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Sample records for reducing manufacturing costs

  1. Lean Manufacturing Implementation: an Approach to Reduce Production Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraswari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Lean Manufacturing Implementation: An Approach To Reduce Production Cost. Opportunities to improve production processes and reduce production cost through the implementation of lean manufacturing in small medium garment manufacturing are presented in this research. This research shows that there is a possibility of decrease in production cost and increase in return on sales. Lean manufacturing implementation can eliminate waste in the production process. This is a set of techniques for identification and elimination of waste gathered from The Ford Production, Statistical Process Control and other techniques. Improvement of quality could be carried out while time and cost of production are being reduced.

  2. Operating Costs Reducing in MDF Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coeve Florino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sustained efforts by electric motors when subjected to cutting, trimming or finishing are directly related to the material being machined and the angle of attack of the tool. Choosing the right tool for this operation depends on an expected result. So the engines behave differently to each operation. The optimization between strength, speed, power, material and type of operation, can be found to reduce operational costs of production, besides determining the exact time to make the set-up of worn tool. The reduction in operating costs is an item of sustainability that outlines the strategic positioning on companies to become competitive in the global marketplace. With the great technological development present today, this issue goes away with the very latest products on the market for professionals who productivity will be dealt with in these modern maintenance equipment such as power quality analyzer, Imager, profile projector and microscope for research. The result of this work is the optimization of the cutting operation and energy consumption thereby demonstrating an optimum point of operation in a case study presented in this work.

  3. Using Additive Manufacturing to Reduce the Cost of Instrument Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Additive Manufacturing (AM), commonly known as 3D printing, is widely used in the commercial sector for the manufacture of consumer goods, high performance parts for...

  4. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  5. Reduced Multivariate Polynomial Model for Manufacturing Costs Estimation of Piping Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibaldo Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an estimation model of manufacturing costs of piping elements through the application of a Reduced Multivariate Polynomial (RMP. The model allows obtaining accurate estimations, even when enough and adequate information is not available. This situation typically occurs in the early stages of the design process of industrial products. The experimental evaluations show that the approach is capable, with a low complexity, of reducing uncertainties and to predict costs with significant precision. Comparisons with a neural network showed also that the RMP performs better considering a set of classical performance measures with the corresponding lower complexity and higher accuracy.

  6. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  7. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  8. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa, E-mail: jcft@cdtn.b, E-mail: masl@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Protecao Radiologica; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SECPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Secao de Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of {sup 18}FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  9. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of 18 FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  10. Dramatically improve the Safety Performance of Li ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using Ultraviolet Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objective of this project was to improve the safety of operation of Lithium ion batteries (LIB)and at the same time significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of LIB separators. The project was very successful in demonstrating the improved performance and reduced cost attributed to using UV curable binder and high speed printing technology to place a very thin and precisely controlled ceramic layer on the surface of base separators made of polyolefins such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and combinations of the two as well as cellulosic base separators. The underlying need for this new technology is the recently identified potential of fire in large format Lithium ion batteries used in hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The primary potential cause of battery fire is thermal runaway caused by several different electrical or mechanical mechanisms; such as, overcharge, puncture, overheating, compaction, and internal short circuit. During thermal runaway, the ideal separator prevents ion flow and continues to physically separate the anode from the cathode. If the temperature of the battery gets higher, the separator may melt and partially clog the pores and help prevent ion flows but it also can shrink which can result in physical contact of the electrodes and accelerate thermal run-away even further. Ceramic coated separators eliminate many of the problems related to the usage of traditional separators. The ceramic coating provides an electrically insulating layer that retains its physical integrity at high temperature, allows for more efficient thermal heat transfer, helps reduce thermal shrinkage, and inhibits dendrite growth that could create a potential short circuit. The use of Ultraviolet (UV) chemistry to bind fine ceramic particles on separators is a unique and innovative approach primarily because of the instant curing of the UV curable binder upon exposure to UV light. This significant reduction in drying/curing time significantly reduces the

  11. Further Cost Reduction of Battery Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir A. Asif

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for batteries for energy storage is growing with the rapid increase in photovoltaics (PV and wind energy installation as well as electric vehicle (EV, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV. Electrochemical batteries have emerged as the preferred choice for most of the consumer product applications. Cost reduction of batteries will accelerate the growth in all of these sectors. Lithium-ion (Li-ion and solid-state batteries are showing promise through their downward price and upward performance trends. We may achieve further performance improvement and cost reduction for Li-ion and solid-state batteries through reduction of the variation in physical and electrical properties. These properties can be improved and made uniform by considering the electrical model of batteries and adopting novel manufacturing approaches. Using quantum-photo effect, the incorporation of ultra-violet (UV assisted photo-thermal processing can reduce metal surface roughness. Using in-situ measurements, advanced process control (APC can help ensure uniformity among the constituent electrochemical cells. Industrial internet of things (IIoT can streamline the production flow. In this article, we have examined the issue of electrochemical battery manufacturing of Li-ion and solid-state type from cell-level to battery-level process variability, and proposed potential areas where improvements in the manufacturing process can be made. By incorporating these practices in the manufacturing process we expect reduced cost of energy management system, improved reliability and yield gain with the net saving of manufacturing cost being at least 20%.

  12. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    1 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL M terey, California 0 DTIC II ELECTE R AD%$° NO 0,19880 -- THESIS COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO NO ACCESSION NO 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) E COST ACCOUNTING IN THE AUTOMATED MANUFACTURING...GROUP ’" Cost Accounting ; Product Costing ; Automated Manufacturing; CAD/CAM- CIM 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by blo

  13. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  14. Evaluation of cost reduction method for manufacturing ODS ferritic claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Masayuki; Mizuta, Shunji; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2000-04-01

    For evaluating the fast reactor system technology, it is important to evaluate the practical feasibility of ODS ferritic claddings, which is the most promising materials to attain the goal of high coolant temperature and more than 150 GWd/t. Based on the results of their technology development, mass production process with highly economically benefit as well as manufacturing cost estimation of ODS ferritic claddings were preliminarily conducted. From the view point of future utility scale, the cost for manufacturing mother tubes has a dominant factor in the total manufacturing cost. The method to reduce the cost of mother tube manufacturing was also preliminarily investigated. (author)

  15. Reduced cost of ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyse, W.H.; Newton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    There is common drive throughout industry towards reduced costs of ownership of plant and equipment. Rolls-Royce and Associates Ltd. has developed the systems and expertise necessary to achieve these objectives. This Paper outlines the methods being used on existing facilities, and describes a new all embracing process called Planned Lifetime Management. This process, based on the military standard Integrated Logistic Support, ensures that all aspects of support are clearly identified at the design stage and that support is monitored to allow through-life support costs to be optimized. (author)

  16. Low-cost solar module manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Roger G.; Nowlan, Michael J.; Matthei, Keith W.; Darkazalli, Ghazi

    1997-01-01

    As the market for terrestrial photovoltaic modules expands beyond the 80 MW per year level, module manufacturers are adopting a number of cost-reduction strategies, including the use of higher throughput equipment, increased process automation, and the fabrication of larger area cells and modules. This paper reviews recent activities at Spire Corporation in the development of advanced module manufacturing and testing equipment

  17. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  18. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Reuschle, K.; Baier, B.

    2002-01-01

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.) [de

  19. Photovoltaic technology, performance, manufacturing cost and markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of key aspects of photovoltaic energy conversion systems will provide the basis for forecasting PV module shipments from 1999 to 2010. Principal areas covered include: (1) Technology and Performance Status: The module efficiency and performance are described for commercial cell technologies including single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, ribbon silicon, film silicon on low cost substrate, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride; (2) Manufacturing cost: 1999 costs for PV technologies in production (single crystal silicon, polycrystal silicon, and amorphous silicon) are developed. Manufacturing costs for 10--25 MW plants and 100 MW plants will be estimated; (3) The world PV market is summarized by region, top ten companies, and technology; and (4) Forecast of the World Market (seven market sectors) to 2010 will be presented. Key assumptions, price of modules, incentive programs, price of competing electricity generation will be detailed

  20. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  1. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  2. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  3. Lean manufacturing implementation in reducing waste for electronic assembly line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Nurul Husna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing is the most convenient way to eliminate unnecessary waste and can provide what customers demand. This paper presents possibilities and sustainability of application of lean manufacturing method by using a virtual simulation of the workers performance in a line production of small and medium industry. Actual case study and Witness simulation were used in this study to find the waste that exists in the production and identified the performance of workers in the production line. Lean manufacturing concept has identified and rectified problems related to low productivity in the assembly line. The case study is involved a line production for electronic part assembly. The result of this preliminary study should illustrate the relationship of worker’s performance by lean manufacturing method as well as the productivity improvements which help to reduce cost for manufacturer. Lean manufacturing method has been used during the study to reduce the cost when waste is eliminated by reducing the workstation without reducing the performance of the production. The performance of the production is increased when allocating the labor in a needed working area. Lastly, the study also proves that the new layout has improved the process to be used for future production process.

  4. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  6. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  7. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  8. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  9. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment

  10. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  11. COST OF QUALITY MODELS AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Vaxevanidis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve quality, an organization must take into account the costs associated with achieving quality since the objective of continuous improvement programs is not only to meet customer requirements, but also to do it at the lowest, possible, cost. This can only obtained by reducing the costs needed to achieve quality, and the reduction of these costs is only possible if they are identified and measured. Therefore, measuring and reporting the cost of quality (CoQ should be considered an important issue for achieving quality excellence. To collect quality costs an organization needs to adopt a framework to classify costs; however, there is no general agreement on a single broad definition of quality costs. CoQ is usually understood as the sum of conformance plus non-conformance costs, where cost of conformance is the price paid for prevention of poor quality (for example, inspection and quality appraisal and cost of non-conformance is the cost of poor quality caused by product and service failure (for example, rework and returns. The objective of this paper is to give a survey of research articles on the topic of CoQ; it opens with a literature review focused on existing CoQ models; then, it briefly presents the most common CoQ parameters and the metrics (indices used for monitoring CoQ. Finally, the use of CoQ models in practice, i.e., the implementation of a quality costing system and cost of quality reporting in companies is discussed, with emphasis in cases concerning manufacturing firms.

  12. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  13. The ITER reduced cost design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2000-01-01

    Six years of joint work under the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) EDA agreement yielded a mature design for ITER which met the objectives set for it (ITER final design report (FDR)), together with a corpus of scientific and technological data, large/full scale models or prototypes of key components/systems and progress in understanding which both validated the specific design and are generally applicable to a next step, reactor-oriented tokamak on the road to the development of fusion as an energy source. In response to requests from the parties to explore the scope for addressing ITER's programmatic objective at reduced cost, the study of options for cost reduction has been the main feature of ITER work since summer 1998, using the advances in physics and technology databases, understandings, and tools arising out of the ITER collaboration to date. A joint concept improvement task force drawn from the joint central team and home teams has overseen and co-ordinated studies of the key issues in physics and technology which control the possibility of reducing the overall investment and simultaneously achieving the required objectives. The aim of this task force is to achieve common understandings of these issues and their consequences so as to inform and to influence the best cost-benefit choice, which will attract consensus between the ITER partners. A report to be submitted to the parties by the end of 1999 will present key elements of a specific design of minimum capital investment, with a target cost saving of about 50% the cost of the ITER FDR design, and a restricted number of design variants. Outline conclusions from the work of the task force are presented in terms of physics, operations, and design of the main tokamak systems. Possible implications for the way forward are discussed

  14. Peranan Metode Activity Based Costing Dalam Menentukan Cost of Goods Manufactured

    OpenAIRE

    Martusa, Riki; Darma, Stephanus Ryan; Carolina, Verani

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know production process of a textile company in Bandung and to analyze the comparison between cost of goods manufactured calculation methods, that applied in the company (traditional costing method) and Activity Based Costing (ABC) method. The obatained data was performed monthly during the year 2009. Based on analysis result, Cost Of Goods Manufactured calculation for unpattern material using ABC method resulted the Cost Of Goods Manufactured that is lower ...

  15. Product costing program for wood component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and timely product costing information is critically important for companies in planning the optimal utilization of company resources. While an overestimation of product costs can lead to loss of potential business and market share, underestimation of product costs can result in financial losses to the company. This article introduces a product costing program...

  16. New transmission interconnection reduces consumer costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-09-15

    The Central American electric interconnection system (SIEPAC) project will involve the construction of a 1830 km 230 kV transmission system that will link Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. The system is expected to alleviate the region's power shortages and reduce electricity costs for consumers. Costs for the SIEPAC project have been estimated at $370 million. The system will serve approximately 37 million customers, and will include 15 substations. The contract for building the electrical equipment has been awarded to Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL) who plan to manufacture components at a plant in Mexico. The equipment will include high speed line protection, automation, and control systems. Line current differential systems and satellite-synchronized clocks will also be used. The new transmission system is expected to be fully operational by 2009. 1 fig.

  17. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  18. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, William R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shehabi, Arman [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Sarah Josephine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  19. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven [Optodot Corporation, Woburn, MA (United States)

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  20. The complexity and cost of vaccine manufacturing - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley; Robinson, James M; Cunningham, Gerard; Iqbal, Robyn; Larsen, Shannon

    2017-07-24

    As companies, countries, and governments consider investments in vaccine production for routine immunization and outbreak response, understanding the complexity and cost drivers associated with vaccine production will help to inform business decisions. Leading multinational corporations have good understanding of the complex manufacturing processes, high technological and R&D barriers to entry, and the costs associated with vaccine production. However, decision makers in developing countries, donors and investors may not be aware of the factors that continue to limit the number of new manufacturers and have caused attrition and consolidation among existing manufacturers. This paper describes the processes and cost drivers in acquiring and maintaining licensure of childhood vaccines. In addition, when export is the goal, we describe the requirements to supply those vaccines at affordable prices to low-resource markets, including the process of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification and supporting policy recommendation. By providing a generalized and consolidated view of these requirements we seek to build awareness in the global community of the benefits and costs associated with vaccine manufacturing and the challenges associated with maintaining consistent supply. We show that while vaccine manufacture may prima facie seem an economic growth opportunity, the complexity and high fixed costs of vaccine manufacturing limit potential profit. Further, for most lower and middle income countries a large majority of the equipment, personnel and consumables will need to be imported for years, further limiting benefits to the local economy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane

    2015-07-01

    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. REDUCING WASTE DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN LEAN MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Jakfar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PT. XYZ is one of some cigarette companies in Indonesia. In producing cigarette, the firm requires a material named “etiket” which is produced by printing division for internal consumers of PT. XYZ. merupakan salah satu dari beberapa produsen rokok di Indonesia yang telah dikenal masyarakat. In order to produce “etiket”, there are some wastes occurred. One of wastes occurred in printing division is product defects. This paper attempts to identify wastes in the division of printing using Lean Manufacturing approach by applying Value Stream Mapping (VSM method. The results from Cause Root analysis found that the problems caused the defects in production process. It shows that the most wastes occurs in the printing division are product defect and waiting time. The product defects are caused because there is no standard applied in processing the product and poor inspections by management, while the causes of waiting time wastes is because of lack of carrier and no standard in each process. The recommendation can be suggested to the company are adding some carrier (product’s transporter, creating process standard in each process.

  3. Cost, resources, and energy efficiency of additive manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Dudek Piotr; Zagórski Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make objects from Computer Aided Design (CAD) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to using subtractive manufacturing methods. The use of rapid prototyping technologies has increased significantly in recent years. These new techniques, while still evolving, are projected to exert a profound impact on manufacturing. They can reduce energy use and time to market and offer industry new design flexibility. We include a...

  4. Reducing Supply Chain GHG Emissions from LCD Panel Manufacturing Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-GHGs) are among the most potent and persistent greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Learn about the manufacturing processes which release F-GHGs, and how LCD suppliers are working to reduce emissions.

  5. Reducing of Manufacturing Lead Time by Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Salem Ketan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations today are interesting to implementing lean manufacturing principles that should enable them to eliminating the wastes to reducing a manufacturing lead time. This paper concentrates on increasing the competitive level of the company in globalization markets and improving of the productivity by reducing the manufacturing lead time. This will be by using the main tool of lean manufacturing which is value stream mapping (VSM to identifying all the activities of manufacturing process (value and non-value added activities to reducing elimination of wastes (non-value added activities by converting a manufacturing system to pull instead of push by applying some of pull system strategies as kanban and first on first out lane (FIFO. ARENA software is used to simulate the current and future state. This work is executed in the state company for electrical industries in Baghdad. The obtained results of the application showed that implementation of lean principles helped on reducing of a manufacturing lead time by 33%.

  6. Topology Optimization for Reducing Additive Manufacturing Processing Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction Additive manufacturing (AM) is a production method that involves gradual, layer- by-layer building of material... design space—allowing the production of pre- viously unmanufacturable topologically optimized structures—constraints remain. One constraint, for...ARL-TR-8242•DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Topology Optimization for ReducingAdditive Manufacturing ProcessingDistortions by Raymond A Wildman

  7. Cost reducing code implementation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Randall L.; Griswold, Michael E.; Jones, Gary C.; Daley, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Sargent and Lundy's Code consulting experience reveals a wide variety of approaches toward implementing the requirements of various nuclear Codes Standards. This paper will describe various Code implementation strategies which assure that Code requirements are fully met in a practical and cost-effective manner. Applications to be discussed includes the following: new construction; repair, replacement and modifications; assessments and life extensions. Lessons learned and illustrative examples will be included. Preferred strategies and specific recommendations will also be addressed. Sargent and Lundy appreciates the opportunity provided by the Korea Atomic Industrial Forum and Korean Nuclear Society to share our ideas and enhance global cooperation through the exchange of information and views on relevant topics

  8. A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yingchun

    This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of

  9. Simple, cost effective & result oriented framework for supplier performance measurement in sports goods manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.

  10. Cost estimates to guide manufacturing of composite waved beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jinrui; Zhang Boming; Qi Haiming

    2009-01-01

    A cost estimation model on the basis of manufacturing process has been presented. In the model, the effects of the material, labor, tool and equipment were discussed, and the corresponding formulas were provided. A method of selecting estimation variables has been provided based on a case study of composite waved beam using autoclave cure. The model parameters related to the process time estimation of the lay-up procedure were analyzed and modified for different part configurations. The result shows that there is little error while comparing the estimated process time with the practical one. The model is verified to be applicable to guide the design and manufacturing of the composite material

  11. Cost and Management Accounting Practices: A Survey of Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali UYAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore cost and management accounting practices utilized by manufacturing companies operating in Istanbul, Turkey. The sample of the study consists of 61 companies, containing both small and medium-sized enterprises, and large companies. The data collection methodology of the study is questionnaire survey. The content of the questionnaire survey is based on several previous studies. The major findings of the study are as follows: the most widely used product costing method is job costing; the complexity in production poses as the highest ranking difficulty in product costing; the most widely used three overhead allocation bases are prime costs, units produced, and direct labor cost; pricing decisions is the most important area where costing information is used; overall mean of the ratio of overhead to total cost is 34.48 percent for all industries; and the most important three management accounting practices are budgeting, planning and control, and cost-volume-profit analysis. Furthermore, decreasing profitability, increasing costs and competition, and economic crises are the factors, which increase the perceived importance of cost accounting. The findings indicate that companies perceive traditional management accounting tools still important. However, new management accounting practices such as strategic planning, and transfer pricing are perceived less important than traditional ones. Therefore, companies need to improve themselves in this aspect.

  12. Redesign of an in-market food processor for manufacturing cost reduction using DFMA methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Harlalka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the time and cost involved in the product development is very important to stay competitive in the market. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA is a cost-reduction framework for designers to evaluate manufacturing aspects of a product design. A case study on an in-market food processor, this paper aims to demonstrate the significance of DFMA implementation on an Indian consumer product. Even though many DFMA case studies have been published till date, very few have dealt with the Indian consumer durables category. In this paper, various cost-reduction opportunities are identified in the design of a food processor manufactured by a reputed company in India. Using the DFMA study, design ideas are developed with an objective of reducing the overall manufacturing cost of the product. As a result of DFMA implementation, significant improvement in terms of the product’s architecture, assembly time and design efficiency is identified. Overall cost reduction of 0.25 USD (United States Dollar was achieved and an improvement in the Design for Assembly (DFA index from 15.99 to 19.93 is reported. This procedure utilized in this paper can be adopted for any consumer durable products of similar type and design improvements and cost reduction can be achieved.

  13. Transaction Costs in Global Supply Chains of Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bremen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Outsourcing has advanced to an important measure that is applied broadly in operations management. Nowadays, suppliers of manufacturing companies do not only provide direct material like raw material and operational supplements but offer components and advanced modules incurring many value-adding stages. Whereas in the past companies built up local supplier networks, they recently tend to search for global sources. However, not all companies reach their expectations towards the success of global sourcing projects. Important reasons for relocating manufacturing capacities back to local suppliers or in- house manufacturing are costs for unexpected coordination activities, limited flexibility and declined or fluctuating quality. The theory of Transaction Cost Economics postulates that transaction costs of the types information, communication and coordination determine the governance structure of a supply chain, i.e. market, hybrid or firm. The objective of this paper is to analyze the cause-and-effect chain of inter-firm transaction costs concerning global sourcing. The resulting qualitative model is based on explorative multiple-case study.

  14. 2D net shape weaving for cost effective manufacture of textile reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, D. M. P.; Kern, M.; Hoffmann, G.; Cherif, C.

    2017-10-01

    Despite significant weight and performance advantages over metal parts, the today’s demand for fibre-reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) has been limited mainly by their large manufacturing cost. The combination of dry textile preforms and low-cost consolidation processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) has been appointed as a promising approach to low-cost FRPC manufacture. At the current state of the art, tooling and impregnation technology is well understood whereas preform fabrication technology has not been developed effectively. This paper presents an advanced 2D net shape weaving technology developed with the aim to establish a more cost effective system for the manufacture of dry textile preforms for FRPC. 2D net shape weaving is developed based on open reed weave (ORW) technology and enables the manufacture of 2D contoured woven fabrics with firm edge, so that oversize cutting and hand trimming after molding are no longer required. The introduction of 2D net shape woven fabrics helps to reduce material waste, cycle time and preform manufacturing cost significantly. Furthermore, higher grade of automation in preform fabrication can be achieved.

  15. Identification of complexity cost factors in manufacturing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Complexity tends to be arguably the biggest challenge of manufacturing companies. As the demand from the customers increases in volume and diversity, the number of finished products and components increases as well. This increasing product complexity has a direct effect on the production processes....... This research focuses on the relation between product and process complexity. Complexity cost factors are identified and categorized under the industrial standard APQC for process classification. Then, this categorization is used as a tool for identification of complexity cost factors in seven companies...

  16. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  17. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    the electrode materials. For the existing electrode materials, the material analysis and cell characterization data from ADP dried electrodes showed equivalent (or slightly better) performance. However, for high loading and thicker electrode materials (for high energy densities) the ADP advantages are more prominent. There was less binder migration, the resistance was lower hence the current capacities and retention of the battery cells were higher. The success of the project has enabled credible communications with commercial end users as well as battery coating line integrators. Goal is to scale ADP up for high volume manufacturing of Li-ion battery electrodes. The implementation of ADP in high volume manufacturing will reduce a high cost production step to bring the overall price of Li-ion batteries down. This will ultimately have a positive impact on the public by making electric and hybrid vehicles more affordable.

  18. Reducing operational costs through MIPS management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwiatkowski, L.M.; Verhoef, C.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on an approach to reducing the costs of running applications. MIPS, which is a traditional acronym for millions of instructions per second, have evolved to become a measurement of processing power and CPU resource consumption. The need for controlling MIPS attributed costs is indispensable

  19. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  20. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, David; Hamer, John

    2017-06-30

    In this project, OLEDWorks developed and demonstrated the innovative high-performance deposition technology required to deliver dramatic reductions in the cost of manufacturing OLED lighting in production equipment. The current high manufacturing cost of OLED lighting is the most urgent barrier to its market acceptance. The new deposition technology delivers solutions to the two largest parts of the manufacturing cost problem – the expense per area of good product for organic materials and for the capital cost and depreciation of the equipment. Organic materials cost is the largest expense item in the bill of materials and is predicted to remain so through 2020. The high-performance deposition technology developed in this project, also known as the next generation source (NGS), increases material usage efficiency from 25% found in current Gen2 deposition technology to 60%. This improvement alone results in a reduction of approximately $25/m2 of good product in organic materials costs, independent of production volumes. Additionally, this innovative deposition technology reduces the total depreciation cost from the estimated value of approximately $780/m2 of good product for state-of-the-art G2 lines (at capacity, 5-year straight line depreciation) to $170/m2 of good product from the OLEDWorks production line.

  1. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Savory; Robert Williams

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part.  This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop.  This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members.  The simulation model generates detai...

  2. Estimation of cellular manufacturing cost components using simulation and activity-based costing

    OpenAIRE

    Savory, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It can be difficult estimating all of the cost components that are attributed to a machined part. This problem is more pronounced when a factory uses group technology manufacturing cells as opposed to a functional or process layout of a job shop. This paper describes how activity-based costing (ABC) concepts can be integrated into a discrete-event simulation model of a U-shaped manufacturing cell producing a part family with four members. The simulation model generates detailed Bills of Ac...

  3. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation.

  4. Innovative manufacturing technologies for low-cost, high efficiency PERC-based PV modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    The goal this project was to accelerate the deployment of innovative solar cell and module technologies that reduce the cost of PERC-based modules to best-in-class. New module integration technology was to be used to reduce the cost and reliance on conventional silver bus bar pastes and enhance cell efficiency. On the cell manufacturing front, the cost of PERC solar cells was to be reduced by introducing advanced metallization approaches to increase cell efficiency. These advancements will be combined with process optimization to target cell efficiencies in the range of 21 to 21.5%. This project will also explore the viability of a bifacial PERC solar cell design to enable cost savings through the use of thin silicon wafers. This project was terminated on 4/30/17 after four months of activity due financial challenges facing the recipient.

  5. Reducing the cost of administrative justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In virtually every sector of government regulation, the complaint has been lodged that the costs of administrative justice are too high. These costs in time, money, resources, and productivity can have a profound effect on the individual consumer. When applied to an energy technology such as nuclear power, costs of administrative justice can transcent time and money to have even more profound and pervasive soeietal effects. Societal costs can be expressed in terms of their impact on important national concerns, that is, the standard of living, technological superiority, and the national energy equation. Some views are presented on the interests involved in the regulation of nuclear power and what can be done to bring those interests into better balance so as to reduce the cost of administrative justice

  6. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    ) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more....... This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC...

  7. INTEGRATION OF COST MODELS AND PROCESS SIMULATION TOOLS FOR OPTIMUM COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Seongchan [General Motors; Wilson, Daniel [General Motors; Aitharaju, Venkat [General Motors; Kia, Hamid [General Motors; Yu, Hang [ESI, Group.; Doroudian, Mark [ESI Group

    2017-09-05

    Manufacturing cost of resin transfer molded composite parts is significantly influenced by the cycle time, which is strongly related to the time for both filling and curing of the resin in the mold. The time for filling can be optimized by various injection strategies, and by suitably reducing the length of the resin flow distance during the injection. The curing time can be reduced by the usage of faster curing resins, but it requires a high pressure injection equipment, which is capital intensive. Predictive manufacturing simulation tools that are being developed recently for composite materials are able to provide various scenarios of processing conditions virtually well in advance of manufacturing the parts. In the present study, we integrate the cost models with process simulation tools to study the influence of various parameters such as injection strategies, injection pressure, compression control to minimize high pressure injection, resin curing rate, and demold time on the manufacturing cost as affected by the annual part volume. A representative automotive component was selected for the study and the results are presented in this paper

  8. A KBE genetic-causal cost modelling methodology for manufacturing cost contingency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, R.; Gilmour, M.; McAlleean, C.; Kelly, P.

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides validated evidence of a robust methodology for the management of lean manufacturing cost contingency, with a particular focus on contingency regarding recurring work content. A truly concurrent engineering process is established by capturing a range of knowledge from the design,

  9. Reduction of cost of poor quality in nuclear fuel manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, B.

    2000-01-01

    Within ABB reduction of Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) has become an important process to focus quality improvement initiatives on bottom-line results. The process leads to improved bottom-line results, through cost savings, but it also leads to quality improvements in our processes, products and services. The traditional way of measuring and controlling COPQ in the production workshops is not enough. It is of vital importance to include other non-value creating costs as well, both internally, e.g. in the engineering work, and externally, in delivered products and purchased goods. ABB Atom has since a number of years used the COPQ process in the various steps of nuclear fuel manufacturing. The definition has been expanded to cover, for instance: Scrap, rework and deviations; Margin slippage; Warranty costs; Lack of supplier performance; Excess and obsolete inventory. Each of the COPQ elements has a responsible 'owner' within the management of the Nuclear Fuel Division. The owners form a COPQ task force, which is responsible for analyzing results, setting goals and initiating improvement actions. The COPQ result is updated each month and is presented to all employees in several ways, such as Intranet. For the various COPQ elements improvement initiatives have been implemented. The presentation will describe some of them, such as reduction of: Scrap, rework and deviations through a process with zero defect meetings, high level of process automation, statistical methods; Margin slippage through business process re-engineering; Warranty costs through an improved design review process and expanded testing of new products; Costs for lack in supplier performance through a new concept for supplier QA/QC. It is our strong belief that both ABB Atom and our Customers will benefit from the COPQ process since it leads to a higher quality for nuclear fuel and control rods and facilitates lower product prices. (author)

  10. Cost reducing investments and spatial competition

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Scalera; Alberto Zazzaro

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between competition and cost reducing investments in the context of a location model. In particular, we derive the symmetric subgame-perfect equilibrium of a three-stage circular city model with closed-loop strategies, and study the effects of changes in competition fundamentals under both a given number of firms and free entry

  11. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  12. Reducing the cost of back-contact module technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W.; Rosca, V. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Back-contact modules made using a conductive back-sheet foil have a number of advantages over standard H-pattern modules including a higher power output, compatibility with very thin cells and high throughput, high yield manufacturing. For a conductive back-sheet based module the most cost critical components are the conductive back-sheet and the conductive adhesives used to make the contact between the cells and the conductive back-sheet. In this paper a number of methods for reducing the module materials cost will be presented. Climate chamber testing of low cost foils without isolation coating and without silver contacts demonstrated that this type of foil is reliable in damp-heat, reaching 2000 hours at 85%RH and 85{sup o}C with a loss in fill-factor of less than 2%.

  13. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  14. Manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational cost simulation and optimization from the perspective of inter-firm network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Fu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics cost control can better reflect the relationship of factors in the system. And the case firm can optimize the logistics costs by implement joint distribution. Research limitations/implications: This study still lacks comprehensive consideration about the variables quantities and quantitative of the control factors. In the future, we should strengthen the collection of data and information about the engineering manufacturing firms and improve the logistics operational cost model. Practical implications: This study puts forward some optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. And it is of great significance for enterprise’s supply chain management optimization and logistics cost control. Originality/value: Differing from the existing literatures, this paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of inter-firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics.

  15. Advanced technology heavy water monitors offering reduced implementation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalechstein, W.; Hippola, K.B.

    1984-10-01

    The development of second generation heavy water monitors for use at CANDU power stations and heavy water plants has been completed and the instruments brought to the stage of commercial availability. Applications of advanced technology and reduced utilization of custom manufactured components have together resulted in instruments that are less expensive to produce than the original monitors and do not require costly station services. The design has been tested on two prototypes and fully documented, including the inspection and test procedures required for manufacture to the CSA Z299.3 quality verfication program standard. Production of the new monitors by a commercial vendor (Barringer Research Ltd.) has begun and the first instrument is scheduled for delivery to CRNL's NRU reactor in late 1984

  16. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III [Solar Kinetics, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  17. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus......The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation...... surplus. The measures in the Plan will have to be supplemented by more measures to meet the targets in the EU's Water Framework Directive....

  18. Reducing CO2 Emissions through Lightweight Design and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Mark A.; Allwood, Julian M.; Milford, Rachel L.

    2011-05-01

    To meet targeted 50% reductions in industrial CO2 emissions by 2050, demand for steel and aluminium must be cut. Many steel and aluminium products include redundant material, and the manufacturing routes to produce them use more material than is necessary. Lightweight design and optimized manufacturing processes offer a means of demand reduction, whilst creating products to perform the same service as existing ones. This paper examines two strategies for demand reduction: lightweight product design; and minimizing yield losses through the product supply chain. Possible mass savings are estimated for specific case-studies on metal-intensive products, such as I-beams and food cans. These estimates are then extrapolated to other sectors to produce a global estimate for possible demand reductions. Results show that lightweight product design may offer potential mass savings of up to 30% for some products, whilst yield in the production of others could be improved by over 20%. If these two strategies could be combined for all products, global demand for steel and aluminium would be reduced by nearly 50%. The impact of demand reduction on CO2 emissions is presented, and barriers to the adoption of new, lightweight technologies are discussed.

  19. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  20. Costing support and cost control in manufacturing. A cost estimation tool applied in the sheet metal domain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, E.

    2002-01-01

    In the product development cycle several engineering tasks like design, process planning and production planning have to be executed. The execution of these tasks mainly involves information processing and decision-making. Because costs is an important factor in manufacturing, adequate information

  1. Reduced cost mission design using surrogate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhacker, Juliana D.; Jones, Brandon A.; Doostan, Alireza; Hampton, Jerrad

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses surrogate models to reduce the computational cost associated with spacecraft mission design in three-body dynamical systems. Sampling-based least squares regression is used to project the system response onto a set of orthogonal bases, providing a representation of the ΔV required for rendezvous as a reduced-order surrogate model. Models are presented for mid-field rendezvous of spacecraft in orbits in the Earth-Moon circular restricted three-body problem, including a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 libration point (EML-2) and a distant retrograde orbit (DRO) about the Moon. In each case, the initial position of the spacecraft, the time of flight, and the separation between the chaser and the target vehicles are all considered as design inputs. The results show that sample sizes on the order of 102 are sufficient to produce accurate surrogates, with RMS errors reaching 0.2 m/s for the halo orbit and falling below 0.01 m/s for the DRO. A single function call to the resulting surrogate is up to two orders of magnitude faster than computing the same solution using full fidelity propagators. The expansion coefficients solved for in the surrogates are then used to conduct a global sensitivity analysis of the ΔV on each of the input parameters, which identifies the separation between the spacecraft as the primary contributor to the ΔV cost. Finally, the models are demonstrated to be useful for cheap evaluation of the cost function in constrained optimization problems seeking to minimize the ΔV required for rendezvous. These surrogate models show significant advantages for mission design in three-body systems, in terms of both computational cost and capabilities, over traditional Monte Carlo methods.

  2. A cost-effective compressed air generation for manufacturing using modified microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eret, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cost-effective way of compressed air generation for manufacturing in SME is proposed. • The approach is based on a modified microturbine configuration. • Thermodynamic and life cycle analyses are presented and economic benefit is demonstrated. - Abstract: Compressed air is an irreplaceable energy source for some manufacturing processes, and is also common in applications even when there are alternatives. As a result, compressed air is a key utility in manufacturing industry, but unfortunately the cost of compressed air production is one of the most expensive processes in a manufacturing facility. In order to reduce the compressed air generation cost an unconventional way using a microturbine configuration is proposed. The concept is based on an extraction of a certain amount of compressed air from/after the compressor with the residual air flowing to the turbine to produce sufficient back power to drive the compressor. A thermodynamic and life cycle analysis are presented for several system variations, including a simple cycle without a recuperator and a complex configuration with an intercooler, recuperator and reheating. The study is based on the typical requirements (i.e. quantity, pressure) for a small to medium sized industrial compressed air system. The analysis is focused on the North American market due to the low price of natural gas. The lowest life cycle cost alternative is represented by a microturbine concept with a recuperator, air extraction after partial compression, intercooler and aftercooler. A comparison of an electric motor and conventional microturbine prime movers demonstrates the economic benefit of the proposed compressed air generation method, for the design parameters and utility prices considered.

  3. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) manufacturing of advanced therapy medicinal products: a novel tailored model for optimizing performance and estimating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-El-Enein, Mohamed; Römhild, Andy; Kaiser, Daniel; Beier, Carola; Bauer, Gerhard; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Reinke, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) have gained considerable attention in academia due to their therapeutic potential. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) principles ensure the quality and sterility of manufacturing these products. We developed a model for estimating the manufacturing costs of cell therapy products and optimizing the performance of academic GMP-facilities. The "Clean-Room Technology Assessment Technique" (CTAT) was tested prospectively in the GMP facility of BCRT, Berlin, Germany, then retrospectively in the GMP facility of the University of California-Davis, California, USA. CTAT is a two-level model: level one identifies operational (core) processes and measures their fixed costs; level two identifies production (supporting) processes and measures their variable costs. The model comprises several tools to measure and optimize performance of these processes. Manufacturing costs were itemized using adjusted micro-costing system. CTAT identified GMP activities with strong correlation to the manufacturing process of cell-based products. Building best practice standards allowed for performance improvement and elimination of human errors. The model also demonstrated the unidirectional dependencies that may exist among the core GMP activities. When compared to traditional business models, the CTAT assessment resulted in a more accurate allocation of annual expenses. The estimated expenses were used to set a fee structure for both GMP facilities. A mathematical equation was also developed to provide the final product cost. CTAT can be a useful tool in estimating accurate costs for the ATMPs manufactured in an optimized GMP process. These estimates are useful when analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these novel interventions. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SIR (Safe Integral Reactor) - reducing size can reduce cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional engineering economics have favoured the advantages of larger size as a means of reducing specific capital costs and hence unit generating costs. For large and small plants utilising the same concept, e.g. a small four-loop PWR vs a large four-loop PWR with the same number of components, economies of scale are well established. If, however, a smaller plant is sized to take advantage of features which are only feasible at smaller outputs, is of simpler design, with the advantage taken of the simplified design to produce the most cost-effective layout, and incorporates fewer, more easily replaceable components with minimal assembly on site, it is possible to produce a plant which is competitive with larger plant of more traditional design. When 'system' effects, such as better matching of installed capacity to the growth in demand and the fact that a smaller total capacity will be needed to meet a given demand with a specified level of confidence, are taken into account, it can be shown that a utility's overall cash-flow position can be improved with lower associated absolute financial risks. The UK/US Safe Integral Reactor (SIR) is an integral pressurized water reactor in the 300-400 MW(e) range which utilises conventional water reactor technology in a way not feasible at the very large, sizes of recent years. The SIR concept is briefly explained and its technical and economic advantages in terms of simplicity, construction, maintenance, availability, decommissioning, safety and siting described. The results of system analyses which demonstrate the overall financial advantages to a utility are presented. (author)

  5. Low Cost Method of Manufacturing Cooled Axisymmetric Scramjets, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scramjet engine developers are working on advanced axisymmetric engine concepts that may not be feasible due to limitations of currently available manufacturing...

  6. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D, McGinnis; Laura S, WIlliams; Amy E, Monte; Jagdish Rughani; Brett A, Niemi; Thomas M, Flicker

    2001-01-01

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board

  7. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC) approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost ...

  8. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  9. PEM fuel cell cost minimization using ``Design For Manufacture and Assembly`` techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, F.D. Jr.; James, B.D. [Directed Technologies, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Mooradian, R.P. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells fueled with direct hydrogen have demonstrated substantial technical potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines (ICE`s) in light duty vehicles. Such a transition to a hydrogen economy offers the potential of substantial benefits from reduced criteria and greenhouse emissions as well as reduced foreign fuel dependence. Research conducted for the Ford Motor Co. under a US Department of Energy contract suggests that hydrogen fuel, when used in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), can achieve a cost per vehicle mile less than or equal to the gasoline cost per mile when used in an ICE vehicle. However, fuel cost parity is not sufficient to ensure overall economic success: the PEM fuel cell power system itself must be of comparable cost to the ICE. To ascertain if low cost production of PEM fuel cells is feasible, a powerful set of mechanical engineering tools collectively referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) has been applied to several representative PEM fuel cell designs. The preliminary results of this work are encouraging, as presented.

  10. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Chung, Emma Elgqvist, and Shriram Santhanagopalan

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  11. Cost-Effective Manufacturing of Damage-Tolerant Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    ...) technology demonstrator and Crusader self-propelled howitzer platforms. Present integral armor manufacturing processes involve adhesive bonding of a composite structure with ballistic armor tiles, spall shield, and nuisance cover...

  12. Effects of Cost Factors on National Manufacturing Based on Global Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangtao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the real economy is the important basis for the development of a country, especially after the global financial crisis in 2008. Given that the manufacturing industry is the main part of the national real economy, many developed and developing countries have paid considerable attention to its significance. This study focused on cost factors given that they influence national manufacturing development. Initially, this study proposed two elements, namely, manufacturing development scale and manufacturing development level, to evaluate national manufacturing development from two aspects: quantity and quality. Subsequently, we extracted a series of cost factors on the bass of the theoretical framework and literature, including labor costs, financing costs, tax and rental costs, energy and raw materials, foreign trade exports and business environments. On the basis of the data of 13 main manufacturing countries around the world from 2000 to 2015, we tested the influence degree of each cost element index on the scale and level of national manufacturing industry development through a two-way fixed effects model and incorporated it with the development of China’s manufacturing industry as a case study. Finally, we deduced the future development trend of the manufacturing industry by specifically analyzing the cost factors affecting the development of this industry and provided policy suggestions. The main innovation and contribution of this study including: to comprehensively evaluate the national manufacturing development from two aspects, namely, “quantity” and “quality”; to identify the impact of national cost of the six elements; to demonstrate and determine the extent of its impact on the development trend of manufacturing sector and carry out pre-judgment through empirical research on each indicator; to provide policy recommendations targeted for each of the indicators.

