WorldWideScience

Sample records for reducing heat losses

  1. Modeling the effect of reflective calf hutch covers on reducing heat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binion, W. R.; Friend, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    This study determined if a reflective film could theoretically be useful in moderating the rate of heat loss from calves housed in polyethylene hutches during cold weather. An engineering approach was used in which rate of heat loss was modeled using 38-l steel drums filled with body temperature water and covered by fresh calf hide. The reflective film (cover) consisted of aluminized 0.0635 mm low-density olive color polyethylene. The non-reflective olive side was sprayed with flat black paint. Covers were 1.8 × 3 m with the aluminized side facing the hutch. Two of four hutches were either uncovered or had covers across the top and sides. During the night, (mean temperature ± SE -13.6 ± 0.29 °C), the rate of temperature loss was -0.21 °C per 5-min interval over 28 temperature readings in the covered and -0.25 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). During the daytime (mean ± SE 14.3 ± 0.52 °C), rate of heat loss was -0.15 °C per 5-min interval over 33 temperature readings in the covered and -0.11 °C in the uncovered ( R 2 = 0.99). Reflective film reduced the rate of heat loss during cold nights, but when the sun was shining on the hutches during midday, the uncovered hutches warmed up more and, hence, reduced the rate of heat loss when compared to the covered. Further research is needed on the orientation of hutches in relationship to the sun and with live calves because calves would be able to move into the sun during cold sunny days.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING POLYURETHANE FOAM TO REDUCE HEAT LOSS IN THE PREMISES FOR BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev A.Y.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that the use of polyurethane foam insulation for the purpose of walling premises for breeding allows them to halve the deficit of heat in winter. Because of this more efficient use of feed, increases the intensity and the level of growth of young comprehensive energp $rocess in the energy of live weight gain of cattle while increasing the profitability of its cultivation for meat.

  3. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...... project for calculations in the SESAM model....

  4. Heat loss from Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Kenneth; Næraa, Rikke

    1997-01-01

    Determination of heat loss coefficients for buildings in Denmark. The coefficient are determined for 15 building groups and 3 year intervals. They are based on the BBR-registre and assumptions of U-values(W/K*m2)and computed in a simple spreed sheet model.The results are used in the REVEILLE...

  5. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  6. Heat losses through pipe connections in hot water stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    loss from an ideally insulated pipe connected to the top of a hot water tank is mainly due to a natural convection flow in the pipe, that the heat loss coefficient of pipes connected to the top of a hot water tank is high, and that a heat trap can reduce the heat loss coefficient significantly. Further......The heat loss from pipe connections at the top of hot water storage tanks with and without a heat trap is investigated theoretically and compared to similar experimental investigations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used for the theoretical analysis. The investigations show that the heat...

  7. Heat loss from an open cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.G. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

  8. METHOD FOR DECREASE OF STANDARD HEAT LOSSES IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Piir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified method for calculation of standard coefficient for heat transfer in a residential building has been developed in the paper. Investigations have been carried out with the purpose to determine influence of building size, level of thermal insulation in external enclosures and share of heat regeneration in ventilation system on total heat losses. The paper considers buildings of a simple geometrical form (“matchbox” with number of floors 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and living area from 100 up to 25600 m2 at the level of thermal resistance of walls 1; 3 and 5 m2 ⋅°C/W and share of heat regeneration in ventilation air stream of 0; 0.5 and 0.66. The investigation results have shown that while increasing building size then there is a sudden transformation of dimensions and structure in external enclosures: share of overlapping area is reduced by 3-fold and share of wall area is increased by 2-fold. Surface area of building external envelope is reduced by 6-fold in comparison with its heated area. An average coefficient of building heat transfer assigned to heated area is decreased by 3-fold. It has been shown that the most efficient methods for further decrease of standard heat losses for residential buildings are the following: heat recovery in the ventilation system: it is deeper if heat protection rate is higher and climate of a building construction zone is colder; enlargement of building size through decrease of their number; limit-exceeding increase in heat protection of small apartment buildings and cottages; cubic form of 2–3-floor buildings for Far North.

  9. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Asghari

    Full Text Available The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻ and ammonium (NH₄⁺ loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Hamid R; Cavagnaro, Timothy R

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻) and ammonium (NH₄⁺) loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less) via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  13. Reducing the convective losses of cavity receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Robert; Grobbel, Johannes; Stadler, Hannes; Uhlig, Ralf; Hoffschmidt, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Convective losses reduce the efficiency of cavity receivers used in solar power towers especially under windy conditions. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce these losses. In this paper two different measures are analyzed: an air curtain and a partial window which covers one third of the aperture opening. The cavity without modifications and the usage of a partial window were analyzed in a cryogenic wind tunnel at -173°C. The cryogenic environment allows transforming the results from the small model cavity to a large scale receiver with Gr≈3.9.1010. The cavity with the two modifications in the wind tunnel environment was analyzed with a CFD model as well. By comparing the numerical and experimental results the model was validated. Both modifications are capable of reducing the convection losses. In the best case a reduction of about 50 % was achieved.

  14. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  15. Heat losses in power boilers caused by thermal bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocot Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the analysis of heat losses caused by thermal bridges that occur in the steam boiler OP-140 is presented. Identification of these bridges were conducted with use of thermographic camera. Heat losses were evaluated based on methodology of VDI 4610 standard, but instead of its simplified equations, criterial equations based on Nusselt number were used. Obtained values of annual heat losses and heat flux density corresponding to the fully insulated boiler surfaces were compared to heat losses generated by thermal bridges located in the same areas. The emphasis is put on the role of industrial insulation in heat losses reduction.

  16. Analysis of the internal heat losses in a thermoelectric generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Eriksen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    to decrease for increased heat loss. The leg dimensions are varied for all heat losses cases and it is shown that the ideal way to construct a TEG module with minimal heat losses and maximum efficiency is to either use a good insulating material between the legs or evacuate the module completely, and use......A 3D thermoelectric numerical model is used to investigate different internal heat loss mechanisms for a thermoelectric generator with bismuth telluride p- and n-legs. The model considers all thermoelectric effects, temperature dependent material parameters and simultaneous convective, conductive...... and radiative heat losses, including surface to surface radiation. For radiative heat losses it is shown that for the temperatures considered here, surface to ambient radiation is a good approximation of the heat loss. For conductive heat transfer the module efficiency is shown to be comparable to the case...

  17. Parabolic Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H.; Netter, J.; Bingham, C.; Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2007-03-01

    Parabolic trough receivers, or heat collection elements (HCEs), absorb sunlight focused by the mirrors and transfer that thermal energy to a fluid flowing within them. Thje absorbing tube of these receivers typically operates around 400 C (752 F). HCE manufacturers prevent thermal loss from the absorbing tube to the environment by using sputtered selective Cermet coatings on the absorber and by surrounding the absorber with a glass-enclosed evacuated annulus. This work quantifies the heat loss of the Solel UVAC2 and Schott PTR70 HCEs. At 400 C, the HCEs perform similarly, losing about 400 W/m of HCE length. To put this in perspective, the incident beam radiation on a 5 m mirror aperture is about 4500 W/m, with about 75% of that energy ({approx} 3400 W/m) reaching the absorber surface. Of the 3400 W/m on the absorber, about 3000 W/m is absorbed into the working fluid while 400 W/m is lost to the environment.

  18. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Anan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  19. Solar heat gain factors and heat loss coefficients for passive heating concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, M.S.; Bansal, N.K. (Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas (India))

    1994-08-01

    The concept of solar heat gain factor has been introduced for calculating the net energy gain of passive heating elements and other components of a building as a result of incident solar radiation. For passive heating concepts (namely, the direct gain, mass wall, water wall, Trombe wall, and solarium), exact analytical expressions have been obtained for the solar heat gain factors and the corresponding overall heat loss coefficients. These will allow a building designer to calculate immediately the overall heat gain/loss in a building. Numerical calculations have been done for typical values of solar radiation and ambient temperature of typical climatic conditions in India. The method has been compared with the other methods reported in the literature so far. A good comparison is found between the earlier methods and the method of using solar gain factors and the corresponding heat transfer values.

  20. Calculation of additional heat loss through heat-conducting inclusions (on the example of window reveal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Safin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of improving the energy efficiency in buildings the materials with low thermal conductivity are used. The constructive difficulty of the modern walling and the heterogeneity of materials must be carefully calculated in designing, constructing and operating of buildings.The method of thermotechnical calculation based on the determination of the additional heat loss through heat-conducting inclusions (on the example of the jamb construction unit has been considered in this work. The determination of the value of additional heat flows is carried out by calculating the temperature fields.The results show that the value of the additional heat flows depends not only on the constructive solution of nodes, but also on the architectural design of buildings. That’s why it is necessary to define a reduced thermal resistance for each building’s facade. The proportion of heat loss through consideration of heat-conducting inclusion of major heat loss, calculated by design coats, can reach more than 20%.

  1. Leupeptin reduces impulse noise induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriel Haim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to continuous and impulse noise can induce a hearing loss. Leupeptin is an inhibitor of the calpains, a family of calcium-activated proteases which promote cell death. The objective of this study is to assess whether Leupeptin could reduce the hearing loss resulting from rifle impulse noise. Methods A polyethelene tube was implanted into middle ear cavities of eight fat sand rats (16 ears. Following determination of auditory nerve brainstem evoked response (ABR threshold in each ear, the animals were exposed to the noise of 10 M16 rifle shots. Immediately after the exposure, saline was then applied to one (control ear and non-toxic concentrations of leupeptin determined in the first phase of the study were applied to the other ear, for four consecutive days. Results Eight days after the exposure, the threshold shift (ABR in the control ears was significantly greater (44 dB than in the leupeptin ears (27 dB. Conclusion Leupeptin applied to the middle ear cavity can reduce the hearing loss resulting from exposure to impulse noise.

  2. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus......The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation...... surplus. The measures in the Plan will have to be supplemented by more measures to meet the targets in the EU's Water Framework Directive....

  3. Reduction of heat losses from greenhouses by means of internal blinds with low thermal emissivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.

    1980-01-01

    Heat losses in greenhouses may be substantially reduced by the use of heat reflecting blinds. Quantitative results are obtained solving a mathematical heat flow model by numerical methods. Special attention has been given to the emissivity and transmittance of the screen and the ventilation through

  4. Reduction of heat losses from greenhouses by means of internal blinds with low thermal emissivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.

    1980-01-01

    Heat losses in greenhouses may be substantially reduced by the use of heat reflecting blinds. Quantitative results are obtained solving a mathematical heat flow model by numerical methods. Special attention has been given to the emissivity and transmittance of the screen and the ventilation through

  5. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter

    2014-06-13

    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of convective heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewale Vinod C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator is made up of Cu tubing material having cavity diameter 385 mm to analyze the different heat losses such as conduction, convection and radiation. As the convection loss plays major role in heat loss analysis of cavity receiver, the experimental analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the temperature range of 55-75°C at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° inclination angle of downward facing cavity receiver. The numerical analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the low temperature range (55-75°C as well as high temperature range (150-300 °C for no wind condition only. The experimental set-up mainly consists of spherical cavity receiver which is insulated with glass wool insulation to reduce the heat losses from outside surface. The numerical analysis is carried out by using CFD software and the results are compared with the experimental results and found good agreement. The result shows that the convective loss increases with decrease in cavity inclination angle and decreases with decrease in mean cavity receiver temperature. The maximum losses are obtained at 0° inclination angle and the minimum losses are obtained at 90° inclination angle of cavity due to increase in stagnation zone in to the cavity from 0° to 90° inclination. The Nusselt number correlation is developed for the low temperature range 55-75°C based on the experimental data. The analysis is also carried out to study the effect of wind speed and wind direction on convective heat losses. The convective heat losses are studied for two wind speeds (3 m/s and 5 m/s and four wind directions [α is 0° (Side-on wind, 30°, 60°, and 90° (head-on wind]. It is found that the convective heat losses for both wind speed are higher than the losses obtained by no wind test. The highest heat losses are found for wind direction α is 60° with respect to receiver stand and lowest heat losses are found

  7. Use of infrared thermography for the evaluation of heat losses during coal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Pierrot, A.; Gómez-Landesa, E.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The exothermic processes during coal storage reduce the calorific value of the coal which in turn results in financial losses. An accurate and easy calculation of the losses may be an efficient tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the spontaneous heating of coal and to

  8. Use of infrared thermography for the evaluation of heat losses during coal storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierro, V.; Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andrés, J.M.; Pierrot, A.; Gómez-Landesa, E.; Arriaga, A.; Schmal, D.

    1999-01-01

    The exothermic processes during coal storage reduce the calorific value of the coal which in turn results in financial losses. An accurate and easy calculation of the losses may be an efficient tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to reduce the spontaneous heating of coal and to

  9. On Thermal Explosion of Sensitized Reaction with Variable Heat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Adegbie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the influence of heat loss on the critical ignition temperature and Frank-Kamenetskii parameter of a non-linear ordinary differential equation arising in thermal sensitized reaction. The reaction obeys the Arrhenius expression with temperature dependent pre-exponential factor, taking heat exchange between the reacting material and its surrounding into account. The consequences of heat loss are explored within the framework of one dimensional, steady state model. The numerical estimations based on shooting method techniques show the effect of heat loss parameter on the critical values of ignition temperature and Frank-Kamenetskii parameter.

  10. Reducing Heating In High-Speed Cinematography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Howard A.

    1989-01-01

    Infrared-absorbing and infrared-reflecting glass filters simple and effective means for reducing rise in temperature during high-speed motion-picture photography. "Hot-mirror" and "cold-mirror" configurations, employed in projection of images, helps prevent excessive heating of scenes by powerful lamps used in high-speed photography.

  11. Roof heat loss detection using airborne thermal infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Bauer, C.; Sulzer, W.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the Austrian and European attempt to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, thermal rehabilitation and the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings became an important topic in research as well as in building construction and refurbishment. Today, in-situ thermal infrared measurements are routinely used to determine energy loss through the building envelope. However, in-situ thermal surveys are expensive and time consuming, and in many cases the detection of the amount and location of waste heat leaving building through roofs is not possible with ground-based observations. For some years now, a new generation of high-resolution thermal infrared sensors makes it possible to survey heat-loss through roofs at a high level of detail and accuracy. However, to date, comparable studies have mainly been conducted on buildings with uniform roof covering and provided two-dimensional, qualitative information. This pilot study aims to survey the heat-loss through roofs of the buildings of the University of Graz (Austria) campus by using high-resolution airborne thermal infrared imagery (TABI 1800 - Thermal Airborne Broadband imager). TABI-1800 acquires data in a spectral range from 3.7 - 4.8 micron, a thermal resolution of 0.05 °C and a spatial resolution of 0.6 m. The remote sensing data is calibrated to different roof coverings (e.g. clay shingle, asphalt shingle, tin roof, glass) and combined with a roof surface model to determine the amount of waste heat leaving the building and to identify hot spots. The additional integration of information about the conditions underneath the roofs into the study allows a more detailed analysis of the upward heat flux and is a significant improvement of existing methods. The resulting data set provides useful information to the university facility service for infrastructure maintenance, especially in terms of attic and roof insulation improvements. Beyond that, the project is supposed to raise public

  12. 24 CFR 3280.506 - Heat loss/heat gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.506 Heat... assure uniform heat transmission in manufactured homes, cavities in exterior walls, floors, and ceilings shall be provided with thermal insulation. (c) Manufactured homes designed for Uo Value Zone 3 shall...

  13. Heat loss investigation from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewale, V. C. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NDMVPS KBT College of Engineering, Nashik (India); Dongarwar, P. R. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, College of Military Engineering, Pune (India); Gawande, R. P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, B.D.C.O.E. Wardha, Nagpur University, NagpurI (India)

    2016-11-15

    The heat losses are mainly affects on the performance of cavity receiver of solar concentrator. In this paper, the experimental and numerical study is carried out for different heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of 0.385 m cavity diameter and 0.154 m opening diameter. The total and convection losses are studied experimentally to no wind and wind conditions for the temperature range of 150 °C to 300 °C at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° inclination angle of cavity receiver. The experimental set up mainly consists of copper tube material cavity receiver wrapped with nichrome heating coil to heat the cavity and insulated with glasswool insulation. The numerical analysis was carried out with Fluent Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, to study connective heat losses for no wind condition only. The numerical results are compared with experimental results and found good agreement with maximum deviation of 12 %. The effect of inclination angle of cavity receiver on total losses and convection losses shows that as the inclination angle increases from 0o to 90o, both losses decreased due to decreased in convective zone into the cavity receiver. The effect of operating temperature of cavity shows that as the temperature of cavity receiver increases, the total and convective losses goes on increasing. The effect of external wind at 2 m/s and 4 m/s in two directions (side-on wind and head-on wind) is also studied experimentally for total and convective heat losses. The result shows that the heat losses are higher for head-on wind condition compared to side-on wind and no wind condition at all inclination angle of cavity receiver. The present results are also compared to the convective losses obtained from the correlations of Stine and Mcdonald and M. Prakash. The convective loss from these correlations shows nearest prediction to both experimental and numerical results.

  14. Trough Receiver Heat Loss Testing (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, A.; Feik, C.; Hansen, R.; Phillips, S.; Bingham, C.; Netter, J.; Forristal, R.; Burkholder, F.; Meglan, B.; Wolfrum, E.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation describes the design, fabrication, and qualification of an experimental capability for thermal loss testing of full-size trough receiver elements; and the testing on a variety of receivers.

  15. Indoor temperatures for calculating room heat loss and heating capacity of radiant heating systems combined with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Fang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    system were determined according to the principle of heat transfer. A model to predict indoor temperatures in the room was proposed, and it was determined that the predicted indoor temperatures agreed well with the measured data. Qualitative analyses of the effects of heated surface temperature and air...... change rates on the indoor temperatures were performed using the proposed model. When heated surface temperatures and air change rates were from 21.0 to 29.0 degrees C and from 0.5 to 4.0 h-1, the indoor temperatures for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss were between 20.......8% for calculating the transmission heat loss and ventilation heat loss, respectively, and between 16.0% and 17.4% for calculating the heating capacity of the hybrid system. Due to large relative calculation errors, it is necessary to consider the effect of heated surface and cool supply air on indoor temperatures...

