients was 52.50years (95%CI: 46.91-58.17), half were women. Bilateral affectation was 65%. 75% had organ specific disease and 25% had systemic autoimmune disease. The difference between baseline PTA (46.49dB; DS18.90) and PTA at 12months (45.47dB; DS18.88) did not reach statistical significance (P=.799). There was a moderate positive correlation between female sex and the presence of systemic disease (R=.577). By applying Student's t for paired data, a significant difference (P=.042) was obtained between the PTA in frequencies up to 1000 Hz (PTA125-1000Hz). The relative incidence rate of relapse per year was .52 relapses/year (95%CI: .19-1.14]). The median time to audiometric relapse-free was 9.70months (DS1.03). Azathioprine maintains the hearing threshold, decreases the risk of relapse, and slows down the rate at which patients relapse, altering the course of immune-mediated inner ear disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Intentional weight loss reduces mortality rate in a rodent model of dietary obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Weindruch, Richard; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Boozer, Carol N; Yi, Nengjun; Wang, Chenxi; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Allison, David B

    2005-04-01

    We used a rodent model of dietary obesity to evaluate effects of caloric restriction-induced weight loss on mortality rate. Research Measures and Procedures: In a randomized parallel-groups design, 312 outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (one-half males) were assigned at age 10 weeks to one of three diets: low fat (LF; 18.7% calories as fat) with caloric intake adjusted to maintain body weight 10% below that for ad libitum (AL)-fed rat food, high fat (HF; 45% calories as fat) fed at the same level, or HF fed AL. At age 46 weeks, the lightest one-third of the AL group was discarded to ensure a more obese group; the remaining animals were randomly assigned to one of three diets: HF-AL, HF with energy restricted to produce body weights of animals restricted on the HF diet throughout life, or LF with energy restricted to produce the body weights of animals restricted on the LF diet throughout life. Life span, body weight, and leptin levels were measured. Animals restricted throughout life lived the longest (p < 0.001). Life span was not different among animals that had been obese and then lost weight and animals that had been nonobese throughout life (p = 0.18). Animals that were obese and lost weight lived substantially longer than animals that remained obese throughout life (p = 0.002). Diet composition had no effect on life span (p = 0.52). Weight loss after the onset of obesity during adulthood leads to a substantial increase in longevity in rats.

  1. implications for reducing loss to follow-up among HIV-infected and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juddy Wachira * wachirajuddy@gmail.com, Susan E Middlestadt , Rachel Vreeman & Paula Braitstein

    women caregivers suggests that interventions to reduce pediatric LTFU need to be holistic and ... Conclusion : La complexité et l'interconnexion des facteurs sous-tendant la rétention des enfants suivant un .... For all those who were married, their male partners ... forced to look for casual jobs to sustain their families' needs.

  2. Effectiveness of oat and rye cover crops in reducing nitrate losses in drainage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant portion of the NO3 from agricultural fields that contaminates surface waters in the Midwest Corn Belt is transported to streams or rivers by subsurface drainage systems or “tiles”. Previous research has shown that N fertilizer management alone is not sufficient for reducing NO3 concent...

  3. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  4. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    McBrayer, Zofeyah L.; Dimova, Jiva; Pisansky, Marc T.; Sun, Mu; Beppu, Hideyuki; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII) in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not ...

  5. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, D.

    2016-11-09

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  6. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Elaine; Hassler, Morris

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The Y-12 National Security Complex supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material that is then fabricated into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past two to three years, Y-12 has learned a great deal about its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts that have been declared as surplus. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear non-proliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and by helping to disposition former weapons material. We clearly understand that our customers want to keep fuel costs as low as possible. We at Y-12 are making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. This paper will discuss the new standard specification that we have proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product that is less expensive to produce. This new product is expected to decrease overall fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  7. Better together: Left and right hemisphere engagement to reduce age-related memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Episodic memory is a cognitive function that appears more susceptible than others to the effects of aging. The main aim of this study is to investigate if the magnitude of functional hemispheric lateralization during episodic memory test was positively correlated with memory performance, proving the presence of a beneficial pattern of neural processing in high-performing older adults but not in low-performing participants. We have applied anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation over left and right hemisphere in a group of young subjects and in high-performing and low-performing older participants during an experimental verbal episodic memory task. Remarkably, young individuals and high-performing older adults exhibited similar performances on episodic memory tasks and both groups showed symmetrical recruitment of left and right areas during memory retrieval. In contrast, low-performing older adults, who obtained lower scores on the memory tasks, demonstrated a greater engagement of the left hemisphere during verbal memory task. Furthermore, structural equation model was performed for analyzing the interrelations between the index of interhemispheric asymmetry and several neuropsychological domains. We found that the bilateral engagement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex regions had a direct correlation with memory and executive functions evaluated as latent constructs. These findings drew attention to brain maintenance hypothesis. The potential of neurostimulation in cognitive enhancement is particularly promising to prevent memory loss during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SOIL moisture data intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Yann; Rodriguez-Frenandez, Nemesio; Al-Yaari, Amen; Parens, Marie; Molero, Beatriz; Mahmoodi, Ali; Mialon, Arnaud; Richaume, Philippe; Bindlish, Rajat; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite (SMOS) was launched in November 2009 and started delivering data in January 2010. Subsequently, the satellite has been in operation for over 6 years while the retrieval algorithms from Level 1 to Level 2 underwent significant evolutions as knowledge improved. Other approaches for retrieval at Level 2 over land were also investigated while Level 3 and 4 were initiated. In this présentation these improvements are assessed by inter-comparisons of the current Level 2 (V620) against the previous version (V551) and new products either using neural networks or Level 3. In addition a global evaluation of different SMOS soil moisture (SM) products is performed comparing products with those of model simulations and other satellites (AMSR E/ AMSR2 and ASCAT). Finally, all products were evaluated against in situ measurements of soil moisture (SM). The study demonstrated that the V620 shows a significant improvement (including those at level1 improving level2)) with respect to the earlier version V551. Results also show that neural network based approaches can yield excellent results over areas where other products are poor. Finally, global comparison indicates that SMOS behaves very well when compared to other sensors/approaches and gives consistent results over all surfaces from very dry (African Sahel, Arizona), to wet (tropical rain forests). RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) is still an issue even though detection has been greatly improved while RFI sources in several areas of the world are significantly reduced. When compared to other satellite products, the analysis shows that SMOS achieves its expected goals and is globally consistent over different eco climate regions from low to high latitudes and throughout the seasons.

  9. Y-12 product improvements expected to reduce metal production costs and decrease fabrication losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassler, Morris E.

    2005-01-01

    The Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) supplies uranium metal and uranium oxide feed material for fabrication into fuel for research reactors around the world. Over the past few years, Y-12 has continued to improve its Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) product. The LEU is produced by taking U.S. surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) and blending it with depleted or natural uranium. The surplus HEU comes from dismantled U.S. weapons parts. Those research reactors that use LEU from Y-12 are making important contributions to international nuclear nonproliferation by using LEU rather than HEU, and helping to disposition former U.S. weapons material. It is clearly understood that the research reactor community must keep fuel costs as low as possible and Y-12 is making every effort to improve efficiencies in producing the uranium through standardizing the chemical specifications as well as the product mass and dimensional qualities. These production cost reductions allows for the U.S. to keep the LEU product price low even with the dramatic increase in the uranium enrichment and feed component market prices in the last few years. This paper will discuss a new standard specification that has been proposed to existing LEU metal customers and fuel fabricators. It will also cover Y-12's progress on a new mold-design that will result in a more uniform, higher quality product and eliminates two steps of the production process. This new product is expected to decrease fabrication losses by 5-10%, depending on the fabricator's process. The paper will include planned activities and the schedule associated with implementation of the new specification and product form. (author)

  10. Polycythemia is associated with bone loss and reduced osteoblast activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidou, P R; Casu, C; Yang, Z; Crielaard, B; Shim, J H; Rivella, S; Vogiatzi, M G

    2016-04-01

    Increased fragility has been described in humans with polycythemia vera (PV). Herein, we describe an osteoporotic phenotype associated with decreased osteoblast activity in a mouse model of PV and another mouse of polycythemia and elevated circulating erythropoietin (EPO). Our results are important for patients with PV or those treated with recombinant EPO (rEPO). PV and other myeloproliferative syndromes have been recently associated with an increased risk for fractures. However, the presence of osteoporosis in these patients has not been well documented. EPO, a hormone primarily known to stimulate erythropoiesis, has been shown recently to regulate bone homeostasis in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the bone phenotype of a mouse model of PV and compare it to that of animals with polycythemia caused by elevated circulating EPO. Bone mass and remodeling were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. The JAK2(V617F) knock-in mouse, a model of human PV, manifests polycythemia and low circulating EPO levels. Results from this mouse were compared to wild type (wt) controls and the tg6 transgenic mouse that shows polycythemia caused by increased constitutive expression of EPO. Compared to wt, both JAK2(V617F) and tg6 mice had a decrease in trabecular bone mass. Tg6 mice showed an additional modest decrease in cortical thickness and cortical bone volume per tissue volume (P Polycythemia caused by chronically elevated circulating EPO also results in bone loss, and implications on patients treated with rEPO should be evaluated.

  11. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p periodontal disease (p periodontal disease (p periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. PMID:26291983

  12. A new topical hemostatic agent TT-173 reduces blood loss in a sheep model of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Alberto; Rojas, Santiago; Arias, Belén; Miquel, Ignasi; Sánchez, Pilar; Ureta, Claudia; Rincón, Esther; López, Ramón; Murat, Jesús

    2017-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with blood loss during the intervention and may require allogenic blood transfusion. Treatments such as tranexamic acid and fibrin sealants improved the bleeding control in several clinical trials, but the hemorrhage associated with the intervention is still significant. Thus far, very few studies have evaluated hemostatic treatments in animal models of total knee arthroplasty. This work describes a sheep model of bleeding associated with total knee arthroplasty and investigates a new class of hemostatic treatment based on recombinant tissue factor. Sheep were treated with the anticoagulant heparin, and the joint was accessed by a paramedial incision. Ligaments and menisci were eliminated and femoral condyles and tibia plateau were sectioned exposing the trabecular bone. An intra-articular drain was used to recover and quantify the blood loss during the 90-min period after treatment. The efficacy of one milligram and three milligrams of TT-173 was evaluated and compared with tranexamic acid. The occurrence of analytical alterations and systemic absorption was also investigated. Treatment with TT-173 reduced the blood loss in comparison with control or tranexamic acid. No significant differences were observed between the two doses evaluated. Moreover, a dose of six milligrams of TT-173 did not induce any clinical or analytical alteration, and significant systemic absorption was not observed. Data obtained strongly suggest that TT-173 could be useful in reducing the blood loss associated with total knee arthroplasty and without safety concerns derived from the systemic absorption of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  14. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latter David

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA group (19 patients received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml (P = 0.04. There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each (P = 0.82. Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit than in placebo group (median 2 units (P = 0.03. Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient.

  15. Bipolar sealer device reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements in posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Zachary L; Son-Hing, Jochen P; Poe-Kochert, Connie; Thompson, George H

    2013-01-01

    Reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements is important in the operative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis. This can be achieved with special frames, cell saver systems, pharmacologic aspects, and other techniques. Recently there has been interest in bipolar sealer devices as an adjunct to traditional monopolar electrocautery. However, there is limited information on this device in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. We reviewed our experience with this device in a setting of a standard institutional operative carepath. Perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements of 50 consecutive patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis undergoing a posterior spinal fusion and segmental spinal instrumentation and who had a bipolar sealer device used during their surgery was compared with a control group of the 50 preceding consecutive patients who did not. Anesthesia, surgical technique, use of intraoperative epsilon aminocaproic acid (Amicar), postoperative protocol, and indications for transfusions (hemoglobin≤7.0 g/dL) were identical in both groups. The preoperative demographics for the patients in both groups were statistically the same. The bipolar sealer group demonstrated a significant reduction in intraoperative estimated blood loss, total perioperative blood loss, volume of blood products transfused, and overall transfusion rate when compared with the control group. When subgroups consisting of only hybrid or all-pedicle screw constructs were considered individually, these findings remained consistent. There were no complications associated with the use of this device. Using the bipolar sealer device is a significant adjunct in decreasing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Level III-retrospective comparative study.

  16. Reduced swimming performance repeatedly evolves upon loss of migration in landlocked populations of Alewife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotta, Jonathan P.; McCormick, Stephen; Jones, Andrew W.; Schultz, Eric T.

    2018-01-01

    Whole-organism performance tasks are accomplished by the integration of morphological traits and physiological functions. Understanding how evolutionary change in morphology and physiology influences whole-organism performance will yield insight into the factors that shape its own evolution. We demonstrate that nonmigratory populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) have evolved reduced swimming performance in parallel, compared with their migratory ancestor. In contrast to theoretically and empirically based predictions, poor swimming among nonmigratory populations is unrelated to the evolution of osmoregulation and occurs despite the fact that nonmigratory alewives have a more fusiform (torpedo-like) body shape than their ancestor. Our results suggest that elimination of long-distance migration from the life cycle has shaped performance more than changes in body shape and physiological regulatory capacity.

  17. Using Pretwist to Reduce Power Loss of Bend-Twist Coupled Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Tibaldi, Carlo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    Bend-twist coupling of wind turbine blades is known as a means to reduce the structural loads of the turbine. While the load reduction is desirable, bend-twist coupling also leads to a decrease in the annual energy production of the turbine. The reduction is mainly related to a no longer optimal......, and fatigue load for the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine. The analysis was carried out by calculating the nonlinear steady state rotor deflection in an uniform inflow over the operational range of the turbine. The steady state power curve together with a Rayleigh wind speed distribution has been used...... to estimate the annual energy production. The turbine model was then linearised around the steady state and the power spectral density of the blade response, which was computed from transfer functions and the wind speed variations in the frequency domain, was used to estimate the fatigue loads by a spectral...

  18. Reestablishing the Dominance of Biogeochemical Pathways for Reducing Downstream Nutrient Losses from Aged Impounded Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Shukla, A.

    2017-12-01

    Water and phosphorus (P) dynamics and loss pathways at two stormwater impoundments (SIs) were analyzed using measured fluxes between 2008 and 2011. These SIs are a decade old. Analyses of water and P budgets along with the discernment of various P pools and characterization of the intermediary processes revealed that soil adsorption and plant uptake are secondary to volume reduction apropos of P treatment. At one site, extreme wet conditions in a year combined with soil P saturation resulted in it being a P source rather than a sink. The impoundment (SI-1) discharged 12% more P than incoming due to soil P desorption, a consequence of dilution of incoming stormwater with large water input from an extreme tropical rain event. The second impoundment (SI-2) was a consistent sink of P; 55% and 95% of the incoming total P was retained in the two years, mainly as a result of 49% and 84% volume retention, respectively. Analysis of plant available aluminum, iron, and phosphorus showed the surface soil to be P saturated and at risk of releasing P to a limit of environmental concern. These results when seen in light of more frequent extreme precipitation events under the changed climate scenario call for alternatives to revive the role of biogeochemical processes in P treatment because volume reduction may not always be the viable option, especially for wet conditions. Aboveground biomass harvesting and removal was evaluated to transform the SIs from a frequent P source to sink and maintain the long-term sink functions of the SIs. Use of harvested biomass as a source of nutrients (N and P) and carbon to agricultural soil can result in beneficial use of biomass and offset the cost of harvesting. Other avenues such as altering the hydrology of the SIs by compartmentalizing the system and increasing the storage were also explored for short-term benefits. Results provided a combination of hydraulic and biochemical options for achieving long-term water and nutrient retentions in

  19. Priority-based methods for reducing the impact of packet loss on HEVC encoded video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2013-02-01

    highest priority followed by NAL units containing pictures used as reference pictures from which others can be predicted. The second method assigned a priority to each NAL unit based on the rate-distortion cost of the VCL coding units contained in the NAL unit. The sum of the rate-distortion costs of each coding unit contained in a NAL unit was used as the priority weighting. The preliminary results of extensive experiments have shown that all three schemes offered an improvement in PSNR, when comparing original and decoded received streams, over uncontrolled packet loss. Using the first method consistently delivered a significant average improvement of 0.97dB over the uncontrolled scenario while the second method provided a measurable, but less consistent, improvement across the range of testing conditions and encoder configurations.

  20. Moisture in Crawl Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Samuel V. Glass

    2013-01-01

    Crawl space foundations can be designed and built to avoid moisture problems. In this article we provide a brief overview of crawl spaces with emphasis on the physics of moisture. We review trends that have been observed in the research literature and summarize cur-rent recommendations for moisture control in crawl spaces.

  1. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  2. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  3. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer's disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soricelli, A.; Postiglione, A.; Grivet-Fojaja, M.R.; Mainenti, P.P.; Discepolo, A.; Varrone, A.; Salvatore, M.; Lassen, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABA A receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (V d ) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured V d in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex V d was significantly (P d averaged 69 ml/ml in normals and 51 ml/ml in AD, and parietal V d averaged 71 ml/ml in normals and 48 ml/ml in AD. These results accord well with emission tomographic studies of blood flow or labelled glucose. This supports the idea that while only measuring a subpopulation of synapses, the IMZ method reflects synaptic loss and hence functional loss in AD. The method constitutes an in vivo version of synaptic quantitation that in histopathological studies has been shown to correlated closely with the mental deterioration in AD. (orig.)

  4. Application of polyacrylamide to reduce phosphorus losses from a Chinese purple soil: a laboratory and field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Teng, Lingling; Wei, Shiqiang; Deng, Lili; Luo, Zaibo; Chen, Yupeng; Flanagan, Dennis C

    2010-07-01

    Use of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) to control phosphorus (P) losses from a Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field plot experiment on a steep slope (27%). Treatments in the column study were a control, and PAM mixed uniformly into the soil at rates of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, and 0.20%. We found that PAM had an important inhibitory effect on vertical P transport in the soil columns, with the 0.20% PAM treatment having the greatest significant reduction in leachate soluble P concentrations and losses resulting from nine leaching periods. Field experiments were conducted on 5m wide by 21m long natural rainfall plots, that allowed collection of both surface runoff and subsurface drainage water. Wheat was planted and grown on all plots with typical fertilizer applied. Treatments included a control, dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1), dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with lime (CaCO(3) at 4.9 t ha(-1)), and dry PAM at 3.9 kg ha(-1) applied together with gypsum (CaSO(4).2H(2)O at 4 t ha(-1)). Results from the field plot experiment in which 5 rainfall events resulted in measurable runoff and leachate showed that all PAM treatments significantly reduced runoff volume and total P losses in surface runoff compared to the control. The PAM treatments also all significantly reduced water volume leached to the tile drain. However, total P losses in the leachate water were not significantly different due to the treatments, perhaps due to the low PAM soil surface application rate and/or high experimental variability. The PAM alone treatment resulted in the greatest wheat growth as indicated by the plant growth indexes of wheat plant height, leaf length, leaf width, grain number per head, and dried grain mass. Growth indexes of the PAM with Calcium treatments were significantly lesser. These results indicate that the selection and use of soil amendments need to be carefully determined based upon the most important management goal at a

  5. The effect of training in reduced energy density eating and food self-monitoring accuracy on weight loss maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Annunziato, Rachel A; Riddell, Lynnette J; Coletta, Maria C; Crerand, Canice E; Didie, Elizabeth R; Ochner, Christopher N; McKinney, Shortie

    2008-09-01

    Failure to maintain weight losses in lifestyle change programs continues to be a major problem and warrants investigation of innovative approaches to weight control. The goal of this study was to compare two novel group interventions, both aimed at improving weight loss maintenance, with a control group. A total of 103 women lost weight on a meal replacement-supplemented diet and were then randomized to one of three conditions for the 14-week maintenance phase: cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT); CBT with an enhanced food monitoring accuracy (EFMA) program; or these two interventions plus a reduced energy density eating (REDE) program. Assessments were conducted periodically through an 18-month postintervention. Outcome measures included weight and self-reported dietary intake. Data were analyzed using completers only as well as baseline-carried-forward imputation. Participants lost an average of 7.6 +/- 2.6 kg during the weight loss phase and 1.8 +/- 2.3 kg during the maintenance phase. Results do not suggest that the EFMA intervention was successful in improving food monitoring accuracy. The REDE group decreased the energy density (ED) of their diets more so than the other two groups. However, neither the REDE nor the EFMA condition showed any advantage in weight loss maintenance. All groups regained weight between 6- and 18-month follow-ups. Although no incremental weight maintenance benefit was observed in the EFMA or EFMA + REDE groups, the improvement in the ED of the REDE group's diet, if shown to be sustainable in future studies, could have weight maintenance benefits.

  6. A selective androgen receptor modulator that reduces prostate tumor size and prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Dodds, Robert; Fiordeliso, James; Lanter, James; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of JNJ-26146900 is described. JNJ-26146900 is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligand with tissue-selective activity in rats. The compound was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of AR activity. It binds to the rat AR with a K(i) of 400nM and acts as a pure androgen antagonist in an in vitro cell-based assay. Its in vitro profile is similar to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide (Casodex). In intact rats, JNJ-26146900 reduces ventral prostate weight with an oral potency (ED(50)) of 20-30mg/kg, again comparable to that of bicalutamide. JNJ-26146900 prevented prostate tumor growth in the Dunning rat model, maximally inhibiting growth at a dose of 10mg/kg. It slowed tumor growth significantly in a CWR22-LD1 mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. It was tested in aged male rats for its ability to prevent bone loss and loss of lean body mass following orchidectomy. After 6 weeks of dosing, bone volume decreased by 33% in orchidectomized versus intact vehicle-treated rats with a probability (P) of less than 0.05, as measured by micro-computerized tomography analysis. At a dose of 30mg/kg, JNJ-26146900 significantly reduced castration-induced tibial bone loss as indicated by the following parameters: bone volume, trabecular connectivity, trabecular number and spacing between trabeculae. Bone mineral density decreased from 229+/-34mg/cm(3) of hydroxyapatite to 166+/-26mg/cm(3) following orchidectomy, and was maintained at 194+/-20mg/cm(3) with JNJ-26146900 treatment (Pselective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential for anabolic effects on bone and muscle while maintaining therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer.

  7. Development and evaluation of a low cost probe-type instrument to measure the equilibrium moisture content of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage bags are common in Africa, Asia and many other less developed countries therefore a grain probing method is well-suited for moisture content (MC) measurement. A low cost meter was developed as part of a USAID project to reduce the post-harvest loss (PHL). The meter measures the MC of maize a...

  8. Natural moisturizing factor components in the stratum corneum as biomarkers of filaggrin genotype: evaluation of minimally invasive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kezic, S.; Kammeyer, A.; Calkoen, F.; Fluhr, J. W.; Bos, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The carriers of loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG) have reduced levels of natural moisturizing factor (NMF) in the stratum corneum. The concentration of NMF components which are formed by filaggrin protein breakdown in the stratum corneum might therefore be useful as a

  9. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  10. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled

  11. Zeolite Combined with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride Mixed with Agricultural Slurries Reduces Carbon Losses in Runoff from Grassed Soil Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnane, J G; Brennan, R B; Fenton, O; Healy, M G

    2016-11-01

    Carbon (C) losses from agricultural soils to surface waters can migrate through water treatment plants and result in the formation of disinfection by-products, which are potentially harmful to human health. This study aimed to quantify total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic C losses in runoff after application of dairy slurry, pig slurry, or milk house wash water (MWW) to land and to mitigate these losses through coamendment of the slurries with zeolite (2.36-3.35 mm clinoptilolite) and liquid polyaluminum chloride (PAC) (10% AlO) for dairy and pig slurries or liquid aluminum sulfate (alum) (8% AlO) for MWW. Four treatments under repeated 30-min simulated rainfall events (9.6 mm h) were examined in a laboratory study using grassed soil runoff boxes (0.225 m wide, 1 m long; 10% slope): control soil, unamended slurries, PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (13.3 and 11.7 kg t, respectively), alum-amended MWW (3.2 kg t), combined zeolite and PAC-amended dairy (160 and 13.3 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively) and pig slurries (158 and 11.7 kg t zeolite and PAC, respectively), and combined zeolite and alum-amended MWW (72 and 3.2 kg t zeolite and alum, respectively). The unamended and amended slurries were applied at net rates of 31, 34, and 50 t ha for pig and dairy slurries and MWW, respectively. Significant reductions of TOC in runoff compared with unamended slurries were measured for PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries (52 and 56%, respectively) but not for alum-amended MWW. Dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW significantly reduced TOC in runoff compared with alum amendment only. We conclude that use of PAC-amended dairy and pig slurries and dual zeolite and alum-amended MWW, although effective, may not be economically viable to reduce TOC losses from organic slurries given the relatively low amounts of TOC measured in runoff from unamended slurries compared with the amounts applied. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of

  12. Feasibility of a network of excellence postharvest food losses : combining knowledge and competences to reduce food losses in developing and emerging economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gogh, van J.B.; Aramyan, L.H.; Sluis, van der A.A.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Scheer, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: food security & postharvest losses Fruits and vegetables supply chains in developing countries are characterised by relatively high losses between harvest and consumption. In general, the postharvest system includes all stages in the chain where the activity/service is intended to

  13. Developing a predation index and evaluating ways to reduce salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, A.A.