  13. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  14. Automotive Manufacturers' Cost/Revenue, Financial and Risk Analysis : Projected Impact of Automobile Manufacturing on the Plastics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    The report is part of a study to update the historical and projected cost/revenue analysis of the U.S. domestic automobile manufacturers. It includes the evaluation of the historical and projected financial data to assess the corporate financial posi...

  15. States reducing solar's soft costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Chris

    2012-07-01

    In 2012 the costs of modules will drop below the balance of system costs or 'soft costs' of solar in the US. Federal policy that nationalizes permitting processes could reduce some of the soft costs, but is unlikely. That's why states like California, Colorado, Connecticut and Vermont passed own laws to reduce soft costs by speeding solar permitting and reducing fees. (orig.)

  16. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, Mark [Quantum Fuel Systems Technologies Worldwide, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lam, Patrick [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  17. Modeling the Downstream Processing of Monoclonal Antibodies Reveals Cost Advantages for Continuous Methods for a Broad Range of Manufacturing Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Jonathan; Pagkaliwangan, Mark; Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Davidovits, Terence; Stock, Rick; Ransohoff, Thomas; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2018-01-17

    The biopharmaceutical industry is evolving in response to changing market conditions, including increasing competition and growing pressures to reduce costs. Single-use (SU) technologies and continuous bioprocessing have attracted attention as potential facilitators of cost-optimized manufacturing for monoclonal antibodies. While disposable bioprocessing has been adopted at many scales of manufacturing, continuous bioprocessing has yet to reach the same level of implementation. In this study, the cost of goods of Pall Life Science's integrated, continuous bioprocessing (ICB) platform is modeled, along with that of purification processes in stainless-steel and SU batch formats. All three models include costs associated with downstream processing only. Evaluation of the models across a broad range of clinical and commercial scenarios reveal that the cost savings gained by switching from stainless-steel to SU batch processing are often amplified by continuous operation. The continuous platform exhibits the lowest cost of goods across 78% of all scenarios modeled here, with the SU batch process having the lowest costs in the rest of the cases. The relative savings demonstrated by the continuous process are greatest at the highest feed titers and volumes. These findings indicate that existing and imminent continuous technologies and equipment can become key enablers for more cost effective manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Transforming Wartime Contracting: Controlling Costs, Reducing Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    conceptual ambiguity lies nestled in the meaning ascribed to “inherent.” The language of the Instruction also serves as an illustration that...other factors to the composite rate to present a fuller accounting of the cost of military personnel. It adds costs for recruitment and advertising ...Defense Adds to above: Costs for recruitment and advertising , training, subsidized groceries (commissaries), education assistance, child-development

  19. Manufacturing of Low Cost, Durable Membrane Electrode Assemblies Engineered for Rapid Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Colin [W. L. Gore & Associates Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Over the past 20 years significant progress in membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) technology development for polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEMFCs) has resulted in the PEMFC technology approaching a commercial reality for transportation applications. However, there remain two primary technical challenges to be addressed in the MEA. First and foremost is meeting the automotive cost targets: Producing a fuel cell stack cost competitive with today’s internal combustion engine. In addition to the material cost, MEA (and other components) and stack assembly production methods must be amenable for use in low cost, high speed, automotive assembly line. One impediment to this latter goal is that stack components must currently go through a long and tedious conditioning procedure before they produce optimal power. This so-called “break-in” can take many hours, and can involve quite complex voltage, temperature and/or pressure steps. These break-in procedures must be simplified and the time required reduced if fuel cells are to become a viable automotive engine. The second challenge is to achieve the durability targets in real-world automotive duty cycle operations. Significant improvements in cost, break-in time, and durability for the key component of fuel cell stacks, MEAs were achieved in this project. Advanced modeling was used to guide design of the new MEA to maximize performance and durability. A new, innovative process and manufacturing approach utilizing direct in-line coating using scalable, cost-competitive, continuous high volume 3-layer rolled-good manufacturing processes was developed and validated by single cell and short stack testing. In addition, the direct coating methods employed were shown to reduce the cost for sacrificial films. Furthermore, Gore has demonstrated a 10 µm reinforced membrane that is used in the new low-cost process and can meet automotive power density and durability targets. Across a wide range of operating conditions, the

  20. Methods Reduce Cost, Enhance Quality of Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the challenges posed by the microgravity conditions of space, weight is actually one of the more significant problems NASA faces in the development of the next generation of U.S. space vehicles. For the Agency s Constellation Program, engineers at NASA centers are designing and testing new vessels as safe, practical, and cost-effective means of space travel following the eventual retirement of the space shuttle. Program components like the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, intended to carry astronauts to the International Space Station and the Moon, must be designed to specific weight requirements to manage fuel consumption and match launch rocket capabilities; Orion s gross liftoff weight target is about 63,789 pounds. Future space vehicles will require even greater attention to lightweight construction to help conserve fuel for long-range missions to Mars and beyond. In order to reduce spacecraft weight without sacrificing structural integrity, NASA is pursuing the development of materials that promise to revolutionize not only spacecraft construction, but also a host of potential applications on Earth. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are one material of particular interest. These tubular, single-layer carbon molecules - 100,000 of them braided together would be no thicker than a human hair - display a range of remarkable characteristics. Possessing greater tensile strength than steel at a fraction of the weight, the nanotubes are efficient heat conductors with metallic or semiconductor electrical properties depending on their diameter and chirality (the pattern of each nanotube s hexagonal lattice structure). All of these properties make the nanotubes an appealing material for spacecraft construction, with the potential for nanotube composites to reduce spacecraft weight by 50 percent or more. The nanotubes may also feature in a number of other space exploration applications, including life support, energy storage, and sensor technologies. NASA s various

  1. Product costing guide for wood dimension and component manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jeff Palmer; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Steve. Lawser

    2014-01-01

    The North American hardwood dimension and components industry plays a critical role in the hardwood forest products industry as the industry is a user of high-value hardwood lumber. Customer expectations, global markets, and international competition, however, require hardwood dimension and components manufacturers to continuously improve their ability to manage their...

  2. Manufacturing cost study on the ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the cost of manufacturing 48 ion sources for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is described. The estimate is built up from individual part costs and assembly operation times for the 80 kV prototype source constructed by LLL and described by LLL drawings furnished during December 1978. Recommendations for cost reduction are made

  3. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC in Egyptian manufacturing firms.

  4. Warranty optimisation based on the prediction of costs to the manufacturer using neural network model and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Dragan D.; Popovic, Vladimir M.

    2015-02-01

    Warranty is a powerful marketing tool, but it always involves additional costs to the manufacturer. In order to reduce these costs and make use of warranty's marketing potential, the manufacturer needs to master the techniques for warranty cost prediction according to the reliability characteristics of the product. In this paper a combination free replacement and pro rata warranty policy is analysed as warranty model for one type of light bulbs. Since operating conditions have a great impact on product reliability, they need to be considered in such analysis. A neural network model is used to predict light bulb reliability characteristics based on the data from the tests of light bulbs in various operating conditions. Compared with a linear regression model used in the literature for similar tasks, the neural network model proved to be a more accurate method for such prediction. Reliability parameters obtained in this way are later used in Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of times to failure needed for warranty cost calculation. The results of the analysis make possible for the manufacturer to choose the optimal warranty policy based on expected product operating conditions. In such a way, the manufacturer can lower the costs and increase the profit.

  5. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array. Final subcontract report, 9 January 1991--April 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. [Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (US)

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  6. Cost-effective method of manufacturing a 3D MEMS optical switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Emily; Zhang, Ping; Keebaugh, Doug; Chau, Kelvin

    2009-02-01

    growth of data and video transport networks. All-optical switching eliminates the need for optical-electrical conversion offering the ability to switch optical signals transparently: independent of data rates, formats and wavelength. It also provides network operators much needed automation capabilities to create, monitor and protect optical light paths. To further accelerate the market penetration, it is necessary to identify a path to reduce the manufacturing cost significantly as well as enhance the overall system performance, uniformity and reliability. Currently, most MEMS optical switches are assembled through die level flip-chip bonding with either epoxies or solder bumps. This is due to the alignment accuracy requirements of the switch assembly, defect matching of individual die, and cost of the individual components. In this paper, a wafer level assembly approach is reported based on silicon fusion bonding which aims to reduce the packaging time, defect count and cost through volume production. This approach is successfully demonstrated by the integration of two 6-inch wafers: a mirror array wafer and a "snap-guard" wafer, which provides a mechanical structure on top of the micromirror to prevent electrostatic snap-down. The direct silicon-to-silicon bond eliminates the CTEmismatch and stress issues caused by non-silicon bonding agents. Results from a completed integrated switch assembly will be presented, which demonstrates the reliability and uniformity of some key parameters of this MEMS optical switch.

  7. VIABILITY OF SOME APPLIED COST SYSTEMS IN MANUFACTURING FIRMS: EGYPT'S CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mamdouh ABBAS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze viability of some applied cost systems. The population of the study is some Egyptian manufacturing firms. The number of received questionnaires was 385. The results indicated that , according to the application extent indicator, the currently cost systems in Egyptian manufacturing firms may be descendingly arranged as follows: Activity Based Costing (ABC system, Target Costing (TC system , Resource Consumption Accounting (RCA system, Activity Based Management (ABM ,Other systems, Theory of Constraints (TOC and Value Chain (VC analysis.

  8. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  9. Does Eco-efficency Reduce the Cost of Equity Capital? Empirical Evidence From Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alviani, Lisa; Sholihin, Mahfud

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings sugg...

  10. DOES ECO-EFFICENCY REDUCE THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Alviani; Mahfud Sholihin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings sugg...

  11. DOES ECO-EFFICENCY REDUCE THE COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Alviani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine the effect of eco-efficiency on the cost of equity capital. The study hypothesizes that the implementation of eco-efficiency reduces the cost of equity capital. Using manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange for the period 2010-2012 as data, and controlling for beta, company size, Book to Market ratio, and leverage; the study finds that the implementation of eco-efficiency may reduce the cost of equity capital. The findings suggest that companies should implement eco-efficency.

  12. Implementation of activity-based costing (ABC) to drive cost reduction efforts in a semiconductor manufacturing operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Hussein; Bol, Igor I.; Lora, J.; Chowdhry, R.

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a case study on the implementation of ABC to calculate the cost per wafer and to drive cost reduction efforts for a new IC product line. The cost reduction activities were conducted through the efforts of 11 cross-functional teams which included members of the finance, purchasing, technology development, process engineering, equipment engineering, production control, and facility groups. The activities of these cross functional teams were coordinated by a cost council. It will be shown that these activities have resulted in a 57% reduction in the wafer manufacturing cost of the new product line. Factors contributed to successful implementation of an ABC management system are discussed.

  13. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R and D and manufacturing cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, A W; Guo, J L; Wang, Z J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research and Development (R and D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R and D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable. (paper)

  14. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  15. Cost Savings for Manufacturing Lithium Batteries in a Flexible Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produces types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles of the types hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 per year (30,000 EV batteries and 100,000 HEV batteries). The unit cost savings as calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 8% for the EV battery packs to 23% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach $710 per unit and that of the EV batteries $228 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries and including the BMS. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is $20-24 per m2 of cell area including the cost of the BMS, averaging $21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  16. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Keywords: National Health Interview Survey, alternative therapies, medication ... to cost ( 9 ) that are not measured in NHIS. Definitions Strategies for reducing prescription drug costs : Based ...

  17. Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing health care costs - potential and limitations of local authority health services. ... both the quality and the cost-effectiveness of health care would be improved. ... LAs offer an appropriate structure for effective community control over the ...

  18. Establishment of reference costs for occupational health services and implementation of cost management in Japanese manufacturing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji; Aratake, Yutaka; Ide, Hiroshi; Nobori, Junichiro; Kojima, Reiko; Odagami, Kiminori; Kato, Anna; Hiraoka, Mika; Shiota, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Ito, Masato; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Matsuda, Shinya

    2016-07-22

    We developed a standardized cost estimation method for occupational health (OH) services. The purpose of this study was to set reference OH services costs and to conduct OH services cost management assessments in two workplaces by comparing actual OH services costs with the reference costs. Data were obtained from retrospective analyses of OH services costs regarding 15 OH activities over a 1-year period in three manufacturing workplaces. We set the reference OH services costs in one of the three locations and compared OH services costs of each of the two other workplaces with the reference costs. The total reference OH services cost was 176,654 Japanese yen (JPY) per employee. The personnel cost for OH staff to conduct OH services was JPY 47,993, and the personnel cost for non-OH staff was JPY 38,699. The personnel cost for receipt of OH services-opportunity cost-was JPY 19,747, expense was JPY 25,512, depreciation expense was 34,849, and outsourcing cost was JPY 9,854. We compared actual OH services costs from two workplaces (the total OH services costs were JPY 182,151 and JPY 238,023) with the reference costs according to OH activity. The actual costs were different from the reference costs, especially in the case of personnel cost for non-OH staff, expense, and depreciation expense. Using our cost estimation tool, it is helpful to compare actual OH services cost data with reference cost data. The outcomes help employers make informed decisions regarding investment in OH services.

  19. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Droop scheme has been widely applied to the control of Distributed Generators (DGs) in microgrids for proportional power sharing based on their ratings. For standalone microgrid, where centralized management system is not viable, the proportional power sharing based droop might not suit well since...... DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC......) of the overall microgrid. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme has retained its simplicity, which certainly is a feature preferred by the industry. The overall performance of the proposed scheme has been verified through simulation and experiment....

  20. Can automation in radiotherapy reduce costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaccesi, Mariangela; Corti, Michele; Azario, Luigi; Balducci, Mario; Ferro, Milena; Mantini, Giovanna; Mattiucci, Gian Carlo; Valentini, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Computerized automation is likely to play an increasingly important role in radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first part of a program to implement a model for economical evaluation based on micro-costing method. To test the efficacy of the model, the financial impact of the introduction of an automation tool was estimated. A single- and multi-center validation of the model by a prospective collection of data is planned as the second step of the program. The model was implemented by using an interactive spreadsheet (Microsoft Excel, 2010). The variables to be included were identified across three components: productivity, staff, and equipment. To calculate staff requirements, the workflow of Gemelli ART center was mapped out and relevant workload measures were defined. Profit and loss, productivity and staffing were identified as significant outcomes. Results were presented in terms of earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT). Three different scenarios were hypothesized: baseline situation at Gemelli ART (scenario 1); reduction by 2 minutes of the average duration of treatment fractions (scenario 2); and increased incidence of advanced treatment modalities (scenario 3). By using the model, predicted EBIT values for each scenario were calculated across a period of eight years (from 2015 to 2022). For both scenarios 2 and 3 costs are expected to slightly increase as compared to baseline situation that is particularly due to a little increase in clinical personnel costs. However, in both cases EBIT values are more favorable than baseline situation (EBIT values: scenario 1, 27%, scenario 2, 30%, scenario 3, 28% of revenues). A model based on a micro-costing method was able to estimate the financial consequences of the introduction of an automation tool in our radiotherapy department. A prospective collection of data at Gemelli ART and in a consortium of centers is currently under way to prospectively validate the model.

  1. MANUFACTURING PRICES, PRODUCTIVITY, AND LABOR COSTS IN 5 ECONOMIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANARK, B

    The United States continues to surge ahead of other major industrial economies in terms of lower prices, higher levels of labor productivity, and better unit labor cost performance; while the depreciation of the dollar plays an important role, real productivity gains are important as well.

  2. Activity-Based Costing for Agile Manufacturing Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    to maintain a complex accounting system to meet your decision-making needs and the requirements of GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles). An...including hourly and salary employees Fringe benefits Fixed costs such as depreciation , property taxes, leases, and other budgeted expenses Variable...3.5 Model Design Issues An ABC model is a stand alone management tool that does not have to adhere to GAAP regulations, therefore it can open up a wide

  3. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of treating cold worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain growth during thermal treatment above its recrystallization temperature. The method comprises heating the zirconium alloy at a temperature of about 1300 0 F. to 1350 0 F. for about 1 to 3 hours subsequent to cold working the zirconium alloy and prior to the thermal treatment at a temperature of between 1450 0 -1550 0 F., the thermal treatment temperature being above the recrystallization temperature

  4. Strategies for Implementing Activity-Based Costing in the UK Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Tan, Kian; Tan, Swee; Sutton, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings with a case study on why activity based costing lacks impact in the UK manufacturing industry. Activity based costing was performed on selected MT range subsystems of an electrical power generator to compare with the current UNN UK’s conven-tional costing system. The results have found that the current costing system works well for the MT products and thus change of costing system is not necessary for these products. The activity based costi...

  5. Cost estimation of a specifically designed direct light processing (DLP) additive manufacturing machine for precision printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Davoudinejad, Ali; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    creating new opportunities for manufacturers in a variety of industrial sectors. AM is an essentialprototyping technique for product design and development that is used in many different fields. However, the suitability of AMapplications in actual production in an industrial context needs to be determined......Additive Manufacturing (AM) refers to a portfolio of novel manufacturing technologies based on a layer-by-layer fabrication method.The market and industrial application of additive manufacturing technologies as an established manufacturing process have increasedexponentially in the last years....... This study, presents a cost estimation model forprecision printing with a specifically designed Digital Light Processing (DLP) AM machine built and validated at the Technical Universityof Denmark. The model presented in this study can be easily adapted and applied to estimate within a high level...

  6. SOME IMPORTANT FACTORS AFFECTING EVOLUTION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING (ABC) SYSTEM IN EGYPTIAN MANUFACTURING FIRMS

    OpenAIRE

    Karim MAMDOUH ABBAS

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation aims to determine the factors affecting evolution of Activity Based Costing (ABC) system in Egyptian case. The study used the survey method to describe and analyze these factors in some Egyptian firms. The population of the study is Egyptian manufacturing firms. Accordingly, the number of received questionnaires was 392 (23 Egyptian manufacturing firms) in the first half of 2013. Finally, the study stated some influencing factors for evolution this system (ABC) in Eg...

  7. HVAC Modeling for Cost of Ownership Assessment in Biotechnology & Drugs Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Broomes, Peter; Dornfeld, David A

    2003-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in the clean room environment of biotechnology and drug development and manufacturing, are extremely energy and water intensive and represent a significant operating cost for these facilities [1]. HVAC systems are also the primary source of environmental emissions for the majority of companies operating within the biotechnology and drugs sector. While the processes used in drug manufacture have negligible environmental impact...

  8. User Cost of Debt-Financed Capital in Irish Manufacturing Industry: 1985 2011

    OpenAIRE

    KEARNEY, IDE; ZNUDERL, NUSA

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper provides estimates of the cost of debt-financed capital to Irish manufacturing industry over the period 1985 to 2011. The estimates are provided for two types of capital assets, machinery and equipment and industrial buildings. They also incorporate policy interventions aimed at influencing investment behaviour of manufacturing firms in Ireland. The results show that large capital gains recorded during the Celtic Tiger period created a downward distortion in the user c...

  9. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  10. Using Electromagnetic Algorithm for Total Costs of Sub-contractor Optimization in the Cellular Manufacturing Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shahriari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a non-linear binary programing for optimizing a specific cost in cellular manufacturing system in a controlled production condition. The system parameters are determined by the continuous distribution functions. The aim of the presented model is to optimize the total cost of imposed sub-contractors to the manufacturing system by determining how to allocate the machines and parts to each seller. In this system, DM could control the occupation level of each machine in the system. For solving the presented model, we used the electromagnetic meta-heuristic algorithm and Taguchi method for determining the optimal algorithm parameters.

  11. Lean Manufacturing - A Powerfull Tool for Reducing Waste During the Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Apreutesei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing provides a new management approach for many small and medium size manufacturers, especially older firms organized and managed under traditional push systems. Improvement results can be dramatic in terms of quality, cycle times, and customer responsiveness. Lean manufacturing is more than a set of tools and techniques and has been widely adopted by many production companies. Lean manufacturing is a culture in which all employees continuously look for ways to improve processes. In the present article are presented the Lean Manufacturing tools, like kaizen, Kanban, poka-yoke witch a company can use to reduce the waste(muda during a production process. The paper contains also, the most common seven types of waste from production and some examples from our daily activity.

  12. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available to predict the cost structure of a newly developed manufacturing process if it is to be considered by manufacturing enterprises for development to substitute a process that is in use. The costs of the new SSM technologies was established by technical cost...

  13. Determining the total cost of reverse supply chain operations for original equipment manufacturers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel Brüning; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    When original equipment manufacturers (OEM) examine whether or not to invest in a reverse supply chain (RSC), managers need insight into not only the cost savings and new revenue streams the RSC enables, but also the total cost of the RSC itself. Using case study research the study examines what...... cost parameters constitute the total cost (TC) of the RSC. The specific RSC that the study seeks the TC for consists of 1) end-product refurbishing, 2) component refurbishing, and 3) sales of used materials back to original suppliers or independent recyclers for materials recycling....

  14. Systematic review of drug administration costs and implications for biopharmaceutical manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Ebenezer; Morris, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition costs of biologic drugs are often considered to be relatively high compared with those of nonbiologics. However, the total costs of delivering these drugs also depend on the cost of administration. Ignoring drug administration costs may distort resource allocation decisions because these affect cost effectiveness. The objectives of this systematic review were to develop a framework of drug administration costs that considers both the costs of physical administration and the associated proximal costs; and, as a case example, to use this framework to evaluate administration costs for biologics within the UK National Health Service (NHS). We reviewed literature that reported estimates of administration costs for biologics within the UK NHS to identify how these costs were quantified and to examine how differences in dosage forms and regimens influenced administration costs. The literature reviewed were identified by searching the Centre for Review and Dissemination Databases (DARE, NHS EED and HTA); EMBASE (The Excerpta Medica Database); MEDLINE (using the OVID interface); Econlit (EBSCO); Tufts Medical Center Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry; and Google Scholar. We identified 4,344 potentially relevant studies, of which 43 studies were selected for this systematic review. We extracted estimates of the administration costs of biologics from these studies. We found evidence of variation in the way that administration costs were measured, and that this affected the magnitude of costs reported, which could then influence cost effectiveness. Our findings suggested that manufacturers of biologic medicines should pay attention to formulation issues and their impact on administration costs, because these affect the total costs of healthcare delivery and cost effectiveness.

  15. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  16. Coordinating a Supply Chain When Manufacturer Makes Cost Reduction Investment in Supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a supply chain consisting of an upstream supplier and a downstream manufacturer, in which the supplier provides a component to the manufacturer, facing a price-sensitive and uncertain demand. The manufacturer makes cost reduction investment in the supplier to improve the supplier’s production efficiency, which benefits the entire supply chain. We derive the optimal investment and operating decisions. Both the centralized and decentralized supply chains are studied. We show that the optimal investment and operating decisions in the decentralized setting may deviate from that in the centralized setting. To avoid the profit loss caused by such a deviation, we develop a coordination mechanism by introducing a combined policy of revenue-sharing policy and investment cost-sharing policy. We also show that the developed coordination mechanism can achieve Pareto improvement for the two players.

  17. MapReduce Based Parallel Bayesian Network for Manufacturing Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mao-Kuan; Ming, Xin-Guo; Zhang, Xian-Yu; Li, Guo-Ming

    2017-09-01

    Increasing complexity of industrial products and manufacturing processes have challenged conventional statistics based quality management approaches in the circumstances of dynamic production. A Bayesian network and big data analytics integrated approach for manufacturing process quality analysis and control is proposed. Based on Hadoop distributed architecture and MapReduce parallel computing model, big volume and variety quality related data generated during the manufacturing process could be dealt with. Artificial intelligent algorithms, including Bayesian network learning, classification and reasoning, are embedded into the Reduce process. Relying on the ability of the Bayesian network in dealing with dynamic and uncertain problem and the parallel computing power of MapReduce, Bayesian network of impact factors on quality are built based on prior probability distribution and modified with posterior probability distribution. A case study on hull segment manufacturing precision management for ship and offshore platform building shows that computing speed accelerates almost directly proportionally to the increase of computing nodes. It is also proved that the proposed model is feasible for locating and reasoning of root causes, forecasting of manufacturing outcome, and intelligent decision for precision problem solving. The integration of bigdata analytics and BN method offers a whole new perspective in manufacturing quality control.

  18. Does Access to Finance Lower Firms’ Cost of Capital? Empirical Evidence from International Manufacturing Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lashitew, Addisu A.

    2011-01-01

    Lack of access to finance is argued to be one of the most binding constraints for firm growth. There is, however, limited empirical evidence on the relationship between access to finance and the cost of capital. This paper uses international manufacturing data to analyze the effect of access to

  19. Reducing the Cost of Grid Extension for Rural Electrification

    OpenAIRE

    NRECA International, Ltd.

    2000-01-01

    This study first reviews the cost of grid extension in a number of countries. It then identifies ways to reduce costs by examining how they are affected by a variety of factors. An electricity supply system may be divided into two discrete components: the grid extension and the low-voltage distribution system. This study will focus on the first of these two components, the cost of grid ext...

  20. Towards the next generation 23% efficient n-type cells with low cost manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelundur, Vijay [Suniva Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Suniva, Inc., in collaboration with the University Center for Excellence in Photovoltaics (UCEP) at the Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) proposed this comprehensive three year program to enable the development of an advanced high performance product that will help the US regain its competitive edge in PV. This project was designed to overcome cost and efficiency barriers through advances in PV science, technology innovation, low-cost manufacturing and full production of ~22.5% efficient n-type Si cells in Norcross, GA. At the heart of the project is the desire to complement the technology being developed concurrently under the Solarmat and ARPAe initiatives to develop a differentiated product superior in both performance and cost effectiveness to the competing alternatives available on the market, and push towards achieving SunShot objectives while ensuring a sustainable business model based on US manufacturing. A significant reduction of the costs in modules produced today will need to combine reductions in wafer costs, cell processing costs as well as module fabrication costs while delivering a product that is not only more efficient under test conditions but also increases the energy yield in outdoor operations. This project will result in a differentiated high performance product and technology that is consistent with sustaining PV manufacturing in the US for a longer term and further highlights the need for continued support for developing the next generation concepts that can keep US manufacturing thriving to support the growing demand for PV in the US and consistent with the US government’s mandates for energy independence.

  1. Development of Manufacturing Technology to Accelerate Cost Reduction of Low Concentration and

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detrick, Adam [The Solaria Corporation, Fremont, CA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The purpose of this project was to accelerate deployment of cost-effective US-based manufacturing of Solaria’s unique c-Si module technology. This effort successfully resulted in the development of US-based manufacturing technology to support two highly-differentiated, market leading product platforms. The project was initially predicated on developing Solaria’s low-concentration PV (LCPV) module technology which at the time of the award was uniquely positioned to exceed the SunShot price goal of $0.50/Wp for standard c-Si modules. The Solaria LCPV module is a 2.5x concentrator that leverages proven, high-reliability PV module materials and low silicon cell usage into a technology package that already had the lowest direct material cost and leading Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE). With over 25 MW commercially deployed globally, the Solaria module was well positioned to continue to lead in PV module cost reduction. Throughout the term of the contract, market conditions changed dramatically and so to did Solaria’s product offerings to support this. However, the manufacturing technology developed for the LCPV module was successfully leveraged and optimized to support two new and different product platforms. BIPV “PowerVision” and High-efficiency “PowerXT” modules. The primary barrier to enabling high-volume PV module manufacturing in the US is the high manual labor component in certain unique aspects of our manufacturing process. The funding was used to develop unique manufacturing automation which makes the manual labor components of these key processes more efficient and increase throughput. At the core of Solaria’s product offerings are its unique and proprietary techniques for dicing and re-arranging solar cells into modules with highly-differentiated characteristics that address key gaps in the c-Si market. It is these techniques that were successfully evolved and deployed into US-based manufacturing site with SunShot funding. Today, Solaria

  2. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS is a manufacturing system that is formed from several Numerical Controlled Machines combine with material handling system, so that different jobs can be worked by different machines sequences. FMS combine the high productivity and flexibility of Transfer Line and Job Shop manufacturing system. In this reasearch, Activity-Based Costing(ABC approach was used as the weight to search the operation route in the proper machine, so that the total production cost can be optimized. The search method that was used in this experiment is Simulated Annealling, a variant form Hill Climbing Search method. An ideal operation time to proses a part was used as the annealling schedule. From the empirical test, it could be proved that the use of ABC approach and Simulated Annealing to search the route (routing process can optimize the Total Production Cost. In the other hand, the use of ideal operation time to process a part as annealing schedule can control the processing time well. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin-mesin Numerical Control (NC yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin-mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian rute operasi pada mesin yang tepat, untuk lebih mengoptimasi biaya produksi secara keseluruhan. Adapun metode Searching yang digunakan adalah Simulated Annealing yang merupakan varian dari metode searching Hill Climbing. Waktu operasi ideal untuk memproses sebuah part digunakan sebagai Annealing Schedulenya. Dari hasil pengujian empiris dapat dibuktikan bahwa penggunaan pendekatan ABC dan Simulated Annealing untuk proses pencarian rute (routing dapat lebih

  3. Using Innovative Methodologies From Technology and Manufacturing Companies to Reduce Heart Failure Readmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Amber E; Winner, Laura; Simmons, Tanya; Eid, Shaker M; Hody, Robert; Sampedro, Angel; Augustine, Sharon; Sylvester, Carol; Parakh, Kapil

    2016-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients have high 30-day readmission rates with high costs and poor quality of life. This study investigated the impact of a framework blending Lean Sigma, design thinking, and Lean Startup on 30-day all-cause readmissions among HF patients. This was a prospective study in an academic hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Thirty-day all-cause readmission was assessed using the hospital's electronic medical record. The baseline readmission rate for HF was 28.4% in 2010 with 690 discharges. The framework was developed and interventions implemented in the second half of 2011. The impact of the interventions was evaluated through 2012. The rate declined to 18.9% among 703 discharges (P < .01). There was no significant change for non-HF readmissions. This study concluded that methodologies from technology and manufacturing companies can reduce 30-day readmissions in HF, demonstrating the potential of this innovations framework to improve chronic disease care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  5. Estimating Drug Costs: How do Manufacturer Net Prices Compare with Other Common US Price References?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Levy, Joseph F; Slejko, Julia F; Onwudiwe, Nneka C; Perfetto, Eleanor M

    2018-05-12

    Drug costs are frequently estimated in economic analyses using wholesale acquisition cost (WAC), but what is the best approach to develop these estimates? Pharmaceutical manufacturers recently released transparency reports disclosing net price increases after accounting for rebates and other discounts. Our objective was to determine whether manufacturer net prices (MNPs) could approximate the discounted prices observed by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). We compared the annual, average price discounts voluntarily reported by three pharmaceutical manufacturers with the VA price for specific products from each company. The top 10 drugs by total sales reported from company tax filings for 2016 were included. The discount observed by the VA was determined from each drug's list price, reported as WAC, in 2016. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the VA discount observed and a weighted price index was calculated using the lowest price to the VA (Weighted VA Index), which was compared with the manufacturer index. The discounted price as a percentage of the WAC ranged from 9 to 74%. All three indexes estimated by the average discount to the VA were at or below the manufacturer indexes (42 vs. 50% for Eli Lilly, 56 vs. 65% for Johnson & Johnson, and 59 vs. 59% for Merck). Manufacturer-reported average net prices may provide a close approximation of the average discounted price granted to the VA, suggesting they may be a useful proxy for the true pharmacy benefits manager (PBM) or payer cost. However, individual discounts for products have wide variation, making a standard discount adjustment across multiple products less acceptable.

  6. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells

  7. Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

  8. Concepts for reducing nuclear utility inventory carrying costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graybill, R.E.; DiCola, F.E.; Solanas, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear utilities are under pressure to reduce their operating and maintenance expenses such that the total cost of generating electricity through nuclear power remains an economically attractive option. One area in which expenses may be reduced is total inventory carrying cost. The total inventory carrying cost consists of financing an inventory, managing the inventory, assuring quality, engineering of acceptable parts specifications, and procuring initial and replenishment stock. Concepts and methodology must be developed to reduce the remaining expenses of a utility's total inventory carrying cost. Currently, two concepts exist: pooled inventory management system (PIMS), originally established by General Electric Company and a group of boiling water reactor owners, and Nuclear Parts Associates' (NUPA) shared inventory management program (SIMP). Both concepts share or pool parts and components among utilities. The SIMP program objectives and technical activities are summarized

  9. Strategic research on the sustainable development cost of manufacturing industry under the background of carbon allowance and trade policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhongmin; Cheng, Mengting; Wang, Mei

    2017-08-01

    The important subjects of energy consumption and carbon emission are manufacturing enterprises, with the deepening of international cooperation, and the implementation of carbon limit and trade policy, costs of manufacturing industry will rise sharply. How can the manufacturing industry survive in this reform, and it has to be a problem that the managers of the manufacturing industry need to solve. This paper analyses sustainable development cost connotation and value basis on the basis of sustainable development concept, discusses the influence of carbon allowance and trade policy for cost strategy of manufacturing industry, thinks that manufacturing industry should highlight social responsibility and realize maximization of social value, implement cost strategy the sustainable development, and pointed out the implementation way.

  10. Status and opportunities associated with product costing strategies in wood component manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrienn Andersch; Urs Buehlmann; Jan Wiedenbeck; Steve Lawser

    2013-01-01

    Product costing systems are critically important for businesses because they help reduce costs, price products at competitive prices, and enable strategic decisionmaking. This article reports the results of a survey designed to collect information about practices used by the North American hardwood dimension and components industry to calculate the cost of their...

  11. Climate policy and energy-intensive manufacturing: A comprehensive analysis of the effectiveness of cost mitigation provisions in the American Energy and Security Act of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea M.; Yudken, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    In response to the ongoing climate policy debates, this study examines the cost impacts of carbon-pricing legislation on selected US energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Specifically, it evaluates output-based rebate measures and the border adjustment provision specified in the bill, and tests the effectiveness of cost containment features of the policy, such as the international offsets, under various market assumptions. Results of the examination confirm that in all policy cases or industries, the output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the manufacturers' carbon-pricing costs in the short-to-medium term. However as the rebates decline after 2020, especially in a case where low-carbon electricity generation or international offsets are not readily available or implemented, these industries would suffer greater declines in profitability. At the same time, the study's findings were mixed concerning the effectiveness of the border adjustment measure in reducing cost impacts after 2020. While border adjustments could reduce costs to US manufacturing sectors, at least temporarily, they could create problems for domestic downstream producers and exports, under cost pass-along conditions. However at best, the output-based rebates, international offset, and border adjustment and measures primarily buy time for manufacturers. The only long-term solution is for EITE industries to invest in energy-saving and next-generation low-carbon technologies. - Highlights: → The output-based rebates would effectively mitigate the costs of carbon-pricing for EITE industries. → After 2021 economic impacts on the EITE industries would escalate. → The BA measure would support US firms passing through their emissions costs to their US customers. → The BA measure would not alleviate the higher production costs of US. EITE exports. → In the medium term the only true solution is for US. EITE manufacturers to invest in energy-saving technologies.

  12. Reducing patient drug acquisition costs can lower diabetes health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J

    2005-08-01

    Concerned about rising prevalence and costs of diabetes among its employees, Pitney Bowes Inc recently revamped its drug benefit design to synergize with ongoing efforts in its disease management and patient education programs. Specifically, based on a predictive model showing that low medication adherence was linked to subsequent increases in healthcare costs in patients with diabetes, the company shifted all diabetes drugs and devices from tier 2 or 3 formulary status to tier 1. The rationale was that reducing patient out-of-pocket costs would eliminate financial barriers to preventive care, and thereby increase adherence, reduce costly complications, and slow the overall rate of rising healthcare costs. This single change in pharmaceutical benefit design immediately made critical brand-name drugs available to most Pitney Bowes employees and their covered dependents for 10% coinsurance, the same coinsurance level as for generic drugs, versus the previous cost share of 25% to 50%. After 2 to 3 years, preliminary results in plan participants with diabetes indicate that medication possession rates have increased significantly, use of fixed-combination drugs has increased (possibly related to easier adherence), average total pharmacy costs have decreased by 7%, and emergency department visits have decreased by 26%. Hospital admission rates, although increasing slightly, remain below the demographically adjusted Medstat benchmark. Overall direct healthcare costs per plan participant with diabetes decreased by 6%. In addition, the rate of increase in overall per-plan-participant health costs at Pitney Bowes has slowed markedly, with net per-plan-participant costs in 2003 at about 4000 dollars per year versus 6500 dollars for the industry benchmark. This recent moderation in overall corporate health costs may be related to these strategic changes in drug benefit design for diabetes, asthma, and hypertension and also to ongoing enhancements in the company's disease

  13. Hot forming and quenching pilot process development for low cost and low environmental impact manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Roger W.; Foster, Alistair; Herrmann Praturlon, Anja

    2017-09-01

    The Hot Forming and in-tool Quenching (HFQ®) process is a proven technique to enable complex shaped stampings to be manufactured from high strength aluminium. Its widespread uptake for high volume production will be maximised if it is able to wholly amortise the additional investment cost of this process compared to conventional deep drawing techniques. This paper discusses the use of three techniques to guide some of the development decisions taken during upscaling of the HFQ® process. Modelling of Process timing, Cost and Life-cycle impact were found to be effective tools to identify where development budget could be focused in order to be able to manufacture low cost panels of different sizes from many different alloys in a sustainable way. The results confirm that raw material cost, panel trimming, and artificial ageing were some of the highest contributing factors to final component cost. Additionally, heat treatment and lubricant removal stages played a significant role in the overall life-cycle assessment of the final products. These findings confirmed development priorities as novel furnace design, fast artificial ageing and low-cost alloy development.

  14. Reducing Interaction Costs for Self-interested Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunqi; Larson, Kate

    In many multiagent systems, agents are not able to freely interact with each other or with a centralized mechanism. They may be limited in their interactions by cost or by the inherent structure of the system. Using a combinatorial auction application as motivation, we study the impact of interaction costs and structure on the strategic behaviour of self-interested agents. We present a particular model of costly agent-interaction, and argue that self-interested agents may wish to coordinate their actions with their neighbours so as to reduce their individual costs. We highlight the issues that arise in such a setting, propose a cost-sharing mechanism that agents can use, and discuss group coordination procedures. Experimental work validates our model.

  15. (Dysfunctionality of accounting cost systems in manufacturing companies of Tuzla canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sado Puškarević

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the conducted primary survey on functionality of cost systems in manufacturing companies of Tuzla Canton (hereinafter “TC”. This paper assesses their adequacy to the needs of these companies: the present needs, and the ones that will be brought by the changes in the environment. These systems have to be up-to-date, as they influence the process of cost management, which is the key factor of companies’ adaptation to the conditions of a modern market. Cost management, which is based on the information of a cost system, enables the company to take the adequate stand towards customers on markets and toward their competition. Also, the quality cost information is a precondition for effective and efficient allocation of limited resources in a transitional period of society development. Therefore, only quality designed cost system in transitional economy will enable recovery, and then, growth and development of a company. This emphasizes the importance of research of the stated issues for transitional countries. The research results should also help to persuade the management about the need to modernize the operation organization, primarily the accounting function, mainly in the part of cost system organization. The determined defects, as well as deviances in relation to current needs for information about costs, are guidelines for an adequate process of redesigning cost systems in companies of transitional economy.

  16. Activity-based Costing dan Simulated Annealing untuk Pencarian Rute pada Flexible Manufacturing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Budhi, Gregorius Satia

    2003-01-01

    In Bahasa Indonesia : Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin-mesin Numerical Control (NC) yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin-mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC) digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian ru...

  17. ANALISIS ACTIVITY BASED COST1NG DAN SIMULATED ANNEALING UNTUK PENCARIAN RUTE PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Rialdy, Novien

    2017-01-01

    AbstrakFlexible Manufacturing System (FMS) adalah sistem manufaktur yang tersusun dari mesin -mesin Numerical Control (NC) yang dikombinasi dengan Sistem Penanganan Material, sehingga job-job berbeda dikerjakan oleh mesin -mesin dengan alur yang berlainan. FMS menggabungkan produktifitas dan fleksibilitas yang tinggi dari Sistem Manufaktur Transfer Line dan Job Shop. Pada riset ini pendekatan Activity-Based Costing (ABC) digunakan sebagai bobot / weight dalam pencarian rute operasi pada mesin...

  18. The Price-Marginal Cost Markup and its Determinants in U.S. Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the price-marginal cost markup for US manufacturing using a new methodology. Most existing techniques of estimating the markup are a variant on Hall's (1988) framework involving the manipulation of the Solow Residual. However this paper argues that this notion is based on the unreasonable assumption that labor can be costlessly adjusted at a fixed wage rate. By relaxing this assumption, we are able to derive a generalized markup index, which when estimated using manufactu...

  19. Reducing Operating Room Costs Through Real-Time Cost Information Feedback: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Christian H; Bahler, Clinton D; Hardacker, Thomas J; Ball, Kevin M; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-08-01

    To create a protocol for providing real-time operating room (OR) cost feedback to surgeons. We hypothesize that this protocol will reduce costs in a responsible way without sacrificing quality of care. All OR costs were obtained and recorded for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Before the beginning of this project, costs pertaining to the 20 most recent cases were analyzed. Items were identified from previous cases as modifiable for replacement or omission. Timely feedback of total OR costs and cost of each item used was provided to the surgeon after each case, and costs were analyzed. A cost analysis of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy before the washout period indicates expenditures of $5243.04 per case. Ten recommended modifiable items were found to have an average per case cost of $1229.33 representing 23.4% of the total cost. A postwashout period cost analysis found the total OR cost decreased by $899.67 (17.2%) because of changes directly related to the modifiable items. Therefore, 73.2% of the possible identified savings was realized. The same stepwise approach was applied to laparoscopic donor nephrectomies. The average total cost per case before the washout period was $3530.05 with $457.54 attributed to modifiable items. After the washout period, modifiable items costs were reduced by $289.73 (8.0%). No complications occurred in the donor nephrectomy cases while one postoperative complication occurred in the partial nephrectomy group. Providing surgeons with feedback related to OR costs may lead to a change in surgeon behavior and decreased overall costs. Further studies are needed to show equivalence in patient outcomes.