  16. Effects of forced convection of heated air on insensible water loss and heat loss in preterm infants in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okken, A; Blijham, C; Franz, W; Bohn, E

    1982-07-01

    To assess the effect of forced convection of heated air exchange in preterm infants in conventional incubators, we measured insensible water loss and total heat loss in preterm infants in a conventional forced convection incubator (air velocity 15 to 25 cm/second) and in a specially constructed still-air incubator (air velocity 0 to 2 cm/second) at equal operative temperature and humidity. Under the forced conditions, insensible water loss in the preterm infants increased by a mean 52% from 1.04 +/- 0.24 (mean +/- SD) to 1.58 +/- 0.51 ml/kg/hour (P less than 0.001). The ensuing increase in evaporative heat loss was partly reflected in the small but significant increase in total heat loss from 1.65 +/- 0.47 to 1.80 +/- 0.44 kcal/kg/hour (P less than 0.02). In the forced convection incubator, the increased evaporative heat loss in preterm infants was apparently partly compensated by a decreased nonevaporative heat loss. If reduction of insensible water loss is required, preterm infants should not be subjected to forced convection in incubators.

  17. 重力热管自吸地热改善热采井井筒热损失研究%A Study of Reducing Heat Loss of Thermal Recovery Wellbore by Gravity Heatpipe Technology through Absorbing Geothermal Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙; 李春生; 朱兰

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the principle of gravity heat pipe decreasing heat loss in wellbore during thermal re covery and heat transfer of wellbore during oil production, calculation models of thermal energy engineering and heat transfer loss of wellbore were established and were used to calculate an example of testing well. The results show that the measured temperature of produced liquid is close to the calculated one, fractional error of which is 5.52%. The temperature of produced liquid inceases by 10℃ with gravity heatpipe in comparison with that of the regular wellbore, which could prove that gravity heatpipe is able to change the temperature distribution of fluids in wellbore. Gravity heatpipe absorbing geothermal energy is a new technology in oil production and can be applied to an extended extent in thermal recovery wells of heavy oil.%在深入探讨重力热管改善抽油井井筒热损失原理的基础上,结合井筒传热模型,建立了稠油热采井重力热管自吸热过程的热工计算及井筒热损失的计算模型.并结合矿场应用实例进行了计算.结果表明,井口产出液实测温度与计算值相对误差为5.52%,符合工程要求.热管正常工作后能将井口流体温度提高近10℃,在井筒中起到了平衡流体温场的作用.重力热管自吸地热采油技术是采油工程领域一项全新的探索,在稠油热采中有着广泛的应用前景.

  18. The effect of rowing headgear on forced convective heat loss and radiant heat gain on a thermal manikin headform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogerd, Cornelis P; Brühwiler, Paul A; Heus, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Both radiant and forced convective heat flow were measured for a prototype rowing headgear and white and black cotton caps. The measurements were performed on a thermal manikin headform at a wind speed of 4.0 m . s(-1) (s = 0.1) in a climate chamber at 22.0 degrees C (s = 0.05), with and without radiant heat flow from a heat lamp, coming from either directly above (90 degrees ) or from above at an angle of 55 degrees . The effects of hair were studied by repeating selected measurements with a wig. All headgear reduced the radiant heat gain compared with the nude headform: about 80% for the caps and 95% for the prototype rowing headgear (P convective heat loss was reduced more by the caps (36%) than by the prototype rowing headgear (9%) (P heat gain contributed maximally 13% to the net heat transfer, with or without headgear, showing that forced convective heat loss is the dominant heat transfer parameter under the chosen conditions. The results of the headgear - wig combinations were qualitatively similar, with lower absolute heat transfer.

  19. THE NITROGEN OXIDE CONCENTRATION DEPENDENCE ON HEAT LOSSES WITH EXIT SMOKE GASES OF HEAT-GENERATING PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sedaev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The most significant heat losses are losses associated with exit gases. It is these losses that determine the scale of heat emissions into the plant air with fuel combustion products and reduce the environmental safety of the plant. Many of the derived methods for reducing the nitrogen oxide emission associated with gas purification systems provide a high degree of smoke gas purification, but these methods are based on the use of various chemicals, which sharply reduces their environmental and operational characteristics.Results. The suggested method of simultaneous purification and recycling of gaseous emissions of heat-generating plants differs profitably from the existing ones. Its application will improve tech-nical and economic and also environmental characteristics of heat-generating plants and will make the characteristics of the energy enterprise a closer match to those of waste-free, environmentally-friendly and profitable enterprises.Conclusions. The obtained results confirm the fact that reduction of heat losses with exit gases re-sults in a reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions. Therefore, an increase in environmental safety of a boiler unit can be achieved in tandem with one in heat efficiency.

  20. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  1. Reducing the magnetic losses of amorphous ribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybould, D.; Das, S.K. [AlliedSignal Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States). Aerospace Technol. Team; Meola, M.; Bye, R. [AlliedSignal Inc., Amorphous Metals, Morristown, NJ 07962-1021 (United States)

    1998-01-30

    Amorphous alloys have lower magnetization losses than silicon steel and are therefore used as the cores of high-efficiency electrical transformers. Laser scribing the amorphous alloys using a very low power, so as not to melt the surface, results in an appreciable decrease in core loss with no decrease in measurable induction. A 2-5 mm line spacing appears optimum. Scribing prior to or after magnetic annealing results in similar properties, although the former requires a slightly higher laser power. Excimer and YAG lasers using optimized parameters both result in identical magnetic properties, but the optimum morphology of the scribed line is different for the two types of laser. For 25 {mu}m thick ribbon, a 29% decrease in core loss is obtained with no increase in exciting power. For thick, 50 {mu}m ribbon, properties superior to those of conventional 25 {mu}m ribbon are achievable, the core loss being decreased nearly 50% with no increase in exciting power. Thick ribbon with these properties could decrease the fabrication cost, while increasing the efficiency of power transformers. (orig.) 15 refs.

  2. Effect of heat loss in a geothermal reservoir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, Sayantan; Tan, Lippong; Date, Abhijit; Mohan Kumar, Mandalagiri Subbarayappa

    This paper reports a three-dimensional (3D) numerical study to determine the effect of heat loss on the transient heat transport and temperature distribution in a geothermal reservoir. The operation of a geothermal power plant, which is essentially an injection-production process, involves

  3. Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Greenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on variation in bill morphology has focused on the role of diet. Bills have other functions, however, including a role in heat and water balance. The role of the bill in heat loss may be particularly important in birds where water is limiting. Song sparrows localized in coastal dunes and salt marsh edge (Melospiza melodia atlantica are similar in size to, but have bills with a 17% greater surface area than, those that live in mesic habitats (M. m. melodia, a pattern shared with other coastal sparrows. We tested the hypotheses that sparrows can use their bills to dissipate "dry" heat, and that heat loss from the bill is higher in M. m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bill, tarsus, and body surface temperatures were measured using thermal imaging of sparrows exposed to temperatures from 15-37°C and combined with surface area and physical modeling to estimate the contribution of each body part to total heat loss. Song sparrow bills averaged 5-10°C hotter than ambient. The bill of M. m atlantica dissipated up to 33% more heat and 38% greater proportion of total heat than that of M. m. melodia. This could potentially reduce water loss requirements by approximately 7.7%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This >30% higher heat loss in the bill of M. m. atlantica is independent of evaporative water loss and thus could play an important role in the water balance of sparrows occupying the hot and exposed dune/salt marsh environments during the summer. Heat loss capacity and water conservation could play an important role in the selection for bill size differences between bird populations and should be considered along with trophic adaptations when studying variation in bill size.

  4. Quantitative thermography and methods for in-situ determination of heat losses from district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B. [ed.

    1996-11-01

    The course and seminar summarizing application of infrared thermography in district heating systems control gathered Danish specialists with 5 contributions on the subject. Maintenance of the heat distribution pipelines and thermographic inspection of the systems are essential in order to avoid heat losses. (EG)

  5. 24 CFR 3280.508 - Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Thermal Protection § 3280.508 Heat loss, heat gain and cooling load calculations. (a) Information, values... Floor Systems 23.15Pipes 23.17Tanks, Vessels, and Equipment 23.18Refrigerated Rooms and Buildings 24... heat-flow paths (“thermal shorts”) shall be explicitly accounted for in the calculation of...

  6. Reducing grain storage losses in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the use of insecticide-treated material and modified atmosphere storage for reducing insect damage in stored maize. Results showed that insecticide treated netting and insecticide treated seed bags protected grain from insect damage for up to nine months if the grain was free from i...

  7. Heat Loss Due To Thermal Bridges In Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. B.; tarot, R. A.; Childs, K. W.; Courville, G. E.

    1984-03-01

    Building envelopes often contain numerous highly conductive heat flow paths, called thermal bridges, which are major sources of heat loss and deterioration of building materials due to moisture condensation. Some examples of thermal bridges occurring in office buildings are presented. Infrared thermography was used to identify the locations and magnitudes of thermally defective areas resulting from inadequate construction, design, or substandard workmanship in existing buildings. Due to the large thermal inertia of building components and transient conditions caused by fluctuating outdoor and indoor temperatures, long measurement periods are required. This makes thermography impractical for quantifying the heat loss. In order to estimate the heat loss rate from thermal bridges and to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes involved, a two-dimensional heat flow model has been developed for transient heat conduction within the exterior wall/intermediate floor systems. The calculated results from the mathematical model are compared with available experimental data. An in-situ measurement technique, which is currently under development at NBS for quantifying the energy loss due to thermal bridges, is described.

  8. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  9. Basic Principles for Calculating Heat Exchanger Characteristics under Conditions of Environmental Heat Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bayrashevsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers two most characteristic models of heat exchange mechanisms in heaters with due account of environmental heat losses. As a result of executed investigations a list of corresponding engineering formulae has been developed which can be used for determination of heat engineering characteristics of heat exchangers and calculation of heating modes of their operation.Authors of the paper have elaborated a special «Heat Exchanger» programming file that corroborates reliability of the executed analysis and makes it possible to carry out a number of the required calculations.

  10. Isochoric Heating of Reduced Mass Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akli, Kramer [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report summarizes the experimental results of a study aimed at achieving star-like plasmas in the laboratory by isochrically heating solid-density targets with intense lasers. Of special interest is the investigation of spatial/temporal temperature and density gradients and their dependence on the target geometry and mass. The investigation was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, solid targets with variable transverse and longitudinal dimensions were investigated. We found that electron beam recirculation is enhanced for reduced mass targets. As a result, the temperature gradients are minimized for these targets yielding more uniform temperature hot plasmas. In the second phase, reduced mass targets were irradiated with intense ultra-short laser pulses. Bright monochromatic x-rays and broadband Extreme ultraviolet radiation (EUV or XUV) emissions were achieved by optimizing the electrostatic sheath fields surrounding the target. The study also revealed that this laser-driven source of radiation has a small source size, short duration, and high photon fluxes suitable for point projection radiography and for probing matter under extreme environments.

  11. Minimizing heat loss in DC networks using batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zocca (Alessandro); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractElectricity transmission networks dissipate a non-negligible fraction of the power they transport due to the heat loss in the transmission lines. In this work we explore how the transport of energy can be more efficient by adding to the network multiple batteries that can coordinate

  12. Rational Distribution of Heat Loss in Well Bore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jingqin; Chen Yanhua; Xiang Xinyao

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction It is not easy to produce viscous crude because of its heavy viscosity. At present, viscous crude is mainly recovered by thermal recovery, i.e. by steam injection. In the course of steam injection, heat loss, especially that in well bore has a direct influence on thermal productive effectiveness.

  13. Minimizing heat loss in DC networks using batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zocca, A.; Zwart, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    Electricity transmission networks dissipate a non-negligible fraction of the power they transport due to the heat loss in the transmission lines. In this work we explore how the transport of energy can be more efficient by adding to the network multiple batteries that can coordinate their operations

  14. Heat Loss Experiments: Teach Energy Savings with Cardboard "House"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using two cardboard boxes, a light bulb socket, light bulbs of varying wattage, a thermometer, and some insulation, students can learn some interesting lessons about how heat loss occurs in homes. This article describes practical experiments that work well on units related to energy, sustainable energy, renewables, engineering, and construction.…

  15. Heat Transmission Coefficient Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a Heat Loss Measuring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2013-01-01

    to optimize the energy performance. This paper presents a method for measuring the heat loss by utilizing a U-value meter. The U-value meter measures the heat transfer in the unit W/Km2 and has been used in several projects to upgrade the energy performance in temperate regions. The U-value meter was also...... and mechanical ventilation in the “warm countries” contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to make measurements of the heat losses at different places on a building facade, in order...

  16. Decomposition Kinetics for Mass Loss and Heat Released for HMX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weese, R K; Burnham, A K

    2004-07-27

    Nucleation-growth kinetic expressions are derived for thermal decomposition of HMX from a variety of types of data, including mass loss for isothermal and constant rate heating in an open pan, and heat flow for isothermal and constant rate heating in open and closed pans. Conditions are identified in which thermal runaway is small to nonexistent, which typically means temperatures less than 255 C and heating rates less than 1 C/min. Activation energies are typically in the 140 to 150 kJ/mol regime for open pan experiments and about 160 kJ/mol for sealed pan experiments. The reaction clearly displays more than one process, and most likely three processes, which are most clearly evident in open pan experiments. The reaction is accelerated for closed pan experiments, and one global reaction appears to fit the data well.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF OPERATION HEAT NETWORKS IN VIEW OF HEAT LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZBARAZ L. I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Goal. In recent years, due to a significant rise in price of energy, the reduction of direct costs for heating becomes a priority. In the utilities especially important to optimization of energy heating system equipment. During transport of thermal energy in the distribution networks thermal losses occur along the length of the hydraulic pipes and the coolant pumping losses. These loss-dependence of the particular distribution network. Changing temperature and the hydraulic regime at the source necessary to achieve the minimum cost of transport for today acting tariffs for energy. Scientific novelty. The studies received law changes head to the source at the qualitative and quantitative methods of regulation. Results. A mathematical model of an extensive network of decentralized heat source heating, which are analyzed using different methods of regulating and found the best.

  18. Reduction of the Polarization-Dependent Loss of Long-Period Fiber Gratings by Thermal Heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. T. Oh; S. Y. Chang; W. T. Han; U. C. Paek; Y. Chung

    2003-01-01

    The polarization-dependent loss of UV-written long-period fiber gratings was significantly reduced by increasing the pulse repetition rate of the writing UV beam. The effect is closely related with the enhanced photosensitivity induced by thermal heating.

  19. Heat transfer enhancement accompanying pressure-loss reduction with winglet-type vortex generators for fin-tube heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, K.; Kwak, K.M.; Nishino, K. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel technique that can augment heat transfer but nevertheless can reduce pressure-loss in a fin-tube heat exchanger with circular tubes in a relatively low Reynolds number flow, by deploying delta winglet-type vortex generators. The winglets are placed with a heretofore-unused orientation for the purpose of augmentation of heat transfer. This orientation is known as ''common flow up'' configuration. The proposed configuration causes significant separation delay, reduces form drag, and removes the zone of poor heat transfer from the near-wake of the tubes. This enhancement strategy has been successfully verified by experiments in the proposed configuration. In case of staggered tube banks, the heat transfer was augmented by 30% to 10%, and yet the pressure loss was reduced by 55% to 34% for the Reynolds number (based on two times channel height) ranging from 350 to 2100, when the present winglets were added. In case of in-line tube banks, these were found to be 20% to 10% augmentation, and 15% to 8% reduction, respectively. (author)

  20. Estimation of Heat Loss in a Closed Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Parate

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Power cartridges are designed and developed for use in military aircraft in association withHigh Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune. During development, the cartridge is firedin a closed vessel to generate basic design parameters. When the cartridge is fired, the heat islost to the walls of the vessel due to conduction, convection, radiation, and to some extent, byexpansion of the vessel. An attempt has been made to estimate the heat loss from the vesseland the surrounding. The aim of this study was to lay down the technical results theoreticallyand their validation through experiments.

  1. Optimum intermediate fibers for reducing interconnection loss: exact solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablon, Andrew D; Sumetsky, M

    2007-03-15

    We derive an exact analytical solution for a transmission line of N single-mode intermediate optical fibers that minimize the interconnection loss between any two dissimilar fiber modes that are well described by that paraxial scalar wave equation. Our solution shows that N optimum intermediate fibers reduce the original interconnection loss by a factor of least 1/(N+1) and that the total interconnection loss is only a function of N and the original direct interconnection loss. Our solution is not restricted to axisymmetric fibers or mode fields and therefore could be useful for reducing the interconnection loss between microstructured optical fibers, between certain slab waveguides, or between fibers and optical sources or detectors.

  2. Modelling of Heat Loss in Closed Vessels during propellant Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.P. KulKarni

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Closed vessel technique is essentially used to determine the force constant, vivacity and the burning rate of gun propellants. In fact, it is the only method to find out these three parameters experimentally. It is a well-known fact that however small the propellant burning time may be, there will be heat loss to the walls of the vessel due to conduction, convection, radiation and also due to the expansion of the vessel. This fact necessitates applying correction to the observed maximum pressure in the experiment. An analysis is presented in this paper as to how this heat loss can be modelled along with discussion about other models reported in this field.

  3. Minimizing heat loss in DC networks using batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Zocca, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Electricity transmission networks dissipate a non-negligible fraction of the power they transport due to the heat loss in the transmission lines. In this work we explore how the transport of energy can be more efficient by adding to the network multiple batteries that can coordinate their operations. Such batteries can both charge using the current excess in the network or discharge to meet the network current demand. Either way, the presence of batteries in the network can be leveraged to mitigate the intrinsic uncertainty in the power generation and demand and, hence, transport the energy more efficiently through the network. We consider a resistive DC network with stochastic external current injections or consumptions and show how the expected total heat loss depends on the network structure and on the batteries operations. Furthermore, in the case where the external currents are modeled by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes, we derive the dynamical optimal control for the batteries over a finite time interval.

