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Sample records for reducing miner absenteeism

  1. Reducing coal miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.H.; Clingan, M.R. (Bureau of Mines, PA (USA). Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-09-01

    High absenteeism at coal mines can seriously affect safety and hamper productivity. Several effective strategies for achieving high attendance which mine operators may not have considered are presented and a method is proposed for implementing programs for minimizing absenteeism among coal miners. The best strategies for improving attendance will vary according to the needs and circumstances of the particular mine, however, the process for establishing such a program is relatively invariant. A four-stage process is recommended; evaluate data from prior attendance records, communicate attendance goals and policy, develop and implement an attendance promotion program, and recycle. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Ways to reduce miner absenteeism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    Discussion is presented of the use of attendance programs at mines, to reduce interruptions to production, decrease labour costs, and to improve safety. Techniques described include use of absentee charts, frequency of attendance charts, and rewards for good attendance. 3 figs.

  3. Absenteeism due to sickness in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczykiewicz, K.

    1980-01-01

    During two consecutive years sickness absence of 8005 miners from two pit coal mines (A and B) of different geological structure and mechanization degree was analysed. It was found that in mine ''A'' 37% had no sick leaves, whereas in mine ''B''--28%. Absence rate was similar in both mines (though the miners' work and living conditions differed), i.e. 5.21% in mine ''A'', and 5.98% in mine ''B''. Thus work and living conditions do not determine general sickness absence rate. The highest absence in both mines was that of miners frequently falling ill for a long time (approx. 5.5% miners). For the group the number of work disablement days was 28.8 and 26.7, respectively. Underground miners' sickness absence was higher than that of surface workers, the rate being 3.8 and 4.0 and 1.1 and 2.1, respectively. The highest absence was that of miners travelling to work on motor cycles (7.1 and 7.3) and bicycles (6.4 and 6.7). Those working regularly in the first shift were more frequently absent from work than those working in different shifts. Miners living in worse conditions had higher absence rate than those living in flats of a higher standard. Also elderly employees and those having children represented a higher absence rate. The highest absence rate was that of workers having four children, the lowest--that of single persons. In addition, specific absence rate of men, especially due to respiratory and circulatory system diseases, was found to be enhanced by smoking. Absence rate of smokers was 2--3 times higher than that of non-smokers.

  4. Utilising employee assistance programmes to reduce absenteeism in the workplace.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Absenteeism in the organisation is a major problem for many South African organisations and it is a financially crippling factor. It is made worse by the fact that organisations have no proper mechanisms in place to deal with the problem of absenteeism. The goal of the study is to show that the utilisation of an EAP programme will effectively manage and reduce absenteeism for organisations. Use was made of a literature review. Recommendations are made on how to implement and manage EAPs in th...

  5. [Effective interventions to reduce absenteeism among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca-Gutiérrez, Joaquín Jesús; Jiménez-Díaz, María del Carmen; Escalera-Franco, Luis Felipe

    2013-01-01

    To select and summarize the interventions that have proved effective in reducing absenteeism among hospital nurses. A scoping review was conducted through a literature search using Medline, Web of Science, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Cuiden and Cochrane Library Plus databases. Of a total of 361 articles extracted, 15 were finally selected for this review. The implementation of multifaceted support or physical training programs can produce positive results in terms of reducing absenteeism among hospital nurses. Cognitive-behavioral type interventions require studies with larger samples to provide conclusive results. Establishing more flexible working shifts may also reduce absenteeism rates, although again studies with larger samples are needed. Programs aimed at managing change developed by nurses themselves, participatory management of professional relations, the support provided by supervisors who are opposed to hierarchical leadership styles, and wage supplements that reward the lack of absence can also reduce these types of indicators. Absenteeism can be considered as a final result and a consequence of the level of job satisfaction. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce absenteeism among hospital nurses will no doubt largely depend on the ability of these interventions to increase the job satisfaction of these workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Does temporal and locational flexibility of work reduce absenteeism?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Possenriede, D.S.; Hassink, W.H.J.; Plantenga, J.

    In this study, the effects of temporal and locational flexibility or work on the frequency and length of sickness absenteeism are analysed. Using a Dutch survey of public sector employees, we show that increased temporal and locational flexibility is negatively associated with sickness absenteeism

  7. Using Data and the Human Touch: Evaluating the NYC Inter-Agency Campaign to Reduce Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2018-01-01

    Following a 2008 report that documented the extent of chronic absenteeism in New York City's schools, the city organized an interagency task force to develop and implement a citywide effort to reduce chronic absenteeism. Given the size of the city school system and the scope of chronic absenteeism, the effort became the nation's most comprehensive…

  8. Alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer reduces elementary school illness absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, D L; Shinder, A; Shinder, F

    2000-10-01

    BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESES: A substantial percentage of school absenteeism among children is related to transmissible infection. Rates of transmission can be reduced by hand washing with soap and water, but such washing occurs infrequently. This study tested whether an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer (CleanHands) could reduce illness absenteeism in school-age children. A 10-week, open-label, crossover study was performed on 420 elementary school-age children (ages 5-12). Students were given a brief orientation immediately prior to the start of the study on the relationship of germs, illness, and hand washing. Each student in the treatment group then received the test product in individual bottles, with instructions to apply one to two sprays to the hands after coming into the classroom, before eating, and after using the restroom, in addition to their normal hand washing with soap and water. The control group was instructed to continue hand washing as normal with non-medicated soap. After 4 weeks of treatment and a 2-week wash-out period, the control and experimental groups were reversed. Data gathered on absenteeism were classified as gastrointestinal or respiratory related and normalized for nonillness-related absenteeism and school holidays. Compared to the hand washing-only control group, students using CleanHands were found to have 41.9% fewer illness-related absence days, representing a 28.9% and a 49.7% drop in gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. Likewise, absence incidence decreased by 31.7%, consisting of a 44.2% and 50.2% decrease in incidence of gastrointestinal- and respiratory-related illnesses, respectively. No adverse events were reported during the study. Daily use of the instant hand sanitizer was associated with significantly lower rates of illness-related absenteeism.

  9. Effect Evaluation of a Randomized Trial to Reduce Infectious Illness and Illness-Related Absenteeism Among Schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Andersen, Anette; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring

    2018-01-01

    -based multi-component intervention to improve hand washing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. METHODS: The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish...... schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools. Infectious illness days, infectious illness episodes and illness-related absenteeism were estimated in multilevel regressions, based on available cases of text messages answered by parents and based on questionnaire data.......84-1.16)) or in reporting illness-related absenteeism(OR I-arm I : 1.09 (0.83-1.43) & ORI-arm II: 1.06 (0.81-1.40)). CONCLUSIONS: The multi component Hi Five intervention achieved no difference in the number of illness days, illness episodes or illness-related absenteeism among children in intervention schools compared...

  10. Good ergonomics and team diversity reduce absenteeism and errors in car manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Lars; Wegge, Jürgen; Schmauder, Martin; Kliegel, Matthias; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that ergonomics work design and mixed teams (in age and gender) may compensate declines in certain abilities of ageing employees. This study investigates simultaneous effects of both team level factors on absenteeism and performance (error rates) over one year in a sample of 56 car assembly teams (N = 623). Results show that age was related to prolonged absenteeism and more mistakes in work planning, but not to overall performance. In comparison, high-physical workload was strongly associated with longer absenteeism and increased error rates. Furthermore, controlling for physical workload, age diversity was related to shorter absenteeism, and the presence of females in the team was associated with shorter absenteeism and better performance. In summary, this study suggests that both ergonomics work design and mixed team composition may compensate age-related productivity risks in manufacturing by maintaining the work ability of older employees and improving job quality.

  11. Effectiveness of a multifactorial handwashing program to reduce school absenteeism due to acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martínez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Martínez-López, Jose Miguel; Garrido-Fernández, Pablo; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Campos-Fernandez, Maria Amparo; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children and an important cause of school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizers for the prevention of school absenteeism due to AGE. A randomized, controlled and open study of a sample of 1341 children between 4 and 12 years of age, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow up (academic year). The experimental group (EG) washed their hands with soap and water, complementing this with the use of a hand sanitizer, and the control group (CG) followed the usual handwashing procedure. Absenteeism rates due GI were compared between the 2 groups through the multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Percent days absent in both groups were compared with a Z-test. 446 cases of school absenteeism due to AGE were registered. The school children from the EG had a 36% lower risk of absenteeism due to AGE (IRR: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.78) and a decrease in absenteeism of 0.13 episodes/child/academic year (0.27 of EG vs 0.40 CG/episodes/child/academic year, P absenteeism cases due to AGE.

  12. Reducing the extraction of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzon, Marina; Govindan, Kannan; Rodriguez, Carlos Manuel Taboada

    2015-01-01

    Mass consumption and shortening product lifecycles have increased worldwide production. Consequently, more raw materials such as minerals are used, and available landfills are filling up. Companies are urged to effectively incorporate sustainability issues such as End-of-life (EOL) management...... and Reverse Logistics (RL) practices to close the loop and diminish the amount of raw materials used in their production systems. However, implementing RL implies dealing with its barriers. The purpose of this article is to focus on the recovery of EOL products that use mostly raw materials from the mining...

  13. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1979b - Reduced minerals whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Reduced minerals whey. 184.1979b Section 184.1979b... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1979b Reduced minerals whey. (a) Reduced minerals whey is the substance obtained by the removal of a portion of the minerals from whey. The dry product...

  15. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.

    1999-01-01

    and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6......Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...

  16. Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Goldmann, Donald A

    2008-06-01

    Students often miss school because of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses. We assessed the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention, including alcohol-based hand-sanitizer and surface disinfection, in reducing absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in elementary school students. We performed a school-based cluster-randomized, controlled trial at a single elementary school. Eligible students in third to fifth grade were enrolled. Intervention classrooms received alcohol-based hand sanitizer to use at school and quaternary ammonium wipes to disinfect classroom surfaces daily for 8 weeks; control classrooms followed usual hand-washing and cleaning practices. Parents completed a preintervention demographic survey. Absences were recorded along with the reason for absence. Swabs of environmental surfaces were evaluated by bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza 3. The primary outcomes were rates of absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal or respiratory illness. Days absent were modeled as correlated Poisson variables and compared between groups by using generalized estimating equations. Analyses were adjusted for family size, race, health status, and home sanitizer use. We also compared the presence of viruses and the total bacterial colony counts on several classroom surfaces. A total of 285 students were randomly assigned; baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. The adjusted absenteeism rate for gastrointestinal illness was significantly lower in the intervention-group subjects compared with control subjects. The adjusted absenteeism rate for respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups. Norovirus was the only virus detected and was found less frequently on surfaces in intervention classrooms compared with control classrooms (9% vs 29%). A multifactorial intervention including hand sanitizer and surface disinfection

  17. Effect Evaluation of a Randomized Trial to Reduce Infectious Illness and Illness-related Absenteeism Among Schoolchildren: The Hi Five Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Andersen, Anette; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Laursen, Bjarne; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Johansen, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Previous school-based hand hygiene interventions have reported to successfully reduce infectious illness among schoolchildren. But few studies have tested the effect in large populations with adequate statistical power and analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a school-based multicomponent intervention to improve handwashing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools. Infectious illness days, infectious illness episodes and illness-related absenteeism were estimated in multilevel regressions, based on available cases of text messages answered by parents and based on questionnaire data reported by schoolchildren, respectively. At follow-up, children in the intervention schools did not differ from the control schools in number of illness days [odds ratio (OR)I-arm I: 0.91 (0.77-1.07) and ORI-arm II: 0.94 (0.79-1.12)] and illness episodes [ORI-arm I: 0.95 (0.81-1.11) and ORI-arm II: 0.98 (0.84-1.16)] or in reporting illness-related absenteeism [ORI-arm I: 1.09 (0.83-1.43) & ORI-arm II: 1.06 (0.81-1.40)]. The multicomponent Hi Five intervention achieved no difference in the number of illness days, illness episodes or illness-related absenteeism among children in intervention schools compared with control schools. It is noteworthy that one of the main components in the intervention, a mandatory daily handwashing before lunch, was only implemented by 1 of 3 of teachers in intervention schools.

  18. Improving Educational Outcomes & Reducing Absenteeism at Remote Villages with Mobile Technology and WhatsAPP: Findings from Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedungadi, Prema; Mulki, Karunya; Raman, Raghu

    2018-01-01

    Reduction of teacher and student absenteeism, together with consistent teacher support and training, are critical factors in improving the quality of education in rural India. As part of an ongoing project involving schools and educational centers in rural areas spread across 21 Indian states, this study investigated how implementation of two…

  19. Family employees and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke; Jörn Block; Jose Maria Millan; Concepcion Roman

    2014-01-01

    Work effort varies greatly across employees, as evidenced by substantial differences in absence rates. Moreover, absenteeism causes sizeable output losses. Using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), this paper investigates absence behavior of family employees, i.e. workers who are employed in enterprises owned by a relative. Our estimates indicate that being a family employee instead of a regular employee in the private sector significantly reduces both the probability and...

  20. Mineral transformations during the dissolution of uranium ore minerals by dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, S.; Weidler, P.; Fakra, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Shuh, D.

    2011-12-01

    Carnotite minerals [X2(UO2)2(VO4)2]; X = K, Ca, Ba, Mn, Na, Cu or Pb] form the major ore of uranium in the Colorado Plateau. These deposits are highly oxidized and contain U(VI) and V(IV). The biotransformation of U(VI) bound in carnotite by bacteria during dissimilatory metal reduction presents a complex puzzle in mineral chemistry. Both U(VI) and V(V) can be respired by metal reducing bacteria, and the mineral structure can change depending on the associated counterion. We incubated anaerobic cultures of S. putrefaciens CN32 with natural carnotite minerals from southeastern Utah in a nutrient-limited defined medium. Strain CN32 is a gram negative bacterium and a terrestrial isolate from New Mexico. The mineral and metal transformations were compared to a system that contained similar concentrations of soluble U(VI) and V(V). Electron (SEM, TEM) microscopies and x-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) were used in conjunction with XRD to track mineral changes, and bacterial survival was monitored throughout the incubations. Slow rates of metal reduction over 10 months for the treatment with carnotite minerals revealed distinct biotic and abiotic processes, providing insight on mineral transformation and bacteria-metal interactions. The bacteria existed as small flocs or individual cells attached to the mineral phase, but did not adsorb soluble U or V, and accumulated very little of the biominerals. Reduction of mineral V(V) necessarily led to a dismantling of the carnotite structure. Bioreduction of V(V) by CN32 contributed small but profound changes to the mineral system, resulting in new minerals. Abiotic cation exchange within the carnotite group minerals induced the rearrangement of the mineral structures, leading to further mineral transformation. In contrast, bacteria survival was poor for treatments with soluble U(VI) and V(V), although both metals were reduced completely and formed solid UO2 and VO2; we also detected V(III). For these treatments, the bacteria

  1. Early-Years Absenteeism Seen as Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    While efforts to reduce chronic absenteeism typically focus on adolescents, experts say that the early grades are the place to start. Statistics show that rates of absenteeism in kindergarten and 1st grade can rival those in high school. An average of one in 10 pupils in grades K-12 nationwide is considered chronically absent, defined as missing…

  2. A process for reducing rocks and concentrating heavy minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Thomas R.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.

    2016-03-30

    To obtain minerals suitable for age-dating and other analyses, it is necessary to first reduce the mineral-bearing rock to a fine, sand-like consistency. Reducing whole rock requires crushing, grinding, and sieving. Ideally, the reduced material should range in size from 80- to 270-mesh (an opening between wires in a sieve). The openings in an 80-mesh sieve are equal to 0.007 inches, 0.177 millimeters, or 177 micrometers. This size range ensures that compound grains are mostly disaggregated and that grains, in general, are dimensionally similar. This range also improves the segregation rate of conspicuous to extremely small individual heavy mineral grains.

  3. Investigation to identify the inhibitors and facilitators of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment / Dianne Williamson

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the facilitators and inhibitors of excessive absenteeism in a mining environment. Absenteeism can be one of the most important human resource issues in any organisation. Absenteeism can be really difficult, but with good understanding of what causes absenteeism and how to reduce it, organisations can limit the negative side effects of employee attendance issues. Absenteeism is not only a behaviour caused by an individual's character...

  4. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Absenteeism, efficiency wages, and marginal taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Dale-Olsen, Harald

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I test the argument that increased taxes on earnings correspond to increased incentives to shirk, thus causing an increase in the rate of worker absenteeism. After fixed job effects are taken into account, panel register data on prime-age Norwegian males who work full-time show that a higher marginal net-of-earnings-tax rate reduces the rate of absenteeism. When the net-of-tax rate is increased by 1.0 percent, absenteeism decreases by 0.3−0.5 percent. Injury-related absences ar...

  6. Battling Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Kim

    2016-01-01

    While the principal of a New York elementary school (P.S. 48) took on chronic absenteeism from 2011 to 2013, a research team at the Center for New York City Affairs followed her efforts. The school drove down chronic absenteeism almost 10 percentage points. School staff routinely touched base with students, outside "success mentors"…

  7. Effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' fairness perceptions, discomfort feelings and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudine, Alice; Saks, Alan M; Dawe, Doreen; Beaton, Marilyn

    2013-04-01

    A longitudinal field experiment was conducted to test the effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' (1) fairness perceptions, (2) discomfort feelings and (3) absenteeism. Nurses' obstacles to reducing absenteeism were also explored. Absenteeism is a significant issue in health care and there is a need to avoid interventions that are seen to be negative, punitive or lead to sick nurses coming to work. Sixty-nine nurses working in a hospital in Eastern Canada received either: (1) absenteeism feedback with individual goal-setting, (2) absenteeism feedback with group goal-setting, or (3) no intervention, and were asked questions about how they could reduce their absenteeism. There was a significant decrease in the total number of days absent but no decrease in absent episodes, and a significant effect on fairness perceptions and discomfort feelings for the nurses in the absenteeism feedback conditions. Six categories of obstacles to reducing absenteeism were identified. The interventions made nurses feel their absence rate was less fair and to experience greater feelings of discomfort. The study's interventions may lead to a reduction in absence without the negative outcomes of a harsh absenteeism policy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Extensive medical absenteeism among secondary school students : An observational study on their health condition from a biopsychosocial perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots, M.C.; Feron, F.

    2015-01-01

    An adequate approach to reducing school absenteeism should focus on medical absenteeism as this is the most prevalent form of school absenteeism. The objective of this study is to explore the health condition of pre-vocational secondary students with extensive medical absenteeism from a

  9. Obesity, diet quality and absenteeism in a working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between workplace absenteeism and adverse lifestyle factors (smoking, physical inactivity and poor dietary patterns) remains ambiguous. Reliance on self-reported absenteeism and obesity measures may contribute to this uncertainty. Using objective absenteeism and health status measures, the present study aimed to investigate what health status outcomes and lifestyle factors influence workplace absenteeism. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a complex workplace dietary intervention trial, the Food Choice at Work Study. Four multinational manufacturing workplaces in Cork, Republic of Ireland. Participants included 540 randomly selected employees from the four workplaces. Annual count absenteeism data were collected. Physical assessments included objective health status measures (BMI, midway waist circumference and blood pressure). FFQ measured diet quality from which DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) scores were constructed. A zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) regression model examined associations between health status outcomes, lifestyle characteristics and absenteeism. The mean number of absences was 2·5 (sd 4·5) d. After controlling for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, the zinb model indicated that absenteeism was positively associated with central obesity, increasing expected absence rate by 72 %. Consuming a high-quality diet and engaging in moderate levels of physical activity were negatively associated with absenteeism and reduced expected frequency by 50 % and 36 %, respectively. Being in a managerial/supervisory position also reduced expected frequency by 50 %. To reduce absenteeism, workplace health promotion policies should incorporate recommendations designed to prevent and manage excess weight, improve diet quality and increase physical activity levels of employees.

  10. Reduced bone mineral density in Chinese children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kundi; Shen, Ming; Li, Honglei; Li, Xiaowen; He, Chun

    2017-05-24

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Dietary control of classic PKU needs restriction of natural proteins. The diet results in unbalanced nutrition, which might affect the physical development of the patients. Our aim was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in children with PKU. To investigate the BMD of children with PKU, 41 children with PKU and 64 healthy controls were recruited (all 3-4 years of age). Body weight and height, BMD, Phe blood levels, thyroid function, calcium, phosphorus, iron metabolism markers, and vitamin D3 were measured. Body height and BMD of patients were lower than in controls. The BMD of controls was positively associated with age, body weight and height. In patients, BMD was positively associated with body weight. There was no correlation between Phe blood levels and BMD in patients. Blood levels of alkaline phosphatase were higher in patients compared to controls. Blood calcium levels were higher in 4-year-old patients, while the body weight was lower compared to controls. Thyroid function, iron metabolism markers, vitamin D3 levels and IGF-1 levels were normal. Reduced BMD was observed in children with phenylketonuria, but the exact reasons for this remain to be elucidated.

  11. Tackling Absenteeism in Chicago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Elaine; Evans, Shayne

    2016-01-01

    Incisive research from the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute on the prevalence and consequences of absenteeism in Chicago schools has highlighted the dramatic effects of even moderate amounts of absences on grades, graduation rates, and student success in college. These insights spurred not only an ambitious 98% attendance goal on…

  12. Alternative medicine, worker health, and absenteeism in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybczynski, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Health related absenteeism costs an estimated $153 billion annually in the United States (Witters and Agrawal, 2011). 1 Chronic conditions (major contributors to absenteeism) are often successfully managed by Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). As CAM becomes an increasingly visible component of healthcare, firms may wish to consider whether CAM therapies can help reduce illness-related absenteeism. This paper aims to extend the literature on healthcare utilization and absenteeism by exploring whether CAM treatment is associated with fewer workdays missed due to illness. Using the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and propensity score matching (PSM), this study estimates the relationship between visits to CAM practitioners, health, and illness-related absenteeism. In a sample of 8820 workers, the average annual number of workdays lost due to illness is 3.69. Visiting an acupuncturist correlates with lower absenteeism among men (1.182 fewer workdays missed, pabsenteeism, and many correlate with improved health. Two limitations of this study are worth noting. First, a small proportion of the sample uses CAM, limiting the generalizability of results. Second, if health conscious individuals are more likely to use CAM, then health attitudes may be contributing to lower absenteeism among the treated. Further research is needed to identify a causal relationship between CAM treatment, health, and absenteeism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Preventing absenteeism at the workplace in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, C.V. van; Gründemann, R.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper, presented at the ninth European Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology, Helsinki, Finland, 12-15 May 1999, gives the results of a study to document the processes and mechanisms of workplace initiatives to reduce absenteeism related with ill health, by identifying the methods used

  14. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerals are important for your body to stay healthy. Your body uses minerals for many different jobs, including keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain working properly. Minerals are also important for making enzymes and hormones. ...

  15. How job demands affect absenteeism? The mediating role of work-family conflict and exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Guglielmi, Dina; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how psychosocial factors (such as job demands and work-family conflict) produce absenteeism in the workplace, using the health impairment process of the job demands-resources model. According to this model, job demands lead to burnout (often measured with the emotional exhaustion component), which in turn could lead to outcomes (such as absenteeism). Work-family conflict (WFC) was also studied, because of contradictory results collected in the existing literature on absenteeism in the workplace, regarding the role of WFC in causing absenteeism. Data were collected on 245 workers using both subjective (questionnaire on psychological risk factors and work-related health) and objective data (sickness leave frequency records). To test the hypothesis that job demands and WFC contribute to absenteeism in the workplace, a subsequent mediation analysis was used, which analysed both (a) the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion and (b) the separate roles played by the mediators proposed (WFC and emotional exhaustion). Job demands affect absenteeism through the subsequent mediation of WFC and emotional exhaustion. In addition, emotional exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and absenteeism, while WFC does not. In conclusion, subsequent mediation highlights the role of emotional exhaustion in causing absenteeism; in fact, when emotional exhaustion is included in the analysis, job demands are associated with higher levels of absenteeism. The results of this study suggest that without the concurrent contribution of emotional exhaustion, WFC does not influence absenteeism in the workplace. Our findings are useful for organizations that aim to reduce absenteeism.

  16. Organization, relational justice and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzer, Ulrich; Åborg, Carl; Johansson, Gun; Svartengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for more knowledge on how to manage companies towards healthier and more prosperous organizations with low levels of absenteeism. Relational Justice can be a useful concept when managing such organizations. Organizational factors can help to explain why some companies have relatively low absenteeism rates, even though they are equal to other companies in many other aspects. Previous studies suggest that management may be one important factor. Efficient management may depend on good relations between the leaders and the employees. The concept of Relational Justice is designed to capture these relations. Consequently, a Relational Justice framework may be used to understand why some companies have a low incidence of absenteeism. Managers from a representative body of Swedish companies. Interviews were analyzed to explore whether the items representing the concept of Relational Justice can be used to further understand the strategies, procedures and structures that characterize organizations and management in companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. Strategies, procedures or principles related to Relational Justice were common and highlighted in companies with an incidence of absenteeism. The most frequently occurring factors were; to be treated with kindness and consideration, personal viewpoint considered and to be treated impartially. The results suggested that a Relational Justice framework could be used to increase understanding of the organizational and managerial factors typical for companies with a low incidence of absenteeism. A Relational Justice approach to organizational management may be used to successfully lower absenteeism, change organizations and promote healthy and prosperous companies.

  17. When the management of nurse absenteeism becomes a cause of absenteeism: a study based on a comparison of two health care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damart, Sébastien; Kletz, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to explore perceptions of the causes of nurse absenteeism. Nurse absenteeism is rising in many countries. However, there is little evidence as to how strategies adopted in order to cushion the effects of absenteeism on workload influence absenteeism itself. The study used a 'qualitative' method based on cognitive mapping techniques in order to represent perceptions about absenteeism graphically. The study was conducted in two health-care facilities with a sample of 55 interviewees. Absenteeism is due in part to strategies adopted in order to cushion the effects of absenteeism on organisations. Furthermore, the strategies are self-legitimising. The more they are used, the more they are regarded as normal and useful. A plan to reduce absenteeism among nurses must explicitly take into account the strategies used to cushion its impact. To cushion the effects of absenteeism among caregivers, managers must make trade-offs that take into account, for example, the workload or disruption linked to the substitution of personnel. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors for preventing staff absenteeism during pandemic influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, VJ; Chen, MI

    2007-01-01

    We used a deterministic SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed) meta-population model, together with scenario, sensitivity, and simulation analyses, to determine stockpiling strategies for neuraminidase inhibitors that would minimize absenteeism among healthcare workers. A pandemic with a basic reproductive number (R0) of 2.5 resulted in peak absenteeism of 10%. Treatment decreased peak absenteeism to 8%, while 8 weeks' prophylaxis reduced it to 2%. For pandemics with higher R0, peak ab...

  19. Reducing the cadmium content of crude phosphates and mineral fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessen, H von; Schimmel, G

    1987-10-01

    Crude sedimentary phosphates generally contain cadmium together with traces of other heavy metals. These Cd traces generally end up in fertilizers produced from the crude phosphates. Processes have therefore been developed to separate the Cd from the crude phosphate or from the crude phosphoric acids arising therefrom as intermediates. In this way, the Cd content of the crude phosphate can be reduced to less the 10% of its original value, and to 50% thereof by extractive treatment with acidic calcium nitrate solution. Older calcination processes for crude phosphate have been improved to give residual Cd contents of 10 to 50% at temperatures of 800 to 1000/sup 0/C. Cadmium can be removed almost quantitatively from crude phosphate by means of dialkyl dithiophosphoric acid esters by extraction, binding to adsorbents, or ion flotation. Cadmium can be extracted from crude acids in high yield by long-chained amines. After partial neutralization of the crude acids, precipitation as cadmium sulphide is also possible.

  20. An empirical investigation into health sector absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vivienne; Bamford, David

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to consider why absenteeism in Health and Social Care is so high and to suggest proactive changes in organization activity to address this. The research took a multimethod approach with a quantitative emphasis; there were three parts: (i) quantitative survey questionnaire; (ii) analysis of absenteeism and related secondary data; and (iii) qualitative data from other questions in survey and discussion groups. The quantitative emphasis in the research is appropriate, given the gap identified in the literature. Perceived limitations are that the study considers just one part of the overall system. The research indicates that managers underestimate staff absence levels and almost half believe absenteeism cannot reduce. Professional managers were more negative and over half of nurse managers believed that absence could not reduce. Unless there is a systematic systemic change in organizations, which changes managers' attitudes and understanding of absence with a consequent change in activity across the absence continuum, there is no prospect of a sustained reduction in absence levels. Manager impact and role in absence management are poorly covered in research, so this research helps inform those gaps.

  1. Development of the Workplace Health Savings Calculator: a practical tool to measure economic impact from reduced absenteeism and staff turnover in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Siyan; Campbell, Sharon; Sanderson, Kristy; Cazaly, Carl; Venn, Alison; Owen, Carole; Palmer, Andrew J

    2015-09-18

    Workplace health promotion is focussed on improving the health and wellbeing of workers. Although quantifiable effectiveness and economic evidence is variable, workplace health promotion is recognised by both government and business stakeholders as potentially beneficial for worker health and economic advantage. Despite the current debate on whether conclusive positive outcomes exist, governments are investing, and business engagement is necessary for value to be realised. Practical tools are needed to assist decision makers in developing the business case for workplace health promotion programs. Our primary objective was to develop an evidence-based, simple and easy-to-use resource (calculator) for Australian employers interested in workplace health investment figures. Three phases were undertaken to develop the calculator. First, evidence from a literature review located appropriate effectiveness measures. Second, a review of employer-facilitated programs aimed at improving the health and wellbeing of employees was utilised to identify change estimates surrounding these measures, and third, currently available online evaluation tools and models were investigated. We present a simple web-based calculator for use by employers who wish to estimate potential annual savings associated with implementing a successful workplace health promotion program. The calculator uses effectiveness measures (absenteeism and staff turnover rates) and change estimates sourced from 55 case studies to generate the annual savings an employer may potentially gain. Australian wage statistics were used to calculate replacement costs due to staff turnover. The calculator was named the Workplace Health Savings Calculator and adapted and reproduced on the Healthy Workers web portal by the Australian Commonwealth Government Department of Health and Ageing. The Workplace Health Savings Calculator is a simple online business tool that aims to engage employers and to assist participation

  2. Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aren't minerals something you find in the earth, like iron and quartz? Well, yes, but small ... canned salmon and sardines with bones leafy green vegetables, such as broccoli calcium-fortified foods — from orange ...

  3. Effects of a stress management intervention on absenteeism and return to work--results from a randomized wait-list controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Morten Vejs; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    High levels of work-related stress are associated with increased absenteeism from work and reduced work ability. In this study, we investigated the effects of a stress management intervention on absenteeism and return to work.......High levels of work-related stress are associated with increased absenteeism from work and reduced work ability. In this study, we investigated the effects of a stress management intervention on absenteeism and return to work....

  4. Increased vertebral bone mineral in response to reduced exercise in amenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, J S; Powell, M R; Hunt, M M; Ducey, D E; Wade, C E

    1987-01-01

    Seven female runners found to have exercise-induced amenorrhea and decreased bone mineral were reevaluated after 15 months. During the 15-month period, four runners took supplemental calcium and reduced their weekly running distance by 43%, resulting in an average 5% increase in body weight, increased estradiol levels and eumenorrhea. Bone mineral content increased from 1.003+/-0.097 to 1.070+/-0.089 grams per cm.(2) Three runners continued to have amenorrhea, with no change in running distance or body weight. Estradiol levels remained abnormally low and there was no significant change in the bone mineral content, although all three took supplemental calcium. We found that early osteopenia associated with exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction improved when runners reduced their running distance, gained weight and became eumenorrheic.

  5. A Randomized Experiment Using Absenteeism Information to "Nudge" Attendance. REL 2017-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Todd; Duncan, Teresa; Wolford, Tonya; Ternovski, John; Subramanyam, Shruthi; Reitano, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    Reducing student absenteeism is a key part of the School District of Philadelphia's plan to boost graduation rates. One of the district's goals is to increase guardians' awareness of absenteeism, with the hope that greater awareness will lead to guardians' taking a more active role in improving their student's attendance and academic performance.…

  6. Preventing absenteeism at the workplace : a European portfolio of case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gründemann, R.W.M.; Vuuren, C.V. van

    1998-01-01

    Ill-health is the main cause of workplace absenteeism yet relatively few enterprises have addressed this issue systematically. This portfolio of initiatives to prevent or reduce ill-health associated with absenteeism shows in some detail how leading business have developed innovative approaches to

  7. Struggle with School Absenteeism in Compulsory Education: Different Country Approaches and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbasli, Sait; Sahin, Mehmet; Yilmaz, St. Pinar Mardin

    2017-01-01

    This research has been conducted to discuss the absenteeism in compulsory education and the proposed policies for reducing this problem with the school practices. In this context, the general situation regarding the absenteeism in the Turkish education system has been put forward and the current practices and policies have been addressed.…

  8. "When" Students Miss School: The Role of Timing of Absenteeism on Students' Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Kirksey, J. Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Policy and practice have charged forward with emphasizing the necessity to reduce school absenteeism in the fall (i.e., Attendance Awareness Month). However, no empirical basis served to bolster these efforts. This study examined whether fall versus spring absenteeism was linked to spring state exam scores for a sample of elementary students over…

  9. Detecting reduced bone mineral density from dental radiographs using statistical shape models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, P.D.; Graham, J.; Farnell, D.J.J.; Harrison, E.J.; Jacobs, R.; Nicopoulou-Karyianni, K.; Lindh, C.; van der Stelt, P.F.; Horner, K.; Devlin, H.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a novel method of estimating reduced bone mineral density (BMD) from dental panoramic tomograms (DPTs), which show the entire mandible. Careful expert width measurement of the inferior mandibular cortex has been shown to be predictive of BMD in hip and spine osteopenia and osteoporosis.

  10. Iron minerals formed by dissimilatory iron-and sulfur reducing bacteria studied by Moessbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chistyakova, N. I.; Rusakov, V. S.; Nazarova, K. A.; Koksharov, Yu. A.; Zavarzina, D. G.; Greneche, J.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Zero-field and in-field Moessbauer investigations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements to follow the kinetics of the iron mineral formation by thermophilic dissimilatory anaerobic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (strain Z-0001) and anaerobic alkaliphilic bacteria (strain Z-0531) were carried out.

  11. Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquero, M. P.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible changes in the mineral composition of food during frying could be the consequence of losses by leaching, or changes in concentrations caused by exchanges between the food and culinary fat of other compounds. The net result depends on the type of food, the frying fat used and the frying process. Moreover, the modifications that frying produces in other nutrients could indirectly affect the availability of dietary minerals. The most outstanding ones are those that can take place in the fat or in the protein. With respect to the interactions between frying oils and minerals, we have recent knowledge concerning the effects of consuming vegetable oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without turnover, on the nutritive utilization of dietary minerals. The experiments have been carried out in pregnant and growing rats, which consumed diets containing, as a sole source of fat, the testing frying oils or unused oils. It seems that the consumption of various frying oils, with a polar compound content lower or close to the maximum limit of 25% accepted for human consumption, does not alter the absorption and metabolism of calcium, phosphorous, iron or copper. Magnesium absorption from diets containing frying oils tends to increase but the urinary excretion of this element increases, resulting imperceptible the variations in the magnesium balance. The urinary excretion of Zn also increased although its balance remained unchanged. Different studies referring to the effects of consuming fried fatty fish on mineral bioavailability will also be presented. On one hand, frying can cause structural changes in fish protein, which are associated with an increase in iron absorption and a decrease in body zinc retention. The nutritive utilization of other elements such as magnesium, calcium and copper seems to be unaffected. On the other hand; it has been described that an excess of fish fatty acids in the diet produces iron depletion, but when fatty

  12. Study in determining optimum conditions for reducing NORM in Malaysian zircon mineral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2002-01-01

    Malaysian zircon contains higher level of NORM especially uranium and thorium than the permissible level set by many importing countries. These elements are present mainly on the mineral surface as well as in its crystal lattice. A study was conducted using selective leaching to reduce NORM content in the mineral. Various parameters such as temperature, time, concentration of leachants, particle size and heat treatment affect the rate of leaching. Optimum conditions for these parameters were determined in order for maximum reduction will be obtained. (Author)

  13. Increased Vertebral Bone Mineral in Response to Reduced Exercise in Amenorrheic Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Jill S.; Hunt, Marjorie M.; Wade, Charles E.; Powell, Malcolm R.; Ducey, Diane E.

    1987-01-01

    Seven female runners found to have exercise-induced amenorrhea and decreased bone mineral were reevaluated after 15 months. During the 15-month period, four runners took supplemental calcium and reduced their weekly running distance by 43%, resulting in an average 5% increase in body weight, increased estradiol levels and eumenorrhea. Bone mineral content increased from 1.003±0.097 to 1.070±0.089 grams per cm.2 Three runners continued to have amenorrhea, with no change in running distance or ...

  14. Employee no-shows: managing library absenteeism.

    OpenAIRE

    Wygant, L J

    1988-01-01

    Employee absenteeism is a problem faced by all library administrators. This paper describes the development, implementation, and results of a program to discourage absenteeism at the Moody Medical Library of the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. The important role of library administrators and supervisors in controlling absenteeism is emphasized.

  15. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B; Ali, Y; Fendler, E; Dolan, M; Donovan, S

    2000-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for elementary school students. This study involved 5 individual school districts, 16 individual schools, and more than 6000 students in Delaware, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. Individual schools in each district were paired into product and control groups. In the product group schools, an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the students and staff when entering and leaving the classroom. Absenteeism due to infection was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The overall reduction in absenteeism due to infection in the schools included in this study was 19.8% for schools that used an alcohol gel hand sanitizer compared with the control schools (P sanitizer was used. Elementary school absenteeism due to infection is significantly reduced when an alcohol gel hand sanitizer is used in the classroom as part of a hand hygiene program.

  16. Alcohol- and drug-related absenteeism: a costly problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria

    2016-06-01

    Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Workplace smoking related absenteeism and productivity costs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S P; Wen, C P; Hu, S C; Cheng, T Y; Huang, S J

    2005-06-01

    To estimate productivity losses and financial costs to employers caused by cigarette smoking in the Taiwan workplace. The human capital approach was used to calculate lost productivity. Assuming the value of lost productivity was equal to the wage/salary rate and basing the calculations on smoking rate in the workforce, average days of absenteeism, average wage/salary rate, and increased risk and absenteeism among smokers obtained from earlier research, costs due to smoker absenteeism were estimated. Financial losses caused by passive smoking, smoking breaks, and occupational injuries were calculated. Using a conservative estimate of excess absenteeism from work, male smokers took off an average of 4.36 sick days and male non-smokers took off an average of 3.30 sick days. Female smokers took off an average of 4.96 sick days and non-smoking females took off an average of 3.75 sick days. Excess absenteeism caused by employee smoking was estimated to cost USD 178 million per annum for males and USD 6 million for females at a total cost of USD 184 million per annum. The time men and women spent taking smoking breaks amounted to nine days per year and six days per year, respectively, resulting in reduced output productivity losses of USD 733 million. Increased sick leave costs due to passive smoking were approximately USD 81 million. Potential costs incurred from occupational injuries among smoking employees were estimated to be USD 34 million. Financial costs caused by increased absenteeism and reduced productivity from employees who smoke are significant in Taiwan. Based on conservative estimates, total costs attributed to smoking in the workforce were approximately USD 1032 million.

  18. Absenteeism and Undergraduate Exam Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between student absenteeism during a principles of microeconomics course and subsequent performance on examinations. Finds that students who missed class on a given date were significantly more likely to respond incorrectly to questions relating to material covered that day than students who attended class. (RLH)

  19. Exploring the impact of staff absenteeism on patient satisfaction using routine databases in a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclay, E; Hardouin, J B; Sébille, V; Anthoine, E; Moret, L

    2015-10-01

    To explore the influence of staff absenteeism on patient satisfaction using the indicators available in management reports. Among factors explaining patient satisfaction, human resource indicators have been studied widely in terms of burnout or job satisfaction, but there have not been many studies related to absenteeism indicators. A multilevel analysis was conducted using two routinely compiled databases from 2010 in the clinical departments of a university hospital (France). The staff database monitored absenteeism for short-term medical reasons (5 days or less), non-medical reasons and absences starting at the weekend. The patient satisfaction database was established at the time of discharge. Patient satisfaction related to relationships with staff was significantly and negatively correlated with nurse absenteeism for non-medical reasons (P absenteeism starting at weekends (P absenteeism for short-term medical reasons (P absenteeism and should lead to a better understanding of the impact of human resources on patient satisfaction. To enhance patient satisfaction, managers need to find a way to reduce staff absenteeism, in order to avoid burnout and to improve the atmosphere in the workplace. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Chronic Student Absenteeism: The Critical Role of School Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathleen; Meeder, Linda; Voskuil, Vicki R

    2016-05-01

    Routine school attendance is necessary for youth to develop into well-educated, successful adult citizens who will make significant contributions to society. Yet over 5 million students in the United States are chronically absent missing more than 10% of school in a year. The growing problem of chronic absenteeism among youth can be linked to increases in chronic health conditions in childhood such as allergies, asthma, diabetes, and obesity. School nurses are in an ideal position to play a vital role in reducing chronic student absenteeism, enabling youth to achieve their maximum learning potential. However, the role of the school nurse has not historically been recognized as a key factor for assisting youth to be present and regularly engaged in school. This feature article highlights a hospital-funded school nurse program within the state of Michigan that has reduced chronic absenteeism rates by placing school nurses into schools where previously there were none. The program implemented a number of initiatives that were instrumental in increasing the health and safety of students and provides a unique "before and after" glimpse of how school nursing reduces chronic student absenteeism rates and validates the essential role of the nurse within the educational system. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Reduced quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Cournil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bone status in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART is poorly documented in resource-limited settings. We compared bone mineral density between HIV-infected patients and control subjects from Dakar, Senegal. METHODS: A total of 207 (134 women and 73 men HIV-infected patients from an observational cohort in Dakar (ANRS 1215 and 207 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population were enrolled. Bone mineral density was assessed by quantitative ultrasound (QUS at the calcaneus, an alternative to the reference method (i.e. dual X-absorptiometry, often not available in resource-limited countries. RESULTS: Mean age was 47.0 (±8.5 years. Patients had received ART for a median duration of 8.8 years; 45% received a protease inhibitor and 27% tenofovir; 84% had undetectable viral load. Patients had lower body mass index (BMI than controls (23 versus 26 kg/m(2, P<0.001. In unadjusted analysis, QUS bone mineral density was lower in HIV-infected patients than in controls (difference: -0.36 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI: -0.59;-0.12, P = 0.003. Adjusting for BMI, physical activity, smoking and calcium intake attenuated the difference (-0.27, CI: -0.53;-0.002, P = 0.05. Differences in BMI between patients and controls explained a third of the difference in QUS bone mineral density. Among patients, BMI was independently associated with QUS bone mineral density (P<0.001. An association between undetectable viral load and QUS bone density was also suggested (β = 0.48, CI: 0.02;0.93; P = 0.04. No association between protease inhibitor or tenofovir use and QUS bone mineral density was found. CONCLUSION: Senegalese HIV-infected patients had reduced QUS bone mineral density in comparison with control subjects, in part related to their lower BMI. Further investigation is needed to clarify the clinical significance of these observations.

  2. Effects of best practices to reduce sickness absenteeism in health care and welfare institutions : paper presented at the 10th EAWOP Congress in Prague (May 16-19, 2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, C.V. van; Gent, M.J. van; Frank, N.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper was presented at the tenth Congress on Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP Congress) in Prague (May 16-19, 2001) and is based on a study among 1,600 employees in health care and welfare institutions, to find out what these institutions do about absenteeism and to see if whatever

  3. Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness or Injury Among Children and Adolescents: NHANES 2003 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Frith, Emily

    2018-03-01

    To examine the association between objectively measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity with school absenteeism due to illness or injury among children and adolescents. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006. A total of 1249 children (aged 6-11 years) and 1747 adolescents (aged 12-17 years). School absenteeism was categorized as no/minimal school absenteeism (0-8 missed school days in the past 12 months), moderate absenteeism (9-17 missed days), or severe absenteeism (18+ missed days). Physical activity was objectively measured via accelerometry. Multinomial logistic regression. Children in the most active quartile had 89% reduced odds of severe absenteeism relative to the least active quartile (odds ratio [OR]: 0.11; 0.95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02-0.48); results were similar for MVPA. For adolescents, those in the most active quartile for MVPA had a 41% reduced odds of having moderate (vs no/minimal) absenteeism (OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-0.99). For children, a multiplicative interaction effect of MVPA and poverty level on severe absenteeism was observed (OR = 0.98, P = .02). Higher levels of physical activity were associated with lower odds of severe school absenteeism. Such an observation is important, as school absenteeism strongly contributes to academic performance. Particular attention for promoting physical activity and closely monitoring school absenteeism among youth below the poverty level may be warranted.

  4. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  5. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an intervention designed to reduce rates of chronic student absenteeism in New York City public schools. The study authors reported that schools participating in the intervention experienced greater reductions in rates of student chronic absenteeism than the comparison schools. Students who attended the…

  6. Can Health Insurance Reduce School Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Gunton, Bradley; Kalbacher, Dylan; Seltzer, Jed; Wesolowski, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Enacted in 1997, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) represented the largest expansion of U.S. public health care coverage since the passage of Medicare and Medicaid 32 years earlier. Although the program has recently been reauthorized, there remains a considerable lack of thorough and well-designed evaluations of the program. In…

  7. Predictors of job satisfaction and absenteeism in two samples of Hong Kong nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Oi-Ling

    2002-10-01

    reduce distress, which in turn will reduce absenteeism.

  8. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  9. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drewniak Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  10. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding "Greenness" on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-02-20

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM 2.5 ) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012-2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM 2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% ( p value absenteeism rates, and a 1 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5 during the academic year was associated with a 1.58% ( p value absenteeism rates. Based on these percentage changes in chronic absenteeism, a 0.15 increase in NDVI and 1 μg/m³ increase in PM 2.5 correspond to 25,837 fewer students and 15,852 more students chronically absent each year in Massachusetts respectively. These environmental impacts on absenteeism reinforce the need to protect green spaces and reduce air pollution around schools.

  11. Mental disorders absenteeism in the years 2004 and 2009 in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Patkovič Colarič

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absenteeism is a quality indicator of the negative health of the employed population. 6.7–8 % of total absenteeism in Slovenia is due to mental disorders.Methods: We have assembled and compared the lost working days because of mental disorders in Slovenia in the years 2004 and 2009. The absenteeism was calculated by using common denominator of 10,000 population. The full- and part-time (4 hours absenteeism from work were merged and calculated as calendar days.Results: The temporary absenteeism increased only in the cluster of reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders by 20 %. It decreased in schizophrenia (by 49 %, sequelae of alcohol abuse (by 46 %, psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia (by 40 %, anxiety disorders (by 35 %, first episodes of depression (by 24 % and recurrent depressive disorders (by 8 %.Conclusions: The absenteeism underwent the greatest decrease in the field of psychotic disorders that mostly affect personal functioning. But only a prospective study could give us a clear answer about the consequences of the reduced absenteeism due to mental disorders.

  12. Absenteeism- a complex problem: A study on absenteeism in Trondheim’s nursing homes

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josiane

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism is a community problem when one looks at the amount of money spent because of it, an amount that could have been used on other more important matters. For this thesis I set out to study absenteeism in nursing homes here in my town, Trondheim. I wanted to study the nursing homes with relatively low absenteeism rate and the nursing homes with relatively high absenteeism rate to see if I could find differences that could explain the differences in their absenteeism rates. Interviews ...