    1990-12-01

    We report our results of studies to develop a predation index and evaluate ways to reduce juvenile salmonid losses to predation in the Columbia River Basin. Study objectives of each were: develop an index to estimate predation losses of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp) in reservoirs throughout the Columbia River Basin, describe the relationships among predator-caused mortality of juvenile salmonids and physical and biological variables, examine the feasibility of developing bounty, commercial or recreational fisheries on northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and develop a plan to evaluate the efficacy of predator control fisheries; determine the economic feasibility of developing bounty and commercial fisheries for northern squawfish, assist ODFW with evaluating the economic feasibility of recreational fisheries for northern squawfish and assess the economic feasibility of utilizing northern squawfish, carp (Cyprinus carpio) and suckers (Castostomus spp) in multispecies fisheries; evaluate commercial technology of various fishing methods for harvesting northern squawfish in Columbia River reservoirs and field test the effectiveness of selected harvesting systems, holding facilities and transportation systems; and modify the existing Columbia River Ecosystem Model (CREM) to include processes necessary to evaluate effects of removing northern squawfish on their population size structure and abundance, document the ecological processes, mathematical equations and computer (FORTRAN) programming of the revised version of CREM and conduct systematic analyses of various predator removal scenarios, using revised CREM to generate the simulations. Individual reports are indexed separately

  14. Tranexamic acid administration to older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty conserves hemoglobin and reduces blood loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beheiry, Hossam; Lubberdink, Ashley; Clements, Nigel; Dihllon, Kiran; Sharma, Vicky

    2018-06-01

    Tranexamic acid effects in older people are difficult to predict. This study investigated the following research questions: 1) Is tranexamic acid effective in older patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA)? and 2) Is there a difference in the effect of tranexamic acid between younger and older patients? This was a 2-phase retrospective matched-pair study of patients who underwent THA in 2007-2013. All procedures were performed by surgeons with at least 10 years' experience as senior consultant. In the first phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients who did not receive tranexamic acid for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and body mass index. In the second phase, 58 patients aged 65 years or more who received tranexamic acid were matched 1:1 with patients less than 65 years of age who received tranexamic acid for sex, ASA classification and body mass index. The primary outcome measures were percent maximum decrease in hemoglobin level and estimated blood loss after surgery. In the first phase, patients who received tranexamic acid conserved postoperative hemoglobin by a mean of 10.26 g/L (standard deviation [SD] 9.89 g/L) compared to the control group ( p Tranexamic acid reduced the postoperative decrease in hemoglobin level and blood loss in older patients. Moreover, the significant hemoglobin-sparing effect of tranexamic acid in older patients was similar to that observed in younger patients.

  15. Peripheral hearing loss reduces the ability of children to direct selective attention during multi-talker listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2017-07-01

    Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i.e. during multi-talker, or "Cocktail Party" listening). We measured brain activity using electro-encephalography (EEG) when children prepared to direct attention to the spatial location or gender of an upcoming target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Compared to normally-hearing children, hearing-impaired children showed significantly less evidence of preparatory brain activity when required to direct spatial attention. This finding is consistent with the idea that hearing-impaired children have a reduced ability to prepare spatial attention for an upcoming talker. Moreover, preparatory brain activity was not restored when hearing-impaired children listened with their acoustic hearing aids. An implication of these findings is that steps to improve auditory attention alongside acoustic hearing aids may be required to improve the ability of hearing-impaired children to understand speech in the presence of competing talkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengkang; Mei Yu

    1987-01-01

    A microcomputerized neutron moisture gauge is introduced. This gauge consists of a neutron moisture sensor and instruments. It is developed from the neutron moisture gauge for concrete mixer. A TECH-81 single card microcomputer is used for count, computation and display. It has the function of computing compensated quantity of sand. It can acquire the data from several neutron sensors by the multichanneling sampling, therefore it can measure moisture values of sand in several hoppers simultaneously. The precision of the static state calibration curve is 0.24% wt. The error limits of the dynamic state check is < 0.50% wt

  17. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  18. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood and with the crac......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  19. A Flexible Load Control Strategy for Distribution Network to Reduce the Line Losses and to Eliminate the Transmission Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertain factors in the modern distribution network, including the access of renewable energy sources and the heavy load level. The existence of these factors has brought challenges to the stability of the power distribution network, as well as increasing the risk of exceeding transmission capacity of distribution lines. The appearance of flexible load control technology provides a new idea to solve the above problems. Air conditioners (ACs account for a great proportion of all loads. In this paper, the model of dispatching AC loads in the regional power grid is constructed, and the direct load control (DLC method is adopted to reduce the load of ACs. An improved tabu search technique is proposed to solve the problem of network dispatch in distribution systems in order to reduce the resistive line losses and to eliminate the transmission congestion in lines under normal operating conditions. The optimal node solution is obtained to find the best location and reduction capacity of ACs for load control. To demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method, a test system is studied. The numerical results are also given in this article, which reveal that the proposed method is promising.

  20. A cane reduces loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy: results from a challenging unipedal balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton-Miller, J A; Yeh, M W; Richardson, J K; Galloway, T

    1996-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that use of a cane in the nondominant hand during challenging balance tasks would significantly decrease loss of balance in patients with peripheral neuropathy while transferring from bipedal to unipedal stance on an unsteady surface. Nonrandomized control study. Tertiary-care institution. Eight consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) and eight age- and gender-matched controls (C) with a mean (SD) age of 65 (8.2) years. Subjects were asked to transfer their weight onto their right foot, despite a rapid +/- 2 degrees or +/- 4 degrees frontal plane tilt of the support surface at 70% of weight transfer, and balance unipedally for at least 3 seconds. The efficacy of their weight transfer was evaluated over 112 consecutive randomized and blocked trials by calculating loss of balance as failure rates (%FR) with and without visual feedback, and with and without use of a cane in the nondominant (left) hand. Results were analyzed using a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance (rm-ANOVA) and post hoc t tests. The rm-ANOVA showed that the FR of the PN subjects (47.6% [18.1%]) was significantly higher than C (29.2% [15.2%], p = .036). Removing visual feedback, simulating the dark of night, increased the FR fourfold (p = .000). Use of a cane in the contralateral nondominant hand significantly reduced the FR (p = .000), particularly in the PN group (cane x disease interaction: p = .055). Post hoc t tests showed that with or without visual feedback, the cane reduced the FR of the PN group fourfold and enabled them to perform more reliably than matched controls not using a cane (p = .011). An inversion perturbation resulted in a higher FR than an eversion perturbation (p = .007). The PN group employed larger mean peak cane forces (21.9% BW) than C (13.6% BW) in restoring their balance (p = .000). Use of a cane by PN patients significantly reduced their risk of losing balance on unstable surfaces, especially under low

  1. Reduced Risk-Taking After Prior Losses in Pathological Gamblers Under Treatment and Healthy Control Group but not in Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Nicolao; Grecucci, Alessandro; Nicolè, Manuel; Savadori, Lucia

    2018-06-01

    A group of pathological gamblers and a group of problem gamblers (i.e., gamblers at risk of becoming pathological) were compared to healthy controls on their risk-taking propensity after prior losses. Each participant played both the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) and a modified version of the same task, where individuals face five repeated predetermined early losses at the onset of the game. No significant difference in risk-taking was found between groups on the standard BART task, while significant differences emerged when comparing behaviors in the two tasks: both pathological gamblers and controls reduced their risk-taking tendency after prior losses in the modified BART compared to the standard BART, whereas problem gamblers showed no reduction in risk-taking after prior losses. We interpret these results as a sign of a reduced sensitivity to negative feedback in problem gamblers which might contribute to explain their loss-chasing tendency.

  2. How effective are soil conservation techniques in reducing plot runoff and soil loss in Europe and the Mediterranean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetens, W.; Poesen, J.; Vanmaercke, M.

    2012-10-01

    The effects of soil and water conservation techniques (SWCTs) on annual runoff (Ra), runoff coefficients (RCa) and annual soil loss (SLa) at the plot scale have been extensively tested on field runoff plots in Europe and the Mediterranean. Nevertheless, a comprehensive overview of these effects and the factors controlling the effectiveness of SWCTs is lacking. Especially the effectiveness of SWCT in reducing Ra is poorly understood. Therefore, an extensive literature review is presented that compiles the results of 101 earlier studies. In each of these studies, Ra and SLa was measured on field runoff plots where various SWCTs were tested. In total, 353 runoff plots (corresponding to 2093 plot-years of data) for 103 plot-measuring stations throughout Europe and the Mediterranean were considered. SWCTs include (1) crop and vegetation management (i.e. cover crops, mulching, grass buffer strips, strip cropping and exclosure), (2) soil management (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage, contour tillage, deep tillage, drainage and soil amendment) and (3) mechanical methods (i.e. terraces, contour bunds and geotextiles). Comparison of the frequency distributions of SLa rates on cropland without and with the application of SWCTs shows that the exceedance probability of tolerable SLa rates is ca. 20% lower when SWCT are applied. However, no notable effect of SWCTs on the frequency distribution of RCa is observed. For 224 runoff plots (corresponding to 1567 plot-year data), SWCT effectiveness in reducing Ra and/or SLa could be directly calculated by comparing measured Ra and/or SLa with values measured on a reference plot with conventional management. Crop and vegetation management techniques (i.e. buffer strips, mulching and cover crops) and mechanical techniques (i.e. geotextiles, contour bunds and terraces) are generally more effective than soil management techniques (i.e. no-tillage, reduced tillage and contour tillage). Despite being generally less effective, no

  3. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  4. New method measures moisture and true dry mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    The moisture content of wood can be determined by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance of free water hydrogen atoms in wood. Nanassy studied NMR curves for six types of wood and obtained the calibration curve by reducing the moisture content in steps by 4% moisture down to ca. 1% moisture and then by gradually wetting the wood. The initial material was fresh wood. For each step he measured the intensity of the free water hydrogen signal. If the sample weight is known the dry matter content (dry weight) and moisture content of the sample can be derived from the measured NMR signal. (J.P.)

  5. An empirical study of the effectiveness of electronic stability control system in reducing loss of vehicle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papelis, Yiannis E; Watson, Ginger S; Brown, Timothy L

    2010-05-01

    A significant percentage of fatal vehicle crashes involve loss of control (LOC). Electronic stability control (ESC) is an active safety system that detects impending LOC and activates counter-measures that help the driver maintain or re-gain control. To assess the effectiveness of ESC in preventing LOC, an empirical study was conducted on a high-fidelity driving simulator. The ESC systems for two vehicles were incorporated into the simulator's dynamics code which was calibrated to ensure engineering validation. The study utilized three scenarios designed to recreate typical LOC situations, and was designed to assess the effects of ESC presence, vehicle type, scenario, age and gender. A total of 120 research participants completed the study. Results showed a statistically significant reduction in LOC with ESC compared to without ESC (F=52.72, p<0.0001). The study findings of 5% LOC with ESC and 30% without ESC match several epidemiological studies that have analyzed ESC effectiveness on real-world crashes, providing strong support to the use of driving simulation for studying driver behavior. Study conclusions suggest that wide-spread utilization of ESC is likely to reduce traffic fatalities. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet. PMID:23036993

  7. Moisture Absorption/Desorption Effects on Flexural Property of Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Polyester Laminates: Three-Point Bending Test and Coupled Hygro-Mechanical Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of moisture absorption/desorption on the flexural properties of Glass-fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP laminates was experimentally investigated under hot/wet aging environments. To characterize mechanical degradation, three-point bending tests were performed following the ASTM test standard (ASTM D790-10A. The flexural properties of dry (0% Mt/M∞, moisture unsaturated (30% Mt/M∞ and 50% Mt/M∞ and moisture saturated (100% Mt/M∞ specimens at both 20 and 40 °C test temperatures were compared. One cycle of moisture absorption-desorption process was considered in this study to investigate the mechanical degradation scale and the permanent damage of GFRP laminates induced by moisture diffusion. Experimental results confirm that the combination of moisture and temperature effects sincerely deteriorates the flexural properties of GFRP laminates, on both strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the reducing percentage of flexural strength is found much larger than that of E-modulus. Unrecoverable losses of E-modulus (15.0% and flexural strength (16.4% for the GFRP laminates experiencing one cycle of moisture absorption/desorption process are evident at the test temperature of 40 °C, but not for the case of 20 °C test temperature. Moreover, a coupled hygro-mechanical Finite Element (FE model was developed to characterize the mechanical behaviors of GFRP laminates at different moisture absorption/desorption stages, and the modeling method was subsequently validated with flexural test results.

  8. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  9. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  10. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  11. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  12. Radition mutagenesis in lavender. Part 2. Effect of heat shock, moisture and post radiation storage on lavender seed radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raev, R.C. (Institute of the Rose, Essential Oil and Medicinal Plants, Kazanlyk (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    The influence of three factors which increase radiation tolerance of lavender seeds and reduce the biological injuries with lethal effect in case of gamma-irradiation (Cs/sup 137/) was investigated. Irradiation at -65 deg C increased radiation tolerance and led to increased doses and higher mutagenic effect. Seeds with lowered moisture had higher radiosensitivity in comparison to these having 4.5-5 times more water. Post-radiation storage at 20-22 deg C without loss of moisture increased radiation injuries, which grew along with the prolongation of the period from seed irradiation to germination.

  13. Effect of Drying Moisture Exposed Almonds on the Development of the Quality Defect Concealed Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogel-Castillo, Cristian; Luo, Kathleen; Huang, Guangwei; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2017-10-11

    Concealed damage (CD), is a term used by the nut industry to describe a brown discoloration of kernel nutmeat that becomes visible after moderate heat treatments (e.g., roasting). CD can result in consumer rejection and product loss. Postharvest exposure of almonds to moisture (e.g., rain) is a key factor in the development of CD as it promotes hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The effect of drying moisture-exposed almonds between 45 to 95 °C, prior to roasting was evaluated as a method for controlling CD in roasted almonds. Additionally, moisture-exposed almonds dried at 55 and 75 °C were stored under accelerated shelf life conditions (45 °C/80% RH) and evaluated for headspace volatiles. Results indicate that drying temperatures below 65 °C decreases brown discoloration of nutmeat up to 40% while drying temperatures above 75 °C produce significant increases in brown discoloration and volatiles related to lipid oxidation, and nonsignificant increases in Amadori compounds. Results also demonstrate that raw almonds exposed to moisture and dried at 55 °C prior to roasting, reduce the visual sign of CD and maintain headspace volatiles profiles similar to almonds without moisture damage during accelerated storage.

  14. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ashley E; Epel, Elissa S; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Lustig, Robert H; Acree, Michael; Kristeller, Jean; Cohn, Michael; Dallman, Mary; Moran, Patricia J; Bacchetti, Peter; Laraia, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick M; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Many individuals with obesity report over eating despite intentions to maintain or lose weight. Two barriers to long-term weight loss are reward-driven eating, which is characterized by a lack of control over eating, a preoccupation with food, and a lack of satiety; and psychological stress. Mindfulness training may address these barriers by promoting awareness of hunger and satiety cues, self-regulatory control, and stress reduction. We examined these two barriers as potential mediators of weight loss in the Supporting Health by Integrating Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) randomized controlled trial, which compared the effects of a 5.5-month diet and exercise intervention with or without mindfulness training on weight loss among adults with obesity. Intention-to-treat multiple mediation models tested whether post-intervention reward-driven eating and psychological stress mediated the impact of intervention arm on weight loss at 12- and 18-months post-baseline among 194 adults with obesity (BMI: 30-45). Mindfulness (relative to control) participants had significant reductions in reward-driven eating at 6 months (post-intervention), which, in turn, predicted weight loss at 12 months. Post-intervention reward-driven eating mediated 47.1% of the total intervention arm effect on weight loss at 12 months [β = -0.06, SE(β) = 0.03, p = .030, 95% CI (-0.12, -0.01)]. This mediated effect was reduced when predicting weight loss at 18 months (p = .396), accounting for 23.0% of the total intervention effect, despite similar weight loss at 12 months. Psychological stress did not mediate the effect of intervention arm on weight loss at 12 or 18 months. In conclusion, reducing reward-driven eating, which can be achieved using a diet and exercise intervention that includes mindfulness training, may promote weight loss (clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT00960414). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The use of LeptiCore® in reducing fat gain and managing weight loss in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngondi Judith L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LeptiCore® is a proprietary combination of various ingredients which have been shown to have properties which could be beneficial to weight loss in obese and overweight human subjects. This study evaluates the effect of Lepticore® on bodyweight as well as parameters associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods The study was an 8 week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design involving 92 obese (mean BMI > 30 kg/m2 participants (37 males; 55 females; ages 19-52; mean age = 30.7. The participants were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 30, LeptiCore® formula A (low dose (n = 31 and LeptiCore® formula B (high dose (n = 31. Capsules containing the placebo or active formulations were administered twice daily before meals with 300 ml of water. None of the participants followed any specific diet nor took any weight-reducing medications for the duration of the study. A total of 12 anthropomorphic and serological measurements were taken at the beginning of the study and after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of treatment. Results Compared to the placebo group, the two active groups showed statistically significant differences on all 12 variables by week 8. These included four anthropomorphic variables (body weight, body fat, waist and hip size and eight measures of serological levels (plasma total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, blood glucose, serotonin, leptin, C-reactive protein. The two active groups also showed significant intra-group differences on all 12 variables between study onset and week 8. Conclusion The LeptiCore® formulation at both the low and high dosages appears to be helpful in the management of fat gain and its related complications. The higher dosage resulted in significantly greater reductions in body weight and triglyceride, blood glucose, and C-reactive protein levels, as well as increased serotonin levels.

  16. The use of straw in vineyards and orchards to reduce soil and water losses in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; García-Díaz, Andrés; Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordán, Antonio; Brevik, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Straw has been demonstrated to be a very efficient mulch to reduce soil losses. This has been found by different authors and in different regions such as the Mediterranean Region, where there is a need to reduce the non-sustainable soil and water losses caused by the compaction of soil, lack of vegetation and intense thunderstorms. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team from the University of Valencia with the collaboration of other research areas is developing a holistic research program to understand how straw mulch can be introduced and applied with success in traditional rainfed and modern irrigated orchards and vineyards. The research is based on three approaches: i) the perception of the farmers; ii) the economic cost; iii) and the biophysical impact of the straw mulch on soils, runoff generation and soil erosion. Farmer perception has been researched by means of interviews and the results shows that farmers prefer a tidy and clean soil (if possible ploughed in the vineyards) rather than vegetation or straw cover. There is a need to inform the farmers about how important it is to protect the soil and to find the right covers. It is also important to find adequate subsidies to encourage this management. Without financial support most farmers will be not convinced to use catch-crops, mulches or chipped branches. The cost of the straw is about 0.05 € Kg-1, the transport is 0.02 € Kg-1 and the application 0.04 € Kg-1. The cost is affordable for farms that have high incomes and mechanization. The results of rainfall simulation experiments and measurements under plot conditions demonstrate a reduction of one order of magnitude in soil erosion rates and 30 % in runoff discharge when straw mulch is used. The straw reduces soil erodibility due to the protective cover, which reduces raindrop impact energy on the soil surface and slows runoff, encouraging infiltration. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the European Union Seventh Framework

  17. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker-Gramm, P.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-√t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from √t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction γ is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  18. Moisture transport in coated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meel, P.A. van; Erich, S.J.F.; Huinink, H.P.; Kopinga, K.; Jong, J. DE; Adan, O.C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Moisture accumulation inside wood causes favorable conditions for decay. Application of a coating alters the moisture sorption of wood and prevents accumulation of moisture. This paper presents the results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study on the influence of a coating on the moisture

  19. A potent steroid cream is superior to emollients in reducing acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. A randomised study of betamethasone versus two moisturizing creams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulff, Eva; Maroti, Marianne; Serup, Jörgen; Falkmer, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim was to investigate whether treatment with potent local steroids can reduce signs and symptoms of acute radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) compared to emollient creams. Material and methods: The study was randomised and double-blinded. Patients with breast cancer who had undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery were included when they started adjuvant 3-D planned RT. In all, 104 patients were randomised 2:1:1 to three treatment groups, i.e. betamethasone + Essex® cream, Essex® cream or Canoderm® cream. The patients themselves treated the irradiated area during the radiation period (5 weeks) and two weeks after cessation of RT. Signs of RT dermatitis were measured qualitatively with RTOG clinical scoring and quantitatively by colorimeter. In addition, the patients’ symptoms were recorded as well as the Fitzpatrick skin type. There was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.05) in skin reactions when assessed with RTOG in favour of the group treated with the potent steroid. Patient-related symptoms did not differ between the treatment groups. The effect of the steroid was prominent in three subgroups, i.e. (i) patients treated with ablation of the breast, (ii) patients receiving RT to the armpit and the supraclavicular fossa, and (iii) patients with Fitzpatrick skin type 1. Conclusions: Treatment with betamethasone cream is more efficient than moisturizers for the control of acute RT dermatitis in patients treated with adjuvant RT for breast cancer

  20. ESCAPING PARTICLE FLUXES IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF CLOSE-IN EXOPLANETS. II. REDUCED MASS-LOSS RATES AND ANISOTROPIC WINDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    In Paper I, we presented a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the winds of close-in exoplanets. However, close-in exoplanets are tidally locked and irradiated only on the day sides by their host stars. This requires two-dimensional hydrodynamic models with self-consistent radiative transfer calculations. In this paper, for the tidal-locking (two-dimensional radiative transfer) and non-tidal-locking cases (one-dimensional radiative transfer), we constructed a multi-fluid two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with detailed radiative transfer to depict the escape of particles. We found that the tidal forces (the sum of tidal gravity of the star and centrifugal force due to the planetary rotation) supply significant accelerations and result in anisotropic winds. An important effect of the tidal forces is that it severely depresses the outflow of particles near the polar regions where the density and the radial velocity are a factor of a few (ten) smaller than those of the low-latitude regions. As a consequence, most particles escape the surface of the planet from the regions of low latitude. Comparing the tidal-locking and non-tidal-locking cases, we found that their optical depths are very different so that the flows also emerge with a different pattern. In the case of non-tidal locking, the radial velocities at the base of the wind are higher than the meridional velocities. However, in the case of tidal locking, the meridional velocities dominate the flow at the base of the wind, and they can effectively transfer mass and energy from the day sides to the night sides. Further, we also found that the differences of the winds show a middle extent at large radii. This means that the structure of the wind at the base can be changed by the two-dimensional radiative transfer due to large optical depths, but the extent is reduced with an increase in radius. Because the escape is depressed in the polar regions, the mass-loss rate predicted by the non-tidal-locking model, in

  1. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...... in the control group (ptotal and arm-leg BMC loss was 4 times greater in the control group compared to the liraglutide group (estimated difference 27g (95% CI 5-48), p=0.01), although the 12% weight loss was maintained in both groups...

  2. Is intraarticular administration of tranexamic acid better than its intravenous administration in reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Pispati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been well-established now that intravenous (IV tranexamic acid (TXA is a potent agent to control postoperative blood loss following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Recently, intraarticular administration of this agent has also shown good efficacy for the same. Aims: Comparison of postoperative blood loss between IV and topical administration of TXA in TKAs. Materials and Design: Eighty-six TKAs on knees were included in this study. Randomization was done so that 40 TKA received 1 g of IV TXA, while 46 had intraarticular administration of 1 g TXA. Subjets and Methods: We compared the postoperative blood loss by calculating the difference in pre- and postop hemoglobin and need for blood transfusion. Functional assessment was done on basis of Western Ontario McMaster Osteo-Arthritis Index (WOMAC scores and complications like postoperative infection, oozing from the wound site and thromboembolic manifestations. Results: Blood loss was significantly less in the intraarticular administration group as compared to the IV injection group. Total blood loss, blood transfusion group, and drain output was also less but the difference was not significant. The functional assessment (WOMAC scores were equivocal and so were the complications including thromboembolic manifestations (two cases each of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and no cases of pulmonary embolism (PE. Conclusion: Intraarticular administration of TXA to prevent postoperative blood loss in TKA is a safe and effective alternative/adjunct to its IV administration.

  3. Vitamin D insufficiency reduces the protective effect of bisphosphonate on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastaglia, Silvina R; Pellegrini, Gretel G; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M; Friedman, Silvia M; Zeni, Susana N

    2006-10-01

    The present study was carried out to obtain an experimental model of vitamin D (vit D) insufficiency and established osteopenia (experiment 1) to then investigate whether vit D status, i.e. normal or insufficient, interferes with bone mass recovery resulting from bisphosphonate therapy (experiment 2). Rats (n = 40) underwent OVX (n = 32) or a sham operation (n = 8). The first 15 days post-surgery, all groups were kept under fluorescent tube lighting and fed a diet containing 200 IU% vit D (+D). They were then assigned during an additional 45 days to receive either +D or a diet lacking vit D (-D) and kept under 12 h light/dark cycles using fluorescent or red lighting. Serum 25HOD was significantly lower in -D rats (P < 0.0001). The type of lighting did not induce differences in 25OHD, calcium (sCa), phosphorus (sP), bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AL), CTX, bone density or histology. No osteoid was observed in undecalcified bone sections. Experiment 2 (105 days): rats were fed either +D or -D according to experiment 1 and were treated with either placebo or 16 mug olpadronate (OPD)/100 g rat/week during the last 45 days. Whereas 25HOD was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in -D/OPD than in +D/OPD rats, no significant differences in sCa, sP, b-AL or CTX were observed. OPD prevented the loss of lumbar spine (LS) and proximal tibia (PT) BMD and the decrease in bone volume (BV/TV) (P < 0.05) and in the number of trabeculae observed in untreated rats. However, +D/OPD animals presented significantly higher values of LS BMD, PT BMD and BV/TV than -D/OPD rats (P < 0.05). No osteoid was observed in undecalcified sections of bone. In summary, this is the first experimental study to provide evidence that differences in vit D status may affect the anticatabolic response to bisphosphonate treatment. However, the molecular mechanism through which vit D insufficiency reduces the effect of the aminobisphosphonate remains to be defined.