  4. Effect of heat loss on laminar flamelet species concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccanera, Marco; Lentini, Diego

    2016-10-01

    The effects of heat loss on the structure of laminar flamelets, which are the constitutive elements of turbulent flames under the most common operating conditions, are investigated for typical aeronautical gas-turbine operating conditions at take-off. The magnitude of heat loss is quantified via the "enthalpy defect" measured with respect to an adiabatic flame. A procedure to generate laminar flamelets with an assigned enthalpy defect at the boundaries is devised and applied to nonpremixed propane/air flames, as propane reproduces the essential features of higher hydrocarbon combustion. It is found, contrary to commonly held beliefs, that the enthalpy defect has a significant effect on the concentration not only of minor species, but also of main reaction products. Such effects are found in general to be more pronounced for fuel-rich conditions. An impact is anticipated on the formation rate of nitric oxides. The effects of scalar dissipation rate are also discussed.

  5. Heat Loss Calculation of Compound Honeycomb Solar Collector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S.Ge; Y.Z.Zhang; 等

    1993-01-01

    A simplified technique is described for calculating the heat loss coefficient from the absorber of the solar flat-plate collector with a combined honeycomb.The problem is treated in two ways:the coupled mode and the decoupled mode.In the analysis,the cell wall and glass cover are assumed to be specularly reflecting and diffusely emitting surfaces,while the absorber is a diffusely reflecting and emitting surface.The influences of emissivities of the absorber and the cell wall as wall as well as the aspect ratio on the heat loss coefficient are predicted.The theoretical results are compared with experimental data reported in the literature,and the agreement is good.

  6. Steady-state heat losses in pipes for low-energy district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    of low-energy DH systems. Various design concepts are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, triple pipes. These technologies are potentially energyefficient and cost-effective solutions for DH networks in low-heat density......The synergy between highly energy efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Distribution heat losses represent a key factor in the design...... areas. We start with a review of theories and methods for steady-state heat loss calculation. Next, the article shows how detailed calculations with 2D-modeling of pipes can be carried out by means of computer software based on the finite element method (FEM). The model was validated by comparison...

  7. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in reducing soil nutrient loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Bender, S Franz; Asghari, Hamid R; Heijden, Marcel G A van der

    2015-05-01

    Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils via leaching and as gaseous emissions. These losses can be environmentally damaging and expensive in terms of lost agricultural production. Plants have evolved many traits to optimize nutrient acquisition, including the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), associations of plant roots with fungi that acquire soil nutrients. There is emerging evidence that AM have the ability to reduce nutrient loss from soils by enlarging the nutrient interception zone and preventing nutrient loss after rain-induced leaching events. Until recently, this important ecosystem service of AM had been largely overlooked. Here we review the role of AM in reducing nutrient loss and conclude that this role cannot be ignored if we are to increase global food production in an environmentally sustainable manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 2014 PGSFR Safety Analysis for Loss of Heat Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J. H.; Lee, K. L.; Choi, C. W.; Jeong, T. K.; Yoo, J.; Chang, W. P.; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, S. W.; Kang, S. H.; Ha, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    KAERI has been developing a conceptual design of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-4 Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) with the thermal power of 392.1 MWt, which is the pool type SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) with metal fuel. The PGSFR consists of the PHTS (Primary Heat Transport System), the IHTS (Intermediate Heat Transport System), and the DHRS (Decay Heat Removal System). A LOHS (Loss Of Heat Sink) accident has been investigated for a safety evaluation of the PGSFR using the MARS-LMR code. The safety analysis is evaluated by a CDF (Cumulative Damage Function). In case of the LOHS accident, the tentative safety criterion is the CDF of under 0.05. The LOHS accident has been evaluated in the PGSFR using MARS-LMR. The accident was initiated by both of PHTS pump trip. In the results, the CDF was predicted below a tentative safety criterion of 0.05 with a sufficient margin. The DHRS acceptably functioned for removing the core decay heat during long-term cooling period. Furthermore, it has been elucidated that LOHS with LOOP is more conservative than LOHS without LOOP.

  9. Reducing Food Loss And Waste While Improving The Public's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Roni A; Kanter, Rebecca; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2015-11-01

    An estimated 30 percent of the global food supply is lost or wasted, as is about 40 percent of the US food supply. There are valuable synergies between efforts to reduce food loss and waste and those promoting public health. To demonstrate the potential impact of building upon these synergies, we present an analysis of policies and interventions addressing food loss and waste, food security, food safety, and nutrition. We characterize as opportunities the policies and interventions that promote synergistic relationships between goals in the fields of food loss and waste and of public health. We characterize as challenges the policies and interventions that may reduce food loss and waste but compromise public health, or improve public health but increase food loss and waste. Some interventions are both opportunities and challenges. With deliberate planning and action, challenges can often be addressed and turned into opportunities. In other cases, it may be necessary to strike a balance between potential benefit in one area and risk of harm in the other. To help policy makers make the best use of the opportunities while tackling the challenges, it is essential to consider public health in efforts to reduce food loss and waste.

  10. Numerical analysis of the heat loss of stop valves of heat networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of mathematical modeling of heat regimes of stop valves of heat networks were given. It was revealed that for the stop valves with a relatively small nominal bore the equivalent pipe length can be reduced more than twice.

  11. Calibrated Heat Flow Model for Determining the Heat Conduction Losses in Laser Cutting of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, P.; Weber, R.; Speker, N.; Berger, P.; Sommer, B.; Graf, T.

    Laser machining has great potential regarding automation in fabrication of CFRP (carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics) parts, due to the nearly force and tool-wear free processing at high process speeds. The high vaporization temperatures and the large heat conductivity of the carbon fibers lead to a large heat transport into the sample. This causes the formation of a heat-affected zone and a decrease of the process speed. In the present paper,an analytical heat flow model was adapted in order to understand and investigate the heat conduction losses. Thermal sensors were embedded in samples at different distances from the kerf to fit the calculated to the measured temperatures. Heat conduction losses of up to 30% of the laser power were determined. Furthermore, the energy not absorbed by the sample, the energy for sublimating the composite material in the kerf, the energy for the formation of the HAZ, and the residual heat in the sample are compared in an energy balance.

  12. Investigation and Determination of Corn Combine Harvester Losses to Introduce Appropriate Methods to Reduce Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mostofi Sarkari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn harvesting involves some losses. These losses result in decreased benefits. It is almost impossible to lower losses to zero percent but it can be controlled in an acceptable level. As a result of this research, appropriate methods are introduced to decrease losses and reduce waste. In this project, losses in different part of combine were measured and evaluated according to the available standard method (ASAE S396.2 & S343.3. Harvesting losses include preharvest and during harvest losses comprising ear loss and kernal loss in the header, cylinder and cleaning losses. This project was conducted on farmers’ lands in Gazvin province. Some assessments related to yield factors were evaluated in different parts of farm with specified area, e.g. Plant height, ear number, stem diameter, ear diameter, cob diameter, row/ear and seed/row. All losses evaluated in three treatments which they were: seed moisture content (w.b. in three levels of 19%, 23% and 27%, ground speed in three levels of 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 ms-1 and cylinder speed of 400, 600 and 800 rpm. The split plot experimental design based on the randomised complete block design (RCBD was used to evaluate treatments. Measured losses compared with standard values to introduce the proper methods to decrease losses and proper adjustments. The results show that appropriate seed moisture content, cylinder and ground speed were 23%, 400 rpm and 1.2 ms-1, respectively. They had minimum total loss which WAS 1.55%, 2.65% and 2.34%, respectivily. The results also show that there was an ear loss in preharvest loss (because of bad weather condition that was 0.95-5.42%, also kernal loss on the header and cylinder loss which all related to improper adjustment of combine but total loss was in an acceptable level and standard. It was variable from 1.55% to 4.02%. Other parameters such as using inexperienced driver, improper combine adjustment, and also nonuniformity of field and ear moisture content in

  13. Investigation and Determination of Corn Combine Harvester Losses to Introduce Appropriate Methods to Reduce Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Mostofi Sarkari

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Corn harvesting involves some losses. These losses result in decreased benefits. It is almost impossible to lower losses to zero percent but it can be controlled in an acceptable level. As a result of this research, appropriate methods are introduced to decrease losses and reduce waste. In this project, losses in different part of combine were measured and evaluated according to the available standard method (ASAE S396.2 & S343.3. Harvesting losses include preharvest and during harvest losses comprising ear loss and kernal loss in the header, cylinder and cleaning losses. This project was conducted on farmers’ lands in Gazvin province. Some assessments related to yield factors were evaluated in different parts of farm with specified area, e.g. Plant height, ear number, stem diameter, ear diameter, cob diameter, row/ear and seed/row. All losses evaluated in three treatments which they were: seed moisture content (w.b. in three levels of 19%, 23% and 27%, ground speed in three levels of 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 ms-1 and cylinder speed of 400, 600 and 800 rpm. The split plot experimental design based on the randomised complete block design (RCBD was used to evaluate treatments. Measured losses compared with standard values to introduce the proper methods to decrease losses and proper adjustments. The results show that appropriate seed moisture content, cylinder and ground speed were 23%, 400 rpm and 1.2 ms-1, respectively. They had minimum total loss which WAS 1.55%, 2.65% and 2.34%, respectivily. The results also show that there was an ear loss in preharvest loss (because of bad weather condition that was 0.95-5.42%, also kernal loss on the header and cylinder loss which all related to improper adjustment of combine but total loss was in an acceptable level and standard. It was variable from 1.55% to 4.02%. Other parameters such as using inexperienced driver, improper combine adjustment, and also nonuniformity of field and ear moisture content in

  14. Energy reduction in buildings in temperate and tropic regions utilizing a heat loss measuring device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2012-01-01

    to ACMV in the "warm countries" contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish the best basis for energy renovation, it is important to have measures of the heat losses on a building façade, for optimizing the energy renovation. This paper will present...... penetration through facades with the aim to reduce the costs to AC. The paper will introduce a common project between NUS (National University of Singapore), AAU (Aalborg University) and HT-Meter, the latter as the U-value Meter developer company. In the project we will measure the heat transfer in the unit W...... of the project. Furthermore this paper present results from already conducted heat loss measurements in the temperate regions....

  15. RF heating from wake losses in diagnostics structures

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E

    2013-01-01

    Heating of diagnostics structures (striplines, buttons, screen vessels, wire scanners, etc.) has been observed at many facilities with higher stored currents. Simulations of wake losses using 3D EM codes are regularly used to estimate the amount of power lost from the bunched beam but on its own this does not tell how much is radiated back into the beam pipe or transmitted into external ports and how much is actually being dissipated in the structure and where. This talk should introduce into the matter, summarise some of the observations at various facilities and illustrate what approaches of detailed simulations have been taken.

  16. Determination of effective loss factors in reduced SEA models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeno Manguán, M.; Fernández de las Heras, M. J.; Roibás Millán, E.; Simón Hidalgo, F.

    2017-01-01

    The definition of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) models for large complex structures is highly conditioned by the classification of the structure elements into a set of coupled subsystems and the subsequent determination of the loss factors representing both the internal damping and the coupling between subsystems. The accurate definition of the complete system can lead to excessively large models as the size and complexity increases. This fact can also rise practical issues for the experimental determination of the loss factors. This work presents a formulation of reduced SEA models for incomplete systems defined by a set of effective loss factors. This reduced SEA model provides a feasible number of subsystems for the application of the Power Injection Method (PIM). For structures of high complexity, their components accessibility can be restricted, for instance internal equipments or panels. For these cases the use of PIM to carry out an experimental SEA analysis is not possible. New methods are presented for this case in combination with the reduced SEA models. These methods allow defining some of the model loss factors that could not be obtained through PIM. The methods are validated with a numerical analysis case and they are also applied to an actual spacecraft structure with accessibility restrictions: a solar wing in folded configuration.

  17. Reducing losses and dispersion effects in multilayer metamaterial tunnelling devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, Juan D [Department of Electronics and Electromagnetism, Faculty of Physics, University of Seville, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 41012 Seville (Spain); Jelinek, Lukas [Department of Electromagnetic Field, Czech Technical University, Technicka 2, 16627-Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Marques, Ricardo [Department of Electronics and Electromagnetism, Faculty of Physics, University of Seville, Avenida Reina Mercedes, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on reduction of losses and dispersion effects on tunnelling through waveguides filled with metamaterial. It will be shown that these unwanted effects could be reduced by dividing the metamaterial into several regions separated by air slabs. In the first part, these effects will be studied for isotropic left-handed media (LHM). Later this will be substituted by an anisotropic magnetic medium which will lead to a practical realization with broadside coupled split ring resonators (BC-SRRs). Finally, it is shown that quasi-perfect tunnelling is possible, even in the presence of unavoidable losses and dispersion in the metamaterial.

  18. Electromagnetic therapeutic coils design to reduce energy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrek Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of power loss reduction in applicators used in magnetotherapy. To generate magnetic field whose distribution is optimal and to reduce the power loss, the authors establish a set of parameters to evaluate the model of device. Results make it possible to infer that the real power input necessary to operate the magnetic field generator properly may vary significantly depending on construction and localization. The issues raised in this paper should be treated as a basis for further discussion on the construction of applicators used, e.g., in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

  19. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    Heating of buildings in Denmark accounts for approximately 40% of the entire national energy consumption. For this reason, a reduction of heat losses from building envelopes are of great importance in order to reach the Bologna CO2 emission reduction targets. Upgrading of the energy performance...... of buildings is a topic of huge global interest these years. Not only heating in the temperate and arctic regions are important, but also air conditioning and mechanical ventilation in the tropical countries contribute to an enormous energy consumption and corresponding CO2 emission. In order to establish...... of energy for heating and cooling of buildings. There is a huge energy-saving potential in this area for reducing both the global climate problems as well as economy challenges. In fact, global energy efficiency can be obtained in two ordinary ways. One way is to improve the energy production and supply...

  20. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  1. REDUCING BURST PACKET LOSS THROUGH ROUTE-FREE FORWARDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Hailong; Guo Yunfei; Cheng Dongnian; Zhang Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that today's inter-domain routing protocol,Border Gateway Protocol (BGP),converges slowly during network failures. Due to the distribution nature of Internet routing decisions and the rate-limiting timer Minimum Route Advertisement Interval (MRAI) of BGP,unavoidable convergence latency is introduced in reaction to network changes. During the period of convergence temporarily routing table inconsistencies cause short-term routing blackholes and loops which result in widespread temporary burst packet loss. In this paper,we present ROute-Free Forwarding (ROFF) - a novel technique for packet delivering continuously during periods of convergence. With slightly modifications on IP packet header and BGP,route loops and blackholes can be avoided. Our preliminary evaluation demonstrates that ROFF succeeds in reducing the number of Autonomous Systems (ASes) which experience burst packet loss and the duration of packet loss.

  2. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend...... to suffer from phase separation which is the phenomenon where anhydrous salt settles to the bottom over time. This happens especially in supercooled state. The heat released from the crystallization of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with phase separation will be lower than the heat released from...... sodium acetate trihydrate without phase separation. Possible ways of avoiding or reducing the problem of phase separation were investigated. A wide variety of composites of sodium acetate trihydrate with additives including extra water, thickening agents, solid and liquid polymers have been...

  3. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  4. A novel loss reduced modulation strategy for matrix converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new modulation strategy for three-phase to three-phase matrix converters. The new modulation strategy is applicable whenever the output voltage reference is below half the input voltage. By applying this new modulation method, the switching losses are reduced by 15......-35% compared to the conventional modulation scheme. The waveform quality of the new modulation strategy is evaluated with regard to both output flux harmonic distortion and input charge harmonic distortion....

  5. Multiple-cladding fibers with reduced bend loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Bulla, Douglas A. P.; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Love, John D.; Bailey, Ron

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate that a highly bend-resistant fiber can be realized. It is shown theoretically that, by introducing both depressed and elevated rings into the cladding, bending loss can be reduced significantly. A fiber based on this design has been fabricated and characterized as a first step toward achieving this goal. The results show that a multiple-cladding fiber is highly bend resistant when compared with the standard telecom single-mode fiber.

  6. Reducing the Power-Loss in RS-485 Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小平; 刘晓辉

    2002-01-01

    Power-loss sometimes needs particular consideration in coal mine. This paper analyzes the main three parts of power consuming of RS-485 system, that is quiescent power consuming, transmission power-consuming and peripheral equipment power consuming. How to reduce the power consuming in RS-485 designs is introduced, and also the method of hardware and software design is presented including choosing low power transceiver, optimizing communication data structure, optimizing communication working mode.

  7. Modelling of labour productivity loss due to climate change: HEAT-SHIELD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Daanen, Hein

    2016-04-01

    Climate change will bring higher heat levels (temperature and humidity combined) to large parts of the world. When these levels reach above thresholds well defined by human physiology, the ability to maintain physical activity levels decrease and labour productivity is reduced. This impact is of particular importance in work situations in areas with long high intensity hot seasons, but also affects cooler areas during heat waves. Our modelling of labour productivity loss includes climate model data of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP), calculations of heat stress indexes during different months, estimations of work capacity loss and its annual impacts in different parts of the world. Different climate models will be compared for the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and the outcomes of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference (COP21) agreements. The validation includes comparisons of modelling outputs with actual field studies using historical heat data. These modelling approaches are a first stage contribution to the European Commission funded HEAT-SHIELD project.

  8. Heat flow evolution of the Earth from paleomantle temperatures: Evidence for increasing heat loss since ∼2.5 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier

    2017-08-01

    Earth currently loses two to five times as much heat through its surface as it is internally produced by radioactivity. This proportion cannot be extrapolated into the past, because it would imply high interior temperatures and catastrophic melting of the planet in ancient times. The heat loss evolution of the Earth cannot therefore be described by a constant heat flow decreasing. This is consistent with previous work finding that the mantle heated up until ∼2.5-3.0 Ga and then progressively cooled down. The present work derives a first-order heat loss evolution of the Earth by comparing the evolution of the total heat content of the silicate Earth (as described by mantle potential temperatures deduced from the melting conditions of ancient non-arc basalts) with the total radioactive heat production. The results show that the heat flow was declining, and the mantle heating-up, until ∼2.5 Ga, but that after this time the heat flow has been slowly (but constantly) increasing, and the mantle cooling-down, until the present-day. The change in heat loss trend is roughly coeval with other major geological, geochemical and environmental changes, and could indicate the starting of the modern-style of plate tectonics. This work provides therefore the first quantitative evidence of change in terrestrial heat loss regime, and suggests that substantial variations in the internal heat budget occurred during Earth's history.