  13. Absenteeism in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Jensen, Troels Wendelboe

    2007-01-01

    and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country...... in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations. Originality/value - Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries...

  14. Characteristics of Absenteeism in Nursing Home Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Rosenthal, Alvin S.

    This study investigated factors associated with absenteeism among nursing staff (N=219) at a long-term care facility. Four absenteeism measures were calculated from personnel records for each month of the year: no pay (the sum of unscheduled, unpaid sick, and leave without pay), part day (the sum of arrived late and left early), paid sick, and…

  15. Impact of divorce on absenteeism levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, H.; Besseling, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in marital status may be linked with consecutive data on absenteeism from the occupational health services in the Netherlands. According to a recent study by TNO Work and Employment, it appears that divorce has an impact on absenteeism levels among employees. After a certain period following

  16. School Absenteeism through the Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Purtell, Kelly M.

    2018-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from the Family and Child Experiences Survey 2009 Cohort (n = 2,798), this study examined patterns of absenteeism and their consequences through the transition to kindergarten. Overall, children were less likely to be absent in kindergarten than from Head Start at ages 3 and 4. Absenteeism was fairly stable…

  17. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  18. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year−1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m−1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 → 4Fe2+ + 8e−) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e− + SO42− + 9H+ → HS− + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  19. Absenteeism due to Functional Limitations Caused by Seven Common Chronic Diseases in US Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Tam D; Wei, Feifei; Beverly, Claudia J

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the relationship between functional limitation due to chronic diseases and absenteeism among full-time workers. The studied chronic diseases include arthritis/rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, and stroke. We analyzed data from the 2011 to 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Economic impact was determined by workdays lost and lost income. Increase in absenteeism was observed for each studied condition. Employees with multiple conditions also saw increase absenteeism. Employers lose 28.2 million workdays annually ($4.95 billion in lost income) due to functional limitation caused by chronic diseases. The results show a burden on society due to functional limitation caused by studied chronic diseases. Employers should look into implementing intervention/prevention programs, such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs, to help reduce the cost associated with absenteeism.

  20. Minimization of Illness Absenteeism in Primary School Students Using Low-Cost Hygiene Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambekar DH

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Safe water and hygiene intervention was evaluated to assess its impact on students’ health, hygiene practices and reduction in illness absenteeism in primary school students. Method: After evaluatingprimary schools of Amravati district; 50 students with high enteric illness absenteeism were selected for study. Families with problem of in-house water contamination were provided earthen pot with tap for water storage and soap for hand washing at school and home. Household drinking waters (before and after intervention were analyzed for potability. Results: By adopting correct water storage (water container with tap, handling and hand washing practices found to improve health and reduction in 20% illness absenteeism in school. Promoting these interventions and improvement in water-behavioral practices prevented in-house-water contamination. Conclusion: These low cost intervention (water storage container with tap promises to reducing school absenteeism by minimizing risk of transmission of enteric infections by promoting water and student hygiene.

  1. Enzyme Supplementation of Broiler Feeds with Reduced Mineral and Energy Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT An experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating enzyme blends on the performance, carcass traits, and bone mineralization of broilers. In total, 928 one-day-old Cobb 500 male chicks of were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 29 birds each was adopted. The evaluated treatments were: 1- Positive Control (PC, feed containing the nutritional recommendations of the genetic company's manual; 2- Negative Control (NC, feed with reductions of 75 kcal/kg AME and 0.10 and 0.12 percent points of phosphorus and calcium, respectively; 3 - NC + enzyme blend (amylase + b-glucanase, xylanase, and phytase; 250 g/t of feed and 4 - NC + enzyme complex (phytase, amylase, xylanase, glucanase, pectinase, cellulase, and protease; 200 g/t of feed. Birds fed the diet with reduced nutrient levels (NC presented the worst performance (p0.05 carcass or parts yields. The broilers fed the reduced-nutrient and energy diet presented lower (p<0.05 tibial ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents that the other treatments. The use of enzyme combinations improved the performance of broilers fed diets with reduced nutrient and energy levels.

  2. Microbial reduction of structural iron in interstratified illite-smectite minerals by a sulfate-reducing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Dong, H; Bishop, M E; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Xie, S; Wang, S; Huang, L; Eberl, D D

    2012-03-01

    Clay minerals are ubiquitous in soils, sediments, and sedimentary rocks and could coexist with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in anoxic environments, however, the interactions of clay minerals and SRB are not well understood. The objective of this study was to understand the reduction rate and capacity of structural Fe(III) in dioctahedral clay minerals by a mesophilic SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris and the potential role in catalyzing smectite illitization. Bioreduction experiments were performed in batch systems, where four different clay minerals (nontronite NAu-2, mixed-layer illite-smectite RAr-1 and ISCz-1, and illite IMt-1) were exposed to D. vulgaris in a non-growth medium with and without anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and sulfate. Our results demonstrated that D. vulgaris was able to reduce structural Fe(III) in these clay minerals, and AQDS enhanced the reduction rate and extent. In the presence of AQDS, sulfate had little effect on Fe(III) bioreduction. In the absence of AQDS, sulfate increased the reduction rate and capacity, suggesting that sulfide produced during sulfate reduction reacted with the phyllosilicate Fe(III). The extent of bioreduction of structural Fe(III) in the clay minerals was positively correlated with the percentage of smectite and mineral surface area of these minerals. X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy results confirmed formation of illite after bioreduction. These data collectively showed that D. vulgaris could promote smectite illitization through reduction of structural Fe(III) in clay minerals. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leary, A C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.

  4. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, S. Lara

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  5. Total Reducing Capacity in Aquifer Minerals and Sediments: Quantifying the Potential to Attenuate Cr(VI) in Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisman, S. Lara [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-07-20

    Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is present in the environment as a byproduct of industrial processes. Due to its mobility and toxicity, it is crucial to attenuate or remove Cr(VI) from the environment. The objective of this investigation was to quantify potential natural attenuation, or reduction capacity, of reactive minerals and aquifer sediments. Samples of reduced-iron containing minerals such as ilmenite, as well as Puye Formation sediments representing a contaminated aquifer in New Mexico, were reacted with chromate. The change in Cr(VI) during the reaction was used to calculate reduction capacity. This study found that minerals that contain reduced iron, such as ilmenite, have high reducing capacities. The data indicated that sample history may impact reduction capacity tests due to surface passivation. Further, this investigation identified areas for future research including: a) refining the relationships between iron content, magnetic susceptibility and reduction capacity, and b) long term kinetic testing using fresh aquifer sediments.

  6. Cd Mobility in Anoxic Fe-Mineral-Rich Environments - Potential Use of Fe(III)-Reducing Bacteria in Soil Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E. M.; Adaktylou, I. J.; Obst, M.; Schröder, C.; Behrens, S.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tylsizczak, T.; Michel, F. M.; Krämer, U.; Kappler, A.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural soils are increasingly burdened with heavy metals such as Cd from industrial sources and impure fertilizers. Metal contaminants enter the food chain via plant uptake from soil and negatively affect human and environmental health. New remediation approaches are needed to lower soil metal contents. To apply these remediation techniques successfully, it is necessary to understand how soil microbes and minerals interact with toxic metals. Here we show that microbial Fe(III) reduction initially mobilizes Cd before its immobilization under anoxic conditions. To study how microbial Fe(III) reduction influences Cd mobility, we isolated a new Cd-tolerant, Fe(III)-reducing Geobacter sp. from a heavily Cd-contaminated soil. In lab experiments, this Geobacter strain first mobilized Cd from Cd-loaded Fe(III) hydroxides followed by precipitation of Cd-bearing mineral phases. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the original and newly formed Cd-containing Fe(II) and Fe(III) mineral phases, including Cd-Fe-carbonates, Fe-phosphates and Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, were identified and characterized. Using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, Cd was mapped in the Fe(II) mineral aggregates formed during microbial Fe(III) reduction. Microbial Fe(III) reduction mobilizes Cd prior to its precipitation in Cd-bearing mineral phases. The mobilized Cd could be taken up by phytoremediating plants, resulting in a net removal of Cd from contaminated sites. Alternatively, Cd precipitation could reduce Cd bioavailability in the environment, causing less toxic effects to crops and soil microbiota. However, the stability and thus bioavailability of these newly formed Fe-Cd mineral phases needs to be assessed thoroughly. Whether phytoremediation or immobilization of Cd in a mineral with reduced Cd bioavailability are feasible mechanisms to reduce toxic effects of Cd in the environment remains to be

  7. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Yang, Heidi Y; Deshpande, Bhushan R; Katz, Jeffrey N; Collins, Jamie E

    2017-01-01

    Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week), medium (75-149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  8. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    Full Text Available Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work.We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0-74 min/week, medium (75-149 min/week and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week. We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism.The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11, 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74 of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38 due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3-4.5 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7-7.2 fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism.Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism.

  9. Physical activity and unplanned illness-related work absenteeism: Data from an employee wellness program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heidi Y.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Collins, Jamie E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Illness-related absenteeism is a major threat to work productivity. Our objective was to assess the relationship between physical activity and unplanned illness-related absenteeism from work. Methods We implemented physical activity program for sedentary non-clinician employees of a tertiary medical center. Financial rewards were available for reaching accelerometer-measured ambulatory physical activity goals over a 24-week period. We categorized participants into three groups based on mean levels of physical activity: low (0–74 min/week), medium (75–149 min/week) and meeting CDC guidelines (≥150 min/week). We built a multivariable Poisson regression model to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and rates of unplanned illness-related absenteeism. Results The sample consisted of 292 employees who participated in the program. Their mean age was 38 years (SD 11), 83% were female, and 38% were obese. Over the 24 intervention weeks, participants engaged in a mean of 90 min/week (SD 74) of physical activity and missed a mean of 14 hours of work (SD 38) due to illness. Unplanned absenteeism due to illness was associated with physical activity. As compared to the group meeting CDC guidelines, in multivariable analyses those in the medium physical activity group had a 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.5) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism and those in the lowest physical activity group had a 3.5 (95% CI 1.7–7.2) fold higher rate of illness-related absenteeism. Discussion Less physical activity was associated with more illness-related absenteeism. Workforce-based interventions to increase physical activity may thus be a promising vehicle to reduce unplanned illness-related absenteeism. PMID:28472084

  10. Sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in lume district, southeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Sebsibe; Ebrahim, Kamil; Gizaw, Zemichael

    2015-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism is the major occupational health problem in developing countries where the majority of working population are engaged in hazardous sectors, such as agriculture. However, there is a dearth of studies clarifying the situation in most of Subsaharan African countries, like Ethiopia. The present study determined the magnitude of sickness absenteeism and associated factors among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia. An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted among horticulture employees in Lume District, southeast Ethiopia from March to May 2014. Stratified sampling followed by simple random sampling techniques was used to select the study participants. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Multivariable analyses were employed to see the effect of explanatory variables on dependent variable. The magnitude of sickness absenteeism was 58.8 % [95 % CI: (54.9, 62.5)] in the past three months. Absence of periodic medical checkup, working for more than 48 h per week, working overtime, job dissatisfaction, and job stress were factors significantly associated with sickness absenteeism. In this study a relatively higher rate of sickness absenteeism was reported compared to other studies. Interventions to reduce sickness absenteeism should focus on areas, such as periodic medical checkup, monitoring work schedules, improving employees' job satisfaction, and managing job stress.

  11. Factors influencing nurse absenteeism in a general hospital in Durban, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudaly, P; Nkosi, Z Z

    2015-07-01

    To establish reasons for absenteeism amongst professional nurses, enrolled nurses and enrolled nurse auxiliaries in a general hospital in Durban, in order to recommend strategies that could decrease absenteeism. Nurses endure increased workload, resulting in burnout and absenteeism in workplace environments that already suffer staff shortages. This study was a quantitative, non-experimental survey. The study population consisted of 60 nurses, including professional and enrolled nurses and enrolled nurse auxiliaries. The survey consisted of closed-ended questions to options of 'agree' and 'disagree' and an open-ended section. Family matters, lack of motivation to attend work, illness, finance, favouritism, unfriendly nurse managers, long work hours, increased workload, unsatisfactory work conditions, lack of equipment, unfair promotions and selection of nurses for training, staff shortages, lack of a reward system and incoherent decision-making caused nurse absenteeism. Personal, professional and organisational factors may cause nurse absenteeism, crippling the health sector further against the backdrop of human and mechanical resource shortage. Nurse managers have an important role in reducing absenteeism by addressing the employees' concerns, which can lead to productivity, increased staff morale, decreased medical hazards and satisfied patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. ABSENTEEISM AT WORK IN HOTEL EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Tous-Pallarès Pallarès

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Registered absenteeism has a psychosocial basis in which there are problems between the individual, the job and the quality of service requirements of the company. This paper analyzes the research studies that evaluate absentee behavior in the hotel and catering industry. The studies consulted usually use registered temporary sick leave (TSL as an indicator of employee absentee behavior. The results show that the impact of absenteeism can be minimized using different strategies: improving the processes of recruitment, selection and training of employees as much as possible and assessing individual differences and their contextual variables that are related to a better quality of service. The information obtained describes a situation similar to the one prior to the economic crisis

  13. Work Absenteeism Due to a Chronic Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Guy; Brouard, Marie-Ève

    2011-01-01

    Research on health-related work absenteeism focuses primarily on moral hazard issues but seldom discriminates between the types of illnesses that prompt workers to stay home or seek care. This paper focuses on chronic migraine, a common and acute illness that can prove to be relatively debilitating. Our analysis is based upon the absenteeism of workers employed in a large Fortune- 100 manufacturing firm in the United States. We model their daily transitions between work and absence spells bet...

  14. Reduced Bone Mineral Density in Children With Screening-detected Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Sara; Brundin, Charlotte; Karlsson, Magnus; Agardh, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether bone mass and metabolism are impaired in genetically at-risk children with screening-detected celiac disease. Included were 71 children with screening-detected celiac disease diagnosed at 10.0 ± 0.7 (mean ± standard deviation) years and 142 matched controls and 30 children with screening-detected celiac disease diagnosed at 3.3 ± 0.4 years of age presently on a gluten-free diet for 6.9 ± 1.1 years and 60 matched controls. All participants were assessed for bone mineral density (BMD) of total body and spine by dual x-ray absorptiometry, serum 25(OH) vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-15, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. At diagnosis, screening-detected celiac disease children as compared to controls had a mean -0.03 g/cm reduced BMD of both total body and spine (P = 0.009 and P = 0.005, respectively), a mean -11.4 nmol/L lower level of 25(OH) vitamin D3 (P celiac disease as compared to controls (P celiac disease have reduced BMD, lower levels of vitamin D3, higher levels of PTH, and signs of systemic inflammation compared with controls. These differences were not found in celiac disease children on a gluten-free diet, indicating that children with screening-detected celiac disease benefit from an early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Association Between Changes in the Angle of Mandible and Reduced Bone Mineral Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, D.; Sarwath, S.; Nigar, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish an association between the angle of mandible on an orthopantomogram (OPG) with reduced bone mineral density of femoral neck and spine on Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from December 2011 to July 2012. Methodology: Female subjects between 25 and 85 years of age were divided into premenopausal (Group-I) and postmenopausal (Group II) groups. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan was done to divide Group-I and Group-II into normal (pre A, post A), osteopenic (pre B, post B) and osteoporotic (pre C, post C) groups. Changes seen in angle of mandible on orthopantomogram (OPG) in subgroups of Group-I were compared with each other and with subgroups of Group-II. SPSS version 16 was used to carry out the statistical analysis. Intragroup significance was evaluated through One Way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). For intergroup significance independent samples t-test was applied. Results: The angle of mandible (A) was significantly decreased in Intragroup comparison of Group-II (0.035) between Post normal (Post A) vs. Post osteopenic (Post B) groups. Intergroup comparison between Group-I and Group-II (0.005) showed a significant decrease in angle of mandible between Pre osteopenic (Pre B) vs. Post osteopenic (Post B). Conclusion: As decrease in angle of mandible was observed at stage of osteopenia, it can be conveniently used for early detection of osteoporosis. (author)

  16. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012–2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% (p value absenteeism rates, and a 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during the academic year was associated with a 1.58% (p value absenteeism rates. Based on these percentage changes in chronic absenteeism, a 0.15 increase in NDVI and 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 correspond to 25,837 fewer students and 15,852 more students chronically absent each year in Massachusetts respectively. These environmental impacts on absenteeism reinforce the need to protect green spaces and reduce air pollution around schools. PMID:28230752

  17. Regulatory mechanisms for absenteeism in the health sector: a systematic review of strategies and their implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakye, Angela N; Tweheyo, Raymond; Ssengooba, Freddie; Pariyo, George W; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms aimed at mitigating health care worker absenteeism, to describe where and how they have been implemented as well as their possible effects. The goal was to propose potential policy options for managing the problem of absenteeism among human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries. Mechanisms described in this review are at the local workplace and broader national policy level. A comprehensive online search was conducted on EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Social Science Citation Index using MEDLINE search terms. Retrieved studies were uploaded onto reference manager and screened by two independent reviewers. Only publications in English were included. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the objectives of the review. Twenty six of the 4,975 published articles retrieved were included. All were from high-income countries and covered all cadres of health workers. The regulatory mechanisms and possible effects include 1) organizational-level mechanisms being reported as effective in curbing absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); 2) prohibition of private sector activities in LMICs offering benefits but presenting a challenge for the government to monitor the health workforce; 3) contractual changes from temporary to fixed posts having been associated with no reduction in absenteeism and not being appropriate for LMICs; 4) multifaceted work interventions being implemented in most settings; 5) the possibility of using financial and incentive regulatory mechanisms in LMICs; 6) health intervention mechanisms reducing absenteeism when integrated with exercise programs; and 7) attendance by legislation during emergencies being criticized for violating human rights in the United States and not being effective in curbing absenteeism. Most countries have applied multiple strategies to mitigate health care worker absenteeism. The success of these

  18. Regulatory mechanisms for absenteeism in the health sector: a systematic review of strategies and their implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisakye, Angela N; Tweheyo, Raymond; Ssengooba, Freddie; Pariyo, George W; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Kiwanuka, Suzanne N

    2016-01-01

    Background A systematic review was undertaken to identify regulatory mechanisms aimed at mitigating health care worker absenteeism, to describe where and how they have been implemented as well as their possible effects. The goal was to propose potential policy options for managing the problem of absenteeism among human resources for health in low- and middle-income countries. Mechanisms described in this review are at the local workplace and broader national policy level. Methods A comprehensive online search was conducted on EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, Google Scholar, Google, and Social Science Citation Index using MEDLINE search terms. Retrieved studies were uploaded onto reference manager and screened by two independent reviewers. Only publications in English were included. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the objectives of the review. Results Twenty six of the 4,975 published articles retrieved were included. All were from high-income countries and covered all cadres of health workers. The regulatory mechanisms and possible effects include 1) organizational-level mechanisms being reported as effective in curbing absenteeism in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); 2) prohibition of private sector activities in LMICs offering benefits but presenting a challenge for the government to monitor the health workforce; 3) contractual changes from temporary to fixed posts having been associated with no reduction in absenteeism and not being appropriate for LMICs; 4) multifaceted work interventions being implemented in most settings; 5) the possibility of using financial and incentive regulatory mechanisms in LMICs; 6) health intervention mechanisms reducing absenteeism when integrated with exercise programs; and 7) attendance by legislation during emergencies being criticized for violating human rights in the United States and not being effective in curbing absenteeism. Conclusion Most countries have applied multiple strategies to mitigate health care

  19. Investigation of In-situ Biogeochemical Reduction of Chlorinated Solvents in Groundwater by Reduced Iron Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biogeochemical transformation is a process in which chlorinated solvents are degraded abiotically by reactive minerals formed by, at least in part or indirectly from, anaerobic biological processes. Five mulch biowall and/or vegetable oil-based bioremediation applications for tr...

  20. Obesity, diet quality and absenteeism in a working population

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Kirby, Ann; Murphy, Aileen; Geaney, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Objective The relationship between workplace absenteeism and adverse lifestyle factors (smoking, physical inactivity and poor dietary patterns) remains ambiguous. Reliance on self-reported absenteeism and obesity measures may contribute to this uncertainty. Using objective absenteeism and health status measures, the present study aimed to investigate what health status outcomes and lifestyle factors influence workplace absenteeism. Design Cross-sectional data were obtained from a complex work...

  1. Timeliness of syndromic influenza surveillance through work and school absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Bollaerts, K; Antoine, J; Robesyn, E; Van Proeyen, L; Vomberg, J; Feys, E; De Decker, E; Catry, B

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of work and school absenteeism surveillance as an early warning system for influenza. In particular, time trends in daily absenteeism rates collected during the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic are compared with weekly incidence rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) obtained from the Belgian Sentinel General Practitioner (SGP) network. The results indicate a rise in absenteeism rates prior to the onset of the influenza epidemic, suggesting that absenteeism sur...

  2. THE CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gürbüz Ocak; İjlal Ocak; Emine A. Baysal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of high school students’ absenteeism. Survey method was used. The population was comprised of 531 students in the public high schools. The data was collected with "The Scale of Absenteeism Causes" developed by the researchers. Cronbach Alpha was calculated as α=0.936. Findings show the causes of students' absenteeism aren't related to school, students themselves and their parent, however, student absenteeism causes partly psychological reaso...

  3. Treatment of antimony mine drainage: challenges and opportunities with special emphasis on mineral adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchao; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi

    2016-01-01

    The present article summarizes antimony mine distribution, antimony mine drainage generation and environmental impacts, and critically analyses the remediation approach with special emphasis on iron oxidizing bacteria and sulfate reducing bacteria. Most recent research focuses on readily available low-cost adsorbents, such as minerals, wastes, and biosorbents. It is found that iron oxides prepared by chemical methods present superior adsorption ability for Sb(III) and Sb(V). However, this process is more costly and iron oxide activity can be inhibited by plenty of sulfate in antimony mine drainage. In the presence of sulfate reducing bacteria, sulfate can be reduced to sulfide and form Sb(2)S(3) precipitates. However, dissolved oxygen and lack of nutrient source in antimony mine drainage inhibit sulfate reducing bacteria activity. Biogenetic iron oxide minerals from iron corrosion by iron-oxidizing bacteria may prove promising for antimony adsorption, while the micro-environment generated from iron corrosion by iron oxidizing bacteria may provide better growth conditions for symbiotic sulfate reducing bacteria. Finally, based on biogenetic iron oxide adsorption and sulfate reducing bacteria followed by precipitation, the paper suggests an alternative treatment for antimony mine drainage that deserves exploration.

  4. Carbonated miscanthus mineralized aggregates for reducing environmental impact of lightweight concrete blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courard Luc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At a time when the cement industry is largely responsible for the production of CO2 in the construction sector, it is useful to make this production a reverse phenomenon: that is CO2 capture. The CO2 absorption process called carbonation, improves specific properties of the concrete during the conversion of carbon dioxide CO2 into calcium carbonate CaCO3. Current environmental concerns motivate the study of carbonation in order to maximize the absorption of carbon dioxide. Moreover, lightweight concrete with bio-based products knows an interesting development in the construction field, especially as thermal insulation panels for walls in buildings. Before identifying and quantifying the basic physical characteristics of concrete made from miscanthus, it is necessary to optimize the composition of the product. The long-term stability as well as the reinforcement may be obtained by means of a mineralization process of the natural product: a preparation with a lime and/or cement-based material is necessary to reinforce the cohesion of the bio-based product. Mineralization process is described as well as the way of producing blocks for CO2 capture by means of accelerated carbonation. Finally, concrete blocks produced with miscanthus mineralized aggregates offer interesting mechanical properties and minimal environmental impact.

  5. Effects on presenteeism and absenteeism from a 1-year workplace randomized controlled trial among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Klaus; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    It is unknown whether workplace interventions successfully improving health outcomes can also provide concurrent improvements in presenteeism and absenteeism. A 1-year cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted on 144 employees at a care unit in Denmark. The intervention consisted of calorie-limited diet, physical exercise, and cognitive behavioral training during working hours 1 hour per week. The reference group was offered presentations about healthy lifestyle. Absenteeism and presenteeism (productivity, workability, and sickness absence) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 12 months of intervention. In intention-to-treat analysis, a significant effect of the intervention was found for productivity after 3 months. Nevertheless, after 12 months no significant effects on absenteeism or presenteeism were found. This study suggests that a worksite intervention, despite successfully reducing overweight, does not induce lasting improvements on absenteeism or presenteeism.

  6. Potential function of added minerals as nucleation sites and effect of humic substances on mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizer Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dippon, Urs; Pantke, Claudia; Porsch, Katharina; Larese-Casanova, Phil; Kappler, Andreas

    2012-06-19

    The mobility of toxic metals and the transformation of organic pollutants in the environment are influenced and in many cases even controlled by iron minerals. Therefore knowing the factors influencing iron mineral formation and transformation by Fe(II)-oxidizing and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria is crucial for understanding the fate of contaminants and for the development of remediation technologies. In this study we followed mineral formation by the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing strain Acidovorax sp. BoFeN1 in the presence of the crystalline Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides goethite, magnetite and hematite added as potential nucleation sites. Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis of minerals precipitated by BoFeN1 in (57)Fe(II)-spiked microbial growth medium showed that goethite was formed in the absence of mineral additions as well as in the presence of goethite or hematite. The presence of magnetite minerals during Fe(II) oxidation induced the formation of magnetite in addition to goethite, while the addition of humic substances along with magnetite also led to goethite but no magnetite. This study showed that mineral formation not only depends on the aqueous geochemical conditions but can also be affected by the presence of mineral nucleation sites that initiate precipitation of the same underlying mineral phases.

  7. State-Level Estimates of Obesity-Attributable Costs of Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyeva, Tatiana; Luedicke, Joerg; Wang, Y. Claire

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide state-level estimates of obesity-attributable costs of absenteeism among working adults in the U.S. Methods Nationally-representative data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 1998–2008 and from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for 2012 are examined. The outcome is obesity-attributable workdays missed in the previous year due to health, and their costs to states. Results Obesity, but not overweight, is associated with a significant increase in workdays absent, from 1.1 to 1.7 extra days missed annually compared to normal weight employees. Obesity-attributable absenteeism among American workers costs the nation an estimated $8.65 billion per year. Conclusion Obesity imposes a considerable financial burden on states, accounting for 6.5%–12.6% of total absenteeism costs in the workplace. State legislature and employers should seek effective ways to reduce these costs. PMID:25376405

  8. Sickness absenteeism rate in Iranian schools during the 2009 epidemic of type a influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study. The number of days of absenteeism, since the beginning of the school year until the end of the epidemic was recorded. Two hundred and thirteen students missed school during the disease epidemic because of related causes. In other words, 581 person day absences were reported during this period. The influenza pandemic has led to an increase in the absenteeism rate and may negatively affect the academic performance of the students. Teaching precautionary measures is an effective tool in reducing the number of days of sickness.

  9. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  10. System for analysing sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1997-01-01

    The National System of Sickness Absenteeism Statistics has been functioning in Poland since 1977, as the part of the national health statistics. The system is based on a 15-percent random sample of copies of certificates of temporary incapacity for work issued by all health care units and authorised private medical practitioners. A certificate of temporary incapacity for work is received by every insured employee who is compelled to stop working due to sickness, accident, or due to the necessity to care for a sick member of his/her family. The certificate is required on the first day of sickness. Analyses of disease- and accident-related sickness absenteeism carried out each year in Poland within the statistical system lead to the main conclusions: 1. Diseases of the musculoskeletal and peripheral nervous systems accounting, when combined, for 1/3 of the total sickness absenteeism, are a major health problem of the working population in Poland. During the past five years, incapacity for work caused by these diseases in males increased 2.5 times. 2. Circulatory diseases, and arterial hypertension and ischaemic heart disease in particular (41% and 27% of sickness days, respectively), create an essential health problem among males at productive age, especially, in the 40 and older age group. Absenteeism due to these diseases has increased in males more than two times.

  11. Persistent Absenteeism among Irish Primary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Maeve; Darmody, Merike; McCoy, Selina

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of international studies document the importance of regular school attendance. There is a consensus among authors that absenteeism has negative implications for academic achievement as well as the social development of the child and may put them at a disadvantage in terms of their position in the education and labour market. Most…

  12. Reducing Mineral and Vitamin Deficiencies through Biofortification: Progress Under HarvestPlus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouis, Howarth

    2018-01-01

    Fundamentally, the prevalence of mineral and vitamin deficiencies is high in developing countries due to the fact that agricultural systems do not produce sufficient foods rich in minerals and vitamins. Biofortification involves breeding staple food crops to increase their micronutrient content, targeting staple foods widely consumed by low-income families globally. In so doing, biofortification contributes to solving the underlying problem of mineral and vitamin deficiencies by increasing the amount of iron, zinc, and provitamin A produced by food systems. When HarvestPlus first started in 2003, there was much doubt among a range of stakeholders, that biofortification would work. First, we had to prove to the plant science community that higher target levels iron, zinc, and provitamin A could be bred into high-yielding, profitable varieties. Presently, over 150 varieties of 12 biofortified crops have passed the agronomic tests of varietal release committees in 30 developing countries. In 3-5 years, biofortified varieties will be available to farmers and consumers in an additional 25 countries. The nutrition community initially questioned the efficacy of biofortified crops - would the levels of retained nutrients and absorption be high enough? HarvestPlus has commissioned 15 efficacy trials, all undertaken in developing countries. While 5 of these studies are still in process, there is already sufficient positive published evidence for iron and provitamin A. Can adoption of biofortified crops by farmers be scaled up, and a public health impact demonstrated? HarvestPlus estimates that 20 million farmers and consumers presently grow and consume biofortified crops in 8 target countries. The final and major challenge is to mainstream biofortification into the fabric of "business-as-usual" of a range of organizations - public and private agricultural research, institutions that focus on bringing improved agricultural technologies to farmers including multi

  13. [Job satisfaction and organizational culture as predictors of absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Llanos, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    Absenteeism caused by sick leaves generates an important economic burden. To determine if job satisfaction, psychological climate, hierarchic level and age are predictors of absenteeism caused by sick leaves. FOCUS-93 survey that measures organizational culture and the satisfaction scale of Warr, Cook and Wall were distributed to 1387 workers of a hospital and answered by 874. Absenteeism data was obtained from the justified absenteeism registry of the Chilean Health Services. Absenteeism is influenced by job satisfaction and organizational culture. Age has no influence. Hierarchic level has a negative influence on absenteeism among men and a negligible effect among women. Those workers that are not satisfied with their work have higher rates of absenteeism.

  14. The associations between personality characteristics and absenteeism: a cross-sectional study in workers with and without depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasveld, Moniek C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Anema, Johannes R; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-09-01

    Although numerous studies have identified risk factors for sickness absence, few studies have addressed the role of personality characteristics in absenteeism. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of the Big 5 personality characteristics (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and locus of control with absenteeism, taking the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders into account. Cross-sectional data from the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were examined. NESDA includes persons with current or remitted depressive and anxiety disorders and healthy controls, of which 1883 working participants were selected. Personality characteristics were included as predictor variables, short-term (0-2 weeks) and long-term (>2 weeks) absenteeism as outcome measure. The presence of depressive and anxiety disorders was considered as modifying covariate. In healthy workers, high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion, low agreeableness and low conscientiousness were associated with short-term absenteeism. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low openness were related to long-term absenteeism in healthy workers. In workers with psychopathology, similar associations were found for persons with this profile (high neuroticism, external locus of control, low extraversion and low conscientiousness) with long-term absenteeism, but no associations of these characteristics were found with short-term absenteeism. Personality characteristics were significantly associated with work absenteeism in both workers with and without anxiety or depression. Interventions aimed at preventing sickness absence may focus on reducing neuroticism and strengthening extraversion, conscientiousness and locus of control.

  15. Food Insecurity and Its Association With School Absenteeism Among Rural School Adolescents in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Melaku, Yabsira; Belachew, Tefera

    2017-03-01

    Studies showed that poor health and nutrition among school adolescents are major barriers to educational access and achievements in low-income countries. This school-based study was aimed to assess the association of school absenteeism and food insecurity among rural school adolescents from grades 5 to 8 in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between dependent and independent variables using odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictor of school absenteeism. Validated tools are used to collect household food insecurity data. Results showed that school absenteeism is significantly high among adolescents from food insecure households when compared to adolescents from food secure households ( P absenteeism was negatively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = -0.91, 95% CI -1.85 to -0.03), household food security (adjusted odds ratio = -1.85, 95% CI -3.11 to -0.59), being an elder sibling (AOR = -0.37, 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.12), and mother involvement in decision making (AOR = -0.68, 95% CI, -1.33 to -0.03) while male-headed household was positively associated (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI, 1.37 to 4.56). Generally, this study showed that household food insecurity has significant contribution to school absenteeism among rural adolescents. Therefore, efforts should be made to improve household income earning capacity to reduce the prevalence of school absenteeism among rural school adolescents.

  16. Estimating the effectiveness of early control measures through school absenteeism surveillance in observed outbreaks at rural schools in Hubei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Mei; Jiang, Hongbo; Wang, Ying; Yang, Wenwen; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong; Diwan, Vinod K; Xu, Biao; Dong, Hengjin; Palm, Lars; Liu, Li; Nie, Shaofa

    2014-01-01

    School absenteeism is a common data source in syndromic surveillance, which allows for the detection of outbreaks at an early stage. Previous studies focused on its correlation with other data sources. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of control measures based on early warning signals from school absenteeism surveillance in rural Chinese schools. A school absenteeism surveillance system was established in all 17 primary schools in 3 adjacent towns in the Chinese region of Hubei. Three outbreaks (varicella, mumps, and influenza-like illness) were detected and controlled successfully from April 1, 2012, to January 15, 2014. An impulse susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered model was used to fit the epidemics of these three outbreaks. Moreover, it simulated the potential epidemics under interventions resulting from traditional surveillance signals. The effectiveness of the absenteeism-based control measures was evaluated by comparing the simulated datasets. The school absenteeism system generated 52 signals. Three outbreaks were verified through epidemiological investigation. Compared to traditional surveillance, the school absenteeism system generated simultaneous signals for the varicella outbreak, but 3 days in advance for the mumps outbreak and 2-4 days in advance for the influenza-like illness outbreak. The estimated excess protection rates of control measures based on early signals were 0.0%, 19.0-44.1%, and 29.0-37.0% for the three outbreaks, respectively. Although not all outbreak control measures can benefit from early signals through school absenteeism surveillance, the effectiveness of early signal-based interventions is obvious. School absenteeism surveillance plays an important role in reducing outbreak spread.

  17. Protection of Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacteria from UV Radiation by Biogenic Fe(III) Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauger, Tina; Konhauser, Kurt; Kappler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Due to the lack of an ozone layer in the Archean, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reached early Earth's surface almost unattenuated; as a consequence, a terrestrial biosphere in the form of biological soil crusts would have been highly susceptible to lethal doses of irradiation. However, a self-produced external screen in the form of nanoparticular Fe(III) minerals could have effectively protected those early microorganisms. In this study, we use viability studies by quantifying colony-forming units (CFUs), as well as Fe(II) oxidation and nitrate reduction rates, to show that encrustation in biogenic and abiogenic Fe(III) minerals can protect a common soil bacteria such as the nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and strain 2AN from harmful UVC radiation. Analysis of DNA damage by quantifying cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) confirmed the protecting effect by Fe(III) minerals. This study suggests that Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms, as would have grown in association with mafic and ultramafic soils/outcrops, would have been able to produce their own UV screen, enabling them to live in terrestrial habitats on early Earth.

  18. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    study investigated BMD in seven Danish national team rowers with previous rib stress fracture (RSF) and 7 controls (C) matched for gender, age, height, weight and training experience. Total body scan and specific scans of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and distal radius were performed using......Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....

  19. Sickness absenteeism is associated with sleep problems independent of sleep disorders: results of the 2016 Sleep Health Foundation national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy C; Appleton, Sarah L; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; McEvoy, R Douglas; Ferguson, Sally A; Adams, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Sleep disorders are associated with sickness absenteeism (SA), at significant economic cost. Correlates of absenteeism are less well described in nonclinical samples. We determined the relationship between markers of inadequate sleep and SA in a sample of 551 working adults aged ≥18 years across Australia. We considered diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and insomnia symptoms, daytime symptoms, and sleepiness with respect to sickness absenteeism (missing ≥1 day of work in the past 28 days because of problems with physical or mental health). Sickness absenteeism was reported by 27.0% of participants and was more frequent in younger participants, university graduates, and those experiencing financial stress. Sickness absenteeism was independently associated with insomnia (odds ratio [OR]=2.5, confidence interval [CI]=1.5-4.0], OSA (OR=9.8, CI=4.7-20.7), sleep aid use (OR=3.0, CI=1.9-4.7), and daytime symptoms (OR=3.0, CI=2.0-4.6) and inversely associated with perception of getting adequate sleep (OR=0.6, CI=0.4-0.9). Associations persisted in the population free of insomnia and/or OSA. In adults without clinical sleep disorders, sleep behaviors are contributing to sickness absenteeism. An increased focus at an organizational level on improvement of sleep hygiene is important to reduce lost work performance. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Association of Health-Related Fitness and Chronic Absenteeism Status in New York City Middle School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Day, Sophia E; Konty, Kevin J; Larkin, Michael; Saha, Subir; Wyka, Katarzyna

    2018-03-23

    Extensive research demonstrates the benefits of fitness on children's health and academic performance. Although decreases in health-related fitness may increase school absenteeism, multiple years of prospective, child-level data are needed to examine whether fitness changes predict subsequent chronic absenteeism status. Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed from grades 5-8 (2006/2007-2012/2013; N = 349,381). A longitudinal 3-level logistic generalized linear mixed model with random intercepts was used to test the association of individual children's changes in fitness and 1-year lagged chronic absenteeism. The odds of chronic absenteeism increased 27% [odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.30], 15% (OR 95% CI, 1.13-1.18), 9% (OR 95% CI, 1.07-1.11), and 1% (OR 95% CI, 0.98-1.04), for students who had a >20% decrease, 10%-20% decrease, 20% fitness increase. These findings contribute important longitudinal evidence to a cross-sectional literature, demonstrating reductions in youth fitness may increase absenteeism. Given only 25% of youth aged 12-15 years achieve the recommended daily 60 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity, future work should examine the potential for youth fitness interventions to reduce absenteeism and foster positive attitudes toward lifelong physical activity.

  1. Regulatory mechanisms for absenteeism in the health sector: a systematic review of strategies and their implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisakye AN

    2016-11-01

    in LMICs; 6 health intervention mechanisms reducing absenteeism when integrated with exercise programs; and 7 attendance by legislation during emergencies being criticized for violating human rights in the United States and not being effective in curbing absenteeism. Conclusion: Most countries have applied multiple strategies to mitigate health care worker absenteeism. The success of these interventions is heavily influenced by the context within which they are applied. Keywords: absenteeism, health workers, regulatory mechanisms, systematic review

  2. Reduced bone mineral density in adult women diagnosed with menstrual disorders during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiksten-Almströmer, Marianne; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindën; Hagenfeldt, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in their adolescence. Prospective follow-up study six years after the initial investigation. A youth clinic that is part of the school health system in Stockholm. Eighty-seven women diagnosed with secondary amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea in adolescence. Subjects underwent gynecological examination, evaluation of eating behavior and physical activity. Whole body Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry was used for measurement of BMD. BMD. The overall frequency of osteopenia/osteoporosis was 52%, and three girls had osteoporosis. Women with previous secondary amenorrhea had significantly lower BMD in the pelvis and lumbar spine than those with previous oligomenorrhea. The strongest predictor of low BMD was a restrictive eating disorder in adolescence and the most important counteraction was high physical activity at follow-up and a body mass index (BMI) > or = 22. Persistent menstrual dysfunction at follow-up was associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and lower frequency of osteopenia. This clinical follow-up study has demonstrated a high frequency of osteopenia in women diagnosed with menstrual disorders in adolescence. Previous anorectic behavior was the strongest negative predictor of BMD. It is important to pay attention to an underlying eating disorder in young women with menstrual dysfunction in order to promote bone health.

  3. Rhinitis and asthma as a cause of absenteeism and poor work/school performance in a population from Latin-American tropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Both rhinitis and asthma are associated with lower performance in children and adults and absenteeism in the school; however, adequate treatment may improve clinical control and reduce backlash against job performance.

  4. Factors Associated with Absenteeism in High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    DEMIR, Kamile; AKMAN KARABEYOGLU, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are many factors that affect student achievement directly and indirectly at the secondary educational level. Lower attendance rates have been cited as detrimental to academic achievement; therefore, it is suggested that improved attendance is a direct indicator, rather than determinant of students’ academic achievement.Purpose of Study: The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of individual, family and school variables on absenteeism among high sch...

  5. Actual and Potential Electoral Absenteeism in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    ACKAERT, Johan; DUMONT, P.; DE WINTER, L.

    2007-01-01

    During the eighties and nineties of the 20th century, absenteeism increased in Belgium. This evolution ended for all types of elections at the beginning of the current century. This paper offered a number of potential explanations for this puzzle, but we acknowledge that further examination is necessary to provide a clear answer for this change. We showed that potential absenteeists share specific characteristics. Potential turnout (in case of abolishment of compulsory voting) ...

  6. Low bone mineral density is associated with reduced hip joint space width in women: results from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Jensen, Trine W; Bach-Mortensen, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    inconclusive. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between reduced bone mineral density (BMD), as a surrogate parameter of endogenous estrogen status assessed by digital x-ray radiogrammetry, and reduced minimum hip joint space width (JSW). DESIGN: Standardized hand radiographs...... of the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study cohort of 3,913 adults (1,470 male/2,443 female) with a mean age of 60 years (range, 18-92) were analyzed using X-Posure digital software, version 2.0 (Sectra-Pronosco). The system is operator independent. From 1,200 individual measurements per radiograph, mean BMD...... was calculated. Minimum hip JSW was assessed on standardized pelvic radiographs. RESULTS: Digital x-ray radiogrammetry BMD decreased in both men and women after the age of 45 years, progressively more so in women. Although minimum hip JSW in men remained relatively unaltered throughout life, a marked decline...

  7. An empirical study on absenteeism in Garment industry

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2016-01-01

    bsenteeism is a major challenge for any organization in the current competitive world. Curbing absenteeism helps organizations achieve their targets and increases productivity. This study highlights the major causes of absenteeism in the production division of a garment industry under various dimensions, which influence on absenteeism like work environment, organizational culture, relation and co-operation, compensation and rewards, facilities, job satisfactory and security, and general facto...

  8. The effect of hand-hygiene interventions on infectious disease-associated absenteeism in elementary schools: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangqi; Lapinski, Maria; Quilliam, Elizabeth; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Fraser, Angela

    2017-06-01

    Hand-hygiene interventions are widely used in schools but their effect on reducing absenteeism is not well known. The aim of our literature review was to determine whether implementation of a hand-hygiene intervention reduced infectious disease-associated absenteeism in elementary schools. The eligible studies (N = 19), published between 1996 and 2014, were summarized and the methodologic quality of each was assessed. Our review indicated evidence is available to show hand-hygiene interventions had an effect on reducing acute gastrointestinal illness-associated absenteeism but inadequate evidence is available to show an effect on respiratory illness-associated absenteeism. The methodologic quality assessment of eligible studies revealed common design flaws, such as lack of randomization, blinding, and attrition, which must be addressed in future studies to strengthen the evidence base on the effect of hand-hygiene interventions on school absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffused sunlight driven highly synergistic pathway for complete mineralization of organic contaminants using reduced graphene oxide supported photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, Sundaram Ganesh; Ramalingam Vinoth [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Neppolian, Bernaurdshaw, E-mail: neppolian.b@res.srmuniv.ac.in [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Ashokkumar, Muthupandian [The School of Chemistry, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Diffused sunlight is firstly used as an effective source for the degradation of organics. • More than 10 fold synergistic effect is achieved by sono-photocatalysis. • rGO enhances the degradation efficiency up to 54% as compared with CuO–TiO{sub 2} alone. • Plausible mechanism and intermediates formed are supported with experimental studies. - Abstract: Diffused sunlight is found to be an effective light source for the efficient degradation and mineralization of organic pollutant (methyl orange as a probe) by sono-photocatalytic degradation using reduced graphene oxide (rGO) supported CuO–TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. The prepared catalysts are characterized by XRD, XPS, UV–vis DRS, PL, photoelectrochemical, SEM-EDS and TEM. A 10 fold synergy is achieved for the first time by combining sonochemical and photocatalytic degradation under diffused sunlight. rGO loading augments the activity of bare CuO–TiO{sub 2} more than two fold. The ability of rGO in storing, transferring, and shuttling electrons at the heterojunction between TiO{sub 2} and CuO facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, as evidenced by the photoluminescence results. The complete mineralization of MO and the by-products within a short span of time is confirmed by TOC analysis. Further, hydroxyl radical mediated degradation under diffused sunlight is confirmed by LC–MS. This system shows similar activity for the degradation of methylene blue and 4-chlorophenol indicating the versatility of the catalyst for the degradation of various pollutants. This investigation is likely to open new possibilities for the development of highly efficient diffused sunlight driven TiO{sub 2} based photocatalysts for the complete mineralization of organic contaminants.

  10. Associates of School Absenteeism in Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lisa A.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite high rates of school absenteeism in adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD), the issue remains understudied. Potential associates of school absenteeism in adolescents with SCD include demographic (age, income), psychosocial (IQ, self-efficacy, competence, internalizing symptoms, negative thinking), and health-related (hemoglobin, health-care utilization, pain, disease knowledge). Procedure Forty participants ages 12–18 completed measures of psychosocial functioning, IQ, and pain. Medical chart reviews identified other health-related variables. A subsample also completed an assessment of goals. Using school records, absenteeism was the percent of school days missed in the previous year. Correlations tested associates of absenteeism and linear regression tested a model of absenteeism. Results Participants missed an average of 12% of the school year and more than 35% missed at least 1 month of school. Health-related and psychosocial variables, but not demographic variables, correlated with absenteeism. Attendance at clinic appointments and parent-reported teen pain frequency were significant associates of absenteeism in the regression model. For those who completed goal assessment, over 40% of goals identified were academically focused. Absenteeism was positively related to current academic goals and health-related hindrance of academic goals, and negatively related to future-oriented academic goals. Conclusions School absenteeism is a significant problem for adolescents with SCD despite the presence of academic goals. Collaboration between schools, parents, patients, and providers to understand and manage the impact of SCD on school attendance is recommended. PMID:19006248

  11. Adhesion of the clay minerals montmorillonite, kaolinite, and attapulgite reduces respiration of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, S; Stotzky, G

    1986-01-01

    The respiration of three phenotypes of Histoplasma capsulatum, the causal agent of histoplasmosis in humans, was markedly reduced by low concentrations of montmorillonite but was reduced less by even higher concentrations of kaolinite or attapulgite (palygorskite). The reduction in respiration followed a pattern that suggested saturation-type kinetics: an initial sharp reduction that occurred with low concentrations of clay (0.01 to 0.5% [wt/vol]), followed by a more gradual reduction with higher concentrations (1 to 8%). Increases in viscosity (which could impair the movement of O2) caused by the clays were not responsible for the reduction in respiration, and the clays did not interfere with the availability of nutrients. Scanning electron microscopy after extensive washing showed that the clay particles were tightly bound to the hyphae, suggesting that the clays reduced the rate of respiration of H. capsulatum by adhering to the mycelial surface and, thereby, interfered with the movement of nutrients, metabolites, and gases across the mycelial wall.