  4. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  5. What economic theory tells us about the impacts of reducing food losses and/or waste: implications for research, policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Whereas the prevalence of hunger and food insecurity is often cited as a motivation for reducing losses and waste in agriculture and food systems, the impacts of such reduction on food security and the wider economy have not yet been investigated. This paper gives insights into these

  6. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and need of blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shinde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For quite a few years, tranexamic acid (TEA has been used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA to reduce blood loss. However, no consensus exits regarding its timing and doses. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blinded study of 56 patients in the Indian population undergoing TKA from 2011 to 2012. A dose of 10 mg/kg body weight of TEA (three doses was given in one group and normal saline was administered in the other. Results: The mean blood loss in the TEA unilateral group was 295 mL ± 218 mL and in the placebo group was 482 mL ± 186 mL (P < 0.005. In the bilateral TEA group, the mean blood loss was 596 mL ± 235 mL and in the placebo group was 1349 mL ± 41 mL (P < 0.005. Conclusion: The number of patients requiring blood transfusion reduced substantially. There was no increase in the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism. TEA reduces intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and thus reduces the need of allogenic blood transfusion.

  7. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  8. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  9. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, D.; Kirchartz, T.; Wheeler, S.; Dimitrov, S.; Abdelsamie, Maged; Gorman, J.; Ashraf, Raja; Holliday, S.; Wadsworth, A.; Gasparini, N.; Kaienburg, P.; Yan, H.; Amassian, Aram; Brabec, C. J.; Durrant, J. R.; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading

  10. Reduced rates of gene loss, gene silencing, and gene mutation in Dnmt1-deficient embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, M.F.; van Amerongen, R.; Nijjar, T.; Cuppen, E.; Jones, P.A.; Laird, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene inactivation is a crucial event in oncogenesis. Gene inactivation mechanisms include events resulting in loss of heterozygosity (LOH), gene mutation, and transcriptional silencing. The contribution of each of these different pathways varies among tumor suppressor genes and by

  11. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alper Gultekin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group. The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm than in the M group (1.38 mm at 3 years (p<0.01. A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p<0.01. Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  12. Possibility of reducing stray losses and parasitic torques in two-phase emergency feeding of induction motors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří; Chomát, Miroslav; Klíma, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2006), s. 109-131 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction motor * emergency operation of electrical drives * stray losses Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  13. SDCCAG8 obesity alleles and reduced weight loss after a lifestyle intervention in overweight children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherag, André; Kleber, Michaela; Boes, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    -analysis of GWAS reported five genomic loci near or in the genes FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, TNKS/MSRA that were associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Here, we analyzed the effect of the 10 SNPs representative of the five loci on measures of weight loss and cardiometabolic risk after a 1-year...

  14. Intra-articular injection of tranexamic acid via a drain plus drain-clamping to reduce blood loss in cementless total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuzaki Hirotaka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss. Patients and methods Patients (n = 140 treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70 and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70. Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD 7, and complications were recorded. Results Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P P P  Conclusions Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients.

  15. Analysis and optimal design of moisture sensor for rice grain moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sweety; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Thakare, Vandana Vikas

    2018-04-01

    The analysis and design of a microstrip sensor for accurate determination of moisture content (MC) in rice grains based on oven drying technique, this technique is easy, fast and less time-consuming to other techniques. The sensor is designed with low insertion loss, reflection coefficient and maximum gain is -35dB and 5.88dB at 2.68GHz as well as discussed all the parameters such as axial ratio, maximum gain, smith chart etc, which is helpful for analysis the moisture measurement. The variation in percentage of moisture measurement with magnitude and phase of transmission coefficient is investigated at selected frequencies. The microstrip moisture sensor consists of one layer: substrate FR4, thickness 1.638 is simulated by computer simulated technology microwave studio (CST MWS). It is concluded that the proposed sensor is suitable for development as a complete sensor and to estimate the optimum moisture content of rice grains with accurately, sensitivity, compact, versatile and suitable for determining the moisture content of other crops and agriculture products.

  16. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell polarization losses at elevated temperature 120 {sup o}C and reduced relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)]. E-mail: huixu@lanl.gov; Kunz, H. Russell [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Fenton, James M. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Polarization losses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at 120 {sup o}C and reduced relative humidity (RH) were analyzed. Reduced RH affects membrane and electrode ionic resistance, catalytic activity and oxygen transport. For a cell made of Nafion (registered) 112 membrane and electrodes that have 35 wt.% Nafion (registered) and 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} platinum supported on carbon, membrane resistance at 20%RH was 0.407 {omega} cm{sup 2} and electrode resistance 0.203 {omega} cm{sup 2}, significantly higher than 0.092 and 0.041 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 100%RH, respectively. In the kinetically controlled region, 20%RH resulted in 96 mV more cathode activation loss than 100%RH. Compared to 100%, 20%RH also produced significant oxygen transport loss across the ionomer film in the electrode, 105 mV at 600 mA/cm{sup 2}. The significant increase in polarization losses at elevated temperature and reduced RH indicates the extreme importance of designing electrodes for high temperature PEM fuel cells since membrane development has always taken most emphasis.

  17. Calibration of moisture monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    A method for calibrating an aluminum oxide hygrometer against an optical chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer has been established. A theoretical cross-point line of dew points from both hygrometers and a maximum moisture content of 10 ppM/sub v/ are used to define an area for calibrating the sensor probes of the aluminum oxide hygrometer

  18. Application of Hybrid HS and Tabu Search Algorithm for Optimal Location of FACTS Devices to Reduce Power Losses in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Masomi Zohrabad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Power networks continue to grow following the annual growth of energy demand. As constructing new energy generation facilities bears a high cost, minimizing power grid losses becomes essential to permit low cost energy transmission in larger distances and additional areas. This study aims to model an optimization problem for an IEEE 30-bus power grid using a Tabu search algorithm based on an improved hybrid Harmony Search (HS method to reduce overall grid losses. The proposed algorithm is applied to find the best location for the installation of a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC. The results obtained from installation of the UPFC in the grid are presented by displaying outputs.

  19. Moisture Control Guidance for Commercial and Public Buildings (EPA 402-F-13053)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance to designers, construction mangers, and building operation/maintenance managers to improve IEQ and reduce risks of encountering IEQ problems due to insufficient moisture control. EPA will be producing a document entitled "Moisture Control Guida...

  20. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  1. Mechanically controlled moisture removal from greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Bot, G.P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study was to design and test a system capable of dehumidifying air in a greenhouse when a thermal screen is in use. Dehumidification is required to reduce the risk of fungal diseases and prevent physiological disorders. The most common procedure used to remove moisture from a

  2. Protection from wintertime rainfall reduces nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions during the decomposition of poultry and horse manure-based amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Neufeld, Katarina; Poon, David; Grant, Nicholas; Nesic, Zoran; Smukler, Sean

    2018-04-01

    Manure-based soil amendments (herein "amendments") are important fertility sources, but differences among amendment types and management can significantly affect their nutrient value and environmental impacts. A 6-month in situ decomposition experiment was conducted to determine how protection from wintertime rainfall affected nutrient losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in poultry (broiler chicken and turkey) and horse amendments. Changes in total nutrient concentration were measured every 3 months, changes in ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations every month, and GHG emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) every 7-14 days. Poultry amendments maintained higher nutrient concentrations (except for K), higher emissions of CO 2 and N 2 O, and lower CH 4 emissions than horse amendments. Exposing amendments to rainfall increased total N and NH 4 + losses in poultry amendments, P losses in turkey and horse amendments, and K losses and cumulative N 2 O emissions for all amendments. However, it did not affect CO 2 or CH 4 emissions. Overall, rainfall exposure would decrease total N inputs by 37% (horse), 59% (broiler chicken), or 74% (turkey) for a given application rate (wet weight basis) after 6 months of decomposition, with similar losses for NH 4 + (69-96%), P (41-73%), and K (91-97%). This study confirms the benefits of facilities protected from rainfall to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions during amendment decomposition. The impact of rainfall protection on nutrient losses and GHG emissions was monitored during the decomposition of broiler chicken, turkey, and horse manure-based soil amendments. Amendments exposed to rainfall had large ammonium and potassium losses, resulting in a 37-74% decrease in N inputs when compared with amendments protected from rainfall. Nitrous oxide emissions were also higher with rainfall exposure, although it had no effect on carbon dioxide and methane emissions

  3. How can investment in the landscape or the interface reduce the risk of house loss from wildfires? A comparative study between Sydney, Australia and California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Trent; Bradstock, Ross; Collins, Luke; Fotheringham, Cj; Keeley, Jon; Labiosa, Bill; Price, Owen; Syphard, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Wildfire can result in significant losses to people and property. Management agencies undertake a range of actions in the landscape and at the interface to reduce this risk. Data relating to the success of individual treatments varies, with some approaches well understood and others less so. Research has rarely attempted to consider the interactive effects of treatments in order to determine optimal management strategies that reduce the risk of loss. Bayesian Networks provide a statistical framework for undertaking such an analysis. Here we apply Bayesian Networks to examine the trade-offs in investment in preventative actions (e.g., fuel treatment, community education, development controls) and suppressive actions (e.g., initial attack, landscape suppression, property protection) in two fire prone regions -Sydney, Australia and California, USA. Investment in management actions at the interface resulted in the greatest reduction in the risk of house loss for both of the study regions. Landscape treatments had a limited ability to change the risk of house loss.

  4. Reduced acoustic startle response and peripheral hearing loss in the 5xFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, T P; Shin, S; Fertan, E; Dingle, R N; Almuklass, A; Gunn, R K; Yu, Z; Wang, J; Brown, R E

    2017-06-01

    Hearing dysfunction has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans, but there is little data on the auditory function of mouse models of AD. Furthermore, characterization of hearing ability in mouse models is needed to ensure that tests of cognition that use auditory stimuli are not confounded by hearing dysfunction. Therefore, we assessed acoustic startle response and pre-pulse inhibition in the double transgenic 5xFAD mouse model of AD from 3-4 to 16 months of age. The 5xFAD mice showed an age-related decline in acoustic startle as early as 3-4 months of age. We subsequently tested auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds at 4 and 13-14 months of age using tone bursts at frequencies of 2-32 kHz. The 5xFAD mice showed increased ABR thresholds for tone bursts between 8 and 32 kHz at 13-14 months of age. Finally, cochleae were extracted and basilar membranes were dissected to count hair cell loss across the cochlea. The 5xFAD mice showed significantly greater loss of both inner and outer hair cells at the apical and basal ends of the basilar membrane than wild-type mice at 15-16 months of age. These results indicate that the 5xFAD mouse model of AD shows age-related decreases in acoustic startle responses, which are at least partially due to age-related peripheral hearing loss. Therefore, we caution against the use of cognitive tests that rely on audition in 5xFAD mice over 3-4 months of age, without first confirming that performance is not confounded by hearing dysfunction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Weight loss reduces breast ductal fluid estrogens in obese postmenopausal women: a single arm intervention pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpenter Catherine L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2 postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass; exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max; 1-repetition strength maximum; and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop, VO2Max (+36% increase and strength improvement (+26%. Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline, estrone sulfate (−10%, estradiol (−25%, and Il-6 (−33%. Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention.

  6. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF, and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R2 was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x=f′′(x/(1+f′x23/2 to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern fx=A·(1+k·eI·x with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM–6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss.

  7. Experiment of enhancing critical current and reducing ac loss in pancake coil comprised of Ni-coated Bi-2223/Ag tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, A.K.M.; Gu, C.; Han, Z.

    2006-01-01

    An approach of realizing high performance HTS coil comprised of ferromagnetic material-coated BSCCO tape is proposed. The concept of influencing critical current and ac loss is based on the magnetic shielding effect resulting in redirection of self-field flux-lines. In the previous article, ac performance of Ni-coated tape was demonstrated where the Ni-coating was introduced at the edge-regime of the finished tape in order to redirect the perpendicular component of self-field lines. In order to investigate the shielding effect on ac performance in HTS coil, a two-turn pancake coil comprised of Ni-coated Bi-2223/Ag tape is demonstrated in the present article. About 6.4% of critical current was enhanced and 30% of transport current ac loss was reduced by means of 40 μm thick and 0.3 mm long (from the edge toward center of the tape) Ni-coating. This result suggests that additional ferromagnetic loss could be compensated well by the shielding effect of the partial Ni-coating. The degree of enhancement in critical current as well as ferromagnetic impact on ac losses depend on the volume and geometry of ferromagnetic coating introduced. Therefore, it is very important to control the parameter of ferromagnetic coating of the tape in order to balance the critical current and ac loss for optimum coil performance

  8. Experiment of enhancing critical current and reducing ac loss in pancake coil comprised of Ni-coated Bi-2223/Ag tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamgir, A.K.M. [Department of Physics, Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: alam643@hotmail.com; Gu, C. [Department of Physics, Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Han, Z. [Department of Physics, Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-07-01

    An approach of realizing high performance HTS coil comprised of ferromagnetic material-coated BSCCO tape is proposed. The concept of influencing critical current and ac loss is based on the magnetic shielding effect resulting in redirection of self-field flux-lines. In the previous article, ac performance of Ni-coated tape was demonstrated where the Ni-coating was introduced at the edge-regime of the finished tape in order to redirect the perpendicular component of self-field lines. In order to investigate the shielding effect on ac performance in HTS coil, a two-turn pancake coil comprised of Ni-coated Bi-2223/Ag tape is demonstrated in the present article. About 6.4% of critical current was enhanced and 30% of transport current ac loss was reduced by means of 40 {mu}m thick and 0.3 mm long (from the edge toward center of the tape) Ni-coating. This result suggests that additional ferromagnetic loss could be compensated well by the shielding effect of the partial Ni-coating. The degree of enhancement in critical current as well as ferromagnetic impact on ac losses depend on the volume and geometry of ferromagnetic coating introduced. Therefore, it is very important to control the parameter of ferromagnetic coating of the tape in order to balance the critical current and ac loss for optimum coil performance.

  9. Valproic acid reduces hair loss and improves survival in patients receiving temozolomide-based radiation therapy for high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yui; Suehiro, Satoshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ohue, Shiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is also used to manage seizures in glioblastoma patients. HDAC inhibitors can protect normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy, and VPA is reported to improve the survival of glioblastoma patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. VPA also promotes hair growth, and thus has the potential to reduce the radiotherapy side effect of hair loss while improving the survival of patients with glioblastoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA use during radiotherapy for high-grade glioma is associated with decreased side effects of radiotherapy and an improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Medical records of 112 patients with high-grade glioma were retrospectively reviewed. We grouped patients by VPA use or non-use during radiotherapy, and evaluated hair loss, OS, and PFS. The radiation dose and fractionation at the onset of hair loss were 4 Gy and two fractions higher, respectively, in the VPA group compared with the VPA non-use group (P hair loss and improvement in survival. Hair loss prevention benefits patients suffering from the deleterious effects of radiation.

  10. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...... = 0.001), a total blood loss of 814 mL versus 1231 mL (p = 0.001) and a total need for 4 blood transfusions versus 25 (p = 0.04). No patient in either group had symptoms of deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism or prolonged wound drainage. INTERPRETATION: Transemic acid is effective in reducing...

  11. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWeight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.MethodsTwenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI. Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.ResultsWeight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.ConclusionThese findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.

  12. Structure of the urban moisture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Dirks, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the 26 July 1974 case study in St. Louis as a part of Project METROMEX, aircraft and surface network stations were used to determine specific humidity and potential temperature patterns near the surface and at two levels within the mixing layer. From the data acquired at these three levels, three-dimensional analyses of the moisture fields in the mixing layer were constructed. The mesoscale dry regions observed throughout the mixing layer correspond to the more impervious surfaces of the urban area. From energy budget considerations, latent heat fluxes are small over these impervious surfaces owing to the large runoff of precipitation and the lack of moisture retention capabilities. Hence, urbanization obviously alters the local energy budget. Surface boundary layer conditions are determined by heat and moisture fluxes. A new internal boundary layer within the city is formed after the breakdown of the radiation inversion in order to compensate for the alteration of sensible heat and latent heat energies. Hence, isolated semistagnant urban air is replenished by moisture only as quickly as evapotranspiration from impervious surfaces will allow. The city surface, therefore, is not a sink of moisture, but rather a reduced source relative to rural areas

  13. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  14. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  15. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the interface delamination. To this end, a computational model with variable boundary conditions is developed based on the different combination state of water in IC packages. The distribution characteristics and mechanism of moisture diffusion behavior are analyzed including the humidity distribution field and the relation among baking temperature, water loss rate, and baking time during baking process, and then the results are validated by FEA simulation based on the improved definition of relative moisture concentration. Baking under variable temperature is proposed and compared with the baking process and baking efficiency under constant temperature to find out the optimized baking parameters. Finally, a set of curves which indicate the relation between baking energy consumption and temperature are determined under actual industrial baking experiments, which could be used as references to develop industrial standards for PCB disassembling process.

  16. Effects of moisture content on long-term survival and regrowth of bacteria in wastewater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, J.G. (BDM Corp., Albuquerque, NM); Ward, R.L.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of moisture content on the survival and regrowth of seeded and indigenous enteric bacteria in raw sludge were determined. Cultures of six strains of fecally associated bacteria grown in sterilized, liquid sludge (5% solids) were all quite stable at this moisture level for over 90 days at 21/sup 0/C. When the moisture content of the sludge containing these organisms was reduced by evaporation and the samples were stored at 21/sup 0/C for extended periods, bacterial inactivation rates were generally proportional to the moisture losses of the samples. A dramatic reversal in this effect was observed in samples containing more than 90% solids. In this dried sludge, every bacterial species studied except Proteus mirabilis was found to be extremely stable. Bacteria indigenous to sludge were also found to survive for long periods in dried sludge. Growth of seeded Salmonella typhimurium was also found to occur in the presence of indigenous organisms in both liquid and dewatered raw sludges. However, the population density attained was well below that found in sterilized samples of the same sludges.

  17. Effect of moisture absorption on damping and dynamic stiffness of carbon fiber/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zai, Behzad Ahmed; Park, M. K.; Mehboob, Hassan; Ali, Rashid [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. S. [Korean Air Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, the damping and dynamic stiffness of UHN125C carbon fiber/epoxy composite beam was experimentally measured. The effect of fiber orientation angle and stacking sequences on damping, resonance frequency, and dynamic stiffness was discussed with a focus on the effect of moisture absorption. Dried specimens were immersed in distilled water for a certain period to absorb water for 8, 16, and 24 d, respectively, and the moisture content absorbed in the specimen was measured. Furthermore, using the impact hammer technique, the measurements of dynamic responses were conducted on a cantilever beam specimen with one end clamped by bolts and metal plates. The damping properties in terms of loss factor were approximated by half-power bandwidth technique. The dynamic stiffness was evaluated using resonance frequency as a function of moisture content. The damping increased with the increase of moisture content: however, the dynamic stiffness reduced with the reduction of resonance frequency. The results of the dynamic stiffness were aided by measuring the dynamic strain using DBU-120A strain-indicating software. The increment in the dynamic strain strengthened the results obtained for dynamic stiffness

  18. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  19. Reduced brain N-acetyl-aspartate in frontal lobes suggests neuronal loss in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, M; Walker, P; Bernard, D; Lemesle, M; Martin, D; Baudouin, N; Brunotte, F; Dumas, R

    1996-06-01

    We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in three patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to evaluate the distribution and extent of cortical neuronal damage as demonstrated by decreased N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels. We examined primary motor (precentral gyrus) and parietal neocortical (superior parietal gyrus) regions. ALS was defined with lower and upper motor neuron signs. Compared with matched healthy controls, ALS patients had a significant decrease in NAA levels in the primary motor cortex (p upper motor neuron signs present in the ALS, come from a neuronal loss within the primary motor cortex and may explain the frontal syndrome associated with ALS. Second clinical applications of 1H-MRS could include identification of extent of upper motor neuron involvement, aiding diagnosis of syndromes presenting with an ALS-like syndrome.

  20. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  1. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  2. Synergistic effects of intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss in revision total knee arthroplasty: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangwei; Wang, Jiaxing; Wang, Qiaojie; Zhang, Xianlong

    2018-04-01

    Tranexamic acid decreases blood loss in primary total knee arthroplasty, and no related prospective randomized clinical trials have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid in revision total knee arthroplasty. Thus, we conducted this work to evaluate the synergistic effects of intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid on reducing hemoglobin loss compared with intra-articular tranexamic acid alone in revision total knee arthroplasty. This prospective, controlled study randomized 96 patients undergoing revision total knee arthroplasty into two groups: an intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group (48 patients who received 20 mg/kg intravenous tranexamic acid and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid); and an intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (48 patients who received the same intravenous volume of normal saline and 3.0 g intra-articular tranexamic acid). The primary outcome was hemoglobin loss. Secondary outcomes included the volume of drain output, the percentage of patients who received transfusions, the number of units transfused, and thromboembolic events. The baseline data, preoperative hemoglobin, and tourniquet time were similar in both groups. There was significantly less hemoglobin loss in the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group compared with the intra-articular tranexamic acid alone group (2.7 ± 0.6 g/dL and 3.7 ± 0.7 g/dL; p tranexamic acid alone group, the intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid group also had significantly less drain output, fewer patients who received transfusions, and fewer units transfused (all p tranexamic acid alone, combined intravenous plus intra-articular tranexamic acid significantly reduced hemoglobin loss and the need for transfusion without an apparent increase in thromboembolic events in patients who underwent revision total knee arthroplasty. © 2018 AABB.

  3. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  4. Rye cover crop increases earthworm populations and reduces losses of broadcast, fall-applied, fertilizers in surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) silage and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotations in the US Upper Midwest leave minimal amounts of surface residues, which can contribute to soil degradation and a reduction in water quality. Planting cover crops after harvest can reduce these concerns, but their effectiveness...

  5. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  6. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk and the neoliberal state: why post-Mitch lessons didn't reduce El Salvador's earthquake losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, B

    2001-09-01

    Although El Salvador suffered light losses from Hurricane Mitch in 1998, it benefited from the increased international aid and encouragement for advance planning, especially mitigation and prevention interventions. Thus, one would have supposed, El Salvador would have been in a very advantageous position, able more easily than its economically crippled neighbours, Honduras and Nicaragua, to implement the 'lessons of Mitch'. A review of the recovery plan tabled by the El Salvador government following the earthquakes of early 2001 shows that despite the rhetoric in favour of 'learning the lessons of Mitch', very little mitigation and prevention had actually been put in place between the hurricane (1998) and the earthquakes (2001). The recovery plan is analysed in terms of the degree to which it deals with root causes of disaster vulnerability, namely, the economic and political marginality of much of the population and environmental degradation. An explanation for the failure to implement mitigation and preventive actions is traced to the adherence by the government of El Salvador to an extreme form of neoliberal, free market ideology, and the deep fissures and mistrust in a country that follow a long and bloody civil war.

  8. Efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal stenosis with instability: a retrospective case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endres Stefan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Degenerative spinal stenosis and instability requiring multilevel spine surgery has been associated with large blood losses. Factors that affect perioperative blood loss include time of surgery, surgical procedure, patient height, combined anterior/posterior approaches, number of levels fused, blood salvage techniques, and the use of anti-fibrinolytic medications. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss in spine surgery. Methods This retrospective case control study includes 97 patients who had to undergo surgery because of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis and instability. All operations included spinal decompression, interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation (4-5 segments. Forty-six patients received 1 g tranexamic acid intravenous, preoperative and six hours and twelve hours postoperative; 51 patients without tranexamic acid administration were evaluated as a control group. Based on the records, the intra- and postoperative blood losses were measured by evaluating the drainage and cell saver systems 6, 12 and 24 hours post operation. Additionally, hemoglobin concentration and platelet concentration were reviewed. Furthermore, the number of red cell transfusions given and complications associated with tranexamic acid were assessed. Results The postoperative hemoglobin concentration demonstrated a statistically significant difference with a p value of 0.0130 showing superiority for tranexamic acid use (tranexamic acid group: 11.08 g/dl, SD: 1.68; control group: 10.29 g/dl, SD: 1.39. The intraoperative cell saver volume and drainage volume after 24 h demonstrated a significant difference as well, which indicates a less blood loss in the tranexamic acid group than the control group. The postoperative drainage volume at12 hours showed no significant differences; nor did the platelet concentration Allogenic blood transfusion (two red cell units was needed for eight patients

  9. Power Quality Improvement in a Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Interfaced Grid Connected System Using a Modified Inductive–Capacitive–Inductive Filter with Reduced Power Loss and Improved Harmonic Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Jayaraman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multilevel inverters are more researched due to the advantages they offer over conventional voltage source inverters in grid connected applications. Passive filters are connected at the output of these inverters to produce sinusoidal waveforms with reduced harmonics and to satisfy grid interconnection standard requirements. This work proposes a new passive filter topology for a pulse width modulated five-level cascaded inverter interfaced grid connected system. The proposed passive filter inserts an additional resistance-capacitance branch in parallel to the filter capacitor of the traditional inductive–capacitive–inductive filter in addition to a resistance in series with it to reduce damping power loss. It can attenuate the switching frequency harmonic current components much better than the traditional filter while maintaining the same overall inductance, reduced capacitance and resistance values. The basic parameter design procedure and an approach to discover the parameters of the proposed filter is introduced. Further, a novel methodology using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is recommended to guarantee minimum damping loss while ensuring reduced peak during resonance. In addition, PSO algorithm is newly employed in this work to maximize harmonic attenuation in and around the switching frequency on the premise of allowable values of filter inductance and capacitance. A comparative discussion considering traditional passive filters and the proposed filter is presented and evaluated through experiments conducted on a 110 V, 1 kW five-level grid connected inverter. The modulation algorithm for the multilevel inverter is implemented using a SPARTAN 6-XC6SLX25 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA processor. The analysis shows that the proposed filter not only provides decreased damping power loss but also is capable of providing considerable harmonic ripple reduction in the high frequency band, improved output waveforms and lesser

  10. Tranexamic Acid Safely Reduced Blood Loss in Hemi- and Total Hip Arthroplasty for Acute Femoral Neck Fracture: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chad D; Houdek, Matthew T; Sems, S Andrew; Cross, William W; Pagnano, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to determine whether (1) tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces the incidence of transfusion (2) TXA reduces the calculated blood loss, and (3) there are any observable differences in 30- and 90-day complications with TXA administration during arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture (FNF). Prospective, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial. Level 1 Academic Trauma Center. One hundred thirty-eight patients who presented with a low-energy, isolated, FNF (AO 31B) treated with either hemi- or total hip arthroplasty within 72 hours of injury were randomized to either the TXA group (69 patients) or placebo group (69 patients). In the TXA group, patients received 2 doses of 15 mg/kg intravenous TXA dissolved in 100 mL of saline, each administered over 10 minutes; 1 dose just before incision, and the second at wound closure. In the placebo group, 100 mL of saline solution was administered in a similar fashion. Perioperative care was otherwise standardized including conservative transfusion criteria. Our primary outcome was to determine the proportion of patients who underwent blood transfusion during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes were calculated blood loss, number of units transfused during hospitalization, and incidence of adverse events at 30 and 90 days including thromboembolic event, wound complications, reoperation, hospital readmission, and all-cause mortality. TXA reduced mean incidence of transfusion by 305 mL (P = 0.0005). There was a trend toward decreased transfusion rate in the TXA group (17% vs. 26%, P = 0.22). TXA was safe with no differences in adverse events at 30 and 90 days. This randomized clinical trial found that TXA administration safely reduced blood loss with a tendency for decreased transfusion rate and total blood product consumption for patients undergoing hip arthroplasty for acute FNF. More studies are needed to further ascertain the role of TXA in the management of patients with FNF. Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors

  11. Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... moisture content and reduced with increasing roasting duration. Analysis of ... Within the studied range, 13 h was the minimum OS recorded while maximum were 63.3 h.