  9. Heat production and heat loss responses to cold water immersion after 35 days horizontal bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekjavic, Igor B; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Keramidas, Michail E; Biolo, Gianni; Narici, Marco; Eiken, Ola

    2012-05-01

    Bed rest is a terrestrial experimental analogue of unloading experienced during exposure to microgravity. Such unloading causes atrophy predominantly of the postural muscles, especially those of the lower limbs. We tested the hypothesis that 35 d horizontal bed rest alters thermoregulatory responses of subjects (N = 10) immersed in 15 degrees C water, particularly the heat produced by the shivering tremor of the skeletal muscles. Before and after bed rest we measured the thickness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), tibialis anterior (TA), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles by ultrasonography. During the immersions, we monitored rectal and skin temperatures, heat flux, heart rate, and oxygen uptake. After bed rest, muscle thickness decreased significantly by 12.2 +/- 8.8% and 8.0 +/- 9.1% in the GM and VL, respectively. No changes were observed in the TA and BB muscles. The 35-d bed rest caused a significant reduction in aerobic power, as reflected in maximal oxygen uptake. There were no significant differences in any of the observed thermoregulatory responses between the pre- and post-bed rest immersions. Cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning had no effect on the heat production and heat loss responses. Due to the significant reduction in the mass of the muscles in the lower limbs, concomitant with no change in heat production, we conclude that leg muscles do not play a significant role in shivering thermogenesis.

  10. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seitzler, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Backman, Christine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  11. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  12. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation.

  13. Cockroaches breathe discontinuously to reduce respiratory water loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; Wilson, Robbie S; White, Craig R

    2009-09-01

    The reasons why many insects breathe discontinuously at rest are poorly understood and hotly debated. Three adaptive hypotheses attempt to explain the significance of these discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs), whether it be to save water, to facilitate gas exchange in underground environments or to limit oxidative damage. Comparative studies favour the water saving hypothesis and mechanistic studies are equivocal but no study has examined the acclimation responses of adult insects chronically exposed to a range of respiratory environments. The present research is the first manipulative study of such chronic exposure to take a strong-inference approach to evaluating the competing hypotheses according to the explicit predictions stemming from them. Adult cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) were chronically exposed to various treatments of different respiratory gas compositions (O(2), CO(2) and humidity) and the DGC responses were interpreted in light of the a priori predictions stemming from the competing hypotheses. Rates of mass loss during respirometry were also measured for animals acclimated to a range of humidity conditions. The results refute the hypotheses of oxidative damage and underground gas exchange, and provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that DGCs serve to reduce respiratory water loss: cockroaches exposed to low humidity conditions exchange respiratory gases for shorter durations during each DGC and showed lower rates of body mass loss during respirometry than cockroaches exposed to high humidity conditions.

  14. Low central venous pressure reduces blood loss in hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong Wang; Li-Jian Liang; Xiong-Qing Huang; Xiao-Yu Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of low central venous pressure (LCVP) on blood loss during hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: By the method of sealed envelope,50 HCC patients were randomized into LCVP group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). In LCVP group,CVP was maintained at 2-4 mmHg and systolic blood pressure (SBP) above 90 mmHg by manipulation of the patient's posture and administration of drugs during hepatectomy, while in control group hepatectomy was performed routinely without lowering CVP. The patients'preoperative conditions, volume of blood loss during hepatectomy, volume of blood transfusion, length of hospital stay, changes in hepatic and renal functions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patients' preoperative conditions, maximal tumor dimension, pattern of hepatectomy, duration of vascular occlusion, operationtime, weight of resected liver tissues, incidence of post-operative complications, hepatic and renal functions between the two groups. LCVP group had a markedly lower volume of total intraoperative blood loss and blood loss during hepatectomy than the control group, being 903.9±180.8 mL vs 2 329.4±2 538.4(W=495.5, P<0.01) and 672.4±429.9 mL vs1 662.6± 1932.1 (W=543.5, P<0.01). There were no remarkable differences in the pre-resection and post-resection blood losses between the two groups. The length of hospital stay was significantly shortened in LCVP group as compared with the control group, being 16.3±6.8 d vs21.5 ± 8.6 d (W= 532.5, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: LCVP is easily achievable in technique.Maintenance of CVP≤4 mmHg can help reduce blood loss during hepatectomy, shorten the length of hospital stay, and has no detrimental effects on hepatic or renal function.

  15. Novel magnetic core materials impact modelling and analysis for minimization of RF heating loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bablu Kumar; Mohamad, Khairul Anuar; Saad, Ismail

    2016-02-01

    The eddy current that exists in RF transformer/inductor leads to generation of noise/heat in the circuit and ultimately reduces efficiency in RF system. Eddy current is generated in the magnetic core of the inductor/transformer largely determine the power loss for power transferring process. The losses for high-frequency magnetic components are complicated due to both the eddy current variation in magnetic core and copper windings reactance variation with frequency. Core materials permeability and permittivity are also related to variation of such losses those linked to the operating frequency. This paper will discuss mainly the selection of novel magnetic core materials for minimization of eddy power loss by using the approach of empirical equation and impedance plane simulation software TEDDY V1.2. By varying the operating frequency from 100 kHz to 1GHz and magnetic flux density from 0 to 2 Tesla, the eddy power loss is evaluated in our study. The Nano crystalline core material is found to be the best core material due to its low eddy power loss at low conductivity for optimum band of frequency application.

  16. Wind Turbine Waste Heat Recovery—A Short-Term Heat Loss Forecasting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Xydis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the era of massive renewable energy deployment to the era of cheaper energy needed has made scientists and developers more careful with respect to energy planning compared with a few years ago. The focus is—and will be—placed on retrofitting and on extracting the maximum amount of locally generated energy. The question is not only how much energy can be generated, but also what kind of energy and how it can be utilized efficiently. The waste heat coming from wind farms (WFs when in operation—which until now was wasted—was thoroughly studied. A short-term forecasting methodology that can provide the operator with a better view of the expected heat losses is presented. The majority of mechanical (due to friction and electro-thermal (i.e., generator losses takes place at the nacelle while a smaller part of this thermal source is located near the foundation of the wind turbine (WT where the power electronics and the transformers are usually located. That thermal load can be easily collected via a working fluid and then be transported to the nearest local community or nearby agricultural or small scale industrial units using the necessary piping.

  17. The measurement of heat loss with use of a thermal imaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the method of determining the heat loss of boiler by using of thermal infrared camera. Waste sawdust and wood shavings from the manufacturing of wooden furniture has been used as fuel in considered boiler with an installed heat output of 130 kW. The temperature distribution on the shell of the boiler has been discovered by using of infrared thermal camera, subsequently heat loss caused by radiation and convection has been calculated. For calculating of heat loss caused by radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Law has been used, for calculating of heat loss caused by convection three approaches have been used, Mc Adams, Michijev’s and King‘s. The results of the different approaches have been compared between themselves and the mean heat loss.

  18. Superconducting shielded core reactor with reduced AC losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yung S.; Hull, John R.

    2006-04-04

    A superconducting shielded core reactor (SSCR) operates as a passive device for limiting excessive AC current in a circuit operating at a high power level under a fault condition such as shorting. The SSCR includes a ferromagnetic core which may be either closed or open (with an air gap) and extends into and through a superconducting tube or superconducting rings arranged in a stacked array. First and second series connected copper coils each disposed about a portion of the iron core are connected to the circuit to be protected and are respectively wound inside and outside of the superconducting tube or rings. A large impedance is inserted into the circuit by the core when the shielding capability of the superconducting arrangement is exceeded by the applied magnetic field generated by the two coils under a fault condition to limit the AC current in the circuit. The proposed SSCR also affords reduced AC loss compared to conventional SSCRs under continuous normal operation.

  19. Proposed Cavity for Reduced Slip-Stacking Loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, J. [Indiana U.; Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This paper employs a novel dynamical mechanism to improve the performance of slip-stacking. Slip-stacking in an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly double the proton intensity. During slip-stacking, the Recycler or the Main Injector stores two particles beams that spatially overlap but have different momenta. The two particle beams are longitudinally focused by two 53 MHz 100 kV RF cavities with a small frequency difference between them. We propose an additional 106 MHz 20 kV RF cavity, with a frequency at the double the average of the upper and lower main RF frequencies. In simulation, we find the proposed RF cavity significantly enhances the stable bucket area and reduces slip-stacking losses under reasonable injection scenarios. We quantify and map the stability of the parameter space for any accelerator implementing slip-stacking with the addition of a harmonic RF cavity.

  20. Flash Flooding - Ways That Science and Adaptation Reduce Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntfest, E.

    2014-12-01

    Flash flood vulnerability is increasing. Predictability is more difficult as more flooding results after wildfires destroy hillside vegetation. Recent extreme events have occurred outside of seasonal norms with well beyond expected precipitation rates, and with unusual storm behavior where precipitation rates increase at the end of a storm. Engineers, social scientists, physical scientists, planners, emergency managers and others must collaborate in new ways to keep losses from rising. For example improved detection using cameras and gages must be complemented by understanding why people drive through flooded roads and what can be done to reduce the number of people on flooded roadways. Case studies of successful collaborations will be provided along with discussion of challenges and opportunities for expanding the innovative flash flood risk reduction strategies.

  1. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 18 December 2003 at the latest (tel. 74195 or 72201). ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

  2. REDUCED HEATING LEVEL DURING THE END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE

    CERN Multimedia

    ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

    2002-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 19 December 2002 at the latest (tel. 74195 or 72201). ST/CV - ST/FM Groups

  3. REDUCED HEATING LEVEL DURING THE END-OF-YEAR CLOSURE

    CERN Document Server

    ST/CV - ST/TFM Groups

    2001-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 20 December 2001 at the latest (tel.74195 or 72201).

  4. Increased Air Velocity Reduces Thermal and Cardiovascular Strain in Young and Older Males during Humid Exertional Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright Beatty, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Boulay, Pierre; Flouris, Andreas D; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have been reported to have a lower evaporative heat loss capacity than younger adults during exercise when full sweat evaporation is permitted. However, it is unclear how conditions of restricted evaporative and convective heat loss (i.e., high humidity, clothing insulation) alter heat stress. to the purpose of this study was to examine the heat stress responses of young and older males during and following exercise in a warm/humid environment under two different levels of air velocity. Ten young (YOUNG: 24±2 yr) and 10 older (OLDER: 59±3 yr) males, matched for body surface area performed 4×15-min cycling bouts (15-min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in warm/humid conditions (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (Low) and 3.0 (High) m·s(-1) air velocity while wearing work coveralls. Rectal (Tre) and mean skin (MTsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR), local sweat rate, % max skin blood flow (SkBF) (recovery only), and blood pressure (recovery only) were measured. High air velocity reduced core and skin temperatures (p 0.05) but was more effective in reducing cardiovascular strain (absolute and % max HR; p heat loss responses (% max SkBF and cutaneous vascular conductance) were detected across time in OLDER than YOUNG males in both conditions (p heat loss responses and cardiovascular strain were attenuated during the High condition in YOUNG compared to OLDER (p heat loss differences, YOUNG and OLDER males had similar levels of heat stress during intermittent exercise in warm and humid conditions while wearing work coveralls. Increased air velocity was effective in reducing heat stress equally, and cardiovascular strain to a greater extent, in YOUNG and OLDER males, and may be useful for mitigating heat stress in all workers.

  5. Combined Influence of Strain and Heat Loss on Turbulent Premixed Flame Stabilization

    KAUST Repository

    Tay-Wo-Chong, Luis

    2015-11-16

    The present paper argues that the prediction of turbulent premixed flames under non-adiabatic conditions can be improved by considering the combined effects of strain and heat loss on reaction rates. The effect of strain in the presence of heat loss on the consumption speed of laminar premixed flames was quantified by calculations of asymmetric counterflow configurations (“fresh-to-burnt”) with detailed chemistry. Heat losses were introduced by setting the temperature of the incoming stream of products on the “burnt” side to values below those corresponding to adiabatic conditions. The consumption speed decreased in a roughly exponential manner with increasing strain rate, and this tendency became more pronounced in the presence of heat losses. An empirical relation in terms of Markstein number, Karlovitz Number and a non-dimensional heat loss parameter was proposed for the combined influence of strain and heat losses on the consumption speed. Combining this empirical relation with a presumed probability density function for strain in turbulent flows, an attenuation factor that accounts for the effect of strain and heat loss on the reaction rate in turbulent flows was deduced and implemented into a turbulent combustion model. URANS simulations of a premixed swirl burner were carried out and validated against flow field and OH chemiluminescence measurements. Introducing the effects of strain and heat loss into the combustion model, the flame topology observed experimentally was correctly reproduced, with good agreement between experiment and simulation for flow field and flame length.

  6. Psychophysical and cerebral responses to heat stimulation in patients with central pain, painless central sensory loss, and in healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kenneth L; Geisser, Michael; Lorenz, Jürgen; Morrow, Thomas J; Paulson, Pamela; Minoshima, Satoshi

    2012-02-01

    Patients with central pain (CP) typically have chronic pain within an area of reduced pain and temperature sensation, suggesting an impairment of endogenous pain modulation mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that some brain structures normally activated by cutaneous heat stimulation would be hyperresponsive among patients with CP but not among patients with a central nervous system lesion causing a loss of heat or nociceptive sensation with no pain (NP). We used H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography to measure, in 15 healthy control participants, 10 NP patients, and 10 CP patients, increases in regional cerebral blood flow among volumes of interest (VOI) from the resting (no stimulus) condition during bilateral contact heat stimulation at heat detection, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance levels. Both patient groups had a reduced perception of heat intensity and unpleasantness on the clinically affected side and a bilateral impairment of heat detection. Compared with the HC group, both NP and CP patients had more hyperactive and hypoactive VOI in the resting state and more hyperresponsive and hyporesponsive VOI during heat stimulation. Compared with NP patients, CP patients had more hyperresponsive VOI in the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex during heat stimulation. Our results show that focal CNS lesions produce bilateral sensory deficits and widespread changes in the nociceptive excitability of the brain. The increased nociceptive excitability within the intralaminar thalamus and sensory-motor cortex of our sample of CP patients suggests an underlying pathophysiology for the pain in some central pain syndromes.

  7. Method for reducing excess heat supply experienced in typical Chinese district heating systems by achieving hydraulic balance and improving indoor air temperature control at the building level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Gudmundsson, Oddgeir; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2016-01-01

    that once the hydraulic balance is achieved and indoor temperatures are controlled with this integrated approach, 17% heat savings and 42.8% pump electricity savings can be achieved. The energy savings will also have a positive environmental effect with seasonal reductions of 11 kg CO2, 0.1 kg SO2, and 0...... with the actual heat demand. This results in 15-30% of the total supplied heat being lost. This paper proposes an integrated approach that aims to reduce the excess heat loss by introducing pre-set thermostatic radiator valves combined with automatic balancing valves. Those devices establish hydraulic balance...

  8. The effect of stellar radiation on exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Winonah; Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    Our project aims to investigate the influence of stellar activity and high-energy radiation on short-period transiting exoplanet atmospheric heating and mass loss. Mass loss in closely orbiting gaseous exoplanets could be significant enough to evaporate a significant portion of the atmosphere over the total system lifetime. A current question of interest is how Neptune-class gas giants might change over time from being exposed to intense X-ray and UV flux radiated from the star. Our research aims to estimate current and total mass loss for four Neptune-class exoplanets that have both measured radii and masses. We use computer software to reduce and analyze Chandra X-ray observations of Neptune-class exoplanets, including HAT-P-11b and archival data of GJ 436b, to calculate the high-energy incident flux for each planet. We then estimate the current-epoch mass-loss rate and construct integrated mass-loss histories. We test whether planets receiving the greatest dose of high-energy radiation also tend to be the lowest mass and the most dense, suggestive of evaporation. These observations provide essential empirical input for understanding and modeling the potential evolutionary transformation of hot gas giants into less massive and more dense remnants.

  9. Influence of resonant magnetic perturbations on transient heat load deposition and fast ion losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rack, Michael Thomas

    2014-07-11

    losses in the presence of resonant magnetic perturbation fields, is presented. It is used to investigate the impact of various types of perturbation field, static and rotating, on the losses. The investigations of the heat load deposition profiles show important features of the resonant magnetic perturbation fields. Firstly, the heat can be favourably redistributed to reduce the local heat fluxes; secondly, a physical process is observed that appears to be linked to the heat redistribution and causes a slow propagation of a heat flux pattern long before the major energy is ejected. This opens a new view on the physics of resonant magnetic perturbation fields as it shows that processes on different time-scales are involved during the control of the plasma edge instabilities. The control of these instabilities can benefit from the new method of applying resonant magnetic perturbation fields using lower hybrid waves. This method provides high flexibility as needed to optimize the heat load redistribution. It is proven to create perturbation fields that are always resonant in the plasma edge region. In addition, it was found that no clear drawbacks appear over a wide range of perturbation fields; moreover, strong indications for an improvement of the fast ion confinement are seen. The overall results provide a positive outlook for the application of resonant magnetic perturbation fields to control edge instabilities: (a) an advantageous redistribution of transient heat loads is achievable, (b) lower hybrid waves can be used for the production of highly flexible resonant magnetic perturbation fields, and (c) resonant magnetic perturbation fields do not necessarily reduce the fast ion confinement. These results show that an optimization of the applied magnetic perturbation fields is able to solve the problem of transient heat loads without any drawbacks for the crucial fast ion confinement.

  10. Light masking of circadian rhythms of heat production, heat loss, and body temperature in squirrel monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine their relative contributions to light masking of the circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of body temperature and activity. Feeding was also measured. Responses to an entraining light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12) and a masking LD cycle (LD 2:2) were compared. HP and HL contributed to both the daily rhythm and the masking changes in Tb. All variables showed phase-dependent masking responses. Masking transients at L or D transitions were generally greater during subjective day; however, L masking resulted in sustained elevation of Tb, HP, and HL during subjective night. Parallel, apparently compensatory, changes of HL and HP suggest action by both the circadian timing system and light masking on Tb set point. Furthermore, transient HL increases during subjective night suggest that gain change may supplement set point regulation of Tb.