  12. Time Pressure, Time Autonomy, and Sickness Absenteeism in Hospital Employees: A Longitudinal Study on Organizational Absenteeism Records

    OpenAIRE

    Maria U. Kottwitz; Volker Schade; Christian Burger; Lorenz Radlinger; Achim Elfering

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although work absenteeism is in the focus of occupational health, longitudinal studies on organizational absenteeism records in hospital work are lacking. This longitudinal study tests time pressure and lack of time autonomy to be related to higher sickness absenteeism. Methods: Data was collected for 180 employees (45% nurses) of a Swiss hospital at baseline and at follow-up after 1 year. Absent times (hours per month) were received from the human resources department of the hosp...

  13. Smelting crucibles to reduce copper minerals in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovira, Salvador

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As was shown in Spain by the end of the 1980s, the use of common earthenware vessels as containers for prehistoric copper metallurgy has also been discovered in France. The authors propose in this article a synthesis of the knowledge concerning the use of this technology in Spain, its chronological and geographical frameworks and the more relevant mineralogical and metallurgical features. All this allows us to show the effectiveness and simplicity of the resources used to practice this early metallurgy. The finds in France are more modest and rarely have been analysed properly in the laboratory. However, the review of the archaeological record suggests that specific research informed by the results presented in the article would provide evidence of the impact of this technology through the Copper and Bronze Ages.

    [es] Puesta en evidencia en España a finales de la década de los ochenta, la utilización de vasijas de cerámica común como recipiente de la metalurgia del cobre prehistórico ha sido identificada también en Francia. Los autores proponen una síntesis del estado de los conocimientos sobre el uso de esta técnica en España, su encuadre geográfico y cronológico y sus principales características mineralógicas y metalúrgicas. Estas últimas permiten mostrar la eficacia y la simplicidad de los medios puestos en juego para la realización de esta metalurgia inicial. En contrapartida, en Francia los hallazgos son todavía modestos y sólo unos pocos han sido objeto de los apropiados análisis de laboratorio. No obstante, la revisión de la documentación arqueológica sugiere que investigaciones específicas orientadas por los resultados expuestos en este artículo deberían permitir en Francia, como ha sucedido en España en el curso de los últimos años, poner de manifiesto el impacto de esta técnica durante las Edades del Cobre y del Bronce. [fr] Les céramiques à réduire le minerai de cuivre dans la Péninsule Ib

  14. Organic carbon and reducing conditions lead to cadmium immobilization by secondary Fe mineral formation in a pH-neutral soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehe, E Marie; Adaktylou, Irini J; Obst, Martin; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Behrens, Sebastian; Planer-Friedrich, Britta; Kraemer, Ute; Kappler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is of environmental relevance as it enters soils via Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and endangers human health when taken up by crops. Cd is known to associate with Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides in pH-neutral to slightly acidic soils, though it is not well understood how the interrelation of Fe and Cd changes under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Therefore, we investigated how the mobility of Cd changes when a Cd-bearing soil is faced with organic carbon input and reducing conditions. Using fatty acid profiles and quantitative PCR, we found that both fermenting and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were stimulated by organic carbon-rich conditions, leading to significant Fe(III) reduction. The reduction of Fe(III) minerals was accompanied by increasing soil pH, increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, and decreasing Cd mobility. SEM-EDX mapping of soil particles showed that a minor fraction of Cd was transferred to Ca- and S-bearing minerals, probably carbonates and sulfides. Most of the Cd, however, correlated with a secondary iron mineral phase that was formed during microbial Fe(III) mineral reduction and contained mostly Fe, suggesting an iron oxide mineral such as magnetite (Fe3O4). Our data thus provide evidence that secondary Fe(II) and Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed minerals could be a sink for Cd in soils under reducing conditions, thus decreasing the mobility of Cd in the soil.

  15. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers MacNaughton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12 schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5 within 250 m and 1000 m respectively of each public school in Massachusetts during the 2012–2013 academic year using satellite-based data. We modeled chronic absenteeism rates in the same year as a function of PM2.5 and NDVI, controlling for race and household income. Among the 1772 public schools in Massachusetts, a 0.15 increase in NDVI during the academic year was associated with a 2.6% (p value < 0.0001 reduction in chronic absenteeism rates, and a 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 during the academic year was associated with a 1.58% (p value < 0.0001 increase in chronic absenteeism rates. Based on these percentage changes in chronic absenteeism, a 0.15 increase in NDVI and 1 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 correspond to 25,837 fewer students and 15,852 more students chronically absent each year in Massachusetts respectively. These environmental impacts on absenteeism reinforce the need to protect green spaces and reduce air pollution around schools.

  16. Secondary mineral formation associated with respiration of nontronite, NAu-1 by iron reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa Yoko

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental batch and miscible-flow cultures were studied in order to determine the mechanistic pathways of microbial Fe(III respiration in ferruginous smectite clay, NAu-1. The primary purpose was to resolve if alteration of smectite and release of Fe precedes microbial respiration. Alteration of NAu-1, represented by the morphological and mineralogical changes, occurred regardless of the extent of microbial Fe(III reduction in all of our experimental systems, including those that contained heat-killed bacteria and those in which O2, rather than Fe(III, was the primary terminal electron acceptor. The solid alteration products observed under transmission electron microscopy included poorly crystalline smectite with diffuse electron diffraction signals, discrete grains of Fe-free amorphous aluminosilicate with increased Al/Si ratio, Fe-rich grains, and amorphous Si globules in the immediate vicinity of bacterial cells and extracellular polymeric substances. In reducing systems, Fe was also found as siderite. The small amount of Fe partitioned to the aqueous phase was primarily in the form of dissolved Fe(III species even in the systems in which Fe(III was the primary terminal electron acceptor for microbial respiration. From these observations, we conclude that microbial respiration of Fe(III in our laboratory systems proceeded through the following: (1 alteration of NAu-1 and concurrent release of Fe(III from the octahedral sheets of NAu-1; and (2 subsequent microbial respiration of Fe(III.

  17. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism: The relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Karin; Nauta, Aukje

    2004-01-01

    This study tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees (e.g., gender and working hours) and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  18. Minding the Gaps in Absenteeism: Disparities in Absenteeism by Race/Ethnicity, Poverty and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Kevin A.

    2018-01-01

    Children from certain racial and ethnic minority backgrounds, in poverty, and/or with a disability, often face distinct challenges in attending school, leading them to miss more school relative to their non-minority, more socio-economically advantaged and non-disabled peers. This brief describes these disparities in absenteeism in the US,…

  19. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  20. The Effect of Improving Primary Care Depression Management on Employee Absenteeism and Productivity A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Kathryn; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Dickinson, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test whether an intervention to improve primary care depression management significantly improves productivity at work and absenteeism over 2 years. Setting and Subjects: Twelve community primary care practices recruiting depressed primary care patients identified in a previsit screening. Research Design: Practices were stratified by depression treatment patterns before randomization to enhanced or usual care. After delivering brief training, enhanced care clinicians provided improved depression management over 24 months. The research team evaluated productivity and absenteeism at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in 326 patients who reported full-or part-time work at one or more completed waves. Results: Employed patients in the enhanced care condition reported 6.1% greater productivity and 22.8% less absenteeism over 2 years. Consistent with its impact on depression severity and emotional role functioning, intervention effects were more observable in consistently employed subjects where the intervention improved productivity by 8.2% over 2 years at an estimated annual value of $1982 per depressed full-time equivalent and reduced absenteeism by 28.4% or 12.3 days over 2 years at an estimated annual value of $619 per depressed full-time equivalent. Conclusions: This trial, which is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that improving the quality of care for any chronic disease has positive consequences for productivity and absenteeism, encourages formal cost-benefit research to assess the potential return-on-investment employers of stable workforces can realize from using their purchasing power to encourage better depression treatment for their employees. PMID:15550800

  1. The effect of improving primary care depression management on employee absenteeism and productivity. A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Kathryn; Smith, Jeffrey L; Dickinson, Miriam

    2004-12-01

    To test whether an intervention to improve primary care depression management significantly improves productivity at work and absenteeism over 2 years. Twelve community primary care practices recruiting depressed primary care patients identified in a previsit screening. Practices were stratified by depression treatment patterns before randomization to enhanced or usual care. After delivering brief training, enhanced care clinicians provided improved depression management over 24 months. The research team evaluated productivity and absenteeism at baseline, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months in 326 patients who reported full-or part-time work at one or more completed waves. Employed patients in the enhanced care condition reported 6.1% greater productivity and 22.8% less absenteeism over 2 years. Consistent with its impact on depression severity and emotional role functioning, intervention effects were more observable in consistently employed subjects where the intervention improved productivity by 8.2% over 2 years at an estimated annual value of US 1982 dollars per depressed full-time equivalent and reduced absenteeism by 28.4% or 12.3 days over 2 years at an estimated annual value of US 619 dollars per depressed full-time equivalent. This trial, which is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate that improving the quality of care for any chronic disease has positive consequences for productivity and absenteeism, encourages formal cost-benefit research to assess the potential return-on-investment employers of stable workforces can realize from using their purchasing power to encourage better depression treatment for their employees.

  2. [Presenteeism, Absenteeism and psychosocial stress at work among German clinicians in surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    2013-10-01

    Presenteeism is determined as turning up at work despite ill health. In the last decade this phenomenon became much more relevant and will be a central topic for future research in workplace health, health promotion and productivity loss. Compared to absenteeism research data about presenteeism are comparatively rare. Especially employees in health care are at high risk for presenteeism. The present study examines the degree of presenteeism and absenteeism among German hospital clinicians in surgery focussing on associations with psychosocial stress at work. The stratified randomised sample consisted of 1 311 German clinicians in surgery from 489 hospitals. The frequencies of presenteeism and absenteeism were respectively assessed by one item. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model and the demand-control model. About 90% of the respondents indicate that they were working despite illness at least once a year, 65% actually answered sometimes or often. Nearly two thirds were absent due to illness for a minimum of once a year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses show that organisational and work-related factors are clearly associated with presenteeism. Compared to absenteeism, presenteeism shows stronger associations with psychosocial workload. Significant associations with different components of psychosocial stress reveal elevated odds ratios between 1.4 and 2.8. High efforts and demands, low rewards and increased overcommitment were notably emerging factors. Clinicians in surgery are affected by presenteesim to a high degree whereas rates of absenteeism are less striking. As potential causes for elevated presenteeism different aspects of psychosocial stress at work were identified. Workplace health promotion on different levels can reduce presenteeism to improve the health status and job performance among this occupational group that bears heavy responsibility. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. School Absenteeism Among Children Living With Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Involuntary tobacco smoke exposure causes substantial morbidity in children. We hypothesized that children exposed to tobacco smoke in the home would have increased school absenteeism with associated costs due to lost caregiver wages/time. METHODS: We analyzed data on health and absenteeism among schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years identified in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). We used multivariate models to assess the relationships between adult-reported household smoking and child health and school absenteeism. Analyses were adjusted for children's and parents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The value of lost caregiver time was estimated by using self-reported employment and earnings data in the NHIS and publicly available time-use data. RESULTS: Children living with 1 or ≥2 adults who smoked in the home had 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.54–1.55) and 1.54 (95% CI: 0.95–2.12) more days absent from school per year, respectively, than children living with 0 smokers in the home. Living with ≥2 adults who smoked in the home was associated with increased reports of having ≥3 ear infections in the previous 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.65 [95% CI: 1.36–5.16]) and having a chest cold in the 2 weeks before interview (aOR: 1.77 [95% CI: 1.03–3.03]) but not with having vomiting/diarrhea in the previous 2 weeks (aOR: 0.93 [95% CI: 0.45–1.89]). Caregivers' time tending children absent from school was valued at $227 million per year. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoke exposure has significant consequences for children and families above and beyond child morbidity, including academic disadvantage and financial burden. PMID:21890826

  5. Crystal-field-driven redox reactions: How common minerals split H2O and CO2 into reduced H2 and C plus oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, F.; Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Lersky, S.; Masuda, M. M.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    It is difficult to prove the presence of molecular H2 and reduced C in minerals containing dissolved H2 and CO2. A technique was developed which unambiguously shows that minerals grown in viciously reducing environments contain peroxy in their crystal structures. The peroxy represent interstitial oxygen atoms left behind when the solute H2O and/or CO2 split off H2 and C as a result of internal redox reactions, driven by the crystal field. The observation of peroxy affirms the presence of H2 and reduced C. It shows that the solid state is indeed an unusual reaction medium.

  6. Characteristics of zero-absenteeism in hospital care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, J A H; Roelen, C A M; van der Klink, J J L; Groothoff, J W

    2013-06-01

    Literature on sickness presenteeism is emerging, but still little is known about employees who are never absent from work due to injuries or illness. Insight into the determinants and characteristics of such zero-absentees may provide clues for preventing sickness absence. To investigate the characteristics of zero-absentees, defined as employees without sickness absence over a period of 5 years. A mixed-method qualitative study comprising semi-structured interviews and focus groups for which Azjen and Fishbein's theory of planned behaviour was used as a framework. Zero-absentees working in hospital care were invited for semi-structured interviews until saturation was reached. The results of semi-structured interviews were validated in two focus groups. Of 1053 hospital employees, 47 were zero-absentees of whom 31 (66%) agreed to participate in the study. After 16 semi-structured interviews, no new insights or information were gathered from the interviews. The remaining 15 employees were invited to two (n = 8 and n = 7) focus groups. Personal attitudes and self-efficacy were more important in zero-absenteeism than social pressures of managers, colleagues or patients. Zero-absentees were found to be intrinsically motivated to try attending work when ill. In the present study population of hospital employees, we found indications that zero-absenteeism and sickness presenteeism might be different types of work attendance. Managers should realize that zero-absentees are driven by intrinsic motivation rather than social pressures to attend work.

  7. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  8. Sickness absenteeism at an all-time low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism in the Netherlands rose steadily in the 1960s and 70s, driven by legislation that made it attractive for employees to take long-term sick leave. Changes in laws on absenteeism and disability seem to have been a driving force behind the fall in rates since the early 1980s and employers

  9. School Organizational Effectiveness and Chronic Absenteeism: Implications for Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Sarah Winchell; Pogodzinski, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism in K-12 schools is strongly associated with critical educational outcomes such as student achievement and graduation. Yet, the causes of chronic absenteeism are complex, with environmental, family/individual, and school factors all affecting the likelihood of a student attending school regularly. This exploratory study examines…

  10. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  11. Chronic Absenteeism: A Key Indicator of Student Success. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafa, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…

  12. The Multidimensional Structure of University Absenteeism: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bonilla, Jesús Manuel; López-Bonilla, Luis Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Absenteeism has been a common and very extended problem in university spheres for several years. This problem has become a permanent feature in academic studies in general, yet it has received scarce empirical research attention. This work is focused on the analysis of the factors that determine university absenteeism. It evaluates a series of…

  13. Absenteeism in the workforce, Klang Valley, Malaysia--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indran, S K; Gopal, R K; Omar, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sickness absenteeism among the three types of agencies, government, semi-government (boards) and private (public) companies. The methodology involved eliciting retrospective data on medical leave over the year 1990 by requesting the agencies to fill up a questionnaire (Appendix I), and calculating the indices of absenteeism from this data. The results show that the private agencies scored higher for all the indices but only the "lost time" percentage was significantly increased. Females also had significantly higher severity of sickness absenteeism rates in all the agencies. Overtime work was associated with higher absenteeism indices, markedly noted in the private agencies. In conclusion, agencies showed work out their own indices of absenteeism so that it could be compared with national rates.

  14. An empirical study on absenteeism in Garment industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available bsenteeism is a major challenge for any organization in the current competitive world. Curbing absenteeism helps organizations achieve their targets and increases productivity. This study highlights the major causes of absenteeism in the production division of a garment industry under various dimensions, which influence on absenteeism like work environment, organizational culture, relation and co-operation, compensation and rewards, facilities, job satisfactory and security, and general factors. The Study helps to identify reasons for employee absenteeism in production division. Sample of 180 employees responses were considered for the study from the universe and the data were analysed, statistically. The study shows that the major factors like wages, other source of income, and bad relationship with supervisors were contributing to the major absence of employees from work. This clearly indicates that work environment, relation and co-operation, facilities provided by the organization and job satisfaction were the main components which are causing the employee absenteeism.

  15. [Nursing staff absenteeism rates as a personnel management indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancinetti, Tânia Regina; Soares, Alda Valéria Neves; Lima, Antonio Fernandes Costa; Santos, Nanci Cristiano; Melleiro, Marta Maria; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2011-08-01

    Absenteeism in nursing is a difficult problem for health organizations; hence it is an indicator that must be monitored. The objective of this study was to analyze the absenteeism rate of nursing professionals in a public hospital. Absenteeism data were collected monthly, from January to July 2008, and calculated by means of an electronic program. The mean absenteeism index for nurses varied from 5.6% to 9.7% for technicians/nursing aides. Sick leaves were the most prevalent reason for absences. The data revealed the major cause of absenteeism and pointed at the need to change policies for hiring nursing professionals, in addition to reviewing the working processes in order to improve the workers' health conditions.

  16. School Absenteeism: An Online Survey via Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Verena; Schneider, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    School absenteeism is a significant social and public health problem. However, existing prevalence rates are often not representative due to biased assessment processes at schools. The present study assessed school absenteeism in Germany using a nationwide online self-report survey. Although our definition of school absenteeism was more conservative than in previous studies, nearly 9 % of the 1359 high school students reported school absenteeism within the past 7 days. Absent students lived less often with both parents, were on average of lower socioeconomic status, and reported more emotional problems, behavioral problems and less prosocial behavior than attending students. Being an indicator of a wide variety of problems in children and adolescents, school absenteeism deserves much more attention. Future directions for research and implications for prevention and intervention programs are discussed.

  17. Associations Between Supportive Leadership Behavior and the Costs of Absenteeism and Presenteeism: An Epidemiological and Economic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Johannes Albert; Jarczok, Marc Nicolas; Sonntag, Diana; Herr, Raphael Manfred; Fischer, Joachim Ernst; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates associations between supportive leadership behavior (SLB) and presenteeism/absenteeism, and estimates related costs. Cross-sectional data from a German industrial sample (n = 17,060) assessing SLB and presenteeism/absenteeism were used. Adjusted interval regressions were performed. The study population was split into tertiles with respect to SLB, and minimum and maximum costs for each tertile were estimated on the basis of national industry averages. Low SLB was associated with higher presenteeism [-0.31, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.33 to -0.28)] and absenteeism (-0.36, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.32). Compared with high SLB, the costs of low SLB for absenteeism are between 534.54 and 1675.16 Euro higher per person and year. For presenteeism, this difference ranges between 63.76 and 433.7 Euro. SLB has the potential to reduce absenteeism, presenteeism, and associated costs. To contribute to workforce health, productivity, and efficiency, SLB merits being fostered by corporate policy.

  18. [School absenteeism in Germany: prevalence of excused and unexcused absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Fischer, Gloria; Jentzsch, Anika; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Data about the prevalence of school absenteeism and its correlation with emotional and behavioural problems in Germany is scarce, in particular regarding excused absenteeism. This study aims to close the gap by examining a sample of 2,679 pupils attending the different types of secondary school (Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium), who participated in a clinical trial for the prevention of truancy (WE-STAY-Project). Pupils' mean age was 14 years (M = 13.94, SD = 0.85, Range = 11-19) and gender distribution was balanced (49.35% males, 50.65% females). Using a self-report questionnaire, pupils where asked on how many days they had missed school on average per month during the last school year (excused and unexcused). Emotional and behavioural problems were measured by using the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire" (SDQ). 4.1% of the pupils reported to have missed school without a valid excuse on more than four days per month (unexcused absenteeism). 6.1% had missed school having an excuse on more than ten days per month (excused absenteeism). Both, unexcused and excused absenteeism, showed an increase of emotional and behavioural problems dependent on the intensity of absenteeism. In conclusion, these findings show the relevance of school absenteeism in Germany. In the future, more attention should be given to pupils with also excused absenteeism.

  19. Pharmacy student absenteeism and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca

    2012-02-10

    To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.

  20. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385

  1. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. THE ACADEMIC ABSENTEEISM AND ITS MORE OBVIOUS RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the relationship between absenteeism and academic performance in the Accounting Sciences Course. For this purpose, a documentary research was realized in a Brazilian public institution. With the course coordination permission, several information were analyzed concerning the participation of 1,525 students in 715 courses taught in the period between the first semester of 2009 and the second semester of 2013, totaling 29,839 observations. From these observations, the following variables were analyzed: academic performance, class size, period, turn, course load and not assiduous (absenteeism measure. The results indicated that all the variables investigated are significantly correlated to academic performance of students. However, the variable that had the strongest correlation was absenteeism. These results suggest that the first consequence of absenteeism is the decline in academic performance, as had been previously identified by other researchers. It was also identified that absenteeism is significantly correlated with all the variables mentioned before. Thus, students who are in more filled rooms, of the day turn, of the final periods and enrolled in courses with higher course loads tend to have higher absenteeism levels. In addition, it was found that 32.9% of evaded students in the period researched had had reproofs for lack between 2009 and 2013, evidenced thereby, the second serious consequence of absenteeism, the evasion.

  3. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  4. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin specifically reduces mRNA for the mineralization-related dentin sialophosphoprotein in cultured mouse embryonic molar teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiukkonen, Anu; Sahlberg, Carin; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Alaluusua, Satu; Peltonen, Eija; Partanen, Anna-Maija

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies show that the most toxic dioxin congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), interferes with mineralization of the dental matrices in developing mouse and rat teeth. Culture of mouse embryonic molar teeth with TCDD leads to the failure of enamel to be deposited and dentin to undergo mineralization. Lactationally exposed rats show defectively matured enamel and retardation of dentin mineralization. To see if the impaired mineralization is associated with changes in the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), Bono1 and/or matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20), thought to be involved in mineralization of the dental hard tissues, we cultured mouse (NMRI) E18 mandibular molars for 3, 5 or 7 days and exposed them to 1 μM TCDD after 2 days of culture. As detected by in situ hybridization of tissue sections, localization and intensity of Bono1 and MMP-20 expression showed no definite difference between the control and exposed tooth explants, suggesting that TCDD does not affect their expression. On the contrary, TCDD reduced or prevented the expression of Dspp in secretory odontoblasts and decreased it in presecretory ameloblasts. The results suggest that the retardation of dentin mineralization by TCDD in mouse molar teeth involves specific interference with Dspp expression

  5. Trade-offs between health and absenteeism in welfare states: Striking the balance

    OpenAIRE

    Markussen, Simen

    2007-01-01

    Workers’absenteeism due to illness represents a major concern in several countries. Absenteeism are however not very well understood in economics. This paper presents a model where absenteeism is understood in relation to health. Its main predictions are (i) intermediate welfare state generosity lead to the lowest absence rates as (ii) generous regimes results in excess long-term absenteeism and (iii) strict regimes lead to excess short-term absenteeism. (iv) Maximizing health is not the same...

  6. Unpacking Early Work Experiences of Young Adults With Rheumatic Disease: An Examination of Absenteeism, Job Disruptions, and Productivity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Badley, Elizabeth; Beaton, Dorcas; Fortin, Paul R; Shiff, Natalie J; Gignac, Monique A M

    2015-09-01

    To examine work absenteeism, job disruptions, and perceived productivity loss and factors associated with each outcome in young adults living with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and juvenile arthritis (JA). One hundred forty-three young adults, ages 18-30 years with SLE (54.5%) and JA (45.5%), completed an online survey of work experiences. Demographic, health (e.g., fatigue, disease activity), psychosocial (e.g., independence, social support), and work context (e.g., career satisfaction, job control, self-disclosure) information was collected. Participants were asked about absenteeism, job disruptions, and perceived productivity loss in the last 6 months. Log Poisson regression analyses examined factors associated with work outcomes. A majority of participants (59%) were employed and reported a well-managed health condition. Employed respondents were satisfied with their career progress and indicated moderate job control. More than 40% of participants reported absenteeism, job disruptions, and productivity loss. Greater job control and self-disclosure, and less social support, were related to a higher likelihood of absenteeism. More disease activity was related to a greater likelihood of reporting job disruptions. Lower fatigue and higher job control were associated with a reduced likelihood of a productivity loss. Young adult respondents with rheumatic disease experienced challenges with employment, including absenteeism, job disruptions, and productivity loss. While related to greater absenteeism, job control could play a role in a young person's ability to manage their health condition and sustain productive employment. Greater attention should also be paid to understanding health factors and social support in early work experiences. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  7. Bones and Crohn's: Estradiol deficiency in men with Crohn's disease is not associated with reduced bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm BO

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis are frequent in Crohn's disease (CD, but the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Deficiency of sex steroids, especially estradiol (E2, is an established risk factor in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Aim To assess if hormonal deficiencies in male CD patients are frequent we investigated both, sex steroids, bone density and bone metabolism markers. Methods 111 male CD patients underwent osteodensitometry (DXA of the spine (L1–L4. Disease related data were recorded. Disease activity was estimated using Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI. Testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, Osteocalcin and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptids (ICTP were measured in 111 patients and 99 age-matched controls. Results Patients had lower T, E2 and SHBG serum levels (p 10 g had lower BMD. 32 (28.8% patients showed osteoporosis, 55 (49.5% osteopenia and 24 (21.6% had normal BMD. Patients with normal or decreased BMD showed no significant difference in their hormonal status. No correlation between markers of bone turnover and sex steroids could be found. ICTP was increased in CD patients (p Conclusion We found an altered hormonal status – i.e. E2 and, to a lesser extent T deficiency – in male CD patients but failed to show an association to bone density or markers of bone turnover. The role of E2 in the negative skeletal balance in males with CD, analogous to E2 deficiency in postmenopausal females, deserves further attention.

  8. Information and preventive measures can reduce absenteeism during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Working during pregnancy may expose women to several risk factors. According to recent findings of the National Survey on Working Conditions, information at an early stage on the consequences of the pregnancy for the working capacity of pregnant women, as well as implementing preventive measures,

  9. Ohio's Resource Guide to Reduce Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Department of Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    It is important for every student in Ohio to attend school every day. Missing too much school has longterm, negative effects on students, such as lower achievement and graduation rates. There are many reasons students miss school, but districts often can directly impact their students' attendance. By using data to identify and support students who…

  10. Predicting absenteeism: screening for work ability or burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteten, R

    2017-01-01

    In determining the predictors of occupational health problems, two factors can be distinguished: personal (work ability) factors and work-related factors (burnout, job characteristics). However, these risk factors are hardly ever combined and it is not clear whether burnout or work ability best predicts absenteeism. To relate measures of work ability, burnout and job characteristics to absenteeism as the indicators of occupational health problems. Survey data on work ability, burnout and job characteristics from a Dutch university were related to the absenteeism data from the university's occupational health and safety database in the year following the survey study. The survey contained the Work Ability Index (WAI), Utrecht Burnout Scale (UBOS) and seven job characteristics from the Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work (QEEW). There were 242 employees in the study group. Logistic regression analyses revealed that job characteristics did not predict absenteeism. Exceptional absenteeism was most consistently predicted by the WAI dimensions 'employees' own prognosis of work ability in two years from now' and 'mental resources/vitality' and the burnout dimension 'emotional exhaustion'. Other significant predictors of exceptional absenteeism frequency included estimated work impairment due to diseases (WAI) and feelings of depersonalization or emotional distance from the work (burnout). Absenteeism among university personnel was best predicted by a combination of work ability and burnout. As a result, measures to prevent absenteeism and health problems may best be aimed at improving an individual's work ability and/or preventing the occurrence of burnout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Biological gender differences, absenteeism and the earning gap

    OpenAIRE

    Ichino, Andrea; Moretti, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    In most Western countries illness-related absenteeism is higher among female workers than among male workers. Using the personnel dataset of a large Italian bank, we show that the probability of an absence due to illness increases for females, relative to males, approximately 28 days after a previous illness. This difference disappears for workers age 45 or older. We interpret this as evidence that the menstrual cycle raises female absenteeism. Absences with a 28-day cycle explain a significa...

  12. Exploring Parents’ Perceptions of Student Absenteeism in K-3

    OpenAIRE

    Karpilovski, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism affects students’ academic achievement as well as their social and emotional wellbeing. In early elementary school, the primary responsibility for school attendance rests with parents and guardians. This thesis investigates parents’ perceptions of factors related to school attendance. The study was conducted in BC’s largest school district within the context of an absenteeism reduction program. Fifty-four parents of students in K-3 from 15 inner-city schools participated i...

  13. Overtime and Short-time with Fluctuating Absenteeism and Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Regt Erik R. de

    2005-01-01

    Even though overtime is a widely observed phenomenon, this paper argues against the view of overtime as a structural cost minimizing labour demand solution. A large part of the observed overtime can be explained by the volatility of demand and absenteeism.The paper''s main contribution is to investigate how stochastic absenteeism and stochastic demand tend to increase average hours per worker. Two distinct mechanisms are identified, independent of the type of uncertainty. The relative sizes o...

  14. Asthma-Related School Absenteeism, Morbidity, and Modifiable Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Qin, Xiaoting; Beavers, Suzanne F; Mirabelli, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a leading cause of chronic disease-related school absenteeism. Few data exist on how information on absenteeism might be used to identify children for interventions to improve asthma control. This study investigated how asthma-related absenteeism was associated with asthma control, exacerbations, and associated modifiable risk factors using a sample of children from 35 states and the District of Columbia. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Child Asthma Call-back Survey is a random-digit dial survey designed to assess the health and experiences of children aged 0-17 years with asthma. During 2014-2015, multivariate analyses were conducted using 2006-2010 data to compare children with and without asthma-related absenteeism with respect to clinical, environmental, and financial measures. These analyses controlled for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with children without asthma-related absenteeism, children who missed any school because of asthma were more likely to have not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma (prevalence ratio=1.50; 95% CI=1.34, 1.69) and visit an emergency department or urgent care center for asthma (prevalence ratio=3.27; 95% CI=2.44, 4.38). Mold in the home and cost as a barrier to asthma-related health care were also significantly associated with asthma-related absenteeism. Missing any school because of asthma is associated with suboptimal asthma control, urgent or emergent asthma-related healthcare utilization, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Further understanding of asthma-related absenteeism could establish how to most effectively use absenteeism information as a health status indicator. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether mental health and cardiovascular fitness mediated this association. 328 Students in grades 7 and 9 (mean age 13.8 years; 49% boys) were included. PA was measured o...

  16. Influence of Nurse Aide Absenteeism on Nursing Home Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G; Ferguson-Rome, Jamie C

    2015-08-01

    In this analysis, the association of nurse aide absenteeism with quality is examined. Absenteeism is the failure of nurse aides to report for work when they are scheduled to work. Data used in this investigation came from survey responses from 3,941 nursing homes; Nursing Home Compare; the Online System for Survey, Certification and Administrative Reporting data; and the Area Resource File. Staffing characteristics, quality indicators, facility, and market information from these data sources were all measured in 2008. The specific quality indicators examined are physical restraint use, catheter use, pain management, and pressure sores using negative binomial regression. An average rate of 9.2% for nurse aide absenteeism was reported in the prior week. We find that high levels of absenteeism are associated with poor performance on all four quality indicators examined. The investigation presented, to our knowledge, is one of the first examining the implications of absenteeism in nursing homes. Absenteeism can be a costly staffing issue, one of the potential costs identified in this analysis is an impact on quality of care. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Professional autonomy and work setting as contributing factors to depression and absenteeism in Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Victoria; Currie, Shawn; Wang, JianLi

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of major depression in Canadian nurses is double the national average for working women. The present study sought to delineate the role of professional autonomy, health care setting, and work environment characteristics as risk factors for depression and absenteeism in female nurses. A cross-sectional, secondary analysis was conducted on a large representative sample of female nurses working in hospitals and other settings across Canada (N = 17,437). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to test the hypothesis that work environment factors are significant determinants of major depression and absenteeism in female nurses after accounting for other risk factors. Experiencing a major depressive episode in the past 12 months was significantly associated with lower autonomy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93), higher job strain (OR = 2.2), being a licensed practical nurse (OR = 0.82), and working in a nonhospital setting (OR = 1.5). Higher absenteeism was associated with the same variables as well as having less control over one's work schedule. Efforts to increase autonomy of nurses and reduce job strain may help to address the high prevalence of major depression in this professional group. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dysmenorrhea, absenteeism from school, and symptoms suspicious for endometriosis in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannoni, Letizia; Giorgi, Melinda; Spagnolo, Emanuela; Montanari, Giulia; Villa, Gioia; Seracchioli, Renato

    2014-10-01

    To quantify in adolescents the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and other symptoms found to be suggestive of future diagnosis of endometriosis, in particular their impact on monthly absenteeism from school/work, activity impairment, and sexual life and to quantify the awareness of endometriosis in adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Academic institution. Adolescents (n = 250) aged 14-20 years referring to 3 family Counseling services. Participants completed an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence of dysmenorrhea and absenteeism from school/work during menses. Other outcomes were impairment of daily activities, dyspareunia, and awareness of endometriosis as a pathologic condition. 68% (170/250) of the participants complain of dysmenorrhea, 12% (30/250) lose days of school/work monthly because of dysmenorrhea, 13% (33/250) complain of intermenstrual pain which limits daily activities, 27% (56/208) of the adolescents who are sexually active complain of dyspareunia, 82% (203/250) have never heard about endometriosis and 80% (200/250) would like to know more about it. A significant association was found between severe dysmenorrhea, absenteeism from school/work, and basic level of education. Absence from school/work during menses showed an adjusted odds ratio for severe dysmenorrhea about 28 times greater than those who did not declare absenteeism (95%CI 7.898-98.920, Pabsenteeism caused by dysmenorrhea are high. According to recent studies these patients are at higher risk of further development of endometriosis, whereas the knowledge of the disease is low among the adolescents investigated, so those involved with adolescents both in the health profession and particularly in schools and Family Counseling Services should be educated about endometriosis and its symptoms to reduce the significant lag time between symptoms and diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism and their antecedents in full-time Australian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated distinct longitudinal trajectories of absenteeism over time, and underlying demographic, work, and health antecedents. Data from the Household, Income, and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey were used; this is a panel study of a representative sample of Australian households. This paper focused on 2,481 full-time employees across a 5-year period. Information on annual sick leave and relevant sociodemographic, work, and health-related factors was collected through interviews and self-completed surveys. Growth mixture modeling indicated 4 distinct longitudinal patterns of absenteeism over time. The moderate absenteeism trajectory (34.8%) of the sample had 4-5 days of sick leave per year and was used as the reference group. The low absenteeism trajectory (33.5%) had 1-2 days of absenteeism per year, while the no absenteeism trajectory (23.6%) had very low rates of absenteeism (absenteeism (>11 days per year). Compared with the moderate absenteeism trajectory, the high absenteeism trajectory was characterized by poor health; the no absenteeism and low absenteeism trajectories had better health but may also reflect processes relating to presenteeism. These results provide important insights into the nature of absenteeism in Australian employees, and suggest that different patterns of absenteeism over time could reflect a range of demographic, work, and health related factors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came into being on an initiative of doctor De La Roch, who was a German surgeon of a French origin. However, as early as 1844, the idea of absenteeism raised an interest of catholic clergymen of Greater Poland with high ranking clergy such as Rev. Leon Michał Przyłuski, Archbishop of Gniezno and Rev. Jan Kanty Dąbrowski, Archbishop of Posen, and later on Archbishops Rev. Mieczysław Halka Ledóchowski and Rev. Florian Oksza Stablewski. They were fascinated with activities of Rev. Jan Nepomucen Fick, Parish Priest of Piekary Śląskie and several other priests on whose initiative a lot of church brotherhoods of so called holy continence were set up in Upper Silesia as early as the first half-year of 1844. It was due to Bishop Dąbrowski that 100 000 people took vows of absenteeism in 1844–1845, becoming members of brotherhoods of absenteeism. In turn, it was an initiative of Archbishop Przyłuski that Jesuit missionaries – Rev. Karol Bołoz Antoniewicz, Rev. Teofil Baczyński and Rev. Kamil Praszałowicz, arrived in Greater Poland from Galicia in 1852 to promote the idea of absenteeism. Starting from 1848, they were helping Silesian clergymen to spread absenteeism. Clergymen of Greater Poland were also active in secular absenteeism associations. They became involved in the workings of the Association for the Promotion of Absenteeism that was set up by Zygmunt Celichowski in Kórnik in 1887, and especially in the Jutrzenka Absenteeism Association

  1. Impact of elevated CO_2 concentrations on carbonate mineral precipitation ability of sulfate-reducing bacteria and implications for CO_2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Varun G.; Wronkiewicz, David J.; Mormile, Melanie R.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in anthropogenic CO_2 release and associated global climatic change has prompted numerous laboratory-scale and commercial efforts focused on capturing, sequestering or utilizing CO_2 in the subsurface. Known carbonate mineral precipitating microorganisms, such as the anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), could enhance the rate of conversion of CO_2 into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage of captured gasses. The ability of SRB to induce carbonate mineral precipitation, when exposed to atmospheric and elevated pCO_2, was investigated in laboratory scale tests with bacteria from organic-rich sediments collected from hypersaline Lake Estancia, New Mexico. The enriched SRB culture was inoculated in continuous gas flow and batch reactors under variable headspace pCO_2 (0.0059 psi to 20 psi). Solution pH, redox conditions, sulfide, calcium and magnesium concentrations were monitored in the reactors. Those reactors containing SRB that were exposed to pCO_2 of 14.7 psi or less showed Mg-calcite precipitation. Reactors exposed to 20 psi pCO_2 did not exhibit any carbonate mineralization, likely due to the inhibition of bacterial metabolism caused by the high levels of CO_2. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for the SRB metabolism and related carbonate mineralization. Carbon isotopic studies confirmed that ∼53% of carbon in the precipitated carbonate minerals was derived from the CO_2 headspace, with the remaining carbon being derived from the organic electron donors, and the bicarbonate ions available in the liquid medium. The ability of halotolerant SRB to induce the precipitation of carbonate minerals can potentially be applied to the long-term storage of anthropogenic CO_2 in saline aquifers and other ideal subsurface rock units by converting the gas into solid immobile phases. - Highlights: • SRB under study are capable of precipitating calcite up to 14.7 psi pCO_2. • At 20 psi pCO_2, bacterial activity

  2. Incorporating nurse absenteeism into staffing with demand uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Kayse Lee; Liu, Boying; Daskin, Mark S; Duck, Mary; Wang, Zhehui; Mwenesi, Rama; Schapiro, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    Increased nurse-to-patient ratios are associated negatively with increased costs and positively with improved patient care and reduced nurse burnout rates. Thus, it is critical from a cost, patient safety, and nurse satisfaction perspective that nurses be utilized efficiently and effectively. To address this, we propose a stochastic programming formulation for nurse staffing that accounts for variability in the patient census and nurse absenteeism, day-to-day correlations among the patient census levels, and costs associated with three different classes of nursing personnel: unit, pool, and temporary nurses. The decisions to be made include: how many unit nurses to employ, how large a pool of cross-trained nurses to maintain, how to allocate the pool nurses on a daily basis, and how many temporary nurses to utilize daily. A genetic algorithm is developed to solve the resulting model. Preliminary results using data from a large university hospital suggest that the proposed model can save a four-unit pool hundreds of thousands of dollars annually as opposed to the crude heuristics the hospital currently employs.

  3. The role of organisational justice, burnout and commitment in the understanding of absenteeism in the Canadian healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chênevert, Denis; Jourdain, Genevieve; Cole, Nona; Banville, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate Greenberg's perspective on the connection between injustice and stress in order to clarify the role of organisational justice, burnout and organisational commitment in the understanding of absenteeism. The study was carried out among 457 workers of a large healthcare establishment in the Canadian public healthcare sector. The model was tested using structural equation methods. The results reveal that procedural and interactional justices have an indirect effect on exhaustion through distributive injustice. Moreover, it was found that distributive injustice is indirectly linked to short-term absences through exhaustion. By contrast, the relationship between distributive injustice and long-term absence can be explained by two mediating variables, namely, exhaustion and psychosomatic complaints. In spite of the non-longitudinal nature of this study, the results suggest that the stress model and the medical model best explain the relationship between organisational injustice and absenteeism, while the withdrawal model via organisational commitment is not associated in this study with absenteeism. Healthcare managers should consider the possibility of better involving employees in the decision-making process in order to increase their perception of procedural and interactional justice, and indirectly reduce exhaustion and absenteeism through a greater perception of distributive justice. For the healthcare sector, the need to reduce absenteeism is particularly urgent because of budget restrictions and the shortage of labour around the world. This is one of the first studies to provide a complete model that analyses the stress process in terms of how organisational justice affects short- and long-term absences, in a bid to understand the specific process and factors that lead to shorter and longer episodes of absence.

  4. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  5. Absenteeism and its implications for nursing care in emergency services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Carvalho Pinto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of absenteeism among nursing teams and its determinants in healthcare emergency services. A cross-sectional study was carried out by means of secondary data from records of a coordination of human resources. Occurrences with 208 nursing professionals were identified. Univariate analysis was carried out with frequency calculation of the variables age, gender, professional category, workplace, and days and reasons for absenteeism. Fisher’s exact test was applied, fixing the error type I in 5%. The mean age of the participants was 47.2 years, with a prevalence of the female gender (79.8%. A total of 5,778 occurrences of absenteeism were found (mean of 28 per professional, and illness was the main determinant for absenteeism (2,671 occurrences; 46.2%. There was a prevalence of short-term absenteeism (3,020 occurrences; 52.3%. The findings observed in emergency services were similar, with a potential impact on planning, workforce, and quality of care.

  6. Multistate models for clustered duration data - An application to workplace effects on individual sickness absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Kerkhofs, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    Sickness absenteeism figures show a relatively large amount of variation across firms and organizations, indicating substantial within-firm correlations between absenteeism records of individual workers. To study the role of firm-specific circumstances and workforce composition, we specify

  7. Insights into Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II) Oxidation Mechanisms through Analysis of Cell-Mineral Associations, Cell Encrustation, and Mineralogy in the Chemolithoautotrophic Enrichment Culture KS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, M; Tominski, C; Halama, M; Byrne, J M; Obst, M; Kleindienst, S; Behrens, S; Kappler, A

    2017-07-01

    Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans ) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In the mixed culture, we found no significant encrustation of any of the cells both during autotrophic oxidation of 8 to 10 mM Fe(II) coupled to nitrate reduction and during cultivation under mixotrophic conditions with 8 to 10 mM Fe(II), 5 mM acetate, and 4 mM nitrate, where higher numbers of heterotrophic nitrate reducers were present. Two pure cultures of heterotrophic nitrate reducers ( Nocardioides and Rhodanobacter ) isolated from culture KS were analyzed under mixotrophic growth conditions. We found green rust formation, no cell encrustation, and only a few mineral particles on some cell surfaces with 5 mM Fe(II) and some encrustation with 10 mM Fe(II). Our findings suggest that enzymatic, autotrophic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction forms poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and proceeds without cellular encrustation while indirect Fe(II) oxidation via heterotrophic nitrate-reduction-derived nitrite can lead to green rust as an intermediate mineral and significant cell encrustation. The extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible under environmental conditions in most habitats. IMPORTANCE Most described nitrate-reducing

  8. Insights into Nitrate-Reducing Fe(II) Oxidation Mechanisms through Analysis of Cell-Mineral Associations, Cell Encrustation, and Mineralogy in the Chemolithoautotrophic Enrichment Culture KS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhoff, M.; Tominski, C.; Halama, M.; Byrne, J. M.; Obst, M.; Behrens, S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. In the mixed culture, we found no significant encrustation of any of the cells both during autotrophic oxidation of 8 to 10 mM Fe(II) coupled to nitrate reduction and during cultivation under mixotrophic conditions with 8 to 10 mM Fe(II), 5 mM acetate, and 4 mM nitrate, where higher numbers of heterotrophic nitrate reducers were present. Two pure cultures of heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Nocardioides and Rhodanobacter) isolated from culture KS were analyzed under mixotrophic growth conditions. We found green rust formation, no cell encrustation, and only a few mineral particles on some cell surfaces with 5 mM Fe(II) and some encrustation with 10 mM Fe(II). Our findings suggest that enzymatic, autotrophic Fe(II) oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction forms poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxyhydroxides and proceeds without cellular encrustation while indirect Fe(II) oxidation via heterotrophic nitrate-reduction-derived nitrite can lead to green rust as an intermediate mineral and significant cell encrustation. The extent of encrustation caused by indirect Fe(II) oxidation by reactive nitrogen species depends on Fe(II) concentrations and is probably negligible under environmental conditions in most habitats. IMPORTANCE Most described nitrate-reducing

  9. Long-Term Use of Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals Does Not Reduce the Risk of Urothelial Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder in the VITamins And Lifestyle Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, James M.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Pocobelli, Gaia; Bhatti, Parveen; Porter, Michael P.; White, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) has the highest lifetime treatment cost of any cancer making it an ideal target for preventative therapies. Previous work has suggested that certain vitamin and mineral supplements may reduce the risk of UC. We sought to use the prospective VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort to examine the association of all commonly taken vitamin and mineral supplements as well as 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements with incident UC in a United States population. Materials&Methods 77,050 eligible VITAL participants completed a detailed questionnaire at baseline on supplement use and cancer risk factors. . After 6 years of follow-up, 330 incident UC cases occurring in the cohort were identified via linkage to the Seattle-Puget Sound Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry. We analyzed use of supplemental vitamins (multivitamins, beta-carotene, retinol, folic acid, vitamins B1, B3, B6, B12, C, D and E), minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc, and selenium), and anti-inflammatory supplements (glucosamine, chondroitin, saw-palmetto, ginko-biloba, fish oil and garlic). For each supplement, the hazard ratios (risk ratios) for UC comparing each category of users to nonusers, and 95% confidence intervals, were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression., adjusted for potential confounders. Results None of the vitamin, mineral or anti-inflammatory supplements was significantly associated with UC risk in either age-adjusted or multivariate models. Conclusions The results of this study do not support the use of commonly taken vitamin or mineral supplements or 6 common anti-inflammatory supplements for chemoprevention of UC. PMID:21334017

  10. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism at public schools: Supporting an ecosystemic management approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coetzee, Susan; Venter, Rienie

    2016-01-01

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees' specific circumstances, it fails to address learner absenteeism properly. In the first part of this article, the authors considered the suitability of the ecosystemic theory as basis for a manage...

  11. Efficacy of mineral oil combined with insecticides for the control of aphid virus vectors to reduce potato virus Y infections in seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Steen L.

    2012-01-01

    Aphids are major vectors of plant viruses. Potato virus Y (PVY) is the most important aphid-transmitted virus affecting potato crops in Denmark. Because of a changed seed potato growing strategy, the seed potato area in Denmark is changing from regions with a low average temperature to regions...... with a higher average temperature. This means that the aphids may infest the potato crops earlier and the population development of the aphids may be faster, and consequently PVY may more easily become epidemic in seed potato crops. With a view to reducing the spread of PVY a 3-year experiment was carried out...... with a combination of mineral oil and insecticides. In 2005 and 2007 when a very high number of aphids were present, nearly all plants were infected with PVY. In 2006 with a lower number of aphids a smaller proportion of the plants were infected, and a tendency to a lower PVY incidence in mineral-oil treated plots...