  12. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  13. Loss of function in Mlo orthologs reduces susceptibility of pepper and tomato to powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zheng

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew disease caused by Leveillula taurica is a serious fungal threat to greenhouse tomato and pepper production. In contrast to most powdery mildew species which are epiphytic, L. taurica is an endophytic fungus colonizing the mesophyll tissues of the leaf. In barley, Arabidopsis, tomato and pea, the correct functioning of specific homologues of the plant Mlo gene family has been found to be required for pathogenesis of epiphytic powdery mildew fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the Mlo genes in susceptibility to the endophytic fungus L. taurica. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, a loss-of-function mutation in the SlMlo1 gene results in resistance to powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium neolycopersici. When the tomato Slmlo1 mutant was inoculated with L. taurica in this study, it proved to be less susceptible compared to the control, S. lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker. Further, overexpression of SlMlo1 in the tomato Slmlo1 mutant enhanced susceptibility to L. taurica. In pepper, the CaMlo2 gene was isolated by applying a homology-based cloning approach. Compared to the previously identified CaMlo1 gene, the CaMlo2 gene is more similar to SlMlo1 as shown by phylogenetic analysis, and the expression of CaMlo2 is up-regulated at an earlier time point upon L. taurica infection. However, results of virus-induced gene silencing suggest that both CaMlo1 and CaMlo2 may be involved in the susceptibility of pepper to L. taurica. The fact that overexpression of CaMlo2 restored the susceptibility of the tomato Slmlo1 mutant to O. neolycopersici and increased its susceptibility to L. taurica confirmed the role of CaMlo2 acting as a susceptibility factor to different powdery mildews, though the role of CaMlo1 as a co-factor for susceptibility cannot be excluded.

  14. Co-culture of chondrons and mesenchymal stromal cells reduces the loss of collagen VI and improves extracellular matrix production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owida, H A; De Las Heras Ruiz, T; Dhillon, A; Yang, Y; Kuiper, N J

    2017-12-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes are surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM) to form a chondron. The PCM is rich in hyaluronan, proteoglycans, and collagen II, and it is the exclusive location of collagen VI in articular cartilage. Collagen VI anchors the chondrocyte to the PCM. It has been suggested that co-culture of chondrons with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) might enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This co-culture study investigates whether MSCs help to preserve the PCM and increase ECM production. Primary bovine chondrons or chondrocytes or rat MSCs were cultured alone to establish a baseline level for ECM production. A xenogeneic co-culture monolayer model using rat MSCs (20, 50, and 80%) was established. PCM maintenance and ECM production were assessed by biochemical assays, immunofluorescence, and histological staining. Co-culture of MSCs with chondrons enhanced ECM matrix production, as compared to chondrocyte or chondron only cultures. The ratio 50:50 co-culture of MSCs and chondrons resulted in the highest increase in GAG production (18.5 ± 0.54 pg/cell at day 1 and 11 ± 0.38 pg/cell at day 7 in 50:50 co-culture versus 16.8 ± 0.61 pg/cell at day 1 and 10 ± 0.45 pg/cell at day 7 in chondron monoculture). The co-culture of MSCs with chondrons appeared to decelerate the loss of the PCM as determined by collagen VI expression, whilst the expression of high-temperature requirement serine protease A1 (HtrA1) demonstrated an inverse relationship to that of the collagen VI. Together, this implies that MSCs directly or indirectly inhibited HtrA1 activity and the co-culture of MSCs with chondrons enhanced ECM synthesis and the preservation of the PCM.

  15. Reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration and improved glucose metabolism in nondiabetic obese women during a very low calorie dietary intervention leading to rapid weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabøl, Rasmus; Svendsen, Pernille F; Skovbro, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Reduced oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle has been proposed to lead to accumulation of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) and insulin resistance. We have measured mitochondrial respiration before and after a 10% low-calorie-induced weight loss in young obese women to examine the relationship...... between mitochondrial function, IMTG, and insulin resistance. Nine obese women (age, 32.3 years [SD, 3.0]; body mass index, 33.4 kg/m(2) [SD, 2.6]) completed a 53-day (SE, 3.8) very low calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 to 600 kcal/d without altering physical activity. The target of the intervention was a 10...... resistance in young obese women and do not support a direct relationship between IMTG and insulin sensitivity in young obese women during weight loss....

  16. Reducing fertilizer-nitrogen losses from rowcrop landscapes: Insights and implications from a spatially explicit watershed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Eileen; Schilling, Keith; Robertson, Dale M.

    2015-01-01

    We present conceptual and quantitative models that predict changes in fertilizer-derived nitrogen delivery from rowcrop landscapes caused by agricultural conservation efforts implemented to reduce nutrient inputs and transport and increase nutrient retention in the landscape. To evaluate the relative importance of changes in the sources, transport, and sinks of fertilizer-derived nitrogen across a region, we use the spatially explicit SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes watershed model to map the distribution, at the small watershed scale within the Upper Mississippi-Ohio River Basin (UMORB), of: (1) fertilizer inputs; (2) nutrient attenuation during delivery of those inputs to the UMORB outlet; and (3) nitrogen export from the UMORB outlet. Comparing these spatial distributions suggests that the amount of fertilizer input and degree of nutrient attenuation are both important in determining the extent of nitrogen export. From a management perspective, this means that agricultural conservation efforts to reduce nitrogen export would benefit by: (1) expanding their focus to include activities that restore and enhance nutrient processing in these highly altered landscapes; and (2) targeting specific types of best management practices to watersheds where they will be most valuable. Doing so successfully may result in a shift in current approaches to conservation planning, outreach, and funding.

  17. The efficiency and safety of fibrin sealant for reducing blood loss in primary total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Xiao, Lin; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Guanghui; Ma, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is associated with substantial blood loss. The objective of present systematic review and meta-analysis is to provide evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficiency and safety of administration of fibrin sealant (FS) for reducing blood loss in patients undergoing primary THA. Potential relevant studies were identified from electronic databases including Medline, PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, web of science and Cochrane Library. Gray academic studies were also identified from the reference list of included studies. There was no language restriction. Pooling of data was carried out by using RevMan 5.1. Six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria. Current meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -153.77, 95% CI: -287.21 to -20.34, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = -0.25, 95% CI: -0.46 to -0.05, P = 0.02) and transfusion rate (RD = -0.12, 95% CI: -0.22 to -0.03, P = 0.01) between groups. No significant differences were found regarding the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (RD = 0.00, 95% CI: -0.01to 0.01, P = 0.51) or other side effects. Administration of fibrin sealant in total hip arthroplasty may reduce total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Moreover, no adverse effect was related to FS. Due to the limited quality of the evidence currently available, higher quality RCTs are required. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  19. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  20. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss in rats delays long-term extinction of contextual conditioned fear, and reduces social interaction without affecting short-term social interaction memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Espejo, Emilio

    2003-03-01

    Prefrontal dopamine loss delays extinction of cued fear conditioning responses, but its role in contextual fear conditioning has not been explored. Medial prefrontal lesions also enhance social interaction in rats, but the role of prefrontal dopamine loss on social interaction memory is not known. Besides, a role for subcortical accumbal dopamine on mnesic changes after prefrontal dopamine manipulation has been proposed but not explored. The objective was to study the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens in two mnesic tasks: contextual fear conditioning and social interaction memory. For contextual fear conditioning, short- and long-term freezing responses after an electric shock were studied, as well as extinction retention. Regarding social interaction memory, the recognition of a juvenile, a very sensitive short-term memory test, was used. Dopamine loss was carried out by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, and postmortem catecholamine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Prefrontocortical dopamine loss (>76%) led to a reactive enhancement of accumbal dopamine content (ploss. In lesioned rats, long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning was significantly delayed and extinction retention was impaired without changes in acquisition and short-term contextual fear conditioning and, on the other hand, acquisition and short-term social interaction memory were not affected, although time spent on social interaction was significantly reduced. Added dopamine loss in the nucleus accumbens (>76%) did not alter these behavioral changes. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the dopaminergic network in the mPFC (but not in the nucleus accumbens) coordinates the normal long-term extinction of contextual fear conditioning responses without affecting their acquisition, and it is involved in time spent on social interaction, but not acquisition and short

  1. A rare IL33 loss-of-function mutation reduces blood eosinophil counts and protects from asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Dirk; Helgason, Hannes; Sulem, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    IL-33 is a tissue-derived cytokine that induces and amplifies eosinophilic inflammation and has emerged as a promising new drug target for asthma and allergic disease. Common variants at IL33 and IL1RL1, encoding the IL-33 receptor ST2, associate with eosinophil counts and asthma. Through whole......-C associates with lower eosinophil counts (β = -0.21 SD, P = 2.5×10-16, N = 103,104), and reduced risk of asthma in Europeans (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.70, P = 1.8×10-4, N cases = 6,465, N controls = 302,977). Heterozygotes have about 40% lower total IL33 mRNA expression than non...

  2. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  3. Moisture-induced solid state instabilities in α-chymotrypsin and their reduction through chemical glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solá Ricardo J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein instability remains the main factor limiting the development of protein therapeutics. The fragile nature (structurally and chemically of proteins makes them susceptible to detrimental events during processing, storage, and delivery. To overcome this, proteins are often formulated in the solid-state which combines superior stability properties with reduced operational costs. Nevertheless, solid protein pharmaceuticals can also suffer from instability problems due to moisture sorption. Chemical protein glycosylation has evolved into an important tool to overcome several instability issues associated with proteins. Herein, we employed chemical glycosylation to stabilize a solid-state protein formulation against moisture-induced deterioration in the lyophilized state. Results First, we investigated the consequences of moisture sorption on the stability and structural conformation of the model enzyme α-chymotrypsin (α-CT under controlled humidity conditions. Results showed that α-CT aggregates and inactivates as a function of increased relative humidity (RH. Furthermore, α-CT loses its native secondary and tertiary structure rapidly at increasing RH. In addition, H/D exchange studies revealed that α-CT structural dynamics increased at increasing RH. The magnitude of the structural changes in tendency parallels the solid-state instability data (i.e., formation of buffer-insoluble aggregates, inactivation, and loss of native conformation upon reconstitution. To determine if these moisture-induced instability issues could be ameliorated by chemical glycosylation we proceeded to modify our model protein with chemically activated glycans of differing lengths (lactose and dextran (10 kDa. The various glycoconjugates showed a marked decrease in aggregation and an increase in residual activity after incubation. These stabilization effects were found to be independent of the glycan size. Conclusion Water sorption leads to

  4. Loss of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters macrophage polarization and reduces NFκB activation in the foreign body response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laura Beth; Sawyer, Andrew J; Charokopos, Antonios; Skokos, Eleni A; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of biomaterials elicits a foreign body response characterized by fusion of macrophages to form foreign body giant cells and fibrotic encapsulation. Studies of the macrophage polarization involved in this response have suggested that alternative (M2) activation is associated with more favorable outcomes. Here we investigated this process in vivo by implanting mixed cellulose ester filters or polydimethylsiloxane disks in the peritoneal cavity of wild-type (WT) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) knockout mice. We analyzed classical (M1) and alternative (M2) gene expression via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both non-adherent cells isolated by lavage and implant-adherent cells. Our results show that macrophages undergo unique activation that displays features of both M1 and M2 polarization including induction of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF), which induces the expression and nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Both processes were compromised in fusion-deficient MCP-1 KO macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, inclusion of BAY 11-7028, an inhibitor of NFκB activation, reduced nuclear translocation of RelA and fusion in WT macrophages. Our studies suggest that peritoneal implants elicit a unique macrophage polarization phenotype leading to induction of TNF and activation of the NFκB pathway. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dopaminergic neuronal loss, reduced neurite complexity and autophagic abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing G2019S mutant LRRK2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ramonet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene cause late-onset, autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD and also contribute to idiopathic PD. LRRK2 mutations represent the most common cause of PD with clinical and neurochemical features that are largely indistinguishable from idiopathic disease. Currently, transgenic mice expressing wild-type or disease-causing mutants of LRRK2 have failed to produce overt neurodegeneration, although abnormalities in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission have been observed. Here, we describe the development and characterization of transgenic mice expressing human LRRK2 bearing the familial PD mutations, R1441C and G2019S. Our study demonstrates that expression of G2019S mutant LRRK2 induces the degeneration of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons in an age-dependent manner. In addition, we observe autophagic and mitochondrial abnormalities in the brains of aged G2019S LRRK2 mice and markedly reduced neurite complexity of cultured dopaminergic neurons. These new LRRK2 transgenic mice will provide important tools for understanding the mechanism(s through which familial mutations precipitate neuronal degeneration and PD.

  6. Feeding the enemy: loss of nectar and nectaries to herbivores reduces tepal damage and increases pollinator attraction in Iris bulleyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya-Ru; Yang, Min; Vamosi, Jana C; Armbruster, W Scott; Wan, Tao; Gong, Yan-Bing

    2017-08-01

    Floral nectar usually functions as a pollinator reward, yet it may also attract herbivores. However, the effects of herbivore consumption of nectar or nectaries on pollination have rarely been tested. We investigated Iris bulleyana , an alpine plant that has showy tepals and abundant nectar, in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. In this region, flowers are visited mainly by pollen-collecting pollinators and nectarivorous herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that, in I. bulleyana , sacrificing nectar and nectaries to herbivores protects tepals and thus enhances pollinator attraction. We compared rates of pollination and herbivory on different floral tissues in plants with flowers protected from nectar and nectary consumption with rates in unprotected control plants. We found that nectar and nectaries suffered more herbivore damage than did tepals in natural conditions. However, the amount of tepal damage was significantly greater in the flowers with protected nectaries than in the controls; this resulted in significant differences in pollinator visitation rates. These results provide the first evidence that floral nectar and nectaries may be 'sacrificed' to herbivores, leading to reduced damage to other floral tissues that are more important for reproduction. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  8. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  9. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO 2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO 2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm 2 . The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V OC increased by 57 mV, their current density, J SC increased by 0.774 mA cm −2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R BR /R T where R T is the diffusion resistance of the TiO 2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and R BR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I − 3 /3I − couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  10. Power system reconfiguration in a radial distribution network for reducing losses and to improve voltage profile using modified plant growth simulation algorithm with Distributed Generation (DG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajaram

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Network reconfiguration which is constrained non linear optimization problem has been solved for loss minimization, load balancing, etc. for last two decades using various heuristic search evolutionary algorithms like binary particle swarm optimization, neuro-fuzzy techniques, etc. The contribution of this paper lies in considering distributed generation which are smaller power sources like solar photovoltaic cells or wind turbines connected in the customer roof top. This new connection in the radial network has made unidirectional current flow to become bidirectional there by increasing the efficiency but sometimes reducing stability of the system. Modified plant growth simulation algorithm has been applied here successfully to minimize real power loss because it does not require barrier factors or cross over rates because the objectives and constraints are dealt separately. The main advantage of this algorithm is continuous guiding search along with changing objective function because power from distributed generation is continuously varying so this can be applied for real time applications with required modifications. This algorithm here is tested for a standard 33 bus radial distribution system for loss minimization and test results here shows that this algorithm is efficient and suitable for real time applications.

  11. Topical fibrin sealant versus intravenous tranexamic acid for reducing blood loss following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fuqiang; Ma, Jinhui; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-08-01

    Efficacy and safety of topical application of a fibrin sealant (FS) compared with intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) for reducing blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis to compare the effects of topical application of FS or intravenous administration of TXA on blood loss after TKA. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing FS with TXA for TKA patients. The mean difference (MD) of blood loss, hemoglobin value, and odds ratios (ORs) of transfusion requirements and adverse events in FS and TXA groups were pooled throughout the study. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Five studies involving 359 patients were included (181 FS vs. 178 TXA). TXA use had a significantly lower prevalence of blood transfusion (OR = 3.14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.67 to 5.90, P = 0.0004) and higher hemoglobin level (MD = -1.23; 95% CI, -2.19 to -0.27, P = 0.01) than FS in the early postoperative period. No significant difference was seen in total blood loss between the two groups (MD = 198.06; 95% CI, -267.45 to 663.57; P = 0.40). There were no significant differences in adverse events, superficial infections, or deep-vein thrombosis among study groups. Our meta-analysis suggests that intravenous administration of TXA for patients undergoing TKA may reduce blood-transfusion requirements and maintain higher hemoglobin levels compared with topical application of FS in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in total calculated blood loss and prevalence of complications between the two groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  13. Hyperbolic-cosine waveguide tapers and oversize rectangular waveguide for reduced broadband insertion loss in W-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. II. Broadband characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Anderson, James R.; Mainali, Laxman; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Strangeway, Robert A. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Experimental results have been reported on an oversize rectangular waveguide assembly operating nominally at 94 GHz. It was formed using commercially available WR28 waveguide as well as a pair of specially designed tapers with a hyperbolic-cosine shape from WR28 to WR10 waveguide [R. R. Mett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 074704 (2011)]. The oversize section reduces broadband insertion loss for an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) probe placed in a 3.36 T magnet. Hyperbolic-cosine tapers minimize reflection of the main mode and the excitation of unwanted propagating waveguide modes. Oversize waveguide is distinguished from corrugated waveguide, overmoded waveguide, or quasi-optic techniques by minimal coupling to higher-order modes. Only the TE{sub 10} mode of the parent WR10 waveguide is propagated. In the present work, a new oversize assembly with a gradual 90° twist was implemented. Microwave power measurements show that the twisted oversize waveguide assembly reduces the power loss in the observe and pump arms of a W-band bridge by an average of 2.35 dB and 2.41 dB, respectively, over a measured 1.25 GHz bandwidth relative to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Network analyzer measurements confirm a decrease in insertion loss of 2.37 dB over a 4 GHz bandwidth and show minimal amplitude distortion of approximately 0.15 dB. Continuous wave EPR experiments confirm these results. The measured phase variations of the twisted oversize waveguide assembly, relative to an ideal distortionless transmission line, are reduced by a factor of two compared to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Oversize waveguide with proper transitions is demonstrated as an effective way to increase incident power and the return signal for broadband EPR experiments. Detailed performance characteristics, including continuous wave experiment using 1 μM 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl in aqueous solution, provided here serve as a benchmark for other broadband low-loss probes in

  14. Hyperbolic-cosine waveguide tapers and oversize rectangular waveguide for reduced broadband insertion loss in W-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. II. Broadband characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Anderson, James R.; Mainali, Laxman; Hyde, James S.; Strangeway, Robert A.; Mett, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results have been reported on an oversize rectangular waveguide assembly operating nominally at 94 GHz. It was formed using commercially available WR28 waveguide as well as a pair of specially designed tapers with a hyperbolic-cosine shape from WR28 to WR10 waveguide [R. R. Mett et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 074704 (2011)]. The oversize section reduces broadband insertion loss for an Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) probe placed in a 3.36 T magnet. Hyperbolic-cosine tapers minimize reflection of the main mode and the excitation of unwanted propagating waveguide modes. Oversize waveguide is distinguished from corrugated waveguide, overmoded waveguide, or quasi-optic techniques by minimal coupling to higher-order modes. Only the TE 10 mode of the parent WR10 waveguide is propagated. In the present work, a new oversize assembly with a gradual 90° twist was implemented. Microwave power measurements show that the twisted oversize waveguide assembly reduces the power loss in the observe and pump arms of a W-band bridge by an average of 2.35 dB and 2.41 dB, respectively, over a measured 1.25 GHz bandwidth relative to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Network analyzer measurements confirm a decrease in insertion loss of 2.37 dB over a 4 GHz bandwidth and show minimal amplitude distortion of approximately 0.15 dB. Continuous wave EPR experiments confirm these results. The measured phase variations of the twisted oversize waveguide assembly, relative to an ideal distortionless transmission line, are reduced by a factor of two compared to a straight length of WR10 waveguide. Oversize waveguide with proper transitions is demonstrated as an effective way to increase incident power and the return signal for broadband EPR experiments. Detailed performance characteristics, including continuous wave experiment using 1 μM 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl in aqueous solution, provided here serve as a benchmark for other broadband low-loss probes in

  15. COAST (Cisplatin ototoxicity attenuated by aspirin trial): A phase II double-blind, randomised controlled trial to establish if aspirin reduces cisplatin induced hearing-loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Simon J; Martin, Karen; Abab, Julia; Ratcliffe, Ian; Thornton, Roger; Lineton, Ben; Ellis, Mary; Moody, Ronald; Stanton, Louise; Galanopoulou, Angeliki; Maishman, Tom; Geldart, Thomas; Bayne, Mike; Davies, Joe; Lamb, Carolynn; Popat, Sanjay; Joffe, Johnathan K; Nutting, Chris; Chester, John; Hartley, Andrew; Thomas, Gareth; Ottensmeier, Christian; Huddart, Robert; King, Emma

    2017-12-01

    Cisplatin is one of the most ototoxic chemotherapy drugs, resulting in a permanent and irreversible hearing loss in up to 50% of patients. Cisplatin and gentamicin are thought to damage hearing through a common mechanism, involving reactive oxygen species in the inner ear. Aspirin has been shown to minimise gentamicin-induced ototoxicity. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that aspirin could also reduce ototoxicity from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. A total of 94 patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy for multiple cancer types were recruited into a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive aspirin 975 mg tid and omeprazole 20 mg od, or matched placebos from the day before, to 2 days after, their cisplatin dose(s), for each treatment cycle. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry before and at 7 and 90 days after their final cisplatin dose. The primary end-point was combined hearing loss (cHL), the summed hearing loss at 6 kHz and 8 kHz, in both ears. Although aspirin was well tolerated, it did not protect hearing in patients receiving cisplatin (p-value = 0.233, 20% one-sided level of significance). In the aspirin arm, patients demonstrated mean cHL of 49 dB (standard deviation [SD] 61.41) following cisplatin compared with placebo patients who demonstrated mean cHL of 36 dB (SD 50.85). Women had greater average hearing loss than men, and patients treated for head and neck malignancy experienced the greatest cHL. Aspirin did not protect from cisplatin-related ototoxicity. Cisplatin and gentamicin may therefore have distinct ototoxic mechanisms, or cisplatin-induced ototoxicity may be refractory to the aspirin regimen used here. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Spexin is a Novel Human Peptide that Reduces Adipocyte Uptake of Long Chain Fatty Acids and Causes Weight Loss in Rodents with Diet-induced Obesity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L.; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J.; Vasselli, Joseph; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most dysregulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Design and Methods Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with dietary-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [3H]-oleate uptake were determined. Results In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = −0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 μg/kg/day s.c) reduced caloric intake ~32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 μg/kg/day i.p.) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70μg/kg/day i.p.) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Conclusions Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. PMID:24550067

  17. Spexin is a novel human peptide that reduces adipocyte uptake of long chain fatty acids and causes weight loss in rodents with diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walewski, José L; Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Levin, Nancy; Schwartz, Gary J; Vasselli, Joseph R; Pomp, Afons; Dakin, Gregory; Berk, Paul D

    2014-07-01

    Microarray studies identified Ch12:orf39 (Spexin) as the most down-regulated gene in obese human fat. Therefore, we examined its role in obesity pathogenesis. Spexin effects on food intake, meal patterns, body weight, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and locomotor activity were monitored electronically in C57BL/6J mice or Wistar rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Its effects on adipocyte [(3)H]-oleate uptake were determined. In humans, Spexin gene expression was down-regulated 14.9-fold in obese omental and subcutaneous fat. Circulating Spexin changed in parallel, correlating (r = -0.797) with Leptin. In rats, Spexin (35 µg/kg/day SC) reduced caloric intake ∼32% with corresponding weight loss. Meal patterns were unaffected. In mice, Spexin (25 µg/kg/day IP) significantly reduced the RER at night, and increased locomotion. Spexin incubation in vitro significantly inhibited facilitated fatty acid (FA) uptake into DIO mouse adipocytes. Conditioned taste aversion testing (70 µg/kg/day IP) demonstrated no aversive Spexin effects. Spexin gene expression is markedly down-regulated in obese human fat. The peptide produces weight loss in DIO rodents. Its effects on appetite and energy regulation are presumably central; those on adipocyte FA uptake appear direct and peripheral. Spexin is a novel hormone involved in weight regulation, with potential for obesity therapy. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  18. The combined effects of moss-dominated biocrusts and vegetation on erosion and soil moisture and implications for disturbance on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Chongfeng; Wu, Shufang; Han, Fengpeng; Yang, Yongsheng; Meng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs, or biocrusts) have important positive ecological functions such as erosion control and soil fertility improvement, and they may also have negative effects on soil moisture in some cases. Simultaneous discussions of the two-sided impacts of BSCs are key to the rational use of this resource. This study focused on the contribution of BSCs while combining with specific types of vegetation to erosion reduction and their effects on soil moisture, and it addressed the feasibility of removal or raking disturbance. Twelve plots measuring 4 m × 2 m and six treatments (two plots for each) were established on a 15° slope in a small watershed in the Loess Plateau using BSCs, bare land (as a control, BL), Stipa bungeana Trin. (STBU), Caragana korshinskii Kom. (CAKO), STBU planted with BSCs (STBU+BSCs) and CAKO planted with BSCs (CAKO+BSCs). The runoff, soil loss and soil moisture to a depth of 3 m were measured throughout the rainy season (from June to September) of 2010. The results showed that BSCs significantly reduced runoff by 37.3% and soil loss by 81.0% and increased infiltration by 12.4% in comparison with BL. However, when combined with STBU or CAKO, BSCs only made negligible contributions to erosion control (a runoff reduction of 7.4% and 5.7% and a soil loss reduction of 0.7% and 0.3%). Generally, the soil moisture of the vegetation plots was lower in the upper layer than that of the BL plots, although when accompanied with a higher amount of infiltration, this soil moisture consumption phenomenon was much clearer when combining vegetation with BSCs. Because of the trivial contributions from BSCs to erosion control and the remaining exacerbated consumption of soil water, moderate disturbance by BSCs should be considered in plots with adequate vegetation cover to improve soil moisture levels without a significant erosion increase, which was implied to be necessary and feasible.