  20. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  1. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  2. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  3. ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING IN THE MANUFACTURING SECTOR: A MANAGERIAL INSTRUMENT FOR DECISION-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana D. BUFAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to emphasize the importance of using the activity-based costing (management system in the manufacturing sector. The utility of the ABC (ABM system concerns decisions taken at a strategic and operational level. In our country, few managers understand the need for such a system and many Romanian companies use only a traditional costing system or don’t use one at all. The paper also includes a case study which is a small example of using the ABC method in a Romanian manufacturing company. The study shows that the ABC/ABM system helps managers to properly manage indirect costs (by activities and understand the profitability of products, distribution channels and customers. Therefore, it offers a powerful instrument for decision-making. Although ABC is a new system of cost calculation that is absolutely necessary, in most cases the ABC method must be implemented in addition to the traditional costing systems, which are essential for the purposes of management accounting.

  4. Design meeting on reduced technical objectives/reduced cost ITER options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.

    1999-01-01

    At this meeting, which took place at Garching, Germany in January 1999, means of reducing the overall cost for ITER to 50% where discussed. It was felt that a smaller plasma of high elongation and high triangularity was a step in the right direction. Further steps would include cheaper magnetic field coils, cheaper in-vessel components and also costly buildings

  5. Rightsizing HVAC Systems to Reduce Capital Costs and Save Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebesta, James

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every institution is faced with the situation of having to reduce the cost of a construction project from time to time through a process generally referred to as "value engineering." Just the mention of those words, however, gives rise to all types of connotations, thoughts, and memories (usually negative) for those in the…

  6. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  7. CANDU 9 - reducing capital costs through advanced construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K.; Yu, S.; Hopwood, J.

    1996-01-01

    Reducing costs is a clear priority in nuclear markets where capital reaches billions and financing is hard-won. To address that priority, AECL introduced the use of advanced construction techniques. This has been one of the key thrusts behind its development of CANDU 9. (author)

  8. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  9. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  10. Device interactions in reducing the cost of tidal stream energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, A.; Iglesias, G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Numerical modelling is used to estimate the levelised cost of tidal stream energy. • As a case study, a model of Lynmouth (UK) is implemented and successfully validated. • The resolution of the model allows the demarcation of individual devices on the model grid. • Device interactions reduce the available tidal resource and the cost increases significantly. - Abstract: The levelised cost of energy takes into account the lifetime generated energy and the costs associated with a project. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of device interactions on the energy output and, therefore, on the levelised cost of energy of a tidal stream project, by means of numerical modelling. For this purpose, a case study is considered: Lynmouth (North Devon, UK), an area in the Bristol Channel in which the first tidal stream turbine was installed − a testimony of its potential as a tidal energy site. A state-of-the-art hydrodynamics model is implemented on a high-resolution computational grid, which allows the demarcation of the individual devices. The modification to the energy output resulting from interaction between turbines within the tidal farm is thus resolved for each individual turbine. The results indicate that significant changes in the levelised cost of energy values, of up to £0.221 kW h −1 , occur due to the aforementioned modifications, which should not be disregarded if the cost of tidal stream energy is to be minimised

  11. Cost effectiveness of reducing radon exposure in Spanish dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.A.; Gutierrez, J.

    1996-01-01

    Published information on the distribution of radon levels in Spanish single family dwellings is used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of three different intervention scenarios: remediation of existing dwellings, radon proofing of all future dwellings and the targetting of areas with higher than average indoor radon concentrations. Analysis is carried out on the basis of a Reference Level of 400 Bq m -3 for the existing housing stock and 200 Bq m -3 for new dwellings. Certain assumptions are made about the effectiveness and durability of the measures applied and annualised costs are used to calculate the costs per lung cancer death averted. The results reveal that targetting future housing is a more cost-effective option than remediation of existing dwellings with radon concentrations above the Reference Level -the costs per lung cancer death averted are typically $145000. In high-risk areas, these costs can be considerably less, depending on the percentage of dwellings expected to exceed the Reference Level and the average savings in exposure as a result of the intervention. The costs of intervention to reduce lung cancer deaths following exposure to radon compare favourably with those of other health programmes in other countries. (Author)

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Assessment of Ergonomic Interventions Effects: Case Study Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Mohammad faam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: In Economic and competitive world today,cost-benefit analysis is one of the most important parameters for any intervention.The purpose of thisstudy was cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions effects in Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company. Methods:At first all workstations of the company assessed using QEC. Thenthose earned more than 70% in QEC assessed by OWAS. By analyzing the results of these two methods, the “Haarp welding” workstation selected as the critical one. After presentation of possible solutions in specialized committee, the final solution selected and cost-benefit analysis done by CyberManS tool. Finally after implementing the intervention workstation reassessed. Findings:The results of the survey showed that the final score of assessment using QEC, OWAS and NASA-TLX before the intervention was 84.7%, 3 and 75.4, respectively and after the intervention was 47.5%, 1 and 42.7 that witnesses a significant reduction in all three methods of assessment. Also the result of cost-benefit analysis by CyberManS showed that by spending 110 million rials after 1.5 years the investment returned and profitability initiated. Conclusion:In addition to reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic interventions have financial benefits by increasing the productivity and production, reducing the compensation and the lost work days can also cause financial benefits.

  13. Additive Manufacturing and Casting Technology Comparison: Mechanical Properties, Productivity and Cost Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vevers, A.; Kromanis, A.; Gerins, E.; Ozolins, J.

    2018-04-01

    The casting technology is one of the oldest production technologies in the world but in the recent years metal additive manufacturing also known as metal 3D printing has been evolving with huge steps. Both technologies have capabilities to produce parts with internal holes and at first glance surface roughness is similar for both technologies, which means that for precise dimensions parts have to be machined in places where precise fit is necessary. Benchmark tests have been made to find out if parts which are produced with metal additive manufacturing can be used to replace parts which are produced with casting technology. Most of the comparative tests have been made with GJS-400-15 grade which is one of the most popular cast iron grades. To compare mechanical properties samples have been produced using additive manufacturing and tested for tensile strength, hardness, surface roughness and microstructure and then the results have been compared with the samples produced with casting technology. In addition, both technologies have been compared in terms of the production time and production costs to see if additive manufacturing is competitive with the casting technology. The original paper has been written in the Latvian language as part of the Master Thesis within the framework of the production technology study programme at Riga Technical University.

  14. Reducing healthcare costs facilitated by surgical auditing: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaert, Johannes Arthuur; van Bommel, Anne Charlotte Madeline; van Dijk, Wouter Antonie; van Leersum, Nicoline Johanneke; Tollenaar, Robertus Alexandre Eduard Mattheus; Wouters, Michael Wilhemus Jacobus Maria

    2015-07-01

    Surgical auditing has been developed in order to benchmark and to facilitate quality improvement. The aim of this review is to determine if auditing combined with systematic feedback of information on process and outcomes of care results in lower costs of surgical care. A systematic search of published literature before 21-08-2013 was conducted in Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Articles were selected if they met the inclusion criteria of describing a surgical audit with cost-evaluation. The systematic search resulted in 3608 papers. Six studies were identified as relevant, all showing a positive effect of surgical auditing on quality of healthcare and therefore cost savings was reported. Cost reductions ranging from $16 to $356 per patient were seen in audits evaluating general or vascular procedures. The highest potential cost reduction was described in a colorectal surgical audit (up to $1,986 per patient). All six identified articles in this review describe a reduction in complications and thereby a reduction in costs due to surgical auditing. Surgical auditing may be of greater value when high-risk procedures are evaluated, since prevention of adverse events in these procedures might be of greater clinical and therefore of greater financial impact. This systematic review shows that surgical auditing can function as a quality instrument and therefore as a tool to reduce costs. Since evidence is scarce so far, further studies should be performed to investigate if surgical auditing has positive effects to turn the rising healthcare costs around. In the future, incorporating (actual) cost analyses and patient-related outcome measures would increase the audits' value and provide a complete overview of the value of healthcare.

  15. Standardized ultrasound templates for diagnosing appendicitis reduce annual imaging costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Andrew B; Sales, Stephen; Nielsen, Jason W; Adler, Brent; Bates, David Gregory; Kenney, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ultrasound is preferred over computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing appendicitis in children to avoid undue radiation exposure. We previously reported our experience in instituting a standardized appendicitis ultrasound template, which decreased CT rates by 67.3%. In this analysis, we demonstrate the ongoing cost savings associated with using this template. Retrospective chart review for the time period preceding template implementation (June 2012-September 2012) was combined with prospective review through December 2015 for all patients in the emergency department receiving diagnostic imaging for appendicitis. The type of imaging was recorded, and imaging rates and ultrasound test statistics were calculated. Estimated annual imaging costs based on pretemplate ultrasound and CT utilization rates were compared with post-template annual costs to calculate annual and cumulative savings. In the pretemplate period, ultrasound and CT rates were 80.2% and 44.3%, respectively, resulting in a combined annual cost of $300,527.70. Similar calculations were performed for each succeeding year, accounting for changes in patient volume. Using pretemplate rates, our projected 2015 imaging cost was $371,402.86; however, our ultrasound rate had increased to 98.3%, whereas the CT rate declined to 9.6%, yielding an annual estimated cost of $224,853.00 and a savings of $146,549.86. Since implementation, annual savings have steadily increased for a cumulative cost savings of $336,683.83. Standardizing ultrasound reports for appendicitis not only reduces the use of CT scans and the associated radiation exposure but also decreases annual imaging costs despite increased numbers of imaging studies. Continued cost reduction may be possible by using diagnostic algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  17. Cost benefit of investment on quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing: WHO GMP pre- and post-certification of a Nigerian pharmaceutical manufacturer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyakora, Chimezie; Ekwunife, Obinna; Alozie, Faith; Esuga, Mopa; Ukwuru, Jonathan; Onya, Steve; Nwokike, Jude

    2017-09-18

    Pharmaceutical companies in Africa need to invest in both facilities and quality management systems to achieve good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliance. Compliance to international GMP standards is important to the attainment of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalification. However, most of the local pharmaceutical manufacturing companies may be deterred from investing in quality because of many reasons, ranging from financial constraints to technical capacity. This paper primarily evaluates benefits against the cost of investing in GMP, using a Nigerian pharmaceutical company, Chi Pharmaceuticals Limited, as a case study. This paper also discusses how to drive more local manufacturers to invest in quality to attain GMP compliance; and proffers practical recommendations for local manufacturers who would want to invest in quality to meet ethical and regulatory obligations. The cost benefit of improving the quality of Chi Pharmaceuticals Limited's facilities and system to attain WHO GMP certification for the production of zinc sulfate 20-mg dispersible tablets was calculated by dividing the annual benefits derived from quality improvement interventions by the annual costs of implementing quality improvement interventions, referred to as a benefit-cost ratio (BCR). Cost benefit of obtaining WHO GMP certification for the production of zinc sulfate 20-mg dispersible tablets was 5.3 (95% confidence interval of 5.0-5.5). Investment in quality improvement intervention is cost-beneficial for local manufacturing companies. Governments and regulators in African countries should support pharmaceutical companies striving to invest in quality. Collaboration of local manufacturing companies with global companies will further improve quality. Local pharmaceutical companies should be encouraged to key into development opportunities available for pharmaceutical companies in Africa.

  18. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the Department of Defense (DoD) has launched a number of initiatives whose common objective has been to reduce the costs of weapon systems that are planned, under development, or in production...

  19. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chick, Lawrence A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whyatt, Greg A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  20. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy to reduce obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Lennert Veerman

    Full Text Available AIMS: Obesity causes a high disease burden in Australia and across the world. We aimed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of weight reduction with pharmacotherapy in Australia, and to assess its potential to reduce the disease burden due to excess body weight. METHODS: We constructed a multi-state life-table based Markov model in Excel in which body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. We use data on effectiveness identified from PubMed searches, on mortality from Australian Bureau of Statistics, on disease costs from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and on drug costs from the Department of Health and Ageing. We evaluate 1-year pharmacological interventions with sibutramine and orlistat targeting obese Australian adults free of obesity-related disease. We use a lifetime horizon for costs and health outcomes and a health sector perspective for costs. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs below A$50 000 per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY averted are considered good value for money. RESULTS: The ICERs are A$130 000/DALY (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 93 000-180 000 for sibutramine and A$230 000/DALY (170 000-340 000 for orlistat. The interventions reduce the body weight-related disease burden at the population level by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Modest weight loss during the interventions, rapid post-intervention weight regain and low adherence limit the health benefits. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sibutramine or orlistat is not cost-effective from an Australian health sector perspective and has a negligible impact on the total body weight-related disease burden.

  2. The development of manufacturing techniques and philosophies for the cost effective production of modern nuclear transport flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, S.L.; Ward, S.

    1997-01-01

    Design changes to enhance the characteristics of a new generation of large transport flasks have created new challenges to manufacturers. New fabrication, manufacturing and handling techniques have been developed but often at significant costs. The paper examines these developments covering two main areas, welding and the application of neutron absorbing material. Whilst designers have looked at enhancing flask performance, they often fail to appreciate that ultimately whatever has been designed, has to be firstly sold' and then manufactured. Optimisation of design must therefore include due consideration of the ultimate clients cost structure and the manufacturing route. The paper suggests that the only way this can be achieved is to adopt a teaming approach between designers and manufacturers. The ultimate choice of manufacturer however is left to the designers who must consider competencies, track record and commitment to assistance prior to entering into an agreement. (Author)

  3. Consolidating staff augmentation contracts improves teamwork and reduces costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, J.; Sibilla, L.; Gregovich, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have traditionally used multiple contracting firms to provide temporary staff augmentation personnel primarily because of two perceptions: (1) managers believe they have greater access to a higher quality, readily available pool of applicants. (2) using multiple contractors inherently keeps costs down as a result of several competitors submitting resumes for the same position. This paper provides information, based on the experiences of a leading nuclear power plant, that disproves these perceptions. It explains why consolidating several contracts for professional and technical classifications (excluding craft labor and refueling personnel) and competitively bidding and awarding the contract to a single contracting firm promotes teamwork and reduces costs

  4. Small Habitat Commonality Reduces Cost for Human Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Lepsch, Roger; Martin, John; Howard, Robert; Rucker, Michelle; Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Howe, Scott; Mary, Natalie; Nerren, Philip (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Most view the Apollo Program as expensive. It was. But, a human mission to Mars will be orders of magnitude more difficult and costly. Recently, NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) mapped out a step-wise approach for exploring Mars and the Mars-moon system. It is early in the planning process but because approximately 80% of the total life cycle cost is committed during preliminary design, there is an effort to emphasize cost reduction methods up front. Amongst the options, commonality across small habitat elements shows promise for consolidating the high bow-wave costs of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) while still accommodating each end-item's functionality. In addition to DDT&E, there are other cost and operations benefits to commonality such as reduced logistics, simplified infrastructure integration and with inter-operability, improved safety and simplified training. These benefits are not without a cost. Some habitats are sub-optimized giving up unique attributes for the benefit of the overall architecture and because the first item sets the course for those to follow, rapidly developing technology may be excluded. The small habitats within the EMC include the pressurized crew cabins for the ascent vehicle,

  5. Reducing Reforestation Costs in Lebanon: Adaptive Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabet (Garo Haroutunian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lebanon’s Ministry of Environment initiated a project in 2009 to determine low-cost reforestation techniques for stone pine (Pinus pinea and Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani for large-scale land rehabilitation activities in the arid Middle East. Irrigation (several techniques vs. no water, planting (8- to 18-month-old seedlings, seeding, and soil preparation methods were evaluated in three sets of adaptive management field trials. The aim was to reduce reforestation costs while still achieving sufficient regeneration. A key result for management was that non-irrigated seed planting of stone pine and possibly of Lebanon cedar showed promise for cost-effective reforestation and could be competitive with seedlings, given correct seed source and planting conditions. Stone pine seeds collected from nearby mother trees and planted without irrigation on sandy soil showed 35% survival for <600 USD/ha; seedlings planted without irrigation cost about 2500 USD/ha and achieved 50–70% survival (costs based on 800 seedlings/ha. Water supplements increased establishment costs over 2 years without concomitant improvements to survival. Future studies should evaluate how soil texture and soil preparation interact with other factors to affect seed germination and survival for each species.

  6. Electricity demand of manufacturing sector in Turkey. A translog cost approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeluek, Guelden; Koc, A. Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper models factor demand for manufacturing sector in Turkey. We estimated a translog cost function with four factor consist of capital, labor, intermediate input and electricity over the 1980-2001. Our objective, taking in the consideration electricity as production input, was twofold: on the one hand, to estimate the price elasticity of electricity demand in manufacturing sector, and on the other hand to use cross-price and Morishima Elasticities of Substitution results for structural analysis regarding effects of electricity liberalization which initiated in 2001. Empirical result shows that electricity demand is relatively price sensitive (- 0.85). Our result in terms of electricity price is consistent with the previous studies. While electricity-labor and electricity-capital inputs are complementary, results indicate the existence of substitution possibilities between electricity and intermediate input. This means that changes in electricity prices have impact on labor demand and investment demand. These results have important implications for public policy. (author)

  7. Electricity demand of manufacturing sector in Turkey. A translog cost approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeluek, Guelden; Koc, A. Ali [Akdeniz University, Department of Economics, Antalya, 07058 (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper models factor demand for manufacturing sector in Turkey. We estimated a translog cost function with four factor consist of capital, labor, intermediate input and electricity over the 1980-2001. Our objective, taking in the consideration electricity as production input, was twofold: on the one hand, to estimate the price elasticity of electricity demand in manufacturing sector, and on the other hand to use cross-price and Morishima Elasticities of Substitution results for structural analysis regarding effects of electricity liberalization which initiated in 2001. Empirical result shows that electricity demand is relatively price sensitive (- 0.85). Our result in terms of electricity price is consistent with the previous studies. While electricity-labor and electricity-capital inputs are complementary, results indicate the existence of substitution possibilities between electricity and intermediate input. This means that changes in electricity prices have impact on labor demand and investment demand. These results have important implications for public policy. (author)

  8. Offshore windfarm proposal to reduce costs of foundations and installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-04

    The principle aim of this project is to develop innovative pile insertion, installation vessel pile handling and pile transfer systems that reduce the installed cost per kW of offshore wind turbine foundation installation. The project was to accomplish this by first developing a novel method of handling foundation piles without the use of craneage thereby allowing long piles of 5-6m diameter to be lifted safely in shallow water. This would extend the operating envelope by allowing work to continue without the weather constraints associated with lifting heavy loads by crane. The method would eventually reduce the size of the pile installation barge resulting in reduced installation costs. This part of the project has been satisfactorily completed, resulting in an innovative pile handling technique. Secondly a nonpercussive pile insertion method would be developed suitable for large diameter piles. The targeted aims of this method are as follows: To reduce or negate the need to handle and dispose of large amounts of spoil. To eliminate the need for piling hammers large enough to drive 6m diameter piles. These would be too heavy for the present generation of offshore cranes to lift, and the rental costs exorbitant. The advantages of these aims are: A reduction in the noise pollution produced by all percussive methods of pile driving and in particular large hammers. These noise levels are unacceptable to present and future environmental constraints. Because of the reduced drill spoil being handled compared to an industry standard full face drill, the energy consumption and therefore cost, is also reduced. Owing to the high cost and risk associated with mobilising and operating the equipment necessary for field trials in a marine environment (the cost for mobilising and operating a construction jack-up barge, all backup marine support craft, pile driving hammers and test piles can be several times the available grant funding), it was decided and agreed at an early stage

  9. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  10. Feasibility Analysis of Sustainability-Based Measures to Reduce VOC Emissions in Office Partition Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A feasibility analysis is reported of reduction opportunities for volatile organic compound (VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, aimed at contributing to efforts to improve the sustainability of the process. A pollution prevention methodology is utilized. The purpose is to provide practical options for VOC emissions reductions during the manufacturing of office furniture partitions, but the concepts can be generally applied to the wood furniture industry. Baseline VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. The feasibility analysis expands on a preliminary screening to identify viable pollution prevention options using realistic criteria and weightings, and is based on technical, environmental and economic considerations. The measures deemed feasible include the implementation of several best management practices, ceasing the painting of non-visible parts, switching to hot melt backwrapping glue, application of solvent recycling and modification of the mechanical clip attachment. Implementation, measurement and control plans are discussed for the measures considered feasible, which can enhance the sustainability of the manufacturing of office furniture partitions. Reducing VOC emissions using the measures identified can, in conjunction with other measures, improve the sustainability of the manufacturing process.

  11. Subsea industry implements NORSOK: Happy marriages reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggelund, N.

    1995-01-01

    Cost reduction by implementing NORSOK standards and cooperation between subsea suppliers to the Norwegian continental shelf, are discussed in this article. The aim of NORSOK, which is based on US standards, is to achieve standardization of technical requirements for drilling and production facilities, to identify and develop common requirements for equipment and installations, based on functional specifications, interfaces and limited variety for equipment and design, and to take into consideration existing industry standards and use these where possible. The offspring of cooperation is notable cost reductions. Subsea costs at Saga's Vigdis field have been reduced by 50% in two years. More subsea projects could come up soon. Norsk Hydro has short-listed a semi PDQ (Processing, Drilling and living Quarters), a ship or Gullfaks tie-in as runner-up concepts for the Viksund project. 1 fig

  12. Yalın Üretim Ortamına Uygun Maliyet Sistemi Seçimi(Selection of Costing System Appropriate for Lean Manufacturing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda ÖZÇELİK

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To be successful in global competition, the number of firms adopted lean manufacturing systems are increasing every day. Traditional cost management systems is insufficient to produce the information needed for businesses adopting lean manufacturing system. Value stream costing system, appropriate for lean manufacturing enterprises’s value stream organization, better serves the purpose of lean enterprises. In this study value stream costing introduced and selection of costing system for lean manufacturing environments will be done.

  13. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. 36.4251 Section 36.4251 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured...

  14. Does SDDS Subscription Reduce Borrowing Costs for Emerging Market Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    John Cady

    2005-01-01

    Does macroeconomic data transparency-as signaled by subscription to the IMF's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS)-help reduce borrowing costs in international capital markets? This question is examined using data on new issues of sovereign foreign-currency-denominated (U.S. dollar, yen, and euro) bonds for several emerging market economies. Panel econometric estimates indicate that spreads on new bond issues declined on average by close to 20 percent, or by an average of about 55 basis...

  15. Credit Constraints and Determinants of the Cost of Capital in Vietnamese Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which borrowing constraints restrict firm access to credit and identifies individual, firm, and loan characteristics, which determine the cost of capital in Vietnamese manufacturing. Using direct information from a Vietnamese enterprise survey the paper shows...... to have the necessary time to go through the many administrative difficulties in the formal credit system if they want to "seize the day". Finally, collateralized loans face larger interest rates, explained by the significant influence of "policy lending" in Vietnamese credit markets...

  16. Improving performance and reducing costs of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartz, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling towers represent a significant capital investment at a steam electric power station. In addition, deficiencies in thermal performance can result in major operating penalties of fuel cost, replacement energy, and capacity addition. This paper summarizes two recent EPRI research projects aimed at reducing thermal performance deficiencies and decreasing installed costs of evaporative cooling towers. First, EPRI Research Project 2113, Cooling Tower Performance Prediction and Improvement, is summarized. This project has resulted in published data sets on the measured thermal performance characteristics of a variety of cooling tower packings, computer codes to predict tower performance, and computer code validation through large-scale tower performance measurements. Principal results are contained in an EPRIGEMS software module, Cooling Tower Advisor. This PC- based software contains a tutorial plus codes to predict tower thermal performance, arranged in a user-friendly format. The second EPRI effort, Research Project 2819-10/11, Fabric Structures for Power Plant Applications, has resulted in designs and costs of large structures with shells constructed of recently-developed fabrics. Primary power plant applications for such structures are the shells of natural draft cooling towers and coal-pile covers. Fabric structures offer low initial cost, acceptable life, and seismic superiority, among other advantages. Detailed conceptual designs and installed cost data are reviewed. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  18. Improving the Sustainability of Office Partition Manufacturing: Balancing Options for Reducing Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Options are examined to improve the sustainability of office partition manufacturing by reducing volatile organic compounds (VOC emissions. Base VOC emissions for a typical plant are estimated using a mass balance approach. Pollution prevention and sustainability measures are assessed using realistic criteria and weightings. Sustainability has been considered from an industry perspective, considering factors like economics, environmental impact, quality, health and safety. Through a case study, it is demonstrated that several advantageous options are available for reducing VOC emissions in manufacturing office furniture partitions, and thereby enhancing the sustainability of that industrial operation. The measures deemed most viable include implementing several best management practices, not painting of non-visible parts, switching gluing processes, recycling solvent and modifying attachments. The results are intended to be balanced so as to improve their acceptability and adoptability by industry. It appears that it would be advantageous for manufacturers of office panels to evaluate the feasibility of these measures and to implement the most appropriate. The results are likely extendable to other operations in the wood furniture industry, and would improve their sustainability.

  19. Low-cost small scale parabolic trough collector design for manufacturing and deployment in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Matthew; Mathaha, Paul; Tsiu, Anadola; Taele, B. M.; Mabea, Lengeta; Ntee, Marcel; Khakanyo, Makoanyane; Teker, Tamer; Stephens, Jordan; Mueller, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power is expanding its deployment on the African subcontinent, highlighting the importance of efforts to indigenize manufacturing of this technology to increase local content and therefore local economic benefits of these projects. In this study a design for manufacturing (DFM) exercise was conducted to create a locally produced parabolic trough collector (the G4 PTC). All parts were sourced or fabricated at a production facility in Lesotho, and several examples of the design were prototyped and tested with collaborators in the Government of Lesotho's Appropriate Technology Services division and the National University of Lesotho. Optical and thermal performance was simulated and experimentally validated, and pedagogical pre-commercial versions of the PTC have been distributed to higher education partners in Lesotho and Europe. The cost to produce the PTC is 180 USD/m2 for a locally manufactured heat collection element (HCE) capable of sustaining 250C operation at ~65% efficiency. A version with an imported evacuated HCE can operate at 300°C with 70% efficiency. Economically relevant applications for this locally produced PTC include industrial process heat and distributed generation scenarios where cogeneration is required.

  20. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulman, Holly [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States); Ross, Nicole [Ceralink Incorporated, Troy, NY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  1. Reduced prosthetic stiffness lowers the metabolic cost of running for athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Owen N; Taboga, Paolo; Grabowski, Alena M

    2017-04-01

    Inspired by the springlike action of biological legs, running-specific prostheses are designed to enable athletes with lower-limb amputations to run. However, manufacturer's recommendations for prosthetic stiffness and height may not optimize running performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of using different prosthetic configurations on the metabolic cost and biomechanics of running. Five athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations each performed 15 trials on a force-measuring treadmill at 2.5 or 3.0 m/s. Athletes ran using each of 3 different prosthetic models (Freedom Innovations Catapult FX6, Össur Flex-Run, and Ottobock 1E90 Sprinter) with 5 combinations of stiffness categories (manufacturer's recommended and ± 1) and heights (International Paralympic Committee's maximum competition height and ± 2 cm) while we measured metabolic rates and ground reaction forces. Overall, prosthetic stiffness [fixed effect (β) = 0.036; P = 0.008] but not height ( P ≥ 0.089) affected the net metabolic cost of transport; less stiff prostheses reduced metabolic cost. While controlling for prosthetic stiffness (in kilonewtons per meter), using the Flex-Run (β = -0.139; P = 0.044) and 1E90 Sprinter prostheses (β = -0.176; P = 0.009) reduced net metabolic costs by 4.3-4.9% compared with using the Catapult prostheses. The metabolic cost of running improved when athletes used prosthetic configurations that decreased peak horizontal braking ground reaction forces (β = 2.786; P = 0.001), stride frequencies (β = 0.911; P < 0.001), and leg stiffness values (β = 0.053; P = 0.009). Remarkably, athletes did not maintain overall leg stiffness across prosthetic stiffness conditions. Rather, the in-series prosthetic stiffness governed overall leg stiffness. The metabolic cost of running in athletes with bilateral transtibial amputations is influenced by prosthetic model and stiffness but not height. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We measured the

  2. Healthcare technology: physician collaboration in reducing the surgical cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steven A; Obremskey, William T; Bozic, Kevin J

    2013-06-01

    The increasing cost of providing health care is a national concern. Healthcare spending related to providing hospital care is one of the primary drivers of healthcare spending in the United States. Adoption of advanced medical technologies accounts for the largest percentage of growth in healthcare spending in the United States when compared with other developed countries. Within the specialty of orthopaedic surgery, a variety of implants can result in similar outcomes for patients in several areas of clinical care. However, surgeons often do not know the cost of implants used in a specific procedure or how the use of an implant or technology affects the overall cost of the episode of care. The purposes of this study were (1) to describe physician-led processes for introduction of new surgical products and technologies; and (2) to inform physicians of potential cost savings of physician-led product contract negotiations and approval of new technology. We performed a detailed review of the steps taken by two centers that have implemented surgeon-led programs to demonstrate responsibility in technology acquisition and product procurement decision-making. Each program has developed a physician peer review process in technology and new product acquisition that has resulted in a substantial reduction in spending for the respective hospitals in regard to surgical implants. Implant costs have decreased between 3% and 38% using different negotiating strategies. At the same time, new product requests by physicians have been approved in greater than 90% of instances. Hospitals need physicians to be engaged and informed in discussions concerning current and new technology and products. Surgeons can provide leadership for these efforts to reduce the cost of high-quality care.

  3. Does a renewable fuel standard for biofuels reduce climate costs?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Hoel, Michael; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2012-07-01

    Recent contributions have questioned whether biofuels policies actually lead to emissions reductions, and thus lower climate costs. In this paper we make two contributions to the literature. First, we study the market effects of a renewable fuel standard. Opposed to most previous studies we model the supply of fossil fuels taking into account that fossil fuels is a non-renewable resource. Second, we model emissions from land use change explicitly when we evaluate the climate effects of the renewable fuel standard. We find that extraction of fossil fuels most likely will decline initially as a consequence of the standard. Thus, if emissions from biofuels are sufficiently low, the standard will have beneficial climate effects. Furthermore, we find that the standard tends to reduce total fuel (i.e., oil plus biofuels) consumption initially. Hence, even if emissions from biofuels are substantial, climate costs may be reduced. Finally, if only a subset of countries introduce a renewable fuel standard, there will be carbon leakage to the rest of the world. However, climate costs may decline as global extraction of fossil fuels is postponed.(Author)

  4. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  5. Predictive models reduce talent development costs in female gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan; Hohmann, Andreas; Liu, Tianbiao; Lenoir, Matthieu; Segers, Veerle

    2017-04-01

    This retrospective study focuses on the comparison of different predictive models based on the results of a talent identification test battery for female gymnasts. We studied to what extent these models have the potential to optimise selection procedures, and at the same time reduce talent development costs in female artistic gymnastics. The dropout rate of 243 female elite gymnasts was investigated, 5 years past talent selection, using linear (discriminant analysis) and non-linear predictive models (Kohonen feature maps and multilayer perceptron). The coaches classified 51.9% of the participants correct. Discriminant analysis improved the correct classification to 71.6% while the non-linear technique of Kohonen feature maps reached 73.7% correctness. Application of the multilayer perceptron even classified 79.8% of the gymnasts correctly. The combination of different predictive models for talent selection can avoid deselection of high-potential female gymnasts. The selection procedure based upon the different statistical analyses results in decrease of 33.3% of cost because the pool of selected athletes can be reduced to 92 instead of 138 gymnasts (as selected by the coaches). Reduction of the costs allows the limited resources to be fully invested in the high-potential athletes.

  6. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  7. Use of configuration management to reduce development costs in metal parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsoom, T.; Ahmad, S.

    2005-01-01

    In development and manufacturing phases of metal parts, design efforts are converted in set of engineering data pack under the given guidelines of Configuration Management (CM). These engineering documents define Configuration Management of metal parts production in a local industry. The development phase is normally less structured and open to Engineering Change Proposals. In our local engineering organizations most of the work done is normally not well documented for future revisions and modernization. This leads to delays in development and increase in production costs of metal parts. This becomes more pronounced if any member of the design team disassociates and leaves the organization. The Configuration Management helps to reduce development costs by providing infrastructure for product identification, documentation, change control, interface control and technical reviews and product audits. Automated or Computer-Assisted CM activities can also be used to shorten response time and increase accuracy and reliability of the produced metal components. (author)

  8. Reducing Development and Operations Costs using NASA's "GMSEC" Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan; Bristow, John; Crouse, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the role of Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) in reducing development and operation costs in handling the massive data from NASA missions. The goals of GMSEC systems architecture development are to (1) Simplify integration and development, (2)Facilitate technology infusion over time, (3) Support evolving operational concepts, and (4) All for mix of heritage, COTS and new components. First 3 missions (i.e., Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM), Small Explorer (SMEX) missions - SWAS, TRACE, SAMPEX, and ST5 3-Satellite Constellation System) each selected a different telemetry and command system. These results show that GMSEC's message-bus component-based framework architecture is well proven and provides significant benefits over traditional flight and ground data system designs. The missions benefit through increased set of product options, enhanced automation, lower cost and new mission-enabling operations concept options .

  9. Insulator coated magnetic nanoparticulate composites with reduced core loss and method of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Wang, Shihe (Inventor); Xiao, Danny (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A series of bulk-size magnetic/insulating nanostructured composite soft magnetic materials with significantly reduced core loss and its manufacturing technology. This insulator coated magnetic nanostructured composite is comprises a magnetic constituent, which contains one or more magnetic components, and an insulating constituent. The magnetic constituent is nanometer scale particles (1-100 nm) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase (continuous phase). While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase (or coupled nanoparticles) provide the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides the much demanded high resistivity which significantly reduces the eddy current loss. The resulting material is a high performance magnetic nanostructured composite with reduced core loss.

  10. Are car manufacturers on the way to reduce CO2 emissions?: A DEA approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltes-Dorta, Augusto; Perdiguero, Jordi; Jiménez, Juan Luis

    2013-01-01

    One of the pillars of the fight against climate change is reducing the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted into the atmosphere. In that regard, curtailing CO 2 emissions from transport activities is a major objective. In its attempts of “decarbonising” transport, the European Commission set in 2009 different emission limits on the vehicles sold in Europe. With this background, this paper aims to test the ability of the major car manufacturers to meet these present and future targets with the existing technological trends. To that end, we provide an in-depth analysis on the temporal evolution of emission efficiencies in the Spanish car market. The well-known DEA-Malmquist method is applied over a large sample of car models sold in Spain between 2004 and 2010. A second-stage regression allows us to identify the main drivers of efficiency, catch-up and technical change over the period. Finally, the estimated trends are extrapolated to predict future emission levels for the car manufacturers. Using post-regulation rates of technical change, results show that the vast majority of companies would meet the 2015 target, 27% of the current market would meet the 2020 target, and around 3% would be able to comply with the 2025 target. Thus, since all targets are technologically feasible, stricter regulation is the recommended approach to encourage manufacturers to meet the goals set by the European Commission. - Highlights: • We test the ability of car manufacturers to meet emission targets. • A DEA-Malmquist model is estimated using panel data between 2004 and 2010. • With post-2007 technical change, the vast majority of companies beat the 2015 target. • 27% of the market meets the 2020 target, and 3% meets the 2025 target. • More stringent regulation is needed to meet the goals set by the European Authorities

  11. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl R Krull

    Full Text Available Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control, with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation

  12. Managing concrete bridges: Methods for reducing costs and user inconveniences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Per

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents experiences from modern bridge maintenance management, which has been forced to develop new and cost-efficient approaches in order to cope with the increase in overall deterioration of the aging bridge stock, the growing requirements to accessibility and the decreasing budgets...... situations often postpone or reduce the repair and rehabilitation activities required in critical parts of the structure. The paper will present some cases, where these approaches have been used on existing concrete bridges and explain how these experiences can be applied on other types of structures...

  13. Advanced transfer chute reduces dust at lower cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, C. [Benetech Inc. (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Dominion Resources' Kincaid Generating Station in Illinois is recognized as a leader in handling and burning PRB coal. Since being named the Powder Plant of the Year in 2001 and 2004 by the PRB Coal Users' Group, Kincaid has improved its coal handling by installing an InteliFlo controlled-flow transfer chute from Benetech. The InteliFlo design eliminates the need for skirt boards, conveyor discharge hoods, and complex load bed designs, and reduces O & M costs. 4 figs.

  14. Technical cost modelling for a novel semi-solid metal (SSM) casting processes for automotive component manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlale, NS

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available . It has been well established that over 70% of the total development cost of a product and its manufacturing process is decided during the design phase, although this phase accounts for less than 7% of the total costs. It is thus important to be able...

  15. The Effects of Property, Plant and Equipment (TAS 16 Standard on Cost of Sales of Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker KIYMETLİ ŞEN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Turkish Commercial Code that came into force in July 2012, the all capital companies that meet the criteria described by the Council of Ministers are required to be in compliance with accounting and financial reporting standards published by the Public Oversight, Accounting and Auditing Board. There are several differences between the local accounting regulations and the standards in terms of valuation, computation and presentation. These differences also affect the cost of sales of the companies that result in differences in the calculation of costs of goods manufactured. The purpose of this study is to examine and demonstrate the potential effects of the TAS 16 Property, Plant and Equipment on calculations of manufacturing costs and the cost of sales of manufacturing companies.

  16. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  17. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  18. Using collaborative work groups to reduce O ampersand M costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francoeur, R.; Jones, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company (ComEd) entered the nineties burdened with external distractions from its core business of power generation. Its unresolved 1987 rate case continued to face intervention in the courts. Some of its largest industrial and municipal customers were exploring more economical alternatives. The new convention facility in Chicago actually engaged an independent energy supplier. Retail wheeling was the hot topic, and internal problems were present. Operations and Maintenance (O ampersand M) costs were steadily increasing. Two of their six nuclear stations were on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Watch List. Immediate changes had to occur if ComEd was to ensure its future competitiveness. At ComEd Braidwood Nuclear Power Station some untraditional work methodologies were embarked upon to help the parent company reduce its O ampersand M costs. Various types of collaborative work groups were formed, and have succeeded in lowering O ampersand M costs through shorter refueling outages and the use of fewer contracted personnel. These collaborative work groups are listed below and are described in detail in the remainder of this paper: (1) A core group of Maintenance Modification Contractor (MMC) supervision integrated into the Owner's Maintenance Staff, (2) A Corporate Outage Support Group of supervisory personnel which supplements the site's Maintenance Staff, (3) The Integrated Outage and Turbine Overhaul Contractor using a mixture of its own and Maintenance Staff supervisory personnel during outages with the Owner supplementing craft support using a third-party, (4) Six nuclear stations sharing key MMC personnel to insure experienced individuals are used effectively, and (5) Composite teams of maintenance personnel working across defined disciplines Braidwood Station has capitalized on the strategy of positive collaboration to become one of the lowest cost producers of nuclear power. Its use has enabled the Station to successfully complete the

  19. Japanese manufacturers' cost-performance marketing strategy for the delivery of solar photovoltaic homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    Japanese manufacturers have been gaining a global reputation for their design approaches to industrialized housing, which is often equipped with PV systems. Homes are produced on a cost performance marketing strategy. In 2004, 13.7 per cent of the 1,160,083 houses built in Japan were pre-fabricated. The pre-fabricated housing industry has been given considerable government support. In response to growing demands for sustainable housing, the government has implemented promotional programs aiming to support the installations of photovoltaic systems. Details of various programs were presented, including: value-added production; housing sustainability; PV rooftop systems; and a mass custom design approach. It was concluded that the cost performance marketing strategy has a significant impact on production and design approaches. However, quality-oriented production may also result in successful commercialization of innovative housing. The Japanese marketing approach allows consumers to understand the added value of packaged innovations rather than the cost. It was suggested that this marketing strategy should be examined further, when considering approaches to innovative housing in other countries. 38 refs., 3 figs

  20. Japanese manufacturers' cost-performance marketing strategy for the delivery of solar photovoltaic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, M.