  12. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective productivity and absenteeism data were supplied by the employer. Subjective assessments of productivity were collected using a self report instrument, the Health and Work Questionnaire (HWQ).
RESULTS—Current smokers had significantly greater absenteeism than did never smokers, with former smokers having intermediate values; among former smokers, absenteeism showed a significant decline with years following cessation. Former smokers showed an increase in seven of 10 objective productivity measures as compared to current smokers, with a mean increase of 4.5%. While objective productivity measures for former smokers decreased compared to measures for current smokers during the first year following cessation, values for former smokers were greater than those for current smokers by 1-4 years following cessation. Subjective assessments of "productivity evaluation by others" and "personal life satisfaction" showed significant trends with highest values for never smokers, lowest for current smokers, and intermediate for former smokers.
CONCLUSIONS—Workplace productivity is increased and absenteeism is decreased among former smokers as compared to current smokers. Productivity among former smokers increases over time toward values seen among never smokers. Subjective measures of productivity provide indications of novel ways of productivity assessment that are sensitive to smoking status.


Keywords: smoking cessation; workplace; absenteeism; productivity

  13. Elections: DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Acknowledgments Contact Acknowledgments Related GAO Products Page 75 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting U.S. Postal Service: Actions... Products Page 76 GAO-16-378 DOD Overseas Absentee Voting Election Reform: Nine States’ Experiences Implementing Federal Requirements for...ELECTIONS DOD Needs More Comprehensive Planning to Address Military and Overseas Absentee Voting Challenges

  14. Absenteeism in Undergraduate Business Education: A Proposed Model and Exploratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    One issue in undergraduate business education remaining underexamined is student absenteeism. In this article, the literature on undergraduate absenteeism is reviewed culminating in a proposed conceptual framework to guide future research, and an exploratory investigation of management students' attitudes about absenteeism is conducted.…

  15. Beyond the Excused/Unexcused Absence Binary: Classifying Absenteeism through a Voluntary/Involuntary Absence Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birioukov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Student absenteeism in secondary schools has received international academic attention for quite some time. Absenteeism has been linked to diminished academic outcomes and is one of the leading causes of high school dropout. Although absenteeism is a serious concern for educational scholars, the definitions of absences and their subtypes are…

  16. South African Law and Policy Regulating Learner Absenteeism at Public Schools: Supporting an Ecosystemic Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Susan; Venter, Rienie

    2016-01-01

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. Notwithstanding this fact, there is a worldwide trend towards a more punitive and retributory management approach to address learner absenteeism. Because such an approach neglects to consider absentees' specific circumstances, it fails to address…

  17. Absenteeism movement in Greater Poland in 1840–1902

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Krasińska

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the origins and development of the idea of absenteeism in Greater Poland in the 19th century. The start date for the research is 1840, which is considered to be a breakthrough year in the history of an organized absenteeism movement in Greater Poland. It was due to the Association for the Suppression of the Use of Vodka (Towarzystwo ku Przytłumieniu Używania Wódki) in the Great Duchy of Posen that was then established in Kórnik. It was a secular organization that came int...

  18. A Synthesis of the Evidence for Managing Stress at Work: A Review of the Reviews Reporting on Anxiety, Depression, and Absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep S. Bhui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychosocial stressors in the workplace are a cause of anxiety and depressive illnesses, suicide and family disruption. Methods. The present review synthesizes the evidence from existing systematic reviews published between 1990 and July 2011. We assessed the effectiveness of individual, organisational and mixed interventions on two outcomes: mental health and absenteeism. Results. In total, 23 systematic reviews included 499 primary studies; there were 11 meta-analyses and 12 narrative reviews. Meta-analytic studies found a greater effect size of individual interventions on individual outcomes. Organisational interventions showed mixed evidence of benefit. Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism. The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews. Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions. Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Gaps in the literature include studies of organisational outcomes like absenteeism, the influence of specific occupations and size of organisations, and studies of the comparative effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Conclusions. Individual interventions (like CBT improve individuals’ mental health. Physical activity as an organisational intervention reduces absenteeism. Research needs to target gaps in the evidence.

  19. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Emily; Le Saux, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Results Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract). The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. Conclusions The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique. PMID:15518593

  20. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Saux Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Results Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract. The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. Conclusions The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique.

  1. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Emily; Le Saux, Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract). The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique.

  2. A Synthesis of the Evidence for Managing Stress at Work: A Review of the Reviews Reporting on Anxiety, Depression, and Absenteeism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhui, K.S.; Dinos, S.; Stansfeld, S.A.; White, P.D.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stressors in the workplace are a cause of anxiety and depressive illnesses, suicide and family disruption. Methods. The present review synthesizes the evidence from existing systematic reviews published between 1990 and July 2011. We assessed the effectiveness of individual, organisational and mixed interventions on two outcomes: mental health and absenteeism. Results. In total, 23 systematic reviews included 499 primary studies; there were 11 meta-analyses and 12 narrative reviews. Meta-analytic studies found a greater effect size of individual interventions on individual outcomes. Organisational interventions showed mixed evidence of benefit. Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism. The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews. Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions. Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Gaps in the literature include studies of organisational outcomes like absenteeism, the influence of specific occupations and size of organisations, and studies of the comparative effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Conclusions. Individual interventions (like CBT) improve individuals mental health. Physical activity as an organisational intervention reduces absenteeism. Research needs to target gaps in the evidence

  3. A synthesis of the evidence for managing stress at work: a review of the reviews reporting on anxiety, depression, and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep S; Dinos, Sokratis; Stansfeld, Stephen A; White, Peter D

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stressors in the workplace are a cause of anxiety and depressive illnesses, suicide and family disruption. The present review synthesizes the evidence from existing systematic reviews published between 1990 and July 2011. We assessed the effectiveness of individual, organisational and mixed interventions on two outcomes: mental health and absenteeism. In total, 23 systematic reviews included 499 primary studies; there were 11 meta-analyses and 12 narrative reviews. Meta-analytic studies found a greater effect size of individual interventions on individual outcomes. Organisational interventions showed mixed evidence of benefit. Organisational programmes for physical activity showed a reduction in absenteeism. The findings from the meta-analytic reviews were consistent with the findings from the narrative reviews. Specifically, cognitive-behavioural programmes produced larger effects at the individual level compared with other interventions. Some interventions appeared to lead to deterioration in mental health and absenteeism outcomes.Gaps in the literature include studies of organisational outcomes like absenteeism, the influence of specific occupations and size of organisations, and studies of the comparative effectiveness of primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Individual interventions (like CBT) improve individuals' mental health. Physical activity as an organisational intervention reduces absenteeism. Research needs to target gaps in the evidence.

  4. Healthcare worker influenza immunization vaccinate or mask policy: strategies for cost effective implementation and subsequent reductions in staff absenteeism due to illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buynder, P G; Konrad, S; Kersteins, F; Preston, E; Brown, P D; Keen, D; Murray, N J

    2015-03-24

    A new policy requiring staff in clinical areas to vaccinate or wear a mask was implemented in British Columbia (BC) in the 2012/13 winter. This review assessed the impact of the policy on absenteeism in health care workers. A retrospective cohort study of full-time HCW that worked prior to and during the 2012/13 influenza season in a health authority in BC. The rate of absenteeism due to all cause illness was compared between vaccinated and unvaccinated staff controlling for behaviors outside influenza season. Of the 10079 HCW, 77% were vaccinated. By comparison to absenteeism rates in the pre-influenza season, unvaccinated staff in winter had twice the increase in absenteeism due to all-cause illness than vaccinated staff. After controlling for baseline differences between those vaccinated and unvaccinated, influenza vaccination was associated with reduced absenteeism, saving the Health Authority substantial money. Having regular staff in attendance increases the quality of care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Employing volcanic tuff minerals in interior architecture design to reduce microbial contaminants and airborne fungal carcinogens of indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikoglu, Yaman; Gedikoglu, Gunduz; Berkin, Genco; Ceyhan, Taskin; Altinoz, Meric A

    2012-09-01

    Indoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have posed significant risks to human health since people have both shifted to a life spent, for the most part, indoors. Further, changes in materials used in the construction of buildings, furnishings, and tools either leak or encourage the production of VOCs. Whether these enclosed areas are residences, hospitals or workplaces (specifically composting facilities or closed farm buildings for raising livestock), VOCs can rise to levels that threaten people's health. VOCs can either originate from phenolic and benzene-like compounds in building materials and office furniture or from molds (fungi) growing inside improperly ventilated or sealed buildings. Regardless of the source, exposure to VOCs could lead to significant health concerns from sick-building syndrome, 'leukemia houses,' in-hospital fungemia cases or occupation-associated cancer epidemics due to aflatoxicosis. Innovative 21st-century building materials could offer solutions to these challenges. We propose that volcanic materials, clays and minerals (volcanic tuff, modified clay montmorillonite and mineral clinoptilolite), in their original or chemically modified form, could act like synthetic lungs in building walls, breathing and filtering VOCs, and thus limiting human exposure to disease.

  6. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students: effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne T M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van de Goor, Ien A M; Rots-de Vries, Carin M C; Feron, Frans J M

    2016-10-21

    Students' health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary education. This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of this intervention on students' medical absenteeism, compared to "medical absenteeism policy as usual". A quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (493 students) and a control group (445 students) was applied. Multilevel analysis was used to study differences in the development of the level of a student's medical absence over time (after 3 and 12 months). In the intervention group, the level of absenteeism decreased from 8.5 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 5.7 days after 3 months, and to 4.9 days after 12 months. The number of absence periods fell from 3.9 in 12 school weeks to 2.5 after 3 months, and to 2.2 after 12 months. In the control group, the absence days initially decreased from 9.9 days reported sick in 12 school weeks to 8.4 days after 3 months, after which an increase to 8.9 days was measured. The number of absence periods initially decreased from 4.5 in 12 school weeks to 3.5, after which an increase to 3.7 was measured. The number of absence days per period remained about the same in both groups. The study provides first indications for the intervention to be effective for Dutch pre-vocational secondary students with increased medical absence rates. The intervention, which consists of personalised management of medical absenteeism by systematic identification of students with extensive medical absenteeism and consistent referral to youth health care physicians, appears to reduce the absence rates more effectively than "medical absenteeism policy as usual". The effectiveness of the intervention is shown primarily by a decrease in the number of periods reported sick.

  7. Reducing mineral usage in feedlot diets for Nellore cattle: II. Impacts of calcium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, and zinc contents on intake, performance, and liver and bone status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Sathler, D F T; Silva, B C; Zanetti, D; Valadares Filho, S C; Alhadas, H M; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Mariz, L D S; Chizzotti, M L

    2017-04-01

    0.52) among diets. Supplementation of microminerals decreased ( < 0.01) plasma Ca concentration; nevertheless, all analyzed blood metabolites were within the reference values. Supplementation of Ca and P increased ( < 0.01) fecal excretion of these minerals. These results indicate that mineral supplementation (Ca, P, Zn, Mn, and Cu) of conventional feedlot diets for Nellore bulls may be not necessary. Dietary reductions in these minerals would represent a decrease in the cost of feedlot diets. Dietary reduction in Ca and P content cause a decrease in fecal excretion of these minerals, which, in turn, represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of feedlot operations.

  8. Prediction of Various Degrees of Vocational Secondary School Absenteeism: Importance of the Organization of the Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Lecigne, Andre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study different types of absenteeism in vocational secondary school taking into account the specificity of the school context. Participants were 523 students. First, three school absenteeism groups were established: Students with no absenteeism (nearly 64% of the sample), students with absenteeism (26%), and…

  9. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Department of Psychology of Education, College of Education, University of ... Keywords: ecosystemic theory; learner absenteeism; management approach; South African law and policy ..... learners, but can also be cultural and systemic ..... tesis. Pretoria, Suid-Afrika: Universiteit van Suid-. Afrika. Beskikbaar te .... Phd thesis.

  10. South African law and policy regulating learner absenteeism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Learner absenteeism often occurs involuntarily due to learners' social and economic circumstances. ..... still a child; e.g. under 18 years of age, and ... schools to take the age and maturity of the ... 5). The Policy on Learner Attendance (DBE, RSA,. 2010, para. 13(i)) allows the ..... Emotional literacy and the ecology of.

  11. Absenteeism, Burnout and Symptomatology of Teacher Stress: Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Toro, Laura; Prieto-Ursúa, María

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been carried out confirming high levels in symptomatology of stress and depression in the teaching profession, research focusing on sex differences in these problems has been both scarce and inconclusive. The aim of this study is to analyse differences with regards to sex in the incidence of absenteeism, work-related…

  12. Effect of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.

  13. Does Menstruation Explain Gender Gaps in Work Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Mariesa A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2012-01-01

    Ichino and Moretti (2009) find that menstruation may contribute to gender gaps in absenteeism and earnings, based on evidence that absences of young female Italian bank employees follow a 28-day cycle. We find this evidence is not robust to the correction of coding errors or small changes in specification, and we find no evidence of increased…

  14. Aggression and violence, posttraumatic stress and absenteeism in penitentiaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, M.J.J.; Schweizer, S.; Bogaerts, S.; Knaap, L.M. van der

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the Judicial Penitentiary Service (DJI) is to gain insight into the possible effects of aggression and violence among employees and in the factors which are at the roots of it. The DJI is especially interested in absenteeism as a possible effect of aggression and violence among employees,

  15. Caregiver Asthma in Urban Families: Implications for School Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Robin S.; Miller, Sarah; Leibach, Gillian G.; Dahl, Alexandra L.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2018-01-01

    Asthma is a significant contributor to missed school days, especially for children living in urban settings. This preliminary study examined the impact of caregiver asthma on school absenteeism in a sample of 102 urban children with asthma from African American, Latino, and non-Latino White backgrounds. Caregivers and children participated in a…

  16. Understanding Excessive School Absenteeism as School Refusal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Understanding excessive absenteeism is important to ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with the behavior. The present study examined behavioral reinforcement profiles of school refusal behavior: negative reinforcement (avoidance) and positive reinforcement (gaining parental attention or receiving tangible benefits from not attending…

  17. Presenteeism and absenteeism: differentiated understanding of related phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Eric; Lemyre, Louise; Corneil, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    In the past it was assumed that work attendance equated to performance. It now appears that health-related loss of productivity can be traced equally to workers showing up at work as well as to workers choosing not to. Presenteeism in the workplace, showing up for work while sick, seems now more prevalent than absenteeism. These findings are forcing organizations to reconsider their approaches regarding regular work attendance. Given this, and echoing recommendations in the literature, this study seeks to identify the main behavioral correlates of presenteeism and absenteeism in the workplace. Comparative analysis of the data from a representative sample of executives from the Public Service of Canada enables us to draw a unique picture of presenteeism and absenteeism with regards not only to the impacts of health disorders but also to the demographic, organizational, and individual factors involved. Results provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between these phenomena, and more specifically, of the differentiated influence of certain variables. These findings provide food for thought and may pave the way to the development of new organizational measures designed to manage absenteeism without creating presenteeism.

  18. [School absenteeism: Preliminary developments and maintaining persisting challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Christoph; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz

    2016-01-01

    A first step when considering school absenteeism is to understand the meaning and definition of the term. School absenteeism encompasses several terms such as school refusal, truancy and school phobia, all of which have been used inconsistently and confusingly in the past. Furthermore, the question of how many days of absence can be seen as problematic remains unclear. Due to these definitional problems, available data is inconsistent. Therefore, the prevalence rates of school absenteeism can only be estimated (about 5 % of all students). School absenteeism affects not only individual students, but also family, school and society structures. In order to establish appropriate support and intervention programs, a multimodal as well as an individual approach should be considered to address this interdependency. The primary goal, however, should be the students’ resumption of a regular school attendance, which requires a strong cooperation between parents, schools, youth welfare services and psychotherapeutic offers. If therapeutic interventions are required, it is highly recommended to start with outpatient treatment. If school attendance still remains irregular an inpatient treatment should follow.

  19. Teachers' Acceptance of Absenteeism: Towards Developing a Specific Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Ishan, Gamal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to develop and validate a measure of a specific attitude toward teachers' absenteeism that predicts this behavior more accurately than other general measures of job attitudes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were 443 teachers from 21 secondary schools in Israel. In the first phase, the teachers answered anonymous…

  20. The School Absenteeism among High School Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkis, Murat; Arslan, Gökmen; Duru, Erdinç

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direct and indirect relationship between student school absenteeism, personal factors (academic self- perception, attitudes towards teacher and school, goal valuation and motivation/ self-regulation), family factors (parents' educational level and income), and academic achievement in structural equation…

  1. School Attendance, Absenteeism, and Student Success. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Oregon Department of Education staff spoke with principals from five Oregon schools that had low rates of chronic absenteeism compared to schools with similar demographics during the 2014-15 school year: Echo Shaw Elementary School, Free Orchards Elementary School, Dayton Junior High School, Valor Middle School, and North Marion High School. Each…

  2. The Severity of State Truancy Policies and Chronic Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry, Jillian M.; Richards, Meredith P.

    2018-01-01

    Since the Common School era, states have maintained truancy laws to ensure that students attend school. However, we know little about the severity of these laws and their relationship to student outcomes, particularly absenteeism. In this study, we survey state education statutes to document the severity of truancy policies. We estimate the…

  3. Identifying the Determinants of Chronic Absenteeism: A Bioecological Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Gee, Kevin A.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Context: Chronic school absenteeism is a pervasive problem across the US; in early education, it is most rampant in kindergarten and its consequences are particularly detrimental, often leading to poorer academic, behavioral and developmental outcomes later in life. Though prior empirical research has identified a broad range of…

  4. Preventing Absenteeism and Promoting Resilience Among Health Care Workers In Biological Emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Miller, James S.

    2009-05-08

    The ability to ensure adequate numbers of medical staff represents a crucial part of the medical response to any disaster. However, healthcare worker absenteeism during disasters, especially in the event of an attack of biological terrorism or an epidemic such as pandemic influenza, is a serious concern. Though a significant rate of absenteeism is often included as a baseline assumption in emergency planning, published reports on strategies to minimize absenteeism are comparatively few. This report documents interviews with managers and emergency response planners at hospitals and public health agencies and reviews existing survey data on healthcare worker absenteeism and studies of disasters to glean lessons about the needs of healthcare workers during those disasters. Based on this research, expected rates of absenteeism and individual determinants of absenteeism are presented along with recommendations of steps that hospitals, emergency medical services departments, public health organizations, and government agencies can take to meet the needs of healthcare workers and minimize absenteeism during a biological event.

  5. Factors associated with absenteeism, presenteeism and activity impairment in patients in the first years of RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Zhang, Wei; Walsh, David; Kiely, Patrick; Williams, Richard; Guh, Daphne; Anis, Aslam; Young, Adam

    2012-02-01

    To understand the impact of the early years of RA on all aspects of work productivity, and determine how this is related to clinical markers. Previous research on work productivity has examined predominantly early retirement and absenteeism. The impact of reduced work performance (presenteeism) and activity impairment is less well understood in early RA populations. Working patients enrolled in an RA inception cohort were recruited into a nested study. A questionnaire incorporating the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) instrument was administered with a number of clinical outcomes, including the Multidimensional Health Assessment Questionnaire (MD-HAQ) and scales for pain, fatigue and patient assessment of disease patient global assessment (PtGA). Analysis included 150 RA patients, with the mean age at onset being 48 years (s.d. 10 years) and disease duration from symptom onset being 49 months. Patients had relatively mild disease: MD-HAQ (0.6), pain (3.6), PtGA (3.6) and fatigue (4.6). Of the 92% patients working for pay, 19% reported missing work (absenteeism) in the past week due to their health, accounting for 46% of their working time. Even while at work, ∼25% of actual hours was lost due to poor health, while outside work 33% of patients' regular daily activities were prevented. In multivariate analyses, disease severity was associated with the presence of absenteeism, presenteeism and activity impairment. Patients able to self-schedule their work had lower presenteeism and activity impairment. Productivity loss is common in patients in the first years of RA who are in paid work and was associated with work characteristics and adverse clinical outcomes.

  6. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14). Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design). Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap) were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days). Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P = 0.002, P absenteeism

  7. Chronic low back pain is associated with reduced vertebral bone mineral measures in community-dwelling adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Andrew M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic low back pain (CLBP experienced in middle-age may have important implications for vertebral bone health, although this issue has not been investigated as a primary aim previously. This study investigated the associations between CLBP and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-derived vertebral bone mineral measures acquired from postero-anterior and lateral-projections, among community-dwelling, middle-aged adults. Methods Twenty-nine adults with CLBP (11 male, 18 female and 42 adults with no history of LBP in the preceding year (17 male, 25 female were evaluated. Self-reported demographic and clinical data were collected via questionnaires. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD was measured in the lumbar spine by DXA. Apparent volumetric (ap.v BMD in the lumbar spine was also calculated. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between study group (CLBP and control and vertebral DXA variables by gender, adjusting for height, mass and age. Results There was no difference between groups by gender in anthropometrics or clinical characteristics. In the CLBP group, the mean (SD duration of CLBP was 13.3 (10.4 years in males and 11.6 (9.9 years in females, with Oswestry Disability Index scores of 16.2 (8.7% and 15.4 (9.1%, respectively. Males with CLBP had significantly lower adjusted lateral-projection aBMD and lateral-projection ap.vBMD than controls at L3 with mean differences (standard error of 0.09 (0.04 g/cm2 (p = 0.03 and 0.02 (0.01 g/cm3 (p = 0.04. These multivariate models accounted for 55% and 53% of the variance in lateral-projection L3 aBMD and lateral-projection L3 ap.vBMD. Conclusions CLBP in males is associated with some lumbar vertebral BMD measures, raising important questions about the mechanism and potential clinical impact of this association.

  8. Long-Term Exercise and Bone Mineral Density Changes in Postmenopausal Women--Are There Periods of Reduced Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical exercise can prevent fractures in postmenopausal women. However, even with careful adaptation of the exercise program to subjects' changing bone, health, and fitness status, effectivity may still decrease over the time. This could be specifically the case where the limitations of higher age collide with the specification of the exercise program. Thus, the aim of this study was to monitor bone mineral density (BMD) changes over a 16-year period of supervised exercise. Our hypothesis was that BMD differences at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) between exercisers (EG) and nontraining controls (CG) increased throughout the intervention with significant differences for each of the four 4-year observation periods. Sixty-seven (EG, n = 39 versus CG, n = 28) initially early-postmenopausal osteopenic women of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS) with complete BMD data sets for baseline (1998) and 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-year follow-up were included in the analysis. The exercise protocol initially focused on a high-intensity strategy that addressed bone but increasingly shifted to a more comprehensive intervention. LS-BMD differences between the EG and CG continuously increased (year 4: 2.4% (95%- Confidence Interval 1.0% to 3.8%), year 8: 3.1% (1.6% to 4.7%), year 12: 3.9% (1.9% to 5.8), year 16: 4.5% (2.5% to 6.6%). Correspondingly, rising differences for FN-BMD (0.9% (-0.2% to 2.1%) versus 1.9% (0.4% to 3.3%) versus 2.0% (0.5% to 3.8%) versus 3.0% (1.0% to 5.0%)) were observed. However, in contrast to our hypothesis, group differences within the four 4-year periods were not consistently significant (LS, p = 0.001 to 0.097; FN, p = 0.026 to 0.673); further, BMD kinetics among the groups varied between LS and FN. Of particular importance, significant differences (p ≤ 0.030) for both regions were still found in the final period. We conclude that exercise-even when adapted for subjects' decreasing bone

  9. The Effects of Employer-Sponsored Child Care on Employee Absenteeism, Turnover, Productivity, Recruitment or Job Satisfaction: What Is Claimed and What Is Known.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas I.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluates the evidence supporting claims that employer-sponsored child care programs improve employee work behaviors and attitudes. Results indicated that assertions that employer-sponsored child care reduces workers' absenteeism or tardiness, or that it increases workers' productivity or job satisfaction are not supported by credible research.…

  10. Connect-Text: Leveraging Text-Message Communication to Mitigate Chronic Absenteeism and Improve Parental Engagement in the Earliest Years of Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Leistico, Kenneth; Page, Lindsay C.

    2018-01-01

    Poor school attendance in the early grades is predictive of poor subsequent educational outcomes. We report on a pilot intervention aiming to reduce chronic absenteeism in kindergarten. We designed and implemented a two-way, text-based parent-school communication system to encourage daily attendance, provide parents with personalized feedback on…

  11. Effect of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral bone mineral density loss following total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis from randomized controlled trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Gao, Chong; Li, Hui; Wang, Guo-Sheng; Xu, Chang; Ran, Jian

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficiency of intravenous administration of zoledronic acid on reducing femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density loss in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). A systematic search was performed in Medline (1966-2017.07.31), PubMed (1966-2017.07.31), Embase (1980-2017.07.31), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.07.31) and the Cochrane Library (1966-2017.07.31). Fixed/random effect model was used according to the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. Sensitivity analysis was conducted and publication bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 11.0 software. Four studies including 185 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences between groups in terms of periprosthetic bone mineral density in Gruen zone 1 (SMD = 0.752, 95% CI: 0.454 to 1.051, P = 0.000), 2 (SMD = 0.524, 95% CI: 0.230 to 0.819, P = 0.000), 4 (SMD = 0.400, 95% CI: 0.107 to 0.693, P = 0.008), 6 (SMD = 0.893, 95% CI: 0.588 to 1.198, P = 0.000) and 7 (SMD = 0.988, 95% CI: 0.677 to 1.300, P = 0.000). Intravenous administration of zoledronic acid could significantly reduce periprosthetic bone mineral density loss (Gruen zone 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7) after THA. In addition, no severe adverse events were identified. High-quality RCTs with large sample size were still required. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence for a relationship between child maltreatment and absenteeism among high-school students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagborg, Johan Melander; Berglund, Kristina; Fahlke, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    School absenteeism is a potent predictor of academic failure. Maltreated adolescents have been found to be more absent from school compared to their peers. However, it is scarcely studied in what degree a general population of students with high levels of school absenteeism has been exposed to child maltreatment. Furthermore, it is not known if maltreated school-absentees have specific characteristics compared to not-maltreated absentees. In this article, the first objective was to present and compare the prevalence of six types of child maltreatment in a general population of high school students reporting no, moderate or excessive absenteeism. The second objective was to compare maltreated and not-maltreated students who report absenteeism in respect to mental health, perceived school environment and peer victimization in school. Data from 667 girls and 649 boys (mean age 14.3) was used from the longitudinal multidisciplinary research program LoRDIA (Longitudinal Research on Development In Adolescence). Data was collected via self-report questionnaires in classroom settings. All six types of child maltreatment were overrepresented among absentees. Roughly 25% of absentees reported one subtype of maltreatment (16% in the total population) and a mean of 22% of absentees reported two or more types of maltreatment (11% in the total population). Maltreated absentees reported more mental health problems, personal harassment and worse relationship with their teachers than not-maltreated absentees. There might be specific correlates of school absenteeism among maltreated adolescents and professionals involved in preventing school-absenteeism should be made aware of the relationship between maltreatment and absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism - The relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism within an organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, K; Nauta, A

    2004-01-01

    This study tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees (e.g., gender and working hours) and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  14. Social cohesiveness and absenteeism : the relationship between characteristics of employees and short-term absenteeism within an organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, K.; Nauta, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to explain the relationship between characteristics of the employees as gender and working hours, and short-term absenteeism by examining the social cohesiveness of a team. Hypotheses are formulated concerning gender and working hours of employees, social cohesiveness, and

  15. The Effect of Endometriosis Symptoms on Absenteeism and Presenteeism in the Workplace and at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Coyne, Karin S; Gries, Katharine S; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Snabes, Michael C; Surrey, Eric S

    2017-07-01

    ; P Women who experienced 3 endometriosis symptoms concurrently lost a significantly greater number of employment hours because of absenteeism and presenteeism compared with those experiencing 1 or 2 symptoms (P women and employers manage endometriosis so as to reduce productivity loss. The design and financial support for this study was provided by AbbVie. AbbVie participated in data analysis, interpretation of data, review, and approval of the manuscript. Coyne and Gries are employees of Evidera- Evidence, Value & Access by PPD and were paid scientific consultants for AbbVie in connection with this study. Soliman, Castelli-Hayley, and Snabes are AbbVie employees and may own AbbVie stock or stock options. Surrey is affiliated with Colorado Center for Reproductive Medicine and was paid by AbbVie as a consultant for this project. Surrey serves as a consultant for AbbVie outside of this project. All authors participated in data analysis and interpretation, and contributed to the development of the manuscript. The authors maintained control over the final contents of the manuscript and the decision to publish. Study concept and design were contributed by Soliman, Coyne, Gries, and Castelli-Haley. Soliman, Castelli-Haley, Coyne, and Gries collected the data, and data interpretation was performed by Snabes, Surrey, Soliman, Coyne, and Gries. The manuscript was written and revised by Soliman, Coyne, and Gries, along with the other authors.

  16. A Statewide Look at Attendance and Chronic Absenteeism in Elementary Schools in Oregon. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 1 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief highlights the importance of using a measure like chronic absenteeism, rather than average daily attendance, in order to identify concerning patterns in elementary attendance rates. The chronic absenteeism measurement is better able to shine a light on the number of individual students struggling with attendance. Subsequent briefs in…

  17. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group.

  18. Precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the knee and heel: methodology and implications for research to reduce bone mineral loss after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, W T; Kim, W J; Ethans, K; Cowley, K C

    2017-05-01

    Methodological validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based measures of leg bone mineral density (BMD) based on the guidelines of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. The primary objective of this study was to determine the precision of BMD estimates at the knee and heel using the manufacturer provided DXA acquisition algorithm. The secondary objective was to determine the smallest change in DXA-based measurement of BMD that should be surpassed (least significant change (LSC)) before suggesting that a biological change has occurred in the distal femur, proximal tibia and calcaneus. Academic Research Centre, Canada. Ten people with motor-complete SCI of at least 2 years duration and 10 people from the general population volunteered to have four DXA-based measurements taken of their femur, tibia and calcaneus. BMDs for seven regions of interest (RIs) were calculated, as were short-term precision (root-mean-square (RMS) standard deviation (g cm -2 ), RMS-coefficient of variation (RMS-CV, %)) and LSC. Overall, RMS-CV values were similar between SCI (3.63-10.20%, mean=5.3%) and able-bodied (1.85-5.73%, mean=4%) cohorts, despite lower absolute BMD values at each RIs in those with SCI (35%, heel to 54%, knee; P10% are needed to detect differences between treated and untreated groups in studies aimed at reducing bone mineral loss after SCI.

  19. Forensic Psychiatric Evaluation for Military Absenteeism in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Kang; Wang, Tzong-Shi; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The relationship between military absenteeism and mental health problems has been noted; however, factors affecting military absenteeism by enlisted personnel have not been studied systematically. In a medical center in Taiwan, we performed a chart review of 26 forensic psychiatric evaluations of enlisted personnel who were absent without leave (AWOL) or deserted their service from 1994 to 2014. The findings showed that many of these recruits had a lower level of education (50.00% had just nine years of education), intellectual disability (46.15%), depressive disorders (30.76%), and suicidal ideation (53.85%). Depressive disorder was overrepresented in comparison with findings in a previous study. Further study is needed to confirm whether psychiatric screening before service enlistment and early psychiatric intervention for service members with mental illness or emotional disturbance could help in the prevention of desertion or going AWOL. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Impact of smoking status on workplace absenteeism and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Halpern, M.; Shikiar, R.; Rentz, A.; Khan, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To: evaluate the impact of smoking status on objective productivity and absenteeism measures; evaluate the impact of smoking status on subjective measures of productivity; and assess the correlation between subjective and objective productivity measures.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study in a workplace environment.
SUBJECTS—Approximately 300 employees (100 each of former, current, and never smokers) at a reservation office of a large US airline.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Objective produc...

  1. School Absenteeism during Menstruation among Rural Adolescent Girls in Pune

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Bodat, Mrunalini M Ghate, Jyoti R Majumdar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Menstrual related problems and inadequate school sanitation facilities have an adverse effect on adolescent girl?s academic performance and school attendance especially in rural setting. The following study was undertaken to determine school absenteeism during menstruation period. Objective: To assess the impact of menstruation on school attendance and factors affecting menstruation management. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in rural field practice area o...

  2. Determinants of absenteeism in a large Danish bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    2006-01-01

    studies is constructed. The model is based on hedonic theory and uses the frequency metric when measuring absence. The results of the empirical study show that there is indeed a significant negative relationship between job satisfaction and absence. Furthermore, the study shows that demographic variables...... for both employees and employers play an important role for the frequency of absence. One very interesting result is that the absenteeism for employees is very clearly related to observed absence by the unit manager....

  3. Assessing the effect of public policy on worker absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Per; Palme, Mårten

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the effect of economic incentives on worker absenteeism, using panel data on work absence for 1990 and 1991 with a sample of 1,396 Swedish blue-collar workers. During this period Sweden implemented major reforms of both its national income replacement program for short-term sickness and income taxes. Both affected the worker's cost of missing work. Our econometric model allows for state-dependent dynamic behavior and control for unobserved heterogeneity. The latter proves to be an ...

  4. Assessment of Electronic Absentee System for Elections (EASE) Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    No. DODIG-2015-135 J U N E 3 0 , 2 0 1 5 Assessment of Electronic Absentee System for Elections (EASE) Grants Mission Our mission is to provide...efficiency; advises the Secretary of Defense and Congress; and informs the public. Vision Our vision is to be a model oversight organization in the Federal...Government by leading change, speaking truth, and promoting excellence—a diverse organization , working together as one professional team, recognized

  5. Menstruation and School Absenteeism: Evidence from Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Monica J.; Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Mensch, Barbara S.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of toilets and menstrual supplies has emerged as a promising programmatic strategy to support adolescent girls’ school attendance and performance in less developed countries. We use the first round of the Malawi Schooling and Adolescent Survey (MSAS) to examine the individual- and school-level factors associated with menstruation-related school absenteeism. The MSAS is a school-based longitudinal survey of adolescent students enrolled in coed public primary schools in the southe...

  6. THE ACADEMIC ABSENTEEISM AND ITS MORE OBVIOUS RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto José Miranda; Tamires Sousa Araujo; Izabelle Almeida Marcelino

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the relationship between absenteeism and academic performance in the Accounting Sciences Course. For this purpose, a documentary research was realized in a Brazilian public institution. With the course coordination permission, several information were analyzed concerning the participation of 1,525 students in 715 courses taught in the period between the first semester of 2009 and the second semester of 2013, totaling 29,839 observations. From these observations, th...

  7. Gender Differences in Quits and Absenteeism in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xuelin

    2007-01-01

    Female workers are traditionally viewed as more likely to quit, to be absent and to take more days of absence than male workers, and this gender difference is widely used as an important explanation for the gender wage gap and other labour market differences between men and women. This study documents the gender differences in quits and absenteeism in Canada and attempts to assess whether the traditional view is still valid today. The study found that Canadian women's quitting behaviour chang...

  8. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A.; Oturai, D B; Sørensen, P S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate...... the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. METHODS: A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference...... population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. RESULTS: Osteopenia was present in 38...

  9. Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albion, Majella J; Fogarty, Gerard J; Machin, Michael A; Patrick, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    The study examined the mediating influence of individual psychological reactions to work on the relationship between organisational climate and job withdrawal behaviours (viz, intention to leave and absenteeism). 1097 hospital employees were surveyed using the Queensland Public Agency Staff Survey (QPASS) to obtain measures of organisational climate, psychological reactions to work, job satisfaction, and self-reported levels of intention to leave. Group-level absenteeism data were provided from the Health Service District files. Two psychological states, quality of work life and job satisfaction, were found to fully mediate the relationship between the organisational climate variable, role clarity, and intention to leave, while individual distress was found to partially mediate the same relationship. However, the hypothesised mediation effect of psychological states on the relationship between organisational climate and absenteeism did not emerge. Skills shortages and increasing demands for health services make retention of staff in the health service industry vitally important. As a means of addressing this issue, this study presents an emergent mediating model defining relationships among individual psychological factors, aspects of organisational climate and intention to leave. Identification of the processes associated with staff withdrawal behaviours or intentions will assist in devising interventions to improve retention.

  10. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  11. Workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Aline Mininel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the workloads, strain processes and sickness absenteeism among nursing workers from a teaching hospital in the Brazilian Central-West. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed with a quantitative approach, based on the theoretical framework of the social determination of the health-disease process. Data were collected between January and December 2009, based on records of complaints related to occupational exposure among nursing professionals, filed in the software Monitoring System of Nursing Workers' Health. For the sake of statistical analysis, relative and absolute frequencies of the variables and the risk coefficient were considered. RESULTS: 144 notifications of occupational exposure were registered across the analysis period, which represented 25% of the total nursing population at the hospital. The physiological and psychic workloads were the most representative, corresponding to 37% and 36%, respectively. These notifications culminated in 1567 days of absenteeism for disease treatment. CONCLUSIONS: the findings evidence the impact of occupational illnesses on the absenteeism of nursing workers, and can be used to demonstrate the importance of institutional investments in occupational health surveillance.

  12. Reduced egfr, elevated urine protein and low level of personal protective equipment compliance among artisanal small scale gold miners at Bibiani-Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrifa, Justice; Essien-Baidoo, Samuel; Ephraim, Richard K D; Nkrumah, Daniel; Dankyira, Daniel Osei

    2017-06-27

    Mercury is a toxic metal with its effects on human health ranging from acute to chronic in a very short time of exposure. Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is the main source of direct human exposure to mercury. To access the effect of mercury exposure on the renal function and level of personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance among small-scale gold miners in Bibiani District of the Western Region of Ghana METHOD: 110 consenting male gold miners were purposively recruited for this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic information from the participants. Work place assessment and interviews were conducted. Urine samples were analysed for protein; blood was analysed for mercury and creatinine. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Of the 110 participants, 61(55.5%) exceeded the occupational exposure threshold (blood mercury <5μg/L). Urine protein (41.72±68.34, P<0.0001), serum creatinine (2.24±1.19, P<0.0001) and blood mercury (18.37±10.47, P<0.0001) were significantly elevated among the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. However, the exposed group had a significantly reduced eGFR (P<0.0001). There was a significant correlation (r=0.7338, p<0.0001) between blood mercury concentration and urine protein concentration. An increase in blood mercury correlated negatively (r = -0.8233, P<0.0001) with eGFR among the exposed group. High urine protein (P< 0.0001) and high serum creatinine (P< 0.0001) were significantly associated with increased mercury exposure. Increased mercury exposure was significantly associated with burning of amalgam (P=0.0196), sucking of excess mercury (P=0.0336), longer work duration (P=0.0314) and low educational background (P=0.0473). Small scale miners at the Bibiani work site are exposed to excess mercury. Proteinuria and reduced eGFR is common in mine workers exposed to excess

  13. Confirmação de presença de usuário à cirurgia eletiva por telefone como estratégia para reduzir absenteísmo Confirmación de presencia del paciente a cirugías electivas por teléfono como estrategia reductora del ausentismo Telephone confirmation of a patient's intent to be present for elective surgery as a strategy to reduce absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Andréia Garcia de Avila

    2013-02-01

    conocimiento del servicio, dado que los pacientes habitualmente solicitan orientaciones sobre el tratamiento durante el contacto telefónico.The objective of this quasi-experimental study was to evaluate the impact of telephone confirmation of attendance on the reduction of absenteeism of patients scheduled for elective surgery. The study was conducted at the Surgical Department of the Botucatu School of Medicine for 30 days and included 89 patients. Results showed the effectiveness of the intervention, which reduced absenteeism by 30.0%. Telephone confirmation two days prior to surgery is recommended, thus allowing enough time to place new calls to find patients at home, or schedule another patient in the event the patient cannot be reached. The creation of a service center could provide a communication channel between the institution and patients, and would enable the confirmation of patients' attendance, provide them with the opportunity to ask questions concerning the procedure and provide information regarding impediments to the surgery or preparations needed. The center would require a professional skilled and knowledgeable regarding the service, as it involves providing patients with information about their upcoming surgery during the telephone contact.

  14. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Asay, Garrett R. Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measur...

  15. Socio demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism A cross sectional study of urban industrial employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhash Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. Aim: To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at workplace during evaluation. Job stress was assessed using Professional Life Stress Scale (David Fontana. Those who scored more than 30 (n = 43 were taken up for the study after an informed consent. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to find socio-demographic and clinical profile. Employees who reported taking leave in last six months just to avoid work or workplace constitute the "absenteeism" group. The absenteeism group was compared to non-absenteeism group using Fisher exact/Chi-square test or independent t-test depending on type of variables. Results: Out of 43 subjects, 18 had absenteeism while 25 did not have absenteeism. Comparing the two groups, interstate migration, having more than one previous job, commuting time more than an hour, co-morbid anxiety/depression, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with absenteeism (P 0.05. Conclusion: In absenteeism research, one of the widely accepted models is Steer and Rhode′s "Process model of absenteeism." The model postulates job stress as one of the barriers for attendance. Thus, knowing the factors for absenteeism would help in preventing absenteeism.

  16. Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Hui; Schanzer Dena L; Gilmore Jason

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statis...

  17. Absenteeism and accidents in a dangerous environment: empirical analysis of underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, P.S.; Garber, S.

    1988-02-01

    The study examined the effects or consequences of absenteeism on accidents. Data were gathered from production crews in five underground coal mines. A unique data set was created that traced on a daily basis the absence event, the company's policy on replacement, and the occurrence of an accident. The concept of familiarity was introduced to explain the impact of absenteeism on accidents. The basic data showed that absenteeism increased the chances for accidents in certain categories of unfamiliarity. Implications for manpower policy and absentee research are discussed. 4 tabs., 6 refs.

  18. Absenteeism screening questionnaire (ASQ): a new tool for predicting long-term absenteeism among workers with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchon, Manon; Schmouth, Marie-Ève; Côté, Denis; Fillion, Lise; Rossignol, Michel; Durand, Marie-José

    2012-03-01

    -term absence from work were dominated by workplace conditions and individual perceptions about work. In association with individual psychosocial variables, these variables could contribute to identify potentially useful prevention interventions and to reduce the significant costs associated with LBP long-term absenteeism.

  19. Illness absenteeism rates in primary and secondary schools in 2013-2014 in England: was there any impact of vaccinating children of primary-school age against influenza?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H K; Brousseau, N; Andrews, N; Selby, L; Pebody, R

    2016-09-09

    A phased introduction of routine influenza vaccination of healthy children was recommended in the UK in 2012, with the aim of protecting both vaccinated children and the wider population through reducing transmission. In the first year of the programme in 2013-2014, 4- to 11-year-olds were targeted in pilot areas across England. This study assesses if this was associated with school absenteeism, an important societal burden of influenza. During the spring 2014 term when influenza predominantly circulated, the proportion of absence sessions due to illness was compared between vaccination pilot and non-pilot areas for primary schools (to measure overall impact) and secondary schools (to measure indirect impact). A linear multilevel regression model was applied, adjusting for clustering within schools and potential school-level confounders, including deprivation, past absenteeism, and ethnicity. Low levels of influenza activity were reported in the community in 2013-2014. Primary schools in pilot areas had a significantly adjusted decrease in illness absenteeism of 0·05% relative to non-pilot schools; equivalent to an average of 4 days per school. In secondary schools, there was no significant indirect impact of being located in a pilot area on illness absenteeism. These insights can be used in conjunction with routine healthcare surveillance data to evaluate the full benefits of such a programme.

  20. Decreasing soil water Ca2+ reduces DOC adsorption in mineral soils: implications for long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jason Grainger; Eimers, M Catherine

    2012-06-15

    Positive trends in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration have been observed in surface waters throughout North America and northern Europe. Although adsorption in mineral soils is an important driver of DOC in upland streams, little is known about the potential for changes in DOC adsorption to contribute to these trends. We hypothesized that long-term declines in soil water Ca(2+) levels, in response to declining acid deposition, might influence DOC adsorption and that this could contribute to long-term DOC trends in an upland forested catchment in south-central Ontario, Canada. Between 1987 and 2009, DOC concentrations increased significantly (pDOC concentration (DOC(np)), which is a measure of the soil water DOC concentration at equilibrium with the soil, ranged from 1.27 to 3.75 mg L(-1) in B horizon soils. This was similar to the mean DOC concentrations of B horizon soil water (2.04-6.30 mg L(-1)) and stream water (2.20 mg L(-1)), indicating that soil and stream water DOC concentrations are controlled by equilibrium processes at the soil-water interface. Adsorption experiments using variable Ca(2+) concentrations demonstrated that as Ca(2+) decreased the DOC(np) increased (1.96 to 4.74 mg L(-1)), which was consistent with the observed negative correlation between DOC and Ca(2+) in B horizon soil water (pDOC adsorption (p>0.05), indicating that changes in DOC adsorption might be related to cation bridging. We conclude that declines in soil water Ca(2+) concentration can contribute to increasing DOC trends in upland streams by reducing DOC adsorption in mineral soils. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Short-term, high-dose glucocorticoid treatment does not contribute to reduced bone mineral density in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, D B; Sørensen, P S; Oturai, P S; Oturai, A B

    2015-10-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A contributing factor might be treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids (GCs). The objective of this paper is to assess bone mass in patients with MS and evaluate the importance of short-term, high-dose GC treatment and other risk factors that affect BMD in patients with MS. A total of 260 patients with MS received short-term high-dose GC treatment and had their BMD measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. BMD was compared to a healthy age-matched reference population (Z-scores). Data regarding GCs, age, body mass index (BMI), serum 25(OH)D, disease duration and severity were collected retrospectively and analysed in a multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the association between each risk factor and BMD. Osteopenia was present in 38% and osteoporosis in 7% of the study population. Mean Z-score was significantly below zero, indicating a decreased BMD in our MS patients. Multiple linear regression analysis showed no significant association between GCs and BMD. In contrast, age, BMI and disease severity were independently associated with both lumbar and femoral BMD. Reduced BMD was prevalent in patients with MS. GC treatment appears not to be the primary underlying cause of secondary osteoporosis in MS patients. © The Author(s), 2015.