  19. Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into predusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuch Raksakulthai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible coatings and their concentrations on moisture and fat contents of fried breaded potato were investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, methylcellulose (MC or wheat gluten (WG were incorporate into predusting mix to achieve coating material concentration of 3-12% (w/w. Blanched potatoes were first coated with predusting mix and followed sequentially by battering, breading and deep frying at 170°C for 3 min. Moisture and fat contents in the core and crust of sample and intact samples were determined. It was found that HPMC and MC could reduce moisture loss and fat absorption than WG. Predusting mix with 6% MC was the most effective to retain moisture and reduce fat absorption. This predusting mix was then applied to commercial breaded shrimps. In both prefried and fried products, treated breaded shrimps had more moisture and less fat than untreated breaded shrimps. They also were lower in product hardness and crust hardness than untreated samples. Sensory evaluation showed that treated and untreated shrimp samples had similar rating for appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall. Treated breaded shrimp was acceptable to the consumers. The application of edible coatings into predusting mix can be easily introduced into the production process and is beneficial to both food industry and consumers.

  20. Neutron moisture measurement in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thony, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This method is generally used for soil moisture determination but also for moisture in building materials. After a review of neutron interaction with matter (elastic and inelastic scattering, radiative capture and absorption with emission of charged particles) and of the equipment (source, detector and counting), gravimetric and chemical calibration are described and accuracy of measurement is discussed. 5 refs [fr

  1. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  2. [Bare Soil Moisture Inversion Model Based on Visible-Shortwave Infrared Reflectance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-po; Sun, Yue-jun; Qin, Qi-ming; Ren, Hua-zhong; Gao, Zhong-ling; Wu, Ling; Meng, Qing-ye; Wang, Jin-liang; Wang, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Soil is the loose solum of land surface that can support plants. It consists of minerals, organics, atmosphere, moisture, microbes, et al. Among its complex compositions, soil moisture varies greatly. Therefore, the fast and accurate inversion of soil moisture by using remote sensing is very crucial. In order to reduce the influence of soil type on the retrieval of soil moisture, this paper proposed a normalized spectral slope and absorption index named NSSAI to estimate soil moisture. The modeling of the new index contains several key steps: Firstly, soil samples with different moisture level were artificially prepared, and soil reflectance spectra was consequently measured using spectroradiometer produced by ASD Company. Secondly, the moisture absorption spectral feature located at shortwave wavelengths and the spectral slope of visible wavelengths were calculated after analyzing the regular spectral feature change patterns of different soil at different moisture conditions. Then advantages of the two features at reducing soil types' effects was synthesized to build the NSSAI. Thirdly, a linear relationship between NSSAI and soil moisture was established. The result showed that NSSAI worked better (correlation coefficient is 0.93) than most of other traditional methods in soil moisture extraction. It can weaken the influences caused by soil types at different moisture levels and improve the bare soil moisture inversion accuracy.

  3. Assessment of Multi-frequency Electromagnetic Induction for Determining Soil Moisture Patterns at the Hillslope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp-van Meerveld, I.; McDonnell, J.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of electromagnetic induction (EM) as a potential rapid and non-invasive method to map soil moisture patterns at the Panola (GA, USA) hillslope. We address the following questions regarding the applicability of EM measurements for hillslope hydrological investigations: (1) Can EM be used for soil moisture measurements in areas with shallow soils?; (2) Can EM represent the temporal and spatial patterns of soil moisture throughout the year?; and (3) can multiple frequencies be used to extract additional information content from the EM approach and explain the depth profile of soil moisture? We found that the apparent conductivity measured with the multi-frequency GEM-300 was linearly related to soil moisture measured with an Aqua-pro capacitance sensor below a threshold conductivity and represented the temporal patterns in soil moisture well. During spring rainfall events that wetted only the surface soil layers the apparent conductivity measurements explained the soil moisture dynamics at depth better than the surface soil moisture dynamics. All four EM frequencies (7290, 9090, 11250, and 14010 Hz) were highly correlated and linearly related to each other and could be used to predict soil moisture. This limited our ability to use the four different EM frequencies to obtain a soil moisture profile with depth. The apparent conductivity patterns represented the observed spatial soil moisture patterns well when the individually fitted relationships between measured soil moisture and apparent conductivity were used for each measurement point. However, when the same (master) relationship was used for all measurement locations, the soil moisture patterns were smoothed and did not resemble the observed soil moisture patterns very well. In addition, the range in calculated soil moisture values was reduced compared to observed soil moisture. Part of the smoothing was likely due to the much larger measurement area of the GEM-300 compared to the Aqua

  4. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  5. The use of pruned chipped branches to increase the soil infiltration capacity and reduce the soil losses on citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Llovet, Joan; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil water erosion is causing problems on the agriculture land of the world. The high erosion rates registered in the agriculture land are due to the lack of a vegetation cover that protects the soil. High erosion rates in agriculture lands are found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and any other continent. Soil erosion on citrus orchards has been researched recently and shown huge erosion rates in the Mediterranean and in China. All this research findings allow us to confirm that the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards are not sustainable and strategies to control the soil erosion should be applied. The increasing erosion rates are due to the bare soils, but also are due to the soil structure degradation and soil organic matter exhaustion. Some authors applied cover on crops to avoid the raindrop impact and the surfaces wash but there is a need to develop new strategies to reduce soil losses and keep sustainable the citrus productions. The agriculture production also results in a large amount of residues than can be a resource to improve the soil cover. This has been done in road embankments, in forest land affected by wildfires and on afforestation. As a consequence of the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen), the straw and the pruned branches are being a residue instead of a resource in many developed countries. Straw was used as a forage and the pruned branches as a source of heat and energy but both can be used as a mulch to control the soil erosion. The pruned branches can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Our goal is to test if a residue such as the chipped pruned branches can be transformed as a resource that will help to control the soil erosion rates. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land

  6. Automatic coal sampling for thermoelectric power plants; some remarks on moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, M.

    1983-06-01

    Some problems associated with automatic coal sampling are discussed, in particular the change in moisture content during transport to sampling station. The moisture level is reduced by crushing and air exposure. Possible solutions to the problems are outlined: reducing exposure to air; reducing the degree of pulverisation; and use of special crushing equipment.

  7. Increase in vastus medialis cross-sectional area is associated with reduced pain, cartilage loss, and joint replacement risk in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Berry, Patricia A; Siew, Terence; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Urquhart, Donna M; Lloyd, David G; Jones, Graeme; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2012-12-01

    Although there is evidence for a beneficial effect of increased quadriceps strength on knee symptoms, the effect on knee structure is unclear. We undertook this study to examine the relationship between change in vastus medialis cross-sectional area (CSA) and knee pain, tibial cartilage volume, and risk of knee replacement in subjects with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred seventeen subjects with symptomatic knee OA underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the knee at baseline and at 2 and 4.5 years. Vastus medialis CSA was measured at baseline and at 2 years. Tibial cartilage volume was measured at baseline and at 2 and 4.5 years. Knee pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index at baseline and at 2 years. The frequency of knee joint replacement over 4 years was determined. Regression coefficients (B) and odds ratios were determined along with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). After adjusting for confounders, baseline vastus medialis CSA was inversely associated with current knee pain (r = -0.16, P = 0.04) and with medial tibial cartilage volume loss from baseline to 2 years (B coefficient -10.9 [95% CI -19.5, -2.3]), but not with baseline tibial cartilage volume. In addition, an increase in vastus medialis CSA from baseline to 2 years was associated with reduced knee pain over the same time period (r = 0.24, P = 0.007), reduced medial tibial cartilage loss from 2 to 4.5 years (B coefficient -16.8 [95% CI -28.9, -4.6]), and reduced risk of knee replacement over 4 years (odds ratio 0.61 [95% CI 0.40, 0.94]). In a population of patients with symptomatic knee OA, increased vastus medialis size was associated with reduced knee pain and beneficial structural changes at the knee, suggesting that management of knee pain and optimizing vastus medialis size are important in reducing OA progression and subsequent knee replacement. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss contribute to water stress tolerance of Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kelly M; Mickelbart, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Two primarily eastern US native shrubs, Spiraea alba Du Roi and Spiraea tomentosa L., are typically found growing in wet areas, often with standing water. Both species have potential for use in the landscape, but little is known of their environmental requirements, including their adaptation to water stress. Two geographic accessions of each species were evaluated for their response to water stress under greenhouse conditions. Above-ground biomass, water relations and gas exchange were measured in well-watered and water stress treatments. In both species, water stress resulted in reduced growth, transpiration and pre-dawn water potential. However, both species also exhibited the ability to osmotically adjust to lower soil water content, resulting in maintained midday leaf turgor potential in all accessions. Net CO2 assimilation was reduced only in one accession of S. alba, primarily due to large reductions in stomatal conductance. S. tomentosa lost a larger proportion of leaves than S. alba in response to water stress. The primary water stress tolerance strategies of S. alba and S. tomentosa appear to be the maintenance of water uptake and reduced water loss.

  9. Reduced systemic toxicity and preserved vestibular toxicity following co-treatment with nitriles and CYP2E1 inhibitors: a mouse model for hair cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Ruíz, Sandra; Boadas-Vaello, Pere; Sedó-Cabezón, Lara; Llorens, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Several nitriles, including allylnitrile and cis-crotononitrile, have been shown to be ototoxic and cause hair cell degeneration in the auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia of mice. However, these nitriles can also be lethal due in large part to the microsomal metabolic release of cyanide, which is mostly dependent on the activity of the 2E1 isoform of the cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1). In this study, we co-administered mice with a nitrile and, to reduce their lethal effects, a selective CYP2E1 inhibitor: diallylsulfide (DAS) or trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (TDCE). Both in female 129S1/SvImJ (129S1) mice co-treated with DAS and cis-crotononitrile and in male RjOrl:Swiss/CD-1 (Swiss) mice co-treated with TDCE and allylnitrile, the nitrile caused a dose-dependent loss of vestibular function, as assessed by a specific behavioral test battery, and of hair cells, as assessed by hair bundle counts using scanning electron microscopy. In the experiments, the CYP2E1 inhibitors provided significant protection against the lethal effects of the nitriles and did not diminish the vestibular toxicity as assessed by behavioral effects in comparison to animals receiving no inhibitor. Additional experiments using a single dose of allylnitrile demonstrated that TDCE does not cause hair cell loss on its own and does not modify the vestibular toxicity of the nitrile in either male or female 129S1 mice. In all the experiments, high vestibular dysfunction scores in the behavioral test battery predicted extensive to complete loss of hair cells in the utricles. This provides a means of selecting animals for subsequent studies of vestibular hair cell regeneration or replacement.

  10. Reduced body weight or increased muscle quality: Which is more important for improving physical function following exercise and weight loss in overweight and obese older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Berg, Alison C; Reed, Rachelle A; Johnson, Mary Ann; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-04-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m 2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d). Body composition was measured via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle quality (N-m/kg) was defined as maximal concentric isokinetic knee torque divided by upper-leg lean mass. The standardized scores of four objective measures of physical function were summed to yield a composite LEPF Z-score. At 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (-9.6 ± 3.5%, p quality (+1.6 ± 1.8 N-m/kg, p quality was the strongest independent predictor of an improvement in LEPF Z-score (standardized β = 0.64, p quality. In conclusion, muscle quality can be increased in the presence of clinically meaningful weight loss, and is the primary determinant of improved physical function in overweight/obese older women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Moisture Flow and Concrete Cracking by means of Lattice Type Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.; Küntz, M.; Van Mier, J.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    Modelling of fluid-flow and the resulting effects on shrinkage and microcracking by means of a combination of two lattice models are presented. For the moisture transport, a Lattice Gas Automaton (LGA) is adopted since it can effectively model moisture loss, whereas for cracking simulation a Lattice

  12. Radiation safety of soil moisture neutron probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oresegun, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron probe measures sub-surface moisture in soil and other materials by means of high energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. Exposure to radiation, including neutrons, especially at high doses, can cause detrimental health effects. In order to achieve operational radiation safety, there must be compliance with protection and safety standards. The design and manufacture of commercially available neutron moisture gauges are such that risks to the health of the user have been greatly reduced. The major concern is radiation escape from the soil during measurement, especially under dry conditions and when the radius of influence is large. With appropriate work practices as well as good design and manufacture of gauges, recorded occupational doses have been well below recommended annual limits. It can be concluded that the use of neutron gauges poses not only acceptable health and safety risks but, in fact, the risks are negligible. Neutron gauges should not be classified as posing high potential health hazards. (author)

  13. Understanding natural moisturizing mechanisms: implications for moisturizer technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandar, Prem; Nole, Greg; Johnson, Anthony W

    2009-07-01

    Dry skin and moisturization are important topics because they impact the lives of many individuals. For most individuals, dry skin is not a notable concern and can be adequately managed with current moisturizing products. However, dry skin can affect the quality of life of some individuals because of the challenges of either harsh environmental conditions or impaired stratum corneum (SC) dry skin protection processes resulting from various common skin diseases. Dry skin protection processes of the SC, such as the development of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), are complex, carefully balanced, and easily perturbed. We discuss the importance of the filaggrin-NMF system and the composition of NMF in both healthy and dry skin, and also reveal new insights that suggest the properties required for a new generation of moisturizing technologies.

  14. Effect of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral bone mineral density loss following total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis from randomized controlled trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Gao, Chong; Li, Hui; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Chang; Ran, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficiency of intravenous administration of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-2017.07.31), PubMed (1966-2017.07.31), Embase (1980-2017.07.31), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.07.31) and the Cochrane Library (1966-2017.07.31). Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and publication bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Four studies including 185 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zone 1 (SMD = 0.752, 95% CI: 0.454 to 1.051, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.524, 95% CI: 0.230 to 0.819, P = 0.000), 4 (SMD = 0.400, 95% CI: 0.107 to 0.693, P = 0.008), 6 (SMD = 0.893, 95% CI: 0.588 to 1.198, P = 0.000) and 7 (SMD = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.677 to 1.300, P = 0.000). Intravenous administration of zoledronic acid could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone mineral density loss (Gruen zone 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7) after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. High-quality RCTs with large sample size were still required. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Moisture Content Numerical Simulation on Structural Damage of Hot Mix Asphaltic Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abejide, O. S.; Mostafa, M. M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the merits of road transportation in the economy and communication activities of the modern societies, it is imperative to design a safe, stable, efficient and cost effective road that will lead to increased economic development and growth of the South African nation. Although, the overarching effect of failed roads has in many ways led to increased travel time, loss of life and property; leading to reduced driver control on failed road sections (riding quality). Thus, time rate delamination of flexible pavement is a major focus of this study. Since structural collapse in a flexible pavement structure is caused by the evolution of different types of damage mechanisms; fatigue cracking, advanced crushing, temperature variation, and delamination. The effect of moisture content on HMA was analysed. The analysis from the multi-layered elastic model indicates that increase in moisture content in the underlying layer of HMA pavement results to increase in the strain of the individual layers and culminates to a decrease in the structural carrying capacity of the pavement with respect to number of load cycles that can be carried on the HMA pavement. This study shows a clear relationship between the moisture/saturation coefficient and the Elastic Modulus of the underlying geometric material layer properties of the pavement during the service life of the pavement.

  16. EFFECT OF LOW-TEMPERATURE HYGROTHERMAL PROCESSING ON FORMS OF ASSOCIATION OF MOISTURE IN RICE-VEGETABLE MIXTURE WITH HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the catering industry common combination of rice, vegetable raw materials: onion and carrot, and aquatic organisms: fish, squid, which allows you to get a dish with high consumer properties. The article investigated the influence of the amount of water introduced by the ratio of free and bound moisture in food samples obtained using the low temperature thermo-humidity treatment, compared with the control. Found that for all drawing and vegetable mixture with squid, adding water in an amount exceeding 12.0 % of the total weight of the meal increases the mass fraction of free moisture. For rice-vegetable mixture with carp introduction of additional water is not recommended, since the introduction of water even in the amount of 5 % of the total weight of the meal increases the mass fraction of free moisture. The data indicate that the use of low-temperature thermal treatment of the samples humid pre vacuum packaging technology helps to reduce finished product weight loss, due to the amount of free moisture conservation while increasing the mass of bound water that helps to ensure better consistency of the final product, increase the shelf life and exit semis.

  17. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  18. Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates As Revealed by Metabolomics Studies: An Underlying Mechanism to Reduce Lipid Accretion by Whey Protein Ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by 1H NMR and LC–MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC–MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC–MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice. PMID:24702026

  19. The loss of the kinases SadA and SadB results in early neuronal apoptosis and a reduced number of progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhumale, Pratibha; Menon, Sindhu; Chiang, Joanna; Püschel, Andreas W

    2018-01-01

    The neurons that form the mammalian neocortex originate from progenitor cells in the ventricular (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ). Newborn neurons are multipolar but become bipolar during their migration from the germinal layers to the cortical plate (CP) by forming a leading process and an axon that extends in the intermediate zone (IZ). Once they settle in the CP, neurons assume a highly polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites. The AMPK-related kinases SadA and SadB are intrinsic factors that are essential for axon formation during neuronal development downstream of Lkb1. The knockout of both genes encoding Sad kinases (Sada and Sadb) results not only in a loss of axons but also a decrease in the size of the cortical plate. The defect in axon formation has been linked to a function of Sad kinases in the regulation of microtubule binding proteins. However, the causes for the reduced size of the cortical plate in the Sada-/-;Sadb-/- knockout remain to be analyzed in detail. Here we show that neuronal cell death is increased and the number of neural progenitors is decreased in the Sada-/-;Sadb-/- CP. The reduced number of progenitors is a non-cell autonomous defect since they do not express Sad kinases. These defects are restricted to the neocortex while the hippocampus remains unaffected.

  20. Do food provisions packaged in single-servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight-loss intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Niemeier, Heather; Butryn, Meghan L; Wing, Rena R

    2009-11-01

    Larger portion sizes increase energy intake, yet it is unclear whether single-serving packages can reduce intake. This study examined the effects of providing breakfast foods in single-serving packages and nonportioned packages on energy intake of these foods during an 8-week behavioral weight-loss program. In fall 2005, 19 adults (mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.8+/-4.0) were randomized to conditions that provided foods in single-serving packages (Single-Serving) or in nonportioned packages (Standard). Overall amounts and types of foods provided were consistent across conditions: cereal and peaches (weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7) and applesauce and cheese (weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8). Participants were instructed to eat one serving of each food for breakfast and not to consume the provided foods at other times. Mean daily energy intake of the provided foods was the primary dependent variable. The Single-Serving group ate less energy from the combined pairs of foods provided together as compared to Standard (cereal and peaches, 117.0+/-3.2 kcal/day vs 143.5+/-39.3 kcal/day; P0.10). This suggests that single-serving packages may help reduce energy intake at breakfast within the context of a behavioral weight-control program.

  1. Body weight loss, reduced urge for palatable food and increased release of GLP-1 through daily supplementation with green-plant membranes for three months in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Caroline; Erlandsson, Daniel; Vitija, Egzona; Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Egecioglu, Emil; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte

    2014-10-01

    The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few effective and safe drugs are available. We investigated if green-plant membranes, previously shown to reduce subjective hunger and promote satiety signals, could affect body weight when given long-term. 38 women (40-65 years of age, body mass index 25-33 kg/m(2)) were randomized to dietary supplementation with either green-plant membranes (5 g) or placebo, consumed once daily before breakfast for 12 weeks. All individuals were instructed to follow a three-meal paradigm without any snacking between the meals and to increase their physical activity. Body weight change was analysed every third week as was blood glucose and various lipid parameters. On days 1 and 90, following intake of a standardized breakfast, glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in plasma were measured, as well as subjective ratings of hunger, satiety and urge for different palatable foods, using visual analogue scales. Subjects receiving green-plant membranes lost significantly more body weight than did those on placebo (p weight loss with green-plant extract was 5.0 ± 2.3 kg compared to 3.5 ± 2.3 kg in the control group. Consumption of green-plant membranes also reduced total and LDL-cholesterol (p meal tests performed on day 1 and day 90 demonstrated an increased postprandial release of GLP-1 and decreased urge for sweet and chocolate on both occasions in individuals supplemented with green-plant membranes compared to control. Waist circumference, body fat and leptin decreased in both groups over the course of the study, however there were no differences between the groups. In conclusion, addition of green-plant membranes as a dietary supplement once daily induces weight loss, improves obesity-related risk-factors, and reduces the urge for palatable food. The mechanism may reside in the observed increased release of GLP-1. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  2. Determining seed moisture in Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1974-01-01

    The air-oven method with drying times 7 to 8 hours shorter than those now prescribed in the ISTA rules proved adequate for determining moisture contents in acorns of several North American oaks. Schedules of 8 hours at 105°C for Quercus muehlenbergii and 9 hours at 105°C for Q.shumardii and Q.nigra gave moisture contents within three percentage points of those obtained...

  3. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D.; Shaffer, M.

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Warme und Feuchte instationar Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  4. Moisture Risk in Unvented Attics Due to Air Leakage Paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Shaffer, M. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-11-01

    IBACOS completed an initial analysis of moisture damage potential in an unvented attic insulated with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam. To complete this analysis, the research team collected field data, used computational fluid dynamics to quantify the airflow rates through individual airflow (crack) paths, simulated hourly flow rates through the leakage paths with CONTAM software, correlated the CONTAM flow rates with indoor humidity ratios from Building Energy Optimization software, and used Wärme und Feuchte instationär Pro two-dimensional modeling to determine the moisture content of the building materials surrounding the cracks. Given the number of simplifying assumptions and numerical models associated with this analysis, the results indicate that localized damage due to high moisture content of the roof sheathing is possible under very low airflow rates. Reducing the number of assumptions and approximations through field studies and laboratory experiments would be valuable to understand the real-world moisture damage potential in unvented attics.

  5. Quantifying soil moisture impacts on light use efficiency across biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Benjamin D; Zscheischler, Jakob; Keenan, Trevor F; Prentice, I Colin; Peñuelas, Josep; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2018-06-01

    Terrestrial primary productivity and carbon cycle impacts of droughts are commonly quantified using vapour pressure deficit (VPD) data and remotely sensed greenness, without accounting for soil moisture. However, soil moisture limitation is known to strongly affect plant physiology. Here, we investigate light use efficiency, the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) to absorbed light. We derive its fractional reduction due to soil moisture (fLUE), separated from VPD and greenness changes, using artificial neural networks trained on eddy covariance data, multiple soil moisture datasets and remotely sensed greenness. This reveals substantial impacts of soil moisture alone that reduce GPP by up to 40% at sites located in sub-humid, semi-arid or arid regions. For sites in relatively moist climates, we find, paradoxically, a muted fLUE response to drying soil, but reduced fLUE under wet conditions. fLUE identifies substantial drought impacts that are not captured when relying solely on VPD and greenness changes and, when seasonally recurring, are missed by traditional, anomaly-based drought indices. Counter to common assumptions, fLUE reductions are largest in drought-deciduous vegetation, including grasslands. Our results highlight the necessity to account for soil moisture limitation in terrestrial primary productivity data products, especially for drought-related assessments. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Loss of Arabidopsis GAUT12/IRX8 causes anther indehiscence and leads to reduced G lignin associated with altered matrix polysaccharide deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangying eHao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GAUT12 (GAlactUronosylTransferase12/IRX8 (IRregular Xylem8 is a putative glycosyltransferase involved in Arabidopsis secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Previous work showed that Arabidopsis irregular xylem8 (irx8 mutants have collapsed xylem due to a reduction in xylan and a lesser reduction in a subfraction of homogalacturonan (HG. We now show that male sterility in the irx8 mutant is due to indehiscent anthers caused by reduced deposition of xylan and lignin in the endothecium cell layer. The reduced lignin content was demonstrated by histochemical lignin staining and pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS and is associated with reduced lignin biosynthesis in irx8 stems. Examination of sequential chemical extracts of stem walls using 2D 13C-1H Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC NMR spectroscopy and antibody-based glycome profiling revealed a reduction in G lignin in the 1 M KOH extract and a concomitant loss of xylan, arabinogalactan and pectin epitopes in the ammonium oxalate, sodium carbonate, and 1 M KOH extracts from the irx8 walls compared with wild-type walls. Immunolabeling of stem sections using the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M138 reactive against an unsubstituted xylopentaose epitope revealed a bi-lamellate pattern in wild-type fiber cells and a collapsed bi-layer in irx8 cells, suggesting that at least in fiber cells, GAUT12 participates in the synthesis of a specific layer or type of xylan or helps to provide an architecture framework required for the native xylan deposition pattern. The results support the hypothesis that GAUT12 functions in the synthesis of a structure required for xylan and lignin deposition during secondary cell wall formation.