  11. Investigation of Mechanical Loss Components and Heat Transfer in an Axial-Flux PM Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Wrobel, Rafal; Vaniel, Gyula; Copeland, Colin; Duda, Tomasz; Staton, David; Mellor, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates components of mechanical loss together with heat transfer effects in an axial-flux permanent-magnet motor. The mechanical loss components generated within electrical machines are well known; however, their prediction or derivation has not been widely reported in the literature. These, together with the electromagnetic loss sources and heat transfer effects, are crucial and must be accounted for when considering high-power-density, high-speed, and/or compact machine des...

  12. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...... generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis.......Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...

  13. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2004 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch.). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  14. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    ST Department

    2007-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperatures have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2007 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  15. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    TS/CV-TS/FM Group

    2004-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2004 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch.).

  16. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2007 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail mailto:fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  17. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 12 December 2008 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail mailto:fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  18. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature has to be maintained to let us know by 15 December 2006 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  19. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    TS/CV

    2005-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperatures have to be maintained to let us know by 16 December 2005 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). Groups TS/CV and TS/FM

  20. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 15 December 2006 at the latest (tel. 72201 or 77777 or e-mail fm.support@cern.ch). TS/CV - TS/FM Groups

  1. Finite time thermodynamic analysis of endoreversible Stirling heat engine with regenerative losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, S.C.; Kumar, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    2000-10-01

    This communication presents an investigation of a finite time thermodynamic analysis of an endoreversible Stirling heat engine. Finite time thermodynamics has been applied to maximise the power output and the corresponding thermal efficiency of an endoreversible Stirling heat engine with internal heat loss in the regenerator and for the finite heat capacity of the external reservoirs. The effect of the effectiveness of the various heat exchangers, the inlet temperatures of external heat reservoirs on the power output and the corresponding thermal efficiency have been studied. It is seen that an endoreversible Stirling heat engine with an ideal regenerator ({epsilon}{sub R}=1.00) is as efficient as an endoreversible Carnot heat engine. It is also found that the maximum power output increases with the heat capacitance rates and effectiveness of the source/sink side heat exchangers while thermal efficiency increases with the effectiveness of the regenerator. (Author)

  2. Future Earth: Reducing Loss By Automating Response to Earthquake Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes pose a significant threat to society in the U.S. and around the world. The risk is easily forgotten given the infrequent recurrence of major damaging events, yet the likelihood of a major earthquake in California in the next 30 years is greater than 99%. As our societal infrastructure becomes ever more interconnected, the potential impacts of these future events are difficult to predict. Yet, the same inter-connected infrastructure also allows us to rapidly detect earthquakes as they begin, and provide seconds, tens or seconds, or a few minutes warning. A demonstration earthquake early warning system is now operating in California and is being expanded to the west coast (www.ShakeAlert.org). In recent earthquakes in the Los Angeles region, alerts were generated that could have provided warning to the vast majority of Los Angelinos who experienced the shaking. Efforts are underway to build a public system. Smartphone technology will be used not only to issue that alerts, but could also be used to collect data, and improve the warnings. The MyShake project at UC Berkeley is currently testing an app that attempts to turn millions of smartphones into earthquake-detectors. As our development of the technology continues, we can anticipate ever-more automated response to earthquake alerts. Already, the BART system in the San Francisco Bay Area automatically stops trains based on the alerts. In the future, elevators will stop, machinery will pause, hazardous materials will be isolated, and self-driving cars will pull-over to the side of the road. In this presentation we will review the current status of the earthquake early warning system in the US. We will illustrate how smartphones can contribute to the system. Finally, we will review applications of the information to reduce future losses.

  3. Plates of the dinosaur stegosaurus: forced convection heat loss fins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlow, J O; Thompson, C V; Rosner, D E

    1976-06-11

    It is suggested that the plates along the arched back and tail of Stegosaurus served an important thermoregulatory function as forced convection "fins." Wind tunnel experiments on finned models, internal heat conduction calculations, and direct observations of the morphology and internal structure of stegosaur plates support this hypothesis, demonstrating the comparative effectiveness of the plates as heat dissipaters, controllable through input blood flow rate, temperature, and body orientation (with respect to wind).

  4. Route Planning and Estimate of Heat Loss of Hot Water Transportation Piping for Fuel Cell Local Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    The method of supplying the electric power and heat energy for the energy demand of buildings by Centralized system type and distributed system type of fuel cell network is studied. The hot-water piping route planning program of fuel cell network was developed by using genetic algorithm based on the view of TSP ( Traveling salesman problem) . In this program, the piping route planning which minimizes the quantity of heat loss in hot-water piping can be performed. The residential section model of Sapporo city of 74 buildings was analyzed, and the quantity of heat loss from the hot-water piping of both systems was estimated. Consequently, the ratio of the quantity of heat loss of a distributed system to a centralized system was about 50% in the full year average. This program is introduced into the route planning of hot- Water piping system of the fuel cell network, and plan to reduce the quantity of heat loss in a distributed system will be made.

  5. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie; Muschler, R.; Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    2017-01-01

    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N...... losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry...... manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect...

  6. Flood protection diversification to reduce probabilities of extreme losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian; Lambert, James H; Karvetski, Christopher W; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2012-11-01

    Recent catastrophic losses because of floods require developing resilient approaches to flood risk protection. This article assesses how diversification of a system of coastal protections might decrease the probabilities of extreme flood losses. The study compares the performance of portfolios each consisting of four types of flood protection assets in a large region of dike rings. A parametric analysis suggests conditions in which diversifications of the types of included flood protection assets decrease extreme flood losses. Increased return periods of extreme losses are associated with portfolios where the asset types have low correlations of economic risk. The effort highlights the importance of understanding correlations across asset types in planning for large-scale flood protection. It allows explicit integration of climate change scenarios in developing flood mitigation strategy.

  7. Leptin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burguera, B; Hofbauer, L C; Thomas, T; Gori, F; Evans, G L; Khosla, S; Riggs, B L; Turner, R T

    2001-01-01

    .... Serum leptin levels are strongly and directly related to fat body mass. We report here the effects of leptin administration compared with estrogen therapy on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats...

  8. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  9. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced

  10. Heat loss distribution: Impedance and thermal loss analyses in LiFePO4/graphite 18650 electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasundaram, Manikandan; Ramar, Vishwanathan; Yap, Christopher; Lu, Li; Tay, Andrew A. O.; Palani, Balaya

    2016-10-01

    We report here thermal behaviour and various components of heat loss of 18650-type LiFePO4/graphite cell at different testing conditions. In this regard, the total heat generated during charging and discharging processes at various current rates (C) has been quantified in an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter experiment. Irreversible heat generation, which depends on applied current and internal cell resistance, is measured under corresponding charge/discharge conditions using intermittent pulse techniques. On the other hand, reversible heat generation which depends on entropy changes of the electrode materials during the cell reaction is measured from the determination of entropic coefficient at various states of charge/discharge. The contributions of irreversible and reversible heat generation to the total heat generation at both high and low current rates are evaluated. At every state of charge/discharge, the nature of the cell reaction is found to be either exothermic or endothermic which is especially evident at low C rates. In addition, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are performed on above 18650 cells at various states of charge to determine the components of internal resistance. The findings from the impedance and thermal loss analysis are helpful for understanding the favourable states of charge/discharge for battery operation, and designing better thermal management systems.

  11. Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150l tank...... parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations.The results...

  12. Wind effects on convective heat loss from a cavity receiver for a parabolic concentrating solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, R.Y. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomoma, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1993-09-01

    Tests were performed to determine the convective heat loss characteristics of a cavity receiver for a parabolid dish concentrating solar collector for various tilt angles and wind speeds of 0-24 mph. Natural (no wind) convective heat loss from the receiver is the highest for a horizontal receiver orientation and negligible with the reveler facing straight down. Convection from the receiver is substantially increased by the presence of side-on wind for all receiver tilt angles. For head-on wind, convective heat loss with the receiver facing straight down is approximately the same as that for side-on wind. Overall it was found that for wind speeds of 20--24 mph, convective heat loss from the receiver can be as much as three times that occurring without wind.

  13. The comparison of models for calculating heat conduction losses in laser cutting of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galushkin, M. G.; Golubev, V. S.; Grishaev, R. V.; Khomenko, M. D.

    2011-02-01

    Numerical comparisons of some models for estimating the power losses due to heat conduction in process of gas-assisted laser cutting are presented in this paper. In spite of differences between these models their results match fairly well.

  14. Heat Loss Mechanisms In Transparent Insulation With Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, V.; Stahl, W.; Pfluger, A.; Goetzberger, A.; Schmid, J.

    1983-12-01

    The development of highly transparent insulation materials is an important step in raising the efficiency of flat plate collectors and for passive use of solar energy in buildings. The problem in combining selective absorbers and honeycomb structures is that the radiation losses due to thermal emission of the material of the structure may be larger than the losses due to convection which are present without the structure. Therefore a thorough analysis of the different loss mechanisms has been made. There are two possibilities for overcoming these difficulties. The first is the use of materials with low absorptance in the infrared or with selective surfaces for the honeycomb structure. The second possibility is the use of highly IR-absorbing materials. In the latter case a selective absorber is not needed. Results from both approaches will be presented.

  15. Estimating losses in heat networks coated with modern liquid crystal thermal insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, R. A.

    2015-07-01

    One of the present issues during heat network operation in Russia is the losses of thermal energy at its transfer to consumers. According to statements of experts, losses in heat networks reach 35-50%. In this work, some properties of thermo-insulating materials currently in use are described. The innovative TLM Ceramic liquid-crystal thermal insulation is presented by its positive technical and economical characteristics, as well as field-performance data, and the doubts of experts about its declared properties. Location measurement data are presented for Astrakhan Severnaya heat and power plant hot-water system section covered with the 2-mm-thick liquid-crystal thermal insulation layer. Specific heat losses from the hot-water system surface have been determined and the arguments for inexpediency of applying TLM Ceramic liquid-crystal thermal insulation in heat-and-power engineering are discussed.

  16. Expected losses, insurability, and benefits from reducing vulnerability to attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozick, Linda Karen (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Carlson, Rolf Erik; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2004-03-01

    A model of malicious attacks against an infrastructure system is developed that uses a network representation of the system structure together with a Hidden Markov Model of an attack at a node of that system and a Markov Decision Process model of attacker strategy across the system as a whole. We use information systems as an illustration, but the analytic structure developed can also apply to attacks against physical facilities or other systems that provide services to customers. This structure provides an explicit mechanism to evaluate expected losses from malicious attacks, and to evaluate changes in those losses that would result from system hardening. Thus, we provide a basis for evaluating the benefits of system hardening. The model also allows investigation of the potential for the purchase of an insurance contract to cover the potential losses when safeguards are breached and the system fails.

  17. Reducing mining losses when applying room and pillar mining methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchrow, G.; Schilder, C.

    1985-12-01

    In potassium mining in the German Democratic Republic, the reduction of losses is an important problem, and considerable scientific and technical efforts have been made on this sector. There were four stages of development: A period of 'empirical' dimensioning was followed by dimensioning on a mathematical basis and by the optimized design of winning parameter relationships. The latest stage focuses on the optimisation of pillar parameters in suitable rock salt and sylvinite fields. The different stages of development are described, explained, and illustrated by examples. The efficiency in loss reduction is determined, and methods for monitoring the winning operations are presented. (orig./MOS).

  18. Heat loss of heat pipelines in insulation moisture conditions with the evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.; Gubina Ekaterina V.

    2014-01-01

    Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a wet fibroporous material in conditions of evaporation and steam diffusion were obtained. Values of heat and mass fluxes were established. The contribution of evaporation effect to total heat flux and need to consider volume fractions of water and steam into the structure of fibroporous material in calculation of effective thermal conductivity were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem...

  19. Heat loss of heat pipelines in insulation moisture conditions with the evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a wet fibroporous material in conditions of evaporation and steam diffusion were obtained. Values of heat and mass fluxes were established. The contribution of evaporation effect to total heat flux and need to consider volume fractions of water and steam into the structure of fibroporous material in calculation of effective thermal conductivity were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem can be ignored.

  20. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in reducing soil nutrient loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavagnaro, Timothy R.; Bender, S. Franz; Asghari, Hamid R.; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial amounts of nutrients are lost from soils via leaching and as gaseous emissions. These losses can be environmentally damaging and expensive in terms of lost agricultural production. Plants have evolved many traits to optimize nutrient acquisition, including the formation of arbuscular

  1. The TX-model - a quantitative heat loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinki, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analysing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that would enable the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of advanced IR-thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX - model has been developed, based on the fact that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground have a temperature signature on the ground surface. Qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques primarily make use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss per unit length. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature profile perpendicular to the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but is also affected by other parameters such as burial depth, heat diffusivity, wind, precipitation and so on. In order to analyse the parameters influencing the TX- factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is by and large unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at different sites in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and USA through a co-operative research program organised and partially financed by the IEA District Heating Programme, Task III, and

  2. Analytical study of the heat loss attenuation by clothing on thermal manikins under radiative heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    For wearers of protective clothing in radiation environments there are no quantitative guidelines available for the effect of a radiative heat load on heat exchange. Under the European Union funded project ThermProtect an analytical effort was defined to address the issue of radiative heat load whil

  3. Heat Loss Measurements in Buildings Utilizing a U-value Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    the best basis for upgrading the energy performance, it is important to measure the heat losses at different locations on a building facade, in order to optimize the energy performance. The author has invented a U-value meter, enabling measurements of heat transfer coefficients. The meter has been used...

  4. Heat Loss of the Earth and Energy Budget of the Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, J.; Jaupart, C.

    2009-05-01

    Determination of the rate of Earth's energy loss is based a very large number of heat flux measurements in a variety of geological settings. Difficulties in integrating the flux over the Earth surface stem from two facts. One is that heat flux varies on a wide range of spatial scales and, in continents, is not a function of a single variable such as geological age, for example. The other difficulty is that the data exhibit large scatter. Advances in the interpretation of oceanic heat flux data are due to a thorough understanding of hydrothermal circulation through oceanic crust and sediments. In continents, the total heat loss has been constrained by sampling of old cratons is now adequate and systematic studies of heat flux and heat production have provided robust constraints on the crustal contribution to the surface heat flux. Heat loss through the ocean floor cannot be determined from the raw data because they are affected by hydrothermal circulation and irregularities in sediment cover. Predictions of the "half-space" model for the conductive cooling of oceanic lithosphere are consistent with heat flux measurements in selected "noise-free" environments as well as with the bathymetry of the sea floor. They are also consistent with values of the mantle temperature beneath oceanic ridges derived from petrology. This cooling model is also consistent with numerical calculations of mantle convection with plates. Using an accurate determination of the area extent of oceanic sea floor including marginal basins and accounting for enhanced heat flux over hot spots, we estimated the rate of heat loss through the oceans to be 32±2 TW (1012 Watts). This result is valid only for the present-day age distribution of sea floor and heat loss may have been different in the past when the distribution of sea floor ages was different from the present. For continents, bias due to the very uneven sampling of the surface heat flux is removed by area- weighting the average. The

  5. Protein disorder reduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to survive heat shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo, Esmeralda; Gasik, Zofia; Dong, Yu-An; Goldberg, Tatyana; Rost, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments established that a culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) survives sudden high temperatures by specifically duplicating the entire chromosome III and two chromosomal fragments (from IV and XII). Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are not significantly over-abundant in the duplication. In contrast, we suggest a simple algorithm to “ postdict ” the experimental results: Find a small enough chromosome with minimal protein disorder and duplicate this region. This algorithm largely explains all observed duplications. In particular, all regions duplicated in the experiment reduced the overall content of protein disorder. The differential analysis of the functional makeup of the duplication remained inconclusive. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment suggested over-representation in processes related to reproduction and nutrient uptake. Analyzing the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) revealed that few network-central proteins were duplicated. The predictive hypothesis hinges upon the concept of reducing proteins with long regions of disorder in order to become less sensitive to heat shock attack. PMID:26673203

  6. Causes and Consequences of Exceptional North Atlantic Heat Loss in Recent Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josey, Simon; Grist, Jeremy; Duchez, Aurelie; Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; Hirschi, Joel; Marsh, Robert; Sinha, Bablu

    2016-04-01

    The mid-high latitude North Atlantic loses large amounts of heat to the atmosphere in winter leading to dense water formation. An examination of reanalysis datasets (ERA-Interim, NCEP/NCAR) reveals that heat loss in the recent winters 2013-14 and 2014-15 was exceptionally strong. The causes and consequences of this extraordinary ocean heat loss will be discussed. In 2013-2014, the net air-sea heat flux anomaly averaged over the whole winter exceeded 100 Wm-2 in the eastern subpolar gyre (the most extreme in the period since 1979 spanned by ERA-Interim). The causes of this extreme heat loss will be shown to be severe latent and sensible heat fluxes driven primarily by anomalously strong westerly airflows from North America and northerly airflows originating in the Nordic Seas. The associated sea level pressure anomaly field reflects the dominance of the second mode of atmospheric variability, the East Atlantic Pattern (EAP) over the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in this winter. The extreme winter heat loss had a significant impact on the ocean extending from the sea surface into the deeper layers and a re-emergent cold Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomaly is evident in November 2014. The following winter 2014-15 experienced further extreme heat loss that served to amplify the strength of the re-emergent SST anomaly. By summer 2015, an unprecedented cold mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean surface temperature anomaly is evident in observations and has been widely referred to as the 'big blue blob'. The role played by the extreme surface heat loss in the preceding winters in generating this feature and it subsequent evolution through winter 2015-16 will be explored.

  7. Biological evaluation of devices used for reducing entrainment and impingement losses at thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Szluha, A.T.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary survey of fish protection devices either in use or proposed for water intake structures was conducted for the purpose of assessing their potential for reducing impingement and entrainment. All the designs examined can be divided into two basic categories: behavioral screening systems and physical screening systems. The behavioral screening devices rely upon the ability of fish to sense artificial stimuli and respond by swimming away from hazardous areas. These systems are of little or no value in protecting planktonic fish eggs, larvae, and disoriented, heat-shocked, or lethargic adult fishes. Many of the physical screening devices, on the other hand, require the impingement of organisms against a screen before they can be removed from the intake system, thus subjecting survival. Some of the designs incorporate both behavioral and physical sceening concepts. Six devices were selected for further consideration based on their potential or demonstrated effectiveness in reducing impingement and entrainment losses at a variety of intake situations. The structures evaluated were modified vertical traveling screens, louvers, angled vertical traveling screens, horizontal traveling screens, center-flow screens, and wedge-wire screens. Since some of these intake structures represent new concepts, few laboratory or in situ biological studies have been carried out. For others, actual reductions in fish losses have been demonstrated. The design features and status of biological testing is discussed for each device, and an evaluation of their fish protection potential is presented.