  2. Hand hygiene instruction decreases illness-related absenteeism in elementary schools: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Claudia H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illness-related absences have been shown to lead to negative educational and economic outcomes. Both hand washing and hand sanitizer interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing illness-related absences. However, while the importance of hand hygiene in schools is clear, the role of instruction in use is less obvious. The purpose of this study was to compare absenteeism rates among elementary students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and short repetitive instruction in use, particularly during influenza season when illness-related absences are at a peak. Methods A hand hygiene intervention was implemented from October to May during the 2009/2010 academic year, including peak flu season, in two Chicago Public Elementary Schools among students grades pre-kindergarten to eighth grade (ages 4–14. Classrooms were systematically assigned to an intervention or control group by grade (cluster design. Hand hygiene facilities (sanitizer and soap were made available to all students. Students in the intervention group also received short repetitive instruction in hand hygiene every 2 months. Only absences as a result of respiratory or gastrointestinal illness were used to establish illness-related absenteeism rates. Percent absent days were calculated and bivariate analyses were performed to compare percent absent days among students given access to hand hygiene facilities versus students given both access and instruction. Prior to the intervention, teachers’ perceptions of students’ hand hygiene were also evaluated. Teacher perceptions were analysed to describe attitudes and beliefs. Results Data were collected and analysed for 773 students reporting 1,886 absences during the study period (1.73% of total school days. Both the percent total absent days and percent illness-related absent days were significantly lower in the group receiving short instruction during flu season (P

  3. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Howard, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). Methods We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Results Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor–specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Conclusion Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages. PMID:27710764

  4. Absenteeism and Employer Costs Associated With Chronic Diseases and Health Risk Factors in the US Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Garrett R Beeler; Roy, Kakoli; Lang, Jason E; Payne, Rebecca L; Howard, David H

    2016-10-06

    Employers may incur costs related to absenteeism among employees who have chronic diseases or unhealthy behaviors. We examined the association between employee absenteeism and 5 conditions: 3 risk factors (smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity) and 2 chronic diseases (hypertension and diabetes). We identified 5 chronic diseases or risk factors from 2 data sources: MarketScan Health Risk Assessment and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Absenteeism was measured as the number of workdays missed because of sickness or injury. We used zero-inflated Poisson regression to estimate excess absenteeism as the difference in the number of days missed from work by those who reported having a risk factor or chronic disease and those who did not. Covariates included demographics (eg, age, education, sex) and employment variables (eg, industry, union membership). We quantified absenteeism costs in 2011 and adjusted them to reflect growth in employment costs to 2015 dollars. Finally, we estimated absenteeism costs for a hypothetical small employer (100 employees) and a hypothetical large employer (1,000 employees). Absenteeism estimates ranged from 1 to 2 days per individual per year depending on the risk factor or chronic disease. Except for the physical inactivity and obesity estimates, disease- and risk-factor-specific estimates were similar in MEPS and MarketScan. Absenteeism increased with the number of risk factors or diseases reported. Nationally, each risk factor or disease was associated with annual absenteeism costs greater than $2 billion. Absenteeism costs ranged from $16 to $81 (small employer) and $17 to $286 (large employer) per employee per year. Absenteeism costs associated with chronic diseases and health risk factors can be substantial. Employers may incur these costs through lower productivity, and employees could incur costs through lower wages.

  5. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Fourier transform infrared imaging of femoral neck bone: reduced heterogeneity of mineral-to-matrix and carbonate-to-phosphate and more variable crystallinity in treatment-naive fracture cases compared with fracture-free controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L

    2013-01-01

    After the age of 60 years, hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced bone mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and nonfractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck's axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared with controls. Although our treatment-naive patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone's toughness as a material. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  7. Increasing labor productivity - an important target for miners. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The development of coal mining in the USSR from 1980 to 1983 is discussed. Factors which influence labor productivity increase are analyzed: use of equipment with increased productivity and reliability (e.g. the KM-103 and KD-80 face systems for thin coal seams, the ANShch integrated face systems for steep coal mines, the KMT and 2UKP systems for mining seams with roofs difficult to break down, the 4PP-2 and 4PP-2Shch heading machines), use of equipment replacing manual operations during underground mining, increasing role of surface coal mining which is characterized by labor productivity higher than in underground mining, use of more reliable mining systems in surface mining less influenced by low temperatures in winter (in Siberia), use of mining schemes optimized by means of computerized simulation and mathematical models both in underground and surface coal mining, reducing idletime of mining equipment, social and economic policy aimed at labor productivity increase and reducing absenteeism, improved training and refreshment courses for miners, use of automatic control systems in coal preparation plants, use of more productive equipment for coal preparation.

  8. Effects on presenteeism and absenteeism from a 1-year workplace randomized controlled trial among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Overgaard, Kristian; Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether workplace interventions successfully improving health outcomes can also provide concurrent improvements in presenteeism and absenteeism.......It is unknown whether workplace interventions successfully improving health outcomes can also provide concurrent improvements in presenteeism and absenteeism....

  9. Celiac disease is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased FRAX scores in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, E; Goto, T; Camargo, C A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the association between celiac disease (CD) and bone mass density (BMD) and risk of osteoporotic fractures in the general US population. In children and men ≥18 years, CD was associated with reduced BMD, and in men ≥40 years, CD was associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, characterized by inflammation of the small intestine. CD has an increasing prevalence, and if unrecognized or untreated, CD can lead to complications from malabsorption and micronutrient deficiencies. We aimed to study whether CD is an independent predictor of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and FRAX scores in the general US population. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014. CD was defined by positive tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody test. Multivariable models of BMD and FRAX scores were adjusted for BMI, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D and calcium supplements, milk intake, serum calcium, and smoking status, when available. In children, aged 8-17 years, CD was associated with decreased Z-scores, by 0.85 for hip and 0.46 for spine (both P hip and with 0.11 g/cm 2 decrease in BMD in spine (P = 0.08 and P hip fracture and by 2.43 % (P = 0.05) for major osteoporotic fracture. CD did not predict FRAX scores in women aged ≥40 years. CD is independently associated with reduced BMD in children and adults aged ≥18 years and is an independent risk factor of osteoporotic fractures in men aged ≥40 years.

  10. Understanding estimated worker absenteeism rates during an influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanner, Meridith H; Links, Jonathan M; Meltzer, Martin I; Scheulen, James J; Kelen, Gabor D

    2011-01-01

    Published employee absenteeism estimates during an influenza pandemic range from 10 to 40 percent. The purpose of this study was to estimate daily employee absenteeism through the duration of an influenza pandemic and to determine the relative impact of key variables used to derive the estimates. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's FluWorkLoss program, the authors estimated the number of absent employees on any given day over the course of a simulated 8-week pandemic wave by using varying attack rates. Employee data from a university with a large academic health system were used. Sensitivity of the program outputs to variation in predictor (inputs) values was assessed. Finally, the authors examined and documented the algorithmic sequence of the program. Using a 35 percent attack rate, a total of 47,270 workdays (or 3.4 percent of all available workdays) would be lost over the course of an 8-week pandemic among a population of 35,026 employees. The highest (peak) daily absenteeism estimate was 5.8 percent (minimum 4.8 percent; maximum 7.4 percent). Sensitivity analysis revealed that varying days missed for nonhospitalized illness had the greatest potential effect on peak absence rate (3.1 to 17.2 percent). Peak absence with 15 and 25 percent attack rates were 2.5 percent and 4.2 percent, respectively. The impact of an influenza pandemic on employee availability may be less than originally thought, even with a high attack rate. These data are generalizable and are not specific to institutions of higher education or medical centers. Thus, these findings provide realistic and useful estimates for influenza pandemic planning for most organizations.

  11. WWC Review of the Report "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities." What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 study, "Meeting the Challenge of Combating Chronic Absenteeism: Impact of the NYC Mayor's Interagency Task Force on Chronic Absenteeism and School Attendance and Its Implications for Other Cities", examined the impact of the strategies developed by an interagency task force in New York City to combat chronic absenteeism in…

  12. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Skrytoe reduced-type W skarn and stockwork deposit, Sikhote-Alin, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2017-08-01

    The Skrytoe deposit (>145 Kt WO3, average grade 0.449% WO3) in the Sikhote-Alin orogenic system (Eastern Russia) is situated in a metallogenic belt of W, Sn-W, Au, and Au-W deposits formed in a late to post-collisional tectonic environment after cessation of active subduction. It is localized within a mineralized district of reduced-type skarn W and veined Au (±W) deposits and occurrences related to the Early Cretaceous ilmenite-series plutonic suite. The deposit incorporates large stockworks of scheelite-bearing veinlets related to propylitic (amphibole, chlorite, quartz) and phyllic (quartz, sericite, albite, apatite, and carbonate) hydrothermal alteration. The stockwork cuts flat-lying mafic volcanic rocks and limestone partially replaced by pyroxene skarn that host the major W orebodies. Scheelite is associated with pyrrhotite and/or arsenopyrite, with minor chalcopyrite and other sulfide minerals; the late phyllic stage assemblages hosts Bi and Au mineralization. The fluid evolution included low-salinity moderate-temperature, moderate-pressure (˜370-390 °C, ˜800 bars) methane-dominated carbonic-aqueous fluids that formed post-skarn propylitic alteration assemblages. Then, at the phyllic stage, there has been an evolution from methane-dominated, moderate-temperature (330-360 °C), low-salinity (<12.3 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the early quartz-sericite-albite-arsenopyrite assemblage, through lower temperature (290-330 °C) methane-dominated, low-salinity (˜9-10 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the intermediate quartz-sericite-albite-scheelite-pyrrhotite assemblage, to yet lower temperature (245-320 °C) CO2-dominated carbonic-aqueous low-salinity (˜1-7 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluids forming the late quartz-sericite-sulfide-Bi-Au assemblage. Recurrent fluid immiscibility (phase separation) and cooling probably affected W solubility and promoted scheelite deposition. The stable isotope data support a sedimentary source of carbon (δ13Cfluid = ˜-21 to -10

  13. Multi-state models for clustered duration data: an application to workplace effects on individual sickness absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeboom, Maarten; Kerkhofs, Marcel

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we specify and estimate three state duration models of work, sickness and exit from the job to explain individual absenteeism behaviour of primary school teachers. There is a large variation of sickness absenteeism records across schools and absenteeism records of workers within a school appear to be related. This clustering of individual absenteeism data may to a large extend be caused by workplace effects. Since it will be difficult to fully capture workplace effects with obse...

  14. Work-Related Stress, Quitting Intentions and Absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Leontaridi, Rannia M.; Ward, Melanie E.

    2002-01-01

    The paper uses data from the International Social Surveys Program (ISSP) to investigate work-related stress among a group of 15 OECD countries. It examines the determinants of work-related stress and explores the importance of work-related stress as a predictor of individuals' quitting behaviour and the rate of absenteeism. We find that those individuals reporting to experience at least some stress in their current position are 10 - 14 % more likely to hold intentions to quit or be absent fro...

  15. The economy and absenteeism: a macro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoss, Mindy K; Penney, Lisa M

    2012-07-01

    Despite much speculation, little is known about the net effects of the economy on the employed workforce. To fill this gap, we used state-level data collected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine the effects of the condition of the economy, as indicated by the unemployment rate, on incidence rates of absence reportedly due to symptoms of illness and violent acts in the workplace for 43 states from 1992 to 2009. Our results suggest that the unemployment rate is positively associated with these indicators of absenteeism, and that these effects are delayed in time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Diabetes, HIV and other health determinants associated with absenteeism among formal sector workers in Namibia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, Leonor; de Beer, Ingrid; Hough, Rina; Bindels, Els; Weimers-Maasdorp, Delia; Feeley, Frank G.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As countries in sub-Saharan Africa develop their economies, it is important to understand the health of employees and its impact on productivity and absenteeism. While previous studies have assessed the impact of single conditions on absenteeism, the current study evaluates multiple

  17. Job resources buffer the impact of work-family conflict on absenteeism in female employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Bouwman, K.; Sanz-Vergel, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between work-family conflict and objective absenteeism 1 year later, by demonstrating that several job resources buffer the impact of work-family conflict on absenteeism. Female employees (N = 386) of a large financial services organization participated in the

  18. The Effect of Flextime on Absenteeism and Turnover for Male and Female Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, David A.; Flanagan, Michael F.

    1985-01-01

    Conducted a longitudinal investigation of differences in absenteeism and turnover for workers on flextime and not on flextime. Significant decreases in absenteeism but not turnover for females and males on flextime were found suggesting that flextime had positive benefits for employees with interrole conflict problems and for the organization.…

  19. The influence of organizational commitment and health on sickness absenteeism: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, René

    2011-07-01

    The prevention of sickness absenteeism of nurses is an important issue for organizations in health care as well as for nurses. The role of work-related attitudes, such as organizational commitment, as a cause of absenteeism is still unclear. To examine the influence over time of organizational commitment, health complaints, and visits to a general practitioner on sickness absenteeism. This was a longitudinal, three-wave study in two nursing homes in the Netherlands among 224 nurses. Questionnaire data (self reports of organizational commitment, health complaints, visits to a general practitioner), as well as absenteeism data retrieved from personnel files was used. Health complaints and visits to a general practitioner were found to predict absenteeism behaviour. Commitment was related to health complaints at the same point in time, but did not predict future sickness absenteeism. With respect to managing sickness absenteeism of nurses it should be acknowledged by managers that nurses call in sick when they perceive that there is a real health problem, not because of negative work attitudes. It is important, however, for managers to signal signs of decreasing organizational commitment because this is associated with increases in health complaints. This can eventually result in increases in absenteeism. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The Impact of 2002 National Teacher Contract Policy Reform on Teacher Absenteeism in Lahore, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Masooma

    2010-01-01

    Teacher absenteeism is a persistent problem in Pakistani government schools. Under a new policy, teachers hired in Pakistani schools after 2002 are hired on fixed term contracts that are renewed, in part, based on low absenteeism. This study uses qualitative analysis techniques to assess the impact of contractual hiring on teacher absenteeism…

  1. Sickness absenteeism during a period of job-to-job transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Suzanne; Hassink, Wolter; Plantenga, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    We examine a novel pattern of workplace sickness absenteeism for job-to-job movers, covering the periods before and after their job transitions. The movers display two opposite changes of absenteeism-an upward and a downward spike before and after job change. The estimates indicate a behavioural

  2. Review of International Research on Factors Underlying Teacher Absenteeism. REL 2015-087

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mary; Goodman, Crystal; Dandapani, Nitara; Kekahio, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Region, teacher absenteeism has posed a long-standing challenge. This report draws on research literature from international contexts and case studies to identify the underlying factors that may relate to teacher absenteeism. Resources included in this report were selected with a focus on non-U.S. Pacific…

  3. Experimental Impacts of a Preschool Intervention in Chile on Children's Language Outcomes: Moderation by Student Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, MaryCatherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Willett, John; Weiland, Christina; Snow, Catherine; Mendive, Susana; Barata, M. Clara; Treviño, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Despite consensus that school absenteeism has negative consequences for children's life outcomes, until recently, little was known about the prevalence of absenteeism or its potential to moderate the impacts of school-based interventions. This study provides evidence from a randomized experiment of a preschool intervention involving 1,876 children…

  4. Chronic Absenteeism and Its Effects on Students' Academic and Socioemotional Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy dialogue suggests that chronic absenteeism is not only underdocumented, but is also detrimental to the success of students as early as kindergarten. That said, almost no empirical research has examined the effects of chronic absenteeism on student outcomes. This study addresses this underresearched issue in more depth. Using a…

  5. Relationships among Job Satisfaction, Professional Efficacy, Student and School Performance, and Teacher Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Laura Beckham

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among job satisfaction, professional efficacy, student and school performance, and teacher absenteeism in Mississippi. This study also addressed methods that can be used by policymakers to better ensure low rates of absenteeism. The study measured the relationship between teachers'…

  6. Study of the Perceptions of Middle School Principals on Teacher Absenteeism within an Urban School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Judy C.

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, teacher absenteeism has become problematic, in part, as a result of collective bargaining agreements between teachers' unions and school boards. Additionally, teacher absenteeism is increasingly problematic because the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) requires schools to meet yearly academic targets in reading and mathematics. The…

  7. Predictors of Absenteeism Severity in Truant Youth: A Dimensional and Categorical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedgell, Kyleigh; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between school absenteeism severity and specific clinical and family variables in middle and high school youth aged 11-19 years recruited from two truancy settings. School absenteeism severity was defined as a percentage of full school days missed from the current academic year at the time of assessment…

  8. A Response to Intervention Model to Promote School Attendance and Decrease School Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Graczyk, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Regular school attendance is foundational to children's success but school absenteeism is a common, serious, and highly vexing problem. Researchers from various disciplines have produced a rich yet diverse literature for conceptualizing problematic absenteeism that has led to considerable confusion and lack of consensus about a…

  9. Teachers' Views on Risk Factors for Problematic School Absenteeism in Swedish Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Ekerfelt Allvin, Cornelia; Bradley, Maria; Andersson, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    In the present online survey, 158 teachers in regular and special education teaching in grades six to nine were asked to rate the importance of probable reasons for problematic school absenteeism. On average, the teachers estimated that among their students, 19 students had presented with problematic school absenteeism over the last five years.…

  10. The Impact of HIV/AIDS and ARV Treatment on Worker Absenteeism: Implications for African Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habyarimana, James; Mbakile, Bekezela; Pop-Eleches, Cristian

    2010-01-01

    We characterize medium and long-run labor market impacts of HIV/AIDS and ARV treatment using unique panel data of worker absenteeism and information from an AIDS treatment program at a large mining firm in Botswana. We present robust evidence of an inverse-V shaped pattern in worker absenteeism around the time of ARV treatment inception.…

  11. 76 FR 14025 - Guidance for Industry on Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism To Ensure Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism To Ensure Availability of Medically... entitled ``Planning for the Effects of High Absenteeism to Ensure Availability of Medically Necessary Drug... components to develop production plans in the event of an emergency that results in high absenteeism at one...

  12. Connecting Attendance and Academic Outcomes. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 2 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report highlights several trends in Oregon that show the correlation between chronic absenteeism and various academic outcomes. Oregon student patterns follow the national trend in that students with better attendance have better outcomes. Fifth-grade chronic absenteeism is a moderately strong predictor of chronic absenteeism in subsequent…

  13. Mental ill-health and the differential effect of employee type on absenteeism and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Scuffham, Paul A; Sheridan, Judith; Cleary, Catherine M; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2008-11-01

    Mental ill-health results in substantial reductions in employee productivity (absenteeism and presenteeism). This paper examines the relationship between employee psychological distress, employee type and productivity. Utilizing the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire, in a sample of 60,556 full-time employees, the impact that psychological distress (Kessler 6) imposes on employee productivity by occupation type is examined. Comparison of white-collar workers absenteeism rates by low and high psychological distress reveals no statistically significant difference. Nevertheless, the same comparison for blue-collar workers reveals that high psychological distress results in an 18% increase in absenteeism rates. High K6 score resulted in a presenteeism increase of 6% in both blue and white-collar employees. The novel finding is that mental ill-health produces little to no absenteeism in white-collar workers yet a profound absenteeism increase in the blue-collar sector.

  14. [Missed lessons, missed opportunities: a role for public health services in medical absenteeism in young people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Y T M; van de Goor, L A M; Feron, F J M

    2016-01-01

    Young people who often miss school for health reasons are not only missing education, but also the daily routine of school, and social intercourse with their classmates. Medical absenteeism among students merits greater attention. For a number of years, in various regions in the Netherlands, students with extensive medical absenteeism have been invited to see a youth healthcare specialist. The MASS intervention (Medical Advice of Students reported Sick; in Dutch: Medische Advisering van de Ziekgemelde Leerling, abbreviated as M@ZL) has been developed by the West Brabant Regional Public Health Service together with secondary schools to address school absenteeism due to reporting sick. In this paper we discuss the MASS intervention and explain why attention should be paid by public health services to the problem of school absenteeism, especially absenteeism on health grounds.

  15. Miners' welfare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, C

    1984-06-13

    The Miners' Welfare Committee (MWC) was formed in Britain in 1921 and initiated building programmes to provide welfare amenities for miners and families, using architecture to improve the quality of a miner's working and leisure time. The article reviews the MWC's work, and assesses the design and architecture at the Selby Coalfield. (7 refs.)

  16. Health care costs and work absenteeism in smokers: study in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Bonel, María Pilar; Villaverde-Royo, María Victoria; Nerín, Isabel; Sanz-Andrés, Concepción; Mezquida-Arno, Julia; Córdoba-García, Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Higher morbidity caused by smoking-related diseases could increase health costs. We analyzed differences in the use of healthcare resources, healthcare costs and days of work absenteeism among smokers and non-smokers. Cross-sectional study in smokers and non-smokers, aged between 45 and 74 years, from one urban health area. The variables studied were: age, sex, alcohol intake, physical activity, obesity, diseases, attendance at primary care clinics and hospital emergency rooms, days of hospitalization, prescription drug consumption and work absenteeism (in days). Annual cost according to the unit cost of each service (direct costs), and indirect costs according to the number of days missed from work was calculated. Crude and adjusted risks were calculated using logistic regression. Five hundred patients were included: 50% were smokers, 74% (372) men and 26% (128) women. Smokers used more healthcare resources, consumed more prescription drugs and had more days off work than non-smokers. Respective direct and indirect costs in smokers were 848.64 euros (IQ 25-75: 332.65-1517.10) and 2253.90 euros (IQ 25-75: 1024.50-13113.60), and in non-smokers were 474.71 euros (IQ 25-75: 172.88-979.59) and 1434.30 euros (IQ 25-75: 614.70-4712.70). The likelihood of generating high healthcare costs was more than double for smokers (OR=2.14; 95% CI: 1.44-3.19). More investment in programs for the prevention and treatment of smoking, as a health policy priority, could help to reduce the health and social costs of smoking. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace accidents, absenteeism and productivity in patients with sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado-Gámez, Bernabé; Guglielmi, Ottavia; Gude, Francisco; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2015-05-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) has health-related outcomes, but the impact of OSAHS on occupational health has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OSAHS on workplace accidents, absenteeism and productivity. One hundred eighty-two OSAHS patients and 71 healthy subjects completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Spanish IMPALA (Impact of Disease on Work Productivity) index and answered various questions on workplace accidents and sick leave. Participants were classified to an OSAHS group or a non-OSAHS group according to polysomnography results. Patients with OSAHS had more sick leave lasting longer than 30days (16.6% vs. 7%, P=.049) and lower productivity (63.80% vs. 83.20%, P=.000) than subjects without OSAHS, although the rate of workplace accidents was similar in both groups (27.4% vs 25.4%; P>.050). None of the OSAHS-related variables was associated with workplace accidents. A diagnosis of OSAHS was related with absenteeism. Psychological distress and OSAHS were related with productivity. OSAHS causes limitations in the working lives of patients and leads to a higher incidence of sick leave and lower productivity. A diagnosis of OSAHS was the variable with most influence on the working lives of patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Fourier Transformed Infra-Red Imaging of Femoral Neck Bone: Reduced Heterogeneity of Mineral-to-Matrix and Carbonate-to-Phosphate and more Variable Crystallinity in Treatment-Naïve Fracture Cases compared to Fracture-Free Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion-Arsiquaud, Samuel; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Power, Jon; Loveridge, Nigel; Reeve, Jonathan; Boskey, Adele L.

    2012-01-01

    After age 60 hip fracture risk strongly increases, but only a fifth of this increase is attributable to reduced mineral density (BMD, measured clinically). Changes in bone quality, specifically bone composition as measured by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI), also contribute to fracture risk. Here, FTIRI was applied to study the femoral neck and provide spatially derived information on its mineral and matrix properties in age-matched fractured and non-fractured bones. Whole femoral neck cross sections, divided into quadrants along the neck’s axis, from 10 women with hip fracture and 10 cadaveric controls were studied using FTIRI and micro-computed Tomography. Although 3-dimensional micro-CT bone mineral densities were similar, the mineral-to-matrix ratio was reduced in the cases of hip fracture, confirming previous reports. New findings were that the FTIRI microscopic variation (heterogeneity) of the mineral-to-matrix ratio was substantially reduced in the fracture group as was the heterogeneity of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Conversely, the heterogeneity of crystallinity was increased. Increased variation of crystallinity was statistically associated with reduced variation of the carbonate-to-phosphate ratio. Anatomical variation in these properties between the different femoral neck quadrants was reduced in the fracture group compared to controls. While our treatment-naïve patients had reduced rather than increased bending resistance, these changes in heterogeneity associated with hip fracture are in another way comparable to the effects of experimental bisphosphonate therapy, which decreases heterogeneity and other indicators of bone’s toughness as a material. PMID:22865771

  19. Reagan issues mineral policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Materials and Minerals Program plan and report that President Reagan sent to Congress on April 5 aims to ‘decrease America's minerals vulnerability’ while reducing future dependence on potentially unstable foreign sources of minerals. These goals would be accomplished by taking inventory of federal lands to determine mineral potential; by meeting the stockpile goals set by the Strategic and Critical Material Stockpiling Act; and by establishing a business and political climate that would encourage private-sector research and development on minerals.Now that the Administration has issued its plan, the Subcommittee on Mines and Mining of the House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs will consider the National Minerals Security Act (NMSA), which was introduced 1 year ago by subcommittee chairman Jim Santini (D-Nev.) [Eos, May 19, 1981, p. 497]. The bill calls for establishing a three-member White-House-level council to coordinate the development of a national minerals policy; amending tax laws to assist the mining industry to make capital investments to locate and produce strategic materials; and creating a revolving fund for the sale and purchase of strategic minerals. In addition, the NMSA bill would allow the secretary of the interior to make previously withdrawn public lands available for mineral development. The subcommittee will hold a hearing on the Administration's plan on May 11. Interior Secretary James Watt has been invited to testify.

  20. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism - A cross-sectional study of urban industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suhash; Subramanya, Anantha H C

    2013-01-01

    Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at workplace during evaluation. Job stress was assessed using Professional Life Stress Scale (David Fontana). Those who scored more than 30 (n = 43) were taken up for the study after an informed consent. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to find socio-demographic and clinical profile. Employees who reported taking leave in last six months just to avoid work or workplace constitute the "absenteeism" group. The absenteeism group was compared to non-absenteeism group using Fisher exact/Chi-square test or independent t-test depending on type of variables. Out of 43 subjects, 18 had absenteeism while 25 did not have absenteeism. Comparing the two groups, interstate migration, having more than one previous job, commuting time more than an hour, co-morbid anxiety/depression, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with absenteeism (P Absentees complained more about fatigue and relationship problem with colleagues than non-absentees (P absenteeism (P > 0.05). In absenteeism research, one of the widely accepted models is Steer and Rhode's "Process model of absenteeism." The model postulates job stress as one of the barriers for attendance. Thus, knowing the factors for absenteeism would help in preventing absenteeism.

  1. Introduction of Mercury-free Gold Extraction Methods to Medium-Scale Miners and Education of Health Care Providers to Reduce the use of Mercury in Sorata, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. U. Appel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions. The gold ores tested during the project proved amenable to mercury-free gold extraction using borax smelting. The miners also realized that gold recovery increased when performing mercury-free gold extraction. The miners decided to stop using mercury and a follow-up project cleaned their mining equipment for mercury and modified the processing lines. The health care providers were also successfully trained.

  2. A milk and cereal dietary pattern is associated with a reduced likelihood of having a low bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangah; Hong, Kyungeui; Kang, Seung Wan; Joung, Hyojee

    2013-01-01

    The traditional rice-based Korean diet has been changing toward a Western-style diet. This change has been especially rapid among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and bone health among Korean adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 196 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. Information on the general characteristics of the subjects was obtained through a questionnaire, and dietary intake was assessed with 6-day food records. Bone mineral densities (BMDs) of the lumbar spine and femur were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary patterns were derived from 24 food groups using factor analysis. Four distinct dietary patterns-traditional Korean, fast food, milk and cereal, and snacks-were identified and accounted for 28.4% of the total variance. After adjusting for sex, age, body mass index percentiles, weight loss attempts, pubertal status, and regular exercise, the adolescents in the highest tertile of the "milk and cereal" dietary pattern score had significantly a reduced likelihood of having low BMD compared with those in the lowest tertile of this diet at the lumbar spine (odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.93; P = .0461). The other dietary patterns were not associated with the BMD of Korean adolescents. These results indicate that the intake of milk and cereal is important for the bone health of Korean adolescents, whose diets are composed mainly of grains and vegetables. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight change and workplace absenteeism in the HealthWorks study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Linde, Jennifer A; Harnack, Lisa J; Stovitz, Steven D; Jeffery, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  4. Weight Change and Workplace Absenteeism in the HealthWorks Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Harnack, Lisa J.; Stovitz, Steven D.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the relationship between weight change and workplace absenteeism. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which weight change predicted 2-year absenteeism. Methods A longitudinal analysis of 1,228 employees enrolled in a worksite-randomized controlled trial was performed. Participants were all working adults in the Minneapolis, MN, area (USA). Results The final model indicated a significant interaction between weight change and baseline BMI. The difference in absenteeism ranged from (mean ± SE) 3.2 ± 1.2 days among healthy weight employees who maintained their weight to 6.6 ± 1.1 days among obese employees who gained weight (and slightly higher among healthy weight employees who lost weight). The adjusted model also indicated that participants who were male, not depressed, nonsmokers, and had lower baseline absenteeism had significantly less workplace absenteeism relative to participants who were female, depressed, smokers, and had higher baseline absenteeism. Conclusion Absenteeism was generally low in this sample, but healthy weight employees who maintained their body weight over 2 years had the fewest number of sick days. More research is needed in this area, but future workforce attendance interventions may be improved by focusing on the primary prevention of weight gain in healthy weight employees. PMID:23108493

  5. Examining individual factors according to health risk appraisal data as determinants of absenteeism among US utility employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec, Mary L; Scibelli, Andrew F; Edington, Dee W

    2013-07-01

    To investigate predictors of absenteeism and discuss potential implications for policy/program design. Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) data and self-reported and objective absenteeism (personnel records) were used to develop a structural equation model, controlling for age, sex, and job classification. A Medical Condition Burden Index (MCBI) was created by summing the number of self-reported medical conditions. Higher MCBI and stress were direct predictors of absenteeism. Physical activity was not associated with absenteeism but mediated both stress and MCBI. Because stress impacted both absenteeism and MCBI, organizations may benefit by placing stress management as a priority for wellness program and policy focus. Physical activity was not directly associated with absenteeism but was a mediating variable for stress and MCBI. Measures of stress and physical health may be more meaningful as outcome measures for physical activity programs than absenteeism.

  6. United States comparative costs and absenteeism of diabetic ophthalmic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Richard A; Kleinman, Nathan L; Patel, Sunil; Smeeding, Jim E; Beren, Ian A; Turpcu, Adam

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the impact of diabetic macular edema (DME), diabetic retinopathy (DR), or diabetes on annual health benefit costs and absenteeism in US employees. Claims data from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the Human Capital Management Services Group Research Reference Database on annual direct/indirect health benefit costs and absences for employees aged ≥ 18 years. Employees with DME, DR, or diabetes were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Employees were divided into two groups, drivers or nondrivers, and examined in separate analyses. For drivers and nondrivers, the DME, DR, and diabetes cohorts were compared with their respective control groups (without diabetes). Two-part regression models controlled for demographics and job-related characteristics. A total of 39,702 driver and 426,549 nondriver employees were identified as having ≥ 1 year's continuous health plan enrollment. Direct medical costs for drivers with DME, DR, or diabetes were $6470, $8021, and $5102, respectively (>2.8 times higher and statistically significant compared with driver controls). Nondrivers with DME and DR incurred significantly higher sick leave and short-term disability costs compared with the nondrivers with diabetes and nondriver controls. In drivers with DME, the majority of days of absence were for short- and long-term disability (12.41 and 11.43 days, respectively). In drivers with DR, the majority of days of absence were for short-term disability (10.70 days). In nondrivers with DME and nondrivers with DR, the majority of days of absence were for sick leave (5.74 and 4.93 days, respectively) and short-term disability (5.08 and 4.93 days, respectively). DME and DR are associated with substantial direct medical cost and absenteeism in this real-world sample of medically insured employees. This research highlights the negative impact of DME and DR on annual costs and absenteeism

  7. Attitudes towards Addressing Medical Absenteeism of Students: A Qualitative Study among Principals and Special Education Needs Coordinators in Dutch Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Yvonne; van de Loo, Marlou; Feron, Frans; Rots-de Vries, Carin; van de Goor, Ien

    2016-01-01

    Reducing school absenteeism benefits the health and educational opportunities of young people. The Dutch intervention Medical Advice for Sick-reported Students (abbreviated as MASS) was developed to address school absenteeism due to sickness reporting, also called medical absenteeism. This study is part of a research project on the effectiveness of MASS and explores factors that influence the implementation and dissemination of the intervention, from schools' perspectives. The research questions include reasons schools have to implement MASS, their experiences in the implementation of MASS and their views on what is needed to ensure sustainable implementation. A qualitative research method was used. Semi-structured interviews were held with nine principals and eight special education needs coordinators, working in nine secondary schools that apply MASS. Inductive content analysis was carried out. The main reasons for schools to address medical absenteeism were their concerns about students' well-being and future prospects and their wish to share these concerns with students' parents. Participants also mentioned the wish to raise the threshold for reporting sick. According to the participants, MASS makes it easier for teachers to enter into conversation with students and their parents about medical absence. MASS prevents damage to the relationship with parents and medical problems being missed. In implementing MASS the main obstacles are teachers' dialogue about medical absence with students and their parents, teachers' follow-up of the feedback of the youth health care physicians (YHCPs), and correct registration. The participants were convinced that MASS also improves collaboration with parents regarding the optimization of care for students. MASS allows schools to identify students at risk of dropout at an early stage and to optimise guidance of these students. The intervention matches schools' need to address medical absenteeism by providing a clear framework

  8. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Cooper, Alun; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Hatlebakk, Jan; Agréus, Lars; Jablonowski, Helmut; Nuevo, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD]) study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. Methods RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK). All subjects (aged ≥18 years) who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit). From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism) and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD). Results Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%); 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week) and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week), with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from €55/week per employed patient in the UK to €273/patient in Sweden). Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. Conclusion GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily

  9. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatlebakk Jan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD] study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. Methods RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK. All subjects (aged ≥18 years who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit. From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD. Results Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%; 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week, with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from €55/week per employed patient in the UK to €273/patient in Sweden. Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. Conclusion GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and

  10. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on work absenteeism, presenteeism and productivity in daily life: a European observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbert, Javier P; Cooper, Alun; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Hatlebakk, Jan; Agréus, Lars; Jablonowski, Helmut; Nuevo, Javier

    2009-10-16

    The RANGE (Retrospective ANalysis of GastroEsophageal reflux disease [GERD]) study assessed differences among patients consulting a primary care physician due to GERD-related reasons in terms of: symptoms, diagnosis and management, response to treatment, and effects on productivity, costs and health-related quality of life. This subanalysis of RANGE determined the impact of GERD on productivity in work and daily life. RANGE was conducted at 134 primary care sites across six European countries (Germany, Greece, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the UK). All subjects (aged >or=18 years) who consulted with their primary care physician over a 4-month identification period were screened retrospectively, and those consulting at least once for GERD-related reasons were identified (index visit). From this population, a random sample was selected to enter the study and attended a follow-up appointment, during which the impact of GERD on productivity while working (absenteeism and presenteeism) and in daily life was evaluated using the self-reported Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for patients with GERD (WPAI-GERD). Overall, 373,610 subjects consulted with their primary care physician over the 4-month identification period, 12,815 for GERD-related reasons (3.4%); 2678 randomly selected patients attended the follow-up appointment. Average absenteeism due to GERD was highest in Germany (3.2 hours/week) and lowest in the UK (0.4 hours/week), with an average of up to 6.7 additional hours/week lost due to presenteeism in Norway. The average monetary impact of GERD-related work absenteeism and presenteeism were substantial in all countries (from euro55/week per employed patient in the UK to euro273/patient in Sweden). Reductions in productivity in daily life of up to 26% were observed across the European countries. GERD places a significant burden on primary care patients, in terms of work absenteeism and presenteeism and in daily life. The resulting costs to the

  11. Self-rated job performance and absenteeism according to employee engagement, health behaviors, and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Aldana, Steven G; Pope, James E; Anderson, David R; Coberley, Carter R; Grossmeier, Jessica J; Whitmer, R William

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the combined influence of employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health on job performance and absenteeism. Analyses were based on 20,114 employees who completed the Healthways Well-Being Assessment from 2008 to 2010. Employees represented three geographically dispersed companies in the United States. Employee engagement, health behavior, and physical health indices were simultaneously significantly associated with job performance and also with absenteeism. Employee engagement had a greater association with job performance than did the health behavior or physical health indices, whereas the physical health index was more strongly associated with absenteeism. Specific elements of the indices were evaluated for association with self-rated job performance and absenteeism. Efforts to improve worker productivity should take a holistic approach encompassing employee health improvement and engagement strategies.

  12. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  13. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Hardevel, F.; de Graaf, R.; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  14. Literature review of labour turnover and absenteeism costs in the coal mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolf, A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper includes labor turnover formulae, turnover costs, and turnover rates for the mining industry. Few meaningful studies or reports on absenteeism costs and labour turnover in mining were retrieved.

  15. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.; Beekman, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance

  16. Collective autonomy and absenteeism within work teams: a team motivation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Vincent; Aubé, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the role of collective autonomy in regard to team absenteeism by considering team potency as a motivational mediator and task routineness as a moderator. The sample consists of 90 work teams (327 members and 90 immediate superiors) drawn from a public safety organization. Results of structural equation modeling indicate that the relationships between collective autonomy and two indicators of team absenteeism (i.e., absence frequency and time lost) are mediated by team potency. Specifically, collective autonomy is positively related to team potency which in turn is negatively related to team absenteeism. Furthermore, results of hierarchical regression analyses show that task routineness moderates the relationships between collective autonomy and the two indicators of team absenteeism such that these relationships are stronger when the level of task routineness is low. On the whole, this study points out that collective autonomy may exercise a motivational effect on attendance at work within teams, but this effect is contingent on task routineness.

  17. Aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism : Taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biron, M.; Bamberger, P.

    2012-01-01

    Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of

  18. Aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism: taking referent group norms and supervisor support into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Michal; Bamberger, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Past research reveals inconsistent findings regarding the association between aversive workplace conditions and absenteeism, suggesting that other, contextual factors may play a role in this association. Extending contemporary models of absence, we draw from the social identity theory of attitude-behavior relations to examine how peer absence-related norms and leader support combine to explain the effect of aversive workplace conditions on absenteeism. Using a prospective design and a random sample of transit workers, we obtained results indicating that perceived job hazards and exposure to critical incidents are positively related to subsequent absenteeism, but only under conditions of more permissive peer absence norms. Moreover, this positive impact of peer norms on absenteeism is amplified among employees perceiving their supervisor to be less supportive and is attenuated to the point of nonsignificance among those viewing their supervisor as more supportive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Impact on Employee Productivity From Presenteeism and Absenteeism: Evidence From a Multinational Firm in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Mario; Caputi, Peter; Ashbury, Fred

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the effects of 13 psychological and physical health conditions on work productivity. One hundred fifty-two staff at the headquarters of a Sri Lankan multinational firm completed a questionnaire asking whether they experienced 13 health conditions common in workplaces, and about their related absenteeism and presenteeism. Most respondents (85.5%) reported absenteeism, presenteeism, or both. Among those reporting a health condition, 57.6% reported losing days due to absenteeism, and 69.5% reported losing additional days to presenteeism. Among those caring for a sick adult or child, 57.3% reported losing days due to absenteeism, and 36.5% reported losing additional days due to presenteeism. Overall productivity loss was 10.43 days each year, 3.95% of employee capacity, equating to about Sri Lanka Rupees 8 million (US$54,421) for all headquarters employees. The health conditions' effects on productivity significantly increased employee costs.

  20. Chronic School Absenteeism and the Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempel, Hilary; Cox-Martin, Matthew; Bronsert, Michael; Dickinson, L Miriam; Allison, Mandy A

    To examine the association between chronic school absenteeism and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among school-age children. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health including children 6 to 17 years old. The primary outcome variable was chronic school absenteeism (≥15 days absent in the past year). We examined the association between chronic school absenteeism and ACEs by logistic regression with weighting for individual ACEs, summed ACE score, and latent class analysis of ACEs. Among the 58,765 school-age children in the study sample, 2416 (4.1%) experienced chronic school absenteeism. Witnessing or experiencing neighborhood violence was the only individual ACE significantly associated with chronic absenteeism (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-2.01). Having 1 or more ACE was significantly associated with chronic absenteeism: 1 ACE (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79), 2 to 3 ACEs (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.39-2.36), and ≥4 ACEs (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.32-2.43). Three of the latent classes were also associated with chronic absenteeism, and children in these classes had a high probability of endorsing neighborhood violence, family substance use, or having multiple ACEs. ACE exposure was associated with chronic school absenteeism in school-age children. To improve school attendance, along with future graduation rates and long-term health, these findings highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach to address child adversity that involves pediatricians, mental health providers, schools, and public health partners. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF STUDENT TEACHER ABSENTEEISM IN TEACHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. B. S. Gupta

    2017-01-01

    A school was a place to get knowledge. A student absentee is a major concern for lecturers at institutions of teacher education learning. Absences create a dead, tiresome, unpleasant classroom environment that makes students who come to class uncomfortable and the lecturer irritable. The objective of the study was to study the causes of student teacher absentees in teacher education institution. The investigator selected the sample through random sampling, 994 student teachers were selected f...

  2. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jerman; Maja Meško

    2016-01-01

    Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from differ...

  3. The influence of disability on absenteeism: an empirical analysis using Spanish data

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Serrano, Carlos; Malo, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the European Community Household Panel for Spain covering the period 1995-2001, this paper investigates the influence of disability on absenteeism reported by workers. Results show that workers with disabilities are absent more days than workers without disabilities. This finding holds even when individual’s selfreported health, visits to doctors and nights spent in hospitals are included in the estimations. The total effect of disability on absenteeism amounts to a marginal...

  4. Diabetes Resolution and Work Absenteeism After Gastric Bypass: a 6-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, E; Ornstein, P; Goine, H; Hedenbro, J L

    2017-09-01

    Obesity-related diseases cause costs to society. We studied the cost of work absenteeism before and after gastric bypass and the effects of postoperative diabetes resolution. Data were obtained from the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg) (national coverage >98%) and cross-matched with data from the Social insurance Agency (coverage 100%) for the period ±3 years from operation. In 2010, a total of 7454 bariatric surgeries were performed; the study group is 4971 unique individuals with an annual income of >10,750 Euros and complete data sets. A sex-, age-, and income-matched reference population was identified for comparison. Patients with obesity had preoperatively a 3.5-fold higher absenteeism. During follow-up (FU), the ratio relative to the reference population remained constant. An increase of 12-14 net absenteeism days was observed in the first 3 months after surgery. Female sex (OR 1.5, CI 1.13-1.8), preoperative anti-depressant use (OR 1.5, CI 1.3-1.9), low income (OR 1.4, CI 1.2-1.8), and a history of sick leave (OR 1.004, CI 1.003-1.004) were associated with increased absenteeism during FU. Diabetes resolution did not decrease absenteeism from preoperative values. Patients with obesity have higher preoperative absenteeism than the reference population. Operation caused an increase the first 90 days after surgery of 12-13 days. There were no relative increases in absenteeism in the next 3 years; patients did not deviate from preoperative patterns but followed the trend of the reference population. Preoperative diabetes did not elevate that level during FU; diabetes resolution did not lower absenteeism.

  5. Socio demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism A cross sectional study of urban industrial employees

    OpenAIRE

    Suhash Chakraborty; Anantha H. C. Subramanya

    2013-01-01

    Context: Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. Aim: To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at wo...

  6. Evaluation of an Electronic Smart-Card Based School Absenteeism Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    So, HC; Lam, CK; Tam, YH; Cowling, BJ; Leung, GM; Lau, EHY; Ip, DKM

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of an electronic smart-card based school absenteeism surveillance system which was initiated in 2008 in Hong Kong. The result demonstrated the feasibility and potential benefit of employing electronic school absenteeism data as captured automatically by a smart card system as an alternative data stream for monitoring influenza activities, and flexibility in establishing surveillance for emerging diseases. The increasing popularity of usage of smart card technology...

  7. The Impact of School Building Conditions on Student Absenteeism in Upstate New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Syni-An; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated Upstate New York school building conditions and examined the associations between school absenteeism and building condition problems. Methods. We merged data from the 2005 Building Condition Survey of Upstate New York schools with 2005 New York State Education Department student absenteeism data at the individual school level and evaluated associations between building conditions and absenteeism at or above the 90th percentile. Results. After adjustment for confounders, student absenteeism was associated with visible mold (odds ratio [OR] = 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34, 3.68), humidity (OR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.37, 6.89), poor ventilation (OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.79, 5.37), vermin (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.32, 3.76), 6 or more individual building condition problems (OR = 2.97; 95% CI = 1.84, 4.79), and building system or structural problems related to these conditions. Schools in lower socioeconomic districts and schools attended by younger students showed the strongest associations between poor building conditions and absenteeism. Conclusions. We found associations between student absenteeism and adverse school building conditions. Future studies should confirm these findings and prioritize strategies for school condition improvements. PMID:20634471

  8. Longterm Work Productivity Costs Due to Absenteeism and Permanent Work Disability in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Nationwide Register Study of 7831 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Janne A; Kautiainen, Hannu; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Puolakka, Kari T

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the development and potential disproportional distribution of longterm productivity costs (PC) and their determinants leading to work absenteeism and permanent work disability in working-aged patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of subjects with early RA was created by identifying the new cases of RA from the national drug reimbursement register that had been granted a special reimbursement for their antirheumatic medications for RA from 2000-2007. The dataset was enriched by cross-linking with other national registries detailing work absenteeism days and permanent disability pensions. In the base case, the human capital approach was applied to estimate PC based on subjects' annual number of absenteeism days and incomes. Hurdle regression analysis was applied to study the determinants of PC. Among the 7831 subjects with early RA, the mean (bootstrapped 95% CI) annual PC per person-observation year was €4800 (4547-5070). The annual PC declined after the first year of RA diagnosis, but increased significantly in subsequent years. In addition, the PC was heavily disproportionally concentrated in a small fraction of patients with RA, because only around 20% of patients accounted for the majority of total annual PC. The initiation of active drug treatment during the first 3 months after RA diagnosis significantly reduced the cumulative PC when compared with no drug treatment. The longterm PC increased significantly in parallel with years elapsing after RA diagnosis. Further, the majority of these PC are incurred by a small proportion of patients.

  9. [Rhinitis and asthma as a cause of absenteeism and poor work/school performance in a population from Latin-American tropic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Estarita, Javier; Salemi, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are the most frequent chronic respiratory diseases. Their high impact is associated with the loss of working days, as well as a decrease in academic performance. To assess and compare the impact of rhinitis and asthma as causes of absenteeism and low work performance in a population of children and adults. A cross sectional study was performed in 10 schools of two cities in Colombia. The student population between 6 to 17 years, as well as the faculty staff over 18 were invited to participate. All of the participants filled a questionnaire assessing parameters related to clinical background, and a review of scores in Math and Spanish, curriculum vitae and number of missed day during the last academic period completed was performed. A total of 1,413 participants were enrolled. The frequency of asthma and/or rhinitis was 36%, there was a greater frequency of absenteeism in the population of children with respiratory symptoms (2.8 vs 1.2 days/year/patient, pperformance (0.43 vs 0.27, pabsenteeism and an improved performance. Both rhinitis and asthma are associated with lower performance in children and adults and absenteeism in the school; however, adequate treatment may improve clinical control and reduce backlash against job performance.

  10. Comparative efficacy of a simplified handwashing program for improvement in hand hygiene and reduction of school absenteeism among children with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Regina L T; Leung, Cynthia; Tong, Wah Kun; Chen, Hong; Lee, Paul H

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases are common among schoolchildren as a result of their poor hand hygiene, especially in those who have developmental disabilities. A quasi-experimental study using a pre- to post-test design with a control group was used to test the feasibility and sustainability of simplified 5-step handwashing techniques to measure the hand hygiene outcome for students with mild intellectual disability. Sickness-related school absenteeism was compared. The intervention group experienced a significant increase in the rating of their handwashing quality in both hands from pre- to post-test: left dorsum (+1.05, P absenteeism rate (0.0167) than the control group in the same year (0.028, P = .04).Students in this study showed better performance in simplified handwashing techniques and experienced lower absenteeism than those using usual practice in special education school settings. The simplified 5-step hand hygiene technique has been proven effective in reducing the spread of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. School illness absenteeism during 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic--South Dakota, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kightlinger, Lon; Horan, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Schools are important amplification settings of influenza virus transmission. We demonstrated correlation of school absenteeism (due to any illness) with other influenza A (H1N1) activity surveillance data during the 2009 pandemic. We collected nonspecific illness student absenteeism data from August 17, 2009 through April 3, 2010 from 187 voluntarily participating South Dakota schools using weekly online surveys. Relative risks (RR) were calculated as the ratio of the probability of absenteeism during elevated weeks versus the probability of absenteeism during the baseline weeks (RR = 1.89). We used Pearson correlation to associate absenteeism with laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, influenza cases diagnosed by rapid tests, influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths reported in South Dakota during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic period. School-absenteeism data correlated strongly with data from these other influenza surveillance sources.