    2005-02-01

    Japanese manufacturers have been gaining a global reputation for their design approaches to industrialized housing, which is often equipped with PV systems. Homes are produced on a cost performance marketing strategy. In 2004, 13.7 per cent of the 1,160,083 houses built in Japan were pre-fabricated. The pre-fabricated housing industry has been given considerable government support. In response to growing demands for sustainable housing, the government has implemented promotional programs aiming to support the installations of photovoltaic systems. Details of various programs were presented, including: value-added production; housing sustainability; PV rooftop systems; and a mass custom design approach. It was concluded that the cost performance marketing strategy has a significant impact on production and design approaches. However, quality-oriented production may also result in successful commercialization of innovative housing. The Japanese marketing approach allows consumers to understand the added value of packaged innovations rather than the cost. It was suggested that this marketing strategy should be examined further, when considering approaches to innovative housing in other countries. 38 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Low-cost indigenous radiopharmaceutical kits manufacturing capability: a successful work accomplished in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Y.; Noronha, O.P.D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Unit at Black Lion Hospital is the only Nuclear Medicine service giving center in the country. We have been importing Radiopharmaceutical-kits for 10 subsequent years costly, with frequent irregularities, only limited Numbers of kits mainly for Liver, Brain, Thyroid and Kidney imagings. Most of the Nuclear Medicine (NM) diagnostic procedures were not undertaken at our unit, because of unavailability of vital Radiopharmaceutical-kits (Rp-kits) in the country since they were not manufactured in the country. In order to solve this long stranding problem of the country persistent efforts were made. The success in Rp-kits manufacturing indigenously has the advantage of disseminating the NM Technology with in the country also. With the continuous efforts made 7 Aqueous-Rp-kits were manufactured successfully in our unit viza-viz: 1) 99m Tc-s-colloid-for Liver imaging. 2) 99m Tc-DTPA-for Brain + Renal imaging. 3) 99m Tc-MDP-for Bone imaging, 4) 99m Tc-Tin (11) pyrophosphate for in-vivo R,B,C, labelling: (For the study of Blood-Pool and Myocardial Infarction), 5) 99m Tc-Tin(11) Gluconate for Brain + Kidney Static imaging. 6) 99m Tc-Tin(11) Phytate for Liver imaging. 7) 99m Tc-TBI for Myocardial perfusion study. Their physico-chemical behaving patterns were studied and the chemical and biological quality control procedures were conducted upon the indigenously produced kits at the National Drug Quality Control center and they were found to be sterile, apyrogenic and non-toxic. The efficiency of the kits was tested in many patients in our unit and found to be effective and reliable. Aqueous kits produced were observed to be as effective and reliable as their lyophilized counterparts with respect to their physico-chemical properties and biospecificity (organ specificity) but possessing short shelf lives unlike lyophilized kits. (author)

  2. Fixed-point image orthorectification algorithms for reduced computational cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Joseph Clinton

    Imaging systems have been applied to many new applications in recent years. With the advent of low-cost, low-power focal planes and more powerful, lower cost computers, remote sensing applications have become more wide spread. Many of these applications require some form of geolocation, especially when relative distances are desired. However, when greater global positional accuracy is needed, orthorectification becomes necessary. Orthorectification is the process of projecting an image onto a Digital Elevation Map (DEM), which removes terrain distortions and corrects the perspective distortion by changing the viewing angle to be perpendicular to the projection plane. Orthorectification is used in disaster tracking, landscape management, wildlife monitoring and many other applications. However, orthorectification is a computationally expensive process due to floating point operations and divisions in the algorithm. To reduce the computational cost of on-board processing, two novel algorithm modifications are proposed. One modification is projection utilizing fixed-point arithmetic. Fixed point arithmetic removes the floating point operations and reduces the processing time by operating only on integers. The second modification is replacement of the division inherent in projection with a multiplication of the inverse. The inverse must operate iteratively. Therefore, the inverse is replaced with a linear approximation. As a result of these modifications, the processing time of projection is reduced by a factor of 1.3x with an average pixel position error of 0.2% of a pixel size for 128-bit integer processing and over 4x with an average pixel position error of less than 13% of a pixel size for a 64-bit integer processing. A secondary inverse function approximation is also developed that replaces the linear approximation with a quadratic. The quadratic approximation produces a more accurate approximation of the inverse, allowing for an integer multiplication calculation

  3. Low cost method for manufacturing a data acquisition system with USB connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu, V.; Dobre, R. A.; Popovici, E.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of designing and manufacturing an electronic system the digital oscilloscope plays an essential role but it also represents one of the most expensive equipment present on the typical workbench. In order to make electronic design more accessible to students and hobbyists, an affordable data acquisition system was imagined. The paper extensively presents the development and testing of a low cost, medium speed, data acquisition system which can be used in a wide range of electronic measurement and debugging applications, assuring also great portability due to the small physical dimensions. Each hardware functional block and is thoroughly described, highlighting the challenges that occurred as well as the solutions to overcome them. The entire system was successfully manufactured using high quality components to assure increased reliability, and high frequency PCB materials and techniques were preferred. The measured values determined based on test signals were compared to the ones obtained using a digital oscilloscope available on the market and differences less than 1% were observed.

  4. DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT AND ORGANISATION OF MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING BASED ON ABC-COSTING METHOD APPLIED IN MOLDOVAN MANUFACTURING ENTITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana MIHAILA

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and present the main features of ABC-costing method, as well as the key elements, such as activities, resources and cost drivers. The article enlarges upon the stages of application of such method in the Moldovan manufacturing businesses and brings forth some examples of internal reports used both for a simple analysis and for management decision-making purposes. The article also focuses on a comparison between the traditional costing methods and ABC...

  5. Vertical Cost-Information Sharing in a Food Supply Chain with Multiple Unreliable Suppliers and Two Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjian Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a food supply chain where multiple suppliers provide completely substitutable food products to two manufacturers. Meanwhile, the suppliers face yield uncertainty and the manufacturers face uncertain production costs that are private information. While the suppliers compete on price, the manufacturers compete on quantity. We build a stylized multistage game theoretic model to analyze the issue of vertical cost-information sharing (VCIS within the supply chain by considering key parameters, including the level of yield uncertainty, two manufacturers’ cost correlation, the correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes, and the number of suppliers. We study the suppliers’ optimal wholesale price and the manufacturers’ optimal order quantities under different VCIS strategies. Finally, through numerical analyses, we examine how key parameters affect the value of VCIS to each supplier and each manufacturer, respectively. We found that the manufacturers are willing to share cost information with suppliers only when the two manufacturers’ cost correlation is less than a threshold. While a high correlated coefficient of suppliers’ yield processes and a large number of suppliers promote complete information sharing, a high level of yield uncertainty hinders complete information sharing. All these findings have important implications to industry practices.

  6. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  7. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  8. Low cost PEMFC generator manufacturing line. The competitiveness and trustability strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Valdemar Stelita; Souza, Adler de; Ferreira, Mauricio S. [NovoCell Energy Systems S.A., Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)], Email: valdemar.stelita@novocell.ind.br; Muschellack, Erich [Idee Technologies Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Concepts of Lean Manufacturing Lines for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) have been searched for the last twenty years, with no fully success so far. As this is considered around the world the last barrier to spread the hydrogen economy for universities and science institutions to the normal life of people, we at NovoCell decided six years ago to develop and test all key aspects that can help making it by a 'Low Cost, Feasible and Reliable Production Process'. The present work is a demonstration of the results we achieved, the main characteristics of the prototypes produced from the lines and that will be the base for our commercial operation starting next year. (author)

  9. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  10. Assessing the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Adam S; Nilsson, Anders; Jacobs, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The interface between management control and information technology is an under-developed research area with a knowledge gap concerning its implications for financial performance. This study contributes to bridging this gap by investigates the interaction effect of cost control systems and information technology integration on manufacturing plant financial performance. We surveyed a sample of 518 managers of U.S. manufacturing plants, approximately evenly distributed between those using activ...

  11. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julijana Krajnc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-based accounting of logistics costs in a production company, and to test its efficiency in the disclosure of logistics costs compared with traditional cost accounting. The application of the model in a production company shows that an activity-based approach discloses as much as 108% more logistics costs at the level of a group of products than the traditional cost-accounting approach. Further, detailed information on logistics costs obtained in this way enables their more efficient management. Key words: logistics costs; activity-based costing; cost allocation; cost visibility; cost management

  12. Multifaceted intervention including education, rounding checklist implementation, cost feedback, and financial incentives reduces inpatient laboratory costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Peter M; Kukhareva, Polina V; Horton, Devin; Edholm, Karli; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate laboratory testing is a contributor to waste in healthcare. To evaluate the impact of a multifaceted laboratory reduction intervention on laboratory costs. A retrospective, controlled, interrupted time series (ITS) study. University of Utah Health Care, a 500-bed academic medical center in Salt Lake City, Utah. All patients 18 years or older admitted to the hospital to a service other than obstetrics, rehabilitation, or psychiatry. Multifaceted quality-improvement initiative in a hospitalist service including education, process change, cost feedback, and financial incentive. Primary outcomes of lab cost per day and per visit. Secondary outcomes of number of basic metabolic panel (BMP), comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), and prothrombin time/international normalized ratio tests per day; length of stay (LOS); and 30-day readmissions. A total of 6310 hospitalist patient visits (intervention group) were compared to 25,586 nonhospitalist visits (control group). Among the intervention group, the unadjusted mean cost per day was reduced from $138 before the intervention to $123 after the intervention (P analysis showed significant reductions in cost per day, cost per visit, and the number of BMP, CMP, and CBC tests per day (P = 0.034, 0.02, <0.001, 0.004, and <0.001). LOS was unchanged and 30-day readmissions decreased in the intervention group. A multifaceted approach to laboratory reduction demonstrated a significant reduction in laboratory cost per day and per visit, as well as common tests per day at a major academic medical center. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:348-354. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  13. VARIANTS OF DETERMINING THE MANUFACTURING COST OF A PRODUCT IN A PRODUCTION UNIT IN THE LIGHT OF BALANCE SHEET LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena STROJEK‐FILUS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The category of the manufacturing cost of a product is one of the most important ones from the point of view of proper valuation of the assets of a production unit, costs of its operations as well as pricing decisions. This article presents the problem of determining the manufacturing cost of a product in terms of balance sheet law. It has been shown that in order to determine this value various methods and options are allowed by this law, by means of which different values of manufacturing cost of a product are obtained. The importance of a proper selection of an allocation key in setilement of indirect production costs has been highlighted as well as the results of using, in certain cases, approved simplifications in the balance sheet law when determining the manufacturing cost of products have been demonstrated. The problem presented in this article is crucial from the point of view of an organization and management of production as well as managerial decision‐making in a company in the area of design of products and processes.

  14. DEMAND ILLUSION AS A WAY TO REDUCE COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill N. Sosnovskij

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article devoted to a technique that reduces costs to retailers, as well as increase the speed of discounted products. This article deals with the laws of visual merchandising that have a significant impact on the implementation of the company’s products. The analysis of the first law, with the subsequent introduction into it of a new additional method. Consider the effect of «Illusion of deficit» arising from the application of the proposed method. The article also defines the basic hypothesis of the existence of methods and effect, and the conditions for their effective implementation. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed method, quantitative surveys are conducted for different age groups creating situational model, which allows respondents to feel as a consumer.

  15. Using 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing) to Produce Low-Cost Simulation Models for Medical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, John P; Tatum, Peter S; Gada, Satyen; Wyn, Mark; Ho, Vincent B; Liacouras, Peter

    2018-03-01

    This work describes customized, task-specific simulation models derived from 3D printing in clinical settings and medical professional training programs. Simulation models/task trainers have an array of purposes and desired achievements for the trainee, defining that these are the first step in the production process. After this purpose is defined, computer-aided design and 3D printing (additive manufacturing) are used to create a customized anatomical model. Simulation models then undergo initial in-house testing by medical specialists followed by a larger scale beta testing. Feedback is acquired, via surveys, to validate effectiveness and to guide or determine if any future modifications and/or improvements are necessary. Numerous custom simulation models have been successfully completed with resulting task trainers designed for procedures, including removal of ocular foreign bodies, ultrasound-guided joint injections, nerve block injections, and various suturing and reconstruction procedures. These task trainers have been frequently utilized in the delivery of simulation-based training with increasing demand. 3D printing has been integral to the production of limited-quantity, low-cost simulation models across a variety of medical specialties. In general, production cost is a small fraction of a commercial, generic simulation model, if available. These simulation and training models are customized to the educational need and serve an integral role in the education of our military health professionals.

  16. Die casting copper motor rotors: mold materials and processing for cost-effective manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.T.; Cowie, J.G.; Brush, E.F. Jr.

    2000-07-01

    This project seeks to demonstrate mold materials for copper pressure die-casting that are cost-effective and practical for production use in die-casting copper motor rotors. The incorporation of die-cast copper for conductor bars and end rings of the induction motor in place of aluminum would result in attractive improvements in motor energy efficiency through reductions in motor losses ranging from 15% to 20%. Die-cast motor rotors are produced in aluminum today because rotor fabrication by pressure die-casting is an established practice. Lack of a durable and cost-effective mold material has been the technical barrier preventing manufacture of the die-cast copper rotor. This project tested H-13 steel die inserts that establish the baseline. Nickel-, tungsten-, and molybdenum-based high temperature alloys were extensively tested. Results indicate that substantially extended die life is possible using high temperature die materials, pre-heated and operated at elevated temperatures. Pre-heating and high operating temperatures were shown to be critical in extending the die life by decreasing the cyclic stresses associated with thermal expansion. Extended die life provides the opportunity for economically viable copper motor rotor die-casting. (orig.)

  17. Activity-based Management of Logistic Costs in a Manufacturing Company: A Case of Increased Visibility of Logistics Costs in a Slovenian Paper Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Julijana Krajnc; Klavdij Logožar; Bojana Korošec

    2012-01-01

    Both the transparent reporting of logistics costs and the related accounting of their cost drivers present a significant factor for the successful management of material flows and the related logistics activities in production companies. These costs, which are mainly reported as part of overhead (indirect) costs in such companies, usually remain hidden or are not explicitly visible when the traditional method of accounting is applied. The aim of this research is to create a model of activity-...

  18. Ventilation cost impact of reduced radon-daughter working levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Published information on costs of radon-daughter control in uranium mines was analyzed to develop estimates of the cost per ton for any level of radiation exposure control. All data were converted to 1967 cost of living index to provide a common analysis base. Results of the analysis show that the cost per ton increases exponentially as the radiation level is lowered. A linear relationship with the cost of living index is assumed, and equations and graphs are provided to estimate control cost per ton for any exposure control level and cost of living index

  19. Cyclosporine/ketoconazole reduces treatment costs for nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Iyengar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporine A (CyA is an effective agent for the treatment of glucocorticoid-dependent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (GCDNS, but costs are prohibitive in resource-poor societies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of reducing the dose of CyA by co-administering ketoconazole. A prospective study targeting children 2-18 years of age with GCDNS in remission with CyA monotherapy was conducted. CyA dose was reduced by 50% and ketoconazole was added at 25% of the recommended therapeutic dose, and the drug levels and therapeutic and adverse effects (AE were monitored. Continued combined therapy after completion of the 4-week trial period was offered. Ten patients (median age 9.5 years, range 3.0-16.0 years were enrolled in the study. At week 4, the CyA dose was 2.2 ± 0.7 mg/kg/day compared with 5.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg/day at enrolment ( P 50% without increased adverse events or drug monitoring needs. This intervention demonstrates how access of patients with limited resources to needed drugs can be improved by interference with physiological drug elimination.

  20. Green roofs: roof system reducing heating and cooling costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konasova, Sarka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs are among the passive building systems that contribute to the thermal stability of the rooms under the roof in both summer and winter. Green roofs can provide a significant contribution to the thermal balance of the protected space. Over the past ten years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the energy benefits of green roofs in terms of the energy performance of buildings. These studies show that the installation of vegetated cover can achieve energy savings for both winter heating and summer cooling. The green roof, as a thermal insulation, reduces the amount of building operating energy costs and reduces heat losses. This article summarizes current literature and points to situations in which green roofs can play an important role in saving energy for heating and cooling due to improved thermal insulating function of the roof, in case of extensive vegetation coverage without significant overloading of the roof structure and associated over-dimensioning. It is important to note that these energy savings always depend on the particular climate, the type of building and the availability and the type of roof structure.

  1. Cost reduction in PV manufacturing. Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    In the past three years there have been several key events or changes that can lead to fully economic, massive deployment to the grid-connected and central PV markets. The factors discussed in this report include: (1) significant cost reduction in single crystal and polycrystal silicon so that modules profitably priced at $3.10-$3.30 per peak watt and installed grid-connected systems with installed cost of $5.50 per watt are being offered; (2) several new thin film plants - amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are being built for 1996, 1997 production with greatly reduced costs; (3) government subsidized volume orders for PV in grid-connected houses (Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States) provide volume (2000+ units per year) that lead to reduced costs; (4) environmental benefits for PV are being applied in Europe and Japan permitting 'early adopters' to enter the market; and (5) government and commercial acceptance of PV building integrated products, especially in Europe, are expanding PV markets. The combination of these forces lead to the prediction that an 'accelerated' market mode could start in the year 2000

  2. Routes to increasing efficiency and reducing the cost of thin-film solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Barink, M.; Klerk, L.; Voorthuijzen, P.; Hovestad, A.

    2015-01-01

    Most development work in the laboratory is dedicated to efficiency enhancements at the cell level; improvements in efficiency can lead to higher cost-competitiveness of PV. However, the cost of panel manufacturing is an important aspect as well. For CIGS panels the deposition of the active layer is

  3. Lean manufacturing analysis to reduce waste on production process of fan products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, I.; Nasution, A. A.; Andayani, U.; Sari, R. M.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar

    2018-02-01

    This research is based on case study that being on electrical company. One of the products that will be researched is the fan, which when running the production process there is a time that is not value-added, among others, the removal of material which is not efficient in the raw materials and component molding fan. This study aims to reduce waste or non-value added activities and shorten the total lead time by using the tools Value Stream Mapping. Lean manufacturing methods used to analyze and reduce the non-value added activities, namely the value stream mapping analysis tools, process mapping activity with 5W1H, and tools 5 whys. Based on the research note that no value-added activities in the production process of a fan of 647.94 minutes of total lead time of 725.68 minutes. Process cycle efficiency in the production process indicates that the fan is still very low at 11%. While estimates of the repair showed a decrease in total lead time became 340.9 minutes and the process cycle efficiency is greater by 24%, which indicates that the production process has been better.

  4. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-11-03

    Passive exoskeletons that assist with human locomotion are often lightweight and compact, but are unable to provide net mechanical power to the exoskeletal wearer. In contrast, powered exoskeletons often provide biologically appropriate levels of mechanical power, but the size and mass of their actuator/power source designs often lead to heavy and unwieldy devices. In this study, we extend the design and evaluation of a lightweight and powerful autonomous exoskeleton evaluated for loaded walking in (J Neuroeng Rehab 11:80, 2014) to the case of unloaded walking conditions. The metabolic energy consumption of seven study participants (85 ± 12 kg body mass) was measured while walking on a level treadmill at 1.4 m/s. Testing conditions included not wearing the exoskeleton and wearing the exoskeleton, in both powered and unpowered modes. When averaged across the gait cycle, the autonomous exoskeleton applied a mean positive mechanical power of 26 ± 1 W (13 W per ankle) with 2.12 kg of added exoskeletal foot-shank mass (1.06 kg per leg). Use of the leg exoskeleton significantly reduced the metabolic cost of walking by 35 ± 13 W, which was an improvement of 10 ± 3% (p = 0.023) relative to the control condition of not wearing the exoskeleton. The results of this study highlight the advantages of developing lightweight and powerful exoskeletons that can comfortably assist the body during walking.

  5. SU-F-T-171: Manufacturing Cost Effective Heterogeneous Phantoms for Use in Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruett, J; Chen, Y; Ahmad, S; Johnson, D [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of 3D printing cost effective heterogeneous phantoms for use in proton therapy treatment planning quality assurance. Methods: A desktop 3D printer was utilized to create a series of 2 cm × 2 cm × 4 cm PLA plastic blocks of varying fill materials and hexagonal fill pattern. The blocks were than tested when filled with air, polyurethane foam, paraffin, silicone, and caulk of calcium carbonate – acrylic polymer blend. The blocks were evaluated with a “GE Lightspeed” 16 slice CT scanner and average CT# of the materials’ centers evaluated. Blocks were then placed into a custom aperture fitted to a Mevion Proton system to determine the relative stopping power of each. Scans were performed in water tank with Marcus type parallel plate chamber under a beam with a range of 15 cm and modulation of 2 cm. Shifts in range occurring relative to the 80% distal edge of the open SOBP were evaluated. Results: The CT#s of the blocks were plotted against their measured relative stopping power. This curve was compared to that which is in clinical use. While the trend agrees generally, specific differences between the relative stopping powers were as great as 10%. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that it is possible to utilize different cost effective materials in the manufacturing of phantoms for use in proton therapy. While different materials may provide better agreement to established calibration curves, a custom curve specific to the materials used may be utilized to accurately predict proton treatment dose distributions.

  6. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  7. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  8. Increasing Air Compressor Productivity While Reducing Maintenance and Repair Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foss, R. S

    1993-01-01

    .... When this vital utility is put into this perspective we can start to deal with the considerations of systems engineering, planning, performance evaluation, cost control and preventive maintenance...

  9. Lean Six Sigma for Reduced Cycle Costs and Improved Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apte, Uday; Kang, Keebom

    2006-01-01

    ... it. Hence, efficient logistics systems, including transportation, inventory management, modifications and maintenance activities, are critically important for containing the lifecycle costs of weapon...

  10. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  11. Use of screening techniques to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment at a former manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.M.; Walden, R.H.; Baker, S.R.; Pekar, Z.; LaKind, J.S.; MacFarlane, I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of risks from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site revealed six media associated with potential exposure pathways: soils, air, surface water, groundwater, estuarine sediments, and aquatic biota. Contaminants of concern (COCs) include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic hydrocarbons, metals, cyanide, and PCBs. Available chemical data, including site-specific measurements and existing data from other sources (e.g., agency monitoring programs, Chesapeake Bay Program), were evaluated for potential utility in risk assessment. Where sufficient data existed, risk calculations were performed using central tendency and reasonable maximum exposure estimates. Where site-specific data were not available, risks were estimated using conservatively high default assumptions for dose and/or exposure duration. Because of the large number of potential exposure pathways and COCs, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine which information most influences risk assessment outcome so that any additional data collection to reduce uncertainty can be cost-effectively targeted. The sensitivity analysis utilized two types of information: (1) the impact that uncertainty in risk input values has on output risk estimates, and (2) the potential improvement in key risk input values, and consequently output values, if better site-specific data were available. A decision matrix using both quantitative and qualitative information was developed to prioritize sampling strategies to minimize uncertainty in the final risk assessment

  12. Potentials for Improvement of Resource Efficiency in Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing: A Case Study Based on Material Flow Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xuan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable resource use by manufacturing companies is driven by resource scarcity, environmental awareness, and cost savings potentials. To address these issues, Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA has been developed and applied as an effective environmental management tool. Within MFCA’s general allocation, the accounts of products and losses are overrated by weight or volume. However, such a method is incompatible with Printed Circuit Board (PCB manufacturing because of industry characteristics in which primary inputs and products are measured by area. Based on MFCA, this case study systematically established several linear cost calculation models along the production process for capturing the actual waste flows as well as performing cost-benefit analysis. The recognition of previously ignored losses offered the incentive to find appropriate indicators to conduct cost-benefit analysis on hotspots for losses. Loss identification and analysis indicated that machining and wiring are the necessities and priorities of process optimization for resource efficiency improvement measures. Therefore, this research could not only advance the achievement of a profitable and sustainable production while improving resource efficiency at the source but could also provide support for decision making in PCB manufacturing.

  13. A Manufacturing Cost and Supply Chain Analysis of SiC Power Electronics Applicable to Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reese, Samantha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductor devices are increasingly being considered for use in certain power electronics applications, where they can improve efficiency, performance, footprint, and, potentially, total system cost compared to systems using traditional silicon (Si) devices. Silicon carbide (SiC) devices in particular -- which are currently more mature than other WBG devices -- are poised for growth in the coming years. Today, the manufacturing of SiC wafers is concentrated in the United States, and chip production is split roughly equally between the United States, Japan, and Europe. Established contract manufacturers located throughout Asia typically carry out manufacturing of WBG power modules. We seek to understand how global manufacturing of SiC components may evolve over time by illustrating the regional cost drivers along the supply chain and providing an overview of other factors that influence where manufacturing is sited. We conduct this analysis for a particular case study where SiC devices are used in a medium-voltage motor drive.

  14. Using preventive home monitoring to reduce hospital admission rates and reduce costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Birthe Irene; Haesum, Lisa K E; Soerensen, Natascha

    2012-01-01

    We studied whether preventive home monitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could reduce the frequency of hospital admissions and lower the cost of hospitalization. Patients were recruited from a health centre, general practitioner (GP) or the pulmonary hospital ward....... They were randomized to usual care or tele-rehabilitation with a telehealth monitoring device installed in their home for four months. A total of 111 patients were suitable for inclusion and consented to be randomized: 60 patients were allocated to intervention and three were lost to follow...... of admissions was €3461 per patient in the intervention group and €4576 in the control group; this difference was not significant. The Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to hospital admission were longer for the intervention group than the controls, but the difference was not significant. Future work requires...

  15. Reducing costs while maintaining quality in endovascular neurosurgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashlan, Osama N; Wilson, Thomas J; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Stetler, William R; Dunnick, N Reed; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2014-11-01

    As medical costs continue to rise during a time of increasing medical resource utilization, both hospitals and physicians must attempt to limit superfluous health care expenses. Neurointerventional treatment has been shown to be costly, but it is often the best treatment available for certain neuropathologies. The authors studied the effects of 3 policy changes designed to limit the costs of performing neurointerventional procedures at the University of Michigan. The authors retrospectively analyzed the costs of performing neurointerventional procedures during the 6-month periods before and after the implementation of 3 cost-saving policies: 1) the use of an alternative, more economical contrast agent, 2) standardization of coil prices through negotiation with industry representatives to receive economies of scale, and 3) institution of a feedback method to show practitioners the costs of unused products per patient procedure. The costs during the 6-month time intervals before and after implementation were also compared with costs during the most recent 6-month time period. The policy requiring use of a more economical contrast agent led to a decrease in the cost of contrast usage of $42.79 per procedure for the first 6 months after implementation, and $137.09 per procedure for the most current 6-month period, resulting in an estimated total savings of $62,924.31 for the most recent 6-month period. The standardized coil pricing system led to savings of $159.21 per coil after the policy change, and $188.07 per coil in the most recent 6-month period. This yielded total estimated savings of $76,732.56 during the most recent 6-month period. The feedback system for unused items decreased the cost of wasted products by approximately $44.36 per procedure in the 6 months directly after the policy change and by $48.20 per procedure in the most recent 6-month period, leading to total estimated savings of $22,123.80 during the most recent 6-month period. According to

  16. Management Accounting in the Manufacturing Sector: Managing Costs at the Design and Production Stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, Tony; Wouters, Marc; Chapman, Christopher S.; Hopwood, Anthony G.; Shields, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter analyzes the empirical research literature on management accounting in the manufacturing sector including the development as well and manufacturing phases of the product lifecycle. As managing product development has gained terrain in companies over the last 15 years, management

  17. Reduced Cost Composite Hot Structures with Oxidation Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative, low cost high performance technologies are critical to the affordability of future space missions. Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have significant...

  18. Reducing Operating Costs and Energy Consumption at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their unique combination of high energy usage and potential for significant savings, utilities are turning to energy-efficient technologies to help save money. Learn about cost and energy saving technologies from this brochure.

  19. Reducing Operating Costs by Optimizing Space in Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Design: Mapping the High Performance Workscape. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco. Berkman, Elliot. (2012). A Conceptual Guide to Statistics using SPSS. Sage ...Cleaning: Includes labor costs for in-house and contract service, payroll , taxes and fringe benefits, plus salaried supervisors and managers, as well as...Labor costs include payroll , taxes and fringe benefits for employees and contracted workers. Personnel include operating engineers, general

  20. Reducing Inventory System Costs by Using Robust Demand Estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond A. Jacobs; Harvey M. Wagner

    1989-01-01

    Applications of inventory theory typically use historical data to estimate demand distribution parameters. Imprecise knowledge of the demand distribution adds to the usual replenishment costs associated with stochastic demands. Only limited research has been directed at the problem of choosing cost effective statistical procedures for estimating these parameters. Available theoretical findings on estimating the demand parameters for (s, S) inventory replenishment policies are limited by their...

  1. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  2. Development of Production PVD-AIN Buffer Layer System and Processes to Reduce Epitaxy Costs and Increase LED Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerio, Frank

    2013-09-14

    The DOE has set aggressive goals for solid state lighting (SSL) adoption, which require manufacturing and quality improvements for virtually all process steps leading to an LED luminaire product. The goals pertinent to this proposed project are to reduce the cost and improve the quality of the epitaxial growth processes used to build LED structures. The objectives outlined in this proposal focus on achieving cost reduction and performance improvements over state-of-the-art, using technologies that are low in cost and amenable to high efficiency manufacturing. The objectives of the outlined proposal focus on cost reductions in epitaxial growth by reducing epitaxy layer thickness and hetero-epitaxial strain, and by enabling the use of larger, less expensive silicon substrates and would be accomplished through the introduction of a high productivity reactive sputtering system and an effective sputtered aluminum-nitride (AlN) buffer/nucleation layer process. Success of the proposed project could enable efficient adoption of GaN on-silicon (GaN/Si) epitaxial technology on 150mm silicon substrates. The reduction in epitaxy cost per cm{sup 2} using 150mm GaN-on-Si technology derives from (1) a reduction in cost of ownership and increase in throughput for the buffer deposition process via the elimination of MOCVD buffer layers and other throughput and CoO enhancements, (2) improvement in brightness through reductions in defect density, (3) reduction in substrate cost through the replacement of sapphire with silicon, and (4) reduction in non-ESD yield loss through reductions in wafer bow and temperature variation. The adoption of 150mm GaN/Si processing will also facilitate significant cost reductions in subsequent wafer fabrication manufacturing costs. There were three phases to this project. These three phases overlap in order to aggressively facilitate a commercially available production GaN/Si capability. In Phase I of the project, the repeatability of the performance

  3. Case drilling - an innovative approach to reducing drilling costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madell, G.; Tessari, R. M. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, T. [Tesco Drilling Technology, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Casing drilling is introduced as a new drilling technique that uses standard oil field casing to simultaneously drill and case the well. The technology includes both rig and downhole equipment, customized to function effectively as an integrated drilling system. This paper describes the testing program designed to identify and overcome technical challenges. Although not fully optimized, it appears that the system is functional. Test results indicate the need for improvements in the pump down cement float equipment and the tools and procedures for drilling up the cement plugs. The pump down latch and retrieval system also needs to be further developed and tested for high angle directional applications. Cost savings in the range of 10 to 15 per cent are expected for trouble-free wells. By eliminating the cost of unscheduled events encountered in troublesome wells, cost savings may reach as high as 30 per cent. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Early appendectomy reduces costs in children with perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Joseph T; Klein, Edwin J; Carr, Benjamin D; Bruch, Steven W

    2017-12-01

    Perforated appendicitis can be managed with early appendectomy, or nonoperative management followed by interval appendectomy. We aimed to identify the strategy with the lowest health care utilization and cost. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all children ≤18 years old with perforated appendicitis admitted to a single institution between January 2009 and March 2016. After excluding immunosuppressed patients and transfers from outside hospitals, we grouped the remaining patients by early or interval appendectomy. Cost accounting data were obtained from our institutional database. The primary outcome was total hospital cost over 2 y from initial admission for appendicitis. Other outcomes analyzed included initial admission costs, number of admissions, emergency room and clinic visits, percutaneous procedures, cross-sectional and overall imaging studies, and length of stay. A total of 203 children with perforated appendicitis were identified. After exclusion of immunosuppressed patients and outside hospital transfers, 94 patients were included in the study. Thirty-nine underwent early appendectomy and 55 initial nonoperative management; of these, 54 underwent elective interval appendectomy. Five of 55 patients (9%) failed initial nonoperative management and required earlier-than-planned appendectomy. Total cost over 2 y was significantly lower with early appendectomy than initial nonoperative management ($19,300 ± 14,300 versus $26,000 ± 17,500; P = 0.05). Early appendectomy resulted in fewer hospital admissions, clinic visits, invasive procedures, and imaging studies. Early appendectomy results in lower hospital costs and less health care utilization compared with initial nonoperative management with elective interval appendectomy. A prospective study will shed more light on this question and can assess the role of nonoperative management without interval appendectomy in children with perforated appendicitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  5. Costs reduced by innovative plastic distribution pipe use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    As part of a strategic corporate cost-reduction initiative, Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Gas Distribution Group has achieved some quick but significant cash savings. System design, construction, and the purchasing function were areas that produced some fast paybacks while maintaining reliability and safety. The primary savings were made by optimizing pipe specifications to match system operating parameters. This allowed the use of smaller diameter pipes and/or thinner wall pipes which conserved the materials cost of the pipeline. Other realized savings in the form of coiled pipe, purchasing changes, and backfilling specifications are also described

  6. RAND Research Brief: Lean Manufacturing and the Defense Industry. Lessons for Cost Analysts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Largely in response to these measures, U.S. defense firms have in recent years begun to embrace lean manufacturing, a broad collection of principles and practices whose aim is to refashion the production process in a manner that includes...

  7. Design-Based Innovation for Manufacturing Firm Success in High-Cost Operating Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göran Roos

    The paper concludes that the design-based innovation paradigm is increasingly important within the manufacturing industry, but that its benefit can only be maximized if it is integrated with the other three value-creating approaches to innovation.

  8. Reducing carbon transaction costs in community based forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skutsch, Margaret

    The paper considers the potential for community based forest management (of existing forests) in developing countries, as a future CDM strategy, to sequester carbon and claim credits in future commitment periods. This kind of forestry is cost effective, and should bring many more benefits to local

  9. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  10. Target Context Specification Can Reduce Costs in Nonfocal Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Joana S.; White, Katherine; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a nonfocal prospective memory (PM) task results in a cost to ongoing task processing, but the precise nature of the monitoring processes involved remains unclear. We investigated whether target context specification (i.e., explicitly associating the PM target with a subset of ongoing stimuli) can trigger trial-by-trial changes in task…

  11. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  12. EOS Operations Systems: EDOS Implemented Changes to Reduce Operations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Guy R.; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos; McLemore, Bruce D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors describe in this paper the progress achieved to-date with the reengineering of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System (EDOS), the experience gained in the process and the ensuing reduction of ground systems operations costs. The reengineering effort included a major methodology change, applying to an existing schedule driven system, a data-driven system approach.

  13. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    OpenAIRE

    Prillia Ayudia; Rachmat Haris; Mulyana Tatang

    2017-01-01

    PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement are...

  14. Material science and manufacturing of heat-resistant reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioltukhovskiy, A.G.; Blokhin, A.I.; Budylkin, N.I.; Chernov, V.M.; Leont'eva-Smirnova, M.V.; Mironova, E.G.; Medvedeva, E.A.; Solonin, M.I.; Porollo, S.I.; Zavyalsky, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    A number of issues regarding the development and use of 10-12% Cr reduced-activation ferritic-martensitic steels (RAFMS) for fusion are considered. These include: (1) problems of manufacturing and modifying their composition and metallurgical condition; (2) the influence on properties of their composition, purity, δ-ferrite concentration and cooling rates in the final stages of manufacturing; and (3) the effects of neutron irradiation at 320-650 deg. C up to 108 dpa on their mechanical properties. In addition, neutron activation and nuclear accumulation of elements in RAFMS with different initial concentrations of alloying and impurity elements for typical fusion reactor (DEMO) irradiation regimes have been calculated

  15. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali [Argonne National Laboratory

    2013-09-26

    and environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based materials with known and potential anti-friction and -wear properties have been manufactured as colloidal additives and tested for their effectiveness in controlling friction and wear. Unlike other anti-friction and -wear additives, which consist of zinc, molybdenum, sulfur, phosphorus, and even chlorine, lubricious boron compounds considered in this project are made of boron, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, which are more environmentally benign. Among others, boric acid is a natural mineral (known in mineralogy as "sassolite"). Based on our earlier exploratory research, it was found to offer the best overall prospect in terms of performance improvements, environmental friendliness, and ease of manufacturing and, hence, cost effectiveness. Hexagonal boron nitride and borax also offered good prospects for improving the tribological properties of lubricated sliding surfaces. Boron oxide particles were found to be rather hard and somewhat abrasive and, hence, were not considered beyond the initial screening studies. In our bench-top tribological evaluation, we also demonstrated that those additives which worked well with engine oils could work equally well with very common gear oils. When added at appropriate concentrations, such gear oils were found to provide significant resistance to micropitting and scuffing failures in bench-top tribological test systems. Their traction coefficients were also reduced substantially and their scuffing limits were improved considerably. Such impressive tribological behavior of boron-based additives may have been due to their high chemical affinities to interact with sliding contact surfaces and to form slick and protective boundary films. Indeed, our surface studies have confirmed that most of the boron-based nanoparticulate additives prepared in our project possess a strong tendency to form a boron-rich boundary film on sliding contact

  16. Lean Six Sigma for reduced cycle costs and improved readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Apte, Uday; Kang, Keebom

    2006-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) In general, during the lifecycle of a weapon system a significantly larger amount of money gets spent in operating and maintaining the system than acquiring it. Hence, efficient logistics systems, including transportation, inventory management, modifications and maintenance activities, are critically important for containing the lifecycle costs of weapon systems and for maintaining the highest level of military readiness given the extant ...

  17. Strategies and costs for reducing CO2 emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtilae, A.; Pirilae, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this study cost-efficient measures for the abatement of energy-related CO 2 emissions in Finland are analyzed, and the direct costs of such measures are estimated. The time frame considered is the period up to the year 2010. Furthermore, the probable impacts of an energy/CO 2 -tax on the Finnish energy system are worked out, and an attempt is made to assess the effectiveness of a tax scheme as an economic instrument for achieving CO 2 emission targets. The primary methodological tool in the analyses has been the model of the Finnish energy system developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) within the project. The model facilitates the search for cost-efficient emission control strategies over a period of several decades. Structural and technological changes in the energy system, e.g. fuel and technology substitution, new technologies, efficiency improvements, and energy-saving measures have been allowed for in the model. The results of the analyses show that achieving the target of returning the CO 2 emissions to the 1990 level by the year 2000 would be very difficult and costly in Finland. In the case of a nuclear moratorium it would be reasonable to delay the target by ten years. Even in the delayed cases achieving the target would require extensive structural changes and substantial energy-saving measures in the absence of additional nuclear energy. Coal use would have to be severely restricted, whereas the use of biomass and natural gas should be more than doubled compared to the 1990 levels. According to the results, a CO 2 tax would clearly be a more efficient instrument than a tax based on the energy content of a fuel

  18. Does Prescription Drug Adherence Reduce Hospitalizations and Costs?

    OpenAIRE

    William Encinosa; Didem Bernard; Avi Dor

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the impact of diabetic drug adherence on hospitalizations, ER visits, and hospital costs, using insurance claims from MarketScan® employer data. However, it is often difficult to measure the impact of drug adherence on hospitalizations since both adherence and hospitalizations may be correlated with unobservable patient severity. We control for such unobservables using propensity score methods and instrumental variables for adherence such as drug coinsurance levels and direct-to- ...

  19. Manufacture and sensory analysis of reduced- and low-sodium Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brown, Kelly; Irish, David A; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    High sodium intake negatively affects consumer health, thus there is active interest in lowering sodium levels in dairy foods. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheeses were made with total salt levels of 0.7, 1.0, 1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% (wt/wt) in triplicate, thus reducing sodium by 25 to 60%. Multiple manufacturing protocols for salt reduction were used to produce cheeses with similar postpress moisture and pH, independent of the final salt levels in cheese, in order to study the role of salt in cheese acceptability. Cheese flavor was evaluated by a descriptive taste panel on a 15-point intensity scale. Consumer acceptance was evaluated by a consumer panel on a 9-point hedonic scale. Taste panels conducted with cubed Cheddar cheese (at 3 and 6mo) and cold shredded Mozzarella cheese (at 3wk) showed that consumer liking for cheese was low at 0.7 and 0.9% salt, but all cheeses containing higher salt levels (1.25, 1.35, and 1.8% salt) were comparably preferred. The cheeses had acceptable liking scores (≥6) when served as quesadilla or pizza toppings, and consumers were able to differentiate cheeses at alternate salt levels; for example, 1.8 and 1.5% salt cheeses scored similarly, as did cheeses with 1.5% and 1.35% salt, but 1.35% salt cheese scored lower than and was discernible from 1.8% salt cheese. Descriptive panelists perceived salty, sour, umami, bitter, brothy, lactone/fatty acid, and sulfur attributes as different across Mozzarella cheeses, with the perception of each significantly increasing along with salt level. Salty and buttery attributes were perceived more with increasing salt levels of Cheddar cheese by the descriptive panel at 3mo, whereas bitter, brothy, and umami attributes were perceived less at the higher salt levels. However, this trend reversed at 6mo, when perception of salty, sour, bitter, buttery, lactone/fatty acid, and umami attributes increased with salt level. We conclude that consumers can distinguish even a 30% salt

  20. Reducing the stair step effect of layer manufactured surfaces by ball burnishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiegemann, Lars; Agarwal, Chiranshu; Weddeling, Christian; Tekkaya, A. Erman

    2016-10-01

    The layer technology enables fast and flexible additive manufacturing of forming tools. The disadvantages of this system is the formation of stair steps in the range of tool radii. Within this work a new method to smooth this stair steps by ball burnishing is introduced. This includes studies on the general feasibility of the process and the determination of the influence of the rolling parameters. The investigations are carried out experimentally and numerically. Ultimately, the gained knowledge is applied to finish a deep drawing tool which is manufactured by layer technology.

  1. Cost and cost effectiveness of vaginal progesterone gel in reducing preterm birth: an economic analysis of the PREGNANT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Laura T; Seligman, Neil S; Baxter, Jason K; Jutkowitz, Eric; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a costly public health problem in the USA. The PREGNANT trial tested the efficacy of vaginal progesterone (VP) 8 % gel in reducing the likelihood of PTB among women with a short cervix. We calculated the costs and cost effectiveness of VP gel versus placebo using decision analytic models informed by PREGNANT patient-level data. PREGNANT enrolled 459 pregnant women with a cervical length of 10-20 mm and randomized them to either VP 8 % gel or placebo. We used a cost model to estimate the total cost of treatment per mother and a cost-effectiveness model to estimate the cost per PTB averted with VP gel versus placebo. Patient-level trial data informed model inputs and included PTB rates in low- and high-risk women in each study group at <28 weeks gestation, 28-31, 32-36, and ≥37 weeks. Cost assumptions were based on 2010 US healthcare services reimbursements. The cost model was validated against patient-level data. Sensitivity analyses were used to test the robustness of the cost-effectiveness model. The estimated cost per mother was $US23,079 for VP gel and $US36,436 for placebo. The cost-effectiveness model showed savings of $US24,071 per PTB averted with VP gel. VP gel realized cost savings and cost effectiveness in 79 % of simulations. Based on findings from PREGNANT, VP gel was associated with cost savings and cost effectiveness compared with placebo. Future trials designed to include cost metrics are needed to better understand the value of VP.