  8. Reducing Nutrient Losses with Directed Fertilization of Degraded Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, E.; Walter, M. T.; Schneider, R.

    2016-12-01

    Degraded soils around the world are stunting agricultural productivity in places where people need it the most. In China, hundreds of years of agriculture and human activity have turned large swaths of productive grasslands into expanses of sandy soils where nothing can grow. Returning soils such as these to healthy productive landscapes is crucial to the livelihoods of rural families and to feeding the expanding population of China and the world at large. Buried wood chips can be used to improve the soils' water holding capacity but additional nutrient inputs are crucial to support plant growth and completely restore degraded soils in China and elsewhere. Improperly applied fertilizer can cause large fluxes of soluble nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to pollute groundwater, and reach surface water bodies causing harmful algal blooms or eutrophication. Similarly, fertilization can create increases in nutrient losses in the form of greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is imperative that nutrient additions to this system be done in a way that fosters restoration and a return to productivity, but minimizes nutrient losses to adjacent surface water bodies and the atmosphere. The primary objective of this study is to characterize soluble and gaseous N and P losses from degraded sandy soils with wood chip and fertilizer amendments in order to identify optimal fertilization methods, frequencies, and quantities for soil restoration. A laboratory soil column study is currently underway to begin examining these questions results of this study will be presented at the Fall Meeting.

  9. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is

  10. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  11. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  12. Systemic steroid reduces long-term hearing loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss is a common complication of pneumococcal meningitis. Treatment with corticosteroids reduces inflammatory response and may thereby reduce hearing loss. However, both experimental studies and clinical trials investigating the effect of corticosteroids on hearing loss have...... generated conflicting results. The objective of the present study was to determine whether systemic steroid treatment had an effect on hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis....

  13. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M.

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42 %. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  14. Effect of heterogenous and homogenous air gaps on dry heat loss through the garment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Emel; Psikuta, Agnes; Bueno, Marie-Ange; Rossi, René M

    2015-11-01

    In real life conditions, the trapped air between the human body and the garment has uneven shape and vary over the body parts as a consequence of the complex geometry of the human body. However, the existing clothing models assume uniform air layer between the human body and the garment or its full contact, which may cause large error in the output of simulations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a heterogeneous vertical air gap with different configuration of folds (size and frequency) on dry heat loss using a heated cylinder (Torso). It was found that the presence of folds in the garment led to an increased heat loss from the body in comparison to a homogeneous air gap of comparable size. Interestingly, the size of folds did not have an influence on the dry heat loss. Additionally, the effect of the contact area on dry heat loss became important when exceeding a threshold of about 42%. The results from this study are useful for modelling of a realistic dry heat loss through the clothing and contribute to the improvement of design of protective and active sport garments.

  15. Radiation Energy Loss from Laser-Heated Shenguang-Ⅱ Hohlraums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Tie-Qiang; HUANG Tian-Xuan; SUN Ke-Xu; WANG Guang-Yu; DUAN Qing-Sheng; PEI Wen-Bing; GU Pei-Jun; ZHANG Xing-Hong; DING Yong-Kun; ZHENG Zhi-Jian; YANG Jia-Min

    2004-01-01

    @@ The x ray energy loss out of laser-heated hohlraum through laser entrance holes (LEH) is discussed in detail according to a simple theoretical model and is compared with the hohlraum experimental data measured at Shenguang Ⅱ laser facility. The radiation loss is considered to be composed of two parts, that is, direct contribution from laser spots and re-emitted part from the x ray-heated hohlraum inner wall, and the former accounts for about 20% of the total loss for the Shenguang Ⅱ hohlraums. Owing to the non-equilibrium characteristics of laser target coupling the direct contribution part is non-equilibrium in spectrum.

  16. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Tank design parameters such as tank volume, height to diameter ratio and insulation and different initial conditions of the tank are investigated.It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how...

  17. Numerical investigation of thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Modibo; Kane; TRAORE

    2010-01-01

    Based on the analysis of computation methods and heat transfer processes of the parabolic trough receiver running in steady state, a two-dimensional empirical model was developed to investigate the thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receivers under steady state equilibrium. A numerical simulation was conducted for the parabolic trough receiver involved in a literature. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results show that the empirical model is accurate enough and can be used to investigate the thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receivers. The thermal performance of heat loss of UVAC3 and the new-generation UVAC2008 was investigated respectively. The simulation results show that selective coatings and annular pressure influence the thermal performance of heat loss of parabolic trough receivers greatly, wind velocity influences the thermal performance of thermal loss of parabolic trough receivers only a little in contrast with the emittance of selective coatings and air pressure in annular space. And the thermal performance of thermal loss of the new-generation parabolic trough receiver has been improved in a large amount.

  18. Bacteria as a Filtration Loss Reducing Agent during Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the desired properties of a drilling mud is that it should minimize fluid loss from the wellbore into the surrounding permeable formation. It is preferable that the quantity of liquid lost to the surrounding formation and the thickness of the filter cake formed be held to a minimum. The fermentates employed for purposes of the invention are produced by the fermentation of carbohydrate solutions with bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas. Specific Xanthomonas organisms employed includes Xanthomonas begonia, Xanthomonas campestris, Xanthomonas hederae etc. Experimental work showed that fermentates produced by members of this genus have properties, which are used for purposes of this invention.

  19. Method for optimal design of pipes for low-energy district heating, with focus on heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Rosa, Alessandro; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The synergy between highly energy-efficient buildings and low-energy district heating (DH) systems is a promising concept for the optimal integration of energy-saving policies and energy supply systems based on renewable energy (RE). Network transmission and distribution heat loss is one of the key...... factors in the optimal design of low-energy DH systems. Various pipe configurations are considered in this paper: flexible pre-insulated twin pipes with symmetrical or asymmetrical insulation, double pipes, and triple pipes. These technologies represent potential energy-efficient and cost...... showed the influence of the soil temperature throughout the year. Finally, the article describes proposals for the optimal design of pipes for low-energy applications and presents methods for decreasing heat losses....

  20. Sauropod necks: are they really for heat loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald M Henderson

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional digital models of 16 different sauropods were used to examine the scaling relationship between metabolism and surface areas of the whole body, the neck, and the tail in an attempt to see if the necks could have functioned as radiators for the elimination of excess body heat. The sauropod taxa sample ranged in body mass from a 639 kg juvenile Camarasaurus to a 25 t adult Brachiosaurus. Metabolism was assumed to be directly proportional to body mass raised to the ¾ power, and estimates of body mass accounted for the presence of lungs and systems of air sacs in the trunk and neck. Surface areas were determined by decomposing the model surfaces into triangles and their areas being computed by vector methods. It was found that total body surface area was almost isometric with body mass, and that it showed negative allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. In contrast, neck area showed positive allometry when plotted against metabolic rate. Tail area show negative allometry with respect to metabolic rate. The many uncertainties about the biology of sauropods, and the variety of environmental conditions that different species experienced during the groups 150 million years of existence, make it difficult to be absolutely certain about the function of the neck as a radiator. However, the functional combination of the allometric increase of neck area, the systems of air sacs in the neck and trunk, the active control of blood flow between the core and surface of the body, changing skin color, and strategic orientation of the neck with respect to wind, make it plausible that the neck could have functioned as a radiator to avoid over-heating.

  1. Effect of energetic ion loss on ICRF heating efficiency and energy confinement time in heliotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Nuehrenberg, J.

    1999-06-01

    ICRF heating efficiency and the global energy confinement time during ICRF heating are investigated including the effect of energetic ion loss in heliotrons. The approximate formula of ICRF heating efficiency is derived using the results based on Monte Carlo simulations. The global energy confinement time including energetic ion effect can be expressed in terms of ICRF heating power, plasma density, and magnetic field strength in heliotrons. Our results in the CHS plasma show the systematic decrement of the global energy confinement time due to the energetic ion loss from the assumed energy confinement scaling law, which is consistent with the experimental observations. Also we apply our model to the ICRF minority heating in the LHD plasma in two cases of typical magnetic configurations. The clear increment of the global energy confinement time due to the stored energy of energetic tail ions is obtained in the `orbit improved` configuration, while the decrement is observed in the `standard` configuration. (author)

  2. Enhanced O2 Loss at Mars Due to an Ambipolar Electric Field from Electron Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R. E.; Andersson, L. A.; Fowler, C. M.; Woodson, A. K.; Weber, T. D.; Delory, G. T.; Andrews, D. J.; Eriksson, A. I.; Mcenulty, T.; Morooka, M. W.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Recent results from the MAVEN Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) instrument suggest higher than predicted electron temperatures (T sub e) in Mars dayside ionosphere above approx. 180 km in altitude. Correspondingly, measurements from Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) indicate significant abundances of O2+ up to approx. 500 km in altitude, suggesting that O2+ may be a principal ion loss mechanism of oxygen. In this article, we investigate the effects of the higher T(sub e) (which results from electron heating) and ion heating on ion outflow and loss. Numerical solutions show that plasma processes including ion heating and higher T(sub e) may greatly increase O2+ loss at Mars. In particular, enhanced T(sub e) in Mars ionosphere just above the exobase creates a substantial ambipolar electric field with a potential (e) of several k(sub b)T(sub e), which draws ions out of the region allowing for enhanced escape. With active solar wind, electron and ion heating, direct O2+ loss could match or exceed loss via dissociative recombination of O2+. These results suggest that direct loss of O2+ may have played a significant role in the loss of oxygen at Mars over time.

  3. Weight loss associated with reduced intake of carbohydrate reduces the atherogenicity of LDL in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Ingrid; Zern, Tosca; Herron, Kristin; West, Kristy; Sharman, Matthew J; Volek, Jeff S; Shachter, Neil S; Koo, Sung I; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a 3-tier intervention including dietary modifications (ie, moderate energy restriction, decreased carbohydrate, increased protein), increased physical activity, and the use of carnitine as a dietary supplement was evaluated on plasma lipids and the atherogenicity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in a population of overweight and obese premenopausal (aged 20-45 years) women. Carnitine or a placebo (cellulose) was randomly assigned to the participants using a double-blind design. Carnitine supplementation was postulated to enhance fat oxidation resulting in lower concentrations of plasma triglycerides. Seventy women completed the 10-week protocol, which followed a reduction in their energy intake by 15% and a macronutrient energy distribution of 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate. In addition, subjects increased the number of steps taken per day by 4500. As no differences were observed between the carnitine and placebo groups in all the measured parameters, all subjects were pooled together for statistical analysis. Participants decreased (Pweight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride were decreased by 4.5%, 8.0%, 12.3%, and 19.2% (Pweight loss (weight) associated with reduced caloric intake, lower dietary carbohydrate, and increased physical activity impacts the atherogenicity of LDL.

  4. A model for allometric scaling of mammalian metabolism with ambient heat loss

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Ho Sang

    2016-02-02

    Background Allometric scaling, which represents the dependence of biological trait or process relates on body size, is a long-standing subject in biological science. However, there has been no study to consider heat loss to the ambient and an insulation layer representing mammalian skin and fur for the derivation of the scaling law of metabolism. Methods A simple heat transfer model is proposed to analyze the allometry of mammalian metabolism. The present model extends existing studies by incorporating various external heat transfer parameters and additional insulation layers. The model equations were solved numerically and by an analytic heat balance approach. Results A general observation is that the present heat transfer model predicted the 2/3 surface scaling law, which is primarily attributed to the dependence of the surface area on the body mass. External heat transfer effects introduced deviations in the scaling law, mainly due to natural convection heat transfer which becomes more prominent at smaller mass. These deviations resulted in a slight modification of the scaling exponent to a value smaller than 2/3. Conclusion The finding that additional radiative heat loss and the consideration of an outer insulation fur layer attenuate these deviation effects and render the scaling law closer to 2/3 provides in silico evidence for a functional impact of heat transfer mode on the allometric scaling law in mammalian metabolism.

  5. Evaluation of Heat Loss and Water Temperature in a Spent Fuel Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Chihiro; Murase, Michio; Yoshida, Yoshitaka; Iwaki, Takanori; Nagae, Takashi

    Three-dimensional calculations of ventilation air flow and thermal-hydraulic behavior in a spent fuel pit (SFP) were made using the CFD software, FLUENT6.3.26 to evaluate the heat loss and water temperature in the SFP after shutdown of its cooling systems. The air and water velocities near the water surface were evaluated from the calculated results and referred to conditions of evaporation heat transfer tests, which were carried out at Shinshu University. From the test data, a correlation for evaporation heat fluxes was introduced and incorporated into the calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP. Then, a three-dimensional calculation of thermal-hydraulic behavior in the SFP was done. It was confirmed that the higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat loss from water was, and that the major heat loss was the evaporation heat transfer from the water surface to ventilation air, which was about ten times larger than the heat transfer to concrete walls.

  6. Enhanced loss of fusion products during mode conversion heating in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D.S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-07-01

    Ion Bernstein waves (IBWS) have been generated by mode conversion of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves in TFTR. The loss rate of fusion products in these discharges can be large, up to 10 times the first orbit loss rate. The losses are observed at the passing/trapped boundary, indicating that passing particles are being moved onto loss orbits either by increase of their v{perpendicular} due to the wave, by outward transport in minor radius, or both. The lost particles appear to be DD fusion produced tritons heated to {approximately}1.5 times their birth energy.

  7. Avoiding metallic walls: Use of modal superposition in plasmonic waveguides to reduce propagation loss

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically explore the possibility of reducing the propagation loss in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguide, using mode combinations to achieve wall-avoiding field distributions along a certain propagation length. We present analytical results for several waveguides showing notable loss reduction, and we discuss the tradeoffs between low loss and high confinement present in this technique.

  8. Solar power generation by use of Stirling engine and heat loss analysis of its cavity receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Tassawar

    Since concentrated power generation by Stirling engine has the highest efficiency therefore efficient power generation by concentrated systems using a Stirling engine was a primary motive of this research. A 1 kW Stirling engine was used to generate solar power using a Fresnel lens as a concentrator. Before operating On-Sun test, engine's performance test was conducted by combustion test. Propane gas with air was used to provide input heat to the Stirling Engine and 350W power was generated with 14% efficiency of the engine. Two kinds of receivers were used for On-Sun test, first type was the Inconel tubes with trapped helium gas and the second one was the heat pipe. Heat pipe with sodium as a working fluid is considered the best approach to transfer the uniform heat from the receiver to the helium gas in the heater head of the engine. A Number of On-Sun experiments were performed to generate the power. A minimum 1kW input power was required to generate power from the Stirling engine but it was concluded that the available Fresnel lens was not enough to provide sufficient input to the Stirling engine and hence engine was lagged to generate the solar power. Later on, for a high energy input a Beam Down system was also used to concentrate the solar light on the heater head of the Stirling engine. Beam down solar system in Masdar City UAE, constructed in 2009 is a variation of central receiver plant with cassegrainian optics. Around 1.5kW heat input was achieved from the Beam Down System and it was predicted that the engine receiver at beam down has the significant heat losses of about 900W. These high heat losses were the major hurdles to get the operating temperature (973K) of the heat pipes; hence power could not be generated even during the Beam Down test. Experiments were also performed to find the most suitable Cavity Receiver configuration for maximum solar radiation utilizations by engine receiver. Dimensionless parameter aperture ration (AR=d/D) and aperture

  9. Solar Panels reduce both global warming and Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéry eMasson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of solar energy in cities is clearly a way to diminish our dependency to fossil fuels, and is a good way to mitigate global warming by lowering the emission of greenhouse gases. However, what are the impacts of solar panels locally ? To evaluate their influence on urban weather, it is necessary to parameterize their effects within the surface schemes that are coupled to atmospheric models. The present paper presents a way to implement solar panels in the Town Energy Balance scheme, taking account of the energy production (for thermal and photovoltaic panels, the impact on the building below and feedback towards the urban micro-climate through radiative and convective fluxes. A scenario of large but realistic deployment of solar panels on the Paris metropolitan area is then simulated. It is shown that solar panels, by shading the roofs, slightly increases the need for domestic heating (3%. In summer however, the solar panels reduce the energy needed for air-conditioning (by 12% and also the Urban Heat Island (UHI: 0.2K by day and up to 0.3K at night. These impacts are larger than those found in previous works, because of the use of thermal panels (that are more efficient than photovoltaic panels and the geographical position of Paris, which is relatively far from the sea. This means that it is not influenced by sea breezes, and hence that its UHI is stronger than for a coastal city of the same size. But this also means that local adaptation strategies aiming to decrease the UHI will have more potent effects. In summary, the deployment of solar panels is good both globally, to produce renewable energy (and hence to limit the warming of the climate and locally, to decrease the UHI, especially in summer, when it can constitute a health threat.

  10. A comparison of different methods for in-situ determination of heat losses form district heating pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Benny [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Energy Engineering (Denmark)

    1996-11-01

    A comparison of different methods for in-situ determination of heat losses has been carried out on a 273 mm transmission line in Copenhagen. Instrumentation includes temperature sensors, heat flux meters and an infrared camera. The methods differ with regard to time consumption and costs of applying the specific method, demand on accuracy of temperature measurements, sensitivity to computational parameters, e.g. the thermal conductivity of the soil, response to transients in water temperature and the ground, and steady state assumptions in the model used in the interpretation of the measurements. Several of the applied methods work well. (au)

  11. A Mechanical and Experimental Study on the Heat Loss of Solar Evacuated Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hui-zhong; LIU Zhen-yan; ZHANG Min; HUANG Chen; WANG Li-hui; ZOU Zhi-jun

    2009-01-01

    The experimental system of heat loss of all-glass evacuated solar collector tubes (evacuated tube) is firstly designed and constructed, which uses electric heater as thermal resource. The equilibrium temperatures are less than ±1℃ during the test, and the temperature differences of up/middle/low node in the tube are less than 1 ℃, 3 ℃, and 7℃ respectively. The heat loss of evacuated tube increases about 2.7% with vacuum state of 0.01-1 mPa, and it has the best performance at tube temperature of 20-280℃. The invalidation tube (> 200 mPa) has the biggest heat loss that increases linearly with the tube temperature. The evacuated tubes with the vacuum of 0.01-1 mPa are suitable for most solar adsorption refrigeration.