  12. Tinjauan Yuridis Kepemilikan Tanah Absentee Dikaji dari Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1960 Tentang Peraturan Dasar Pokok Agraria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan dilakukannya penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana Kedudukan Kepemilikan Tanah Absentee ditinjau dari Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1960 Tentang Pokok Agraria dan bagaimana Penerapan Dari Undang-Undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1960 Tentang Pokok Agraria terhadap Tanah Yang Dimiliki Secara Absentee. Dengan menggunkan metode penelitian yuridis normatif dsimpulkan: 1. Kepemilikan tanah secara Absentee memang memunculkan fenomena dalam dunia hukum, hal ini dikarenakan kepemilikan tanah seca...

  13. Aggregate and Mineral Resources - Minerals

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This point occurrence data set represents the current mineral and selected energy resources of Utah. The data set coordinates were derived from USGS topographic maps...

  14. Long-term work disability and absenteeism in anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2015-06-01

    This longitudinal study aims to compare long-term work disability and absenteeism between anxiety and depressive disorders focusing on the effects of different course trajectories (remission, recurrence and chronic course) and specific symptom dimensions (anxiety arousal, avoidance behaviour and depressive mood). We included healthy controls, subjects with a history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders with a paid job (n=1632). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose anxiety and depressive disorders and to assess course trajectories at baseline, over 2 and 4 years. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II and the Health and Labour Questionnaire Short Form were used to measure work disability and absenteeism. Symptom dimensions were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire and the Inventory for Depressive Symptomatology. A history of - and current anxiety and/or depressive disorders were associated with increasing work disability and absenteeism over 4 years, compared to healthy controls. Long-term work disability and absenteeism were most prominent in comorbid anxiety-depressive disorder, followed by depressive disorders, and lowest in anxiety disorders. A chronic course, anxiety arousal and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work disability while baseline psychiatric status, a chronic course and depressive mood were strong predictors for long-term work absenteeism. Results cannot be generalized to other anxiety disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and specific phobias. Self-reported measures of work disability and absenteeism were used. Our results demonstrate that depressive syndromes and symptoms have more impact on future work disability and absenteeism than anxiety, implying that prevention of depression is of major importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzer, Dena L; Zheng, Hui; Gilmore, Jason

    2011-04-12

    As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statistics Canada's monthly labour force survey (LFS). Absenteeism and the proportion of hours lost due to own illness or disability were modelled as a function of trend, seasonality and proxy variables for influenza activity from 1998 to 2009. Hours lost due to the H1N1/09 pandemic strain were elevated compared to seasonal influenza, accounting for a loss of 0.2% of potential hours worked annually. In comparison, an estimated 0.08% of hours worked annually were lost due to seasonal influenza illnesses. Absenteeism rates due to influenza were estimated at 12% per year for seasonal influenza over the 1997/98 to 2008/09 seasons, and 13% for the two H1N1/09 pandemic waves. Employees who took time off due to a seasonal influenza infection took an average of 14 hours off. For the pandemic strain, the average absence was 25 hours. This study confirms that absenteeism due to seasonal influenza has typically ranged from 5% to 20%, with higher rates associated with multiple circulating strains. Absenteeism rates for the 2009 pandemic were similar to those occurring for seasonal influenza. Employees took more time off due to the pandemic strain than was typical for seasonal influenza.

  16. Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statistics Canada's monthly labour force survey (LFS. Absenteeism and the proportion of hours lost due to own illness or disability were modelled as a function of trend, seasonality and proxy variables for influenza activity from 1998 to 2009. Results Hours lost due to the H1N1/09 pandemic strain were elevated compared to seasonal influenza, accounting for a loss of 0.2% of potential hours worked annually. In comparison, an estimated 0.08% of hours worked annually were lost due to seasonal influenza illnesses. Absenteeism rates due to influenza were estimated at 12% per year for seasonal influenza over the 1997/98 to 2008/09 seasons, and 13% for the two H1N1/09 pandemic waves. Employees who took time off due to a seasonal influenza infection took an average of 14 hours off. For the pandemic strain, the average absence was 25 hours. Conclusions This study confirms that absenteeism due to seasonal influenza has typically ranged from 5% to 20%, with higher rates associated with multiple circulating strains. Absenteeism rates for the 2009 pandemic were similar to those occurring for seasonal influenza. Employees took more time off due to the pandemic strain than was typical for seasonal influenza.

  17. Statistical estimates of absenteeism attributable to seasonal and pandemic influenza from the Canadian Labour Force Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As many respiratory viruses are responsible for influenza like symptoms, accurate measures of the disease burden are not available and estimates are generally based on statistical methods. The objective of this study was to estimate absenteeism rates and hours lost due to seasonal influenza and compare these estimates with estimates of absenteeism attributable to the two H1N1 pandemic waves that occurred in 2009. Methods Key absenteeism variables were extracted from Statistics Canada's monthly labour force survey (LFS). Absenteeism and the proportion of hours lost due to own illness or disability were modelled as a function of trend, seasonality and proxy variables for influenza activity from 1998 to 2009. Results Hours lost due to the H1N1/09 pandemic strain were elevated compared to seasonal influenza, accounting for a loss of 0.2% of potential hours worked annually. In comparison, an estimated 0.08% of hours worked annually were lost due to seasonal influenza illnesses. Absenteeism rates due to influenza were estimated at 12% per year for seasonal influenza over the 1997/98 to 2008/09 seasons, and 13% for the two H1N1/09 pandemic waves. Employees who took time off due to a seasonal influenza infection took an average of 14 hours off. For the pandemic strain, the average absence was 25 hours. Conclusions This study confirms that absenteeism due to seasonal influenza has typically ranged from 5% to 20%, with higher rates associated with multiple circulating strains. Absenteeism rates for the 2009 pandemic were similar to those occurring for seasonal influenza. Employees took more time off due to the pandemic strain than was typical for seasonal influenza. PMID:21486453

  18. Quality of Life and School Absenteeism in Children With Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Natacha D; Distelberg, Brian; Morrell, Holly E R; Williams-Reade, Jackie; Tapanes, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Children and adolescents with a chronic illness (CI) tend to demonstrate diminished physical and social functioning, which contribute to school attendance issues. We investigated the role of social and physical functioning in reducing school absenteeism in children participating in Mastering Each New Direction (MEND), a family-based psychosocial intervention for youths with CI. Forty-eight children and adolescents with a CI (70.8% female, M age = 14.922, SD = 2.143) and their parent(s) completed a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure pre- and postintervention. Using multiple mediation, we examined whether parent- and child-rated physical and social HRQOL mediated the relationship between school attendance before and after MEND. Once the mediational model was not supported, we investigated whether HRQOL moderated the relationship between missed school days pre- and postintervention. Neither physical nor social functioning mediated or moderated the relationship between missed school days pre- and postintervention. Instead, higher parent-rated physical functioning directly predicted decreased number of missed school days, while lower parent-rated social and child-rated physical functioning predicted increased missed school days. Parent-perceived HRQOL may have a direct effect on health-related behaviors such as school attendance. Future research should determine whether gains in parent-rated QOL are maintained in the long term and whether these continue to impact markers of functional well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. High-intensity intermittent "5-10-15" running reduces body fat, and increases lean body mass, bone mineral density, and performance in untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnholt, Tanja Højegaard; Tybirk, Jonas; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    , and 5 s low-, moderate-, and high-speed running, respectively. Body fat mass was 4.3% lower (P bone mineral density was 1.1 and 0.9% higher (P bone turnover markers osteocalcin......The present study examined the effect of intense intermittent running with 5 s sprints on body composition, fitness level, and performance in untrained subjects aged 36-53 years. For 7 weeks, the subjects carried out 3 days a week 5-10-15 training consisting of 3-9 blocks of 4 repetitions of 15, 10...

  20. Fumarolic minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci; Garavelli, Anna; Jakobsson, Sveinn Peter

    2016-01-01

    The fumarolic mineralogy of the Icelandic active volcanoes, the Tyrrhenian volcanic belt (Italy) and the Aegean active arc (Greece) is investigated, and literature data surveyed in order to define the characteristics of the European fumarolic systems. They show broad diversity of mineral...... associations, with Vesuvius and Vulcano being also among the world localities richest in mineral species. Volcanic systems, which show recession over a longer period, show fumarolic development from the hightemperature alkaline halide/sulphate, calcic sulphate or sulphidic parageneses, synchronous...... with or immediately following the eruptions, through mediumtemperature ammonium minerals, metal chlorides, or fluoride associations to the late low-temperature paragenesis dominated by sulphur, gypsum, alunogen, and other hydrous sulphates. The situation can be different in the systems that are not recessing but show...

  1. The association of fitness and school absenteeism across gender and poverty: a prospective multilevel analysis in New York City middle schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Emily M; Day, Sophia E; Konty, Kevin J; Larkin, Michael; Saha, Subir; Wyka, Katarzyna

    2018-03-01

    One-fifth to one-third of students in high poverty, urban school districts do not attend school regularly (missing ≥6 days/year). Fitness is shown to be associated with absenteeism, although this relationship may differ across poverty and gender subgroups. Six cohorts of New York City public school students were followed up from grades 5 to 8 during 2006/2007-2012/2013 (n = 349,381). Stratified three-level longitudinal generalized linear mixed models were used to test the association between changes in fitness and 1-year lagged child-specific days absent across gender and poverty. In girls attending schools in high/very high poverty areas, greater improvements in fitness the prior year were associated with greater reductions in absenteeism (P = .034). Relative to the reference group (>20% decrease in fitness composite percentile scores from the prior year), girls with a large increase in fitness (>20%) demonstrated 10.3% fewer days absent (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.834, 0.964), followed by those who had a 10%-20% increase in fitness (9.2%; IRR 95% CI: 0.835, 0.987), no change (5.4%; IRR 95% CI: 0.887, 1.007), and a 10%-20% decrease in fitness (3.8%; IRR 95% CI: 0.885, 1.045). In girls attending schools in low/mid poverty areas, fitness and absenteeism also had an inverse relationship, but no clear trend emerged. In boys, fitness and absenteeism had an inverse relationship but was not significant in either poverty group. Fitness improvements may be more important to reducing absenteeism in high/very high poverty girls compared with low/mid poverty girls and both high/very high and low/mid poverty boys. Expanding school-based physical activity programs for youth particularly in high poverty neighborhoods may increase student attendance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  3. Working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among nurses in a provincial hospital in the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, M; Jooste, K

    2008-03-01

    Absenteeism results in an increased workload for nurses who stand in for colleagues and can lead to situations in which a lack of motivation among nurses and a lowering of the quality of patient care may occur. The researcher observed that certain conditions, such as inflexible working schedules, were given as reasons for the absenteeism in units in a provincial hospital. A non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose of the article was to describe the working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among the professional and sub-professional nurses at a provincial hospital in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The sample included 107 professional nurses and 163 sub-professional nurses who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that personal and managerial characteristics, and organisational and working conditions may lead to absenteeism in the workplace. This article focuses on the working conditions that are constraints, namely inadequate group cohesion, inadequate delegation of autonomy, role ambiguity, ineffective routinisation and the effect of the workload in the workplace. Recommendations are made for improving working conditions to combat absenteeism among nurses. The limitations of this study are highlighted.

  4. An assessment of the relationships between overweight, obesity, related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Potter, Lloyd B

    2014-01-01

    Worker absenteeism is an important area of study within the field of occupational health. Prior studies have linked the presence of obesity to higher rates of absenteeism, but have not examined whether or not the relationship is moderated by the presence of other chronic health conditions or whether or not the relationships have been stable over time. Data from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the presence of 5 obesity-related chronic health conditions moderates the relationship between overweight/obesity and worker absenteeism, and whether or not these relationships are stable over time. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between overweight/obesity, the obesity-related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism, while controlling for demographic, socio-economic, occupational, health related and behavioral variables. The findings suggest that obesity (p absenteeism, and that the effect is doubled for those with both class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and diabetes. The moderating effect between class III obesity and diabetes was observed only in 2010, indicating that this may be a relatively new phenomenon. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Presenteeism, Absenteeism, and Lost Work Productivity among Depressive Patients from Five Cities of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, José Miguel; Pinto, Diana M; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Rondón, Martín

    2017-12-01

    To estimate productivity losses due to absenteeism and presenteeism and their determinants in patients with depression from five Colombian cities. We used data from a multicenter, mixed-methods study of adult patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder or double depression (major depressive disorder plus dysthymia) during 2010. The World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire was used to assess absenteeism and presenteeism. We explored the determinants of productivity losses using a two-part model. We also used a costing model to calculate the corresponding monetary losses. We analyzed data from 107 patients employed in the last 4 weeks. Absenteeism was reported by 70% of patients; presenteeism was reported by all but one. Half of the patients reported a level of performance at work at least 50% below usual. Average number of hours per month lost to absenteeism and presenteeism was 43 and 51, respectively. The probability of any absenteeism was 17 percentage points lower in patients rating their mental health favorably compared with those rating it poorly (standard error [SE] 0.09; P productivity losses amounted to US $840 million. This study in a middle-income country confirms the high economic burden of depression. Health policies and workplace interventions ensuring adequate diagnosis and treatment of depression are recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Absenteeism, educational plans, and anxiety among children with incontinence and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filce, Hollie G; LaVergne, Leslie

    2015-04-01

    Children with incontinence have more absenteeism, poorer academic performance, and potential social difficulties during the school years. These children and their parents are at risk for illness-related anxiety. Whereas educational plans are designed to remediate educational, medical, and social-emotional barriers at school, little research has explored the relationship among absenteeism, educational plans, and anxiety for this population. Eighty-three families provided demographic information and completed either the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale Second Edition (RCMAS-2) or the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale (AMAS-A). A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationships among these variables. Children with chronic illness resulting in incontinence had greater than expected rates of absenteeism. A high level of absenteeism was a significant predictor of parental anxiety, but not child anxiety. Over one third reported having no plan in place to support the child's needs at school. However, when a plan was present, it had no impact on child or parental anxiety. Absenteeism contributes to familial anxiety and educational difficulties. Despite the potential for educational plans to support these children at school, these plans are underutilized for children with incontinence. This population requires more attention to their academic and social-emotional well-being at school. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  7. What do nurse managers say about nurses' sickness absenteeism? A new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Mohamed; Dumit, Nuhad; Daouk-Öyry, Lina

    2016-01-01

    To explore nurses' sickness absenteeism from the perspective of nurse managers. Sickness absenteeism among health-care providers, especially nurses, remains a significant problem in an era of challenges to provide high quality care with the required skill mix. This in turn compromises the quality of care and adds to the costs of an organisation. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were collected from a governmental academic hospital in Lebanon. In-depth tape-recorded interviews were conducted with a total of 20 nurse managers. Data were analysed through a content analysis approach. Data analysis yielded three domains as follows: work-related, individual and organisational factors that lead to nurses' sickness absenteeism. This study conceptualised nurses' absenteeism from the nurse managers' perspective, and it revealed absence antecedents that are rarely reported elsewhere in the literature. The findings from this study can be utilised to design reform initiatives concerned with nurses' absenteeism and to decrease its negative consequences in terms of quality and cost. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Absenteeism due to voice disorders in female teachers: a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-11-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of absenteeism due to voice disorders among teachers and investigates individual and contextual factors associated with it. The study involved 1,980 teachers from 76 municipal schools. The response rate was 85%. The survey was carried out between May 2004 and July 2005 using a self-administered structured questionnaire containing sociodemographic, lifestyle, health, and work-related questions. The dependent variable was obtained from answers to the following question: In the last 2 weeks, have you missed work because of voice problems? Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated factors. Voice-related absenteeism in the prior 2 weeks was reported by 66 teachers (3.35%). During their entire careers, approximately one-third of teachers missed work at least once due to voice problems. In the final model, factors associated with recent absenteeism were as follows: witnessing violence by students or parents one or more times (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.14-3.90), presence of depression or anxiety (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.09-3.78), upper respiratory problems in the prior 2 weeks (OR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.53-5.29), and absenteeism because of voice problems during the preceding 6 months (OR = 15.79; 95% CI = 8.18-30.45). The results encourage new approaches to the problems of absenteeism in the educational sector and contribute to addressing the weaknesses of economic and administrative approaches to the phenomenon.

  9. The reliability, validity, and accuracy of self-reported absenteeism from work: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Gary; Miraglia, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will exhibit convergent validity with records-based measures but that people will tend to underreport the behavior. We used meta-analysis to summarize the reliability, validity, and accuracy of absence self-reports. The results suggested that self-reports of absenteeism offer adequate test-retest reliability and that they exhibit reasonably good rank order convergence with organizational records. However, people have a decided tendency to underreport their absenteeism, although such underreporting has decreased over time. Also, self-reports were more accurate when sickness absence rather than absence for any reason was probed. It is concluded that self-reported absenteeism might serve as a valid measure in some correlational research designs. However, when accurate knowledge of absolute absenteeism levels is essential, the tendency to underreport could result in flawed policy decisions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Agreement between children and parents demonstrated that illness-related absenteeism was validly reported by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Laursen, Bjarne; Due, Pernille; Johansen, Anette

    2016-01-01

    To examine the agreement between children's and parents' reporting of illness-related absenteeism from school and to examine predictors for disagreement between children and parents. A total of 8,438 schoolchildren aged from 5 to 15 years (grade 0-8) and one parent of each child were invited to participate in the Hi Five baseline study. The response rate for children answering a questionnaire was 89% (n = 7,525), and 36% of the parents (n = 3,008) participated in a weekly illness registration study using text messages (short message service) over a period of 22 weeks. Text messages and questionnaire data were linked at the individual level, leaving 2,269 child-parent pairs in the analysis, corresponding to 27% of the eligible sample. The agreement between children's and parents' reports of illness-related absenteeism was good, with high absolute agreement and slight to moderate Ƙ values. Agreement was lowest for 6- to 8-year-olds and highest for 11- to 12-year-olds. Children's reports of illness symptoms and parents' reports of their children's illnesses in the preceding week were strong predictors for children reporting illness-related absenteeism when parents did not. Illness-related absenteeism can be reported by children, and children report higher prevalence of illness-related absenteeism than parents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Patient safety culture shapes presenteeism and absenteeism: a cross-sectional study among Croatian healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brborović, Hana; Brborović, Ognjen

    2017-09-26

    Healthcare workers have high rates of injuries and illnesses at the workplace, and both their absence from work due to illness (absenteeism) or working ill (presenteeism) can compromise patient safety and the quality of health care delivered. Following this premise, we wanted to determine whether presenteeism and absenteeism were associated with patient safety culture (PSC) and in what way. Our sample consisted of 595 Croatian healthcare workers (150 physicians and 445 nurses) who answered the short-form WHO Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The results have confirmed the association with both presenteeism and absenteeism in several PSC dimensions, but not as we expected based on the premise from which we started. Opposite to our expectations, lower job performance (as a measure of presenteeism) was associated with higher PSC instead of lower PSC. Absenteeism, in turn, was associated with lower PSC, just as we expected. These findings suggest that it is the PSC that shapes presenteeist and absenteeist behaviour and not the other way around. High PSC leads to presenteeism, and low PSC to absenteeism. We also believe that the presenteeism questionnaires should be adjusted to health care and better define what lower performance means both quantitatively and qualitatively in a hospital setting.

  12. Mineral Commodity Summaries 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2009-01-01

    reserves and reserve base information carried for years without alteration because no new information is available; historically reported reserves and reserve base reduced by the amount of historical production; and company reported reserves. International minerals availability studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines, before 1996, and estimates of identified resources by an international collaborative effort (the International Strategic Minerals Inventory) are the basis for some reserves and reserve base estimates. The USGS collects information about the quantity and quality of mineral resources but does not directly measure reserves, and companies or governments do not directly report reserves or reserve base to the USGS. Reassessment of reserves and reserve base is a continuing process, and the intensity of this process differs for mineral commodities, countries, and time period. Abbreviations and units of measure, and definitions of selected terms used in the report, are in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively. A resource/reserve classification for minerals, based on USGS Circular 831 (published with the U.S. Bureau of Mines) is Appendix C, and a directory of USGS minerals information country specialists and their responsibilities is Appendix D. The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the MCS 2009 are welcomed.

  13. Preventing patient absenteeism: validation of a predictive overbooking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark W; Cohen, Samuel; Wang, Hank; Kaung, Aung; Patel, Anish; Tashjian, Vartan; Williams, Demetrius L; Martinez, Bibiana; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-12-01

    To develop a model that identifies patients at high risk for missing scheduled appointments ("no-shows" and cancellations) and to project the impact of predictive overbooking in a gastrointestinal endoscopy clinic-an exemplar resource-intensive environment with a high no-show rate. We retrospectively developed an algorithm that uses electronic health record (EHR) data to identify patients who do not show up to their appointments. Next, we prospectively validated the algorithm at a Veterans Administration healthcare network clinic. We constructed a multivariable logistic regression model that assigned a no-show risk score optimized by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Based on these scores, we created a calendar of projected open slots to offer to patients and compared the daily performance of predictive overbooking with fixed overbooking and typical "1 patient, 1 slot" scheduling. Data from 1392 patients identified several predictors of no-show, including previous absenteeism, comorbid disease burden, and current diagnoses of mood and substance use disorders. The model correctly classified most patients during the development (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80) and validation phases (AUC = 0.75). Prospective testing in 1197 patients found that predictive overbooking averaged 0.51 unused appointments per day versus 6.18 for typical booking (difference = -5.67; 95% CI, -6.48 to -4.87; P < .0001). Predictive overbooking could have increased service utilization from 62% to 97% of capacity, with only rare clinic overflows. Information from EHRs can accurately predict whether patients will no-show. This method can be used to overbook appointments, thereby maximizing service utilization while staying within clinic capacity.

  14. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  15. Point-of-Care Phalangeal Bone Mineral Density Measurement Can Reduce the Need of Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scanning in Danish Women at Risk of Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Teresa; Bech, Mickael; Gram, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Identifying persons with a high risk of osteoporotic fractures remains a challenge. DXA uptake in women with elevated risk of osteoporosis seems to be depending on distance to scanning facilities. This study aimed to investigate the ability of a small portable scanner in identifying women...... with reduced bone mineral density (BMD), and to define triage thresholds for pre-selection. Total hip and lumbar spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and phalangeal BMD by radiographic absorptiometry in 121 Danish women with intermediate or high 10-year fracture probability (aged 61...... and only 6 % of women in the low-risk group would be false negatives....

  16. Symptom burden and job absenteeism after treatment with additional catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enden T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tone Enden,1–3 Nils-Einar Kløw,2,3 Per Morten Sandset1,3 1Department of Hematology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Introduction: Additional catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT for acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT reduces long-term postthrombotic syndrome and is likely to represent a cost-effective alternative treatment compared to the standard treatment of anticoagulation and elastic compression stockings. Accelerated thrombus resolution has also been suggested to improve symptoms and patient function in the acute phase. We aimed to investigate whether additional CDT led to fewer symptoms and job absenteeism during the first 6 months after initiation of DVT treatment compared to standard treatment alone. Methods: The Catheter-directed Venous Thrombolysis (CaVenT study was a multicenter open label, randomized controlled trial of patients ages 18 years to 75 years with a verified high proximal DVT,<21 days of symptoms, and no apparent bleeding risk. Patients were allocated to additional CDT or to standard treatment only. Symptoms were assessed at baseline and at 6 months using items from the generic and disease-specific quality of life questionnaires EQ-5D and VEINES-QOL/Sym, respectively. Individual data on sickness benefits related to venous thromboembolic disease were obtained from the national welfare service. Results: A total of 90 patients allocated additional CDT and 99 control patients completed long-term follow-up and were included in the analyses. Twenty-four in the CDT arm and 40 controls received sick leave (P = 0.046. When considering working patients only (54 in the CDT arm and 72 controls this difference was no longer statistically significant. Mean duration of job absenteeism was 86.4 days (95% confidence interval 59.4–113.5 in the CDT arm and 60.1 days (95% confidence

  17. The effect of a comprehensive handwashing program on absenteeism in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Maryellen; McGuckin, Maryanne; Ali, Yusef

    2002-06-01

    Handwashing is one of the most important factors in controlling the spread of micro-organisms and in preventing the development of infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive handwashing program on absenteeism in elementary grades. Two hundred ninety students from 5 independent schools were enrolled in the study. Each test classroom had a control classroom, and only the test classroom received the intervention (education program and hand sanitizer). Absenteeism data were collected for 3 months. The number of absences was 50.6% lower in the test group (P hand hygiene program that combines education and use of a hand sanitizer in the classroom can lower absenteeism and be cost-effective.

  18. Transformational leadership and workplace injury and absenteeism: analysis of a National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohee; Coustasse, Alberto; Sikula, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TL) has long been popular among management scholars and health services researchers, but no research studies have empirically tested the association of TL with workplace injuries and absenteeism among nursing assistants (NAs). This cross-sectional study seeks to explore whether TL is associated with workplace injuries and absenteeism among NAs. We analyzed the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey data (n = 2,882). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the role of TL in the context of workplace performances. Results reveal that the TL model was positively linked to workplace injury in the level of NAs. Injury-related absenteeism was also associated with the TL style, indicating that TL behaviors may help address workplace absence among NAs. Findings suggest that introducing TL practices may benefit NAs in improving workplace performances.

  19. Agreement between children and parents demonstrated that illness-related absenteeism was validly reported by children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Andersen, Anette

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the agreement between children's and parents' reporting of illness-related absenteeism from school and to examine predictors for disagreement between children and parents. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 8,438 schoolchildren aged from 5 to 15 years (grade 0-8) and one...... of 22 weeks. Text messages and questionnaire data were linked at the individual level, leaving 2,269 child-parent pairs in the analysis, corresponding to 27% of the eligible sample. RESULTS: The agreement between children's and parents' reports of illness-related absenteeism was good, with high absolute...... agreement and slight to moderate Ƙ values. Agreement was lowest for 6- to 8-year-olds and highest for 11- to 12-year-olds. Children's reports of illness symptoms and parents' reports of their children's illnesses in the preceding week were strong predictors for children reporting illness-related absenteeism...

  20. Education, employment, absenteeism, and work disability in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblom-Kullberg, S; Kautiainen, H; Alha, P; Leirisalo-Repo, M; Julkunen, H

    2015-01-01

    To study education, employment, absenteeism, and work disability (WD) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) compared to population controls. The study included 181 women of working age with SLE (mean age 44.0 years, disease duration 12.7 years) and 549 female population controls matched for age living in the same metropolitan area of Helsinki. Data regarding education, employment, absenteeism, and WD in patients and controls were obtained by questionnaire and personal interview. Basic education, vocational, or academic degrees and occupational categories in patients with SLE were similar to those in controls. In total, 62% of the patients were employed, compared to 77% of the controls (p Absenteeism and work disability are, however, 2-3 times more common than in controls. Less than half of the patients were on permanent disability pension due to SLE 20 years after diagnosis of the disease.

  1. Responding to Workplace Absenteeism in Tanzania: The Case Study of Public and Private Schools in Ilala Municipality and Mkuranga District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgonja, Michael Greyson

    2017-01-01

    Workplace absenteeism has widely been reported to be a serious problem which undermines smooth service delivery both in developed and developing nations. The problem is reported to be more serious in developing nations. This paper is therefore studying the mechanisms used to mitigate workplace absenteeism, their adequacy and the effective…

  2. MINIMIZING THE EIGHTH WASTE OF LEAN-ABSENTEEISM THROUGH SIX SIGMA METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.Chethan Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The garment industries are labour intensive and are subjected to pollution in terms of dust and dyes. This is causing allergy and other huge amount health related issues. As employees are focused on stitching operations they tend to get injured when there is a lapse in attention. In India, garment industries are generally dominated by female workforce. There is a disparity in the male to female ratio. Most of the managers and supervisors are male and there is an increasing case of harassment towards the female workforce. Added to these conditions, the labour laws are no strict to protect the employees in terms of working conditions, job security and proper salaries. As a result there is an increase in employee absenteeism which is hurting the overall company growth and resulting in targets not being met. This research work is implemented in Apple garment industry located in South India.Absenteeism in garment industry is rampant and reaching alarming proportions. According to industry reports, if absenteeism is more than 10% , then the assembly line will be affected in terms of productivity.The majority of the garment industries in India are facing productivity problems due to employee absenteeism. The results after implementing the lean six sigma methodology in Apple garments is positive and a trend setter for other garment industries to follow. The existing absenteeism of 11.05% is a true reflection of the state of affairs in the garment sector. This research work has shown that absenteeism can be really controlled with the involvement of management.

  3. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  4. Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Hysing

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. Methods We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16–19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Results Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile. Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. Conclusion We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.

  5. Obesity and Injury-Related Absenteeism in a Population-Based Firefighter Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S.C.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Haddock, C. Keith; Jahnke, Sara A.; Tuley, Brianne C.

    2018-01-01

    A consistent relationship has been demonstrated between obesity and absenteeism in the workplace. However, most studies have focused on primarily sedentary occupational groups. Firefighting is a physically demanding profession that involves significant potential for exposure to dangerous situations and strenuous work. No studies to date have evaluated the impact of obesity on risk for absenteeism among firefighters. We examined the cross-sectional association between BMI and obesity and injury-related absenteeism. BMI, body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC), injury, and injury-related absenteeism were assessed in 478 career male firefighters. One hundred and fifteen firefighters reported an injury in the previous year and the number of days absent from work due to their injury. BMI was an independent predictor of absenteeism due to injury even after adjustment for confounding variables. Firefighters meeting the definition of class II and III obesity had nearly five times (odds ratio (OR) = 4.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.63–6.58) the number missed work days due to injury when compared to their normal weight counterparts and their elevated risk was greater than firefighters with class I obesity (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 2.01–3.65) or those who were overweight (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.90–3.41). The attributable per capita costs of class II and III obesity-related absenteeism over the last year were $1,682.90 per firefighter, $254.00 per firefighter for class I obesity, and $74.41 per firefighter for overweight. Our findings suggest that class II and III obesity were associated with substantial attributable costs to employers and our cost estimates probably underestimate the actual financial burden. PMID:21633400

  6. Absenteeism among medical and health science undergraduate students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalegn, Anteneh Assefa; Berhan, Asres; Berhan, Yifru

    2014-04-14

    Student absenteeism is a major concern for university education worldwide. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and causes of absenteeism among undergraduate medical and health sciences students at Hawassa University. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered structured questionnaire from May-June 2013. The primary outcome indicator was self-reported absenteeism from lectures in the semester preceding the study period. The study included all regular undergraduate students who were enrolled in the University for at least one semester. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between class absenteeism and socio-demographic and behavioral correlates of absenteeism was determined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results were reported as crude odds ratios (COR), adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). 1200 students consented and filled the questionnaire. Of these students, 43.7% had missed three or more lectures and 14.1% (95% CI = 12.2-16.2) missed more than 8 lectures in the preceding semester. There was a significant association between missing more than 8 lectures and age of students, chosen discipline (medicine), and social drug use. The main reasons reported for missing lectures were preparing for another examination, lack of interest, lecturer's teaching style, and availability of lecture material. At Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Science student habits and teacher performance play a role in absenteeism from lectures. A university culture that promotes discipline and integrity especially among medical and older students discourages social drug use will likely improve motivation and attendance. Training in teaching methodologies to improve the quality and delivery of lectures should also help increase attendance.

  7. Parental work absenteeism is associated with increased symptom complaints and school absence in adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Petrie, Keith J; Bøe, Tormod; Sivertsen, Børge

    2017-05-12

    Previous studies have proposed that having parents out of work may influence adolescent illness behaviour and school attendance. However, prior research investigating this question has been limited by retrospective reporting and case control studies. In a large epidemiological study we investigated whether parental work absence was associated with symptom complaints and increased school absenteeism in adolescents. We analysed data from a large epidemiological study of 10,243 Norwegian adolescents aged 16-19. Participants completed survey at school, which included demographic data, parental work absence and current health complaints. An official registry provided school attendance data. Parental work absence was significantly related to the number of adolescent symptom complaints as well as school absenteeism. Having a father out of work was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile of symptom reporting by an odds-ratio of 2.2 and mother by 1.6 (compared to the lowest quartile). Similarly, parental work absenteeism was associated with an increased likelihood of being in the highest quartile for school absence by an odds-ratio of 1.9 for a father being out of work and 1.5 for a mother out of work. We found that the number of adolescent symptom complaints mediated the relationship between parental work absenteeism and school absenteeism. We found that parental work absence was significantly associated with the number of adolescent symptom complaints and school absenteeism. The results suggest that parents may play a critical modelling role in the intergenerational transmission of illness and disability behaviour.

  8. Addressing medical absenteeism in pre-vocational secondary students : Effectiveness of a public health intervention, using a quasi-experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanneste-van Zandvoort, Y.T.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Van de Goor, L.A.M.; Rots – de Vries, C.M.; Feron, F.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Students’ health and school absenteeism affect educational level, with adverse effects on their future health. This interdependence is reflected in medical absenteeism. In the Netherlands, a public health intervention has been developed to address medical absenteeism in pre-vocational

  9. Regional economic activity and absenteeism: a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of employee productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankert, Brian; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Wells, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new approach to estimating the indirect costs of health-related absenteeism. Productivity losses related to employee absenteeism have negative business implications for employers and these losses effectively deprive the business of an expected level of employee labor. The approach herein quantifies absenteeism cost using an output per labor hour-based method and extends employer-level results to the region. This new approach was applied to the employed population of 3 health insurance carriers. The economic cost of absenteeism was estimated to be $6.8 million, $0.8 million, and $0.7 million on average for the 3 employers; regional losses were roughly twice the magnitude of employer-specific losses. The new approach suggests that costs related to absenteeism for high output per labor hour industries exceed similar estimates derived from application of the human capital approach. The materially higher costs under the new approach emphasize the importance of accurately estimating productivity losses.

  10. Estimation of sickness absenteeism among Italian healthcare workers during seasonal influenza epidemics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Michela Gianino

    Full Text Available To analyze absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs at a large Italian hospital and to estimate the increase in absenteeism that occurred during seasonal flu periods.Retrospective observational study.The absenteeism data were divided into three "epidemic periods," starting at week 42 of one year and terminating at week 17 of the following year (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013, and three "non-epidemic periods," defined as week 18 to week 41 and used as baseline data. The excess of the absenteeism occurring among HCWs during periods of epidemic influenza in comparison with baseline was estimated. All data, obtained from Hospital's databases, were collected for each of the following six job categories: medical doctors, technical executives (i.e., pharmacists, nurses and allied health professionals (i.e., radiographers, other executives (i.e., engineers, nonmedical support staff, and administrative staff. The HCWs were classified by: in and no-contact; vaccinated and unvaccinated.5,544, 5,369, and 5,291 workers in three years were studied. The average duration of absenteeism during the epidemic periods increased among all employees by +2.07 days/person (from 2.99 to 5.06, and the relative increase ranged from 64-94% among the different job categories. Workers not in contact with patients experienced a slightly greater increase in absenteeism (+2.28 days/person, from 2.73 to 5.01 than did employees in contact with patients (+2.04, from 3.04 to 5.08. The vaccination rate among HCWs was below 3%, however the higher excess of absenteeism rate among unvaccinated in comparison with vaccinated workers was observed during the epidemic periods (2.09 vs 1.45 days/person.The influenza-related absenteeism during epidemic periods was quantified as totaling more than 11,000 days/year at the Italian hospital studied. This result confirms the economic impact of sick leave on healthcare systems and stresses on the necessity of encouraging HCWs to be immunized

  11. Estimation of sickness absenteeism among Italian healthcare workers during seasonal influenza epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianino, Maria Michela; Politano, Gianfranco; Scarmozzino, Antonio; Charrier, Lorena; Testa, Marco; Giacomelli, Sebastian; Benso, Alfredo; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2017-01-01

    To analyze absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs) at a large Italian hospital and to estimate the increase in absenteeism that occurred during seasonal flu periods. Retrospective observational study. The absenteeism data were divided into three "epidemic periods," starting at week 42 of one year and terminating at week 17 of the following year (2010-2011, 2011-2012, 2012-2013), and three "non-epidemic periods," defined as week 18 to week 41 and used as baseline data. The excess of the absenteeism occurring among HCWs during periods of epidemic influenza in comparison with baseline was estimated. All data, obtained from Hospital's databases, were collected for each of the following six job categories: medical doctors, technical executives (i.e., pharmacists), nurses and allied health professionals (i.e., radiographers), other executives (i.e., engineers), nonmedical support staff, and administrative staff. The HCWs were classified by: in and no-contact; vaccinated and unvaccinated. 5,544, 5,369, and 5,291 workers in three years were studied. The average duration of absenteeism during the epidemic periods increased among all employees by +2.07 days/person (from 2.99 to 5.06), and the relative increase ranged from 64-94% among the different job categories. Workers not in contact with patients experienced a slightly greater increase in absenteeism (+2.28 days/person, from 2.73 to 5.01) than did employees in contact with patients (+2.04, from 3.04 to 5.08). The vaccination rate among HCWs was below 3%, however the higher excess of absenteeism rate among unvaccinated in comparison with vaccinated workers was observed during the epidemic periods (2.09 vs 1.45 days/person). The influenza-related absenteeism during epidemic periods was quantified as totaling more than 11,000 days/year at the Italian hospital studied. This result confirms the economic impact of sick leave on healthcare systems and stresses on the necessity of encouraging HCWs to be immunized against

  12. Hydrothermal minerals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.

    flux. Circulation of seawater through the oceanic crust and upper mantle gives rise to a complex series of physical and chemical reactions that lead to the 1) formation of seafloor mineral deposits; 2) alteration of oceanic crust; 3) control... temperature in the high-temperature reaction zone near the heat source. Important parameters in determining the high- temperature fluid composition are • pressure, • temperature, • water/rock ratio, • rock composition, • recharge fluid...

  13. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  14. High doses of vitamin C plus E reduce strength training-induced improvements in areal bone mineral density in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunes, Astrid Kamilla; Syversen, Unni; Berntsen, Sveinung; Paulsen, Gøran; Stea, Tonje H; Hetlelid, Ken J; Lohne-Seiler, Hilde; Mosti, Mats Peder; Bjørnsen, Thomas; Raastad, Truls; Haugeberg, Glenn

    2017-06-01

    Resistance training is beneficial for maintaining bone mass. We aimed to investigate the skeletal effects of high doses of antioxidants [vitamin C + E (α-tocopherol)] supplementation during 12-week supervised strength training in healthy, elderly men METHODS: Design: double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled study. Participants followed a supervised, undulating periodic exercise program with weekly adjusted load: 3 sessions/week and 3-15 repetitions maximum (RM) sets/exercise. The control group (CG, n = 17, 67 ± 5 years) received placebo and the antioxidant group (AO, n = 16, 70 ± 7 years) 1000 mg vitamin C + 235 mg vitamin E, daily. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at whole body, lumbar spine (L1-L4), total hip, and femoral neck were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength by 1RM. Serum analyses of bone-related factors and adipokines were performed. In the CG, total hip aBMD increased by 1.0% (CI: 0.3-1.7) versus pretest and lumbar spine aBMD increased by 0.9% (CI: -0.2 to 2.0) compared to the AO. In the CG, there was an increase in serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 [+27.3% (CI: -0.3 to 54.9)] and leptin [+31.2% (CI: 9.8-52.6)) versus pretest, and a decrease in sclerostin [-9.9% (CI: 4.4-15.3)] versus pretest and versus AO. Serum bone formation markers P1NP and osteocalcin increased in both groups, while the bone resorption marker CTX-1 remained unchanged. High doses of antioxidant supplementations may constrain the favorable skeletal benefits of 12 weeks of resistance exercise in healthy elderly men.

  15. Increasing the number of unloading/reambulation cycles does not adversely impact body composition and lumbar bone mineral density but reduces tissue sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Manske, Sarah L.; Judex, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    A single exposure to hindlimb unloading leads to changes in body mass, body composition and bone, but the consequences of multiple exposures are not yet understood. Within a 18 week period, adult C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 1 (1x-HLU), 2 (2x-HLU) or 3 (3x-HLU) cycles of 2 weeks of hindlimb unloading (HLU) followed by 4 weeks of reambulation (RA), or served as ambulatory age-matched controls. In vivo μCT longitudinally tracked changes in abdominal adipose and lean tissues, lumbar vertebral apparent volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area before and after the final HLU and RA cycle. During the final HLU cycle, significant decreases in total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD in the three experimental groups occurred such that there were no significant between-group differences at the beginning of the final RA cycle. However, the magnitude of the HLU induced losses diminished in mice undergoing their 2nd or 3rd HLU cycle. Irrespective of the number of HLU/RA cycles, total adipose tissue and vertebral vBMD recovered and were no different from age-matched controls after the final RA period. In contrast, upper hindlimb muscle cross-sectional area was significantly lower than controls in all unloaded groups after the final RA period. These results suggest that tissues in the abdominal region are more resilient to multiple bouts of unloading and more amenable to recovery during reambulation than the peripheral musculoskeletal system.

  16. Sphaerotilus natans encrusted with nanoball-shaped Fe(III) oxide minerals formed by nitrate-reducing mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhwa; Kim, Dong-Hun; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2014-10-01

    Ferrous iron has been known to function as an electron source for iron-oxidizing microorganisms in both anoxic and oxic environments. A diversity of bacteria has been known to oxidize both soluble and solid-phase Fe(II) forms coupled to the reduction of nitrate. Here, we show for the first time Fe(II) oxidation by Sphaerotilus natans strain DSM 6575(T) under mixotrophic condition. Sphaerotilus natans has been known to form a sheath structure enclosing long chains of rod-shaped cells, resulting in a thick biofilm formation under oxic conditions. Here, we also demonstrate that strain DSM 6575(T) grows mixotrophically with pyruvate, Fe(II) as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor and single cells of strain DSM 6575(T) are dominant under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, strain DSM 6575(T) forms nanoball-shaped amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals encrusting on the cell surfaces through the mixotrophic iron oxidation reaction under anoxic conditions. We propose that cell encrustation results from the indirect Fe(II) oxidation by biogenic nitrite during nitrate reduction and that causes the bacterial morphological change to individual rod-shaped single cells from filamentous sheath structures. This study extends the group of existing microorganisms capable of mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation by a new strain, S. natans strain DSM 6575(T) , and could contribute to biogeochemical cycles of Fe and N in the environment. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  17. Reducing Smoking at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ruth A.

    Company policies and programs aimed at reducing smoking among employees have a number of other important benefits to employees and the company alike. Limiting or banning smoking helps create a safe and healthy workplace and may reduce direct health care costs, health and life insurance costs, employee absenteeism, costs associated with maintaining…

  18. Factors associated to labour absenteeism due to medical cause in an university institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Saldarriaga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Labor absenteeism due to medical cause has unfavorable implications for everybody. The employee suffers with the disease, the company loses productivity and society suffers delays in its economical and social growth. The study of this problem is obviously necessary in order to achieve an appropriate prevention and control of it. Objective: to explore the behavior of absenteeism by medical causes and its associated factors among the affiliates to the health program in the University of Antioquia, Colombia. Methods: frequency, duration, costs and causes of absenteeism are studied in relation to sex, age and physical activity as a regular behavior. Relative risk and its 95% confidence intervals are estimated. Results: respiratory diseases are the first cause of labor medical handicap. Absenteeism is higher in women. RR 1.65 (CI 95% 1.53-1.77. It has a close relationship to age RR 1.25 (CI 95% 1.12-1.38 and to sedentariness RR 2.17 (IC 95% 1.72-2.73.

  19. Hand eczema among healthcare professionals in the Netherlands : prevalence, absenteeism, and presenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Esther W. C.; Boot, Cecile R. L.; van der Gulden, Joost W. J.; Jungbauer, Frank H. W.; Coenraads, Pieter Jan; Anema, Johannes R.

    Background. Healthcare professionals have a high risk of developing hand eczema. Hand eczema can interfere with their work. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema among healthcare professionals in the Netherlands, and to investigate absenteeism and presenteeism

  20. Are workers with a long commute less productive? An empirical analysis of absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesise, and test for, a negative effect of the length of the worker's commute on worker's productivity, by examining whether the commute has a positive effect on worker's absenteeism. We identify this effect using employer-induced changes in commuting distance. Our estimates for Germany

  1. Student nurse absenteeism in higher education: An argument against enforced attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Martin; Snelling, Paul C

    2010-08-01

    Unauthorised student nurse absenteeism in higher education troubles many university lecturers. Anecdotally, absenteeism is occasionally raised as an issue by attending students who resent others "getting away" with non-attendance and some policy documents appear to suggest that attendance should be mandated. This paper argues against enforced attendance in higher education and challenges those who would mandate attendance to explain and justify their position. Drawing on a range of nursing and non-nursing material we here discuss some of the literature on attendance, absenteeism, effort or time spent in study and grade attainment. Informed by this admittedly partial review we maintain that the evidence linking grade attainment with attendance and study effort is less conclusive than intuition might initially suggest. We note that enforcing attendance apparently runs counter to important pedagogic (humanistic and androgogic) principles. We propose that responses to absenteeism cannot be separated from questions of 'harm' and we suggest that lecturers should refrain from associating non-attendance with unprofessional behaviour and poor professionalization. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward a Reconception of Absence in the School Workplace: Teacher Absenteeism as Invention and Social Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen L.; And Others

    Findings of a study that formulated and tested new ways of thinking about teacher absence are presented in this paper, which is based on the premise that teacher absenteeism is a social invention that must be studied within the context of the work site and understood as a function of the social exchange that occurs therein. Prior research has used…

  3. Leadership, Absenteeism Acceptance, and Ethical Climate as Predictors of Teachers' Absence and Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Raftar-Ozery, Tehila

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the mediating role of 'absenteeism acceptance' between different leadership styles and school ethical climate (SEC) on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and voluntary absence among Israeli teachers. 304 teachers were randomly selected from 304 different mainstream and special-education schools. The…

  4. Global absenteeism and presenteeism in mental health patients referred through primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S Kathleen; Haggarty, John; Kelly, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Disability from mental health (MH) symptoms impairs workers' functioning. Most of what is known about the MH of workers relates to their experiences after intervention or work absence. To profile the clinical symptoms, self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism and treatment response of workers with MH symptoms at the point of accessing MH care and compare the characteristics of patients referred with or without problems related to work. Analysis of 11 years of patient data collected in a Shared Mental Health Care (SMHC) clinic referred within a primary care setting in Ontario, Canada. Multiple regression with MH disorders was used to predict absenteeism and presenteeism. Absenteeism and presenteeism were assessed using the 12-item self-administered version of the WHO-DAS 2. Symptom profiles were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Some psychiatric disorders (depression, somatization, anxiety) contributed more to predicting absenteeism and presenteeism than others. Patients referred with work-related problems differed from the general SMHC population in terms of sex and type and number of symptoms. Treatment response was good in both groups after a mean of three treatment visits. Patients with work-related mental health complaints formed a distinct clinical group that benefitted equally from the intervention(s) provided by SMHC.