  2. The practice of quality-associated costing: application to transfusion manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, P M; Dixon, R

    1997-01-01

    This article applies the new method of quality-associated costing (QAC) to the mixture of processes that create red cell and plasma products from whole blood donations. The article compares QAC with two commonly encountered but arbitrary models and illustrates the invalidity of clinical cost-benefit analysis based on these models. The first, an "isolated" cost model, seeks to allocate each whole process cost to only one product class. The other is a "shared" cost model, and it seeks to allocate an approximately equal share of all process costs to all associated products.

  3. Cost benchmarking of railway projects in Europe – can it help to reduce costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trabo, Inara; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    a certain overview of the range of costs in various budget disciplines. The Copenhagen-Ringsted project is shown to be right in the middle of the range in terms of total costs per kilometre, and its values in the discipline comparisons do not significantly differ from the values of the less expensive...... projects. Deeper analysis of project unit costs is still continuing, but the preliminary results show that the cost values for projects located in the same geographical zone are similar. For example, this can be explained by their use of the same construction companies. However, unit prices in southern...

  4. Timely Referral to Outpatient Nephrology Care Slows Progression and Reduces Treatment Costs of Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Lonnemann

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Timely referral to outpatient nephrology care is associated with slowed disease progression, less hospital admissions, reduced total treatment costs, and improved survival in patients with CKD.

  5. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Akers, Ronald R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  6. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  7. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, Brenor [Enki Technology Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  9. A long pulse modulator for reduced size and cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeffer, H.; Bartelson, L.; Bourkland, K.; Jensen, C.; Kerns, Q.; Prieto, P.; Saewert, G.; Wolff, D.

    1994-07-01

    A novel modulator has been designed, built and tested for the TESLA test facility. This e + e - accelerator concept uses superconducting RF cavities and requires 2ms of RF power at 10 pps. As the final accelerator will require several hundred modulators, a cost effective, space saving and high efficiency design is desired. This modulator used a modest size switched capacitor bank that droops approximately 20% during the pulse. This large droop is compensated for by the use of a resonant LC circuit. The capacitor bank is connected to the high side of a pulse transformer primary using a series GTO switch. The resonant circuit is connected to the low side of the pulse transformer primary. The output pulse is flat to within 1% for 1.9 ms during a 2.3 ms base pulse width. Measured efficiency, from breaker to klystron and including energy lost in the rise time, is approximately 85%

  10. Water quality audits can improve availability and reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorin, R.S.; Schlesinger, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Water Quality Audit (WQA) is an independent, detailed review and thorough analysis of an operating plant's water technology control systems and operator education (as distinguished from operator training). The need for such an audit and its role in improving the reliability and availability of both nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants is discussed. Instances of how the failure of either system hardware or operational control has caused injection of seawater, acid, caustic, or ion exchange resin into the condensate-feedwater system and steam generator are revealed. The systems to be audited are described, and the stage-wise nature of the audit explained. The potential savings of an audit are outlined and the timing and range of costs of a WQA are given

  11. Streamlining: Reducing costs and increasing STS operations effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersburg, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of streamlining as a concept, its inclusion in the space transportation system engineering and operations support (STSEOS) contract, and how it serves as an incentive to management and technical support personnel is discussed. The mechanics of encouraging and processing streamlining suggestions, reviews, feedback to submitters, recognition, and how individual employee performance evaluations are used to motivation are discussed. Several items that were implemented are mentioned. Information reported and the methodology of determining estimated dollar savings are outlined. The overall effect of this activity on the ability of the McDonnell Douglas flight preparation and mission operations team to support a rapidly increasing flight rate without a proportional increase in cost is illustrated.

  12. A high performance, high precision, low cost rapid prototyping and manufacturing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Viacheslav R. Shulunov

    2014-01-01

    A novel roll powder sintering (RPS) technology is proposed for processing real plastic, ceramic, metal and other 3-D objects 1m³ (or more) in volume directly from a CAD model within several hours. The breakthrough advantages of the technology are compared to the dominant rapid prototyping and manufacturing (RP&M) processes that are currently on the market.

  13. Materials Testing and Cost Modeling for Composite Parts Through Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    FDM include plastic jet printing (PJP), fused filament modeling ( FFM ), and fused filament fabrication (FFF). FFF was coined by the RepRap project to...additive manufacturing processes? • Fused deposition modeling (FDM) trademarked by Stratasys • Fused filament modeling ( FFM ) and fused filament

  14. GCP 1.0: A Tool for Cost Management in Micro and Small Textile Manufacturing Companies in Bucaramanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Gómez Niño

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a diagnostic study in which 52 textile manufacturing companies were observed in Bucaramanga to characterize the needs of these productive units. Based on the results, three strategic options were formulated to improve performance: a To consolidate the productive system by tools that facilitate production processes, b to strengthen cost structure by designing systems and tools; and c to share technological initiatives, knowledge and experience to improve resource management. From this perspective, the second phase of the research was oriented to develop the software GCP 1.0 for micro and small companies of children’s confection in Bucaramanga, a production cost information system that would facilitate cost management and the fixation of sale prices.

  15. Can delivery systems use cost-effectiveness analysis to reduce healthcare costs and improve value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Lucy A; Savitz, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding costs and ensuring that we demonstrate value in healthcare is a foundational presumption as we transform the way we deliver and pay for healthcare in the U.S. With a focus on population health and payment reforms underway, there is increased pressure to examine cost-effectiveness in healthcare delivery. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic analysis comparing the costs and effects (i.e. health outcomes) of two or more treatment options. The result is expressed as a ratio where the denominator is the gain in health from a measure (e.g. years of life or quality-adjusted years of life) and the numerator is the incremental cost associated with that health gain. For higher cost interventions, the lower the ratio of costs to effects, the higher the value. While CEA is not new, the approach continues to be refined with enhanced statistical techniques and standardized methods. This article describes the CEA approach and also contrasts it to optional approaches, in order for readers to fully appreciate caveats and concerns. CEA as an economic evaluation tool can be easily misused owing to inappropriate assumptions, over reliance, and misapplication. Twelve issues to be considered in using CEA results to drive healthcare delivery decision-making are summarized. Appropriately recognizing both the strengths and the limitations of CEA is necessary for informed resource allocation in achieving the maximum value for healthcare services provided.

  16. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District, 1776 Niagara St., Buffalo, NY 14207 (United States); Elliott, Robert ' Dan' [U.S. Army Reserve, 812A Franklin St.,Worcester, MA 01604 (United States); Durham, Lisa [Argonne National Laboratory, Environmental Science Division, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  17. Soil Segregation Methods for Reducing Transportation and Disposal Costs - 13544

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frothingham, David; Andrews, Shawn; Barker, Michelle; Boyle, James; Buechi, Stephen; Graham, Marc; Houston, Linda; Polek, Michael; Simmington, Robert; Spector, Harold; Elliott, Robert 'Dan'; Durham, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    At Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites where the selected alternative for contaminated soil is excavation and off-site disposal, the most significant budget items of the remedial action are the costs for transportation and disposal of soil at an off-site facility. At these sites, the objective is to excavate and dispose of only those soils that exceed derived concentration guideline levels. In situ soil segregation using gross gamma detectors to guide the excavation is often challenging at sites where the soil contamination is overlain by clean soil or where the contaminated soil is located in isolated, subsurface pockets. In addition, data gaps are often identified during the alternative evaluation and selection process, resulting in increased uncertainty in the extent of subsurface contamination. In response, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District is implementing ex situ soil segregation methods. At the remediated Painesville Site, soils were excavated and fed through a conveyor-belt system, which automatically segregated them into above- and below-cleanup criteria discharge piles utilizing gamma spectroscopy. At the Linde Site and the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site, which are both in the remediation phase, soils are initially segregated during the excavation process using gross gamma detectors and then transported to a pad for confirmatory manual surveying and sampling. At the Linde Site, the ex situ soils are analyzed on the basis of a site-specific method, to establish compliance with beneficial reuse criteria that were developed for the Linde remediation. At the SLDA Site, the ex situ soils are surveyed and sampled based on Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) final status survey guidance to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels. At all three sites, the ex situ soils that meet the site- specific DCGLs are retained on-site and used as backfill

  18. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  19. APPLICATION OF ACTIVITY BASED COSTING IN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN BANGLADESH: A SURVEY BASED STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Nikhil Chandra SHIL; Alok Kumar PRAMANIK

    2012-01-01

    The widespread environmental change has forced many organizations to change and re-think their business and competitive strategies, particularly cost management system, in order to achieve the competitive edge in the marketplace. Successful organizations are those that are able to improve quality, lower costs and efficiency of operations and eliminate products and services that incur losses. This explains why some organizations are successful while others fail. An organization costing system ...

  20. Contracting and project strategy to reduce the costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moum, I.O.; Mosbergvik, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Norwegian oil industry has developed and grown to a significant size from the 1970's through the 80's, and numerous large fields were developed under a business environment with high oil prices. The technological challenges were significant, but the expectation of high volumes of produced oil and increasing oil prices, secured the funding for development of these large fields. Today this situation is dramatically changed, and the low oil price alone would make it uneconomic to develop the new fields. In addition to low oil prices, people are now also facing smaller reservoirs, deeper water and more sever environmental conditions. The general competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental Shelf is challenged. Many initiatives have been launched in Norway to support the necessary improvements in business performance. The Norwegian oil and gas industry together with the authorities have through 1994 worked together in the NORSOK initiative to identify means to save 40--50% in cost and time for development of new fields. The industry has developed new technology. The authorities have been addressing the fiscal conditions and general framework for the oil companies, and several areas of improvement have been identified and to some degree implemented by the operators. The most important improvements are probably those that are directly implemented in actual development projects, and Statoil/Kvaerner have together some joint experiences that can illustrate how such ideas successfully can be implemented

  1. Comparing surgical trays with redundant instruments with trays with reduced instruments: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Baptiste, A; Sowerby, L J; Chin, C J; Martin, J; Rotenberg, B W

    2016-01-01

    When prearranged standard surgical trays contain instruments that are repeatedly unused, the redundancy can result in unnecessary health care costs. Our objective was to estimate potential savings by performing an economic evaluation comparing the cost of surgical trays with redundant instruments with surgical trays with reduced instruments ("reduced trays"). We performed a cost-analysis from the hospital perspective over a 1-year period. Using a mathematical model, we compared the direct costs of trays containing redundant instruments to reduced trays for 5 otolaryngology procedures. We incorporated data from several sources including local hospital data on surgical volume, the number of instruments on redundant and reduced trays, wages of personnel and time required to pack instruments. From the literature, we incorporated instrument depreciation costs and the time required to decontaminate an instrument. We performed 1-way sensitivity analyses on all variables, including surgical volume. Costs were estimated in 2013 Canadian dollars. The cost of redundant trays was $21 806 and the cost of reduced trays was $8803, for a 1-year cost saving of $13 003. In sensitivity analyses, cost savings ranged from $3262 to $21 395, based on the surgical volume at the institution. Variation in surgical volume resulted in a wider range of estimates, with a minimum of $3253 for low-volume to a maximum of $52 012 for high-volume institutions. Our study suggests moderate savings may be achieved by reducing surgical tray redundancy and, if applied to other surgical specialties, may result in savings to Canadian health care systems.

  2. 43 CFR 429.26 - When may Reclamation reduce or waive costs or fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reductions or Waivers of Application Fees, Administrative Costs, and Use Fees § 429.26 When may Reclamation reduce or waive costs or fees? (a) As determined appropriate and approved and documented by the applicable Regional Director, the application fees may be waived, and charges for administrative costs or use...

  3. Preliminary analysis about reducing production costs in uranium mining and metallurgy at Fuzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao

    1999-01-01

    The production costs in uranium ming and metallurgy have been analyzed quantitatively term by term according to present production situation for The Uranium Mining and Metallurgy Corp, which is part of Fuzhou Uranium Mine. The principal factors influencing on the production costs and the main means reducing the production costs have been found

  4. A Summary of: 25 Ways to Reduce the Cost of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for College Affordability and Productivity (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Almost everyone agrees that colleges have become costly to attend and are a growing burden on society to finance. Rising tuition costs threaten the ability and desire of students to attend college. Are there things that can be done to significantly reduce the cost of college? The answer is an emphatic "yes." The Center for College Affordability…

  5. Cost Analysis of the STONE Randomized Trial: Can Health Care Costs be Reduced One Test at a Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikow, Joy; Xing, Guibo; Cox, Ginger; Leigh, Paul; Mills, Lisa; Miglioretti, Diana L; Moghadassi, Michelle; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Decreasing the use of high-cost tests may reduce health care costs. To compare costs of care for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected kidney stones randomized to 1 of 3 initial imaging tests. Patients were randomized to point-of-care ultrasound (POC US, least costly), radiology ultrasound (RAD US), or computed tomography (CT, most costly). Subsequent testing and treatment were the choice of the treating physician. A total of 2759 patients at 15 EDs were randomized to POC US (n=908), RAD US, (n=893), or CT (n=958). Mean age was 40.4 years; 51.8% were male. All medical care documented in the trial database in the 7 days following enrollment was abstracted and coded to estimate costs using national average 2012 Medicare reimbursements. Costs for initial ED care and total 7-day costs were compared using nonparametric bootstrap to account for clustering of patients within medical centers. Initial ED visit costs were modestly lower for patients assigned to RAD US: $423 ($411, $434) compared with patients assigned to CT: $448 ($438, $459) (Pcosts were not significantly different between groups: $1014 ($912, $1129) for POC US, $970 ($878, $1078) for RAD US, and $959 ($870, $1044) for CT. Hospital admissions contributed over 50% of total costs, though only 11% of patients were admitted. Mean total costs (and admission rates) varied substantially by site from $749 to $1239. Assignment to a less costly test had no impact on overall health care costs for ED patients. System-level interventions addressing variation in admission rates from the ED might have greater impact on costs.

  6. Influence of Components of Net Working Capital on Costs of Companies Manufacturing Machinery and Equipment in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Motlíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach to working capital management significantly affects the performance of companies. Nevertheless, this effect varies depending on the observed industry and company’s size and it may be assumed that it is also dependent on territory differences. The paper presents an empirical research aiming to identify particular links between net working capital and costs of the company. The outcomes indicate a relatively strong positive correlation between the variables, especially in case of inventory. Furthermore he ratio of financial costs to ordinary costs is low, as well as the impact of net working capital components on financial costs. It follows that a focus on collection period would not lead to significant savings. The findings appropriately complement Czech and foreign literature focused more on impact of net working capital or working capital on profitability indicators. Further studies concerning a more detailed analysis of the influence of net working capital on corporate costs are difficult to be found. The present research has been conducted on medium-sized companies located in the Czech Republic and manufacturing machinery and equipment. The obtained results suggest the most suitable area of focus for optimization of working capital in relation to costs for the types of companies defined above.

  7. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  8. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  9. Sound stabilizes locomotor-respiratory coupling and reduces energy cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Hoffmann

    Full Text Available A natural synchronization between locomotor and respiratory systems is known to exist for various species and various forms of locomotion. This Locomotor-Respiratory Coupling (LRC is fundamental for the energy transfer between the two subsystems during long duration exercise and originates from mechanical and neurological interactions. Different methodologies have been used to compute LRC, giving rise to various and often diverging results in terms of synchronization, (de-stabilization via information, and associated energy cost. In this article, the theory of nonlinear-coupled oscillators was adopted to characterize LRC, through the model of the sine circle map, and tested it in the context of cycling. Our specific focus was the sound-induced stabilization of LRC and its associated change in energy consumption. In our experimental study, participants were instructed during a cycling exercise to synchronize either their respiration or their pedaling rate with an external auditory stimulus whose rhythm corresponded to their individual preferential breathing or cycling frequencies. Results showed a significant reduction in energy expenditure with auditory stimulation, accompanied by a stabilization of LRC. The sound-induced effect was asymmetrical, with a better stabilizing influence of the metronome on the locomotor system than on the respiratory system. A modification of the respiratory frequency was indeed observed when participants cycled in synchrony with the tone, leading to a transition toward more stable frequency ratios as predicted by the sine circle map. In addition to the classical mechanical and neurological origins of LRC, here we demonstrated using the sine circle map model that information plays an important modulatory role of the synchronization, and has global energetic consequences.

  10. Reducing the Requirements and Cost of Astronomical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Scott; Whitakter, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Limits on astronomical telescope apertures are being rapidly approached. These limits result from logistics, increasing complexity, and finally budgetary constraints. In an historical perspective, great strides have been made in the area of aperture, adaptive optics, wavefront sensors, detectors, stellar interferometers and image reconstruction. What will be the next advances? Emerging data analysis techniques based on communication theory holds the promise of yielding more information from observational data based on significant computer post-processing. This paper explores some of the current telescope limitations and ponders the possibilities increasing the yield of scientific data based on the migration computer post-processing techniques to higher dimensions. Some of these processes hold the promise of reducing the requirements on the basic telescope hardware making the next generation of instruments more affordable.

  11. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Tekinalp, Halil L [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Nelson, Kim [American Process Inc.

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  12. Implementation of Lean System on Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier Manufacturing Process to Reduce Production Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneechote, T.; Luangpaiboon, P.

    2010-10-01

    A manufacturing process of erbium doped fibre amplifiers is complicated. It needs to meet the customers' requirements under a present economic status that products need to be shipped to customers as soon as possible after purchasing orders. This research aims to study and improve processes and production lines of erbium doped fibre amplifiers using lean manufacturing systems via an application of computer simulation. Three scenarios of lean tooled box systems are selected via the expert system. Firstly, the production schedule based on shipment date is combined with a first in first out control system. The second scenario focuses on a designed flow process plant layout. Finally, the previous flow process plant layout combines with production schedule based on shipment date including the first in first out control systems. The computer simulation with the limited data via an expected value is used to observe the performance of all scenarios. The most preferable resulted lean tooled box systems from a computer simulation are selected to implement in the real process of a production of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. A comparison is carried out to determine the actual performance measures via an analysis of variance of the response or the production time per unit achieved in each scenario. The goodness of an adequacy of the linear statistical model via experimental errors or residuals is also performed to check the normality, constant variance and independence of the residuals. The results show that a hybrid scenario of lean manufacturing system with the first in first out control and flow process plant lay out statistically leads to better performance in terms of the mean and variance of production times.

  13. Winding Design for Minimum Power Loss and Low-Cost Manufacture in Application to Fixed-Speed PM Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Wrobel, Rafal; Staton, David; Lock, Richard J; Booker, Julian D; Drury, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a coupled thermal and power loss analysis of an open-slot permanent-magnet (PM) generator. The research focus has been placed on the winding design providing minimum power loss at an ac operation, together with low-cost manufacture. The analyzed PM generator is intended to operate at a fixed speed, allowing for the winding design to be finely tuned for a single operating point. Such a design approach has not been widely reported in literature, and the exis...

  14. Fuel cycle cost, reactor physics and fuel manufacturing considerations for Erbia-bearing PWR fuel with > 5 wt% U-235 content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N. [Westinghouse Electric Co. LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The efforts to reduce fuel cycle cost have driven LWR fuel close to the licensed limit in fuel fissile content, 5.0 wt% U-235 enrichment, and the acceptable duty on current Zr-based cladding. An increase in the fuel enrichment beyond the 5 wt% limit, while certainly possible, entails costly investment in infrastructure and licensing. As a possible way to offset some of these costs, the addition of small amounts of Erbia to the UO{sub 2} powder with >5 wt% U-235 has been proposed, so that its initial reactivity is reduced to that of licensed fuel and most modifications to the existing facilities and equipment could be avoided. This paper discusses the potentialities of such a fuel on the US market from a vendor's perspective. An analysis of the in-core behavior and fuel cycle performance of a typical 4-loop PWR with 18 and 24-month operating cycles has been conducted, with the aim of quantifying the potential economic advantage and other operational benefits of this concept. Subsequently, the implications on fuel manufacturing and storage are discussed. While this concept has certainly good potential, a compelling case for its short-term introduction as PWR fuel for the US market could not be determined. (authors)

  15. Toward a new spacecraft optimal design lifetime? Impact of marginal cost of durability and reduced launch price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelgrove, Kailah B.; Saleh, Joseph Homer

    2016-10-01

    The average design lifetime of satellites continues to increase, in part due to the expectation that the satellite cost per operational day decreases monotonically with increased design lifetime. In this work, we challenge this expectation by revisiting the durability choice problem for spacecraft in the face of reduced launch price and under various cost of durability models. We first provide a brief overview of the economic thought on durability and highlight its limitations as they pertain to our problem (e.g., the assumption of zero marginal cost of durability). We then investigate the merging influence of spacecraft cost of durability and launch price, and we identify conditions that give rise cost-optimal design lifetimes that are shorter than the longest lifetime technically achievable. For example, we find that high costs of durability favor short design lifetimes, and that under these conditions the optimal choice is relatively robust to reduction in launch prices. By contrast, lower costs of durability favor longer design lifetimes, and the optimal choice is highly sensitive to reduction in launch price. In both cases, reduction in launch prices translates into reduction of the optimal design lifetime. Our results identify a number of situations for which satellite operators would be better served by spacecraft with shorter design lifetimes. Beyond cost issues and repeat purchases, other implications of long design lifetime include the increased risk of technological slowdown given the lower frequency of purchases and technology refresh, and the increased risk for satellite operators that the spacecraft will be technologically obsolete before the end of its life (with the corollary of loss of value and competitive advantage). We conclude with the recommendation that, should pressure to extend spacecraft design lifetime continue, satellite manufacturers should explore opportunities to lease their spacecraft to operators, or to take a stake in the ownership

  16. Estimating Engineering and Manufacturing Development Cost Risk Using Logistic and Multiple Regression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bielecki, John

    2003-01-01

    .... Previous research has demonstrated the use of a two-step logistic and multiple regression methodology to predicting cost growth produces desirable results versus traditional single-step regression...

  17. Rapid Manufacturing of Durable, Cost-Effective Ceramic Matrix Composites for High Temperature Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hypersonic vehicles require durable and cost-effective hot structures that do not impose weight penalties such as those associated with the use of non-structural...

  18. Financialization across the Pacific: Manufacturing cost ratios, supply chains and power

    OpenAIRE

    Froud, Julie; Johal, Sukhdev; Leaver, Adam; Williams, Karel

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that thirty years ago favourable cost conditions helped build productive power in Asia, whereas now US financial power drives and benefits from low labour costs in China, using the very different supply chain positions of Apple Inc. and Foxconn International Holdings (FIH) as examples. In the first section, the authors bring together the literatures on financialization and global supply chains to contextualise the pressures and outcomes discussed. A temporal dimension is a...

  19. Are the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gases from Passenger Vehicles Negative?

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Energy models suggest that the cost of reducing carbon emissions from the transportation sector is high relative to other sectors, such as electricity generation. However, this paper shows that taxes to reduce passenger vehicle emissions produce large net benefits, rather than costs, when account is taken of (a) their impact on reducing non-carbon externalities from passenger vehicle use, and (b) interactions with the broader fiscal system. Both of these considerations also strengthen the cas...

  20. Cost Optimization on Energy Consumption of Punching Machine Based on Green Manufacturing Method at PT Buana Intan Gemilang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prillia Ayudia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT Buana Intan Gemilang is a company engaged in textile industry. The curtain textile production need punching machine to control the fabric process. The operator still works manually so it takes high cost of electrical energy consumption. So to solve the problem can implement green manufacturing on punching machine. The method include firstly to identify the color by classifying the company into the black, brown, gray or green color categories using questionnaire. Secondly is improvement area to be optimized and analyzed. Improvement plan at this stage that is focusing on energy area and technology. Thirdly is process applies by modifying the technology through implementing automation system on the punching machine so that there is an increase of green level on the process machine. The result obtained after implement the method can save cost on electrical energy consumption in the amount of Rp 1.068.159/day.

  1. Effects of worksite health interventions involving reduced work hours and physical exercise on sickness absence costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Hasson, Henna

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the effects of physical exercise during work hours (PE) and reduced work hours (RWH) on direct and indirect costs associated with sickness absence (SA). Sickness absence and related costs at six workplaces, matched and randomized to three conditions (PE, RWH, and referents), were retrieved from company records and/or estimated using salary conversion methods or value-added equations on the basis of interview data. Although SA days decreased in all conditions (PE, 11.4%; RWH, 4.9%; referents, 15.9%), costs were reduced in the PE (22.2%) and RWH (4.9%) conditions but not among referents (10.2% increase). Worksite health interventions may generate savings in SA costs. Costs may not be linear to changes in SA days. Combing the friction method with indirect cost estimates on the basis of value-added productivity may help illuminate both direct and indirect SA costs.

  2. Advances in the manufacturing and irradiation of reduced enrichment fuels for canadian research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.; Foo, M.T.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Herbert, L.N.; Schaefer, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures for manufacturing fuel rods of uranium silicide dispersed in aluminum and clad in aluminum have been optimized to maximize production rates while minimizing scrap losses. Melting and casting, chip machining and core extrusion have all been re-evaluated to improve their efficiency and significant gains have been made, whilst maintaining high quality standards. The results of our irradiation program on mini-elements up to a burnup of 80 atomic percent continue to be encouraging. The upper bound curve of fuel core swelling versus burnup in the range 0-80 atomic percent represents 1% swelling per 10 atomic percent burnup. Fuel core swelling has now been measured directly on six mini-elements from which the clad surface oxide had been removed showing that previous calculated values of core swelling were marginally conservative. (author)

  3. Good ergonomics and team diversity reduce absenteeism and errors in car manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Lars; Wegge, Jürgen; Schmauder, Martin; Kliegel, Matthias; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Prior research suggests that ergonomics work design and mixed teams (in age and gender) may compensate declines in certain abilities of ageing employees. This study investigates simultaneous effects of both team level factors on absenteeism and performance (error rates) over one year in a sample of 56 car assembly teams (N = 623). Results show that age was related to prolonged absenteeism and more mistakes in work planning, but not to overall performance. In comparison, high-physical workload was strongly associated with longer absenteeism and increased error rates. Furthermore, controlling for physical workload, age diversity was related to shorter absenteeism, and the presence of females in the team was associated with shorter absenteeism and better performance. In summary, this study suggests that both ergonomics work design and mixed team composition may compensate age-related productivity risks in manufacturing by maintaining the work ability of older employees and improving job quality.

  4. Method of reducing multipole content in a conductor assembly during manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Rainer

    2013-08-20

    A method for manufacture of a conductor assembly. The assembly is of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or in which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, a voltage is induced. In an example embodiment one or more first coil rows are formed. The assembly has multiple coil rows about an axis with outer coil rows formed about inner coil rows. A determination is made of deviations from specifications associated with the formed one or more first coil rows. One or more deviations correspond to a magnitude of a multipole field component which departs from a field specification. Based on the deviations, one or more wiring patterns are generated for one or more second coil rows to be formed about the one or more first coil rows. The one or more second coil rows are formed in the assembly. The magnitude of each multipole field component that departs from the field specification is offset.

  5. PENDEKATAN ACTIVITY-BASED COSTING DAN METODE PENCARIAN HEURISTIC UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN PROBLEM PEMILIHAN PERALATAN PADA FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS (FMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Satia Budhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Activity Based Costing (ABC approach to select the set-machine that is used in the production of Flexible Manufacture System (FMS based on technical and economical criteria can be useful for producers to design FMS by considering the minimum production cost. In the other hand, Heuristic Search is known to have a short searching time. Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC approach as the weight in finding the solution to shorten the equipment selection time during the design / redesign process of the FMS in less than exponential time was designed in this research. The increasing speed is useful because with the faster time in design / redesign process, therefore the flexibility level of part variety that can be processed will become better. Theoretical and empirical analysis in Algorithm Heuristic shows that time searching to get appropriate set of equipment is not too long, so that we can assume that the designed Algorithm Heuristic can be implemented in the real world. By comparing the empirical result of Algorithm Heuristic to the Algorithm Exhaustive, we can also assume that Algorithm Heuristic that using ABC method as the weight for finding solution can optimise the equipment selection problem of FMS based on economical criteria too. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penggunaan pendekatan Activity Based Costing (ABC untuk memilih set mesin yang digunakan dalam produksi pada Flexible Manufacture Systems (FMS berdasar atas kriteria teknis dan ekonomis, dapat membantu pelaku produksi untuk mendisain FMS dengan pertimbangan minimalisasi biaya produksi. Sementara itu, Heuristic Search dikenal memiliki waktu pencarian yang singkat. Pada riset ini didisain sebuah Algoritma Heuristic yang menggunakan pendekatan ABC sebagai bobot dalam pencarian solusi, untuk mempersingkat waktu pemilihan peralatan saat desain/redisain FMS dalam waktu kurang dari waktu Eksponensial. Peningkatan kecepatan ini bermanfaat, karena dengan cepatnya waktu

  6. Intraoperative costs of video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy can be dramatically reduced without compromising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael T; Backhus, Leah M; Berry, Mark F; Vail, Daniel G; Ayers, Kelsey C; Benson, Jalen A; Bhandari, Prasha; Teymourtash, Mehran; Shrager, Joseph B

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether surgeon selection of instrumentation and other supplies during video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy (VATSL) can safely reduce intraoperative costs. In this retrospective, cost-focused review of all video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery anatomic lung resections performed by 2 surgeons at a single institution between 2010 and 2014, we compared VATSL hospital costs and perioperative outcomes between the surgeons, as well as costs of VATSL compared with thoracotomy lobectomy (THORL). A total of 100 VATSLs were performed by surgeon A, and 70 were performed by surgeon B. The preoperative risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 groups of surgeries. Mean VATSL total hospital costs per case were 24% percent greater for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P = .0026). Intraoperative supply costs accounted for most of this cost difference and were 85% greater for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P costs, accounting for 55% of the difference in intraoperative supply costs between the surgeons. Operative time was 25% longer for surgeon A compared with surgeon B (P accounted for only 11% of the difference in total cost. Surgeon A's overall VATSL costs per case were similar to those of THORLs (n = 100) performed over the same time period, whereas surgeon B's VATSL costs per case were 24% less than those of THORLs. On adjusted analysis, there was no difference in VATSL perioperative outcomes between the 2 surgeons. The costs of VATSL differ substantially among surgeons and are heavily influenced by the use of disposable equipment/devices. Surgeons can substantially reduce the costs of VATSL to far lower than those of THORL without compromising surgical outcomes through prudent use of costly instruments and technologies. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Defense Inventory Management: Expanding Use of Best Practices for Hardware Items Can Reduce Logistics Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ...) logistics practices with those of the private sector. We are continuously examining DOD'S inventory management practices to identify areas where costs can be reduced and problems can be avoided by using leading private sector practices...

  8. Main means for reducing the production costs in process of leaching uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lang

    2000-01-01

    The production costs in process of leaching uranium have been reduced by controlling mixture ratio of crudes, milling particle size, liquid/solid mass ratio of leaching pulp, potential and residue acidity, and improving power equipment

  9. Navy Ordnance Analysis of Business Area Efforts to Streamline Operations and Reduce Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The Navy reorganized this business area in 1993 in order to reduce costs and address various deficiencies in ordnance logistics management that were identified during Desert Shield/Desert Storm...

  10. The model for the calculation of the dispersed iron ore resource purchase cost in the world class manufacturing (WCM logistics pillar context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dudek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the blast-furnace production, raw materials may account for approx. 50 % of the pig-iron manufacture costs. Therefore, any, even small, saving in the sphere of raw material purchasing will translate into the reduction in the cost of the pig-iron manufacture. The selection of appropriate supply sources and the associated raw material quality influencing the economic viability of the charge blend constitutes a multi-faceted optimization task. The paper presents a modified model for production cost estimation at the moment of making raw material purchasing, which is possible to be used in the logistics pillar of the WCM concept.

  11. Reducing the cost of MWT module technology based on conductive back-sheet foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Goris, M.J.A.A.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    MWT cell and module technology has shown to result in modules with a higher power output than H-pattern modules and to be suitable for use with thin and fragile cells. In this work, the use of low-cost module materials and their effect on module performance and reliability has been assessed. These materials include a conductive back-sheet patterned by milling with no silver plating at the contacts on the foil and no isolation coating on the copper and a low-silver content conductive adhesive. The sensitivity of module performance for the anti-corrosion coating on the copper of the conductive back-sheet is measured, as is the reliability in climate chamber testing of mini-modules made with these materials. The results show that these low cost materials can be used to manufacture module with good performance and reliability. Options are given for further cost reduction.

  12. Design for Six Sigma: Approach for reliability and low-cost manufacturing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Gerardo Cruz Alvarez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to discuss new product development based on a traditional stage-gate process and to examine how new product development [NPD] tools, such as lean design for Six Sigma, can accelerate the achievement of the main goals of NPD: reliable product quality, cost-effective implementation, and desired time-to-market. These new tools must be incorporated into a new approach to NPD based on the Advanced Product and Quality Planning methodology.

  13. Competitive investments in cost reducing process improvement : The role of managerial incentives and spillover learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard J.c.

    2015-01-01

    We study the rivalry between two firms and consider the effect of spillovers when the firms' operations and technology managers are given bonuses for cost reduction. We model a game in which the firm owners independently offer their manager a bonus to stimulate cost reducing process improvement

  14. A reduced-cost iterated local search heuristic for the fixed-charge transportation problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buson, Erika; Roberti, Roberto; Toth, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The fixed-charge transportation problem (FCTP) is a generalization of the transportation problem where an additional fixed cost is paid for sending a flow from an origin to a destination. We propose an iterated local search heuristic based on the utilization of reduced costs for guiding the restart

  15. Conference on raw materials and jobs cost variation - Impact on wind turbine manufacturers and operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, Bernard; Falk, Thorsten; Braeuninger, Michael; Rehfeldt, Knud; Brand, Ruth; Buhr, Ingo de; Jenne, Markus

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the 2007 Husum Wind exhibition, the French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised a side event on In the framework of this French-German exchange of experience, participants exchanged views on raw materials and jobs cost variations in the wind power industry in both countries. Its aim was to compare and analyse the French and German respective support systems to renewable energy sources. This document brings together the available presentations (slides) made during this event: 1 - Protecting wind energy tariffs against inflation effects: analysis and suggestions from the French experience (Bernard Chabot); 2 - Wind energy in Germany - Tariff structure in the EEG renewable energy law (Thorsten Falk); 3 - Wind energy competitiveness (Michael Braeuninge, Knud Rehfeldt); 4 - Influence of raw materials price rise on the production costs of ENERCON wind turbines maker (Ruth Brand); 5 - Presentation of the overall costs of an offshore wind energy project (Ingo de Buhr); 6 - Comparison between French and German tariffs profitability using a model wind farm: presentation of the pros and cons of both systems (Markus Jenne)

  16. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  17. A method for manufacturing superior set yogurt under reduced oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H; Inoue, N; Liu, E; Fukui, M; Sasaki, Y; Sasaki, T

    2009-09-01

    The yogurt starters Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are well-known facultatively anaerobic bacteria that can grow in oxygenated environments. We found that they removed dissolved oxygen (DO) in a yogurt mix as the fermentation progressed and that they began to produce acid actively after the DO concentration in the yogurt mix was reduced to 0 mg/kg, suggesting that the DO retarded the production of acid. Yogurt fermentation was carried out at 43 or 37 degrees C both after the DO reduction treatment and without prior treatment. Nitrogen gas was mixed and dispersed into the yogurt mix after inoculation with yogurt starter culture to reduce the DO concentration in the yogurt mix. The treatment that reduced DO concentration in the yogurt mix to approximately 0 mg/kg beforehand caused the starter culture LB81 used in this study to enter into the exponential growth phase earlier. Furthermore, the combination of reduced DO concentration in the yogurt mix beforehand and incubation at a lower temperature (37 degrees C) resulted in a superior set yogurt with a smooth texture and strong curd structure.

  18. The source of investment cash flow sensitivity in manufacturing firms: Is it asymmetric information or agency costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Makina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, positive investment cash flow sensitivity is attributed to either asymmetric information induced financing constraints or the agency costs of free cash flow. Using data from a sample of 68 manufacturing firms listed on the South African JSE, this paper contributes to the literature by investigating the source of investment cash flow sensitivity. We have found that asymmetric information explains the positive investment cash flow sensitivity better than agency costs. Furthermore, asymmetric information has been observed to be more pronounced in low-dividend-paying firms and small firms. Despite South Africa’s having a developed financial system by international standards, small firms are seen to be financially constrained. We attribute the absence of investment cash flow sensitivity due to agency costs to good corporate governance of South African listed firms. Thus the paper provides further evidence in support of the proposition in the literature that the source of investment cash flow sensitivity may depend on the institutional setting of a country, such as its corporate governance.

  19. Make or buy analysis model based on tolerance allocation to minimize manufacturing cost and fuzzy quality loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Puspitoingrum, W.; Jauhari, W. A.; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    The specification of tolerances has a significant impact on the quality of product and final production cost. The company should carefully pay attention to the component or product tolerance so they can produce a good quality product at the lowest cost. Tolerance allocation has been widely used to solve problem in selecting particular process or supplier. But before merely getting into the selection process, the company must first make a plan to analyse whether the component must be made in house (make), to be purchased from a supplier (buy), or used the combination of both. This paper discusses an optimization model of process and supplier selection in order to minimize the manufacturing costs and the fuzzy quality loss. This model can also be used to determine the allocation of components to the selected processes or suppliers. Tolerance, process capability and production capacity are three important constraints that affect the decision. Fuzzy quality loss function is used in this paper to describe the semantic of the quality, in which the product quality level is divided into several grades. The implementation of the proposed model has been demonstrated by solving a numerical example problem that used a simple assembly product which consists of three components. The metaheuristic approach were implemented to OptQuest software from Oracle Crystal Ball in order to obtain the optimal solution of the numerical example.

  20. SmartFactory: The challenges of open and low cost ICT in the small manufacturing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosscha, PA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available planning (ERP) and customer relation- ship management (CRM) levels, are employed with varying degrees of success in complex plants and large corporations. The high costs associated with such systems, however, put them beyond the reach of small... ICT’ is defined as: ? open source software, such as Linux, FreeBSD,5 Mobile Mesh,6 PostgreSQL,7 Apache web server,8 and Compiere ERP+CRM;9 ? communications and computing equipment that comply with open standards such as 802.11b,10 Internet Protocol...

  1. Development of technology for thin substrate polycrystalline solar cells for practical use. Development of manufacturing technologies for low-cost substrates (low-cost Si sheets by continuous casting method); Usugata takessho taiyo denchi seizo gijutsu no jitsuyoka kenkyu. Tei cost kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (renzoku cast ho ni yoru tei cost Si kiban seizo gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuta, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the study results on manufacturing of low-cost Si substrates by continuous casting method in fiscal 1994. (1) On manufacturing of ingots of 16 piece size, the ingot of nearly 170kg was manufactured by batch process using the Si melt injection unit prepared in last year. (2) On oxygen and carbon contents in wafers, the contents were measured by FT-IR after slicing of the ingot. As a result, the oxygen and carbon contents could be successfully reduced to the targets of 10ppma and 5ppma or less, respectively. (3) The resistivity distribution of the ingot ranged over the target of 1-2ohm-cm. (4) Cells of 100 {times} 100mm{sup 2} wide and 350{mu}m thick were verified by in-house evaluation process. Although lower cell conversion efficiency was found at the center top of the ingot, a vertical efficiency stability was nearly sufficient as a whole. (5) On the crystal growth unit prepared in fiscal 1994, any problems were not found on automatic driving and vibration during moving. 8 figs.