  7. Characterization, sensorial evaluation and moisturizing efficacy of nanolipidgel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estanqueiro, M; Conceição, J; Amaral, M H; Sousa Lobo, J M

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been widely studied for cosmetic and dermatological applications due to their favourable properties that include the formation of an occlusive film on the skin surface that reduces the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and increase in water content in the skin which improves the appearance on healthy human skin and reduces symptoms of some skin disorders like eczema. The main objective of this study was the development of semisolid formulations based NLC with argan oil or jojoba oil as liquid lipids, by addition of Carbopol®934 or Carbopol®980 as gelling agents, followed by comparison between instrumental analysis and sensorial evaluation and in vivo efficacy evaluation. Nanostructured lipid carriers dispersions were produced by the ultrasound technique, and to obtain a semisolid formulation, gelling agents were dispersed in the aqueous dispersion. Particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential were determined. Instrumental characterization was performed by rheological and textural analysis; the sensorial evaluation was also performed. Finally, skin hydration and TEWL were studied by capacitance and evaporimetry evaluation, respectively. Particles showed a nanometric size in all the analysed formulations. All the gels present pseudoplastic behaviour. There is a correspondence between the properties firmness and adhesiveness as determined by textural analysis and the sensory evaluation. The formulations that showed a greater increase in skin hydration also presented appropriate technological and sensorial attributes for skin application. Nanolipidgel formulations with the addition of humectants are promising systems for cosmetic application with good sensory and instrumental attributes and moisturizing efficacy.

  8. Characterization of Soil Moisture Level for Rice and Maize Crops using GSM Shield and Arduino Microcontroller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gines, G. A.; Bea, J. G.; Palaoag, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Soil serves a medium for plants growth. One factor that affects soil moisture is drought. Drought has been a major cause of agricultural disaster. Agricultural drought is said to occur when soil moisture is insufficient to meet crop water requirements, resulting in yield losses. In this research, it aimed to characterize soil moisture level for Rice and Maize Crops using Arduino and applying fuzzy logic. System architecture for soil moisture sensor and water pump were the basis in developing the equipment. The data gathered was characterized by applying fuzzy logic. Based on the results, applying fuzzy logic in validating the characterization of soil moisture level for Rice and Maize crops is accurate as attested by the experts. This will help the farmers in monitoring the soil moisture level of the Rice and Maize crops.

  9. Loss of population levels of immunity to malaria as a result of exposure-reducing interventions: consequences for interpretation of disease trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra C Ghani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistence of malaria as an endemic infection and one of the major causes of childhood death in most parts of Africa has lead to a radical new call for a global effort towards eradication. With the deployment of a highly effective vaccine still some years away, there has been an increased focus on interventions which reduce exposure to infection in the individual and -by reducing onward transmission-at the population level. The development of appropriate monitoring of these interventions requires an understanding of the timescales of their effect. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using a mathematical model for malaria transmission which incorporates the acquisition and loss of both clinical and parasite immunity, we explore the impact of the trade-off between reduction in exposure and decreased development of immunity on the dynamics of disease following a transmission-reducing intervention such as insecticide-treated nets. Our model predicts that initially rapid reductions in clinical disease incidence will be observed as transmission is reduced in a highly immune population. However, these benefits in the first 5-10 years after the intervention may be offset by a greater burden of disease decades later as immunity at the population level is gradually lost. The negative impact of having fewer immune individuals in the population can be counterbalanced either by the implementation of highly-effective transmission-reducing interventions (such as the combined use of insecticide-treated nets and insecticide residual sprays for an indefinite period or the concurrent use of a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine or prophylactic therapy in children to protect those at risk from disease as immunity is lost in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Effective interventions will result in rapid decreases in clinical disease across all transmission settings while population-level immunity is maintained but may subsequently result in increases in clinical disease many

  10. Soil Moisture Anomaly as Predictor of Crop Yield Deviation in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peichl, Michael; Thober, Stephan; Schwarze, Reimund; Meyer, Volker; Samaniego, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as droughts, have the potential to drastically diminish crop yield in rain-fed agriculture. For example, the drought in 2003 caused direct losses of 1.5 billion EUR only in Germany (COPA-COGECA 2003). Predicting crop yields allows to economize the mitigation of risks of weather extremes. Economic approaches for quantifying agricultural impacts of natural hazards mainly rely on temperature and related concepts. For instance extreme heat over the growing season is considered as best predictor of corn yield (Auffhammer and Schlenker 2014). However, those measures are only able to provide a proxy for the available water content in the root zone that ultimately determines plant growth and eventually crop yield. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether soil moisture has a causal effect on crop yield that can be exploited in improving adaptation measures. For this purpose, reduced form fixed effect panel models are developed with yield as dependent variable for both winter wheat and silo maize crops. The explanatory variables used are soil moisture anomalies, precipitation and temperature. The latter two are included to estimate the current state of the water balance. On the contrary, soil moisture provides an integrated signal over several months. It is also the primary source of water supply for plant growth. For each crop a single model is estimated for every month within the growing period to study the variation of the effects over time. Yield data is available for Germany as a whole on the level of administrative districts from 1990 to 2010. Station data by the German Weather Service are obtained for precipitation and temperature and are aggregated to the same spatial units. Simulated soil moisture computed by the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM, www.ufz.de/mhm) is transformed into Soil Moisture Index (SMI), which represents the monthly soil water quantile and hence accounts directly for the water content available to plants. The results

  11. 7 CFR 52.3185 - Moisture limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture limits. 52.3185 Section 52.3185 Agriculture... United States Standards for Grades of Dried Prunes Moisture, Uniformity of Size, Defects § 52.3185 Moisture limits. Dried prunes shall not exceed the moisture limits for the applicable grades and kind and...

  12. Effect of annealing and heat moisture conditioning on the physicochemical characteristics of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adebowale, K.O.; Lawal, O.S.

    2002-05-01

    Isolated starch of bambarra groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea) was subjected to hydrothermal modifications through annealing and heat moisture conditioning. Both annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the swelling power and solubility of the starch. Water binding capacity reduced after annealing, heat moisture conditioning at 18% moisture level (HMB 18 ) and heat moisture conditioning at 21% moisture level (HMB 21 ). Both heat moisture conditioning at 24% moisture level (HMB 24 ) and heat moisture conditioning at 27% moisture level (HMB 27 ) increased the water binding capacity. Hydrothermal modifications reduced the oil absorption capacity of the raw starch. Annealing and heat moisture conditioning reduced the peak viscosity, (Pv) viscosity at 95 deg C (Hv) and viscosity at 95 deg. C after 30 minutes holding (Hv 30 ). However, viscosity increased on cooling down to 50 deg. C after annealing. Annealing and heat moisture treatments as revealed by scanning electron micrograph and light micrograph did not alter the shape and size of the raw starch. The results indicate a rearrangement within the starch granule following hydrothermal treatments. (author)

  13. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav; Banski, Adrián

    2017-03-01

    In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm-3, fly ash 50 mgm-3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  14. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzurenda Ladislav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm−3, fly ash 50 mgm−3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  15. Influence of soil moisture on uptake and utilization of applied nitrogen in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, S.; Raj Kumar, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with pot-grown young tea plants to study N uptake under different soil moisture regime. Labelled urea nitrogen was found effectively utilized under rainfed conditions. However, N loss through percolation/leaching in response to saturated moisture was as high as 33.3%. Plants grown under controlled conditions utilized less amount of applied N and the rest was retained in the soil. Unaccounted loss, in both the cases, was approximately 9%. Fertilizer-use efficiency of young tea plants under rain fed conditions was about 35% while it was 15% under moisture deficient conditions. Results on N balance in tea soils are discussed. (author)

  16. Effects of Hypotensive Anesthesia on Reducing Intraoperative Blood Loss, Duration of Operation, and Quality of Surgical Field During Orthognathic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Susie; McKenna, Samuel J; Yao, Chuan-Fong; Chen, Yu-Ray; Chen, Chit

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive anesthesia in reducing intraoperative blood loss, decreasing operation time, and improving the quality of the surgical field during orthognathic surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials addressing these issues were carried out. An electronic database search was performed. The risk of bias was evaluated with the Jadad Scale and Delphi List. The inverse variance statistical method and a random-effects model were used. Ten randomized controlled trials were included for analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated that hypotensive anesthesia reduced intraoperative blood loss by a mean of about 169 mL. Hypotensive anesthesia was not shown to reduce the operation time for orthognathic surgery, but it did improve the quality of the surgical field. Subgroup analysis indicated that for blood loss in double-jaw surgery, the weighted mean difference favored the hypotensive group, with a reduction in blood loss of 175 mL, but no statistically significant reduction in blood loss was found for anterior maxillary osteotomy. If local anesthesia with epinephrine was used in conjunction with hypotensive anesthesia, the reduction in intraoperative blood loss was increased to 254.93 mL. Hypotensive anesthesia was effective in reducing blood loss and improving the quality of the surgical field, but it did not reduce the operation time for orthognathic surgery. The use of local anesthesia in conjunction with hypotensive general anesthesia further reduced the amount of intraoperative blood loss for orthognathic surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia Garcia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women. Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose). Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic

  18. Reducing loss in lateral charged-particle equilibrium due to air cavities present in x-ray irradiated media by using longitudinal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Shahid A.; Li, X. Allen; Ramahi, Shada W.; Chu, James C.; Ye, Sung-Joon

    2001-01-01

    The underdosing of lesions distal to air cavities, such as those found in upper respiratory passages, occurs due to the loss in lateral charged-particle equilibrium (CPE). The degree of underdosing worsens for smaller field sizes, resulting in more frequent recurrence of the cancer treated. Higher photon energies further aggravate the outcome by producing longer second build-up regions beyond the cavity. Besides underdosing, the larger lateral spread of secondary electron fluence in the air cavity produces diffuse dose distributions at the tissue-air interface for shaped or intensity modulated fields. These disequilibrium effects create undesirable deviations from the intended treatment. The clinical concern is further intensified by the failure of traditional treatment planning systems to even account for such defects. In this work, the use of longitudinal magnetic fields on the order of 0.5 T is proposed for alleviating lateral electronic disequilibrium due to the presence of air cavities in the irradiated volume. The magnetic field enforces lateral CPE by restricting the lateral range of electrons in the air cavity. The problem is studied in a simple water-air-water slab geometry using EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations for 6 MV photons. Electronic disequilibrium is evaluated for beams of various sizes, shapes and intensity distributions constructed by linear superposition of the dose distributions for 0.5x0.5 cm 2 beamlets. Comparison is also made with 60 Co irradiation. The results indicate that the lateral confinement of secondary electrons in the air cavity by sub-MRI strength longitudinal fields is effective in reducing deterioration of dose distributions near tissue-air interfaces. This can potentially reduce recurrence rates of cancers such as the larynx carcinoma

  19. Reduced Membrane Insertion of CLC-K by V33L Barttin Results in Loss of Hearing, but Leaves Kidney Function Intact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Tan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian ear, transduction of sound stimuli is initiated by K+ entry through mechano-sensitive channels into inner hair cells. K+ entry is driven by a positive endocochlear potential that is maintained by the marginal cell layer of the stria vascularis. This process requires basolateral K+ import by NKCC1 Na+−2Cl−−K+ co-transporters as well as Cl− efflux through ClC-Ka/barttin or ClC-Kb/barttin channels. Multiple mutations in the gene encoding the obligatory CLC-K subunit barttin, BSND, have been identified in patients with Bartter syndrome type IV. These mutations reduce the endocochlear potential and cause deafness. As CLC-K/barttin channels are also expressed in the kidney, patients with Bartter syndrome IV typically also suffer from salt-wasting hyperuria and electrolyte imbalances. However, there was a single report on a BSND mutation that resulted only in deafness, but not kidney disease. We herein studied the functional consequences of another recently discovered BSND mutation that predicts exchange of valine at position 33 by leucine. We combined whole-cell patch clamp, confocal microscopy and protein biochemistry to analyze how V33L affects distinct functions of barttin. We found that V33L reduced membrane insertion of CLC-K/barttin complexes without altering unitary CLC-K channel function. Our findings support the hypothesis of a common pathophysiology for the selective loss of hearing due to an attenuation of the total chloride conductance in the stria vascularis while providing enough residual function to maintain normal kidney function.

  20. Inverse method to estimate kinetic degradation parameters of grape anthocyanins in wheat flour under simultaneously changing temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K P K; Dolan, K D; Ng, P K W

    2009-06-01

    Thermal and moisture effects on grape anthocyanin degradation were investigated using solid media to simulate processing at temperatures above 100 degrees C. Grape pomace (anthocyanin source) mixed with wheat pastry flour (1: 3, w/w dry basis) was used in both isothermal and nonisothermal experiments by heating the same mixture at 43% (db) initial moisture in steel cells in an oil bath at 80, 105, and 145 degrees C. To determine the effect of moisture on anthocyanin degradation, the grape pomace-wheat flour mixture was heated isothermally at 80 degrees C at constant moisture contents of 10%, 20%, and 43% (db). Anthocyanin degradation followed a pseudo first-order reaction with moisture. Anthocyanins degraded more rapidly with increasing temperature and moisture. The effects of temperature and moisture on the rate constant were modeled according to the Arrhenius and an exponential relationship, respectively. The nonisothermal reaction rate constant and activation energy (mean +/- standard error) were k(80 degrees C, 43% (db) moisture) = 2.81 x 10(-4)+/- 1.1 x 10(-6) s(-1) and DeltaE = 75273 +/- 197 J/g mol, respectively. The moisture parameter for the exponential model was 4.28 (dry basis moisture content)(-1). One possible application of this study is as a tool to predict the loss of anthocyanins in nutraceutical products containing grape pomace. For example, if the process temperature history and moisture history in an extruded snack fortified with grape pomace is known, the percentage anthocyanin loss can be predicted.

  1. A Trypsin Inhibitor from Tamarind Reduces Food Intake and Improves Inflammatory Status in Rats with Metabolic Syndrome Regardless of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana M. C. Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trypsin inhibitors are studied in a variety of models for their anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory bioactive properties. Our group has previously demonstrated the satietogenic effect of tamarind seed trypsin inhibitors (TTI in eutrophic mouse models and anti-inflammatory effects of other trypsin inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated TTI effect upon satiety, biochemical and inflammatory parameters in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Three groups of n = 5 male Wistar rats with obesity-based MetS received for 10 days one of the following: (1 Cafeteria diet; (2 Cafeteria diet + TTI (25 mg/kg; and (3 Standard diet. TTI reduced food intake in animals with MetS. Nevertheless, weight gain was not different between studied groups. Dyslipidemia parameters were not different with the use of TTI, only the group receiving standard diet showed lower very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides (TG (Kruskal–Wallis, p < 0.05. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 production did not differ between groups. Interestingly, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α was lower in animals receiving TTI. Our results corroborate the satietogenic effect of TTI in a MetS model. Furthermore, we showed that TTI added to a cafeteria diet may decrease inflammation regardless of weight loss. This puts TTI as a candidate for studies to test its effectiveness as an adjuvant in MetS treatment.

  2. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score). Twenty-one adults (66.2±1.1 years; BMI=35.3±0.9 kg/m2) with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/week at about 85% HRmax) and provided a LoGIx (n=11) or HiGIx (n=10) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and nonesterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. LoGIx and HiGIx diets decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (pdiets decreased the Z-score similarly as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TGs, FPG and WC (pdiet tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared with the LoGIx diet (p=0.06). Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces the severity of the metabolic syndrome whether individuals were randomized to a HiGIx or a LoGIx diet.

  3. NMOS-Based Integrated Modular Bypass for Use in Solar Systems (NIMBUS: Intelligent Bypass for Reducing Partial Shading Power Loss in Solar Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bauwens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available NMOS-based Integrated Modular Bypass for Use in Solar systems (NIMBUS is designed as a replacement for the traditional bypass diode, used in common solar panels. Because of the series connection between the individual solar cells, the power output of a photovoltaic (PV panel will drop disproportionally under partial shading. Currently, this is solved by dividing the PV panel into substrings, each with a diode bypass placed in parallel. This allows an alternative current path. However, the diodes still have a significant voltage drop (about 350 mV, and due to the fairly large currents in a panel, the diodes are dissipating power that we would rather see at the output of the panel. The NIMBUS chip, being a low-voltage-drop switch, aims to replace these diodes and, thus, reduce that power loss. NIMBUS is a smart bypass: a completely stand-alone system that detects the failing of one or more cells and activates when necessary. It is designed for a 100-mV voltage drop under a 5-A load current. When two or more NIMBUS chips are placed in parallel, an internal synchronization circuit ensures proper operation to provide for larger load currents. This paper will elaborate on the operation, design and implementation of the NIMBUS chip, as well as on the first measurements.

  4. Precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the knee and heel: methodology and implications for research to reduce bone mineral loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, W T; Kim, W J; Ethans, K; Cowley, K C

    2017-05-01

    Methodological validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based measures of leg bone mineral density (BMD) based on the guidelines of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the precision of BMD estimates at the knee and heel using the manufacturer provided DXA acquisition algorithm. The secondary objective was to determine the smallest change in DXA-based measurement of BMD that should be surpassed (least significant change (LSC)) before suggesting that a biological change has occurred in the distal femur, proximal tibia and calcaneus. Academic Research Centre, Canada. Ten people with motor-complete SCI of at least 2 years duration and 10 people from the general population volunteered to have four DXA-based measurements taken of their femur, tibia and calcaneus. BMDs for seven regions of interest (RIs) were calculated, as were short-term precision (root-mean-square (RMS) standard deviation (g cm -2 ), RMS-coefficient of variation (RMS-CV, %)) and LSC. Overall, RMS-CV values were similar between SCI (3.63-10.20%, mean=5.3%) and able-bodied (1.85-5.73%, mean=4%) cohorts, despite lower absolute BMD values at each RIs in those with SCI (35%, heel to 54%, knee; P10% are needed to detect differences between treated and untreated groups in studies aimed at reducing bone mineral loss after SCI.

  5. Temporary Intraoperative Porto-Caval Shunts in Piggy-Back Liver Transplantation Reduce Intraoperative Blood Loss and Improve Postoperative Transaminases and Renal Function: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, Sebastian; Rauch, Alexandra; Albertsmeier, Markus; Rentsch, Markus; Kirschneck, Michaela; Andrassy, Joachim; Thomas, Michael; Hartwig, Werner; Figueras, Joan; Del Rio Martin, Juan; De Ruvo, Nicola; Werner, Jens; Guba, Markus; Weniger, Maximilian; Angele, Martin K

    2016-12-01

    The value of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts (TPCS) in cava-sparing liver transplantation is discussed controversially. Aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the impact of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts on liver injury, primary non-function, time of surgery, transfusion of blood products and length of hospital stay in cava-sparing liver transplantation. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO retrieved a total of 909 articles, of which six articles were included. The combined effect size and 95 % confidence interval were calculated for each outcome by applying the inverse variance weighting method. Tests for heterogeneity (I 2 ) were also utilized. Usage of a TPCS was associated with significantly decreased AST values, significantly fewer transfusions of packed red blood cells and improved postoperative renal function. There were no statistically significant differences in primary graft non-function, length of hospital stay or duration of surgery. This meta-analysis found that temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts in cava-sparing liver transplantation reduce blood loss as well as hepatic injury and enhance postoperative renal function without prolonging operative time. Randomized controlled trials investigating the use of temporary intraoperative porto-caval shunts are needed to confirm these findings.

  6. Monitoring Moisture Damage Propagation in GFRP Composites Using Carbon Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Sabagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP composites are widely used in infrastructure applications including water structures due to their relatively high durability, high strength to weight ratio, and non-corrosiveness. Here we demonstrate the potential use of carbon nanoparticles dispersed during GFRP composite fabrication to reduce water absorption of GFRP and to enable monitoring of moisture damage propagation in GFRP composites. GFRP coupons incorporating 2.0 wt % carbon nanofibers (CNFs and 2.0 wt % multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were fabricated in order to study the effect of moisture damage on mechanical properties of GFRP. Water absorption tests were carried out by immersing the GFRP coupons in a seawater bath at two temperatures for a time period of three months. Effects of water immersion on the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature of GFRP were investigated. Furthermore, moisture damage in GFRP was monitored by measuring the electrical conductivity of the GFRP coupons. It was shown that carbon nanoparticles can provide a means of self-sensing that enables the monitoring of moisture damage in GFRP. Despite the success of the proposed technique, it might not be able to efficiently describe moisture damage propagation in GFRP beyond a specific threshold because of the relatively high electrical conductivity of seawater. Microstructural investigations using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR explained the significance of seawater immersion time and temperature on the different levels of moisture damage in GFRP.

  7. Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 1) increase the palatability of product, 2) preserve the products, and 3) ... Harare is situated at an altitude of 1506 m ... record temperature inside each solar dryer and outside on the open ... the bags in boiling water for 4 min.

  8. Inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in ovarian cancer results in the loss of cancer stem cell-like characteristics and a reduced tumor burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubaker, Khalid; Luwor, Rodney B; Zhu, Hongjian; McNally, Orla; Quinn, Michael A; Burns, Christopher J; Thompson, Erik W; Findlay, Jock K; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2014-01-01

    Current treatment of ovarian cancer patients with chemotherapy leaves behind a residual tumor which results in recurrent ovarian cancer within a short time frame. We have previously demonstrated that a single short-term treatment of ovarian cancer cells with chemotherapy in vitro resulted in a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like enriched residual population which generated significantly greater tumor burden compared to the tumor burden generated by control untreated cells. In this report we looked at the mechanisms of the enrichment of CSC-like residual cells in response to paclitaxel treatment. The mechanism of survival of paclitaxel-treated residual cells at a growth inhibitory concentration of 50% (GI50) was determined on isolated tumor cells from the ascites of recurrent ovarian cancer patients and HEY ovarian cancer cell line by in vitro assays and in a mouse xenograft model. Treatment of isolated tumor cells from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients and HEY ovarian cancer cell line with paclitaxel resulted in a CSC-like residual population which coincided with the activation of Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducer and activation of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway in paclitaxel surviving cells. Both paclitaxel-induced JAK2/STAT3 activation and CSC-like characteristics were inhibited by a low dose JAK2-specific small molecule inhibitor CYT387 (1 μM) in vitro. Subsequent, in vivo transplantation of paclitaxel and CYT387-treated HEY cells in mice resulted in a significantly reduced tumor burden compared to that seen with paclitaxel only-treated transplanted cells. In vitro analysis of tumor xenografts at protein and mRNA levels demonstrated a loss of CSC-like markers and CA125 expression in paclitaxel and CYT387-treated cell-derived xenografts, compared to paclitaxel only-treated cell-derived xenografts. These results were consistent with significantly reduced activation of JAK2 and STAT3 in paclitaxel and CYT387-treated cell-derived xenografts

  9. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  10. Orange juice allied to a reduced-calorie diet results in weight loss and ameliorates obesity-related biomarkers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carolina; Dourado, Grace; Cesar, Thais

    2017-06-01

    Assumptions have linked orange juice (OJ) consumption with weight gain and adverse effects on health due to its sugar content; however, epidemiologic studies have not shown increased risk for overweight or obesity with the consumption of 100% OJ. The aim of this study was to verify whether the combination of a reduced-calorie diet (RCD) and 100% OJ contribute to weight loss, promote changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve diet quality in obese individuals. A randomized controlled trial with 78 obese patients (age 36 ± 1 y, body mass index [BMI] 33 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled in two groups: Individuals in the OJ group submitted to an RCD that included OJ (500 mL/d), and individuals in the control group submitted to an RCD without OJ. Body composition, biochemical biomarkers, and dietary intake were analyzed over a 12-wk period. Both treatments had similar outcomes regarding body weight (-6.5 kg; P = 0.363), BMI (-2.5 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.34), lean mass (-1 kg; P = 0.29), fat mass (-5 kg; P = 0.58), body fat (-3%; P = 0.15), and waist-to-hip ratio (-0.1; P = 0.79). Insulin levels in the OJ group decreased by 18% (P = 0.05), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance by 33% (P = 0.04), total cholesterol by 24% (P = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 24% (P ≤ 0.001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels by 33% (P = 0.001) compared with the control group. Consumption of energy and nutrients was similar between the two groups, but vitamin C and folate increased by 62% (P ≤ 0.015) and 39% (P = 0.033), respectively, after OJ intervention. When consumed concomitantly with an RCD, OJ does not inhibit weight loss; ameliorate the insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, or inflammatory status, or contribute nutritionally to the quality of the diet. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of initial soil moisture conditions for event-based rainfall-runoff modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Tramblay, Yves; Bouvier, Christophe; Martin, C.; Didon-Lescot, J. F.; Todorovik, D.; Domergue, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Flash floods are the most destructive natural hazards that occur in the Mediterranean region. Rainfall-runoff models can be very useful for flash flood forecasting and prediction. Event-based models are very popular for operational purposes, but there is a need to reduce the uncertainties related to the initial moisture conditions estimation prior to a flood event. This paper aims to compare several soil moisture indicators: local Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements of soil moisture,...