  5. School-located influenza vaccination and absenteeism among elementary school students in a Hispanic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Patricia C; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Gonzalez, Hector F; Castillo, Keila D

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal influenza is recognized as a significant health burden to children and is a cause of excess school absenteeism in children. In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 18 years of age. School nurses influence participation in this recommendation by conducting school-located influenza vaccination (SLIV) programs at their campuses. Knowing the effect of SLIV programs on student absenteeism may motivate school nurses and district administrators to conduct such vaccination programs. This study examines the impact of an SLIV program on elementary school absenteeism in an inner city school district with a predominantly Hispanic population. Using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors, we analyzed data from 3,775 records obtained by stratified random sampling. Results of the study indicate that students vaccinated through an SLIV program have fewer absences than unvaccinated students. A surprising result of the study shows that students vaccinated through an SLIV program had fewer absences than students vaccinated elsewhere. These results are of particular importance to school nurses who work with large Hispanic populations. Our study illustrates one way that a school nurse can assess the effect of an SLIV program on absenteeism.

  6. School nurses' role in asthma management, school absenteeism, and cost savings: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Eunice; Rivera, Diana Austria; Perlroth, Daniella; Becker, Edmund; Wang, Nancy Ewen; Landau, Melinda

    2013-12-01

    With increasing budget cuts to education and social services, rigorous evaluation needs to document school nurses' impact on student health, academic outcomes, and district funding. Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, we evaluated outcomes in 4 schools with added full-time nurses and 5 matched schools with part-time nurses in the San Jose Unified School District. Student data and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of illness-related absenteeism for 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. We calculated average daily attendance (ADA) funding and parent wages associated with an improvement in illness-related absenteeism. Utilizing parent surveys, we also estimated the cost of services for asthma-related visits to the emergency room (ER; N = 2489). Children with asthma were more likely to be absent due to illness; however, mean absenteeism due to illness decreased when full-time nurses were added to demonstration schools but increased in comparison schools during 2008-2009, resulting in a potential savings of $48,518.62 in ADA funding (N = 6081). Parents in demonstration schools reported fewer ER visits, and the estimated savings in ER services and parent wages were significant. Full-time school nurses play an important role in improving asthma management among students in underserved schools, which can impact school absenteeism and attendance-related economic costs. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  7. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  8. Overweight and obesity as predictors of absenteeism in the working population of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, M.P.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bongers, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation between body mass index (BMI) and absenteeism. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective cohort study (n = 1284). Multilevel analyses (linear mixed model with random intercept) with two levels (employee and company) were used to test whether BMI was related

  9. A meta-analysis of the effects of dropout prevention programs on school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Wilson, Sandra Jo

    2013-10-01

    This study reports findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature examining the effects of school dropout prevention and intervention programs on students' school absenteeism outcomes. The meta-analysis synthesized 74 effect sizes measuring posttest differences in school absenteeism outcomes for youth enrolled in dropout prevention programs relative to a comparison group. Although results from randomized controlled trials indicated significant beneficial program effects, findings from quasi-experimental studies indicated no significant beneficial or detrimental effects. Examination of study characteristics suggested that dropout programs may have beneficial effects on school absenteeism among primarily male samples, and younger samples. Although no single type of intervention program was consistently more effective than others, vocational oriented and supplemental academic training programs showed some promise. However, the inconsistency in results and the possibility of small study bias mean the quality of evidence in this literature is low; at this time there is not enough evidence to conclude that dropout prevention programs have a universal impact on youth's school absenteeism outcomes.

  10. Where is my Daddy? An Exploration of the Impact of Absentee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A substantial body of research has consistently concluded that children growing up with absentee fathers are at an increased risk of maladjustment. This paper argues that co-parenting can have both direct and indirect or mediated effects on children. Co-parenting has an added benefit of modelling dyadic skills that include ...

  11. Sickness Absenteeism Rate in Iranian Schools during the 2009 Epidemic of Type a Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabbasi, Ata; Shirvani, Mahbubeh Ebrahimnegad; Khashayar, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Influenza pandemic was a global event in 2009 and intraschool transmission was its main spread method. The present study was designed to evaluate the absenteeism rate during the type A influenza epidemic. Four hundred and eight students from both a guidance school and high school in the Iranian capital were recruited in this retrospective study.…

  12. Being different at work : How gender dissimilarity relates to social inclusion and absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; I. van der Zee, Karen

    We investigated how and when gender dissimilarity relates to two highly important individual work outcomes: social inclusion and absenteeism. We collected survey data among 397 employees from a university of applied sciences and combined these with data from the organization's personnel

  13. The JOINT model of nurse absenteeism and turnover: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daouk-Öyry, Lina; Anouze, Abdel-Latef; Otaki, Farah; Dumit, Nuhad Yazbik; Osman, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Absenteeism and turnover among healthcare workers have a significant impact on overall healthcare system performance. The literature captures variables from different levels of measurement and analysis as being associated with attendance behavior among nurses. Yet, it remains unclear how variables from different contextual levels interact to impact nurses' attendance behaviors. The purpose of this review is to develop an integrative multilevel framework that optimizes our understanding of absenteeism and turnover among nurses in hospital settings. We therefore systematically examine English-only studies retrieved from two major databases, PubMed and CINAHL Plus and published between January, 2007 and January, 2013 (inclusive). Our review led to the identification of 7619 articles out of which 41 matched the inclusion criteria. The analysis yielded a total of 91 antecedent variables and 12 outcome variables for turnover, and 29 antecedent variables and 9 outcome variables for absenteeism. The various manifested variables were analyzed using content analysis and grouped into 11 categories, and further into five main factors: Job, Organization, Individual, National and inTerpersonal (JOINT). Thus, we propose the JOINT multilevel conceptual model for investigating absenteeism and turnover among nurses. The JOINT model can be adapted by researchers for fitting their hypothesized multilevel relationships. It can also be used by nursing managers as a lens for holistically managing nurses' attendance behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Being different at work : How gender dissimilarity relates to social inclusion and absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, K.I.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated how and when gender dissimilarity relates to two highly important individual work outcomes: social inclusion and absenteeism. We collected survey data among 397 employees from a university of applied sciences and combined these with data from the organization’s personnel

  15. Absenteeism, Educational Plans, and Anxiety among Children with Incontinence and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filce, Hollie G.; LaVergne, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with incontinence have more absenteeism, poorer academic performance, and potential social difficulties during the school years. These children and their parents are at risk for illness-related anxiety. Whereas educational plans are designed to remediate educational, medical, and social-emotional barriers at school, little…

  16. School Climate and Student Absenteeism and Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendron, Marisa; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether school climate variables were directly and inversely related to absenteeism severity and key symptoms of psychopathology among youths specifically referred for problematic attendance (N = 398). Adolescents in our sample completed the School Climate Survey Revised Edition, which measured sharing of resources, order and…

  17. Hand Hygiene Program Decreases School Absenteeism Due to Upper Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martinez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Fernández-Sánchez, Carmen; Strizzi, Jenna M.; Torres-Alegre, Pilar; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The…

  18. School-Located Influenza Vaccination and Absenteeism among Elementary School Students in a Hispanic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Patricia C.; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Gonzalez, Hector F.; Castillo, Keila D.

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is recognized as a significant health burden to children and is a cause of excess school absenteeism in children. In 2008, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended annual influenza vaccination for all children 6 months to 18 years of age. School nurses influence participation in this recommendation by…

  19. The Association between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism among High School Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. Methods: This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent…

  20. Contextual Factors Influencing Student Absenteeism at a Higher Education Institution in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchander, Manduth

    2017-01-01

    Student absenteeism at higher education institutions (HEIs) is a cause for concern as it has implications for students' academic performance and therefore graduation rates. Graduation rates to some extent influence funding to which universities are entitled. This study aimed to establish the contextual factors that influenced student absenteeism…

  1. Physical activity, screen time, and school absenteeism: self-reports from NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew R; Pritchard, Tony; Melnic, Irina; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how lifestyle behaviors in the context of physical activity levels and screen time are associated with school absenteeism. We analyzed 2005-2008 NHANES data of proxy interviews for 1048 children aged 6-11 years and in-person self-reports of 1117 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Missing 10% of school days during the past school year was defined as severe school absenteeism (SSA). Watching TV ≥2 hours a day was significantly associated with SSA among both children (OR = 3.51 [1.03-12.0]) and adolescents (OR = 3.96 [1.84-8.52]) compared with their peers watching Absenteeism was not validated with report cards. Unable to account for the absence type or frequency of illness or injury. No psychometric properties provided for subjective measures regarding participants' attitudes and characteristic traits towards physical activity, TV viewing, and school attendance. Excessive TV watching among children and adolescents, and inactivity and high activity levels (≥7 times per week) among children are independently associated with severe school absenteeism.

  2. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  3. The Ecological Context of Chronic School Absenteeism in the Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Erin P.; Zuel, Timothy; LaLiberte, Traci

    2016-01-01

    Chronic school absenteeism among elementary school-age students is gaining attention from researchers and policymakers because of its relationship to long-term negative educational outcomes. Current literature on effective interventions, however, is limited in terms of the number of studies that have found even marginally effective interventions,…

  4. Relationships among Teacher Absenteeism, Evaluation Scores, and Satisfaction with Teaching at the Elementary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marilyn D.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to determine what factors were believed to influence teacher absenteeism in a small southwestern rural district in Tennessee, a study was conducted using information from Survey Monkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/satisfaction_absences) to obtain responses from 89 teachers in grades third through fifth at seven elementary schools…

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis and work: The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on absenteeism and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2015-06-01

    For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), being in paid work is very important, and it increases self-esteem and financial independence. Although the management of RA has changed in the last 15 years to early aggressive treatment and the introduction of biologic treatments, many patients still have to take sick leave or even stop working because of their RA (i.e., absenteeism). For those remaining in paid work, patients may experience problems due to RA resulting in productivity loss while at work (i.e., presenteeism). The costs attributed to absenteeism and presenteeism (i.e., indirect costs) have been estimated to be very high, and they even exceed direct costs. However, there is no consensus on how to calculate these costs. This manuscript examines the relationship between the use of biologic therapy and absenteeism, with a focus on sick leave, and on presenteeism, and it provides an overview of indirect costs of absenteeism and presenteeism in those treated with biologic therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Opposite Sides of the Same Coin? Exploring the Connections between School Absenteeism and Student Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Richard O.

    2018-01-01

    Mobile students and absent students are important subsets of at-risk students in schools and districts nationwide. As such, student mobility and school absenteeism are two challenges in K-12 education with significant policy and equity implications. Although both issues are at the nexus of schooling and society and there is an apparent overlap in…

  7. Communication and Monitoring- Necessary Processes for Managing and Measuring Conflicts, Absenteeism, Fluctuation and Work Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tănăsescu Dorina Antoneta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In any organizations, between employees, between employees and management are inevitabily appearing conflicts, absenteeism, personnel fluctuation and work accidents (CAFA factors. To diminish the impact of these social dysfunctions, organizations must pay attention to the effective managing and monitoring using performance indicators and an effective communication process and implementing a good plan of evaluation.

  8. Clarifying the link between job satisfaction and absenteeism: The role of guilt proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, Rebecca L; Flynn, Francis J

    2017-06-01

    We propose that the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism depends partly on guilt proneness. Drawing on withdrawal and process models of absenteeism, we argue that job satisfaction predicts absences for employees who are low (but not high) in guilt proneness because low guilt-prone people's behaviors are governed more by fulfilling their own egoistic desires than by fulfilling others' normative expectations. We find support for this prediction in a sample of customer service agents working for a major telecommunications company and a sample of working adults employed in a range of industries. In each study, we use measures of employees' guilt proneness and job satisfaction to predict their subsequent workplace absences. In Study 2, we extend our hypothesis tests to 2 traits that are conceptually comparable to guilt proneness (i.e., moral identity and agreeableness), showing that these traits similarly moderate the relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. We discuss the implications of these findings for extant models of absenteeism and research on moral affectivity in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Rates and statistics of work absenteeism: the case of Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Berrocal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine rates and statistics of work absenteeism due to medical conditions at Universidad Nacional in Heredia, Costa Rica, from November 2005 to October 2007. A descriptive-quantitative study was conducted to analyze the variables for the above period. A total of 4,345 sick leave forms were generated, which represented 24,551 work days lost. The average absenteeism rate was 2.46%, while the frequency rate showed a cyclic behavior during the months with more and less incidence of sick leave forms. The severity rate determined that the most affected units were the Graduate Studies Department and the Academic Affairs Commission, and the average sick leave duration was 5.66 days. The occupational groups with more sick leave permits were identified and the top possible cause for work absenteeism in those groups was respiratory conditions. University authorities should deeply reflect on these findings to achieve short term comprehensive efficient and productive safety and health policies for Universidad Nacional employees. This research should be a starting point for future studies that will complement and include work absenteeism in an integral way as part of Talent Management in the institution.

  10. Utilisation of employee assistance programme to reduce absenteeism on construction sites

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Tech (Construction Management) Many construction companies are beginning to realize the value of their employees. Employees are to a large extent the engine of the organisation. Todays employees are under a lot of pressure and stress from home and at the construction sites. The construction industry just like any other industry, is faced with the challenges of dealing with personal as well as work related problems. These problems they have effect on job performance. An Employee assistanc...

  11. A randomized clinical trial of a telephone depression intervention to reduce employee presenteeism and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Adler, David A; Rogers, William H; Chang, Hong; Greenhill, Annabel; Cymerman, Elina; Azocar, Francisca

    2015-06-01

    The study tested an intervention aimed at improving work functioning among middle-aged and older adults with depression and work limitations. A randomized clinical trial allocated an initial sample of 431 eligible employed adults (age ≥45) to a work-focused intervention (WFI) or usual care. Inclusion criteria were depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and at-work limitations indicated by a productivity loss score ≥5% on the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). Study sites included 19 employers and five related organizations. Telephone-based counseling provided three integrated modalities: care coordination, cognitive-behavioral therapy strategy development, and work coaching and modification. Effectiveness (change in productivity loss scores from preintervention to four months postintervention) was tested with mixed models adjusted for confounders. Secondary outcomes included change in WLQ work performance scales, self-reported absences, and depression. Of 1,227 eligible employees (7% of screened), 431 (35%) enrolled and 380 completed the study (12% attrition). At-work productivity loss improved 44% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, p<.001). WFI group scores on the four WLQ scales improved 44% to 47%, significantly better than in usual care (p<.001 for each scale). Absence days declined by 53% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, p<.001). Mean PHQ-9 depression symptom severity scores declined 51% for WFI versus 26% for usual care (difference in change, p<.001). The WFI was more effective than usual care at four-month follow-up. Given increasing efforts to provide more patient-centered, value-based care, the WFI could be an important resource.

  12. Student and Teacher Attendance: The Role of Shared Goods in Reducing Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; King, Elizabeth; Orazem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    . Controlling for the endogeneity of teacher and student attendance, the most powerful factor raising teacher attendance is the attendance of the children in the school, and the most important factor influencing child attendance is the presence of the teacher. The results suggest that one important avenue...

  13. Ready or not: does household preparedness prevent absenteeism among emergency department staff during a disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Mary P; Ancock, Benedict; Levis, Joel T; Reyes, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    During major disasters, hospitals experience varied levels of absenteeism among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the immediate response period. Loss of critical hospital personnel, including Emergency Department (ED) staff, during this time can negatively impact a facility's ability to effectively treat large numbers of ill and injured patients. Prior studies have examined factors contributing to HCW ability and willingness to report for duty during a disaster. The purpose of this study was to determine if the degree of readiness of ED personnel, as measured by household preparedness, is associated with predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Additionally, the authors sought to elucidate other factors associated with absenteeism among ED staff during a disaster. ED staff of five hospitals participated in this survey-based study, answering questions regarding demographic information, past disaster experience, household disaster preparedness (using a novel,15-point scale), and likelihood of reporting to work during various categories of disaster. The primary outcome was personal predicted likelihood of reporting for duty following a disaster. A total of 399 subjects participated in the study. ED staffs were most likely to report for duty in the setting of an earthquake (95 percent) or other natural disaster, followed by an epidemic (90 percent) and were less likely to report for work during a biological, chemical, or a nuclear event (63 percent). Degree of household preparedness was determined to have no association with an ED HCW's predicted likelihood of reporting for duty. Factors associated with predicted absenteeism varied based on type of disaster and included having dependents in the home, female gender, past disaster relief experience, having a spouse or domestic partner, and not owning pets. Having dependents in the home was associated with predicted absenteeism for all disaster types (OR 0.30-0.66). However, when stratified by gender, the presence of

  14. Exploring national surveillance for health-related workplace absenteeism: lessons learned from the 2009 influenza A pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Matthew R; Konicki, Doris L; Luckhaupt, Sara E; Gomaa, Ahmed; Koonin, Lisa M

    2013-04-01

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention did a pilot study to test the feasibility of using national surveillance of workplace absenteeism to assess the pandemic's impact on the workplace to plan for preparedness and continuity of operations and to contribute to health awareness during the emergency response. Population-based and sentinel worksite approaches were used. Monthly measures of the 1-week prevalence of health-related absenteeism among full-time workers were estimated using nationally representative data from the Current Population Survey. Enhanced passive surveillance of absenteeism was conducted using weekly data from a convenience sample of sentinel worksites. Nationally, the pandemic's impact on workplace absenteeism was small. Estimates of 1-week absenteeism prevalence did not exceed 3.7%. However, peak workplace absenteeism was correlated with the highest occurrence of both influenza-like illness and influenza-positive laboratory tests. Systems for monitoring workplace absenteeism should be included in pandemic preparedness planning.

  15. Work absenteeism by parents because of oral conditions in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Gustavo Leite; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Martins, Carolina Castro; Paiva, Saul Martins; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of oral conditions in preschool children and associated factors on work absenteeism experienced by parents or guardians. A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was conducted of 837 children, 3-5 years of age, in Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents or guardians answered the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale. The item 'taken time off work' was the dependent variable. Questionnaires addressing sociodemographic variables, history of toothache and health perceptions (general and oral) were also administered. Clinical examinations for dental caries and traumatic dental injury (TDI) were performed by three dentists who had undergone training and calibration exercises. Cohen's kappa (κ) was 0.83-0.88 for interexaminer agreement and 0.85-0.90 for intra-examiner agreement. Descriptive, analytical statistics were conducted, followed by logistic regression for complex samples (α = 5%). The prevalence of parents' or guardians' work absenteeism because of the oral conditions of their children was 9.2%. The following variables were significantly associated with work absenteeism: mother's low schooling [odds ratio (OR) = 2.31; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.31-4.07]; history of toothache (OR = 6.33; 95% CI: 3.18-12.61); and avulsion or luxation types of TDI (OR = 8.54; 95% CI: 1.80-40.53). Other oral conditions that do not generally cause pain, such as dental caries with a low degree of severity or inactive dental caries and uncomplicated TDI, were not associated with parents' or guardians' work absenteeism of preschool children. It is concluded that toothache, avulsion, luxation and a low degree of mother's schooling are associated with work absenteeism. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Increases in absenteeism among health care workers in Hong Kong during influenza epidemics, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Dennis K M; Lau, Eric H Y; Tam, Yat Hung; So, Hau Chi; Cowling, Benjamin J; Kwok, Henry K H

    2015-12-29

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of sickness absenteeism among health care workers (HCWs) and contribute significantly to overall productivity loss particularly during influenza epidemics. The purpose of this study is to quantify the increases in absenteeism during epidemics including the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic. We analysed administrative data to determine patterns of sickness absence among HCWs in Hong Kong from January 2004 through December 2009, and used multivariable linear regression model to estimate the excess all-cause and ARI-related sickness absenteeism rates during influenza epidemics. We found that influenza epidemics prior to the 2009 pandemic and during the 2009 pandemic were associated with 8.4 % (95 % CI: 5.6-11.2 %) and 57.7 % (95 % CI: 54.6-60.9 %) increases in overall sickness absence, and 26.5 % (95 % CI: 21.4-31.5 %) and 90.9 % (95 % CI: 85.2-96.6 %) increases in ARI-related sickness absence among HCWs in Hong Kong, respectively. Comparing different staff types, increases in overall absenteeism were highest among medical staff, during seasonal influenza epidemic periods (51.3 %, 95 % CI: 38.9-63.7 %) and the pandemic mitigation period (142.1 %, 95 % CI: 128.0-156.1 %). Influenza epidemics were associated with a substantial increase in sickness absence and productivity loss among HCWs in Hong Kong, and there was a much higher rate of absenteeism during the 2009 pandemic. These findings could inform better a more proactive workforce redistribution plans to allow for sufficient surge capacity in annual epidemics, and for pandemic preparedness.

  17. The prevalence and risk factors of school absenteeism due to premenstrual disorders in Japanese high school students-a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadakawa, Mari; Takeda, Takashi; Monma, Yasutake; Koga, Shoko; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Premenstrual disorders such as premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) interfere with the daily lives of adolescents. The causes of PMS and PMDD are unknown, but lifestyle habits, such as regular exercise and taste preference are known to be associated. This study was conducted to investigate how premenstrual symptoms affect the school life in Japanese high school students and whether there was a risk factor for school absenteeism that is dependent on the types of premenstrual symptoms or lifestyle habits. A school-based survey was conducted in Sendai, an industrial city in Japan. A total of 901 girls aged 15-19 with regular menstrual cycles were assessed using the self-reporting premenstrual symptoms questionnaire (PSQ) and questions regarding school absence, taste preference, and exercise. We classified the girls into 'no/mild PMS', 'moderate-to-severe PMS' and 'PMDD' according to the PSQ. The girls were classified into the 'absent' group if they were absent for more than 1 day per month. We used multivariate logistic analysis to examine the risk factors for school absenteeism. The rates of 'moderate-to-severe PMS' and 'PMDD' were 9.9 and 3.1 %, respectively. A total of 107 girls (11.9 %) were classified into the 'absent' group. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of all premenstrual symptoms (p < 0.001), 'age' (p < 0.001), 'a preference for salty food' (p = 0.001), and 'lack of regular exercise' (p = 0.03) between the 'absent' and 'non-absent' groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that premenstrual symptoms such as 'insomnia or hypersomnia' (odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-4.17) and 'physical symptoms' (OR 2.24, 95 % CI: 1.37-3.66), 'reduced social life activities' (OR 2.71, 95 % CI 1.31-5.59), and 'a preference for salty food' (OR 1.89, 95 % CI: 1.20-2.98) were risk factors for school absenteeism. One in nine Japanese female high school students were absent from

  18. Impact of a Comprehensive Workplace Hand Hygiene Program on Employer Health Care Insurance Claims and Costs, Absenteeism, and Employee Perceptions and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, James W; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Jarvis, William R; Harpster-Hagen, Amanda; Hughes, Jillian; Parker, Albert

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of a multimodal hand hygiene intervention program in reducing health care insurance claims for hygiene preventable infections (eg, cold and influenza), absenteeism, and subjective impact on employees. A 13.5-month prospective, randomized cluster controlled trial was executed with alcohol-based hand sanitizer in strategic workplace locations and personal use (intervention group) and brief hand hygiene education (both groups). Four years of retrospective data were collected for all participants. Hygiene-preventable health care claims were significantly reduced in the intervention group by over 20% (P Employee survey data showed significant improvements in hand hygiene behavior and perception of company concern for employee well-being. Providing a comprehensive, targeted, yet simple to execute hand hygiene program significantly reduced the incidence of health care claims and increased employee workplace satisfaction.

  19. Short-Term Absenteeism and Health Care Utilization Due to Lower Extremity Injuries Among Novice Runners : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Huisstede, Bionka; Verhagen, Evert; van der Worp, Henk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Hartgens, Fred; Backx, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe absenteeism and health care utilization (HCU) within 6 weeks after occurrence of running-related injuries (RRIs) among novice runners and to explore differences relating to injury and personal characteristics. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Primary care.

  20. Employee Health Behaviors, Self-Reported Health Status, and Association With Absenteeism: Comparison With the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Ho; Sim, Jin Ah; Park, Eun-Gee; Park, June Dong; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-09-01

    To perform a comparison between health behaviors and health status of employees with those of the general population, to evaluate the association between employee health behaviors, health status, and absenteeism. Cross-sectional study enrolled 2433 employees from 16 Korean companies in 2014, and recruited 1000 general population randomly in 2012. The distribution of employee health behaviors, health status, and association with absenteeism were assessed. Employees had significantly worse health status and low rates of health behaviors maintenance compared with the general population. Multiple logistic regression model revealed that regular exercise, smoking cessation, work life balance, proactive living, religious practice, and good physical health status were associated with lower absenteeism. Maintaining health behaviors and having good health status were associated with less absenteeism. This study suggests investment of multidimensional health approach in workplace health and wellness (WHW) programs.

  1. Employment status matters: a statewide survey of quality-of-life, prevention behaviors, and absenteeism and presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, James A; Kelly, Kevin M; Burmeister, Leon F; Lozier, Matt J; Amendola, Alison; Lind, David P; KcKeen, Arlinda; Slater, Tom; Hall, Jennifer L; Rohlman, Diane S; Buikema, Brenda S

    2014-07-01

    To estimate quality-of-life (QoL), primary care, health insurance, prevention behaviors, absenteeism, and presenteeism in a statewide sample of the unemployed, self-employed, and organizationally employed. A statewide survey of 1602 Iowans included items from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention QoL and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey prevention behavior questionnaires used to assess employee well-being; their indicator results are related to World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire-derived absenteeism and presenteeism scores. The unemployed exhibited poorer QoL and prevention behaviors; the self-employed exhibited many better QoL scores due largely to better prevention behaviors than those employed by organizations. Higher QoL measures and more prevention behaviors are associated with lower absenteeism and lower presenteeism. Employment status is related to measures of well-being, which are also associated with absenteeism and presenteeism.

  2. Predicting temporal trends in total absenteeism rates for civil service employees of a federal public health agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, D Ross; McNeil, Carrie; Warnock, Eli; Trapp, Jonathan; Oyinloye, Oluremi; Whitehurst, Vanessa; Decker, K C; Chapman, Sandy; Campbell, Morris; Meechan, Paul

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluates the predictability in temporal absences trends due to all causes (total absenteeism) among employees at a federal agency. The objective is to determine how leave trends vary within the year, and determine whether trends are predictable. Ten years of absenteeism data from an attendance system were analyzed for rates of total absence. Trends over a 10-year period followed predictable and regular patterns during a given year that correspond to major holiday periods. Temporal trends in leave among small, medium, and large facilities compared favorably with the agency as a whole. Temporal trends in total absenteeism rates for an organization can be determined using its attendance system. The ability to predict employee absenteeism rates can be extremely helpful for management in optimizing business performance and ensuring that an organization meets its mission.

  3. Valuing productivity loss due to absenteeism: firm-level evidence from a Canadian linked employer-employee survey

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam H.

    2017-01-01

    In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, t...

  4. Impact of Particulate Matter Exposure and Surrounding “Greenness” on Chronic Absenteeism in Massachusetts Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    MacNaughton, Piers; Eitland, Erika; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Allen, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism is associated with poorer academic performance and higher attrition in kindergarten to 12th grade (K-12) schools. In prior research, students who were chronically absent generally had fewer employment opportunities and worse health after graduation. We examined the impact that environmental factors surrounding schools have on chronic absenteeism. We estimated the greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)) and fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) wit...

  5. Exercício físico regular diminui o estresse oxidativo pulmonar em ratos após exposição aguda ao carvão mineral El ejercicio físico regular reduce la respuesta oxidativa pulmonar en los ratones después de la exhibición afilada al carbón mineral Regular physical exercises decrease the oxidant pulmonary stress in rats after acute exposure to mineral coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Pinho

    2006-04-01

    pulmonar después de la inhalación de polvo de carbón mineral. Veinticuatro ratones varones Wistar (200-250g fueron aleatoriamente divididos en 2 grupos con los mandos respectivos (, n = 6 y Ningún -, n = 6. Los animales recibieron, por instilación traqueal polvo de carbón mineral (3mg/0,5ml salina, 3 dias/semana, durante 3 semanas o 0,5ml de solución salina 0,9%. Cuarenta ocho horas después de la última instilación, el grupo especializado fue sometido a un programa de ejercicio progresivo en la cinta durante 12 semanas (a 17m.min-1, 50min.dia-1, 10% de inclinación. Cuarenta ocho horas después de la última sesión de entrenamiento, todos los animales fueron sacrificados por decapitación y los pulmones y el músculo sóleo fueron extirpados por cirugía para el análisis bioquímico subsecuente. La actividad de la citrato-sintetasa fue determinada en los músculos así como los daños y perjuicios en los lipidos y las proteínas se estimaron en los pulmones para la concentración de TBARS y para la determinación de carbonilo de estos grupos, respectivamente. Los resultados mostraron que el ejercicio físico regular reduce los niveles presentes de TBARS significativamente en los ratones especializados y reduce los niveles de la oxidación en las proteínas en ambos grupos cuando se compararon los grupos respectivos. Los resultados permitieron sugerir que el ejercicio físico regular en la cinta es un agente capaz minimizarlos daños y perjuicios oxidativos pulmonares inducidos por la inhalación de partículas de carbón mineral.Several studies have pointed the regular low to moderate intensity physical exercise an important agent to combat the oxidant stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the physical exercise in the pulmonary oxidant response after inhaling mineral coal dust. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (200-250 g were randomly divided in two groups with their respective controls (trained, n = 6; non-trained, n = 6. All animals

  6. The Effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training on Sickness Presenteeism and Absenteeism Among Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Just Bendix; Søgaard, Karen; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

     = 193) or control group CG (N = 194). TG received 1-hour high-intensity IPET once a week within working hours, and was recommended to perform 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) 6 days a week during leisure-time. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis showed no effect on absenteeism......, but a significant 4% increase in workability and 9% increase in general health in TG compared with CG. A per-protocol analysis [adherence of ≥70% (N = 89)] in addition showed a significant 6% increase in productivity and a 29% reduction in absenteeism compared with CG. CONCLUSION: IPET combined with recommendations...

  7. Predictors of employees’ psychophysical health and sickness absenteeism: Modelling based on REBT framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Boris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study was to examine whether negative experiences at work, irrational beliefs, alone and in interaction, and negative affectivity as a mediator, could predict psychosomatic complaints and frequency of sickness absenteeism. The hypothesized model showed acceptable fit to the data, suggesting that negative affectivity mediates the relationship between negative experiences and irrational beliefs on the one hand, and psychosomatic complaints on the other. The results also revealed no significant effect of interaction between negative experiences and irrational beliefs, while fatigue and physical symptoms have a significant and direct effect on the number of days of absence. It was concluded that the lack of an effect of psychological symptoms on absenteeism may indicate that employees in Serbia do not see them as a sufficient reason for sick leave. The results are discussed within frameworks of Rational-emotive behaviour therapy and strategic stress management approach.

  8. Identifying Strategies to Decrease Overtime, Absenteeism and Agency Use: Insights from Healthcare Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Grinspun, Doris; Closson, Tom; Mainville, Marie-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Working overtime, absenteeism and agency use can negatively impact working environments, the health of staff and patient outcomes, and increase healthcare costs. The purpose of this study was to explore how healthcare leaders in Ontario hospitals implement and sustain best practices that advance workforce stability within their organization. Qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Participants included 23 healthcare leaders from 16 hospital sites. Two main themes emerged: (1) enacting proactive human resource practices and (2) having strong, caring and strategic leaders that create learning and supportive work environments. A number of sub-themes identified were reported through narratives stratified according to size (small/large) and performance (low/high) of each site. Insights gained from this study may offer healthcare leaders strategies to maximize the nursing workforce and minimize overtime, absenteeism and agency use to ensure safe, efficient and quality healthcare. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  9. The indirect costs of cancer-related absenteeism in the workplace in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macioch, Tomasz; Hermanowski, Tomasz

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate cancer-related absenteeism costs in Poland. Data on sickness absences and disability were retrieved from the Department of Statistics of the Social Insurance Institution. The cost of lost productivity owing to premature death was estimated from data retrieved from the Polish National Cancer Registry. Absenteeism costs were estimated on the basis of the measure of gross value added per employee. The costs of lost productivity owing to sick leave, disability, and premature death were estimated to be 1.572 billion EUR, 0.504 billion EUR, and 0.535 billion EUR, respectively, in 2009. The indirect costs of lost productivity owing to cancer-related sick leave, disability, and premature death have a substantial effect on the Polish economy. In 2009, they accounted for more than 0.8% of GDP.

  10. Antenatal care visits' absenteeism at a secondary care medical facility in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloko, Olakunle; Ogunbode, Olayinka Oladunjoye; Roberts, Olumuyiwa; Arowojolu, Ayodele Olatunji

    2016-11-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a specialised pattern of care organised for pregnant women with the goal of maintaining good health and promoting safe delivery of healthy infants. It is an indispensable part of effective maternity care services. This study identified the factors responsible for absenteeism from ANC follow-up visits. It was a hospital-based prospective cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at a faith based secondary healthcare facility in Ibadan, Nigeria. Relevant data were retrieved using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires and antenatal health record cards. The major reasons identified for absenteeism were delay in receiving hospital services due to long queues at service points and understaffing. The pregnant women aged 35 years and above were the most likely to miss the visits. Therefore, there is the need for hospital administrators and health care givers to make the services patient-friendly.

  11. Minerals Yearbook, volume I, Metals and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Yearbook discusses the performance of the worldwide minerals and materials industries and provides background information to assist in interpreting that performance. Content of the individual Minerals Yearbook volumes follows:Volume I, Metals and Minerals, contains chapters about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy. Chapters on survey methods, summary statistics for domestic nonfuel minerals, and trends in mining and quarrying in the metals and industrial mineral industries in the United States are also included.Volume II, Area Reports: Domestic, contains a chapter on the mineral industry of each of the 50 States and Puerto Rico and the Administered Islands. This volume also has chapters on survey methods and summary statistics of domestic nonfuel minerals.Volume III, Area Reports: International, is published as four separate reports. These regional reports contain the latest available minerals data on more than 180 foreign countries and discuss the importance of minerals to the economies of these nations and the United States. Each report begins with an overview of the region’s mineral industries during the year. It continues with individual country chapters that examine the mining, refining, processing, and use of minerals in each country of the region and how each country’s mineral industry relates to U.S. industry. Most chapters include production tables and industry structure tables, information about Government policies and programs that affect the country’s mineral industry, and an outlook section.The USGS continually strives to improve the value of its publications to users. Constructive comments and suggestions by readers of the Minerals Yearbook are welcomed.

  12. Laboratory of minerals purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The laboratory of minerals purification was organized in 1962 where with application of modern physical and chemical methods were investigated the mechanism of flotation reagents interaction with minerals' surface, was elaborated technologies on rising complexity of using of republic's minerals

  13. Adolescent school absenteeism and service use in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Haugland, Siren; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Bøe, Tormod; Hysing, Mari

    2015-07-09

    School absenteeism is linked to a range of health concerns, health risk behaviors and school dropout. It is therefore important to evaluate the extent to which adolescents with absenteeism are in contact with health care and other services. The aim of the current study was to investigate service use of Norwegian adolescents with moderate and high absenteeism in comparison to students with lower rates of absence. The study employs data from a population-based study from 2012 targeting all pupils in upper secondary education in Hordaland County, Norway (the youth@hordaland-survey). A total of 8988 adolescents between the ages of 16 and 18 were included in the present study. Information on service use was based on adolescent self-report data collected in the youth@hordaland-survey. Absence data was collected using administrative data provided by the Hordaland County Council. High absence (defined as being absent 15% or more the past semester) was found among 10.1% of the adolescents. Compared to their peers with low absence (less than 3% absence the past semester), adolescents with high absence were more likely to be in contact with all the services studied, including mental health services (odds ratio (OR) 3.96), adolescent health clinics (OR 2.11) and their general practitioner (GP) (OR 1.94). Frequency of contact was higher among adolescents with moderate and high absence and there seems to be a gradient of service use corresponding to the level of absence. Still, 40% of the adolescents with high absence had not been in contact with any services. Adolescents with high absence had increased use of services, although a group of youth at risk seems to be without such contact. This finding suggests a potential to address school absenteeism through systematic collaboration between schools and health personnel.

  14. Child-to-Teacher Ratio and Day-Care Teacher Sickness Absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Elvira; Gørtz, Mette

    2013-01-01

    -to-teacher ratio, i.e. the number of children per teacher in an institution, affects teacher sickness absenteeism. We control for individual teacher characteristics, workplace characteristics, and family background characteristics of the children in the day-care institutions. Our estimation results indicate...... that the child-to-teacher ratio is positively related to sickness absence for 2005-2006, but not for 2002-2004....

  15. Workplace Flexibility Practices in SMEs: Relationship with Performance via Redundancies, Absenteeism, and Financial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Whyman, Philip B; Petrescu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This workplace flexibility study uses primary data on private sector small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Lancashire, United Kingdom, collected in 2009 during the recent “credit crunch” recession. Key features include: (1) objective measures of SME performance; (2) a focus on the previously relatively neglected relationship between workplace flexibility practices (WFPs) and three SME performance indicators, namely, redundancies, absenteeism, and financial turnover; and (3) a timely co...

  16. Healthy change processes - Relations with job insecurity, sickness absenteeism, sickness presenteeism and turnover intention

    OpenAIRE

    Bødal, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of a healthy change process (HCPI) could predict negative outcomes that normally follow organisational change, such as qualitative job insecurity, total sickness (sickness absenteeism and -presenteesim) and turnover intention. It was hypothesised that negative relationships existed between a healthy change process and qualitative job insecurity, total sickness and turnover intention. In addition, it was believed that experienced st...

  17. Too Busy for School? The Effect of Athletic Participation on Absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Cuffe, Harold E.; Waddell, Glen R.; Bignell, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    While existing research supports that participation in high-school athletics is associated with better education and labour-market outcomes, the mechanisms through which these benefits accrue are not well established. We use data from a large public-school district to retrieve an estimate of the causal effect of high-school athletic participation on absenteeism. We show that active competition decreases absences, with most of the effect driven by reductions in unexcused absences – truancy amo...

  18. Explorative evaluation of the impact of severe premenstrual disorders on work absenteeism and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lothar A J; Minh, Thai Do; Filonenko, Anna; Uhl-Hochgräber, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effects of premenstrual disorders on work productivity and absenteeism in the multinational Impact study. Women aged 15-45 years were screened for suspected premenstrual dysphoric disorders (PMDD) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and invited to participate in this web-based study. Based on the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP) questionnaire, symptoms were assessed prospectively over 2 months. Participants were categorized as having no perceived symptoms/mild PMS or moderate-to-severe PMS/PMDD based on a validated algorithm. Work productivity impairment and absenteeism were assessed retrospectively using the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) and a modified version of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire. Work productivity impairment was also assessed prospectively over 2 months using the DRSP questionnaire. Overall 1,477 women started the study-of these, 822 (56%) completed the study as planned and represent the full analysis set. Employed women with moderate-to-severe PMS/PMDD had higher rate of productivity impairment on the modified version of the WPAI questionnaire (values >/=7) relative to those with no perceived symptoms/mild PMS (adjusted odds ratio, 3.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.75-5.57). Similar outcomes were obtained for impairment of working productivity or efficiency using the PSST scale (value 4). The mean number of days on the DRSP with at least moderate reduction in productivity or efficiency in daily routine was higher for women with moderate-to-severe PMS/PMDD (5.6 vs. 1.1). Women with moderate-to-severe PMS/PMDD had a higher rate of absenteeism (>8hours per cycle; 14.2% vs. 6.0%). Moderate-to-severe PMS/PMDD seems to be associated with work productivity impairment and increased absenteeism, and thus poses a potential economic burden. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  19. Employment and absenteeism in working-age persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Amber; Thomas, Nina; Tyry, Tuula; Cutter, Gary; Marrie, Ruth Ann

    2017-05-01

    To better understand the impact of the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) and disability on employment, absenteeism, and related factors. This study included respondents to the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis Registry spring 2015 update survey who were US or Canadian residents, aged 18-65 years and reported having relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), secondary progressive MS (SPMS), or primary progressive MS (PPMS). The RRMS and SPMS participants were combined to form the relapsing-onset MS (RMS) group and compared with the PPMS group regarding employment status, absenteeism, and disability. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between employment-related outcomes and factors that may affect these relationships. Of the 8004 survey respondents, 5887 (73.6%) were 18-65 years of age. The PPMS group (n = 344) had a higher proportion of males and older mean age at the time of the survey and at time of diagnosis than the RMS group (n = 4829). Female sex, age, age at diagnosis, cognitive and hand function impairment, fatigue, higher disability levels, ≥3 comorbidities, and a diagnosis of PPMS were associated with not working. After adjustment for disability, the employed PPMS sub-group reported similar levels of absenteeism to the employed RMS sub-group. Limitations of the study include self-report of information and the possibility that participants may not fully represent the working-age MS population. In MS, employment status and absenteeism are negatively affected by disability, cognitive impairment, and fatigue. These findings underscore the need for therapies that prevent disability progression and other symptoms that negatively affect productivity in persons with MS to enable them to persist in the workforce.

  20. The influence of job insecurity on job performance and absenteeism: The moderating effect of work attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chirumbolo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity was found to have relevant psychosocial consequences for both individuals and organisations. Recently, research is increasingly focusing on those variables that can moderate its negative influences. In this study, the impact of job insecurity on two indicators of organisational behaviour (i.e. job performance and absenteeism was investigated. It was expected that job insecurity was negatively related to job performance and positively to absenteeism, and that this relationship was moderated by work related attitudes, such as job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Four-hundred and twenty five workers were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Overall, the hypotheses were supported by the data: job insecurity was in fact negatively correlated with job performance and positively with absenteeism. However, work related attitudes moderated only the effect of job insecurity on job performance but not on absenteeism. Opsomming Daar is gevind dat werksonsekerheid relevante psigososiale gevolge vir beide individue en organisasies inhou. Onlangse navorsing fokus al hoe meer op daardie veranderlikes wat die negetiewe effekte hiervan kan modereer. In hierdie studie is die impak van werksonsekerheid op twee indikatore van organisasiegedrag (werksprestasie en afwesigheid ondersoek. Dit was verwag dat werkonsekerheid ’n negetiewe verhouding tot werksprestasie en ’n positiewe verhouding tot afwesigheid sou gehad het en dat hierdie verhouding gemodereer sou word deur werksverwante gesindhede, soos werkstevredenheid en organisasiegebondenheid. 425 werknemers is met ’n gestruktureerde vraelys ondervra. Die hipotese is oor die algemeen deur die data ondersteun: werksonsekerheid het inderdaad ’n negetiewe korrelasie tot werksprestasie en ’n positiewe korrelasie tot afwesigheid gehad. Werksverwante gesindhede het egter slegs die effek van werksonsekerheid op werksprestasie gemodereer, maar nie op afwesigheid nie.

  1. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  2. Injuries and absenteeism among motorcycle taxi drivers who are victims of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Kevan G N; Lucas-Neto, Alfredo; Gama, Bruno D; Lima-Neto, Jose C; Lucas, Rilva Suely C C; d'Ávila, Sérgio

    2014-08-01

    Facial injuries frequently occur in traffic accidents involving motorcycles. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of facial injuries among motorcycle drivers who perform motorcycle taxi service. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 210 participants who served as motorcycle taxi drivers in a city in northeastern Brazil completed a survey concerning their experience of accidents involving facial injuries and consequent hospitalization and absenteeism from work. The motorcycle drivers included in the study were randomly selected from a list provided by the city. Out of the respondents, 165 (78.6%) who were involved in traffic accidents in the last 12 months, 15 (9.1%) reported facial injuries. The types of facial injury most frequently reported involved soft tissues (n = 8; 53.3%), followed by simple fracture (n = 4; 26.7%) and dentoalveolar fracture (n = 3; 20%). We found an association between facial injuries and absenteeism, as well as an association between the presence of facial injury and the need for hospitalization for a period of 2 days or more. Respondents reported that they had accidents, but due to the use of full face motorcycle helmet the number of facial injuries was low. For most of them, absenteeism was observed for a period of one month or more. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. [Influence of obesity on health care costs and absenteeism among employees of a mining company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Aldo; Crestto, Marco; Maiz, Alberto; Ravest, Gonzalo; Pino, María Inés; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Moreno, Manuel; Villarroel, Luis

    2009-03-01

    The health associated costs of obesity can represent between 2% and 9% of the total health costs of a given country. To assess the impact of obesity on health care costs and absenteeism in a cohort of mine workers. Prospective study of 4.673 men, employees of a mining company, aged 49 +/- 7 years that were followed for 24 +/- 11 months. Total health care cost and days of sick leave were recordedfor each individual. The association between obesity and these variables was analyzed by logistic regression adjusting for co-morbidities, age and other variables. Mean annual health care costs for obese workers were 17% higher (p costs the most significant predictors were: presence of diabetes mellitus (Odds ratio (OR) 6.21, 95%o confidence intervals (95% CI) 4.9 to 7.9), hypertension (OR 3-99; 95% CI3-4 to 4.6) and severe and morbid obesity (OR 2.55, 95%o CI 1.9 to 3-4). For absenteeism the most significant predictors were: presence of diabetes mellitus (OR 1.58, 95%> CI 1.2 to 2.0), hypertension (OR 1,34, 95%> CI 1.2 to 1.6) and severe and morbid obesity (OR 1.50, 95%o CI 1.1 to 2.1). Obesity increases significantly health care costs and absenteeism.

  4. Narcissistic leaders: An asset or a liability? Leader visibility, follower responses, and group-level absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevicka, Barbara; Van Vianen, Annelies E M; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Voorn, Bart C M

    2018-03-19

    Although narcissists often emerge as leaders, research has thus far shown inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and effectiveness in the eyes of followers. Here we draw on leader distance theory (Shamir, 1995) and implicit leader theory (Lord & Maher, 1991) to propose that followers' assessment of a narcissistic leader and followers' overall job attitudes depend on the leader's visibility to the followers. The more opportunities followers have to observe narcissistic leaders the more they will experience these leaders' toxic behavior (e.g., exploitativeness) and the less they will perceive the leader as effective. To test our hypotheses we collected multisource, longitudinal data from 175 retail stores and obtained subjective (followers' perceptions of leader effectiveness and their overall job attitudes) as well as objective (leaders' organizational experience at time of hire, employee absenteeism trends) indices of leader functionality. Results showed that narcissistic leaders had less organizational experience at the time they were hired. Moreover, when followers had fewer opportunities to observe their leader, leader narcissism was positively related to perceived leadership effectiveness and job attitudes. However, when followers had more opportunity to observe their leader, the positive relationship disappeared. Finally, leader narcissism was neither positively nor negatively associated with absenteeism, whereas absenteeism declined over time under non-narcissistic leaders. These findings advance our knowledge of how followers respond to narcissistic leaders and how these leaders function in organizational settings where they have legitimate positions of power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Workplace injustice and self-reported disease and absenteeism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jin-Young; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Seung-Sup; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether experience of workplace injustice was associated with self-reported occupational health using a nationally representative sample of Korean workers. We used the first wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) and included 7,007 wage employees as the study population. Workplace injustice included the experience of discrimination, violence, or harassment, and occupational health was measured as self-reported health problems and absenteeism. Personal, occupational, and job-related characteristics were included as covariates. An average of 7.2% of workers reported experiencing at least one workplace injustice over the past 12 months. Female workers were significantly more likely to experience age and gender discrimination, and unwanted sexual attention than male workers. Both male and female workers who experienced any workplace injustice (i.e., discrimination, harassment, or violence) reported approximately two- to threefold increased risk for physical and mental health problems (i.e., backaches, muscular pain, stomach pain, overall fatigue, headaches, anxiety/depression, sleeping problems, and injury) and absenteeism due to accidents or due to health problems. Perceived injustice at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of occupational disease and absenteeism for Korean wage employees. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability: a longitudinal study in the education sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Alessia; Perron, Jacques; Corbière, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Being absent from work because of a psychological disability is costly for both individuals and organizations and frequent in employees working in the field of education. Absenteeism from work has been mostly studied as an organizational withdrawal behavior related to negative factors. The purpose of this longitudinal study is to define the predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability by taking into account resources, such as Self-determined work motivation and Subjective well-being, as well as symptoms of Psychological distress. The sample consisted of 261 employees from a Canadian public school organization. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare the mean scores of participants who were not absent from work and participants who were absent due to psychological disability. Logistic regression analyses were computed for the dependent variable to assess the contribution of the three independent variables. Participants who were absent from work due to psychological disability in the year following the data collection scored significantly lower on resources, and higher on symptoms than those participants who were not absent. The three-predictor model was found to be significant. However, only Self-determined work motivation and Psychological distress significantly predicted absenteeism due to psychological disability. Results are discussed in terms of psychological processes regulating the relationships between the work-related factors (i.e., work motivation) and life-related factors (i.e., psychological distress and subjective well-being) of personal adjustment and accomplishment.