  2. Low-Cost Manufacturing of Bioresorbable Conductors by Evaporation-Condensation-Mediated Laser Printing and Sintering of Zn Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wan; Mahajan, Bikram K; Ludwig, Brandon; Yu, Xiaowei; Staggs, Joshua; Huang, Xian; Pan, Heng

    2017-07-01

    Currently, bioresorbable electronic devices are predominantly fabricated by complex and expensive vacuum-based integrated circuit (IC) processes. Here, a low-cost manufacturing approach for bioresorbable conductors on bioresorbable polymer substrates by evaporation-condensation-mediated laser printing and sintering of Zn nanoparticle is reported. Laser sintering of Zn nanoparticles has been technically difficult due to the surface oxide on nanoparticles. To circumvent the surface oxide, a novel approach is discovered to print and sinter Zn nanoparticle facilitated by evaporation-condensation in confined domains. The printing process can be performed on low-temperature substrates in ambient environment allowing easy integration on a roll-to-roll platform for economical manufacturing of bioresorbable electronics. The fabricated Zn conductors show excellent electrical conductivity (≈1.124 × 10 6 S m -1 ), mechanical durability, and water dissolvability. Successful demonstration of strain gauges confirms the potential application in various environmentally friendly sensors and circuits. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The costs, benefits, and cost-effectiveness of interventions to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Hu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Mexico, the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes is 1 in 370 compared to 1 in 2,500 in the U.S. Although national efforts have been made to improve maternal services in the last decade, it is unclear if Millennium Development Goal 5--to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters by 2015--will be met. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed an empirically calibrated model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy and pregnancy-related complications in a cohort of 15-year-old women followed over their lifetime. After synthesizing national and sub-national trends in maternal mortality, the model was calibrated to current intervention-specific coverage levels and validated by comparing model-projected life expectancy, total fertility rate, crude birth rate and maternal mortality ratio with Mexico-specific data. Using both published and primary data, we assessed the comparative health and economic outcomes of alternative strategies to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. A dual approach that increased coverage of family planning by 15%, and assured access to safe abortion for all women desiring elective termination of pregnancy, reduced mortality by 43% and was cost saving compared to current practice. The most effective strategy added a third component, enhanced access to comprehensive emergency obstetric care for at least 90% of women requiring referral. At a national level, this strategy reduced mortality by 75%, cost less than current practice, and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $300 per DALY relative to the next best strategy. Analyses conducted at the state level yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Increasing the provision of family planning and assuring access to safe abortion are feasible, complementary and cost-effective strategies that would provide the greatest benefit within a short-time frame. Incremental improvements in access to high-quality intrapartum and emergency

  4. Reducing heliostat field costs by direct measurement and control of the mirror orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Donker, P.; Rosinga, G.; van Voorthuysen, E. du Marchie

    2016-05-01

    The first commercial CSP Central Receiver System has been in operation since 2007. The technology required for such a central receiver system is quite new. The determining factor of the price of electricity is the capital investment in the heliostat field. The cost level per square meter of the heliostat field is rather high. Sun2point is questioning the market development, which is trying to get the cost level down by aiming at large heliostats. Sun2Point aims at mass manufacturing small heliostats to achieve low prices. Mass manufacturing off-site and transport over long distances is possible for small heliostats only. Calibration on the spot is a labour-intensive activity. Autonomous, factory calibrated and wireless controlled heliostats are the solution to lower installation cost. A new measurement method that directly reports the orientation of the heliostat in relation to the earth and the sun can solve the calibration problem when the heliostats are installed. The application of small heliostats will be much cheaper as a result of this measurement method. In this paper several methods for such a measurement are described briefly. The new Sun2Point method has successfully been tested. In this paper Sun2Point challenges the CSP community to investigate this approach. A brief survey is presented of many aspects that lead to a low price.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of methanol for reducing motor vehicle emissions and urban ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.J.; Walls, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This article analyzes the costs and emissions characteristics of methanol vehicles. The cost-effectiveness of methanol - the cost per ton of reactive hydrocarbon emissions reduced - is calculated and compared to the cost-effectiveness of other hydrocarbon reduction strategies. Methanol is found to cost from $33,000 to nearly $60,000 per ton, while several other options are available for under $10,000 per ton. The cost per part-per-million reduction in peak ambient ozone levels is also computed for two cities, Houston and Philadelphia. Despite the greater improvement in ozone in Philadelphia than Houston, methanol is found to be more cost-effective in Houston. This result occurs because Houston's distribution and marketing costs are lower than Philadelphia's. The costs in both cities, however, are far higher than estimates of the benefits from acute health improvements. Finally, the reduction in ozone exposure in Los Angeles is estimated and the costs of the reduction compared with an estimate of acute health benefits. Again, the benefits fall far short of the costs. 51 refs., 5 tabs

  6. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Lindahl, John [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  7. Development in fiscal 1999 of technologies to put photovoltaic power generation systems into practical use. Development of thin film solar cell manufacturing technologies (Development of low-cost large-area module manufacturing technologies, and dessolution deposition process); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Usumaku taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (tei cost daimenseki module seizo gijutsu (yokai sekishutsuho))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to manufacture low-cost large-area solar cell modules, developmental research has been performed on a film manufacturing technology using the dessolution deposition process. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. The research has been performed on a technology to form a thin silicon film directly on carbon substrates being substrates of different kinds, without using seed crystals. The researches made up to the previous fiscal year has made possible to form the film onto a substrate of about 5-cm square, has fabricated cells although with a small area, and indicated the importance of reducing concentrations of impurities in the solvent metals used. The researches performed during the current fiscal year executed modifications to reduce the temperature distribution in the substrate surfaces, including size increase in the heater, and improvement in the cooling heat conduction mechanism. As a result, films were formed successfully on 7.5-cm square substrates. In reducing the process temperatures, it was made clear that films can be formed at lower than 700 degrees C by using zinc as a solvent metal. Furthermore, the purity enhancement in the solvent metal achieved a conversion efficiency of 11.6% although the area is as small as 3.73 cm{sup 2}. (NEDO)

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  9. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Paying our way: thinking strategically to offset the cost of reducing fire hazard in western forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2008-01-01

    The fire hazard in many western forests is unacceptably high, posing risks to human health and property, wildlife habitat, and air and water quality. Cost is an inhibiting factor for reducing hazardous fuel, given the amount of acreage needing treatment. Thinning overly dense forests is one way to reduce fuel loads. Much of the product removed during these treatments...

  11. Innovation in product design as a factor for reducing logistic and production costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fighera Marzall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation has been considered of fundamental importance for organizations competing in dynamic environments, which along with cost management has been shown as an organizational strategy that allows the company to measure its results and implement measures that impact on the organization's performance as a whole. This paper, carried out in a metal mechanical industry of a telecommunications engineering branch, aims to analyse cost reduction in logistics raw materials areas through innovation in the product design, which are antennas and towers for telephone networks. In terms of methodology, this study presents itself as a qualitative and quantitative research-action, which from the link between theory and practice allows for intervention in the middle of the researchers studied. As a result, an innovative project was developed, which allowed for the reduction costs of production by 68% and logistics by 32%. Despite the significant decrease in costs, the quality of manufactured products not declined and customer needs were met, thus making the company more competitive against competitors. Not widespread in the literature, this analysis of the impact on logistics and production costs due to improvements in the project is the main contribution theoretical of this paper.

  12. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  13. Optimizing power plant cycling operations while reducing generating plant damage and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Besuner, P.H.; Grimsrud, P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Bissel, A. [Electric Supply Board, Dublin (Ireland)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation describes a method for analyzing, quantifying, and minimizing the total cost of fossil, combined cycle, and pumped hydro power plant cycling operation. The method has been developed, refined, and applied during engineering studies at some 160 units in the United States and 8 units at the Irish Electric Supply Board (ESB) generating system. The basic premise of these studies was that utilities are underestimating the cost of cycling operation. The studies showed that the cost of cycling conventional boiler/turbine fossil power plants can range from between $2,500 and $500,000 per start-stop cycle. It was found that utilities typically estimate these costs by factors of 3 to 30 below actual costs and, thus, often significantly underestimate their true cycling costs. Knowledge of the actual, or total, cost of cycling will reduce power production costs by enabling utilities to more accurately dispatch their units to manage unit life expectancies, maintenance strategies and reliability. Utility management responses to these costs are presented and utility cost savings have been demonstrated. (orig.) 7 refs.

  14. Optimizing power plant cycling operations while reducing generating plant damage and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S A; Besuner, P H; Grimsrud, P [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Bissel, A [Electric Supply Board, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    This presentation describes a method for analyzing, quantifying, and minimizing the total cost of fossil, combined cycle, and pumped hydro power plant cycling operation. The method has been developed, refined, and applied during engineering studies at some 160 units in the United States and 8 units at the Irish Electric Supply Board (ESB) generating system. The basic premise of these studies was that utilities are underestimating the cost of cycling operation. The studies showed that the cost of cycling conventional boiler/turbine fossil power plants can range from between $2,500 and $500,000 per start-stop cycle. It was found that utilities typically estimate these costs by factors of 3 to 30 below actual costs and, thus, often significantly underestimate their true cycling costs. Knowledge of the actual, or total, cost of cycling will reduce power production costs by enabling utilities to more accurately dispatch their units to manage unit life expectancies, maintenance strategies and reliability. Utility management responses to these costs are presented and utility cost savings have been demonstrated. (orig.) 7 refs.

  15. Using performance indicators to reduce cost uncertainty of China's CO2 mitigation goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Goals on absolute emissions and intensity play key roles in CO 2 mitigation. However, like cap-and-trade policies with price uncertainty, they suffer from significant uncertainty in abatement costs. This article examines whether an indicator could be established to complement CO 2 mitigation goals and help reduce cost uncertainty with a particular focus on China. Performance indicators on CO 2 emissions per unit of energy consumption could satisfy three criteria: compared with the mitigation goals, (i) they are more closely associated with active mitigation efforts and (ii) their baselines have more stable projections from historical trajectories. (iii) Their abatement costs are generally higher than other mitigation methods, particularly energy efficiency and conservation. Performance indicators could be used in the following way: if a CO 2 goal on absolute emissions or intensity is attained, the performance indicator should still reach a lower threshold as a cost floor. If the goal cannot be attained, an upper performance threshold should be achieved as a cost ceiling. The narrower cost uncertainty may encourage wider and greater mitigation efforts. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions per unit of energy consumption could act as performance indicators. ► Performance indicators are more closely related to active mitigation activities. ► Performance indicators have more stable historical trajectories. ► Abatement costs are higher for performance indicators than for other activities. ► Performance thresholds could reduce the cost uncertainty of CO 2 mitigation goals.

  16. Reducing door-to-needle times using Toyota's lean manufacturing principles and value stream analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andria L; Williams, Jennifer A; Spencer, Mary; McCammon, Craig; Khoury, Naim; Sampson, Tomoko R; Panagos, Peter; Lee, Jin-Moo

    2012-12-01

    Earlier tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment for acute ischemic stroke increases efficacy, prompting national efforts to reduce door-to-needle times. We used lean process improvement methodology to develop a streamlined intravenous tPA protocol. In early 2011, a multidisciplinary team analyzed the steps required to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tPA using value stream analysis (VSA). We directly compared the tPA-treated patients in the "pre-VSA" epoch with the "post-VSA" epoch with regard to baseline characteristics, protocol metrics, and clinical outcomes. The VSA revealed several tPA protocol inefficiencies: routing of patients to room, then to CT, then back to the room; serial processing of workflow; and delays in waiting for laboratory results. On March 1, 2011, a new protocol incorporated changes to minimize delays: routing patients directly to head CT before the patient room, using parallel process workflow, and implementing point-of-care laboratories. In the pre and post-VSA epochs, 132 and 87 patients were treated with intravenous tPA, respectively. Compared with pre-VSA, door-to-needle times and percent of patients treated ≤60 minutes from hospital arrival were improved in the post-VSA epoch: 60 minutes versus 39 minutes (PLean process improvement methodology can expedite time-dependent stroke care without compromising safety.

  17. The costs and benefits of getting the ISO 9000 certification in the manufacturing sector in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezher, T; Ramadan, H

    1998-01-01

    Many Saudi companies, in their journey to improve quality, efficiency and competitiveness, are pursuing and obtaining the ISO 9000 certificate. Many studies have evaluated how to implement ISO 9000 in different sectors, but none have analyzed the effectiveness of ISO 9000 certification (costs and benefits) on improving the overall quality and on meeting expectations. This study addressed these issues by investigating manufacturing organizations in Saudi Arabia that have the ISO 9000 certification. A survey questionnaire was distributed to firms throughout the kingdom. Thirty-two firms participated in the study. Results indicate that increased consistency of operations, improved service, and product quality are among the top motivators for pursuing the ISO certificate. The benefits most often experienced were improved awareness of procedural problems, better management control, keeping existing customers, increased customer satisfaction, and improved customer service. Difficulties experienced during the certification process involved time and cost, but these were not considered to be major problems. A high volume of paperwork was the main problem experienced following initial certification. Respondents in general said that the ISO 9000 certification met their expectations and that their level of satisfaction regarding the impact of ISO 9000 was high. Most recommended that other organizations pursue the certificate.

  18. Cost implications of reduced work hours and workloads for resident physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Bhattacharya, Jay; Wolman, Dianne Miller; Ulmer, Cheryl; Escarce, José J

    2009-05-21

    Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) limits the work hours of residents, concerns about fatigue persist. A new Institute of Medicine (IOM) report recommends, among other changes, improved adherence to the 2003 ACGME limits, naps during extended shifts, a 16-hour limit for shifts without naps, and reduced workloads. We used published data to estimate labor costs associated with transferring excess work from residents to substitute providers, and we examined the effects of our assumptions in sensitivity analyses. Next, using a probability model to represent labor costs as well as mortality and costs associated with preventable adverse events, we determined the net costs to major teaching hospitals and cost-effectiveness across a range of hypothetical changes in the rate of preventable adverse events. Annual labor costs from implementing the IOM recommendations were estimated to be $1.6 billion (in 2006 U.S. dollars) across all ACGME-accredited programs ($1.1 billion to $2.5 billion in sensitivity analyses). From a 10% decrease to a 10% increase in preventable adverse events, net costs per admission ranged from $99 to $183 for major teaching hospitals and from $17 to $266 for society. With 2.5% to 11.3% decreases in preventable adverse events, costs to society per averted death ranged from $3.4 million to $0. Implementing the four IOM recommendations would be costly, and their effectiveness is unknown. If highly effective, they could prevent patient harm at reduced or no cost from the societal perspective. However, net costs to teaching hospitals would remain high. 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  19. Reducing the length of postnatal hospital stay: implications for cost and quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, John; Cheyne, Helen

    2016-01-15

    UK health services are under pressure to make cost savings while maintaining quality of care. Typically reducing the length of time patients stay in hospital and increasing bed occupancy are advocated to achieve service efficiency. Around 800,000 women give birth in the UK each year making maternity care a high volume, high cost service. Although average length of stay on the postnatal ward has fallen substantially over the years there is pressure to make still further reductions. This paper explores and discusses the possible cost savings of further reductions in length of stay, the consequences for postnatal services in the community, and the impact on quality of care. We draw on a range of pre-existing data sources including, national level routinely collected data, workforce planning data and data from national surveys of women's experience. Simulation and a financial model were used to estimate excess demand, work intensity and bed occupancy to explore the quantitative, organisational consequences of reducing the length of stay. These data are discussed in relation to findings of national surveys to draw inferences about potential impacts on cost and quality of care. Reducing the length of time women spend in hospital after birth implies that staff and bed numbers can be reduced. However, the cost savings may be reduced if quality and access to services are maintained. Admission and discharge procedures are relatively fixed and involve high cost, trained staff time. Furthermore, it is important to retain a sufficient bed contingency capacity to ensure a reasonable level of service. If quality of care is maintained, staffing and bed capacity cannot be simply reduced proportionately: reducing average length of stay on a typical postnatal ward by six hours or 17% would reduce costs by just 8%. This might still be a significant saving over a high volume service however, earlier discharge results in more women and babies with significant care needs at home. Quality

  20. Spatial analyses of cost efficient measures to reduce N-leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Ørum, Jens Erik

    (WFD). The analysis shows that the geographical position of the measures are very important in order to achieve the expected nutrient reduction. The current income varies a lot in the River basin and this might influence the choice of cost effective measures to reduce nutrient load. Furthermore a close......The Nitrate Directive has only been implemented satisfactorily in a few EU countries. The Commission have accepted the Danish implementation of the directive based on the Plan for the Aquatic Environment II. The costs of this plan has been calculated to 70 million € or 2,0 € per kg N in reduced...... leaching. The farmers have paid 60% of the costs. The paper then describes an example of a regional analysis covering the River Basin of Ringkøbing Fjord in Denmark, which indicates the type of calculations needed to find the measures and costs in order to comply with parts of the Water Framework Directive...

  1. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  2. Can E-Filing Reduce Tax Compliance Costs in Developing Countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Fatih; Coolidge, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between electronic filing (e-filing) and the total tax compliance costs incurred by small and medium size businesses in developing countries, based on survey data from South Africa, Ukraine, and Nepal. A priori, most observers expect that use of e-filing should reduce tax compliance costs, but this analysis suggests that the assum...

  3. Multi-faceted case management: reducing compensation costs of musculoskeletal work injuries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iles, Ross Anthony; Wyatt, M; Pransky, G

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether a multi-faceted model of management of work related musculoskeletal disorders reduced compensation claim costs and days of compensation for injured workers. An intervention including early reporting, employee centred case management and removal of barriers to return to work was instituted in 16 selected companies with a combined remuneration over $337 million. Outcomes were evaluated by an administrative dataset from the Victorian WorkCover Authority database. A 'quasi experimental' pre-post design was employed with 492 matched companies without the intervention used as a control group and an average of 21 months of post-intervention follow-up. Primary outcomes were average number of days of compensation and average cost of claims. Secondary outcomes were total medical costs and weekly benefits paid. Information on 3,312 claims was analysed. In companies where the intervention was introduced the average cost of claims was reduced from $6,019 to $3,913 (estimated difference $2,329, 95 % CI $1,318-$3,340) and the number of days of compensation decreased from 33.5 to 14.1 (HR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.67-0.88). Medical costs and weekly benefits costs were also lower after the intervention (p costs were noted across industry types, injury location and most employer sizes. The model of claims management investigated was effective in reducing the number of days of compensation, total claim costs, total medical costs and the amount paid in weekly benefits. Further research should investigate whether the intervention improves non-financial outcomes in the return to work process.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of diet and exercise interventions to reduce overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, M; Veerman, J L; Barendregt, J J; Vos, T

    2011-08-01

    To analyze whether two dietary weight loss interventions--the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) program and a low-fat diet program--would be cost-effective in Australia, and to assess their potential to reduce the disease burden related to excess body weight. We constructed a multi-state life-table-based Markov model in which the distribution of body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. The target population was the overweight and obese adult population in Australia in 2003. We used a lifetime horizon for health effects and costs, and a health sector perspective for costs. We populated the model with data identified from Medline and Cochrane searches, Australian Bureau of Statistics published catalogues, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and Department of Health and Ageing. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) and proportions of disease burden avoided. ICERs under AUS$50,000 per DALY are considered cost-effective. The DASH and low-fat diet programs have ICERs of AUS$12,000 per DALY (95% uncertainty range: Cost-saving- 68,000) and AUS$13,000 per DALY (Cost-saving--130,000), respectively. Neither intervention reduced the body weight-related disease burden at population level by more than 0.1%. The sensitivity analysis showed that when participants' costs for time and travel are included, the ICERs increase to AUS$75,000 per DALY for DASH and AUS$49,000 per DALY for the low-fat diet. Modest weight loss during the interventions, post-intervention weight regain and low participation limit the health benefits. Diet and exercise interventions to reduce obesity are potentially cost-effective but have a negligible impact on the total body weight-related disease burden.

  5. Investing in CenteringPregnancy™ Group Prenatal Care Reduces Newborn Hospitalization Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Amy; Heberlein, Emily C; Glasscock, Leah; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Shea, Karen; Khan, Imtiaz A

    CenteringPregnancy™ group prenatal care is an innovative model with promising evidence of reducing preterm birth. The outpatient costs of offering CenteringPregnancy pose barriers to model adoption. Enhanced provider reimbursement for group prenatal care may improve birth outcomes and generate newborn hospitalization cost savings for insurers. To investigate potential cost savings for investment in CenteringPregnancy, we evaluated the impact on newborn hospital admission costs of a pilot incentive project, where BlueChoice Health Plan South Carolina Medicaid managed care organization paid an obstetric practice offering CenteringPregnancy $175 for each patient who participated in at least five group prenatal care sessions. Using a one to many case-control matching without replacement, each CenteringPregnancy participant was matched retrospectively on propensity score, age, race, and clinical risk factors with five individual care participants. We estimated the odds of newborn hospital admission type (neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] or well-baby admission) for matched CenteringPregnancy and individual care cohorts with four or more visits using multivariate logistic regression. Cost savings were calculated using mean costs per admission type at the delivery hospital. Of the CenteringPregnancy newborns, 3.5% had a NICU admission compared with 12.0% of individual care newborns (p Investing in CenteringPregnancy for 85 patients ($14,875) led to an estimated net savings for the managed care organization of $67,293 in NICU costs. CenteringPregnancy may reduce costs through fewer NICU admissions. Enhanced reimbursement from payers to obstetric practices supporting CenteringPregnancy sustainability may improve birth outcomes and reduce associated NICU costs. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Simple Exoskeleton That Assists Plantarflexion Can Reduce the Metabolic Cost of Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Derave, Wim; Galle, Samuel; De Clercq, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though walking can be sustained for great distances, considerable energy is required for plantarflexion around the instant of opposite leg heel contact. Different groups attempted to reduce metabolic cost with exoskeletons but none could achieve a reduction beyond the level of walking without exoskeleton, possibly because there is no consensus on the optimal actuation timing. The main research question of our study was whether it is possible to obtain a higher reduction in metabolic cost by tuning the actuation timing. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured metabolic cost by means of respiratory gas analysis. Test subjects walked with a simple pneumatic exoskeleton that assists plantarflexion with different actuation timings. We found that the exoskeleton can reduce metabolic cost by 0.18±0.06 W kg−1 or 6±2% (standard error of the mean) (p = 0.019) below the cost of walking without exoskeleton if actuation starts just before opposite leg heel contact. Conclusions/Significance The optimum timing that we found concurs with the prediction from a mathematical model of walking. While the present exoskeleton was not ambulant, measurements of joint kinetics reveal that the required power could be recycled from knee extension deceleration work that occurs naturally during walking. This demonstrates that it is theoretically possible to build future ambulant exoskeletons that reduce metabolic cost, without power supply restrictions. PMID:23418524

  7. Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of India’s Power Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2006-01-01

    If India were to participate in any international effort towards mitigating CO2 emissions, the power sector which is one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the country would be required to play a major role. In this context the study estimates the marginal abatement costs, which correspond to the costs incurred by the power plants to reduce one unit of CO2 from the current level. The study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to derive these costs...

  8. Alternative strategies to reduce cost and waste volume in HEPA filtration using metallic filter media - 59348

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The disposal costs of contaminated HEPA and THE filter elements have been proved to be disproportionately high compared with the cost of the elements themselves. Work published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the cost of use of traditional, panel type, glass fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was, during that period, $29.5 million, based on a five year life cycle, and including installation, testing, removal and disposal life cycle costs being based on estimates dating from 1987-1990. Within that cost estimate, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Clearly, if the $4, 450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could ensue, in addition to the reduction of the legacy burden of waste volume. This issue exists for operators in both the US and in Europe. If HEPA filters could be cleaned to a condition where they could either be re-used or decontaminated to the extent that they could be stored as a lower cost wasteform or if HEPA/THE filter elements were available without any organic content likely to give rise to flammable or explosive decomposition gases during long term storage this would also reduce the costs and monitoring necessary in storage. (author)

  9. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to use selective laser melting (SLM, an additive manufacturing technique) to manufacture a hot fire-capable, water-cooled spool...

  10. Low-Cost Manufacturing Technique for Advanced Regenerative Cooling for In-Space Cryogenic Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the proposed effort is to demonstrate feasibility of using selective laser melting (SLM, an emerging manufacturing technique) to manufacture a subscale...

  11. Reducing the energy penalty costs of postcombustion CCS systems with amine-storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Hoppock, David C

    2012-01-17

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can significantly reduce the amount of CO(2) emitted from coal-fired power plants but its operation significantly reduces the plant's net electrical output and decreases profits, especially during times of high electricity prices. An amine-based CCS system can be modified adding amine-storage to allow postponing 92% of all its energy consumption to times of lower electricity prices, and in this way has the potential to effectively reduce the cost of CO(2) capture by reducing the costs of the forgone electricity sales. However adding amine-storage to a CCS system implies a significant capital cost that will be outweighed by the price-arbitrage revenue only if the difference between low and high electricity prices is substantial. In this paper we find a threshold for the variability in electricity prices that make the benefits from electricity price arbitrage outweigh the capital costs of amine-storage. We then look at wholesale electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnect of the United States to determine profitability of amine-storage systems in this region. Using hourly electricity price data from years 2007 and 2008 we find that amine storage may be cost-effective in areas with high price variability.

  12. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  13. Concepts of increasing productivity and reducing the processing cost of machine parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. С. Кленов

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic conditions to reduce the cost of processing technology and improve productivity through the use of modern cutting tools produced by leading foreign firms producing tools have been appraised from theory in the work. Theoretically, it has been found that an increase in the cost of processing varies according to extremum dependence, passing the minimum point. It is possible to reduce the minimum processing cost due to the increase of productivity using cutting edge tools, characterized by a high capacity for work in high cutting temperatures. The criterion showing the technological price cost minimum is the ratio of the expenditures on workers’ wages to the expenditures on the cutting tools, it being quite specific for various processing conditions. To analyze the possibilities of practical use of the proposed criterion, a complex of experimental researches of the technological prime cost and productivity of the processing with hard alloy cutting tools with wear-resistant coatings produced by the company «Iscar» has been carried out. It has been established that their use makes it possible by more than one half to reduce the labour consumption and overall costs as compared to the hard alloy cutting tools traditionally used in home industry. It has been shown that this effect is achieved by increasing the cutting speed and feed due to increased wear resistance and heat resistance of the «Iscar» company tools. It was established that it is much more possible to achieve low processing cost at milling than at turning. It was stated with regard to all major expenditures including the workers' wages, the cost of the cutting tools, equipment and other costs, allowing more correctly estimate the cost-effectiveness of mechanical processing. Experiments confirmed that the main condition for reducing the processing cost to its minimum value is to increase the processing performance through the use of a heat-resistant and wear-resistant cutting

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Sacubitril-Valsartan in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Alexander T; Ollendorf, Daniel A; Chapman, Richard H; Pearson, Steven D; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2016-11-15

    Sacubitril-valsartan therapy reduces cardiovascular mortality compared with enalapril therapy in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sacubitril-valsartan versus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in patients with chronic heart failure. Markov decision model. Clinical trials, observational analyses, reimbursement data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, drug pricing databases, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention life tables. Patients at an average age of 64 years, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV heart failure, and left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.40 or less. Lifetime. Societal. Treatment with sacubitril-valsartan or lisinopril. Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, heart failure hospitalizations, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. The sacubitril-valsartan group experienced 0.08 fewer heart failure hospitalization, 0.69 additional life-year, 0.62 additional QALY, and $29 203 in incremental costs, equating to a cost per QALY gained of $47 053. The cost per QALY gained was $44 531 in patients with NYHA class II heart failure and $58 194 in those with class III or IV heart failure. Sacubitril-valsartan treatment was most sensitive to the duration of improved outcomes, with a cost per QALY gained of $120 623 if the duration was limited to the length of the trial (median, 27 months). No variations in other parameters caused the cost to exceed $100 000 per QALY gained. The benefit of sacubitril-valsartan is based on a single clinical trial. Treatment with sacubitril-valsartan provides reasonable value in reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with NYHA class II to IV heart failure. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and Institute for Clinical and Economic Review.

  15. Making renewable energy competitive in India: Reducing financing costs via a government-sponsored hedging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooquee, Arsalan Ali; Shrimali, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    In India, a significant barrier to market-competitiveness of renewable energy is a shortage of attractive debt. Domestic debt has high cost, short tenors, and variable interest rates, adding 30% to the cost of renewable energy compared to renewable energy projects elsewhere. Foreign debt is as expensive as domestic debt because it requires costly market-based currency hedging solutions. We investigate a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility as an alternative to reducing hedging costs. Using the geometric Brownian motion (GBM) as a representative stochastic model of the INR–USD foreign exchange rate, we find that the expected cost of providing a currency hedge via this facility is 3.5 percentage points, 50% lower than market. This leads to an up to 9% reduction in the per unit cost of renewable energy. However, this requires the government to manage the risks related to unexpected currency movements appropriately. One option to manage these risks is via a capital buffer; for the facility to obtain India's sovereign rating, the capital buffer would need to be almost 30% of the underlying loan. Our findings have significant policy implications given that the Indian government can use this facility to make renewable energy more competitive and, therefore, hasten its deployment. - Highlights: • We analyze a government-sponsored foreign exchange facility in India. •We use geometric Brownian motion to represent the INR–USD exchange rate. •This facility can reduce the currency hedging costs by 50%. •This facility can reduce the levelized cost of renewable energy by 9%. •The capital buffer to reach India's sovereign rating is 30% of the original loan.

  16. Additive-manufactured patient-specific titanium templates for thoracic pedicle screw placement: novel design with reduced contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Mitsuru; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Ota, Eigo; Otsuki, Bungo; Kimura, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Kawai, Toshiyuki; Futami, Tohru; Sasaki, Kiyoyuki; Matsushita, Tomiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Neo, Masashi; Matsuda, Shuich

    2016-06-01

    Image-based navigational patient-specific templates (PSTs) for pedicle screw (PS) placement have been described. With recent advances in three-dimensional computer-aided designs and additive manufacturing technology, various PST designs have been reported, although the template designs were not optimized. We have developed a novel PST design that reduces the contact area without sacrificing stability. It avoids susceptibility to intervening soft tissue, template geometric inaccuracy, and difficulty during template fitting. Fourteen candidate locations on the posterior aspect of the vertebra were evaluated. Among them, locations that had high reproducibility on computed tomography (CT) images and facilitated accurate PS placement were selected for the final PST design. An additive manufacturing machine (EOSINT M270) fabricated the PSTs using commercially pure titanium powder. For the clinical study, 36 scoliosis patients and 4 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) were treated with thoracic PSs using our newly developed PSTs. We intraoperatively and postoperatively evaluated the accuracy of the PS hole created by the PST. Based on the segmentation reproducibility and stability analyses, we selected seven small, round contact points for our PST: bilateral superior and inferior points on the transverse process base, bilateral inferior points on the laminar, and a superior point on the spinous process. Clinically, the success rates of PS placement using this PST design were 98.6 % (414/420) for scoliosis patients and 100 % (46/46) for OPLL patients. This study provides a useful design concept for the development and introduction of patient-specific navigational templates for placing PSs.

  17. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discussed. Step efficiencies particularly for differentiation, media requirements and technology choice are amongst the key process economic drivers identified for hPSCs. Progress made to address these cost drivers in hPSC bioprocessing strategies is discussed. These include improving expansion and differentiation yields in planar and bioreactor technologies, the development of xeno-free media and microcarrier coatings, identification of optimal bioprocess operating conditions to control cell fate and the development of directed differentiation protocols that reduce reliance on expensive morphogens such as growth factors and small molecules. These approaches offer methods to further optimise hPSC bioprocessing in terms of its commercial feasibility. © 2014 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Optimum value engineering and integrated design methods for reducing the cost of R-2000 houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G. [Proskiw Engineering Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Parekh, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Opportunities exist to reduce the incremental cost of R-2000 construction by using optimum value engineering (OVE) and integrated design (ID) techniques. OVE is a construction philosophy in which components and systems are designed to meet their intended purposes without excessive or unnecessary use of resources. This paper summarized a study that was designed to identify opportunities for reducing the costs of R-2000 houses while improving their performance. These included detailed energy and cost analysis of various OVE/ID options which were then applied to a sample of 18 representative new home designs from British Columbia, Manitoba, and New Brunswick. The paper described the OVE/ID measures studied, cost analysis, measure utilization and energy analysis. It also included a detailed discussion of individual OVE/ID measures. Examples of some of these measures were the elimination of floor system cross-bridging; support of non-load bearing partition walls; engineered wood beams; drywall clips at corners; and non-load bearing partition walls. It was concluded that significant opportunities exist to reduce the incremental cost of R-2000 houses through careful application of OVE and ID practices. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. The Dynamics of Bertrand Price Competition with Cost-Reducing Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskhakov, Fedor; Rust, John; Schjerning, Bertel

    We present a dynamic extension of the classic static model of Bertrand price competition that allows competing duopolists to undertake cost-reducing investments in an attempt to “leapfrog” their rival to attain low-cost leadership – at least temporarily. We show that leapfrogging occurs in equili......We present a dynamic extension of the classic static model of Bertrand price competition that allows competing duopolists to undertake cost-reducing investments in an attempt to “leapfrog” their rival to attain low-cost leadership – at least temporarily. We show that leapfrogging occurs...... in equilibrium, resolving the Bertrand investment paradox., i.e. leapfrogging explains why firms have an ex ante incentive to undertake cost-reducing investments even though they realize that simultaneous investments to acquire the state of the art production technology would result in Bertrand price competition...... leader. We show that the equilibrium involves investment preemption only when the firms invest in a deterministically alternating fashion and technological progress is deterministic. We prove that when technological progress is deterministic and firms move in an alternating fashion, the game has a unique...

  20. One Improvement Method of Reducing Duration Directly to Solve Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-xun, Qi; Dedong, Sun

    Time and cost are two of the most important factors for project plan and schedule management, and specially, time-cost tradeoff problem is one classical problem in project scheduling, which is also a difficult problem. Methods of solving the problem mainly contain method of network flow and method of mending the minimal cost. Thereinto, for the method of mending the minimal cost is intuitionistic, convenient and lesser computation, these advantages make the method being used widely in practice. But disadvantage of the method is that the result of each step is optimal but the terminal result maybe not optimal. In this paper, firstly, method of confirming the maximal effective quantity of reducing duration is designed; secondly, on the basis of above method and the method of mending the minimal cost, the main method of reducing duration directly is designed to solve time-cost tradeoff problem, and by analyzing validity of the method, the method could obtain more optimal result for the problem.

  1. Combined Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing in the Eco-Care-Matrix: A case study on the performance of a modernized manufacturing system for glass containers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auer, Johannes; Bey, Niki; Schäfer, Johannes-Marius

    2017-01-01

    Cycle Assessment, as well as Life Cycle Costing (LCC). The results were then to be displayed in an Eco-Care-Matrix (ECM) in order to quantitatively visualize the improvements when comparing the updated manufacturing system to the previous one and they were to be discussed in terms of (i) ecodesign...

  2. Cost analysis of roll-to-roll fabricated ITO free single and tandem organic solar modules based on data from manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machui, Florian; Hösel, Markus; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    We present a cost analysis based on state of the art printing and coating processes to fully encapsulated, flexible ITO- and vacuum-free polymer solar cell modules. Manufacturing data for both single junctions and tandem junctions are presented and analyzed. Within this calculation the most...

  3. Study of Potential Cost Reductions Resulting from Super-Large-Scale Manufacturing of PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 7 August 2003--30 September 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshner, M. S.; Arya, R.

    2004-10-01

    Hewlett Packard has created a design for a ''Solar City'' factory that will process 30 million sq. meters of glass panels per year and produce 2.1-3.6 GW of solar panels per year-100x the volume of a typical, thin-film, solar panel manufacturer in 2004. We have shown that with a reasonable selection of materials, and conservative assumptions, this ''Solar City'' can produce solar panels and hit the price target of $1.00 per peak watt (6.5x-8.5x lower than prices in 2004) as the total price for a complete and installed rooftop (or ground mounted) solar energy system. This breakthrough in the price of solar energy comes without the need for any significant new invention. It comes entirely from the manufacturing scale of a large plant and the cost savings inherent in operating at such a large manufacturing scale. We expect that further optimizations from these simple designs will lead to further improvements in cost. The manufacturing process and cost depend on the choice for the active layer that converts sunlight into electricity. The efficiency by which sunlight is converted into electricity can range from 7% to 15%. This parameter has a large effect on the overall price per watt. There are other impacts, as well, and we have attempted to capture them without creating undue distractions. Our primary purpose is to demonstrate the impact of large-scale manufacturing. This impact is largely independent of the choice of active layer. It is not our purpose to compare the pro's and con's for various types of active layers. Significant improvements in cost per watt can also come from scientific advances in active layers that lead to higher efficiency. But, again, our focus is on manufacturing gains and not on the potential advances in the basic technology.

  4. An Active Learning Classifier for Further Reducing Diabetic Retinopathy Screening System Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR screening system raises a financial problem. For further reducing DR screening cost, an active learning classifier is proposed in this paper. Our approach identifies retinal images based on features extracted by anatomical part recognition and lesion detection algorithms. Kernel extreme learning machine (KELM is a rapid classifier for solving classification problems in high dimensional space. Both active learning and ensemble technique elevate performance of KELM when using small training dataset. The committee only proposes necessary manual work to doctor for saving cost. On the publicly available Messidor database, our classifier is trained with 20%–35% of labeled retinal images and comparative classifiers are trained with 80% of labeled retinal images. Results show that our classifier can achieve better classification accuracy than Classification and Regression Tree, radial basis function SVM, Multilayer Perceptron SVM, Linear SVM, and K Nearest Neighbor. Empirical experiments suggest that our active learning classifier is efficient for further reducing DR screening cost.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of universal rotavirus vaccination in reducing rotavirus gastroenteritis in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tilson, L

    2011-10-06

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of universal infant rotavirus (RV) vaccination compared to current standard of care of "no vaccination". Two RV vaccines are currently licensed in Ireland: Rotarix and RotaTeq. A cohort model used in several European countries was adapted using Irish epidemiological, resource utilisation and cost data. The base case model considers the impact of Rotarix vaccination on health-related quality of life of children under five years old from a healthcare payer perspective. Other scenarios explored the use of RotaTeq, impact on one caregiver, on societal costs and on cases that do not seek medical attention. Cost was varied between the vaccine list price (€100\\/course) in the base case and an assumed tender price (€70\\/course). One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Implementing universal RV vaccination may prevent around 1970 GP visits, 3280 A&E attendances and 2490 hospitalisations. A vaccination programme was estimated to cost approximately €6.54 million per year but €4.65 million of this would be offset by reducing healthcare resource use. The baseline ICER was €112,048\\/QALY and €72,736\\/QALY from the healthcare payer and societal perspective, respectively, falling to €68,896 and €43,916\\/QALY, respectively, if the impact on one caregiver was considered. If the price fell to €70 per course, universal RV vaccination would be cost saving under all scenarios. Results were sensitive to vaccination costs, incidence of RV infection and direct medical costs. Universal RV vaccination would not be cost-effective under base case assumptions. However, it could be cost-effective at a lower vaccine price or from a wider societal perspective.

  6. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Geum-Taek Jin

    2002-01-01

    OAK-B135 This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies

  7. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiNunzio, Camillo A. [Framatome ANP DE& S, Marlborough, MA (United States); Gupta, Abhinav [Univ. of North Carolina, Raleigh, NC (United States); Golay, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Luk, Vincent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Turk, Rich [Westinghouse Electric Company Nuclear Systems, Windsor, CT (United States); Morrow, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jin, Geum-Taek [Korea Power Engineering Company Inc., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  8. How to save costs by reducing unnecessary testing: Lean thinking in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegting, I.L.; van Beneden, M.; Kramer, M.H.H.; Thijs, A.; Kostense, P.J.; Nanayakkara, P.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The burden of health care expenditure on national budgets has increased dramatically over the past decade. A pilot study in our hospital demonstrated that many unnecessary diagnostic tests were performed routinely. The aim of this study was to reduce the costs of unnecessary diagnostic

  9. Reducing the costs of landscape restoration by using invasive alien plant biomass for bioenergy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William HL

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available reviews the extent of IAPs as well as efforts to eradicate them, and identifies value-adding opportunities to use the cleared IAP biomass for reducing the costs of landscape restoration. Since bioenergy is suited to a large portion of the biomass...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  11. Radically Reducing the Costs of Panel Critical Reviews According to ISO 14040

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidema, Bo Pedersen; Christiansen, Kim; Wernet, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a procedure that radically reduces the critical review costs without compromising their thoroughness and overall quality. This procedure has 3 elements: A fixed panel for all reviews, an already critically reviewed background database, and a software-supported review procedure. The pre....... The presentation discusses these elements in the light of the upcoming ISO 14071 on critical review....

  12. [Reduce Energy Costs While Maintaining Healthy IAQ.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) Feature Article: Reduce Energy Costs while Maintaining Healthy IAQ; (3) Insight into Excellence: North East Independent School District ; (4) School Building Week 2009; and (5) Have Your Questions Answered!

  13. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Phase II and phase III.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cilke, John F.; Parks, Raymond C.; Funkhouser, Donald Ray; Tebo, Michael A.; Murphy, Martin D.; Hightower, Marion Michael; Gallagher, Linda K.; Craft, Richard Layne, II; Garcia, Rudy John

    2004-04-01

    In Phase I of this project, reported in SAND97-1922, Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. The effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements and an economic analysis model for development of care pathway costs for two conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Phases II and III of this project, which are presented in this report, were directed at detailing the parameters of telemedicine that influence care delivery costs and quality. These results were used to identify and field test the communication, interoperability, and security capabilities needed for cost-effective, secure, and reliable health care via telemedicine.

  14. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  15. Cost-effectiveness of newborn circumcision in reducing lifetime HIV risk among U.S. males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Sansom

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV incidence was substantially lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised heterosexual African men in three clinical trials. Based on those findings, we modeled the potential effect of newborn male circumcision on a U.S. male's lifetime risk of HIV, including associated costs and quality-adjusted life-years saved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Given published estimates of U.S. males' lifetime HIV risk, we calculated the fraction of lifetime risk attributable to heterosexual behavior from 2005-2006 HIV surveillance data. We assumed 60% efficacy of circumcision in reducing heterosexually-acquired HIV over a lifetime, and varied efficacy in sensitivity analyses. We calculated differences in lifetime HIV risk, expected HIV treatment costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs among circumcised versus uncircumcised males. The main outcome measure was cost per HIV-related QALY saved. Circumcision reduced the lifetime HIV risk among all males by 15.7% in the base case analysis, ranging from 7.9% for white males to 20.9% for black males. Newborn circumcision was a cost-saving HIV prevention intervention for all, black and Hispanic males. The net cost of newborn circumcision per QALY saved was $87,792 for white males. Results were most sensitive to the discount rate, and circumcision efficacy and cost. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Newborn circumcision resulted in lower expected HIV-related treatment costs and a slight increase in QALYs. It reduced the 1.87% lifetime risk of HIV among all males by about 16%. The effect varied substantially by race and ethnicity. Racial and ethnic groups who could benefit the most from circumcision may have least access to it due to insurance coverage and state Medicaid policies, and these financial barriers should be addressed. More data on the long-term protective effect of circumcision on heterosexual males as well as on its efficacy in preventing HIV among MSM would be useful.