  12. Reducing nutrient losses in Europe and implications for farming -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    needed to find the measures and costs in order to comply with parts of the WFD. The analysis show that the geographical position of the measures are very important in order to achieve the expected nutrient reduction. The current income varies a lot in the River basin and this might also influence where...... their implementation accepted. As an example, the Netherlands has been forced to abandon the MINAS system in order to get its implementation accepted by the EU. The continues by describing the costs related to implementation of the Aquatic Plan II in Denmark. The costs have been calculated to 70 million € or 2,0 € per...... kg N in reduced leaching. The farmers have paid 60% of the costs. The paper then describes the measures taken in Denmark and the associated costs for the state and the farmers. The next challenge for European farmers is the Water Framework Directive (WFD) with high environmental goals where only...

  13. Thermal performance of a porus radial fin with natural convection and radiative heat losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishi M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic (series solution is developed to describe the thermal performance of a porous radial fin with natural convection in the fluid saturating the fin and radiation heat loss from the top and bottom surfaces of the fin. The HAM results for the temperature distribution and base heat flux are compared with the direct numerical results and found to be very accurate.

  14. Corona Formation and Heat Loss on Venus by Coupled Upwelling and Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Coronae are volcanotectonic features that are unique to Venus and are interpreted to be small-scale upwellings. A model in which upwelling causes delamination at the edge of the plume head, along with deformation of a pre-existing depleted mantel Layer, can produce the full range of topographic forms of coronae. If half of the coronae are active, delamination of the lower lithosphere could account for about 10% of venus's heat loss, with another 15% due to upwelling. Delamination may occur in other geologic enviroment and could help account for 'Venus' heat loss 'deficit'.

  15. Optimal house elevation for reducing flood-related losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Siyuan; Lin, Ning; Kunreuther, Howard

    2017-05-01

    FEMA recommends that houses in coastal flood zones be elevated to at least 1 foot above the base flood elevation (BFE). However, this guideline is not specific and ignores characteristics of houses that affect their vulnerability. An economically optimal elevation level (OEL) is proposed that minimizes the combined cost of elevation and cumulative insurance premiums over the lifespan of the house. As an illustration, analysis is performed for various coastal houses in Ortley Beach, NJ. Compared with the strategy of raising houses to 1 foot above BFE, the strategy of raising houses to their OELs is much more economical for the homeowners. Elevating to the OELs also significantly reduces government spending on subsidizing low-income homeowners through, for example, a voucher program, to mitigate flood risk. These results suggest that policy makers should consider vulnerability factors in developing risk-reduction strategies. FEMA may recommend OELs to homeowners based on their flood hazards as well as house characteristics or at least providing more information and tools to homeowners to assist them in making more economical decisions. The OEL strategy can also be coupled with a voucher program to make the program more cost-effective.

  16. Poleward eddy heat flux anomalies associated with recent Arctic sea ice loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Kazuhira; Ukita, Jinro; Honda, Meiji; Iwamoto, Katsushi; Nakamura, Tetsu; Yamazaki, Koji; Dethloff, Klaus; Jaiser, Ralf; Handorf, Dörthe

    2017-01-01

    Details of the characteristics of upward planetary wave propagation associated with Arctic sea ice loss under present climate conditions are examined using reanalysis data and simulation results. Recent Arctic sea ice loss results in increased stratospheric poleward eddy heat fluxes in the eastern and central Eurasia regions and enhanced upward propagation of planetary-scale waves in the stratosphere. A linear decomposition scheme reveals that this modulation of the planetary waves arises from coupling of the climatological planetary wavefield with temperature anomalies for the eastern Eurasia region and with meridional wind anomalies for the central Eurasia region. Propagation of stationary Rossby wave packets results in a dynamic link between these temperature and meridional wind anomalies with sea ice loss over the Barents-Kara Sea. The results provide strong evidence that recent Arctic sea ice loss significantly modulates atmospheric circulation in winter to modify poleward eddy heat fluxes so as to drive stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes.

  17. New Configurations of Micro Plate-Fin Heat Sink to Reduce Coolant Pumping Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    The thermal resistance of heat exchangers has a strong influence on the electric power produced by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). In this work, a real TEG device is applied to three configurations of micro plate-fin heat sink. The distance between certain microchannels is varied to find...... the optimum heat sink configuration. The particular focus of this study is to reduce the coolant mass flow rate by considering the thermal resistances of the heat sinks and, thereby, to reduce the coolant pumping power in the system. The threedimensional governing equations for the fluid flow and the heat...... heat sink configurations reduces the coolant pumping power in the system....

  18. [Reducing nutrients loss by plastic film covering chemical fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huo-jun; Wei, Ze-bin; Wu, Qi-tang; Zeng, Shu-cai

    2010-03-01

    With the low utilization rate of fertilizers by crop and the growing amount of fertilizer usage,the agricultural non-point source pollution in China is becoming more and more serious. The field experiments planting corns were conducted, in which the applied chemical fertilizers were recovered with plastic film to realize the separation of fertilizers from rain water. In the experiments, the influences of different fertilizing treatments on the growing and production of sweet corn were observed. The fertilizer utilization rate and the nutrient contents in surface run-off water with and without the film covering were also determined. Results showed that, with only 70% of the normal amount of fertilizers,the sweet corn could already get high yield under the experimental soil conditions. Soil analysis after corn crops showed that the amounts of available N, P and K in the soil increased obviously with the film-covering, and the decreasing order was: 100% fertilizers with film-covering > 70% fertilizers with film-covering > 100% fertilizers, 70% fertilizers > no fertilizer. The average utilization coefficients of fertilizers by the crop were 42%-87%, 0%-3%, 5%-15% respectively for N, P and K. It was higher with film-covering than that without covering, especially for the high fertilization treatment. Analysis of water samples collected for eight run-off events showed that, without film-covering, N, P and K average concentrations in the runoff waters with fertilizations were 27.72, 2.70 and 7.07 mg x L(-1), respectively. And they were reduced respectively by 39.54%, 28.05%, 43.74% with the film-covering. This can give significant benefits to the decrease of agricultural non-point source pollution and water eutrophication.

  19. Extra Heat Loss Through Light Weight Roofs Due to Latent Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    This report is one in a series of papers in Task 5 of IEA Annex 24 on how moisture and air movements affect the energy performance of building constructions. The effect of latent heat flow will be demonstrated by means of an example: a light weight flat roof.Latent heat flow is one of three...... processes by which moisture affects energy performance:Higher thermal conductivityMoist materials have higher thermal con-ductivity than when they are dry. This is because thermally conducting moisture replaces the better insulating air in the pores of the materials. Moisture also enhan-ces the thermal...... contact between the solid grains of a porous material. Finally, moisture may partici-pate in microscopic heat pipes in a material by which vapour diffuses from the warm to the cold sides of wide pores in the material, and is trans-ported back again by capillary action in adjacent fine pores...

  20. Extra Heat Loss Through Light Weight Roofs Due to Latent Heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    This report is one in a series of papers in Task 5 of IEA Annex 24 on how moisture and air movements affect the energy performance of building constructions. The effect of latent heat flow will be demonstrated by means of an example: a light weight flat roof.Latent heat flow is one of three...... processes by which moisture affects energy performance:Higher thermal conductivityMoist materials have higher thermal con-ductivity than when they are dry. This is because thermally conducting moisture replaces the better insulating air in the pores of the materials. Moisture also enhan-ces the thermal...

  1. Reducing blood loss in total joint surgery with a saline-coupled bipolar sealing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Aaron G

    2007-06-01

    Despite the availability of a number of techniques to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty, many patients remain at risk of receiving blood transfusions postoperatively. We have used a new technology that couples bipolar radiofrequency energy with saline to reduce blood loss in patients undergoing total joint surgery. The use of this technology has been shown to effectively minimize the risk of transfusion and reduce intraoperative and postoperative bleeding-related complications.

  2. Key issues in the microchemical systems-based methanol fuel processor: Energy density, thermal integration, and heat loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keyur; Besser, R. S.

    Microreactor technology is a promising approach in harnessing the high energy density of hydrocarbons and is being used to produce hydrogen-rich gases by reforming of methanol and other liquid hydrocarbons. However, on-demand H 2 generation for miniature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) systems has been a bottleneck problem, which has limited the development and demonstration of the PEMFC for high-performance portable power. A number of crucial challenges exist for the realization of practical portable fuel processors. Among these, the management of heat in a compact format is perhaps the most crucial challenge for portable fuel processors. In this study, a silicon microreactor-based catalytic methanol steam reforming reactor was designed, fabricated, and demonstrated in the context of complete thermal integration to understand this critical issue and develop a knowledge base required to rationally design and integrate the microchemical components of a fuel processor. Detailed thermal and reaction experiments were carried out to demonstrate the potential of microreactor-based on-demand H 2 generation. Based on thermal characterization experiments, the heat loss mechanisms and effective convective heat coefficients from the planar microreactor structure were determined and suggestions were made for scale up and implementation of packaging schemes to reduce different modes of heat losses.

  3. Infrared thermography applied to the evaluation of metabolic heat loss of chicks fed with different energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VMOS Ferreira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil must comply with international quality standards and animal welfare requirements in order to maintain its position as world's largest exporter of poultry meat. With the scenario of global climate change there is the forecast of occurrence of extreme events with characteristics of both excess cold and heat for several regions of the country. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of using images of infrared thermography to evaluate the loss of sensible heat in young broilers fed different dietary energy levels. Twenty birds were reared in a house with appropriate brooding using infrared lamps. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental into two treatments: T1 (control diet with 2950 kcal ME/kg-1, and T2 (high-energy diet with 3950 kcal ME/kg-1. Infrared thermographic images of the birds were recorded for four consecutive days. One bird was randomly chosen per treatment, and had special images taken and analyzed. Average surface temperature of the body area was calculated using the surface temperature recorded at 100 spots (50 at the front and 50 at the lateral side of the bird's body. Mean surface temperature of the flock was calculated recording 100 spots on the group of birds. Total radiant heat loss was calculated based on the average data of surface temperature. The results indicated that the young broilers fed the high-energy diet presented a metabolic energy loss equivalent to 0.64 kcal h-1, while the birds fed with the control diet lost 2.18 kcal h-1. This finding confirms that oil supplementation to the diet reduces bird heat loss. The infrared camera was able to record young broilers' surface temperature variation when birds were fed diets with different energy contents.

  4. CFD Modeling of Thermal Manikin Heat Loss in a Comfort Evaluation Benchmark Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Håkan O.; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2007-01-01

    and companies still use several in-house codes for their calculations. The validation and association with human perception and heat losses in reality is consequently very difficult to make. This paper is providing requirements for the design and development of computer manikins and CFD benchmark tests...

  5. Respiratory heat loss in Morada Nova sheep in Brazilian semi-arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffan Edward Octávio Oliveira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the respiratory heat loss in sheep from the equations developed for this species and its relations with meteorological variables in semi-arid regions. The respiratory heat loss (sensible and latent was estimated through the equations in the literature for four 12-month-old male Morada Nova sheep, kept in an installation with shading of ceramic tiles and a 3-meter-high ceiling. The following environmental variables were measured: air temperature (TA, wind speed (U, relative humidity (RH and partial vapor pressure (PP{tA}. The physiological variables measured: rectal temperature (TR and respiratory rate (RR. Statistical analysis was performed based on regression using PROC REG procedure in SAS. The latent respiratory heat loss showed a linear and positive correlation with ambient temperature. However, the respiratory convection showed a linear and negative correlation, but with incipient values. Therefore, the latent heat loss is more important than the sensible one in the respiratory system to maintain thermoregulation of sheep in a semi-arid region of Brazil.

  6. COLOR CHANGE — MASS LOSS CORRELATION FOR HEAT-TREATED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marinela Olarescu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat treatment is renowned as the most environmentally friendly process of dimensional stabilization that can be applied to wood, in order to make it suitable for outdoor uses. It also darkens wood color and improves wood durability. The intensity of heat treatment can be appreciated by means of two parameters: the color change occured in wood due to the high temperature, and the mass loss, which is a measure of the degree of thermal degradation. In order to find a mathematical correlation between these two parameters, an experimental study was conducted with four European wood species, which were heat-treated at 180°C and 200ºC, for 1-3 hours, under atmosheric pressure.The paper presents the results concerning the color changes and mass losses recorded for the heat-treated wood samples compared to untreated wood.  For all four species, the dependency between the color change and the mass loss was found to be best described by a logarithmic regression equation with R2 of 0.93 to 0.99 for the soft species (spruce, pine and lime, and R2 of 0.77 for beech. The results of this study envisage to simplify the assessment procedure of the heat treatment efficiency, by only measuring the color – a feature that is both convenient and cost-effective. 

  7. Turbulent flow heat transfer and pressure loss in a double pipe heat exchanger with triangular fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinous M. Hameed, Bashar Muslem Essa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics in a double pipe heat exchanger with triangular fins was studied. The working fluids were air, flowing in the annular pipe, and water through the inner circular tube. The test section is consisting of two parts. The first part is an insulated tube which has been manufactured from Perspex material of (54mm inner diameter, (2000mm length and (3mm thickness. The second part is an internal copper tube without or with triangular copper fins. The smooth copper tube has (2250mm long and (20mm, 22mm inner and outer diameter respectively. The triangular fins were made of the copper with thickness of 0.3mm and 10mm height. They were installed on the straight copper tube section in three different cases (32, 27, and 22 mm distance between each two successive fins and (15mm pitch between each two of fins. Air at various mass flow rates (0.001875 to 0.003133 kg/sec flows through annuli and water at Reynold's numbers ranging from (10376.9 to 23348.03 flows through the inner tube. The inlet cold air and hot water temperatures are 30oC and 70oC, respectively. The experimental results showed an increase in convective heat transfer coefficient by decreasing in distance between two fins and by increasing Reynold's number. This is due to increase in surface area. It was found that (Space=22mm gives good heat transfer enhancement.

  8. XML Survey of the productivity loss due to heat stress in different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is reduced

  9. Survey of the productivity loss due to heat stress in different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Monazzam Esmaielpour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat is one of the hazardous physical agents in the workplace. Exposure to heat and consequent thermal stress influence workers productivity in addition to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to determine the heat stress induced productivity loss related to different tasks of farmers in Darreh Shahr city, during summer. . Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in summer, 2014, among farmers in Darreh Shahr city. After determining the sample size, farmers’ activities were determined using hierarchical task analysis (HTA, and WBGT measurements were done according to the ISO7243. Metabolism was estimated by the ISO8996. Following, the type of activities were identified according their required metabolism. Knowing WBGT and workload and using the work capacity model, the productivity loss in different tasks and ultimately total productivity loss were calculated. .Result: The mean WBGT activities for plowing, terracing, planting seeds, watering, fertilizing, weeding, spraying, and harvesting were 29.98 °C, 31.28 °C,30.66 °C,31.39 °C,31.99 °C,31.75 °C,31.08 °C, and 30.3 °C, respectively. WBGT values were higher than the permissible level provided by ISO7243 in all farming activities. Maximum value of WBGT was belonged to fertilizing activity (31.99 °C and the lowest value was for plowing (29.98 °C. ANOVA test results did not show a significant difference in WBGT at head, waist, and ankle height. The highest and lowest amount of productivity loss was estimated respectively for weeding and plowing activities. The total productivity loss for farming was calculated 69.3 percent in an hour which is due to high physical activity, working outdoor, with exposure to direct solar radiation, and consequent heat stress imposed to workers. .Conclusion: Productivity is a factor which is affected by the workplace heat stress. According to results of the present research, the amount of productivity is

  10. Segmented superconducting tape having reduced AC losses and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Holesinger, Terry G.; Wang, Haiyan

    2009-09-22

    A superconducting tape having reduced AC losses. The tape has a high temperature superconductor layer that is segmented. Disruptive strips, formed in one of the tape substrate, a buffer layer, and the superconducting layer create parallel discontinuities in the superconducting layer that separate the current-carrying elements of the superconducting layer into strips or filament-like structures. Segmentation of the current-carrying elements has the effect of reducing AC current losses. Methods of making such a superconducting tape and reducing AC losses in such tapes are also disclosed.

  11. Regional heat loss in resting man during immersion in 25.2 degrees C water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dacanay, S; Smith, R M

    1979-06-01

    Five male subjects having a wide range of relative body fat, 9.2-20.2%, were studied during total body immersion in water at 25.2 degrees C. The regional surface area of each subject was calculated from anthropometric data utilizing a segmental geometric model. Skin temperatures (Tsk) and regional skin heat loss were measured prior to and during 30 min immersion at 13 sites. During immersion, mean Tsk was 25.9 degrees C and remained significantly higher than the water temperature. A measurable temperature gradient for heat flow was observed from all body segments. Segimental temperature in water ranged from 26.7-25.4 degrees C, being warmest at the neck and coolest at the foot. Heat the flow per regional area was highest in the neck, 187 W/m2, and least at the foot, 12 W/m2. Heat flow from each body region was dependent on regional Tsk. Skinfold thickness was a minor factor in altering regional heat flow in the foot, hand, lower arm, upper arm, thigh, and calf; in the torso, neck, and head regions it was of major importance in detering heat loss.

  12. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS: SOLUTION TO REDUCE GLOBAL WARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Baradey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy conversion technologies, where waste heat recovery systems are included, have received significant attention in recent years due to reasons that include depletion of fossil fuel, increasing oil prices, changes in climatic conditions, and global warming. For low temperature applications, there are many sources of thermal waste heat, and several recovery systems and potential useful applications have been proposed by researchers [1-4]. In addition, many types of equipment are used to recover waste thermal energy from different systems at low, medium, and high temperature applications, such as heat exchangers, waste heat recovery boiler, thermo-electric generators, and recuperators. In this paper, the focus is on waste heat recovery from air conditioners, and an efficient application of these energy resources. Integration of solar energy with heat pump technologies and major factors that affect the feasibility of heat recovery systems have been studied and reviewed as well. KEYWORDS: waste heat recovery; heat pump.