  7. Perceptions of inequity in the workplace: Exploring the link with unauthorised absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Banks

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of this study was the relationship between perceptions of inequity and specific withdrawal behaviours. Research purpose: The purpose of the investigation was to explore possible relationships between workers’ perceptions of inequity in the workplace, intentions toward withdrawal behaviour and unauthorised absenteeism. Motivation for the study: There is very little South African research on the correlates of perceived inequity in the workplace. This study attempted to address the gap by exploring specific withdrawal behaviours as possible correlates of perceived inequity. Research design, approach and method: Using a small-scale survey design, the researchers measured intentions towards withdrawal behaviour and recorded rates of absenteeism in a sample of 110 employees from a variety of automotive manufacturing companies in the KwaZulu-Natal area. Main findings: The researchers did not find a relationship between perceptions of inequity and unauthorised absenteeism but did find one between perceptions of inequity and future withdrawal behaviours. Practical/managerial implications: The high levels of perceptions of inequity amongst the workers and the finding that workers were more likely to engage in withdrawal behaviours in the future if they perceived unequal treatment in the workplace are worrying issues for the companies involved. Contribution/value-add: The scale that the researchers developed to measure perceptions of inequity shows preliminary evidence of construct validity. The results suggest that employers need to monitor levels of perceived inequity especially in relation to future withdrawal behaviour.

  8. Perceptions of inequity in the workplace: Exploring the link with unauthorised absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Banks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of this study was the relationship between perceptions of inequity and specific withdrawal behaviours. Research purpose: The purpose of the investigation was to explore possible relationships between workers’ perceptions of inequity in the workplace, intentions toward withdrawal behaviour and unauthorised absenteeism.Motivation for the study: There is very little South African research on the correlates of perceived inequity in the workplace. This study attempted to address the gap by exploring specific withdrawal behaviours as possible correlates of perceived inequity.Research design, approach and method: Using a small-scale survey design, the researchers measured intentions towards withdrawal behaviour and recorded rates of absenteeism in a sample of 110 employees from a variety of automotive manufacturing companies in the KwaZulu-Natal area.Main findings: The researchers did not find a relationship between perceptions of inequity and unauthorised absenteeism but did find one between perceptions of inequity and future withdrawal behaviours.Practical/managerial implications: The high levels of perceptions of inequity amongst the workers and the finding that workers were more likely to engage in withdrawal behaviours in the future if they perceived unequal treatment in the workplace are worrying issues for the companies involved.Contribution/value-add: The scale that the researchers developed to measure perceptions of inequity shows preliminary evidence of construct validity. The results suggest that employers need to monitor levels of perceived inequity especially in relation to future withdrawal behaviour.

  9. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Low Back Pain and Absenteeism among Slovenian Professional Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Suklan, Jana; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the most common psychosocial risk factors for absenteeism and the extent to which low back pain occurs among Slovenian professional drivers as result of various psychosocial risk factors. The study involved 275 professional drivers, mostly men (mean age 41.6 years). Statistical data analysis was conducted using SPSS package version 21, MS Excel version 2007 and Pajek, version 3. The main method for data processing was regression analysis. The results of the quantitative survey showed that lower back pain is mostly caused by lifting and carrying heavy loads, inadequate working conditions, poor physical fitness, regular nights out, shift work, and stress. Dissatisfaction with work, shift work and unsuitable working conditions significantly affect the incidence of low back pain. Absenteeism is influenced by factors such as dissatisfaction at work, disrespectful attitude of managers, unsuitable working conditions, personal dissatisfaction, lack of understanding of the partner, and enjoying nightlife on a regular basis. The study clarifies the unexplained holistic psychosocial risk factors and treatment effects on health in the population of professional drivers. Such factors can lead to absenteeism. The study also provides initial demonstration research in the Slovenian practice. Furthermore, it provides solutions in a holistic approach to solve the problem of risk factors management. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  10. Miscellaneous Industrial Mineral Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes miscellaneous industrial minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team...

  11. Minerals from Macedonia: XV. Sivec mineral assemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Jovanovski, Gligor; Makreski, Petre; Bermanec, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents investigations carried out on the collected minerals from the Sivec deposit. It is situated in the vicinity of the town of Prilep, representing a rare occurrence of sugary white dolomite marbles. The application of suitable methods of exploitation of decorative-dimension stones makes possible to obtain large amounts of commercial blocks well known in the world. Despite the existence of dolomite marbles, a series of exotic minerals are typical in Sivec mineralization. Among them, the most significant are: calcite, fluorite, rutile, phlogopite, corundum, diaspore, almandine, kosmatite (clintonite or margarite), clinochlore, muscovite, quartz, pyrite, tourmaline and zoisite. An attempt to identify ten collected minerals using the FT IR spectroscopy is performed. The identification of the minerals was based on the comparison of the infrared spectra of our specimens with the corresponding literature data for the mineral species originating all over the world. The coloured pictures of all studied silicate minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  12. Absenteeism amongst health workers – developing a typology to support empiric work in low-income countries and characterizing reported associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of inadequate health worker numbers and emigration have been highlighted in the international literature, but relatively little attention has been paid to absenteeism as a factor that undermines health-care delivery in low income countries. We therefore aimed to review the literature on absenteeism from a health system manager’s perspective to inform needed work on this topic. Specifically, we aimed to develop a typology of definitions that might be useful to classify different forms of absenteeism and identify factors associated with absenteeism. Sixty-nine studies were reviewed, only four were from sub-Saharan Africa where the human resources for health crisis is most acute. Forms of absenteeism studied and methods used vary widely. No previous attempt to develop an overarching approach to classifying forms of absenteeism was identified. A typology based on key characteristics is proposed to fill this gap and considers absenteeism as defined by two key attributes, whether it is: planned/unplanned, and voluntary/involuntary. Factors reported to influence rates of absenteeism may be broadly classified into three thematic categories: workplace and content, personal and organizational and cultural factors. The literature presents an inconsistent picture of the effects of specific factors within these themes perhaps related to true contextual differences or inconsistent definitions of absenteeism. PMID:23866770

  13. Relationship between inpatient satisfaction and nurse absenteeism: an exploratory study using WHO-PATH performance indicators in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Leila; Anthoine, Emmanuelle; Paillé, Cécile; Tricaud-Vialle, Sophie; Gerbaud, Laurent; Giraud-Roufast, Alexandra; Michel, Philippe; Lombrail, Pierre

    2012-01-31

    Indicators describing results of care are widely explored in term of patient satisfaction (PS). Among factors explaining PS, human resources indicators have been studied in terms of burnout or job satisfaction among healthcare professionals. No research work has set out to explore the effect of absenteeism on PS scores. The objective of this study was to explore interaction between rate of absenteeism among nurses and PS results. France has taken part in a project named PATH (Performance Assessment Tool for Hospitals) of the World Health Organization, aiming to develop a tool for the assessment of hospital performance. In the first semester 2008, 25 volunteering short-stay hospitals (teaching, general and private) provide complete data on nurse short-absenteeism (periods of up to 7 consecutive days of sick leave) and on PS (a cross-sectional postal survey using a standardized validated French-language scale EQS-H exploring "quality of medical information" (MI) and "relationships with staff and daily routine" (RS)). A multi-level model was used to take into account of the hierarchical nature of the data. Two thousand and sixty-five patients responded to the satisfaction questionnaire (participation rate: 40.9%). The mean age of respondents was 58 yrs (± 19), 41% were men. The mean duration of hospitalisation was 7.5 days (± 11.1). The mean absenteeism rate for nurses was 0.24% (± 0.14).All the PS scores were significantly and negatively correlated with rate of short-absenteeism among nurses (MI score: ρ = -0.55, p absenteeism among nurses and PS scores (MI: p = 0.027; RS: p = 0.017). Results obtained in this study show that short-term absenteeism among nurses seems to be significantly and negatively correlated with PS. Our findings are an invitation to deepen our understanding of the impact of human resources on PS and to develop more specific projects.

  14. Relationship between inpatient satisfaction and nurse absenteeism: an exploratory study using WHO-PATH performance indicators in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Indicators describing results of care are widely explored in term of patient satisfaction (PS). Among factors explaining PS, human resources indicators have been studied in terms of burnout or job satisfaction among healthcare professionals. No research work has set out to explore the effect of absenteeism on PS scores. The objective of this study was to explore interaction between rate of absenteeism among nurses and PS results. Methods France has taken part in a project named PATH (Performance Assessment Tool for Hospitals) of the World Health Organization, aiming to develop a tool for the assessment of hospital performance. In the first semester 2008, 25 volunteering short-stay hospitals (teaching, general and private) provide complete data on nurse short-absenteeism (periods of up to 7 consecutive days of sick leave) and on PS (a cross-sectional postal survey using a standardized validated French-language scale EQS-H exploring "quality of medical information" (MI) and "relationships with staff and daily routine" (RS)). A multi-level model was used to take into account of the hierarchical nature of the data. Results Two thousand and sixty-five patients responded to the satisfaction questionnaire (participation rate: 40.9%). The mean age of respondents was 58 yrs (± 19), 41% were men. The mean duration of hospitalisation was 7.5 days (± 11.1). The mean absenteeism rate for nurses was 0.24% (± 0.14). All the PS scores were significantly and negatively correlated with rate of short-absenteeism among nurses (MI score: ρ = -0.55, p absenteeism among nurses and PS scores (MI: p = 0.027; RS: p = 0.017). Conclusion Results obtained in this study show that short-term absenteeism among nurses seems to be significantly and negatively correlated with PS. Our findings are an invitation to deepen our understanding of the impact of human resources on PS and to develop more specific projects. PMID:22293709

  15. Valuing productivity loss due to absenteeism: firm-level evidence from a Canadian linked employer-employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam H

    2017-12-01

    In health economic evaluation studies, to value productivity loss due to absenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy value for marginal productivity. This study is the first to test the equality between wage and marginal productivity losses due to absenteeism separately for team workers and non-team workers. Our estimates are based on linked employer-employee data from Canada. Results indicate that team workers are more productive and earn higher wages than non-team workers. However, the productivity gap between these two groups is considerably larger than the wage gap. In small firms, employee absenteeism results in lower productivity and wages, and the marginal productivity loss due to team worker absenteeism is significantly higher than the wage loss. No similar wage-productivity gap exists for large firms. Our findings suggest that productivity loss or gain is most likely to be underestimated when valued according to wages for team workers. The findings help to value the burden of illness-related absenteeism. This is important for economic evaluations that seek to measure the productivity gain or loss of a health care technology or intervention, which in turn can impact policy makers' funding decisions.

  16. [Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-02-01

    To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to

  17. State-level medical and absenteeism cost of asthma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek; Khavjou, Olga; Murphy, Louise; Orenstein, Diane

    2017-05-01

    For medically treated asthma, we estimated prevalence, medical and absenteeism costs, and projected medical costs from 2015 to 2020 for the entire population and separately for children in the 50 US states and District of Columbia (DC) using the most recently available data. We used multiple data sources, including the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Kaiser Family Foundation, Medical Statistical Information System, and Current Population Survey. We used a two-part regression model to estimate annual medical costs of asthma and a negative binomial model to estimate annual school and work days missed due to asthma. Per capita medical costs of asthma ranged from $1,860 (Mississippi) to $2,514 (Michigan). Total medical costs of asthma ranged from $60.7 million (Wyoming) to $3.4 billion (California). Medicaid costs ranged from $4.1 million (Wyoming) to $566.8 million (California), Medicare from $5.9 million (DC) to $446.6 million (California), and costs paid by private insurers ranged from $27.2 million (DC) to $1.4 billion (California). Total annual school and work days lost due to asthma ranged from 22.4 thousand (Wyoming) to 1.5 million days (California) and absenteeism costs ranged from $4.4 million (Wyoming) to $345 million (California). Projected increase in medical costs from 2015 to 2020 ranged from 9% (DC) to 34% (Arizona). Medical and absenteeism costs of asthma represent a significant economic burden for states and these costs are expected to rise. Our study results emphasize the urgency for strategies to strengthen state level efforts to prevent and control asthma attacks.

  18. Risk factors for absenteeism due to sick leave in the petroleum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oenning, Nágila Soares Xavier; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Lima, Veronica Maria Cadena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for absenteeism among workers with sick leave in an oil company. METHODS A case-control study (120 cases and 656 controls) nested in a retrospective cohort study following up all employees of an oil company in the North-Northeast of Brazil from 2007 to 2009. The response variable used to represent absenteeism with sick leave was the average incidence of sick leave, defined as the ratio between total sick days and potential working days in the period. Logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the association between average incidence of sick leave > 5.0% over the period and the variables sex, position, age, time at work, shift work, smoking, arterial hypertension, body mass index, physical activity, coronary risk, sleep, glycemia, non-managed diabetes, cardiovascular, digestive, musculoskeletal, neurological and neoplastic diseases, straining body positioning during work, satisfaction at work, relationship with management, and concentrated attention at work. RESULTS Average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% in the cohort period was 15.5%. The logistic model revealed that workers with average incidence of sick leave higher than 5.0% were 2.6 times more likely to be female; 2.0 time more likely to be smokers; 1.8 time more likely to be former smokers; 2.2 times more likely to report abnormal sleep and 10.5 times more likely to report dissatisfaction with their than workers with average incidence of sick leave ≤ 5.0% in the period. CONCLUSIONS In this population, female gender, being a smoker or a former smoker, reporting dissatisfaction with the job and reporting abnormal sleep are good predictors of occupational absenteeism with sick leave. PMID:24789643

  19. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four...... Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues......, and whether work gets the individual down....

  20. Did Illegally Counted Overseas Absentee Ballots Decide the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election?

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Kosuke; King, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Although not widely known until much later, Al Gore received 202 more votes than George W. Bush on election day in Florida. George W. Bush is president because he overcame his election day deficit with overseas absentee ballots that arrived and were counted after election day. In the final official tally, Bush received 537 more votes than Gore. These numbers are taken from the official results released by the Florida Secretary of State’s office and so do not reflect overvotes, undervotes, uns...

  1. Impact of minimally invasive surgery on medical spending and employee absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Andrew J; Groeneveld, Peter W; Harhay, Michael O; Yang, Feifei; Polsky, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    As many surgical procedures have undergone a transition from a standard, open surgical approach to a minimally invasive one in the past 2 decades, the diffusion of minimally invasive surgery may have had sizeable but overlooked effects on medical expenditures and worker productivity. To examine the impact of standard vs minimally invasive surgery on health plan spending and workplace absenteeism for 6 types of surgery. Cross-sectional regression analysis. National health insurance claims data and matched workplace absenteeism data from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2009. A convenience sample of adults with employer-sponsored health insurance who underwent either standard or minimally invasive surgery for coronary revascularization, uterine fibroid resection, prostatectomy, peripheral revascularization, carotid revascularization, or aortic aneurysm repair. Health plan spending and workplace absenteeism from 14 days before through 352 days after the index surgery. There were 321,956 patients who underwent surgery; 23,814 were employees with workplace absenteeism data. After multivariable adjustment, mean health plan spending was lower for minimally invasive surgery for coronary revascularization (-$30,850; 95% CI, -$31,629 to -$30,091), uterine fibroid resection (-$1509; 95% CI, -$1754 to -$1280), and peripheral revascularization (-$12,031; 95% CI, -$15,552 to -$8717) and higher for prostatectomy ($1350; 95% CI, $611 to $2212) and carotid revascularization ($4900; 95% CI, $1772 to $8370). Undergoing minimally invasive surgery was associated with missing significantly fewer days of work for coronary revascularization (mean difference, -37.7 days; 95% CI, -41.1 to -34.3), uterine fibroid resection (mean difference, -11.7 days; 95% CI, -14.0 to -9.4), prostatectomy (mean difference, -9.0 days; 95% CI, -14.2 to -3.7), and peripheral revascularization (mean difference, -16.6 days; 95% CI, -28.0 to -5.2). For 3 of 6 types of surgery studied, minimally invasive

  2. Mining and minerals policy: 1976 bicentennial edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The report is organized into three basic parts. The first part, the Executive Summary, provides a brief description of the major topics and lists the issues and recommendations. The report then is divided into two sections. Section I, Summary, is comprised of three chapters: Increased Energy Security; Metals and Nonmetallic Minerals; and Trends and Events. Section II, Issues in Energy and Minerals Policy, is comprised of seven chapters: Federal Leasing; The Federal Role in Reducing the Fiscal Impacts of Energy Development; Availability of Federal Lands for Mineral Exploration and Development; Environmental Issues and the Mineral Industry; Developments in International Minerals Trade and Investment; Ocean Mining; and The Development of New Tools for Energy and Minerals Policy Analysis. (MCW)

  3. The Relationships Between Lost Work Time and Duration of Absence Spells: Proposal for a Payroll Driven Measure of Absenteeism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James J.; Slade, Martin D.; Cantley, Linda; Vegso, Sally; Fiellin, Martha; Cullen, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To propose a standard measure of absenteeism (the work lost rate [WLR]) be included in future research to facilitate understanding and allow for translation of findings between scientific disciplines. Methods Hourly payroll data derived from “punch clock” reports was used to compare various measures of absenteeism used in the literature and the application of the proposed metric (N = 4000 workers). Results Unpaid hours and full absent days were highly correlated with the WLR (r = 0.896 to 0.898). The highest percentage of unpaid hours (lost work time) is captured by absence spells of 1 and 2 days duration. Conclusion The proposed WLR metric captures: 1) The range and distribution of the individual WLRs, 2) the percentage of subjects with no unpaid hours, and 3) the population WLR and should be included whenever payroll data is used to measure absenteeism. PMID:18617841

  4. The relationships between lost work time and duration of absence spells: proposal for a payroll driven measure of absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, James J; Slade, Martin D; Cantley, Linda; Vegso, Sally; Fiellin, Martha; Cullen, Mark R

    2008-07-01

    To propose a standard measure of absenteeism (the work lost rate [WLR]) be included in future research to facilitate understanding and allow for translation of findings between scientific disciplines. Hourly payroll data derived from "punch clock" reports was used to compare various measures of absenteeism used in the literature and the application of the proposed metric (N = 4000 workers). Unpaid hours and full absent days were highly correlated with the WLR (r = 0.896 to 0.898). The highest percentage of unpaid hours (lost work time) is captured by absence spells of 1 and 2 days duration. The proposed WLR metric captures: 1) The range and distribution of the individual WLRs, 2) the percentage of subjects with no unpaid hours, and 3) the population WLR and should be included whenever payroll data is used to measure absenteeism.

  5. The impact of sexual harassment on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and absenteeism: findings from Pakistan compared to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkin, Rebecca S; Shah, Muhammad Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast how differences in perceptions of sexual harassment impact productive work environments for employees in Pakistan as compared to the US; in particular, how it affects job satisfaction, turnover, and/or absenteeism. This study analyzed employee responses in Pakistan (n = 146) and the United States (n = 102, 76) using questionnaire data. Significant results indicated that employees who were sexually harassed reported (a) a decrease in job satisfaction (b) greater turnover intentions and (c) a higher rate of absenteeism. Cross-cultural comparisons indicated that (a) Pakistani employees who were sexually harassed had greater job dissatisfaction and higher overall absenteeism than did their US counterparts and (b) Pakistani women were more likely to use indirect strategies to manage sexual harassment than were US targets.

  6. Absenteeism and Presenteeism among Care Workers in Swiss Nursing Homes and Their Association with Psychosocial Work Environment: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dhaini, Suzanne; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Simon, Michael; Kunz, Regina; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, René

    2016-01-01

    Worker productivity is central to the success of organizations such as healthcare institutions. However, both absenteeism and presenteeism impair that productivity. While various hospital studies have examined the prevalence of presenteeism and absenteeism and its associated factors among care workers, evidence from nursing home settings is scarce.

  7. Absenteeism and Presenteeism among Care Workers in Swiss Nursing Homes and Their Association with Psychosocial Work Environment: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Suzanne; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Simon, Michael; Kunz, Regina; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, René

    2016-01-01

    Worker productivity is central to the success of organizations such as healthcare institutions. However, both absenteeism and presenteeism impair that productivity. While various hospital studies have examined the prevalence of presenteeism and absenteeism and its associated factors among care workers, evidence from nursing home settings is scarce. To explore care workers' self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism in relation to nursing homes' psychosocial work environment factors. We performed a cross-sectional study utilizing survey data of 3,176 professional care workers in 162 Swiss nursing homes collected between May 2012 and April 2013. A generalized estimating equation ordinal logistic regression model was used to explore associations between psychosocial work environment factors (leadership, staffing resources, work stressors, affective organizational commitment, collaboration with colleagues and supervisors, support from other personnel, job satisfaction, job autonomy) and self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism. Absenteeism and presenteeism were observed in 15.6 and 32.9% of care workers, respectively. While absenteeism showed no relationship with the work environment, low presenteeism correlated with high leadership ratings (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.48) and adequate staffing resources (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.38). Self-reported presenteeism is more common than absenteeism in Swiss nursing homes, and leadership and staffing resource adequacy are significantly associated with presenteeism, but not with absenteeism. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Working conditions of nurses and absenteeism: is there a relationship? An empirical analysis using National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbhandary, Sameer; Basu, Kisalaya

    2010-10-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between the working conditions and illness- and injury-related absenteeism of full-time Registered Nurses (RNs) and Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs). We used 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses, which was designed to be representative of nurses employed in nursing in Canada in the fall of 2005. We estimated Negative Binomial regression models separately for RNs and LPNs with health related absenteeism as the dependent variable. The regressors include working conditions, work settings, and shift type/length along with socio-demographic variables. Depression is a significant determinant of absenteeism for both RNs and LPNs. However, workload and lack of respect are significant determinant of absenteeism for LPNs but not for RNs. Both RNs and LPNs working in other setting (physician offices, private nursing educations, educational institutions, governments and associations) will have less absenteeism than those working in hospitals. For LPNs, those working in long-term facility will also have less absenteeism than those working in hospitals. The length and type of shift also has significant effect on absenteeism. Improving working conditions with a resulting reduction in absenteeism might be an economic way to increase the labour supply of nurses without increasing new admissions or new recruits. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Absenteeism due to mental health problems and systems for return to work: an internet-based unmatched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doki, Shotaro; Sasahara, Shinichiro; Hirai, Yasuhito; Oi, Yuichi; Matsuzaki, Ichiyo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for absenteeism due to mental health problems with regard to company characteristics and systems for return to work in Japan. This was an Internet-based unmatched case-control study. Two hundred and fifty-eight workers who experienced over 28 days of sick leave due to mental health problems (cases) and 258 workers who have not taken sick leave (controls) were recruited. Company characteristics and the awareness and presence of systems for return to work were analysed as indicators of absenteeism. A total of 501 workers were included in the analysis. Females were less likely to experience absenteeism when adjustments were made for both the awareness and presence of systems [odds ratio (OR) = 0.51 and 0.41, respectively]. Large companies showed an increased risk of having absentee workers than small companies. The awareness of a gradual resumption system and the presence of a sick pay system were related to absenteeism (OR = 2.75 and 2.40, respectively). The awareness and presence of systems for return to work are related to the long-term absenteeism. The predictors of sex and company size are also related to the experience of the long-term absenteeism. To understand the effect of systems for return to work on absenteeism due to mental problems, further studies are needed.

  10. Excused and Unexcused--The Value of Labeling an Absence. Chronic Absenteeism in Oregon Elementary Schools. Part 4 of 4. September 2016. Research Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This four part series of research briefs summarized detailed analysis of attendance and chronic absenteeism in Oregon. Brief 1 highlighted the importance of tracking chronic absenteeism rather than average daily attendance. The second brief in this series focused on student outcomes and attendance. Research suggests, and Oregon Department of…

  11. An Analysis of Tardiness, Absenteeism, and Academic Achievement of 9th Grade Students in a Selected School District in Southeastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, Donald

    2011-01-01

    As schools try to meet state and federal requirements of No Child Left Behind, student academic achievement becomes a crucial part of that standard. However, schools are faced with challenges that may hinder overall student success. Some secondary schools are struggling with student tardiness and absenteeism. Tardies and absenteeism have an impact…

  12. In-center hemodialysis absenteeism: prevalence and association with outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray KS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn S Gray, Dena E Cohen, Steven M Brunelli DaVita Clinical Research, Minneapolis, MN, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of missed treatments among hemodialysis (HD patients, and the association between treatment nonadherence and clinical outcomes.Data source: The data used in this study were based on electronic medical records and Medicare claims.Study design: This is a retrospective, observational study.Principal findings: HD patients miss 9.9% of all treatments. Approximately half of the missed treatments are due to observable medical events, predominantly hospitalizations, while half result from nonadherence (“absence”. A single absence is associated with a 1.4-fold greater risk of hospitalization, and a 2.2-fold greater risk of death in the subsequent 30 days.Conclusion: Treatment nonadherence is common among HD patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. Interventions that improve adherence may improve patient health and reduce costs. Keywords: Medicare, ambulatory/outpatient care, epidemiology, chronic disease

  13. Absenteeism following a workplace intervention for older food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siukola, A; Virtanen, P; Huhtala, H; Nygård, C-H

    2011-12-01

    The effects of workplace interventions on sickness absence are poorly understood, in particular in ageing workers. To analyse the effects of a senior programme on sickness absence among blue-collar food industry workers of a food company in Finland. We followed up 129 employees aged 55 years or older, who participated in a senior programme (intervention group), and 229 employees of the same age from the same company who did not participate (control group). Total sickness absence days and spells of 1-3, 4-7, 8-21 and >21 days were recorded for the members of the intervention group from the year before joining the programme and for the control group starting at age 54 years. Both groups were followed for up to 6 years. The median number of sickness absence days per person-year increased significantly from baseline in both groups during the follow-up. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had increased risk for 1-3 days spells [rate ratio 1.34 (1.21-1.48)] and 4-7 days spells [rate ratio 1.23 (1.07-1.41)], but the risk for >21 days spells was decreased [rate ratio 0.68 (0.53-0.88)] after participation in the senior programme. A programme to enhance individual work well-being in ageing workers may increase short-term but reduce long-term sickness absence.

  14. Who is working while sick? Nonstandard employment and its association with absenteeism and presenteeism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ja Young; Lee, Joohee; Muntaner, Carles; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to examine whether nonstandard employment is associated with presenteeism as well as absenteeism among full-time employees in South Korea. We analyzed a cross-sectional survey of 26,611 full-time employees from the third wave of the Korean Working Conditions Survey in 2011. Experience of absenteeism and presenteeism during the past 12 months was assessed through self-reports. Employment condition was classified into six categories based on two contract types (parent firm and subcontract) and three contract durations [permanent (≥1 year, no fixed term), long term (≥1 year, fixed term), and short term (absenteeism and presenteeism after adjusting for covariates. Compared to parent firm-permanent employment, which has been often regarded as a standard employment, absenteeism was not associated or negatively associated with all nonstandard employment conditions except parent firm-long term employment (OR 1.88; 95 % CI 1.57, 2.26). However, presenteeism was positively associated with parent firm-long term (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.42, 1.91), subcontract-long term (OR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.12, 2.32), and subcontract-short term (OR 1.26; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.56) employment. Our results found that most nonstandard employment may increase risk of presenteeism, but not absenteeism. These results suggest that previous findings about the protective effects of nonstandard employment on absenteeism may be explained by nonstandard workers being forced to work when sick.

  15. The mediating role of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on the link between psychosocial factors and absenteeism among administrative workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifli; Othman, Abdul Kadir; Ahmad, Mohamad Fahimi; Justine, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between psychosocial factors (i.e., job demand, decision latitude, social support, physical environment, and personal risk factors), work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), and productivity as measured by workers' perceived absenteeism. Data were collected from the selected administrative workers (administrative assistant) and analyzed using cross tabulation. The results indicate that all psychological factors are not significantly associated with WRMDs, except for the association between personal risk factors and hip/thigh disorders. Subsequently, WRMDs do not significantly contribute to explaining absenteeism. The managerial and research implications of this study are deliberately discussed.

  16. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  17. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  18. Mineral commodity summaries 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Each chapter of the 2015 edition of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries (MCS) includes information on events, trends, and issues for each mineral commodity as well as discussions and tabular presentations on domestic industry structure, Government programs, tariffs, 5-year salient statistics, and world production and resources. The MCS is the earliest comprehensive source of 2014 mineral production data for the world. More than 90 individual minerals and materials are covered by two-page synopses.

  19. Are happy employees healthy employees? Researching the effects of employee engagement on absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxsey, Dann

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, a survey was conducted to measure the levels of workplace engagement for British Columbian civil servants. Following the Heskett et al. model of the “service profit chain” (1994, 2002), the government's primary concerns were the increasing attrition rates and their effects on service delivery. Essentially, the model demonstrated that employees who were more engaged were more committed to their work and more likely to stay within the civil service and that this culminated in improved customer service. Under the joint rubrics of absenteeism and job satisfaction, this study uses a construct of engagement (i.e., job satisfaction) to test whether different levels of engagement have any effect on the amount of sick time (absenteeism) an employee incurs. Specifically, the author looks at whether there is any correlation between the amount of sick time used and an individual's level of engagement and proposes that there is an inverse negative relationship: as job engagement increases, sick time used decreases. Testing the old adage “A happy employee is a healthy employee,” this research demonstrates that, though a more engaged employee may use less sick time, the differences in use between highly engaged employees and those not engaged are fairly marginal and that correlations are further confounded by a host of other (often missing) factors.

  20. Attendance dynamics at work: the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Presenteeism is attending work when ill. This study examined the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss attributed to presenteeism. Predictors included work context, personal characteristics, and work experiences. Business school graduates employed in a variety of work positions (N = 444) completed a Web-based survey. Presenteeism was positively associated with task significance, task interdependence, ease of replacement, and work to family conflict and negatively associated with neuroticism, equity, job security, internal health locus of control, and the perceived legitimacy of absence. Absenteeism was positively related to task significance, perceived absence legitimacy, and family to work conflict and negatively related to task interdependence and work to family conflict. Those high on neuroticism, the unconscientious, the job-insecure, those who viewed absence as more legitimate, and those experiencing work-family conflict reported more productivity loss. Overall, the results reveal the value of a behavioral approach to presenteeism over and above a strict medical model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Musculoskeletal disorders in shipyard industry: prevalence, health care use, and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinou Eleni

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the well-known risk factors for the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD also play an important role in the determining consequences of MSD in terms of sickness absence and health care use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 853 shipyard employees. Data were collected by questionnaire on physical and psychosocial workload, need for recovery, perceived general health, occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints, and health care use during the past year. Retrospective data on absenteeism were also available from the company register. Results In total, 37%, 22%, and 15% of employees reported complaints of low back, shoulder/neck, and hand/wrist during the past 12 months, respectively. Among all employees with at least one MSD, 27% visited a physician at least once and 20% took at least one period of sick leave. Various individual and work-related factors were associated with the occurrence of MSD. Health care use and absenteeism were strongest influenced by chronicity of musculoskeletal complaints and comorbidity with other musculoskeletal complaints and, to a lesser extent, by work-related factors. Conclusion In programmes aimed at preventing the unfavourable consequences of MSD in terms of sickness absence and health care use it is important to identify the (individual factors that determine the development of chronicity of complaints. These factors may differ from the well-know risk factors for the occurrence of MSD that are targeted in primary prevention.

  2. The impact of roster changes on absenteeism and incident frequency in an Australian coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A.; Heiler, K.; Ferguson, S.A. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Woodville, SA (Australia). Center for Sleep Research

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact on employee health and safety of changes to the roster system in an Australian coal mine. Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. Period 1 covered the original 8-hour/7-day roster. Period 2 covered a 12-month period under a 12-hour/7-day schedule, and period 3 covered a 12-month period during which a roster that scheduled shifts only on weekdays, with uncapped overtime on weekends and days off (12-hour/5-day) was in place. Data were collected and analysed from the maintenance, mining, and coal preparation plant (CPP) sectors. The study did not find significant negative effects of a 12-hour pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. However, when unregulated and excessive overtime was introduced as part of the 12-hour/5-day roster, absenteeism rates were increased in the maintenance sector. The combination of excessive work hours and lack of consultation with employees regarding the second change may have contributed to the overall negative effects.

  3. High school students with asthma: attitudes about school health, absenteeism, and its impact on academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenitsky-Korn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is the most frequent reason for absence from school; it accounts for one-third of all days of missed instruction, placing students at risk for academic failure and social isolation. This study compared high school students with asthma with those without asthma, and examined the relationship of their attitudes toward school health services, absenteeism, academic achievement, and the supposition that school nurse services play an essential part in the academic process. Surveys were completed by all students who participated in the study. Twenty-eight students with asthma reported levels of illness and school nurse support in an additional survey. Data revealed that students with asthma were absent more frequently, scored lower in mathematics, and participated less in school activities than their peers without asthma. Their level of illness did not predict the number of days absent, which was negatively correlated with achievement and positively correlated with students' permissive attitudes toward absenteeism. Findings indicate that school nurse interventions were sources of physical, social, emotional, and academic support.

  4. The Association Between Electronic Bullying and School Absenteeism Among High School Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshteyn, Erin; Yang, Y T

    2017-02-01

    We examined the relationship between exposure to electronic bullying and absenteeism as a result of being afraid. This multivariate, multinomial regression analysis of the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data assessed the association between experiencing electronic bullying in the past year and how often students were absent in the last month due to feeling unsafe at/in transit to school. The model controlled for other predictors of school absence including demographics, physical/behavioral health, and risk factors. Missing data were multiply imputed. Electronic bullying was significantly associated with absences. Controlling for model covariates, the relative risk of missing 1 day of school was 1.77 times higher, the relative risk of missing 2 to 3 days of school per month increased by a factor of 2.08, and the relative risk of missing 4 or more days of school per month increased by a factor of 1.77 for those who experienced electronic bullying in the past year compared with those who were not electronically bullied. Electronic bullying's association with absenteeism places it among already recognized negative influences such as depression and binge drinking, necessitating schools to implement policies to mediate the resulting harmful effects. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  5. Influence of children's oral health-related quality of life on school performance and school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Guedes, Renata Saraiva; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the relation of child oral health-related quality of life with school performance and school absenteeism. We followed a cross-sectional design with a multistage random sample of 312 12-year-old schoolchildren living in Brazil. The participants completed the child perceptions questionnaire (CPQ(11-14) ) that provides information about psychological factors, while their parents or guardians answered questions on their socioeconomic status measured by parents' education level and household income. A dental examination of each child provided information on the prevalence of caries and dental trauma. Data on school performance, which included the results of baseline Brazilian language (Portuguese) tests, and school absenteeism (school days missed) were obtained from the school register. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate the association among psychological and socioeconomic status and children's school performance. In the multiple model, after adjusting for individual covariates, being a girl was associated with higher school performance (P Children's school performance and absence were influenced by psychological and socioeconomic conditions. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  6. Workplace mistreatment and sickness absenteeism from work: results from the 2010 National Health Interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay G; Chang, Chia C; Ray, Tapas K

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the association between workplace mistreatment and occurrence, duration, and costs of sickness absenteeism. We used the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and considered 13,807 employed adult respondents. We used a zero-inflated negative binomial (zinb) model to examine the association between exposure to workplace mistreatment and the occurrence and number of workdays missed due to illness/injury in the preceding 12 months. In 2010, 7.6% of US workers employed at the time of the survey reported having been mistreated at their workplace. Both occurrence and duration of sickness absence were higher for mistreated than for non-mistreated workers. The zinb results showed that being mistreated was associated with a 42% increase in the number of missed workdays, controlling for covariates. The marginal effect analysis showed that lost workdays differed by 2.45 days between mistreated and non-mistreated workers. This implies that workplace mistreatment was associated with $4.1 billion, or 5.5%, of sickness absenteeism costs in 2010. Workplace mistreatment is associated with sickness absence in the United States. While a causal relationship could not be established due to the cross-sectional design of the study, this study reveals the economic importance of developing workplace mistreatment prevention strategies. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Resilience and organisational empowerment among long-term care nurses: effects on patient care and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jaime; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Ghandehari, Omeed O; Malloy, David C; Hunter, Paulette V; Martin, Ronald R

    2016-04-01

    To study resilience among long-term care (LTC) nurses and its relationship to organisational empowerment, self-reported quality of care, perceptions of resident personhood (i.e. viewing another person as a person, implying respect) and absenteeism. Although resilience has been examined among nurses, it has not been studied in LTC nurses where resident rates of dementia are high, and nurses may experience stress affecting care and the way residents are perceived. A sample of one hundred and thirty LTC nurses from across North America completed a series of questionnaires. Resilient nurses were more likely to report higher quality of care and to view residents as having higher personhood status (despite deteriorating cognitive function). Resilience was not predictive of absenteeism. Organisational empowerment did not add to the predictive power of resilience. Resilience is of importance in LTC nursing research and future studies could examine this construct in relation to objectively measured resident outcomes. Our findings suggest that interventions to improve LTC staff resilience would be important to pursue and that consideration should be given to resilience in optimizing the match between potential staff members and LTC positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differential economic stability and psychosocial stress at work: associations with psychosomatic complaints and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Isabelle; Kittel, France

    2004-04-01

    Stressful working conditions are well known to have a negative impact on the worker's health. We investigated this association in a Belgian study with a psychosocial health perspective, including individual work characteristics as well as firms' features. These data come from the first measure of the Somstress study. This is a 4 year project, initiated in 1999 and conducted in four different firms. The objective of this article is to investigate the relationships between stress, working conditions and absenteeism, self-reported health and psychosomatic complaints. Firms were selected according to their degree of structural environment and job stability. Among the four work sites, one can be considered as stable, one unstable and the remaining ones in an in-between situation. Stress is generally measured according to one of the following models: the job demands control model (Karasek) and the effort-reward imbalance model (Siegrist). We used here both models, along with the social support at work (Karasek) and overcommitment (Siegrist). Sex, age and education are important health determinants. After adjustment for those three variables and additionally for the work instability, it appeared that poor health outcomes (measured by the self-rated health, depression (SCL-90), anxiety (SCL-90), somatisation (SCL-90), chronic fatigue (Vercoulen) and reported absenteeism) are mainly associated with a low control, low social support at work, high overcommitment and high level of imbalance. Inversely, job demands do not make any significant contribution in the logistic regression models for the above-mentioned health outcomes.

  9. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, K.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  10. Fissure minerals, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.Aa.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a review of methods used for direct and indirect dating of tectonic events. Isotope geochemistry including stable isotopes as well as fission track- dating, fluid inclusion and thermoluminescens techniques have been considered. It has been concluded that an investigation of tectonic (and thermal) events should start with a detailed study of the mineral phases grown in seald fissures as well as minerals from fissure walls. This study should include phase identification, textures as well as mineral chemistry. The information from this study is fundamental for the decision of further investigations. Mineral chemistry including isotopes and fluid inclusion studies will give an essential knowledge about crystallization conditions for fissure minerals concerned. Direct dating using fission tracks as well as radioactive isotopes could be useful for some minerals. Application of thermoluminescens dating on fissure minerals is doubtful. (Auth.)

  11. School environmental conditions and links to academic performance and absenteeism in urban, mid-Atlantic public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, J D; McCormack, M C; Koehler, K A; Connolly, F; Clemons-Erby, D; Davis, M F; Gummerson, C; Leaf, P J; Jones, T D; Curriero, F C

    2018-05-02

    School facility conditions, environment, and perceptions of safety and learning have been investigated for their impact on child development. However, it is important to consider how the environment separately influences academic performance and attendance after controlling for school and community factors. Using results from the Maryland School Assessment, we considered outcomes of school-level proficiency in reading and math plus attendance and chronic absences, defined as missing 20 or more days, for grades 3-5 and 6-8 at 158 urban schools. Characteristics of the environment included school facility conditions, density of nearby roads, and an index industrial air pollution. Perceptions of school safety, learning, and institutional environment were acquired from a School Climate Survey. Also considered were neighborhood factors at the community statistical area, including demographics, crime, and poverty based on school location. Poisson regression adjusted for over-dispersion was used to model academic achievement and multiple linear models were used for attendance. Each 10-unit change in facility condition index, denoting worse quality buildings, was associated with a decrease in reading (1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9%) and math scores (0.21% (95% CI: 0.20-0.40), while chronic absences increased by 0.75% (95% CI: 0.30-1.39). Each log increase the EPA's Risk Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) value for industrial hazards, resulted in a marginally significant trend of increasing absenteeism (p < 0.06), but no association was observed with academic achievement. All results were robust to school-level measures of racial composition, free and reduced meals eligibility, and community poverty and crime. These findings provide empirical evidence for the importance of the community and school environment, including building conditions and neighborhood toxic substance risk, on academic achievement and attendance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Absenteísmo na enfermagem: uma revisão integrativa Absentismo en enfermería: una revisión integrativa Absenteeism in nursing: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Cristiene Nachtigall Barboza Martinato

    2010-03-01

    interferes with client care, overwhelms other staff members and can cause serious diseases. The purpose of this study is to analyze the national scientific production and abstracts of articles published from 2003 to 2008, that cover the theme of absenteeism among nursing professionals. We carried out an online search in four databases: LILACS, SciELO, BDENF and CAPES Portal. Two themes emerged by the end of the analysis: (1 Diseases that generate absenteeism among nursing professionals and (2 strategies designed to reduce absenteeism. We concluded that nurses are affected by a number of health problems, and this is one of the causes of their absenteeism. Staff dimensioning and formulation of preventive actions are highlighted as strategies to improve working conditions and reduce absenteeism.

  13. Using Group Counseling to Improve the Attendance of Elementary School Students with High Rates of Absenteeism: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb-Landman, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    The foundations of academic and social learning are laid in the early years of school, and attendance is critical to school success. However, research suggests that chronic absenteeism is a significant problem at the elementary school level (Chang & Romero, 2008; Romero & Lee, 2007). This paper presents the results of an action research…

  14. Effects of a Municipal Government's Worksite Exercise Program on Employee Absenteeism, Health Care Costs, and Variables Associated with Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Angela W.; Howze, Elizabeth H.

    The Blacksburg (Virginia) municipal government's worksite exercise program, developed in response to rising health insurance premiums, was evaluated to determine its effect on health care costs and employee absenteeism. Thirty-two employees who participated in the program for 4.5 years were compared to 32 nonparticipating employees. The program…

  15. The Impact of Class Absenteeism on Undergraduates' Academic Performance: Evidence from an Elite Economics School in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The empirical literature focusing mainly on the USA suggests that class absenteeism undermines students' academic performance and that an enforced mandatory attendance policy may be beneficial. Based on a different cultural and economic context, and using data on 146 second-year management students enrolled in a macroeconomics course at an elite…

  16. Correlates of school dropout and absenteeism among adolescent girls from marginalized community in north Karnataka, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Beattie, Tara; Javalkar, Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thalinja, Raghavendra; Murthy, Srikanta; Davey, Calum; Blanchard, James; Watts, Charlotte; Collumbien, Martine; Moses, Stephen; Heise, Lori; Isac, Shajy

    2017-12-01

    Secondary education among lower caste adolescent girls living in rural Karnataka, South India, is characterized by high rates of school drop-out and absenteeism. A cross-sectional baseline survey (N=2275) was conducted in 2014 as part of a cluster-randomized control trial among adolescent girls (13-14 year) and their families from marginalized communities in two districts of north Karnataka. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used. Overall, 8.7% girls reported secondary school dropout and 8.1% reported frequent absenteeism (past month). In adjusted analyses, economic factors (household poverty; girls' work-related migration), social norms and practices (child marriage; value of girls' education), and school-related factors (poor learning environment and bullying/harassment at school) were associated with an increased odds of school dropout and absenteeism. Interventions aiming to increase secondary school retention among marginalized girls may require a multi-level approach, with synergistic components that address social, structural and economic determinants of school absenteeism and dropout. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Antecedents and consequences of employee absenteeism: A longitudinal perspective on the role of job satisfaction and burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema, J.F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelations between registered employee absenteeism, job satisfaction, and burnout in a longitudinal design with four yearly waves of data. The participants were 844 workers in 34 companies in The Netherlands. In line with the predictions, a reciprocal relationship between

  18. A Study on the Impact of Military Parent Deployment on Student Performance; Academic Achievement, Absenteeism, Discipline, and Counselor Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if parents' military deployment had an impact on the academic achievement of their children. The study examined if there were a parallel between parental military deployment and absenteeism, parental deployment and discipline, and parental deployment and counselor visits. The study also examined if…

  19. Preschool Attendance: How Researchers and Practitioners Are Working Together to Understand and Address Absenteeism among Our Youngest Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Stacy B.; Gwynne, Julia; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Fatani, Serah

    2016-01-01

    Consistent school attendance is a key foundation of student learning. While missing one or two school days each year is not likely to have serious consequences, chronic absenteeism (missing 10% or more of enrolled school days) can seriously undermine the learning process (Allensworth & Easton, 2007). Given national efforts to increase the…

  20. The impact of conscientiousness, mastery, and work circumstances on subsequent absenteeism in employees with and without affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Almar A L; Plaisier, Inger; Smit, Johannes H; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2017-03-29

    High numbers of employees are coping with affective disorders. At the same time, ambitiousness, achievement striving and a strong sense of personal control and responsibility are personality characteristics that are nowadays regarded as key to good work functioning, whereas social work circumstances tend to be neglected. However, it is largely unkown how personality characteristics and work circumstances affect work functioning when facing an affective disorder. Given the high burden of affective disorders on occupational health, we investigate these issues in the context of affective disorders and absenteeism from work. The principal aim of this paper is to examine whether particular personality characteristics that reflect self-governance (conscientiousness and mastery) and work circumstances (demands, control, support) influence the impact of affective disorders on long-term absenteeism (>10 working days). Baseline and 1-year follow-up data from 1249 participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) in 2004-2006 was employed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, including interaction effects between depressive, anxiety, and comorbid disorders and personality and work circumstances. In general, mastery and conscientiousness increased nor diminished odds of subsequent long-term absenteeism, whereas higher job support significantly decreased these odds. Interaction effects showed that the impact of affective disorders on absenteeism was stronger for highly conscientious employees and for employees who experienced high job demands. Affective disorders may particularly severely affect work functioning of employees who are highly conscientious or face high psychological job demands. Adjusting working conditions to their individual needs may prevent excessive work absence.