  16. Fitness costs of animal medication: antiparasitic plant chemicals reduce fitness of monarch butterfly hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Leiling; Hoang, Kevin M; Hunter, Mark D; de Roode, Jacobus C

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of ecological immunology demonstrates that allocation by hosts to immune defence against parasites is constrained by the costs of those defences. However, the costs of non-immunological defences, which are important alternatives to canonical immune systems, are less well characterized. Estimating such costs is essential for our understanding of the ecology and evolution of alternative host defence strategies. Many animals have evolved medication behaviours, whereby they use antiparasitic compounds from their environment to protect themselves or their kin from parasitism. Documenting the costs of medication behaviours is complicated by natural variation in the medicinal components of diets and their covariance with other dietary components, such as macronutrients. In the current study, we explore the costs of the usage of antiparasitic compounds in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), using natural variation in concentrations of antiparasitic compounds among plants. Upon infection by their specialist protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha, monarch butterflies can selectively oviposit on milkweed with high foliar concentrations of cardenolides, secondary chemicals that reduce parasite growth. Here, we show that these antiparasitic cardenolides can also impose significant costs on both uninfected and infected butterflies. Among eight milkweed species that vary substantially in their foliar cardenolide concentration and composition, we observed the opposing effects of cardenolides on monarch fitness traits. While high foliar cardenolide concentrations increased the tolerance of monarch butterflies to infection, they reduced the survival rate of caterpillars to adulthood. Additionally, although non-polar cardenolide compounds decreased the spore load of infected butterflies, they also reduced the life span of uninfected butterflies, resulting in a hump-shaped curve between cardenolide non-polarity and the life span of infected butterflies

  17. An assessment of monitoring requirements and costs of 'Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum Ian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negotiations on a future climate policy framework addressing Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD are ongoing. Regardless of how such a framework will be designed, many technical solutions of estimating forest cover and forest carbon stock change exist to support policy in monitoring and accounting. These technologies typically combine remotely sensed data with ground-based inventories. In this article we assess the costs of monitoring REDD based on available technologies and requirements associated with key elements of REDD policy. Results We find that the design of a REDD policy framework (and specifically its rules can have a significant impact on monitoring costs. Costs may vary from 0.5 to 550 US$ per square kilometre depending on the required precision of carbon stock and area change detection. Moreover, they follow economies of scale, i.e. single country or project solutions will face relatively higher monitoring costs. Conclusion Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management. Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring system, and demands for international cooperation.

  18. SunShot solar power reduces costs and uncertainty in future low-carbon electricity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Ana; Nelson, James H; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-08-20

    The United States Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative has set cost-reduction targets of $1/watt for central-station solar technologies. We use SWITCH, a high-resolution electricity system planning model, to study the implications of achieving these targets for technology deployment and electricity costs in western North America, focusing on scenarios limiting carbon emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. We find that achieving the SunShot target for solar photovoltaics would allow this technology to provide more than a third of electric power in the region, displacing natural gas in the medium term and reducing the need for nuclear and carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies, which face technological and cost uncertainties, by 2050. We demonstrate that a diverse portfolio of technological options can help integrate high levels of solar generation successfully and cost-effectively. The deployment of GW-scale storage plays a central role in facilitating solar deployment and the availability of flexible loads could increase the solar penetration level further. In the scenarios investigated, achieving the SunShot target can substantially mitigate the cost of implementing a carbon cap, decreasing power costs by up to 14% and saving up to $20 billion ($2010) annually by 2050 relative to scenarios with Reference solar costs.

  19. A cost-reducing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) program model: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarocchi, N C; Wallace, S; Hong, E Y; Tropea, A; Byrne, J; Pitcher, H T; Hirose, H

    2015-03-01

    The worldwide demand for ECMO support has grown. Its provision remains limited due to several factors (high cost, complicated technology, lack of expertise) that increase healthcare cost. Our goal was to assess if an intensive care unit (ICU)-run ECMO model without continuous bedside perfusionists would decrease costs while maintaining patient safety and outcomes. A new ECMO program was implemented in 2010, consisting of dedicated ICU multidisciplinary providers (ICU-registered nurses, mid-level providers and intensivists). In year one, we introduced an education platform, new technology and dedicated space. In year two, continuous bedside monitoring by perfusionists was removed and new management algorithms designating multidisciplinary providers as first responders were established. The patient safety and cost benefit from the removal of the continuous bedside monitoring of the perfusionists of this new ECMO program was retrospectively reviewed and compared. During the study period, 74 patients (28 patients in year 1 and 46 patients in year 2) were placed on ECMO (mean days: 8 ± 5.7). The total annual hospital expenditure for the ECMO program was significantly reduced in the new model ($234,000 in year 2 vs. $600,264 in year 1), showing a 61% decrease in cost. This cost decrease was attributed to a decreased utilization of perfusion services and the introduction of longer lasting and more efficient ECMO technology. We did not find any significant changes in registered nurse ratios or any differences in outcomes related to ICU safety events. We demonstrated that the ICU-run ECMO model managed to lower hospital cost by reducing the cost of continuous bedside perfusion support without a change in outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a February 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing.

  1. Improving the delivery of care and reducing healthcare costs with the digitization of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffsinger, R; Chin, S

    2000-01-01

    In the coming years, the digitization of information and the Internet will be extremely powerful in reducing healthcare costs while assisting providers in the delivery of care. One example of healthcare inefficiency that can be managed through information digitization is the process of prescription writing. Due to the handwritten and verbal communication surrounding prescription writing, as well as the multiple tiers of authorizations, the prescription drug process causes extensive financial waste as well as medical errors, lost time, and even fatal accidents. Electronic prescription management systems are being designed to address these inefficiencies. By utilizing new electronic prescription systems, physicians not only prescribe more accurately, but also improve formulary compliance thereby reducing pharmacy utilization. These systems expand patient care by presenting proactive alternatives at the point of prescription while reducing costs and providing additional benefits for consumers and healthcare providers.

  2. A cost sensitive inpatient bed reservation approach to reduce emergency department boarding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Chinnam, Ratna Babu; Murat, Alper; Batarse, Bassam; Neemuchwala, Hakimuddin; Jordan, Will

    2015-03-01

    Emergency departments (ED) in hospitals are experiencing severe crowding and prolonged patient waiting times. A significant contributing factor is boarding delays where admitted patients are held in ED (occupying critical resources) until an inpatient bed is identified and readied in the admit wards. Recent research has suggested that if the hospital admissions of ED patients can be predicted during triage or soon after, then bed requests and preparations can be triggered early on to reduce patient boarding time. We propose a cost sensitive bed reservation policy that recommends optimal bed reservation times for patients. The policy relies on a classifier that estimates the probability that the ED patient will be admitted using the patient information collected and readily available at triage or right after. The policy is cost sensitive in that it accounts for costs associated with patient admission prediction misclassification as well as costs associated with incorrectly selecting the reservation time. Results from testing the proposed bed reservation policy using data from a VA Medical Center are very promising and suggest significant cost saving opportunities and reduced patient boarding times.

  3. IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) conceptual design activity reduced cost report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report describes the results of a preliminary reevaluation of the design and cost of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) Project in response to the request from the 28th FPCC meeting in January 1999. Two major ideas have been considered: 1) reduction of the total construction cost through elimination of the previously planned facility upgrade and 2) a facility deployment in 3 stages with capabilities for limited experiments in the first stage. As a result, the size and complexity of the facility could be significantly reduced, leading to substantial cost savings. In addition to these two ideas, this study also included a critical review of the original CDA specification with the objective of elimination of nonessential items. For example, the number of lithium targets was reduced from two to one. As a result of these changes in addition to the elimination of the upgrade, the total cost estimate was very substantially reduced from 797.2 MICF to 487.8 MICF, where 1 MICF = 1 Million of the IFMIF Conversion Units (approximately $1M US January, 1996). (author)

  4. The burden of allergies--and the capacity of medications to reduce this burden-in a heavy manufacturing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, William B; Pikelny, Dan B; Paralkar, Sadhna; Slavin, Thomas; Borden, Spencer; Allen, Harris M

    2003-09-01

    This article addresses the observational findings of the first systematic study undertaken by a manufacturer to address the impact of allergies and use of allergy medications on health, safety, and productivity. It provides background for 3 other papers from the same project, including an evaluation of an intervention to promote appropriate medication use among affected employees, which appear in this issue. The observational data are developed on 10,714 employees from: 1) 2 employee surveys; 2) administrative databases monitoring employee absenteeism, workers compensation, short-term disability, and group health. The results show that health, productivity, absenteeism, workplace injury, and workers compensation measures register consistent declines as allergy severity levels increase. This pattern is present but less pronounced for the short-term disability and group health measures. In addition, among the 16 measures registering a significant allergy burden, 6 posted significant advantages for the use of nonsedating antihistamines relative to other medication regimens that included sedative antihistamines. These results document the burden of allergies and the capacity of medications to reduce this burden. Effective intervention programs that target this condition can achieve improved health, productivity, and related outcomes.

  5. The comparison of properties and cost of material use of natural rubber and sand in manufacturing cement mortar for construction sub-base layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, R.; Nemmang, M. S.; Hazurina, Nor; Shahidan, S.; Khairul Tajuddin Jemain, Raden; Abdullah, M. E.; Hassan, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    The main issue related to this research was to examine the feasibility of natural rubber SMR 20 in the manufacturing of cement mortar for sub-base layer construction. Subbase layers have certain functions that need to be fulfilled in order to assure strong and adequate permeability of pavement performance. In a pavement structure, sub-base is below the base and serves as the foundation for the overall pavement structure, transmitting traffic loads to the sub-grade and providing drainage. Based on this research, the natural rubber, SMR 20 was with the percentages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% to mix with sand in the manufacture of the cement mortar. This research describes some of the properties and cost of the materials for the natural rubber and sand in cement mortar manufacturing by laboratory testing. Effects of the natural rubber replacement on mechanical properties of mortar were investigated by laboratory testing such as compressive strength test and density. This study obtained the 5% of natural rubber replaced in sand can achieved the strength of normal mortar after 7 days and 28 days. The strength of cement mortar depends on the density of cement mortar. According to the cost of both materials, sand shows the lower cost in material for the cement mortar manufacturing than the uses of natural rubber. Thus, the convectional cement mortar which used sand need lower cost than the modified rubber cement mortar and the most economical to apply in industrial. As conclusion, the percentage of 5% natural rubber in the cement mortar would have the same with normal cement mortar in terms of the strength. However, in terms of the cost of the construction, it will increase higher than cost of normal cement mortar production. So that, this modified cement mortar is not economical for the road sub-base construction.

  6. The role of information technology (IT) in reducing offshore operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid changes in information technology (IT) and its application have helped to improve efficiency and reduce operating costs offshore. Developments in IT itself, in terms of technology, organization and standards together with cultural change have created new opportunities. In the application of IT, the most significant impact on operations costs and effectiveness has come from the use of information throughout the life cycle, and improved telecommunications. This paper describes recent developments in IT and its application, and cites examples where oil companies have derived major benefits

  7. Economic feasibility of invesment alternatives for reducing torula yeast' production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Fernández, Alfredo; Díaz de los Ríos, Manuel; Saura Laria, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The prices of ammonium salts which are used in the torula yeast production technology are very high nowadays. In the other hand, this technology has very high energy costs which are consumed by blowers in fermentation, separators machines and in the concentration and drying of yeast. In this paper, different technical alternatives are analyzed for reducing the production cost of torula yeast, through changes in production inputs, electric motors and the replacement of a portion of the fuel used for drying by biogas. Then, the economic feasibility in both currencies is evaluated for practical application. (author)

  8. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY OF INVESMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR REDUCING TORULA YEAST' PRODUCTION COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Torres Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prices of ammonium salts which are used in the torula yeast production technology are very high nowadays. In the other hand, this technology has very high energy costs which are consumed by blowers in fermentation, separators machines and in the concentration and drying of yeast. In this paper, different technical alternatives are analyzed for reducing the production cost of torula yeast, through changes in production inputs, electric motors and the replacement of a portion of the fuel used for drying by biogas. Then, the economic feasibility in both currencies is evaluated for practical application.

  9. The effective cost of tritium for tokamak fusion power reactors with reduced tritium production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, J.G.; Evans, K.

    1983-01-01

    If sufficient tritium cannot be produced and processed in tokamak blankets then at least two alternatives are possible. Tritium can be purchased; or reactors with reduced tritium (RT) content in the plasma can be designed. The latter choice may require development of magnet technology etc., but the authors show that the impact on the cost-of-electricity may be mild. Cost tradeoffs are compared to the market value of tritium. Adequate tritium production in fusion blankets is preferred, but the authors show there is some flexibility in the deployment of fusion if this is not possible

  10. Installation, Operation, and Maintenance Strategies to Reduce the Cost of Offshore Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van de Pietermen, R. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands); Obdam, T. [Energy Research Center of the Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Currently, installation, operation, and maintenance (IO&M) costs contribute approximately 30% to the LCOE of offshore wind plants. To reduce LCOE while ensuring safety, this paper identifies principal cost drivers associated with IO&M and quantifies their impacts on LCOE. The paper identifies technology improvement opportunities and provides a basis for evaluating innovative engineering and scientific concepts developed subsequently to the study. Through the completion of a case study, an optimum IO&M strategy for a hypothetical offshore wind project is identified.

  11. Sustainable Manufacturing via Multi-Scale, Physics-Based Process Modeling and Manufacturing-Informed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-04-01

    This factsheet describes a project that developed and demonstrated a new manufacturing-informed design framework that utilizes advanced multi-scale, physics-based process modeling to dramatically improve manufacturing productivity and quality in machining operations while reducing the cost of machined components.

  12. Dynamic Cost-Contingency Management: A Method for Reducing Project Costs While Increasing the Probability of Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kujawski, Edouard

    2007-01-01

    In the real world, "Money Allocated is Money Spent" (MAIMS). As a consequence, cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns, while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost...

  13. Terrestrial photovoltaic technologies - Recent progress in manufacturing R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, C. E.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R. L.; Symko-Davies, M.; Thomas, H. P.

    2000-05-15

    This paper describes photovoltaics (PV) as used for energy generation in terrestrial applications. A brief historical perspective of PV development is provided. Solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies for various photovoltaic materials are presented, as well as expectations for further material improvements. Recent progress in reducing manufacturing costs through process R&D and product improvements are described. Applications that are most suitable for the different technologies are discussed. Finally, manufacturing capacities and current and projected module manufacturing costs are presented.

  14. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  15. Users guide for WoodCite, a product cost quotation tool for wood component manufacturers [computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Palmer; Adrienn Andersch; Jan Wiedenbeck; Urs. Buehlmann

    2014-01-01

    WoodCite is a Microsoft® Access-based application that allows wood component manufacturers to develop product price quotations for their current and potential customers. The application was developed by the U.S. Forest Service and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, in cooperation with the Wood Components Manufacturers Association.

  16. Income Tax Returns: Reducing Compliance Costs for Personal Income Taxpayers in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Simplifying procedures and improving legislation generally lead to a reduction in the compliance costs. The introduction of pre-filled tax returns clearly simplifies the tax compliance procedure. Before the introduction of pre-filled tax returns for personal income taxpayers in Slovenia, tax legislation was also modified. This paper presents the results of research into the compliance costs for personal income taxpayers before and after the simplification of the compliance procedure in Slovenia, irrespective of tax legislation itself not being simplified. The results indicate that pre-filled tax returns reduce compliance costs for personal income taxpayers by around 73%. Nevertheless, this is only a tentative estimate, since several assumptions are taken into account.

  17. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  18. Effect of reducing cost sharing for outpatient care on children's inpatient services in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotaka; Goto, Rei

    2017-08-15

    Assessing the impact of cost sharing on healthcare utilization is a critical issue in health economics and health policy. It may affect the utilization of different services, but is yet to be well understood. This paper investigates the effects of reducing cost sharing for outpatient services on hospital admissions by exploring a subsidy policy for children's outpatient services in Japan. Data were extracted from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database for 2012 and 2013. A total of 366,566 inpatients from 1390 municipalities were identified. The impact of expanding outpatient care subsidy on the volume of inpatient care for 1390 Japanese municipalities was investigated using the generalized linear model with fixed effects. A decrease in cost sharing for outpatient care has no significant effect on overall hospital admissions, although this effect varies by region. The subsidy reduces the number of overall admissions in low-income areas, but increases it in high-income areas. In addition, the results for admissions by type show that admissions for diagnosis increase particularly in high-income areas, but emergency admissions and ambulatory-care-sensitive-condition admissions decrease in low-income areas. These results suggest that outpatient and inpatient services are substitutes in low-income areas but complements in high-income ones. Although the subsidy for children's healthcare would increase medical costs, it would not improve the health status in high-income areas. Nevertheless, it could lead to some health improvements in low-income areas and, to some extent, offset costs by reducing admissions in these regions.

  19. Cost Analysis of Physician Assistant Home Visit Program to Reduce Readmissions After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabagiez, John P; Shariff, Masood A; Molloy, William J; Demissie, Seleshi; McGinn, Joseph T

    2016-09-01

    A physician assistant home care (PAHC) program providing house calls was initiated to reduce hospital readmissions after adult cardiac surgery. The purpose of our study was to compare 30-day PAHC and pre-PAHC readmission rate, length of stay, and cost. Patients who underwent adult cardiac surgery in the 48 months from September 2008 through August 2012 were retrospectively reviewed using pre-PAHC patients as the control group. Readmission rate, length of stay, and health care cost, as measured by hospital billing, were compared between groups matched with propensity score. Of the 1,185 patients who were discharged directly home, 155 (13%) were readmitted. Total readmissions for the control group (n = 648) was 101 patients (16%) compared with the PAHC group (n = 537) total readmissions of 54 (10%), a 38% reduction in the rate of readmission (p = 0.0049). Propensity score matched groups showed a rate reduction of 41% with 17% (62 of 363) for the control compared with 10% (37 of 363) for the PAHC group (p = 0.0061). The average hospital bill per readmission was $39,100 for the control group and $56,600 for the PAHC group (p = 0.0547). The cost of providing home visits was $25,300 for 363 propensity score matched patients. The PAHC program reduced the 30-day readmission rate by 41% for propensity score matched patients. Analysis demonstrated a savings of $977,500 at a cost of $25,300 over 2 years, or $39 in health care saved, in terms of hospital billing, for every $1 spent. Therefore, a home visit by a cardiac surgical physician assistant is a cost-effective strategy to reduce readmissions after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Methodology for reducing energy and resource costs in construction of trenchless crossover of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper suggests a set of measures to select the equipment and its components in order to reduce energy costs in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well in the constructing the trenchless pipeline crossings of various materials using horizontal directional drilling technology. A methodology for reducing energy costs has been developed by regulating the operation modes of equipment during the process of pulling the working pipeline into a drilled and pre-expanded well. Since the power of the drilling rig is the most important criterion in the selection of equipment for the construction of a trenchless crossover, an algorithm is proposed for calculating the required capacity of the rig when operating in different modes in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well.

  1. Estimating the marginal cost of reducing global fossil fuel CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, J.; Barns, D.W.; McDonald, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates the marginal, total, and average cost and effectiveness of carbon taxes applied either by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) members alone, or as part of a global cooperative strategy, to reduce potential future emissions and their direct implications for employment in the US coal industry. Two sets of cases are examined, one set in which OECD members acts alone, and another set in which the world acts in concert. In each case set taxes are examined which achieve four alternative levels of emissions reduction: halve the rate of emissions growth, no emissions growth, 20% reduction from 1988 levels, and 50% reduction from 1988 levels. For the global cooperation case, carbon tax rates of $32, $113, $161, and $517 per metric ton of carbon (mtC) were needed in the year 2025 to achieve the objectives. Total costs were respectively $40, $178, $253, and $848 billions of 1990 US dollars per year in the year 2025. Average costs were $32, $55, $59, and $135 per mtC. Costs were significantly higher in the cases in which the OECD members states acted alone. OECD member states, acting alone, could not reduce global emissions by 50% or 20% relative to 1988, given reference case assumptions regarding developing and recently planned nations economic growth

  2. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the

  3. Low polymer hydraulic fracturing applications in Reconcavo basin wells can reduce cost and improve conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzart, Joao Walter Pereira; Araujo, Paulo Fernando de

    2000-01-01

    Gels used for hydraulic-fracturing treatments generally contain high concentrations of polymer. The polymer helps the fracturing fluid achieve the level of viscosity necessary for transporting proppant through the rock matrix. However, high-polymer gels leave greater amounts of residue in the formation and can therefore cause formation damage. This paper describes how low polymer (L P) gels can be used for hydraulic-fracturing operations to reduce job costs and increase conductivity by reducing formation damage while maintaining the characteristics of a high-polymer gel. The L P fluid system has a low p H and contains an appropriate breaker concentration. Operators have achieved positive results with this system, which allows them to measure robust gel breaks and reduces the necessity for well cleaning. Consequently, formation damage can be significantly reduced. (author)

  4. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  5. ENHANCING VOLUNTARY COMPLIANCE BY REDUCING COMPLIANCE COSTS: A TAXPAYER SERVICE APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; EDWIN FORLEMU

    1993-01-01

    In this paper an overview is made of the determinants of voluntary tax compliance. Unlike previous treatments of this subject, the cost of taxpayer compliance is considered as an important determinant of overall level of voluntary compliance in a country. A number of ways that tax authorities reduce compliance are discussed, and the most common uses of information technology in providing taxpayer service is described. Finally, the paper considers some of the ways that such activities might be...

  6. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  7. Ablation - breakthrough technology to reduce uranium mining cost and increase resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scriven, D.

    2014-01-01

    Ablation Technologies, LLC has developed and patented a revolutionary mining technology termed “ablation”. Ablation is a process using only mechanical forces to upgrade sandstone uranium ores. Uranium bearing sandstone orebodies are formed from a uranium enriched solution flowing through an aquifer until it reached some type of a “red/ox” zone forcing the uranium and other heavy metals to come out of solution. The precipitate forms a thin coating on the sand grains and fills the interstitial space between the sand grains but does no penetrate the sand grains. The ablation process knocks the precipitate off the sand grains using the forces of abrasion, elastic compression and rebounding, much like a mud coated tennis ball will sheds the mud when bounced off the ground, and to some extent, sonic waves. This produces a product which collectively is exactly the same as the ore going in but with all the individual components separated. This allows for disgressionary separation, the most important of which is screening. The uranium and heavy metals report to the finer fractions of the material, typically less than 250 mesh. The larger fractions contain less than five percent of the uranium but 90 to 95 percent of the mass. The advantages of making an enriched ore are numerous: • Reduce haulage costs from 90 to 95 percent. • Reduce milling costs by reducing material handling costs, acid consumption and tailings disposal costs. • In addition to reducing overall mining and milling costs, the overall recovery of the recourse is increased because the ablation process is so inexpensive, if the material has to be mined it will be ablated and screened. This basically means ore control is significantly reduced, cutoff grade goes to practically zero and overall resource recovery is significantly increased. • Environmentally, the two major advantages are reduced tailings requirements at the mill site and cleaner waste dumps at the mine site. This paper will show

  8. The production of reduced graphene oxide by a low-cost vacuum system for supercapacitors applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Q.A.; Sakata, S.K.; Faria, R.N. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, F.M.; Vieira, L.S.; Casini, J.C.S., E-mail: julio.casini@ifro.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Rondonia (IFRO), RO (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Graphene (G) has attracted great interest for its excellent electrical properties. However, the large-scale production of graphene is still currently under investigations. Graphene oxide (GO) can be partially reduced to graphene-like sheets by removing the oxygen-containing groups with the recovery of a conjugated structure. It can be produced using inexpensive graphite as raw material by cost-effective chemical methods. High vacuum and temperature (10{sup -7}mbar/1100 deg C) is well established as an effective route for reduced powder preparation on a laboratory scale. However, a high vacuum reduction system, which can be routinely operated at 10{sup -7} mbar, has a considerable capital, operational and maintenance cost to be used in a large scale. In the present work, a low-cost route aiming large scale reduction of graphene oxide has been investigated. A stainless steel vessel has been evacuated to backing-pump pressure (10{sup -2} mbar) to process graphene oxide at low and high temperatures. Attempts of reducing GO powder using low vacuum pressures have been carried out and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental results of processing graphene oxide powder at various temperatures (200-1000°C) at relatively low pressures have been reported. The microstructures of the processed material have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical microanalyses employing energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). (author)

  9. The production of reduced graphene oxide by a low-cost vacuum system for supercapacitors applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Q.A.; Sakata, S.K.; Faria, R.N.; Silva, F.M.; Vieira, L.S.; Casini, J.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene (G) has attracted great interest for its excellent electrical properties. However, the large-scale production of graphene is still currently under investigations. Graphene oxide (GO) can be partially reduced to graphene-like sheets by removing the oxygen-containing groups with the recovery of a conjugated structure. It can be produced using inexpensive graphite as raw material by cost-effective chemical methods. High vacuum and temperature (10 -7 mbar/1100 deg C) is well established as an effective route for reduced powder preparation on a laboratory scale. However, a high vacuum reduction system, which can be routinely operated at 10 -7 mbar, has a considerable capital, operational and maintenance cost to be used in a large scale. In the present work, a low-cost route aiming large scale reduction of graphene oxide has been investigated. A stainless steel vessel has been evacuated to backing-pump pressure (10 -2 mbar) to process graphene oxide at low and high temperatures. Attempts of reducing GO powder using low vacuum pressures have been carried out and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental results of processing graphene oxide powder at various temperatures (200-1000°C) at relatively low pressures have been reported. The microstructures of the processed material have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical microanalyses employing energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). (author)

  10. Societal value of generic medicines beyond cost-saving through reduced prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the added societal value of generic medicines beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. In addition, an observational case study will document the impact of generic entry on access to pharmacotherapy in The Netherlands and an illustrative exercise was carried out to highlight the budget impact of generic entry. A narrative literature review was carried out to explore the impact of generic medicines on access to pharmacotherapy, innovation and medication adherence. Data from the Medicines and Medical Devices Information Project database in The Netherlands were used for the case study in which the impact of generic medicine entrance on the budget and the number of users was calculated as an illustrative exercise. Generic medicines have an additional societal value beyond their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. Generic medicines increase access to pharmacotherapy, provide a stimulus for innovation by both originator companies and generic companies and, under the right circumstances, have a positive impact on medication adherence. Generic medicines offer more to society than just their cost-saving potential through reduced prices. As such, governments must not focus only on the prices of generic medicines as this will threaten their long-term sustainability. Governments must therefore act appropriately and implement a coherent set of policies to increase the use of generic medicines.

  11. Reusable single-port access device shortens operative time and reduces operative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shussman, Noam; Kedar, Asaf; Elazary, Ram; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Rivkind, Avraham I; Mintz, Yoav

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, single-port laparoscopy (SPL) has become an attractive approach for performing surgical procedures. The pitfalls of this approach are technical and financial. Financial concerns are due to the increased cost of dedicated devices and prolonged operating room time. Our aim was to calculate the cost of SPL using a reusable port and instruments in order to evaluate the cost difference between this approach to SPL using the available disposable ports and standard laparoscopy. We performed 22 laparoscopic procedures via the SPL approach using a reusable single-port access system and reusable laparoscopic instruments. These included 17 cholecystectomies and five other procedures. Operative time, postoperative length of stay (LOS) and complications were prospectively recorded and were compared with similar data from our SPL database. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. SPL was successfully performed in all cases. Mean operative time for cholecystectomy was 72 min (range 40-116). Postoperative LOS was not changed from our standard protocols and was 1.1 days for cholecystectomy. The postoperative course was within normal limits for all patients and perioperative morbidity was recorded. Both operative time and length of hospital stay were shorter for the 17 patients who underwent cholecystectomy using a reusable port than for the matched previous 17 SPL cholecystectomies we performed (p cost difference. Operating with a reusable port ended up with an average cost savings of US$388 compared with using disposable ports, and US$240 compared with standard laparoscopy. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is a technically challenging and expensive surgical approach. Financial concerns among others have been advocated against this approach; however, we demonstrate herein that using a reusable port and instruments reduces operative time and overall operative costs, even beyond the cost of standard laparoscopy.

  12. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  13. Simulation at the point of care: reduced-cost, in situ training via a mobile cart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Peter H; Kappus, Liana J; Garden, Alexander; Burns, Jeffrey P

    2009-03-01

    The rapid growth of simulation in health care has challenged traditional paradigms of hospital-based education and training. Simulation addresses patient safety through deliberative practice of high-risk low-frequency events within a safe, structured environment. Despite its inherent appeal, widespread adoption of simulation is prohibited by high cost, limited space, interruptions to clinical duties, and the inability to replicate important nuances of clinical environments. We therefore sought to develop a reduced-cost low-space mobile cart to provide realistic simulation experiences to a range of providers within the clinical environment and to serve as a model for transportable, cost-effective, widespread simulation-based training of bona-fide workplace teams. Descriptive study. A tertiary care pediatric teaching hospital. A self-contained mobile simulation cart was constructed at a cost of $8054 (mannequin not included). The cart is compatible with any mannequin and contains all equipment needed to produce a high quality simulation experience equivalent to that of our on-site center--including didactics and debriefing with videotaped recordings complete with vital sign overlay. Over a 3-year period the cart delivered 57 courses to 425 participants from five pediatric departments. All individuals were trained among their native teams and within their own clinical environment. By bringing all pedagogical elements to the actual clinical environment, a mobile cart can provide simulation to hospital teams that might not otherwise benefit from the educational tool. By reducing the setup cost and the need for dedicated space, the mobile approach provides a mechanism to increase the number of institutions capable of harnessing the power of simulation-based education internationally.

  14. The choice of cement for the manufacture of concrete to be activated: the potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollam, P.B.

    1985-05-01

    This report presents trace element analyses of some candidate cements which might be used in the manufacture of Sizewell 'B' concrete. It completes a programme of work whose aim was to investigate the potential for reducing the radiological consequences of reactor decommissioning through selection of construction materials for activated components. In particular, consideration has been given to the potential for reducing the concentration of elements known to activate to long lived daughters. (U.K.)

  15. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded

  16. Benchmarking the expected stack manufacturing cost of next generation, intermediate-temperature protonic ceramic fuel cells with solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alexis; Ricote, Sandrine; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    Recent progress in the performance of intermediate temperature (500-600 °C) protonic ceramic fuel cells (PCFCs) has demonstrated both fuel flexibility and increasing power density that approach commercial application requirements. These developments may eventually position the technology as a viable alternative to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The PCFCs investigated in this work are based on a BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ (BZY20) thin electrolyte supported by BZY20/Ni porous anodes, and a triple conducting cathode material comprised of BaCo0.4Fe0.4Zr0.1Y0.1O3-δ (BCFZY0.1). These cells are prepared using a low-cost solid-state reactive sintering (SSRS) process, and are capable of power densities of 0.156 W cm-2 at 500 °C operating directly from methane fuel. We develop a manufacturing cost model to estimate the Nth generation production costs of PCFC stack technology using high volume manufacturing processes and compare them to the state-of-the-art in SOFC technology. The low-cost cell manufacturing enabled by the SSRS technique compensates for the lower PCFC power density and the trade-off between operating temperature and efficiency enables the use of lower-cost stainless steel materials. PCFC stack production cost estimates are found to be as much as 27-37% lower at 550 °C than SOFCs operating at 800 °C.

  17. A New Remote Communications Link to Reduce Residential PV Solar Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Randy [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States); Sugiyama, Rod [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Monitoring of PV/DER site production is expensive to install and unreliable. Among third party systems providers, lost communications links are a growing concern. Nearly 20% of links are failing, provisioning is complex, recovery is expensive, production data is lost, and access is fragmented. FleetLink is a new concept in DER system communications, purpose built for lowering the cost of maintaining active contact with residential end user sites and ensuring that production data is reliably available to third party systems providers. Systems providers require accurate, secure system monitoring and reporting of production data and system faults while driving down overall costs to compete effectively. This plug and play, independently operating communications solution lowers the cost of fleet contact from typically .08 dollars-$.12/W down to .02 dollars -.03/W including installation and maintenance expenses. FleetLink establishes a breakthrough in simplicity that facilitates rapid expansion of residential solar by reducing initial capital outlay and lowering installation labor time and skill levels. The solution also facilitates higher DER installation growth rates by driving down maintenance costs and eliminating communications trouble calls. This is accomplished by the FleetLink’s unique network technology that enables dynamic network configuration for fast changes, and active, self-healing DER site contact for uptime assurance. Using an open source network framework with proprietary, application specific enhancements, FleetLink independently manages connectivity, security, recovery, grid control communications, and fleet expansion while presenting a compliant SunSpec interface to the third party operations centers. The net system cost savings of at least .05 dollars/W supports the SunShot cost goals and the flexibility and scalability of the solution accelerates the velocity and ubiquitous adoption of solar.

  18. A New Method for Low Cost Production of Titanium Alloys for Reducing Energy Consumption of Mechanical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z. Zak [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Chandran, Ravi [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Koopman, Mark [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-02-29

    This project investigated an innovative manufacturing process intended to minimize the cost of production of titanium materials and components, and increase the adoption of Ti components for energy consuming applications, such as automobiles. A key innovation of the proposed manufacturing approach is a novel Ti powder sintering technology for making titanium materials with ultrafine grain microstructure in the as-sintered state with minimum, or an absence, of post-sintering processes. The new sintering technology is termed Hydrogen Sintering and Phase Transformations (HSPT), and constitutes a promising manufacturing technology that can be used to produce titanium (Ti) materials and components in a near-net-shape form, thus also minimizing machining costs. Our objective was to meet, or possibly surpass, the mechanical property levels for ASTM B348 Grade 5 for wrought Ti-6Al-4V. Although specific applications call for varying mechanical property requirements, ASTM B348 was created for the demanding applications of the aerospace industry, and is the established standard for Ti-6Al-4V. While the primary goal was to meet, or exceed this standard, the team also had the goal of demonstrating this could be done at a significantly lower cost of production. Interim goals of the project were to fully develop this novel sintering process, and provide sufficient baseline testing to make the method practical and attractive to industry. By optimizing the process parameters for the sintering of titanium hydride (TiH2) powders in a hydrogen atmosphere and controlling the phase transformations during and after sintering, the HSPT process was expected to reduce the energy consumption, and thus cost, of making Ti alloys and fabricating Ti components. The process was designed such that no high temperature melting is required for producing Ti alloys; little or no post-sintering processing is needed for producing desired microstructures (and therefore enhanced mechanical

  19. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center and Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Todd, Kimberly E.; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A.; Rotondo, Ronny L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Indelicato, Daniel J., E-mail: dindelicato@floridaproton.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. Methods and Materials: From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Results: Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P<.0001). With a >16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of “$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) − (CCLS expense to payer/N)]” per child (N) treated with radiation

  20. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michael T; Todd, Kimberly E; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A; Rotondo, Ronny L; Morris, Christopher G; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P; Indelicato, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of "$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) - (CCLS expense to payer/N)]" per child (N) treated with radiation therapy, where N equals the number of children aged 3 to 12

  1. Reducing Anesthesia and Health Care Cost Through Utilization of Child Life Specialists in Pediatric Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael T.; Todd, Kimberly E.; Oakley, Heather; Bradley, Julie A.; Rotondo, Ronny L.; Morris, Christopher G.; Klein, Stuart; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Indelicato, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of a certified child life specialist (CCLS) in reducing the frequency of daily anesthesia at our institution, and to quantify the potential health care payer cost savings of CCLS utilization in the United States. Methods and Materials: From 2006 to 2014, 738 children (aged ≤21 years) were treated with radiation therapy at our institution. We retrospectively analyzed the frequency of daily anesthesia before and after hiring a CCLS in 2011 after excluding patients aged 0 to 2 and >12 years. In the analyzed cohort of 425 patients the median age was 7.6 years (range, 3-12.9 years). For the pre-CCLS period the overall median age was 7.5 years; for the post-CCLS period the median age was 7.7 years. An average 6-week course of pediatric anesthesia for radiation therapy costs $50,000 in charges to the payer. The average annual cost to employ one CCLS is approximately $50,000. Results: Before employing a CCLS, 69 of 121 children (57%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including 33 of 53 children (62.3%) aged 5 to 8 years. After employing a CCLS, 124 of 304 children (40.8%) aged 3 to 12 years required daily anesthesia, including only 34 of 118 children (28.8%) aged 5 to 8 years (P 16% absolute reduction in anesthesia use after employment of a CCLS, the health care payer cost savings was approaching $50,000 per 6 children aged 3 to 12 years treated annually with radiation therapy in our institution. This reduction resulted in a total of only 6 children aged 3 to 12 years required anesthesia to be treated per year at our center to achieve nearly break-even cost savings to the health care payer if the payer were to subsidize the employment expense of a CCLS. Overall, the CCLS intervention can provide an average annualized health care payer cost savings of “$[(anesthesia cost to payer during radiation therapy course/6) − (CCLS expense to payer/N)]” per child (N) treated with radiation therapy, where N

  2. Cost-effectiveness of reducing emissions from tropical deforestation, 2016-2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jonah; Engelmann, Jens

    2017-12-01

    Reducing tropical deforestation is potentially a large-scale and low-cost strategy for mitigating climate change. Yet previous efforts to project the cost-effectiveness of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from future deforestation across the tropics were hampered by crude available data on historical forest loss. Here we use recently available satellite-based maps of annual forest loss between 2001-2012, along with information on topography, accessibility, protected status, potential agricultural revenue, and an observed inverted-U-shaped relationship between forest cover loss and forest cover, to project tropical deforestation from 2016-2050 under alternative policy scenarios and to construct new marginal abatement cost curves for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation. We project that without new forest conservation policies 289 million hectares of tropical forest will be cleared from 2016-2050, releasing 169 GtCO2. A carbon price of US20/tCO2 (50/tCO2) across tropical countries would avoid 41 GtCO2 (77 GtCO2) from 2016-2050. By comparison, we estimate that Brazil’s restrictive policies in the Amazon between 2004-2012 successfully decoupled potential agricultural revenue from deforestation and reduced deforestation by 47% below what would have otherwise occurred, preventing the emission of 5.2 GtCO2. All tropical countries enacting restrictive anti-deforestation policies as effective as those in the Brazilian Amazon between 2004-2012 would avoid 58 GtCO2 from 2016-2050.

  3. A Study on the Cost-Effectiveness of a SemiAutomated Cutting Process at a Garment Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Mark Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study, Company X, has been experiencing variations in the quantity report from the cutting department and the transmittal reports. The management found that these processes are hugely affected by manual labor. To reduce the system's proneness to human error, the management decided to explore the possibility of adapting a semi-automated spreading and cutting process in the system. This research aims to evaluate the pre-sewing processes of Company X and whether introducing automation can be beneficial to the company and the garments industry. The researchers used process mapping tools, descriptive research, and process flowchart to assess the current and proposed systems, and engineering economics to evaluate the cost and benefits of implementing the semi-automated system. The results showed that with the implementation of the semi- automated system; the company will incur 66.61% more savings per year than the current system. In terms of cycle time, the semi-automated system eliminated the relaxation of fabric before the cutting process, thereby greatly reducing cycle time. In addition, the researchers found that as long as the company produce more than 4,140 pieces per day for the system will be economically feasible. Unquantifiable benefits are also identified on introducing the semi- automated system to the company. The company can have a cleaner work environment that will lead to more productivity and greater quality of goods. This will lead to a better company image that will encourage more customers to place job orders.

  4. Implementation of Continuous Video-Electroencephalography at a Community Hospital Enhances Care and Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolls, Brad J; Mace, Brian E; Dombrowski, Keith E

    2017-10-24

    Despite data indicating the importance of continuous video-electroencephalography (cvEEG) monitoring, adoption has been slow outside major academic centers. Barriers to adoption include the need for technologists, equipment, and cvEEG readers. Advancements in lower-cost lead placement templates and commercial systems with remote review may reduce barriers to allow community centers to implement cvEEG. Here, we report our experience, lessons learned, and financial impact of implementing a community hospital cvEEG-monitoring program. We implemented an adult cvEEG service at Duke Regional Hospital (DRH), a community hospital affiliate, in June of 2012. Lead placement templates were used in the implementation to reduce the impact on technologists by using other bedside providers for EEG initiation. Utilization of the service, study quality, and patient outcomes were tracked over a 3-year period following initiation of service. Service was implemented at essentially no cost. Utilization varied from a number of factors: intensive care unit (ICU) attending awareness, limited willingness of bedside providers to perform lead placement, and variation in practice of the consulting neurologists. A total of 92 studies were performed on 88 patients in the first 3 years of the program, 24 in year one, 27 in year two, and 38 in year three, showing progressive adoption. Seizures were seen in 25 patients (27%), 19 were in status, of which 18 were successfully treated. Transfers to the main hospital, Duke University Medical Center, were prevented for 53 patients, producing an estimated cost savings of $145,750. The retained patients produced a direct contribution margin of about $75,000, and the margin was just over $100,000 for the entire monitored cohort. ICU cvEEG service is feasible and practical to implement at the community hospital level. Service was initiated at little to no cost and clearly enhanced care, increased breadth of care, increased ICU census, and reduced

  5. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Jonah [Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Strassburg, Bernardo [Center for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cattaneo, Andrea [Woods Hole Research Center, 149 Woods Hole Road, Falmouth, MA 02540-1644 (United States); Lubowski, Ruben [Environmental Defense Fund, 1875 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC (United States); Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick [Conservation International, 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA (United States); Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph, E-mail: jbusch@conservation.or [Terrestrial Carbon Group, 900 17th Street NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  6. Comparing climate and cost impacts of reference levels for reducing emissions from deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Jonah; Strassburg, Bernardo; Cattaneo, Andrea; Lubowski, Ruben; Bruner, Aaron; Rice, Richard; Boltz, Frederick; Creed, Anna; Ashton, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The climate benefit and economic cost of an international mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) will depend on the design of reference levels for crediting emission reductions. We compare the impacts of six proposed reference level designs on emission reduction levels and on cost per emission reduction using a stylized partial equilibrium model (the open source impacts of REDD incentives spreadsheet; OSIRIS). The model explicitly incorporates national incentives to participate in an international REDD mechanism as well as international leakage of deforestation emissions. Our results show that a REDD mechanism can provide cost-efficient climate change mitigation benefits under a broad range of reference level designs. We find that the most effective reference level designs balance incentives to reduce historically high deforestation emissions with incentives to maintain historically low deforestation emissions. Estimates of emission reductions under REDD depend critically on the degree to which demand for tropical frontier agriculture generates leakage. This underscores the potential importance to REDD of complementary strategies to supply agricultural needs outside of the forest frontier.