  12. Assessing the uncertainty of soil moisture impacts on convective precipitation using a new ensemble approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Henneberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture amount and distribution control evapotranspiration and thus impact the occurrence of convective precipitation. Many recent model studies demonstrate that changes in initial soil moisture content result in modified convective precipitation. However, to quantify the resulting precipitation changes, the chaotic behavior of the atmospheric system needs to be considered. Slight changes in the simulation setup, such as the chosen model domain, also result in modifications to the simulated precipitation field. This causes an uncertainty due to stochastic variability, which can be large compared to effects caused by soil moisture variations. By shifting the model domain, we estimate the uncertainty of the model results. Our novel uncertainty estimate includes 10 simulations with shifted model boundaries and is compared to the effects on precipitation caused by variations in soil moisture amount and local distribution. With this approach, the influence of soil moisture amount and distribution on convective precipitation is quantified. Deviations in simulated precipitation can only be attributed to soil moisture impacts if the systematic effects of soil moisture modifications are larger than the inherent simulation uncertainty at the convection-resolving scale.We performed seven experiments with modified soil moisture amount or distribution to address the effect of soil moisture on precipitation. Each of the experiments consists of 10 ensemble members using the deep convection-resolving COSMO model with a grid spacing of 2.8 km. Only in experiments with very strong modification in soil moisture do precipitation changes exceed the model spread in amplitude, location or structure. These changes are caused by a 50 % soil moisture increase in either the whole or part of the model domain or by drying the whole model domain. Increasing or decreasing soil moisture both predominantly results in reduced precipitation rates. Replacing the soil

  13. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  14. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Traberg Larsen

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks. Body mass index (BMI was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, P<0.001 and all secondary outcomes when compared to the children from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001, and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0.008, and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002 compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic health of children with overweight and obesity. However, the effects seem to be diminishing over time.

  15. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    , especially 14, 28, and 42 days pp, were associated with lower probability to inseminate a cow. Regarding the cows that were inseminated, no influence of BCS, BFT, or NEFA levels on pregnancy per artificial insemination was found. In conclusion, cows with higher loss of body condition and elevated NEFA concentrations had higher P4 concentrations during estrus, a reduced estrous activity and insemination rate, but no depression in pregnancy per artificial insemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  17. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  18. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  19. Calculations of condensed moisture escape from a NPP spray pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratuta, Eh. G.; Yaroshenko, T.I.

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating water losses due to condensed moisture escape with a wind away from a spray pond used for cooling steam turbine condensator water and emergency nuclear reactor cooling is developed. The method is based on solving a three-dimensional equation of single drop motion, assuming that during the whole flight only gravity and aerodynamic resistance forces act on a drop. The basic parameter variation ranges are the following: 0-18 m/s wind velocity, 0.04-0.12 MPa pressure drop at the nozzle output, 1-2 m height of sprayers above the pond mirror. The given method permits to determine both the amount of circulation water loss and the local liquid flow rate distribution pattern as well as the area around the pond receiving the escaped moisture that is necessary for estimating the ecological situation near a NPP

  20. HNF1A variant, energy-reduced diets and insulin resistance improvement during weight loss: The POUNDS Lost trial and DIRECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Dianjianyi; Ivey, Kerry; Durst, Ronen; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Stampfer, Meir J; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Shai, Iris; Qi, Lu

    2018-06-01

    To determine whether weight-loss diets varying in macronutrients modulate the genetic effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1A) rs7957197 on weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance. We analysed the interaction between HNF1A rs7957197 and weight-loss diets with regard to weight loss and insulin resistance improvement among 722 overweight/obese adults from a 2-year randomized weight-loss trial, the POUNDS Lost trial. The findings were replicated in another independent 2-year weight-loss trial, the Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT), in 280 overweight/obese adults. In the POUNDS Lost trial, we found that a high-fat diet significantly modified the genetic effect of HNF1A on weight loss and reduction in waist circumference (P for interaction = .006 and .005, respectively). Borderline significant interactions for fasting insulin and insulin resistance (P for interaction = .07 and .06, respectively) were observed. We replicated the results in DIRECT. Pooled results showed similar significant interactions with weight loss, waist circumference reduction, and improvement in fasting insulin and insulin resistance (P values for interaction = .001, .005, .02 and .03, respectively). Greater decreases in weight, waist circumference, fasting insulin level and insulin resistance were observed in participants with the T allele compared to those without the T allele in the high-fat diet group (P = .04, .03 and .01, respectively). Our replicable findings provide strong evidence that individuals with the HNF1A rs7957197 T allele might obtain more benefits in weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance by choosing a hypocaloric and high-fat diet. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and blood transfusions in primary total hip arthroplasty: a prospective randomized double-blind study in 40 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Henrik; Blønd, Lars; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study on 40 patients scheduled for primary total hip arthroplasty due to arthrosis or osteonecrosis to determine the effect of tranexamic acid on per- and postoperative blood losses and on the number of blood transfusions needed....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 patients were randomized to tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg given as a bolus intravenous injection, followed by a continuous infusion of 1 mg/kg/hour for 10 hours) or placebo (20 mL saline given intravenously) 15 minutes before the incision. We recorded the peroperative and postoperative...... blood losses at removal of the drain 24 hours after the operation and the number of blood transfusions. RESULTS: Patients receiving tranexamic acid had a mean peroperative blood loss of 480 mL versus 622 mL in patients receiving placebo (p = 0.3), a postoperative blood loss of 334 mL versus 609 mL (p...

  2. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  3. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  4. Moisture migration in concrete. Final report. Technical report C-75-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.E.

    1975-05-01

    In an effort to obtain information regarding the nature of moisture movement and rate of moisture loss in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), an experimental study of moisture migration in a pie-shaped specimen representing the flow path through a cylindrical wall of a PCRV was initiated. After casting of the test specimen, temperature distribution, shrinkage, and moisture distribution were monitored for approximately 510 days. After this initial monitoring, a temperature difference of 80 0 F was applied to the specimen, and the above-mentioned measurements were continued for an additional test period of one year. Results indicate that moisture migration in thick sections of concrete, such as a PCRV, is a slow process and is not likely to be a significant factor with temperature differences of 80 0 F or less. 15 references. (auth)

  5. Experimental study of moisture-driven distortion and fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Moisture-induced fracture and lack of shape stability in solid wood products are well known problems to the saw-milling and building industries. Cracks that initiate during the drying process may cause severe material losses and the building industry may be forced to use alternative building....... An experimental study has been performed to reveal the cracking behaviour of Norway spruce during drying from green moisture content down to equilibrium moisture content (EMC) at a temperature of 22-24°C and a RH of 64%. The moisture related strains and crack widths were measured with a digital image correlation...... than the thinner ones (15 mm) and the crack patterns developed differently. For the thicker discs the early cracks which may partly be caused by the moisture gradient in the longitudinal direction of the log, closed and became invisible later during the drying process. This indicates that sealing...

  6. After more than a decade of soil moisture deficit, tropical rainforest trees maintain photosynthetic capacity, despite increased leaf respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Lucy; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel L; Christoffersen, Bradley O; Melém, Eliane A; Kruijt, Bart; Vasconcelos, Steel S; Domingues, Tomas; Binks, Oliver J; Oliveira, Alex A R; Metcalfe, Daniel; da Costa, Antonio C L; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Meir, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Determining climate change feedbacks from tropical rainforests requires an understanding of how carbon gain through photosynthesis and loss through respiration will be altered. One of the key changes that tropical rainforests may experience under future climate change scenarios is reduced soil moisture availability. In this study we examine if and how both leaf photosynthesis and leaf dark respiration acclimate following more than 12 years of experimental soil moisture deficit, via a through-fall exclusion experiment (TFE) in an eastern Amazonian rainforest. We find that experimentally drought-stressed trees and taxa maintain the same maximum leaf photosynthetic capacity as trees in corresponding control forest, independent of their susceptibility to drought-induced mortality. We hypothesize that photosynthetic capacity is maintained across all treatments and taxa to take advantage of short-lived periods of high moisture availability, when stomatal conductance (gs ) and photosynthesis can increase rapidly, potentially compensating for reduced assimilate supply at other times. Average leaf dark respiration (Rd ) was elevated in the TFE-treated forest trees relative to the control by 28.2 ± 2.8% (mean ± one standard error). This mean Rd value was dominated by a 48.5 ± 3.6% increase in the Rd of drought-sensitive taxa, and likely reflects the need for additional metabolic support required for stress-related repair, and hydraulic or osmotic maintenance processes. Following soil moisture deficit that is maintained for several years, our data suggest that changes in respiration drive greater shifts in the canopy carbon balance, than changes in photosynthetic capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  8. 7 CFR 868.207 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.207 Section 868.207 Agriculture... Application of Standards § 868.207 Moisture. Water content in rough rice as determined by an approved device..., “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other equipment that is approved by the...

  9. 7 CFR 868.258 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.258 Section 868.258 Agriculture... Governing Application of Standards § 868.258 Moisture. Water content in brown rice for processing as... purpose of this paragraph, “approved device” shall include the Motomco Moisture Meter and any other...

  10. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  11. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  12. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  13. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  14. Study on the behavior of moisture droplets in low pressure steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Kuramoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Etsu, M.

    1978-01-01

    Low pressure stages of fossil turbines and almost all stages of nuclear and geothermal turbines operate on wet steam. Turbine operating on wet steam have the following two disadvantages: decrease of efficiency and erosion of blades. Decrease of efficiency results from an increase in profile loss caused by water films on the blade surface; loss of steam energy in breaking up the films and accelerating moisture droplets; undercooling and condensation shocks associated with it; velocity difference between water and steam phases and consequent decelerating action of moisture droplets in the rotating blades, etc. Impingement of moisture droplets on the rotating blades also causes quick erosion of the blades. In this paper, the behavior of moisture droplets in wet steam flow is described and the correlation between their behavior and the abovementioned two disadvantages of turbines operating on wet steam is clarified. (author)

  15. Moisture migration and drying properties of hardened cement paste and mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numao, T.; Fukuzawa, K.; Mihashi, H.

    1993-01-01

    Moisture content and movement have a significant influence on mechanical properties of concrete. Therefore, many studies have been done on the migration or loss of water in concrete mostly without any external loads. Concrete in actual structures, however, is usually under stresses. As the microstructure of concrete is changed by the load, the observed moisture movement phenomena may be changed. Hence it is necessary to study the moisture migration in concrete under compressive stress in order to estimate rationally the mechanical behavior such as creep and shrinkage in actual concrete structures. In this paper, the influence of compressive stress on moisture migration and water loss of hardened cement paste were studied experimentally and analytically. Furthermore, comparing them with the results of mortar specimens, the influence of containing aggregates was also discussed

  16. Investigation on Moisture and Indoor Environment in Eight Danish Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper Risgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    then need to be ventilated actively either by natural or mechanical ventilation. Increased focus on energy reduction together with requirements for e.g. thermal comfort indoors may lead to reduced indoor air quality and moisture problems which in turn may cause mould problems. This paper describes...... an investigation of the indoor air quality, relative humidity and air change rate in eight Danish houses. The houses were selected as they are all having recurrent problems with condensation on the windows. The houses were built between 1930 and 2007. Some of them have been only slightly renovated where others......, to indoor air quality in terms of CO2 concentration, and to the use of the house in terms of the level of the relative humidity and indoor moisture excess. Furthermore, the moisture production in the houses was estimated and compared to values provided in the literature. A better indoor air quality...

  17. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dongmei; Lin, Qin; He, Yingzi; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-01-01

    The activation of neuromast (NM) supporting cell (SC) proliferation leads to hair cell (HC) regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of NM cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the NMs of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration. PMID:27303264

  18. Inhibition of H3K9me2 Reduces Hair Cell Regeneration after Hair Cell Loss in the Zebrafish Lateral Line by Down-Regulating the Wnt and Fgf Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei eTang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The activation of neuromast supporting cell (SC proliferation leads to hair cell (HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line. Epigenetic mechanisms have been reported that regulate HC regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line, but the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration after HC loss remains poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the role of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration following neomycin-induced HC loss. To investigate the effects of H3K9me2 in HC regeneration, we took advantage of the G9a/GLP-specific inhibitor BIX01294 that significantly reduces the dimethylation of H3K9. We found that BIX01294 significantly reduced HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss in the zebrafish lateral line. BIX01294 also significantly reduced the proliferation of neuromast cells and led to fewer SCs in the lateral line. In situ hybridization showed that BIX01294 significantly down-regulated the Wnt and Fgf signaling pathways, which resulted in reduced SC proliferation and HC regeneration in the neuromasts of the lateral line. Altogether, our results suggest that down-regulation of H3K9me2 significantly decreases HC regeneration after neomycin-induced HC loss through inactivation of the Wnt/β-catenin and Fgf signaling pathways. Thus H3K9me2 plays a critical role in HC regeneration.

  19. Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lv, Aifeng; Jia, Shaofeng; Sun, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Several parameterization schemes have been developed to retrieve the soil moisture information involved in the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts - VI) space. However, most of them are performed with the constraint of the dry edge of the Ts - VI space to define the maximum water stressed conditions. In view of the subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the determination of the dry edge, a new index termed as the Modified Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) was developed in this paper to reduce the reliance of the parameterization scheme on the dry edge. In the parameterization scheme of MTVDI, isopleth lines of soil moisture involved in the feature space were retrieved by the temperature-vegetation index method, and only the maximum surface temperature of bare soil (Tsmax) was indispensable in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions. For evaluation purpose, the MTVDI was demonstrated in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. and was compared with two other traditional soil moisture indexes developed under the constraint of dry edge. The comparison confirmed the effectivity of the MTVDI in monitoring the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of soil moisture. Our analyses also suggest that Tsmax, the only parameter needed in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions, can be retrieved directly from the parameterization scheme itself. Therefore, the retrieval of MTVDI can be performed independent of the dry edge, which is a significant improvement to the traditional parameterization schemes of soil moisture from the Ts - VI feature space.

  20. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  1. Increase of Steam Moisture in the BWR-Facility KKP 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, Volker

    2002-01-01

    Main steam moisture in a BWR facility is determined by steam quality at core outlet and efficiency of steam separators and steam dryers. Transport of water with steam is accompanied by transport of radionuclides out of RPV resulting in enhanced radiation level in the main steam system. A remarkable increase of main steam moisture started at KKP 1 in 1997. In the following years increase of steam outlet moisture started at lower and lower core mass flow rates. Dose rate in main steam system increased simultaneously. Core mass flow rate and thus thermal power had to be reduced during stretch out operation to keep the main steam moisture below the specified boundary of 0.2 %. This boundary also guarantees, that radiological exposure remains far below approved values. The increase of main steam moisture corresponds with the application of low leakage core loading. Low leakage core loading results in enhanced steam generation in the center and in reduced steam generation in the outer zones of the core. It can be shown, that the uneven steam generation in the core became stronger over the years. Therefore, steam quality at inlet of the outer steam separators was getting lower. This resulted in higher carry over of water in this steam separators and steam dryers, thus explaining the increasing main steam moisture. KKP 1 started in 2000 with spectral shift operation. As one should expect, this resulted in reduced steam moisture. It remains the question of steam moisture in case of stretch out operation. Countermeasures are briefly discussed. (authors)

  2. A simulation test of the impact on soil moisture by agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... 500 cm2 separately by calculating the length and width of its tires in case of tires' variant for pressure (Chen 1981), and thus their respective ground pressure ratios are 201.9 kPa and 121.5 ... cm depth, which is for the measure error and the low impaction by load on soil moisture. The loss of soil moisture ...

  3. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    soil moisture meter using the NE555 timer and micro controller as a major electronic component ... relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. ..... the moisture contents showing that the infiltration of.

  4. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  5. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission Status and Science Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Entekhabi, Dara; O'Neill, Peggy; Njoku, Eni; Entin, Jared K.

    2016-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observatory was launched January 31, 2015, and its L-band radiometer and radar instruments became operational since mid-April 2015. The SMAP radiometer has been operating flawlessly, but the radar transmitter ceased operation on July 7. This paper provides a status summary of the calibration and validation of the SMAP instruments and the quality assessment of its soil moisture and freeze/thaw products. Since the loss of the radar in July, the SMAP project has been conducting two parallel activities to enhance the resolution of soil moisture products. One of them explores the Backus Gilbert optimum interpolation and de-convolution techniques based on the oversampling characteristics of the SMAP radiometer. The other investigates the disaggregation of the SMAP radiometer data using the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1 C-band synthetic radar data to obtain soil moisture products at about 1 to 3 kilometers resolution. In addition, SMAP's L-band data have found many new applications, including vegetation opacity, ocean surface salinity and hurricane ocean surface wind mapping. Highlights of these new applications will be provided.

  6. On the contribution of atmospheric moisture to dew formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Segal, M.

    1988-09-01

    The relative contributions of dewfall (a flux of water vapour from air to surface) and distillation (a flux of water vapour from soil to canopy) to dew formation on closed canopy and bare soil surfaces are assessed, and the dependence of dew amount upon wind speed, absolute temperature, atmospheric stability, relative humidity, soil characteristics and cloudiness, all of which are significant factors, is evaluated. Some of these evaluations provide refinements to similar ones given in Monteith (1961). High dewfall rates are usually ≲0.06 mm hr-1 over canopy or bare soil, though upon a canopy under soil-saturated and air-saturated conditions, rates of dew formation may reach 0.07 0.09 mm hr-1 with contributions from distillation. Various sets of observations are reanalyzed to illustrate the importance of the horizontal advection of moisture in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) to observed high rates of dew formation arising from the atmospheric contribution of water vapour (dewfall). These locally observed high dewfall rates must be the result of small-scale or mesoscale horizontal advection of moisture in the NBL, since the humidity changes within the typically shallow NBL required to balance the loss of water at the surface are not observed. Over extensive areas of uniform surface (horizontal scales ≫10 km), such continuously high dewfall rates could only be balanced by a local supply of atmospheric moisture since advection of moisture would necessarily be small.

  7. Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellenbroek, Johanne H; van Dijck, Laura; Töns, Hendrica A; Rabelink, Ton J; Carlotti, Françoise; Ballieux, Bart E P B; de Koning, Eelco J P

    2014-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are used for weight loss and for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Recently, short-time studies in rodents have shown that, besides their beneficial effect on body weight, KD lead to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. However, the long-term

  8. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children...

  9. Moisture exposure to different layers in organic light-emitting diodes and the effect on electroluminescence characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L. S.; Tang, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Moisture effect on electroluminescence characteristics, including current density versus voltage, luminance versus voltage, luminous efficiency versus current density, dark spot formation, and operational stability of organic light-emitting diodes, has been systematically investigated by exposing each layer of the devices to moisture at room temperature. Moisture has a different effect on each of the interfaces or surfaces, and the influence increases as exposure time increases. There is a slight effect on the electroluminescence characteristics after the anode surface has been exposed to moisture. However, severe luminance decrease, dark spot formation, and operational stability degradation take place after the light-emitting layer or the electron-transporting layer is exposed to moisture. It is also demonstrated that the effect of moisture can be substantially reduced if the exposure to moisture is in a dark environment

  10. Effects of Exterior Insulation on Moisture Performance of Wood-Frame Walls in the Pacific Northwest: Measurements and Hygrothermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Borjen Yeh; Benjamin J. Herzog

    2016-01-01

    Continuous exterior insulation on above-grade walls is becoming more common in many parts of North America. It is generally accepted that exterior insulation provides advantages for energy performance, by reducing thermal bridging, and for moisture performance, by warming the wood structural members, thereby reducing the potential for wintertime moisture accumulation....

  11. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  12. Assessment of the effectiveness of soil and water conservation measures in reducing runoff and soil loss: establishment of a European database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maetens, W.; Vanmaercke, M.; Poesen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is recognised as a major soil degradation process that requires a global approach. Large regions all over the world are in need of integrated conservation strategies that sustainable prevent and remediate soil erosion. therefore, quantitative and globally interpretable data are needed in support of models and decision making. the effects of various soil and water conservation techniques (SWCT) on runoff and soil loss in Europe have been extensively studied over the last 60 years. Runoff plots are the most widely used measurement technique to study the effects of SWCT on runoff and soil loss by water erosion. Hence, many data are available. However, the insights gained hereby remain mostly local and often qualitative whereas the full potential of the available data is not exploited yet. This is mainly due to the fragmentation of knowledge and extrapolation difficulties inherently linked with this type of data. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Reduces DNA Damage and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nayara Pereira; Santos, Ana Celly Souza dos; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Azevedo, George Dantas; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Fayh, Ana Paula Trussardi; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of following a diet to induce weight loss (500 kcal deficit per day) over DNA damage and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with overweight/obesity diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A study was conducted in Natal, RN, Brazil selecting overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 and weight loss, decreased sexual hormone and cardiometabolic markers such as insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were verified In the multivariate regression analysis, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and progesterone were responsible for the variation markers in DNA damage before the diet, losing its influence upon diet. DNA damage and the impact of cardiometabolic risk factors decreased after the intervention in women with PCOS, indicating the relevance of a nutritional approach in this group of patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to create and evaluate the effectiveness of brochures to reduce the risk for noise-induced hearing loss in college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Kotowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brochures containing messages developed according to the Extended Parallel Process Model were deployed to increase intentions to use hearing protection for college students. These brochures were presented to one-half of a college student sample, after which a questionnaire was administered to assess perceptions of threat, efficacy, and behavioral intentions. The other half of the sample completed the questionnaire and then received brochures. Results indicated that people receiving the brochure before the questionnaire reported greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use ear plugs when in loud environments, however, intentions to use ear plugs were unchanged. Distribution of the brochure also resulted in greater perceptions of hearing loss threat and efficacy to use over-the-ear headphones when using devices such as MP3 players. In this case, however, intentions to use over-the-ear headphones increased. Results are discussed in terms of future research and practical applications.

  15. GROUT-CONCRETE INTERFACE BOND PERFORMANCE: EFFECT OF INTERFACE MOISTURE ON THE TENSILE BOND STRENGTH AND GROUT MICROSTRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Varga, I; Muñoz, J F; Bentz, D P; Spragg, R P; Stutzman, P E; Graybeal, B A

    2018-05-01

    Bond between two cementitious materials is crucial in applications such as repairs, overlays, and connections of prefabricated bridge elements (PBEs), to name just a few. It is the latter that has special interest to the authors of this paper. After performing a dimensional stability study on grout-like materials commonly used as connections between PBEs, it was observed that the so-called 'non-shrink' cementitious grouts showed a considerable amount of early-age shrinkage. This might have negative effects on the integrity of the structure, due not only to the grout material's early degradation, but also to a possible loss of bond between the grout and the prefabricated concrete element. Many factors affect the bond strength between two cementitious materials (e.g., grout-concrete), the presence of moisture at the existing concrete substrate surface being one of them. In this regard, pre-moistening the concrete substrate surface prior to the application of the grout material is sometimes recommended for bond enhancement. This topic has been the focus of numerous research studies in the past; however, there is still controversy among practitioners on the real benefits that this practice might provide. This paper evaluates the tensile bond performance of two non-shrink cementitious grouts applied to the exposed aggregate surface of a concrete substrate, and how the supply of moisture at the grout-concrete interface affects the bond strength. "Pull-off" bond results show increased tensile bond strength when the concrete surface is pre-moistened. Reasons to explain the observed increased bond strength are given after a careful microstructural analysis of the grout-concrete interface. Interfaces where sufficient moisture is provided to the concrete substrate such that moisture movement from the grout is prevented show reduced porosity and increased hydration on the grout side of the interface, which is thought to directly contribute to the increased tensile bond

  16. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T X

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  17. Soil moisture variations in remotely sensed and reanalysis datasets during weak monsoon conditions over central India and central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-07-01

    Variation of soil moisture during active and weak phases of summer monsoon JJAS (June, July, August, and September) is very important for sustenance of the crop and subsequent crop yield. As in situ observations of soil moisture are few or not available, researchers use data derived from remote sensing satellites or global reanalysis. This study documents the intercomparison of soil moisture from remotely sensed and reanalyses during dry spells within monsoon seasons in central India and central Myanmar. Soil moisture data from the European Space Agency (ESA)—Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has been treated as observed data and was compared against soil moisture data from the ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 2002-2011. The ESA soil moisture correlates rather well with observed gridded rainfall. The ESA data indicates that soil moisture increases over India from west to east and from north to south during monsoon season. The ERA-I overestimates the soil moisture over India, while the CFSR soil moisture agrees well with the remotely sensed observation (ESA). Over Myanmar, both the reanalysis overestimate soil moisture values and the ERA-I soil moisture does not show much variability from year to year. Day-to-day variations of soil moisture in central India and central Myanmar during weak monsoon conditions indicate that, because of the rainfall deficiency, the observed (ESA) and the CFSR soil moisture values are reduced up to 0.1 m3/m3 compared to climatological values of more than 0.35 m3/m3. This reduction is not seen in the ERA-I data. Therefore, soil moisture from the CFSR is closer to the ESA observed soil moisture than that from the ERA-I during weak phases of monsoon in the study region.