  7. Reduced metabolic cost of locomotion in Svalbard rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea during winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lees

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Svalbard rock ptarmigan, Lagopus muta hyperborea experiences extreme photoperiodic and climatic conditions on the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard. This species, however, is highly adapted to live in this harsh environment. One of the most striking adaptations found in these birds is the deposition, prior to onset of winter, of fat stores which may comprise up to 32% of body mass and are located primarily around the sternum and abdominal region. This fat, while crucial to the birds' survival, also presents a challenge in that the bird must maintain normal physiological function with this additional mass. In particular these stores are likely to constrain the respiratory system, as the sternum and pelvic region must be moved during ventilation and carrying this extra load may also impact upon the energetic cost of locomotion. Here we demonstrate that winter birds have a reduced cost of locomotion when compared to summer birds. A remarkable finding given that during winter these birds have almost twice the body mass of those in summer. These results suggest that Svalbard ptarmigan are able to carry the additional winter fat without incurring any energetic cost. As energy conservation is paramount to these birds, minimising the costs of moving around when resources are limited would appear to be a key adaptation crucial for their survival in the barren Arctic environment.

  8. Costs of reducing water use of concentrating solar power to sustainable levels: Scenarios for North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerau, Kerstin; Williges, Keith; Patt, Anthony G.; Gauche, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) has the potential to become a leading sustainable energy technology for the European electricity system. In order to reach a substantial share in the energy mix, European investment in CSP appears most profitable in North Africa, where solar potential is significantly higher than in southern Europe. As well as sufficient solar irradiance, however, the majority of today's CSP plants also require a considerable amount of water, primarily for cooling purposes. In this paper we examine water usage associated with CSP in North Africa, and the cost penalties associated with technologies that could reduce those needs. We inspect four representative sites to compare the ecological and economical drawbacks from conventional and alternative cooling systems, depending on the local environment, and including an outlook with climate change to the mid-century. Scaling our results up to a regional level indicates that the use of wet cooling technologies would likely be unsustainable. Dry cooling systems, as well as sourcing of alternative water supplies, would allow for sustainable operation. Their cost penalty would be minor compared to the variance in CSP costs due to different average solar irradiance values. - Highlights: → Scaling up CSP with wet cooling from ground water will be unsustainable in North Africa. → Desalination and alternative cooling systems can assure a sustainable water supply. → On large-scale, the cost penalties of alternative cooling technologies appear minor.

  9. 78 FR 41857 - Simplified Cost Accounting and Other Actions To Reduce Paperwork in the Summer Food Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... CFR Parts 210 and 225 RIN 0584-AD84 Simplified Cost Accounting and Other Actions To Reduce Paperwork... Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008. The changes extend simplified cost accounting and reporting procedures... nondiscretionary simplified cost accounting and reporting procedures established in the Consolidated Appropriations...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  11. Facility Management as a Way of Reducing Costs in Transport Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusova, Dominika; Gogolova, Martina

    2017-10-01

    For facility management exists a several interpretations. These interpretations emerged progressively. At the time of the notion of facility management was designed to manage an administrative building, in the United States (US). They can ensure their operation and maintenance. From the US, this trend is further moved to Europe and now it start becoming a current and actual topic also in Slovakia. Facility management is contractually agreed scheme of services, semantically recalls traditional building management. There by finally pushed for activities related to real estates. For facility management is fundamental - certification and certification systems. Therefore, is essential to know, the cost structure of certification. The most commonly occurring austerity measures include: heat pumps, use of renewable energy, solar panels and water savings. These measures can reduce the cost.

  12. The relative cost of bent-hip bent-knee walking is reduced in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliukas, Algis V; Milne, Nick; Fournier, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The debate about how early hominids walked may be characterised as two competing hypotheses: They moved with a fully upright (FU) gait, like modern humans, or with a bent-hip, bent-knee (BK) gait, like apes. Both have assumed that this bipedalism was almost exclusively on land, in trees or a combination of the two. Recent findings favoured the FU hypothesis by showing that the BK gait is 50-60% more energetically costly than a FU human gait on land. We confirm these findings but show that in water this cost differential is markedly reduced, especially in deeper water, at slower speeds and with greater knee flexion. These data suggest that the controversy about australopithecine locomotion may be eased if it is assumed that wading was a component of their locomotor repertoire and supports the idea that shallow water might have been an environment favourable to the evolution of early forms of "non-optimal" hominid bipedalism.

  13. Great hammerhead sharks swim on their side to reduce transport costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicholas L; Iosilevskii, Gil; Barnett, Adam; Fischer, Chris; Graham, Rachel T; Gleiss, Adrian C; Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-07-26

    Animals exhibit various physiological and behavioural strategies for minimizing travel costs. Fins of aquatic animals play key roles in efficient travel and, for sharks, the functions of dorsal and pectoral fins are considered well divided: the former assists propulsion and generates lateral hydrodynamic forces during turns and the latter generates vertical forces that offset sharks' negative buoyancy. Here we show that great hammerhead sharks drastically reconfigure the function of these structures, using an exaggerated dorsal fin to generate lift by swimming rolled on their side. Tagged wild sharks spend up to 90% of time swimming at roll angles between 50° and 75°, and hydrodynamic modelling shows that doing so reduces drag-and in turn, the cost of transport-by around 10% compared with traditional upright swimming. Employment of such a strongly selected feature for such a unique purpose raises interesting questions about evolutionary pathways to hydrodynamic adaptations, and our perception of form and function.

  14. New roller cone bits with unique nozzle designs reduce drilling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffitt, S.R.; Pearce, D.E.; Ivie, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that selection of the optimum rock bit design to achieve the lowest drilling cost in a given application is often difficult due to a large number of rock bit performance considerations. However, in a majority of applications increased penetration rate is the key consideration in reducing drilling costs. Discovery of a new bit design concept has led to the development of roller cone bits that achieve significant penetration rate increases using superior hydraulic nozzle designs. Prototype designs have achieved 20 to 40% increases in penetration rate with comparable footage drilled when tested in 6 1/2, 8 1/2, 8-3/4, 9-7/8 and 12 1/4 IADC 437, 517 and 537 type bits in the U.S., North Sea, Italy, and Oman. Second-generation designs tested in a full-scale drilling laboratory have delivered 70% increases in penetration rates

  15. The role of technology in reducing health care costs. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sill, A.E.; Warren, S.; Dillinger, J.D.; Cloer, B.K.

    1997-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories applied a systems approach to identifying innovative biomedical technologies with the potential to reduce U.S. health care delivery costs while maintaining care quality. This study was conducted by implementing both top-down and bottom-up strategies. The top-down approach used prosperity gaming methodology to identify future health care delivery needs. This effort provided roadmaps for the development and integration of technology to meet perceived care delivery requirements. The bottom-up approach identified and ranked interventional therapies employed in existing care delivery systems for a host of health-related conditions. Economic analysis formed the basis for development of care pathway interaction models for two of the most pervasive, chronic disease/disability conditions: coronary artery disease (CAD) and benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Societal cost-benefit relationships based on these analyses were used to evaluate the effect of emerging technology in these treatment areas. 17 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. THE ROLE OF TIPPING IN REDUCING LABOUR COSTS: CASE OF SECTOR RETAIL PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Raspor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to determine whether tipping could reduce labour costs in the petroleum products retail sector. The research we present was designed on the basis of survey results gathered from Slovenian petrol stations in 2009 and 2010. We have identified the following factors in the tipping process: job satisfaction, flexibility, service quality, satisfaction, motivation and the factor of receiving tips. The analysis showed correlation between methods used to increase the value of tips and better service quality, increased financial and numerical flexibility, motivation, satisfaction upon receipt of tips and the method used to increase the value of tips. In order to decrease labour costs we propose that the management take control of tipping and integrates tips into the reward system. Also, the employees should be made aware about how tipping improves service and increases their income.

  17. Cost and cost-effectiveness analysis of a community mobilisation intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Michau, Lori; Musuya, Tina; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-02-29

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) poses a major public health concern. To date there are few rigorous economic evaluations of interventions aimed at preventing IPV in low-income settings. This study provides a cost and cost effectiveness analysis of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to change social norms and prevent IPV. An economic evaluation alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial. Both financial and economic costs were collected retrospectively from the provider's perspective to generate total and unit cost estimates over four years of intervention programming. Univariate sensitivity analysis is conducted to estimate the impact of uncertainty in cost and outcome measures on results. The total cost of developing the SASA! Activist Kit is estimated as US$138,598. Total intervention costs over four years are estimated as US$553,252. The annual cost of supporting 351 activists to conduct SASA! activities was approximately US$389 per activist and the average cost per person reached in intervention communities was US$21 over the full course of the intervention, or US$5 annually. The primary trial outcome was past year experience of physical IPV with an estimated 1201 cases averted (90% CI: 97-2307 cases averted). The estimated cost per case of past year IPV averted was US$460. This study provides the first economic evaluation of a community mobilisation intervention aimed at preventing IPV. SASA! unit costs compare favourably with gender transformative interventions and support services for survivors of IPV. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00790959.

  18. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for High Performance Combustion Chambers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to dramatically reduce the cost and lead-time of...

  19. Effectiveness and cost of failure mode and effects analysis methodology to reduce neurosurgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Alexander R; Sistrunk, William W; Cavagnol, Robert M; Scarrow, Alan; Finley, Phillip J; Kroencke, Audrey D; Walker, Judith L

    2014-01-01

    Mercy Hospital Springfield is a tertiary care facility with 32 000 discharges and 15 000 inpatient surgeries in 2011. From June 2009 through January 2011, a stable inpatient elective neurosurgery infection rate of 2.15% was observed. The failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) methodology to reduce inpatient neurosurgery infections was utilized. Following FMEA implementation, overall elective neurosurgery infection rates were reduced to 1.51% and sustained through May 2012. Compared with baseline, the post-FMEA deep-space and organ infection rate was reduced by 41% (P = .052). Overall hospital inpatient clean surgery infection rates for the same time frame did not decrease to the same extent, suggesting a specific effect of the FMEA. The study team believes that the FMEA interventions resulted in 14 fewer expected infections, $270 270 in savings, a 168-day reduction in expected length of stay, and 22 fewer readmissions. Given the serious morbidity and cost of health care-associated infections, the study team concludes that FMEA implementation was clinically cost-effective. © 2013 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  20. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per [Studsvik Nuclear AB, SE-611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden); Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar [Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB, Fredholmsgatan 2, SE-721 63, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    interruptions. Bottle-necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  1. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  2. The System 80+ standard plant design reduces operations and maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chari, D.R.; Robertson, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    To be cost-competitive, nuclear power plants must maximize plant availability and minimize operations and maintenance (O and M) costs. A plant whose design supports these goals will generate more power at less cost and thereby have a lower unit generating cost. The ABB Combustion Engineering Nuclear Systems (ABB-CE) System 80+ Standard Nuclear Power Plant, rated at 1400 megawatts electric (MWe), is designed for high availability at reduced cost. To demonstrate that the duration of refueling outages, the major contributor to plant unavailability, can be shortened, ABB-CE developed a detailed plan that shows a System 80+ plant can safely perform a refueling and maintenance outage in 18 days. This is a significant reduction from the average current U.S. plant outages of 45 days, and is possible due to a two-part outage strategy: use System 80+ advanced system design features and relaxed technical specification (TS) time limits to shift some maintenance from outages to operating periods: and, use System 80+ structural, system, and component features, such as the larger operating floor, permanent pool seal, integral reactor head area cable tray system and missile shield, and longer life reactor coolant pump seals, to reduce the scope and duration of outage maintenance activities. Plant staffing level is the major variable, or controllable contributor to operations costs. ABB-CE worked with the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) to perform detailed staffing analyses that show a System 80+ plant can be operated reliably with 30 percent less staff than currently operating nuclear plants of similar size. Safety was not sacrificed when ABB-CE developed the System 80+ refueling outage plan and staffing level. The outage plan was developed utilizing a defense-in-depth concept for shutdown safety. The defense in-depth concept is implemented via systematic control of outage risk evaluation (SCORE) cards. The SCORE cards identify primary and alternate means of

  3. Do Statins Reduce the Health and Health Care Costs of Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudette, Étienne; Goldman, Dana P; Messali, Andrew; Sood, Neeraj

    2015-07-01

    Obesity impacts both individual health and, given its high prevalence, total health care spending. However, as medical technology evolves, health outcomes for a number of obesity-related illnesses improve. This article examines whether medical innovation can mitigate the adverse health and spending associated with obesity, using statins as a case study. Because of the relationship between obesity and hypercholesterolaemia, statins play an important role in the medical management of obese individuals and the prevention of costly obesity-related sequelae. Using well-recognized estimates of the health impact of statins and the Future Elderly Model (FEM)-an established dynamic microsimulation model of the health of Americans aged over 50 years-we estimate the changes in life expectancy, functional status and health care costs of obesity due to the introduction and widespread use of statins. Life expectancy gains of statins are estimated to be 5-6 % greater for obese individuals than for healthy-weight individuals, but most of these additional gains are associated with some level of disability. Considering both medical spending and the value of quality-adjusted life-years, statins do not significantly alter the costs of class 1 and 2 obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 and ≥35 kg/m(2), respectively) and they increase the costs of class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) by 1.2 %. Although statins are very effective medications for lowering the risk of obesity-associated illnesses, they do not significantly reduce the costs of obesity.

  4. A way for reducing drug supply chain cost for a hospital district: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postacchini, L.; Ciarapica, F.E.; Bevilacqua, M.; Mazzuto, G.; Paciarotti, C.

    2016-07-01

    This work aims at providing insights to optimise healthcare logistic of the drug management, in order to deal with the healthcare expenditure cut. In this paper the effects of different drug supply chain configurations, on the resulting average stock, service level and Bullwhip effect, of the studied supply chain, is quantitatively assessed. A case study of an Italian district has been studied, taking into account three echelons: suppliers, central stock, and hospitals. A model of the various supply chain configurations has been created with the use of the simulation. Specifically, 24 supply chain configurations have been examined, stemming from the combination of several supply chain design parameters, namely: transshipment policies (Emergency Lateral Transshipment or Total Inventory Equalization); re-order and inventory management policies (Economic Order Quantity or Economic Order Interval); required service levels (90% or 95%); the number of available vans (one or two). For each configuration, hospital average stock, service level and a “Bullwhip effect” analysis are computed. To know which input variables are statistically significant, a DoE (Design of Experiments) analysis has been executed. The output of this paper provides useful insights and suggestions to optimize the healthcare logistic and drug supply chain. According to the developed DoE analysis, it can be stated that the introduction of transshipment policies provides important improvement in terms of service and stock levels. To reduce the Bullwhip effect, which results in a service level decreasing, and in a managing stock costs increasing, it is worth to adopt an EOQ re-order policy. This research gives practical recommendations to the studied system, in order to reduce costs and maintain a very satisfactory service level. This paper fulfils an identified need to study which combination of transshipment policies, re-order/inventory management policies and required service levels, can be the

  5. Reducing the metabolic cost of walking with an ankle exoskeleton: interaction between actuation timing and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Samuel; Malcolm, Philippe; Collins, Steven Hartley; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-04-27

    Powered ankle-foot exoskeletons can reduce the metabolic cost of human walking to below normal levels, but optimal assistance properties remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of different assistance timing and power characteristics in an experiment with a tethered ankle-foot exoskeleton. Ten healthy female subjects walked on a treadmill with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons in 10 different assistance conditions. Artificial pneumatic muscles assisted plantarflexion during ankle push-off using one of four actuation onset timings (36, 42, 48 and 54% of the stride) and three power levels (average positive exoskeleton power over a stride, summed for both legs, of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.5 W∙kg -1 ). We compared metabolic rate, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) between conditions. Optimal assistance was achieved with an onset of 42% stride and average power of 0.4 W∙kg -1 , leading to 21% reduction in metabolic cost compared to walking with the exoskeleton deactivated and 12% reduction compared to normal walking without the exoskeleton. With suboptimal timing or power, the exoskeleton still reduced metabolic cost, but substantially less so. The relationship between timing, power and metabolic rate was well-characterized by a two-dimensional quadratic function. The assistive mechanisms leading to these improvements included reducing muscular activity in the ankle plantarflexors and assisting leg swing initiation. These results emphasize the importance of optimizing exoskeleton actuation properties when assisting or augmenting human locomotion. Our optimal assistance onset timing and average power levels could be used for other exoskeletons to improve assistance and resulting benefits.

  6. Cost of reproduction in a long-lived bird: incubation effort reduces immune function and future reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hanssen, S A; Hasselquist, Dennis; Folstad, I; Erikstad, K E

    2005-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased current reproductive effort should lead to a fitness cost. This cost of reproduction may be observed as reduced survival or future reproduction, and may be caused by temporal suppression of immune function in stressed or hard-working individuals. In birds, consideration of the costs of incubating eggs has largely been neglected in favour of the costs of brood rearing. We manipulated incubation demand in two breeding seasons (2000 and 2001) in female...

  7. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development: Reducing Costs in the Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  8. Quality improvement in hospitals: how much does it reduce healthcare costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S B

    1995-01-01

    The philosophy of W.E. Deming suggests that continuous quality improvement efforts, when properly applied, ultimately will lead to financial dividends and will help ensure business longevity. Reducing hospital charges can be exciting for the participants and can provide an impetus for expanding quality improvement efforts. Americans, however, tend to demand almost instant gratification and have limited patience for longer-term results. This factor, coupled with minimal knowledge of actual operational costs and inaccurate charge accounting systems, may lead hospital managers to misinterpret the potential net long-term effects of their quality improvement efforts. In the approaching environment of capitated reimbursement, such mistakes may have serious consequences.

  9. Enrichment: CRISLA [chemical reaction by isotope selective activation] aims to reduce costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    Every year, more than $3 billion is spent on enriching uranium. CRISLA (Chemical Reaction by Isotope Selective Activation) uses a laser-catalyzed chemical reaction which, its proponents claim, could substantially reduce these costs. In CRISLA, an infrared CO laser illuminates the intracavity reaction cell (IC) at a frequency tuned to excite primarily UF 6 . When UF 6 and co-reactant RX are passed through the IC, the tuned laser photons preferentially enhance the reaction of UF 6 with RX ten-thousand-fold over the thermal reaction rate. Thus the laser serves as an activator and the chemical energy for separation is largely chemical. (author)

  10. Reducing costs of wind power with a gearless permanent-magnet generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R.; Soederlund, L.; Eriksson, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines a disc-type axial-field permanent magnet generator (PMG) utilizing the latest generation of permanent magnet material, namely Nd 15 B 8 Fe 77 . A frequency converter (FC) is needed to keep the system synchronized with the grid. It also offers a possibility to use variable speed. The main advantages of this novel system compared to the conventional one are a higher overall efficiency, better reliability, reduced weight and diminished need for maintenance, all contributing to the cost-reduction of wind power. (author)

  11. Reducing costs of wind power with a gearless permanent-magnet generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H; Peraelae, R; Soederlund, L; Eriksson, J T [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1996-12-31

    This article examines a disc-type axial-field permanent magnet generator (PMG) utilizing the latest generation of permanent magnet material, namely Nd{sub 15}B{sub 8}Fe{sub 77}. A frequency converter (FC) is needed to keep the system synchronized with the grid. It also offers a possibility to use variable speed. The main advantages of this novel system compared to the conventional one are a higher overall efficiency, better reliability, reduced weight and diminished need for maintenance, all contributing to the cost-reduction of wind power. (author)

  12. Reducing costs of wind power with a gearless permanent-magnet generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R.; Soederlund, L.; Eriksson, J.T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1995-12-31

    This article examines a disc-type axial-field permanent magnet generator (PMG) utilizing the latest generation of permanent magnet material, namely Nd{sub 15}B{sub 8}Fe{sub 77}. A frequency converter (FC) is needed to keep the system synchronized with the grid. It also offers a possibility to use variable speed. The main advantages of this novel system compared to the conventional one are a higher overall efficiency, better reliability, reduced weight and diminished need for maintenance, all contributing to the cost-reduction of wind power. (author)

  13. Low Cost Automated Manufacture of High Efficiency THINS ZTJ PV Blanket Technology (P-NASA12-007), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs lower cost solar arrays with high performance for a variety of missions. While high efficiency, space-qualified solar cells are in themselves costly, >...

  14. A pilot-scale nonwoven roll goods manufacturing process reduces microbial burden to pharmacopeia acceptance levels for nonsterile hygiene applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of seven source fiber types were selected for use in the manufacturing of nonwoven roll goods: polyester; polypropylene; rayon; greige cotton from two sources; mechanically cleaned greige cotton; and scoured and bleached cotton. The microbial burden of each source fiber was measured as a pr...

  15. Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival study (LUNESP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Lora L; Knapp, Anna B; MacLeod, William B; Phiri-Mazala, Grace; Kasimba, Joshua; Hamer, Davidson H; Gill, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP") was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness. We calculated LUNESP's financial and economic costs and the economic cost of implementation for a forecasted ten-year program (2011-2020). In each case, we calculated the incremental cost per death avoided and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted in real 2011 US dollars. The forecasted 10-year program analysis included a base case as well as 'conservative' and 'optimistic' scenarios. Uncertainty was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The estimated financial and economic costs of LUNESP were $118,574 and $127,756, respectively, or $49,469 and $53,550 per year. Fixed costs accounted for nearly 90% of total costs. For the 10-year program, discounted total and annual program costs were $256,455 and $26,834 respectively; for the base case, optimistic, and conservative scenarios, the estimated cost per death avoided was $1,866, $591, and $3,024, and cost per DALY averted was $74, $24, and $120, respectively. Outcomes were robust to variations in local costs, but sensitive to variations in intervention effect size, number of births attended by TBAs, and the extent of foreign consultants' participation. Based on established guidelines, the strategy of using trained TBAs to reduce neonatal mortality was 'highly cost effective'. We strongly recommend consideration of this approach for other remote rural populations with limited access to health care.

  16. Costs and cost-effectiveness of training traditional birth attendants to reduce neonatal mortality in the Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival study (LUNESP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora L Sabin

    Full Text Available The Lufwanyama Neonatal Survival Project ("LUNESP" was a cluster randomized, controlled trial that showed that training traditional birth attendants (TBAs to perform interventions targeting birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and neonatal sepsis reduced all-cause neonatal mortality by 45%. This companion analysis was undertaken to analyze intervention costs and cost-effectiveness, and factors that might improve cost-effectiveness.We calculated LUNESP's financial and economic costs and the economic cost of implementation for a forecasted ten-year program (2011-2020. In each case, we calculated the incremental cost per death avoided and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted in real 2011 US dollars. The forecasted 10-year program analysis included a base case as well as 'conservative' and 'optimistic' scenarios. Uncertainty was characterized using one-way sensitivity analyses and a multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The estimated financial and economic costs of LUNESP were $118,574 and $127,756, respectively, or $49,469 and $53,550 per year. Fixed costs accounted for nearly 90% of total costs. For the 10-year program, discounted total and annual program costs were $256,455 and $26,834 respectively; for the base case, optimistic, and conservative scenarios, the estimated cost per death avoided was $1,866, $591, and $3,024, and cost per DALY averted was $74, $24, and $120, respectively. Outcomes were robust to variations in local costs, but sensitive to variations in intervention effect size, number of births attended by TBAs, and the extent of foreign consultants' participation.Based on established guidelines, the strategy of using trained TBAs to reduce neonatal mortality was 'highly cost effective'. We strongly recommend consideration of this approach for other remote rural populations with limited access to health care.

  17. What Strategies Do Physicians and Patients Discuss to Reduce Out-of-Pocket Costs? Analysis of Cost-Saving Strategies in 1,755 Outpatient Clinic Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Wynn G; Zhang, Cecilia Z; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Williamson, Lillie D; Barnett, Jamison A; Ubel, Peter A

    2016-10-01

    More than 1 in 4 Americans report difficulty paying medical bills. Cost-reducing strategies discussed during outpatient physician visits remain poorly characterized. We sought to determine how often patients and physicians discuss health care costs during outpatient visits and what strategies, if any, they discussed to lower patient out-of-pocket costs. Retrospective analysis of dialogue from 1,755 outpatient visits in community-based practices nationwide from 2010 to 2014. The study population included 677 patients with breast cancer, 422 with depression, and 656 with rheumatoid arthritis visiting 56 oncologists, 36 psychiatrists, and 26 rheumatologists, respectively. Thirty percent of visits contained cost conversations (95% confidence interval [CI], 28 to 32). Forty-four percent of cost conversations involved discussion of cost-saving strategies (95% CI, 40 to 48; median duration, 68 s). We identified 4 strategies to lower costs without changing the care plan. They were, in order of overall frequency: 1) changing logistics of care, 2) facilitating co-pay assistance, 3) providing free samples, and 4) changing/adding insurance plans. We also identified 4 strategies to reduce costs by changing the care plan: 1) switching to lower-cost alternative therapy/diagnostic, 2) switching from brand name to generic, 3) changing dosage/frequency, and 4) stopping/withholding interventions. Strategies were relatively consistent across health conditions, except for switching to a lower-cost alternative (more common in breast oncology) and providing free samples (more common in depression). Focus on 3 conditions with potentially high out-of-pocket costs. Despite price opacity, physicians and patients discuss a variety of out-of-pocket cost reduction strategies during clinic visits. Almost half of cost discussions mention 1 or more cost-saving strategies, with more frequent mention of those not requiring care-plan changes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Options for cost-effectively reducing atmospheric methane concentrations from anthropogenic biomass sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, K.F.; Jacobs, C.; Orlic, M.

    1993-01-01

    Methane is a major greenhouse gas, second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to future global warming. Methane concentrations have more than doubled over the last two centuries and continue to rise annually. These increases are largely correlated with increasing human populations. Methane emissions from human related activities currently account for about 70 percent of annual emissions. Of these human related emissions, biomass sources account for about 75 percent and non-biomass sources about 25 percent. Because methane has a shorter lifetime than other major greenhouse gases, efforts to reduce methane emissions may fairly quickly be translated into lower atmospheric concentrations of methane and lower levels of radiative forcing. This fairly quick response would have the benefit of slowing the rate of climate change and hence allow natural ecosystems more time to adapt. Importantly, methane may be cost-effectively reduced from a number of biomass and non-biomass sources in the United States and worldwide. Methane is a valuable fuel, not just a waste by-product, and often systems may be reconfigured to reap the fuel value of the methane and more than justify the necessary expenditures. Such options for reducing methane emission from biomass sources exist for landfills, livestock manures, and ruminant livestock, and have been implemented to varying degrees in countries around the world. However, there are a number of barriers that hinder the more widespread use of technologies, including institutional, financial, regulatory, informational, and other barriers. This paper describes an array of available options that may be cost-effectively implemented to reduce methane emissions from biomass sources. This paper also discusses a number of programs that have been developed in the United States and internationally to promote the implementation of these methane reduction options and overcome existing barriers

  19. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  20. Reducing the Cost and Time to Perform a Human Factors Engineering Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, L.C. Dr.

    2003-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, a contractor to the Department of Energy, has developed a new software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The set of design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Regulatory Guide, NUREG- 0700 - Human System Interface Design Review Guideline. This tool has been described at a previous IEEE Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants. The original software tool in NUREG- 0700 was used to evaluate a facility and a separate independent evaluation was performed using the new tool for the same facility. A comparison was made between the two different tools; both in results obtained and cost and time to complete the evaluation. The results demonstrate a five to ten fold reduction in time and cost to complete the evaluation using the newly developed tool while maintaining consistent evaluation results. The time to per form the review was measured in weeks using the new software tool rather than months using the existing NUREG-0700 tool. The new tool has been so successful that it was applied to two additional facilities with the same reduced time and cost savings. Plans have been made to use the new tool at other facilities in order to provide the same savings

  1. Reducing operating costs: A collaborative approach between industry and electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyers, B.; Sibbald, L.

    1993-01-01

    The unit cost of electricity to industrial consumers is expected to increase at a rate of 5% annually in the 1990s. The partnership that has been created between Amoco Canada Petroleum Company and TransAlta Utilities to control the cost of electricity is described. To allow the company to receive lower rates for interruptible power, a number of measures have been taken. The Amoco Whitecourt plant has standby generators in reserve that can be used when utility power is not available. A Pembina compressor can be turned off for up to 12 hours, at 30 minutes notice, without affecting field pressure. At the East Crossfield plant sales gas can be compressed using electricity or a gas-driven engine. Spot market energy is used in a number of plants allowing electric drive alternatives to plant operators and offering short term energy markets. TransAlta invests in electrical equipment such as switchgear as well as transmission lines and transformers. New rate alternatives offered by TransAlta Utilities include review of the need for a demand ratchet, additional time of use rates, unbundling of rates allowing power purchase from alternative sources, rates that follow product costs, reduced rates for conversion of gas to electric drives certain circumstances, energy audits, and power factor credits. 5 figs

  2. Reduced cost design of liquid lithium target for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ida, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Yutani, Toshiaki

    2001-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is being jointly planned to provide an accelerator-based D-Li neutron source to produce intense high energy neutrons (2 MW/m 2 ) up to 200 dpa and a sufficient irradiation volume (500 cm 3 ) for testing the candidate materials and components up to about a full lifetime of their anticipated use in ITER and DEMO. To realize such a condition, 40 MeV deuteron beam with a current of 250 mA is injected into high speed liquid lithium flow with a speed of 20 m/s. Following Conceptual Design Activity (1995-1998), a design study with focus on cost reduction without changing its original mission has been done in 1999. The following major changes to the CAD target design have been considered in the study and included in the new design: i) number of the Li target has been changed from 2 to 1, ii) spare of impurity traps of the Li loop was removed although the spare will be stored in a laboratory for quick exchange, iii) building volume was reduced via design changes in lithium loop length. This paper describes the reduced cost design of the lithium target system and recent status of Key Element Technology activities. (author)

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of the Swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy; Maurer, Max; Ort, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environmental and health risks of MPs, we conducted a choice experiment in a national online survey. The results indicate that the average willingness to pay per household is CHF 100 (US$ 73) annually for reducing the potential environmental risk of MPs to a low level. These benefits, aggregated over households in the catchment of the STPs to be upgraded, generate a total annual economic value of CHF 155 million (US$ 113 million). This compares with estimated annual costs for upgrading 123 STPs of CHF 133 million (US$ 97 million) or CHF 86 (US$ 63) per household connected to these STPs. Hence, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the investment decision from an economic point of view and supports the implementation of the national policy in the ongoing political discussion.

  4. The Bottom supported fast breeder reactor vessel - an alternative approach to seismic accommodation and reduced cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, H.; Golan, S.; Petrozelli, J.; Kumaoka, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Most FBR vessels are supported by hanging from their top portions. A disadvantage of such a top supported reactor vessel (TSRV) structural configuration is that it may generate high reactor core accelerations. This is due to the long path the seismic vibrations must travel from the basemat up through the building and then down through the RV block to the core. To compensate for this disadvantage, TSRV blocks are often strengthened beyond what is required for other considerations, such as pressure, to satisfy seismic response criteria, thus increasing weights and costs. In addition to long load paths, TSRVs also have common load paths. For example, in a TSRV (with the core supported from the bottom of the RV) the sodium and core loads both travel along the RV pressure boundary. Therefore, one of these loads will likely control the RV thickness leaving excess margin for the other loads. It is the premise of this paper that the revision of a large pool FBR from a TSRV configuration to a specific bottom supported reactor vessel (BSRV) configuration can resolve the above TSRV disadvantages related to load path length and diversity, thereby improving seismic performance and simultaneously reducing RV block costs by reducing weights. This paper demonstrates this premise by comparing a reference TSRV block with a specific BSRV block design

  5. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies. (letter)

  6. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  7. Composite fuselage crown panel manufacturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Kurtis; Metschan, S.; Grant, C.; Brown, T.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial fuselage structures contain significant challenges in attempting to save manufacturing costs with advanced composite technology. Assembly issues, material costs, and fabrication of elements with complex geometry are each expected to drive the cost of composite fuselage structures. Boeing's efforts under the NASA ACT program have pursued key technologies for low-cost, large crown panel fabrication. An intricate bond panel design and manufacturing concepts were selected based on the efforts of the Design Build Team (DBT). The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include multiple large panel fabrication with the Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) process, innovative cure tooling concepts, resin transfer molding of long fuselage frames, and utilization of low-cost material forms. The process optimization for final design/manufacturing configuration included factory simulations and hardware demonstrations. These efforts and other optimization tasks were instrumental in reducing cost by 18 percent and weight by 45 percent relative to an aluminum baseline. The qualitative and quantitative results of the manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness.

  8. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed in-service inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.

    2001-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less that 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components, to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components, to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure, and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits from past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for WWER plant design. (author)

  9. Increase plant safety and reduce cost by implementing risk-informed In-Service Inspection programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Monette, P.; Doumont, C.

    2000-01-01

    The idea behind the program is that it is possible to 'inspect less, but inspect better'. In other words, the risk-informed In-Service Inspection (ISI) process is used to improve the effectiveness of examination of piping components, i.e. concentrate inspection resources and enhance inspection strategies on high safety significant locations, and reduce inspection requirements on others. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) risk-informed ISI process has already been applied for full scope (Millstone 3, Surry 1) and limited scope (Beznau, Ringhals 4, Asco, Turkey Point 3). By examining the high safety significant piping segments for the different fluid piping systems, the total piping core damage frequency is reduced. In addition, more than 80% of the risk associated with potential pressure boundary failures is addressed with the WOG risk-informed ISI process, while typically less than 50% of this same risk is addressed by the current inspection programs. The risk-informed ISI processes are used: to improve the effectiveness of inspecting safety-significant piping components; to reduce inspection requirements on other piping components; to evaluate improvements to plant availability and enhanced safety measures, including reduction of personnel radiation exposure; and to reduce overall Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs while maintaining regulatory compliance. A description of the process as well as benefits of past projects is presented, since the methodology is applicable for VVER plant design. (author)

  10. Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helen J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (≥65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

  11. The costs of reducing loss to follow-up in South African cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Louise

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to quantify the resources used in reestablishing contact with women who missed their scheduled cervical cancer screening visits and to assess the success of this effort in reducing loss to follow-up in a developing country setting. Methods Women were enrolled in this Cape Town, South Africa-based screening study between 2000 and 2003, and all had scheduled follow-up visits in 2003. Community health worker (CHW time, vehicle use, maintenance, and depreciation were estimated from weekly logs and cost accounting systems. The percentage of women who attended their scheduled visit, those who attended after CHW contact(s, and those who never returned despite attempted contact(s were determined. The number of CHW visits per woman was also estimated. Results 3,711 visits were scheduled in 2003. Of these, 2,321 (62.5% occurred without CHW contact, 918 (24.8% occurred after contact(s, and 472 (12.7% did not occur despite contact(s. Loss to follow-up was reduced from 21% to 6%, 39% to 10%, and 50% to 24% for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. CHWs attempted 3,200 contacts in 530 trips. On average, 3 CHWs attempted to contact 6 participants over each 111 minute trip. The per-person cost (2003 Rand for these activities was 12.75, 24.92, and 40.50 for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. Conclusion CHW contact with women who missed scheduled visits increased their return rate. Cost-effectiveness analyses aimed at policy decisions about cervical cancer screening in developing countries should incorporate these findings.

  12. The benefits and costs of reducing emissions from the electricity sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Karen; Burtraw, Dallas; Shih, Jhih-Shyang

    2007-04-01

    Recent federal policy proposals to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury from the US electricity sector promise important improvements in air quality and reductions in acid deposition. The cost of achieving these reductions depends on the form and stringency of the regulation. In this research, we analyze the economic benefits and costs of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) as characterized in the supplemental rule proposed in June 2004, and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed in February 2004. The assessment integrates a model of the electricity sector, two models of atmospheric transport of air pollutants, and a model of environmental and public health endpoints affected by pollution. We model explicitly the emissions of SO(2), NO(x), mercury and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and the effects of changes in emissions of SO(2) and NO(x) on environmental and public health. The manner in which mercury emissions are regulated will have important implications not only for the cost of the regulation, but also for emission levels for SO(2) and NO(x) and where those emissions are located. We find the economic benefits of CAIR and CAMR are far greater than the costs. Recent estimates of benefits of reductions in mercury and acidification indicate that our model captures the lion's share of quantifiable benefits. We also find that the EPA would have been justified on economic grounds in pursuing additional SO(2) emissions reductions beyond the requirements of CAIR.

  13. Origin of how steam rockets can reduce space transport cost by orders of magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppero, A.; Larson, T.K.; Schnitzler, B.G.; Rice, J.W.; Hill, T.J.; Richins, W.D.; Parlier, L.; Werner, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    A brief sketch shows the origin of why and how thermal rocket propulsion has the unique potential to dramatically reduce the cost of space transportation for most inner solar system missions of interest. Orders of magnitude reduction in cost are apparently possible when compared to all processes requiring electrolysis for the production of rocket fuels or propellants and to all electric propulsion systems. An order of magnitude advantage can be attributed to rocket propellant tank factors associated with storing water propellant, compared to cryogenic liquids. An order of magnitude can also be attributed to the simplicity of the extraction and processing of ice on the lunar surface, into an easily stored, non-cryogenic rocket propellant (water). A nuclear heated thermal rocket can deliver thousands of times its mass to Low Earth Orbit from the Lunar surface, providing the equivalent to orders of magnitude drop in launch cost for mass in Earth orbit. Mass includes water ice. These cost reductions depend (exponentially) on the mission delta-v requirements being less than about 6 km/s, or about 3 times the specific velocity of steam rockets (2 km/s, from Isp 200 sec). Such missions include: from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit, (LLO), from LLO to lunar escape, from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), from LEO to Earth Escape, from LEO to Mars Transfer Orbit, from LLO to GEO, missions returning payloads from about 10% of the periodic comets using propulsive capture to orbits around Earth itself, and fast, 100 day missions from Lunar Escape to Mars. All the assertions depend entirely and completely on the existence of abundant, nearly pure ice at the permanently dark North and South Poles of the Moon. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. A cost effectiveness analysis of salt reduction policies to reduce coronary heart disease in four Eastern Mediterranean countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mason

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy. All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30% resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. CONCLUSION: Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives.

  15. A Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Salt Reduction Policies to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease in Four Eastern Mediterranean Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Helen; Shoaibi, Azza; Ghandour, Rula; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon; Khatib, Rana; Jabr, Samer; Unal, Belgin; Sözmen, Kaan; Arfa, Chokri; Aissi, Wafa; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Fouad, Fouad; Al-Ali, Radwan; Husseini, Abdullatif

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is rising in middle income countries. Population based strategies to reduce specific CHD risk factors have an important role to play in reducing overall CHD mortality. Reducing dietary salt consumption is a potentially cost-effective way to reduce CHD events. This paper presents an economic evaluation of population based salt reduction policies in Tunisia, Syria, Palestine and Turkey. Methods and Findings Three policies to reduce dietary salt intake were evaluated: a health promotion campaign, labelling of food packaging and mandatory reformulation of salt content in processed food. These were evaluated separately and in combination. Estimates of the effectiveness of salt reduction on blood pressure were based on a literature review. The reduction in mortality was estimated using the IMPACT CHD model specific to that country. Cumulative population health effects were quantified as life years gained (LYG) over a 10 year time frame. The costs of each policy were estimated using evidence from comparable policies and expert opinion including public sector costs and costs to the food industry. Health care costs associated with CHDs were estimated using standardized unit costs. The total cost of implementing each policy was compared against the current baseline (no policy). All costs were calculated using 2010 PPP exchange rates. In all four countries most policies were cost saving compared with the baseline. The combination of all three policies (reducing salt consumption by 30%) resulted in estimated cost savings of $235,000,000 and 6455 LYG in Tunisia; $39,000,000 and 31674 LYG in Syria; $6,000,000 and 2682 LYG in Palestine and $1,3000,000,000 and 378439 LYG in Turkey. Conclusion Decreasing dietary salt intake will reduce coronary heart disease deaths in the four countries. A comprehensive strategy of health education and food industry actions to label and reduce salt content would save both money and lives. PMID:24409297

  16. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries

  17. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, Steven S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  18. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. Integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, Steven S. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  19. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  20. Alternative Strategies to Reduce Maternal Mortality in India: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Sue J.; Sweet, Steve; Carvalho, Natalie; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Hu, Delphine

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately one-quarter of all pregnancy- and delivery-related maternal deaths worldwide occur in India. Taking into account the costs, feasibility, and operational complexity of alternative interventions, we estimate the clinical and population-level benefits associated with strategies to improve the safety of pregnancy and childbirth in India. Methods and Findings Country- and region-specific data were synthesized using a computer-based model that simulates the natural history of pregnancy (both planned and unintended) and pregnancy- and childbirth-associated complications in individual women; and considers delivery location, attendant, and facility level. Model outcomes included clinical events, population measures, costs, and cost-effectiveness ratios. Separate models were adapted to urban and rural India using survey-based data (e.g., unmet need for birth spacing/limiting, facility births, skilled birth attendants). Model validation compared projected maternal indicators with empiric data. Strategies consisted of improving coverage of effective interventions that could be provided individually or packaged as integrated services, could reduce the incidence of a complication or its case fatality rate, and could include improved logistics such as reliable transport to an appropriate referral facility as well as recognition of referral need and quality of care. Increasing family planning was the most effective individual intervention to reduce pregnancy-related mortality. If over the next 5 y the unmet need for spacing and limiting births was met, more than 150,000 maternal deaths would be prevented; more than US$1 billion saved; and at least one of every two abortion-related deaths averted. Still, reductions in maternal mortality reached a threshold (∼23%–35%) without including strategies that ensured reliable access to intrapartum and emergency obstetrical care (EmOC). An integrated and stepwise approach was identified that would ultimately