  18. Indoor microbiota in severely moisture damaged homes and the impact of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Adams, Rachel I; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Karvonen, Anne; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Valkonen, Maria; Järvi, Kati; Sulyok, Michael; Pekkanen, Juha; Hyvärinen, Anne; Täubel, Martin

    2017-10-13

    The limited understanding of microbial characteristics in moisture-damaged buildings impedes efforts to clarify which adverse health effects in the occupants are associated with the damage and to develop effective building intervention strategies. The objectives of this current study were (i) to characterize fungal and bacterial microbiota in house dust of severely moisture-damaged residences, (ii) to identify microbial taxa associated with moisture damage renovations, and (iii) to test whether the associations between the identified taxa and moisture damage are replicable in another cohort of homes. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing complemented with quantitative PCR and chemical-analytical approaches to samples of house dust, and also performed traditional cultivation of bacteria and fungi from building material samples. Active microbial growth on building materials had significant though small influence on the house dust bacterial and fungal communities. Moisture damage interventions-including actual renovation of damaged homes and cases where families moved to another home-had only a subtle effect on bacterial community structure, seen as shifts in abundance weighted bacterial profiles after intervention. While bacterial and fungal species richness were reduced in homes that were renovated, they were not reduced for families that moved houses. Using different discriminant analysis tools, we were able identify taxa that were significantly reduced in relative abundance during renovation of moisture damage. For bacteria, the majority of candidates belonged to different families within the Actinomycetales order. Results for fungi were overall less consistent. A replication study in approximately 400 homes highlighted some of the identified taxa, confirming associations with observations of moisture damage and mold. The present study is one of the first studies to analyze changes in microbiota due to moisture damage interventions

  19. Estimation of Soil Moisture Under Vegetation Cover at Multiple Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadghuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Weiß, Thomas; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos P.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture under vegetation cover was estimated by a polarimetric, iterative, generalized, hybrid decomposition and inversion approach at multiple frequencies (X-, C- and L-band). Therefore the algorithm, originally designed for longer wavelength (L-band), was adapted to deal with the short wavelength scattering scenarios of X- and C-band. The Integral Equation Method (IEM) was incorporated together with a pedo-transfer function of Dobson et al. to account for the peculiarities of short wavelength scattering at X- and C-band. DLR's F-SAR system acquired fully polarimetric SAR data in X-, C- and L-band over the Wallerfing test site in Lower Bavaria, Germany in 2014. Simultaneously, soil and vegetation measurements were conducted on different agricultural test fields. The results indicate a spatially continuous inversion of soil moisture in all three frequencies (inversion rates >92%), mainly due to the careful adaption of the vegetation volume removal including a physical constraining of the decomposition algorithm. However, for X- and C-band the inversion results reveal moisture pattern inconsistencies and in some cases an incorrectly high inversion of soil moisture at X-band. The validation with in situ measurements states a stable performance of 2.1- 7.6vol.% at L-band for the entire growing period. At C- and X-band a reliable performance of 3.7-13.4vol.% in RMSE can only be achieved after distinct filtering (X- band) leading to a loss of almost 60% in spatial inversion rate. Hence, a robust inversion for soil moisture estimation under vegetation cover can only be conducted at L-band due to a constant availability of the soil signal in contrast to higher frequencies (X- and C-band).

  20. Experimental Investigation of Moisture Driven Fracture in Solid Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    Solid timber products, containing both heartwood and sapwood, often have a high tendency to crack during the drying process. This can cause severe loss of material for the saw-mills, especially for products with large cross sectional dimensions. The cracks (e.g. end-cracks) arise, in some cases......, early in the drying process and close again later in the process. It can be difficult to see the closed cracks with visual grading. This may result in too high grading of the damaged material which may cause problems for customers such as building and furniture industries. Moisture content (MC) in green...... wood varies within the cross section of a timber log. The MC of heartwood, for example, is considerable lower than the MC of sapwood. Shrinkage starts at different times within different parts of the cross section, which results in a complex state of strains and stresses. The moisture related crack...

  1. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  2. Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Elias, Natália; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; de Piano, Aline; Carnier, June; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (ΔHOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (Δadiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (Δcarotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ΔHOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population.

  3. DBI/ACBP loss-of-function does not affect anxiety-like behaviour but reduces anxiolytic responses to diazepam in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budry, Lionel; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Tobin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    . Male and female ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice do not show significant changes in anxiety-like behaviour compared to control littermates during elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Surprisingly, ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice were unresponsive to the anxiolytic effect of a low dose...... of diazepam during EPM tests. In conclusion, our experiments using genetic ACBP loss-of-function models suggest that endozepines deficiency does not affect anxiety-like behaviour in mice and impairs the anxiolytic action of diazepam....

  4. MCNP simulation of the influence of the external moisture on low calorific value in the coal quality analysis by neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dekun; Zhang Hongyu; Zhang Lihong; Dong Huan; Gu Deshan

    2012-01-01

    An important index in assessment of coal quality is low calorific value. Using neutron to analysis coal quality, the more the coal moisture content, especially the increasing of external moisture will reduce the low calorific value. The principle of coal quality analysis by neutron prompt Gamma-ray is introduced. The influence of the gamma count of the carbon element peak with increasing external moisture in coal samples was simulated using MCNP code. And discussed the reasons how external moisture content influence the calorific value. Simulation results indicate that with the increasing of external moisture in the coal samples, the gamma count of the carbon element peak dwindling, and the low calorific value reducing. The conclusion is : using neutrons method to analysis coal quality, the more external moisture content, the larger error of the measurement results of the carbon element, and will influence the calculation accuracy of the low calorific value. (authors)

  5. Regional amplification of projected changes in extreme temperatures strongly controlled by soil moisture-temperature feedbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, M. M.; Orth, R.; Cheruy, F.; Hagemann, S.; Lorenz, R.; Hurk, B. J. J. M.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Regional hot extremes are projected to increase more strongly than global mean temperature, with substantially larger changes than 2°C even if global warming is limited to this level. We investigate the role of soil moisture-temperature feedbacks for this response based on multimodel experiments for the 21st century with either interactive or fixed (late 20th century mean seasonal cycle) soil moisture. We analyze changes in the hottest days in each year in both sets of experiments, relate them to the global mean temperature increase, and investigate processes leading to these changes. We find that soil moisture-temperature feedbacks significantly contribute to the amplified warming of the hottest days compared to that of global mean temperature. This contribution reaches more than 70% in Central Europe and Central North America. Soil moisture trends are more important for this response than short-term soil moisture variability. These results are relevant for reducing uncertainties in regional temperature projections.

  6. A new model for predicting moisture uptake by packaged solid pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Li, Y

    2003-04-14

    A novel mathematical model has been developed for predicting moisture uptake by packaged solid pharmaceutical products during storage. High density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles containing the tablet products of two new chemical entities and desiccants are investigated. Permeability of the bottles is determined at different temperatures using steady-state data. Moisture sorption isotherms of the two model drug products and desiccants at the same temperatures are determined and expressed in polynomial equations. The isotherms are used for modeling the time-humidity profile in the container, which enables the prediction of the moisture content of individual component during storage. Predicted moisture contents agree well with real time stability data. The current model could serve as a guide during packaging selection for moisture protection, so as to reduce the cost and cycle time of screening study.

  7. Modeling soil moisture memory in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, S.; Miller, G. R.

    2011-12-01

    Antecedent soil conditions create an ecosystem's "memory" of past rainfall events. Such soil moisture memory effects may be observed over a range of timescales, from daily to yearly, and lead to feedbacks between hydrological and ecosystem processes. In this study, we modeled the soil moisture memory effect on savanna ecosystems in California, Arizona, and Africa, using a system dynamics model created to simulate the ecohydrological processes at the plot-scale. The model was carefully calibrated using soil moisture and evapotranspiration data collected at three study sites. The model was then used to simulate scenarios with various initial soil moisture conditions and antecedent precipitation regimes, in order to study the soil moisture memory effects on the evapotranspiration of understory and overstory species. Based on the model results, soil texture and antecedent precipitation regime impact the redistribution of water within soil layers, potentially causing deeper soil layers to influence the ecosystem for a longer time. Of all the study areas modeled, soil moisture memory of California savanna ecosystem site is replenished and dries out most rapidly. Thus soil moisture memory could not maintain the high rate evapotranspiration for more than a few days without incoming rainfall event. On the contrary, soil moisture memory of Arizona savanna ecosystem site lasts the longest time. The plants with different root depths respond to different memory effects; shallow-rooted species mainly respond to the soil moisture memory in the shallow soil. The growing season of grass is largely depended on the soil moisture memory of the top 25cm soil layer. Grass transpiration is sensitive to the antecedent precipitation events within daily to weekly timescale. Deep-rooted plants have different responses since these species can access to the deeper soil moisture memory with longer time duration Soil moisture memory does not have obvious impacts on the phenology of woody plants

  8. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić; Vesna Lelas; Zoran Herceg; Marija Badanjak

    2010-01-01

    Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food) and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as...

  9. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  10. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  11. Improving Simulated Soil Moisture Fields Through Assimilation of AMSR-E Soil Moisture Retrievals with an Ensemble Kalman Filter and a Mass Conservation Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Toll, David; Zhan, Xiwu; Cosgrove, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Model simulated soil moisture fields are often biased due to errors in input parameters and deficiencies in model physics. Satellite derived soil moisture estimates, if retrieved appropriately, represent the spatial mean of soil moisture in a footprint area, and can be used to reduce model bias (at locations near the surface) through data assimilation techniques. While assimilating the retrievals can reduce model bias, it can also destroy the mass balance enforced by the model governing equation because water is removed from or added to the soil by the assimilation algorithm. In addition, studies have shown that assimilation of surface observations can adversely impact soil moisture estimates in the lower soil layers due to imperfect model physics, even though the bias near the surface is decreased. In this study, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) with a mass conservation updating scheme was developed to assimilate the actual value of Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) soil moisture retrievals to improve the mean of simulated soil moisture fields by the Noah land surface model. Assimilation results using the conventional and the mass conservation updating scheme in the Little Washita watershed of Oklahoma showed that, while both updating schemes reduced the bias in the shallow root zone, the mass conservation scheme provided better estimates in the deeper profile. The mass conservation scheme also yielded physically consistent estimates of fluxes and maintained the water budget. Impacts of model physics on the assimilation results are discussed.

  12. Vitamin E supplementation of undernourished ewes pre- and post-lambing reduces weight loss of ewes and increases weight of lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Nieto, César Augusto; Meza-Herrera, César Alberto; Moron Cedillo, Felipe de Jesús; Flores Najera, Manuel de Jesús; Gámez Vázquez, Hector Guillermo; Ventura Pérez, Felipe de Jesús; Liu, Shimin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test if vitamin E supplementation during late gestation and early lactation would affect the weight of ewes under nutritional restriction and the performance of their lambs. Mature Rambouillet ewes (n = 37) were fed a diet that supplied 70 % of the energy and 80 % of recommended protein requirements and randomly assigned to either vitamin E (vit E, n = 20, 4 IU of α-tocopherol kg(-1) of live weight) or control (n = 17, without vitamin E supplementation). During the experimental period, the mean weight of ewes decreased from 74.6 ± 2.4 to 58.1 ± 2.2 kg. Weight loss of ewes was slightly less for the vit E than the control (-65 vs -124 g day(-1), SEM = 46; P = 0.07). Lambs born from vit E-supplemented ewes were heavier than lambs from the control and grew significantly faster (239 vs 195 g day(-1), SEM = 29.3, P ewes are not met, supplementation of vitamin E during late gestation and early lactation might be an effective strategy to minimise ewe weight loss as well as to increase lamb growth.

  13. Reduced ovulation rate, failure to be mated and fertilization failure/embryo loss are the underlying causes of poor reproductive performance in juvenile ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sara J; Smaill, Bronwyn; O'Connell, Anne R; Johnstone, Peter D; Stevens, David R; Quirke, Laurel D; Farquhar, Philip A; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    A ewe that is mated as a juvenile (producing a lamb at 1 year of age) will produce an average of only 0.6 lambs to weaning, compared to an average of 1.2 lambs in adult ewes. Understanding the underlying causes of this low reproductive efficiency and designing methods to improve or mitigate these effects could potentially increase adoption of mating juvenile ewes. In Experiment 1, 2 Cohorts of ewes, born a year apart, were mated in order to lamb at 1 and 2 years of age and the performance of the ewes at each age was compared. Onset of puberty, mating by the fertile ram, ovulation rate, early pregnancy (day 30-35) litter size, number of lambs born and number of lambs weaned were measured. In juvenile ewes, by day 35 of pregnancy, 43% of ova had failed to become a viable embryo and this early loss was the largest contributor to the poor reproductive performance observed. Compared with young adult ewes, ovulation rate was lower (pewes with a greater ovulation rate (pewes, failure to mate with the ram, lower ovulation rate and increased fertilisation failure/embryo loss underlie their poor reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Time-lapse culture with morphokinetic embryo selection improves pregnancy and live birth chances and reduces early pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Nilselid, Anna-Maria; Montag, Markus

    2017-11-01

    Embryo evaluation and selection is fundamental in clinical IVF. Time-lapse follow-up of embryo development comprises undisturbed culture and the application of the visual information to support embryo evaluation. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was carried out to study whether time-lapse monitoring with the prospective use of a morphokinetic algorithm for selection of embryos improves overall clinical outcome (pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, stillbirth and live birth rate) compared with embryo selection based on single time-point morphology in IVF cycles. The meta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials (n = 1637) showed that the application of time-lapse monitoring was associated with a significantly higher ongoing clinical pregnancy rate (51.0% versus 39.9%), with a pooled odds ratio of 1.542 (P loss (15.3% versus 21.3%; OR: 0.662; P = 0.019) and a significantly increased live birth rate (44.2% versus 31.3%; OR 1.668; P = 0.009). Difference in stillbirth was not significant between groups (4.7% versus 2.4%). Quality of the evidence was moderate to low owing to inconsistencies across the studies. Selective application and variability were also limitations. Although time-lapse is shown to significantly improve overall clinical outcome, further high-quality evidence is needed before universal conclusions can be drawn. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The Presenilin-1 ΔE9 Mutation Results in Reduced γ-Secretase Activity, but Not Total Loss of PS1 Function, in Isogenic Human Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Woodruff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PS1 is the catalytic core of γ-secretase, which cleaves type 1 transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein (APP. PS1 also has γ-secretase-independent functions, and dominant PS1 missense mutations are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD. Whether PS1 FAD mutations are gain- or loss-of-function remains controversial, primarily because most studies have relied on overexpression in mouse and/or nonneuronal systems. We used isogenic euploid human induced pluripotent stem cell lines to generate and study an allelic series of PS1 mutations, including heterozygous null mutations and homozygous and heterozygous FAD PS1 mutations. Rigorous analysis of this allelic series in differentiated, purified neurons allowed us to resolve this controversy and to conclude that FAD PS1 mutations, expressed at normal levels in the appropriate cell type, impair γ-secretase activity but do not disrupt γ-secretase-independent functions of PS1. Thus, FAD PS1 mutations do not act as simple loss of PS1 function but instead dominantly gain an activity toxic to some, but not all, PS1 functions.

  16. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Yuanqiu

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O, CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution. A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio, aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system. The results showed that about 23.9% to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen. N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it. Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0189), CH4 (p = 0.0113) and N2O (p = 0.0493) emissions significantly. Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses. C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0442) and CH4 (p = 0.0246) emissions significantly, but not the N2O. Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions. The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly. Most treatments were matured after 37 days, except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  17. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR. The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML, 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML, and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML, and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  18. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  19. Portable neutron moisture gage for the moisture determination of structure parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisch, M.

    1985-01-01

    For determining the moisture of structure parts during building or before repairing a portable neutron moisture gage consisting of a neutron probe and pulse analyzer has been developed. The measuring process, calibration, and prerequisites of application are briefly discussed

  20. Crop yield monitoring in the Sahel using root zone soil moisture anomalies derived from SMOS soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, François; Pellarin, Thierry; Alhassane, Agali; Traoré, Seydou; Baron, Christian

    2017-04-01

    West Africa is greatly vulnerable, especially in terms of food sustainability. Mainly based on rainfed agriculture, the high variability of the rainy season strongly impacts the crop production driven by the soil water availability in the soil. To monitor this water availability, classical methods are based on daily precipitation measurements. However, the raingauge network suffers from the poor network density in Africa (1/10000km2). Alternatively, real-time satellite-derived precipitations can be used, but they are known to suffer from large uncertainties which produce significant error on crop yield estimations. The present study proposes to use root soil moisture rather than precipitation to evaluate crop yield variations. First, a local analysis of the spatiotemporal impact of water deficit on millet crop production in Niger was done, from in-situ soil moisture measurements (AMMA-CATCH/OZCAR (French Critical Zone exploration network)) and in-situ millet yield survey. Crop yield measurements were obtained for 10 villages located in the Niamey region from 2005 to 2012. The mean production (over 8 years) is 690 kg/ha, and ranges from 381 to 872 kg/ha during this period. Various statistical relationships based on soil moisture estimates were tested, and the most promising one (R>0.9) linked the 30-cm soil moisture anomalies from mid-August to mid-September (grain filling period) to the crop yield anomalies. Based on this local study, it was proposed to derive regional statistical relationships using 30-cm soil moisture maps over West Africa. The selected approach was to use a simple hydrological model, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API), forced by real-time satellite-based precipitation (CMORPH, PERSIANN, TRMM3B42). To reduce uncertainties related to the quality of real-time rainfall satellite products, SMOS soil moisture measurements were assimilated into the API model through a Particular Filter algorithm. Then, obtained soil moisture anomalies were

  1. Demand elasticity increase for reducing social welfare losses due to transfer capacity restriction: A test case on Italian cross-border imports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Sergio; De Benedictis, Michele; La Scala, Massimo; Wangensteen, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    The paper is aimed at showing how demand-side policies for increasing inner demand elasticity could help in reducing market inefficiencies generated by transfer limits on interconnections, with a special regard to energy imports dependent countries. In order to develop the studies in a realistic environment, a model for the Italian electricity market has been developed. Test results show effects of variations in demand elasticity on the national social surplus and congestion costs. It will be shown how an increase of demand elasticity can counterbalance the need of additional transfer capacity in reducing cross-border congestions. (author)

  2. Statistical techniques to extract information during SMAP soil moisture assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Q.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Statistical techniques permit the retrieval of soil moisture estimates in a model climatology while retaining the spatial and temporal signatures of the satellite observations. As a consequence, the need for bias correction prior to an assimilation of these estimates is reduced, which could result in a more effective use of the independent information provided by the satellite observations. In this study, a statistical neural network (NN) retrieval algorithm is calibrated using SMAP brightness temperature observations and modeled soil moisture estimates (similar to those used to calibrate the SMAP Level 4 DA system). Daily values of surface soil moisture are estimated using the NN and then assimilated into the NASA Catchment model. The skill of the assimilation estimates is assessed based on a comprehensive comparison to in situ measurements from the SMAP core and sparse network sites as well as the International Soil Moisture Network. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to significantly improve the model skill, particularly in areas where the model does not represent processes related to agricultural practices. Additionally, the NN method is compared to assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to more effectively use the independent information provided by SMAP resulting in larger model skill improvements than assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques.

  3. Preliminary Effect of Synthetic Vision Systems Displays to Reduce Low-Visibility Loss of Control and Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) flight displays as a means of eliminating Low Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) and Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents by low time general aviation (GA) pilots. A series of basic maneuvers were performed by 18 subject pilots during transition from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), with continued flight into IMC, employing a fixed-based flight simulator. A total of three display concepts were employed for this evaluation. One display concept, referred to as the Attitude Indicator (AI) replicated instrumentation common in today's General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The second display concept, referred to as the Electronic Attitude Indicator (EAI), featured an enlarged attitude indicator that was more representative of a glass display that also included advanced flight symbology, such as a velocity vector. The third concept, referred to as the SVS display, was identical to the EAI except that computer-generated terrain imagery replaced the conventional blue-sky/brown-ground of the EAI. Pilot performance parameters, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded for post-test analysis. Situation awareness (SA) and qualitative pilot comments were obtained through questionnaires and free-form interviews administered immediately after the experimental session. Initial pilot performance data were obtained by instructor pilot observations. Physiological data (skin temperature, heart rate, and muscle flexure) were also recorded. Preliminary results indicate that far less errors were committed when using the EAI and SVS displays than when using conventional instruments. The specific data example examined in this report illustrates the benefit from SVS displays to avoid massive loss of SA conditions. All pilots acknowledged the enhanced situation awareness provided by the SVS display concept. Levels of

  4. Loss of job-related right to healthcare is associated with reduced quality and clinical outcomes of diabetic patients in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Guerra-Y-Guerra, Germán; Salgado-de-Snyder, V Nelly; González-Block, Miguel Ángel

    2018-05-01

    The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) provides a package of health, economic and social benefits to workers employed in private firms within the formal labour market and to their economic dependants. Affiliates have a right to these benefits only while they remain contracted, thus posing a risk for the continuity of healthcare. This study evaluates the association between the time (in days) without the right to healthcare due to job loss in the formal labour market and the quality of healthcare and clinical outcomes among IMSS affiliates with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Retrospective cohort study 2013-2015. Six IMSS family medicine clinics (FMC) in Mexico City. T2DM patients (n = 27 217) affiliated with job-related health insurance and at least one consultation with a family doctor during 2013. IMSS affiliation department database and electronic health records and clinical laboratory databases. Quality of the processes (eight indicators) and outcomes (three indicators) of healthcare. The results indicated that losing IMSS right to healthcare is frequent, occurring to one-third of T2DM patients during the follow-up period. The time without the right to healthcare in the observed period was of 120 days on average and was associated with a 43.2% loss of quality of care and a 19.2% reduction in clinical outcomes of T2DM. Policies aimed at ensuring access and continuity of care, regardless of job status, are critical for improving the quality of processes and outcomes of healthcare for diabetic patients.

  5. SOFC LSM:YSZ cathode degradation induced by moisture: An impedance spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    The cause of the degradation effect of moisture during operation of LSM cathode based SOFCs has been investigated by means of a detailed impedance characterization on LSM:YSZ composite cathode based SOFCs. Further the role of YSZ as cathode composite material was studied by measurements on SOFCs...... with a LSM:CGO composite cathode on a CGO interdiffusion barrier layer. It was found that both types of cathodes showed similar electrochemical characteristics towards the presence of moisture during operation. Upon addition and removal of moisture in the fed air the impedance study showed a change...... in the high frequency cathode arc, which is associated with the charge transport/transfer at the LSM/YSZ interface. On prolonged operation with the presence of moisture an ongoing increase in the high frequency cathode arc resulted in a permanent loss of cathode/electrolyte contact and thus increase...

  6. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Validation of soil moisture ocean salinity (SMOS) satellite soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The surface soil moisture state controls the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration and runoff. High-resolution observations of soil moisture will lead to improved flood forecasts, especially for intermediate to large watersheds where most flood damage occurs. Soil moisture is also key in d...

  8. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet; Panda, Rabindra K.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Jana, Raghavendra Belur

    2016-01-01

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected

  9. Impact of Released Fual Moisture on Atmospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Potter

    2003-01-01

    A common component of fire incident reports and prescribed burn preparations is an estimate of the energy that was or will be released by the fire. Typically, this is based on the energy released by combustion of the fuel load, reduced to account for the energy that is required to evaporate moisture in the fuel materials. (e.g., Byram 1959, Anderson 1968, Simard et al...

  10. Moisture damage susceptibility of asphalt mixtures: Experimental characterization and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Varveri, A.

    2017-01-01

    A well-functioning, long-lasting and safe highway infrastructure network ensures the mobility of people and facilitates the transport of goods, promoting thus environmental, economic, and social sustainability. The development of sustainable highway infrastructure requires, among other activities, the construction of pavement systems with enhanced durability. Moisture damage in asphalt pavements is associated with inferior performance, unexpected failures and reduced service life. All of thes...

  11. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  12. Loss of NHE1 activity leads to reduced oxidative stress in heart and mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vikram; Lorenz, John N; Miller, Marian L; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Nieman, Michelle L; Wang, Yigang; Shull, Gary E

    2013-12-01

    Acute inhibition of the NHE1 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury and chronic inhibition attenuates development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. To determine the cardiac effects of chronic inhibition of NHE1 under non-pathological conditions we used NHE1-null mice as a model of long-term NHE1 inhibition. Cardiovascular performance was relatively normal in Nhe1(-/-) mice although cardiac contractility and relaxation were slightly improved in mutant mice of the FVB/N background. GSH levels and GSH:GSSG ratios were elevated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts indicating an enhanced redox potential. Consistent with a reduced need for antioxidant protection, expression of heat shock proteins Hsp60 and Hsp25 was lower in Nhe1(-/-) hearts. Similarly, expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 was reduced, with no increase in expression of other ROS scavenging enzymes. GLUT1 levels were increased in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, the number of lipid droplets in myocytes was reduced, and PDK4 expression was refractory to high-fat diet-induced upregulation observed in wild-type hearts. High-fat diet-induced stress was attenuated in Nhe1(-/-) hearts, as indicated by smaller increases in phosphorylation of Hsp25 and α-B crystallin, and there was better preservation of insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by PKB/Akt phosphorylation. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were lower and high-fat diet-induced hepatic lipid accumulation was reduced in Nhe1(-/-) mice, demonstrating extracardiac effects of NHE1 ablation. These data indicate that long-term ablation of NHE1 activity increases the redox potential, mitigates high-fat diet-induced myocardial stress and fatty liver disease, leads to better preservation of insulin sensitivity, and may alter both cardiac and systemic metabolic substrate handling in mice. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available outcomes of HVS tests where the moisture condition of the pavement or specific layers in the pavement is under investigation for a specific test. Practical guidance is then provided on the potential systems (how to manage the moisture – hardware) as well...

  14. Irrigation scheduling using soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture sensors were evaluated and used for irrigation scheduling in humid region. Soil moisture sensors were installed in soil at depths of 15cm, 30cm, and 61cm belowground. Soil volumetric water content was automatically measured by the sensors in a time interval of an hour during the crop g...

  15. 7 CFR 868.307 - Moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moisture. 868.307 Section 868.307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD... Application of Standards § 868.307 Moisture. Water content in milled rice as determined by an FGIS approved...

  16. Integrated Heat Air & Moisture Modeling and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a recently developed Heat Air & Moisture Laboratory in SimuLink. The simulation laboratory facilitates the integration of the following models: (1) a whole building model; (2) Heating Venting and Air-Conditioning and primary systems; (3) 2D indoor airflow, 3D Heat Air & Moisture

  17. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  18. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  19. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...