  13. Heat loss through connecting thermistor wires in a three-body graphite calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, D.; Guerra, A. S.; Ionita, C.; Astefanoaei, I.

    2010-06-01

    The main aim of this paper is to calculate the small but significant amount of heat lost from a graphite calorimeter absorber through connecting thermistor wires during electrical calibration. Taking into account the electro-thermal interaction between the heating thermistor and its surrounding environment, a more realistic approach to the problem was developed and estimative numerical results were obtained. It was found that the wires contribute about 0.01% in extracting heat from the calorimeter core (which corresponds to a correction factor kwcore = 0.9999). The total correction factor for heat loss through the connecting thermistor wires during the electrical calibration of the calorimeter (the total combined effect of the heater and the sensor leads due to conduction, radiation and Joule effect) was determined: kw = 0.9989.

  14. Modeling farm nutrient flows in the North China Plain to reduce nutrient losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Zhanqing; Bai, Zhaohai; Wei, Sha; Ma, Wenqi; Wang, Mengru; Kroeze, Carolien; Ma, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Years of poor nutrient management practices in the agriculture industry in the North China Plain have led to large losses of nutrients to the environment, causing severe ecological consequences. Analyzing farm nutrient flows is urgently needed in order to reduce nutrient losses. A farm-level

  15. Topical Application of Tranexamic Acid to Reduce Blood Loss During Complex Combat Related Spine Trauma Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    wound reduces postoperative blood loss by half in major orthopaedic surgery. Eur J Surg Suppl. Jul 2003(588):57-61. 39. Molloy DO, Archbold HA...prospective, randomised controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Br. Mar 2007;89(3):306-309. 40. Eubanks JD. Antifibrinolytics in major orthopaedic surgery...reduces intraoperative blood loss in pediatric patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. Anesthesiology. Apr 2005;102(4):727-732. 50. Vaccaro AR

  16. Reflective Coating on Fibrous Insulation for Reduced Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Derek D.; Prasad, B. Durga; Glass, David E.; Wiedemann, Karl E.

    1997-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer through fibrous insulation used in thermal protection systems (TPS) is significant at high temperatures (1200 C). Decreasing the radiative heat transfer through the fibrous insulation can thus have a major impact on the insulating ability of the TPS. Reflective coatings applied directly to the individual fibers in fibrous insulation should decrease the radiative heat transfer leading to an insulation with decreased effective thermal conductivity. Coatings with high infrared reflectance have been developed using sol-gel techniques. Using this technique, uniform coatings can be applied to fibrous insulation without an appreciable increase in insulation weight or density. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, and ellipsometry have been performed to evaluate coating performance.

  17. NO formation in the burnout region of a partially premixed methane-air flame with upstream heat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, A.V.; Levinsky, H.B.

    1999-09-01

    Measurements of temperature and NO concentration in laminar, partially premixed methane-air flames stabilized on a ceramic burner in coflow are reported. The NO concentration and temperature were determined by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), respectively. Upstream heat loss to the burner was varied by changing the exit velocity of the fuel-air mixture at a constant equivalence ratio of 1,3; this alters the structure of the flame from an axisymmetric Bunsen-type to a strongly stabilized flat flame. To facilitate analysis of the results, a method is derived for separating the effects of dilution from those of chemical reaction based on the relation between the measured temperature and the local mixture fraction, including the effects of upstream heat loss. Using this method, the amount of NO formed during burnout of the hot, fuel-rich combustion products can be ascertained. In the Bunsen-type flame, it is seen that {approximately}40 ppm of NO are produced in this burnout region, at temperatures between {approximately}2,100 K and {approximately}1,900 K, probably via the Zeldovich mechanism. Reducing the exit velocity of 12 cm/s reduces the flame temperature substantially, and effectively eliminates this contribution. At velocities of 12 and 8 cm/s, {approximately}10 ppm of NO are formed in the burnout region, even though the gas temperatures are too low for Zeldovich NO to be significant. Although the mechanism responsible for these observations is as yet unclear, the results are consistent with the idea that the low temperatures in the fuel-rich gases caused by upstream heat loss retard the conversion of HCN (formed via the Fenimore mechanism) to NO, with this residual HCN then being converted to NO during burnout.

  18. Additional double-wall roof in single-wall, closed, convective incubators: Impact on body heat loss from premature infants and optimal adjustment of the incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Radiant heat loss is high in low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates. Double-wall or single-wall incubators with an additional double-wall roof panel that can be removed during phototherapy are used to reduce Radiant heat loss. There are no data on how the incubators should be used when this second roof panel is removed. The aim of the study was to assess the heat exchanges in LBW neonates in a single-wall incubator with and without an additional roof panel. To determine the optimal thermoneutral incubator air temperature. Influence of the additional double-wall roof was assessed by using a thermal mannequin simulating a LBW neonate. Then, we calculated the optimal incubator air temperature from a cohort of human LBW neonate in the absence of the additional roof panel. Twenty-three LBW neonates (birth weight: 750-1800g; gestational age: 28-32 weeks) were included. With the additional roof panel, R was lower but convective and evaporative skin heat losses were greater. This difference can be overcome by increasing the incubator air temperature by 0.15-0.20°C. The benefit of an additional roof panel was cancelled out by greater body heat losses through other routes. Understanding the heat transfers between the neonate and the environment is essential for optimizing incubators.

  19. Ion Heating and Magnetotail Losses at the Martian Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J. P.; Livi, R.; Luhmann, J. G.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C. X.; Andersson, L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Suprathermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) sensor on the MAVEN spacecraft provides the first detailed look at the heating of Martian ions at the interface between the ionosphere and the solar wind. STATIC's unique design allows it to measure both a wide range in energy (cold plasmas (Ti atmospheric loss. This paper will review the broad range of ion distributions that MAVEN observes escaping down the magnetotail beginning with outflows at the low altitude terminator and their evolution to a warm plasma that forms the tail current sheet. These observations will be used to estimate the atmospheric loss rate of tail outflows.

  20. Steerable Catheter Microcoils for Interventional MRI: Reducing Resistive Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Anthony; Wilson, Mark W.; Settecase, Fabio; Evans, Leland; Malba, Vincent; Martin, Alastair J.; Saeed, Maythem; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Hetts, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess resistive heating of microwires used for remote catheter steering in interventional magnetic resonance imaging. To investigate the use of alumina to facilitate heat transfer to saline flowing in the catheter lumen. MATERIALS AND METHODS A microcoil was fabricated using a laser lathe onto polyimide-tipped or alumina-tipped endovascular catheters. In vitro testing was performed in a 1.5 T MR system using a vessel phantom, body RF coil, and steady state pulse sequence. Resistive heating was measured with water flowing over a polyimide tip catheter, or saline flowing through the lumen of an alumina-tip catheter. Preliminary in vivo testing in porcine common carotid arteries was conducted with normal blood flow or after arterial ligation when current was applied to an alumnia-tip catheter for up to 5 minutes. RESULTS After application of up to 1 W of DC power, clinically significant temperature increases were noted with the polyimide-tip catheter: 23°C/W at zero flow, 13°C/W at 0.28 cc/s, and 7.9°C/W at 1 cc/s. Using the alumina-tip catheter, the effluent temperature rise using the lowest flow rate (0.12 cc/s) was 2.3°C/W. In vivo testing demonstrated no thermal injury to vessel walls at normal and zero arterial flow. CONCLUSION Resistive heating in current carrying wire pairs can be dissipated by saline coolant flowing within the lumen of a catheter tip composed of material that facilitates heat transfer. PMID:21075017

  1. Development of a river ice jam by a combined heat loss and hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, J.; Gröndal, G. O.

    2008-11-01

    The heat loss theory and the hydraulic theory for the analysis of the development of wide channel ice jams are discussed and shown. The heat loss theory has been used in Iceland for a long time, while the hydraulic theory largely follows the classical ice-jam build-up theories used in known CFD models. The results are combined in a new method to calculate the maximum thickness and the extent of an ice jam. The results compare favorably to the HEC-RAS model for the development of a very large ice jam in Thjorsa River in Iceland, and have been found in good agreement with historical data, collected where a hydroelectric dam project, Urridafoss, is being planned in the Thjorsa River.

  2. Heat Loss Testing of Schott's 2008 PTR70 Parabolic Trough Receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkholder, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kutscher, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Two Schott 2008 model year PTR70 HCEs were tested on NREL's heat loss test stand from 100 - 500 deg C in 50 deg C increments. Absorber emittance was determined from the laboratory testing so that the performance of the HCEs could be modeled in a parabolic trough collector. Collector/HCE simulation results for many different field operation conditions were used to create heat loss correlationcoefficients for Excelergy and SAM. SAM estimates that the decreased emittance of the 2008 PTR70 will decrease the LCOE for parabolic trough power plants by 0.5 cents/kWh and increase the electricity generated by 5% relative to previous PTR70s. These conclusions assume that the 2008 PTR70 is supplied at the same cost and with the same optical performance as earlier PTR70 models.

  3. Propagation of combustion waves in the shell-core energetic materials with external heat losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubernov, V V; Kudryumov, V N; Kolobov, A V; Polezhaev, A A

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the properties and stability of combustion waves propagating in the composite solid energetic material of the shell-core type are numerically investigated within the one-dimensional diffusive-thermal model with heat losses to the surroundings. The flame speed is calculated as a function of the parameters of the model. The boundaries of stability are determined in the space of parameters by solving the linear stability problem and direct integration of the governing non-stationary equations. The results are compared with the characteristics of the combustion waves in pure solid fuel. It is demonstrated that a stable travelling combustion wave solution can exist for the parameters of the model for which the flame front propagation is unstable in pure solid fuel and it can propagate several times faster even in the presence of significant heat losses.

  4. Loss effects on adhesively-bonded multilayer ultrasonic transducers by self-heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengbin; Cochran, Sandy

    2010-04-01

    Multilayer ultrasonic transducers are widely being used for high power applications. In these applications, typical Langevin/Tonpilz structures without any adhesive bondings however have the disadvantage of limited bandwidth. Therefore adhesively-bonded structures are still a potential solution for this issue. In this paper, two-layer piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers with two different adhesive bondlines were investigated comparing to a single-layer transducer in terms of loss effects during operation with excitation signals sufficient to cause self-heating. The theoretical functions fitted to the measured time-temperature dependency data are compared with experimental results of different piezoelectric transducers. Theoretical analysis of loss characteristics at various surface displacements and the relationship with increasing temperature are reported. The effects of self-heating on the practical performance of multilayer ultrasonic transducers with adhesive bondlines are discussed.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Eddy-Current Loss for a New Induction Heating Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new induction heating device is presented in this paper. This device can convert mechanical energy into heat energy by utilizing eddy currents, which are induced by rotating permanent magnets. A mathematical model is established for estimating eddy-current loss of the device. The distribution of induced currents and the resultant magnetic field intensity are considered in the process of modeling the eddy-current loss and so is the mutual influence of the electric field between neighborhood pole projection areas. Particularly, the skin effect is considered by correcting the numerical integral domain of eddy current density, which has great effect on the calculating results. Based on specific examples, the effectiveness and correctness of proposed model are proved by finite element analysis. The results show that the mathematical model can provide important reference for design and structure optimization of the device.

  6. Development of a river ice jam by a combined heat loss and hydraulic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eliasson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The heat loss theory and the hydraulic theory for the analysis of the development of wide channel ice jams are discussed and shown. The heat loss theory has been used in Iceland for a long time, while the hydraulic theory largely follows the classical ice-jam build-up theories used in known CFD models. The results are combined in a new method to calculate the maximum thickness and the extent of an ice jam. The results compare favorably to the HEC-RAS model for the development of a very large ice jam in Thjorsa River in Iceland, and have been found in good agreement with historical data, collected where a hydroelectric dam project, Urridafoss, is being planned in the Thjorsa River.

  7. A Computing Approach with the Heat-Loss Model for the Transient Analysis of Liquid Metal Natural Circulation Loop

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The transient behaviors of natural circulation loop (NCL) are important for the system reliability under postulated accidents. The heat loss and structure thermal inertia may influence the transient behaviors of NCL greatly, so a transient analysis model with consideration of heat loss was developed based on the MATLAB/Simulink to predict the thermal-hydraulic characteristic of liquid metal NCL. The transient processes including the start-up, the loss of pump, and the shutdown of thermal-hydr...

  8. Treatment with Piribedil and Memantine Reduces Noise-Induced Loss of Inner Hair Cell Synaptic Ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Richard A.; Wys, Noel; Prieskorn, Diane; Martin, Cathy; DeRemer, Susan; Bledsoe, Sanford; Miller, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    Noise overstimulation can induce loss of synaptic ribbons associated with loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. This study examined if systemic administration of Piribedil, a dopamine agonist that reduces the sound evoked auditory nerve compound action potential and/or Memantine, an NMDA receptor open channel blocker, would reduce noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell ribbons. Rats received systemic Memantine and/or Piribedil for 3 days before and 3 days after a 3 hour 4 kHz octave band noise at 117 dB (SPL). At 21 days following the noise there was a 26% and 38% loss of synaptic ribbons in regions 5.5 and 6.5 mm from apex, respectively, elevations in 4-, 8- and 20 kHz tonal ABR thresholds and reduced dynamic output at higher intensities of stimulation. Combined treatment with Piribedil and Memantine produced a significant reduction in the noise-induced loss of ribbons in both regions and changes in ABR sensitivity and dynamic responsiveness. Piribedil alone gave significant reduction in only the 5.5 mm region and Memantine alone did not reach significance in either region. Results identify treatments that could prevent the hearing loss and hearing disorders that result from noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. PMID:27686418

  9. Finite time thermodynamic analysis and optimization of solar-dish Stirling heat engine with regenerative losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Arjun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the performance of the solar-driven Stirling engine system to maximize the power output and thermal efficiency using the non-linearized heat loss model of the solar dish collector and the irreversible cycle model of the Stirling engine. Finite time thermodynamic analysis has been done for combined system to calculate the finite-rate heat transfer, internal heat losses in the regenerator, conductive thermal bridging losses and finite regeneration process time. The results indicate that exergy efficiency of dish system increases as the effectiveness of regenerator increases but decreases with increase in regenerative time coefficient. It is also found that optimal range of collector temperature and corresponding concentrating ratio are 1000 K~1400 K and 1100~1400, respectively in order to get maximum value of exergy efficiency. It is reported that the exergy efficiency of this dish system can reach the maximum value when operating temperature and concentrating ratio are 1150 K and 1300, respectively.

  10. A Heat Warning System to Reduce Heat Illness in San Diego County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, A. O.; Corcus, I.; Guirguis, K.; Gershunov, A.; Basu, R.; Stepanski, B.

    2016-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) has issued official heat alerts to the public and decision making partners for many years by developing a single criterion or regional criteria from heat indices which combine temperature and humidity. The criteria have typically relied on fixed thresholds and did not consider impact from a particular heat episode, nor did it factor seasonality, population acclimatization, or impacts on the most vulnerable subgroups. In 2013, the NWS San Diego office began modifying their criteria to account for local climatology with much less dependence on humidity or the heat index. These local changes were based on initial findings from the California Department of Public Health, EpiCenter California Injury Data Online system (EPIC), which document heat health impacts. The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in collaboration with the California Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment and the NWS completed a study of hospital visits during heat waves in California showing significant health impacts occurred in the past when no regional heat warning was issued. Therefore, the results supported the need for an exploratory project to implement significant modification of the traditional local criteria. To understand the impacts of heat on community health, medical outcome data were provided by the County of San Diego Emergency Medical Services Branch (EMS), which is provided by the County's Public Health Officer to monitor heat-related illness and injury daily during specific heat episodes. The data were combined with SIO research to inform the modification of local NWS heat criteria and establish trigger points to pilot new procedures for the issuance of heat alerts. Finally, procedures were customized for each of the county health departments in the NWS area of responsibility across extreme southwest California counties in collaboration with their Office of Emergency Services (OES). The

  11. A Probabilistic Scheme for Reducing the Packet Loss in Mobile IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Md. Humayun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile IPv6 allows a Mobile Node to remain reachable by a Correspondent Node while roaming from one network to another network. In Mobile IPv6, a Mobile Node directly updates its current location information to a Correspondent Node using a route optimization method. Route optimization helps to culminate the packet delay incurred due to suboptimal route traversed by the packets from a Correspondent Node to a Mobile Node in Mobile IPv4. However, it introduces packet losses during Mobile Node's transition from one network to another network. This packet loss increases as the mobility of the node increases. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic scheme to reduce this packet loss. Our solution is based on the Mobile Node's mobility prediction at the Correspondent Node and a buffering mechanism at the Home Agent. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of our scheme in case of reducing the packet loss problem besetting the Mobile IPv6.

  12. HEAT INPUT AND POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT EFFECTS ON REDUCED-ACTIVATION FERRITIC/MARTENSITIC STEEL FRICTION STIR WELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Wei [ORNL; Chen, Gaoqiang [ORNL; Chen, Jian [ORNL; Yu, Xinghua [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are an important class of structural materials for fusion reactor internals developed in recent years because of their improved irradiation resistance. However, they can suffer from welding induced property degradations. In this paper, a solid phase joining technology friction stir welding (FSW) was adopted to join a RAFM steel Eurofer 97 and different FSW parameters/heat input were chosen to produce welds. FSW response parameters, joint microstructures and microhardness were investigated to reveal relationships among welding heat input, weld structure characterization and mechanical properties. In general, FSW heat input results in high hardness inside the stir zone mostly due to a martensitic transformation. It is possible to produce friction stir welds similar to but not with exactly the same base metal hardness when using low power input because of other hardening mechanisms. Further, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is a very effective way to reduce FSW stir zone hardness values.

  13. Connexin26 (GJB2) deficiency reduces active cochlear amplification leading to late-onset hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Chen, J; Liang, C; Zong, L; Chen, J; Jones, R O; Zhao, H-B

    2015-01-22

    Connexin26 (Cx26, GJB2) mutations account for >50% of nonsyndromic hearing loss. The deafness is not always congenital. A large group of these patients (∼30%) demonstrate a late-onset hearing loss, starting in childhood. They have normal hearing early in life and are therefore good candidates for applying protective and therapeutic interventions. However, the underlying deafness mechanism is unclear. In this study, we used a time-controlled, inducible gene knockout technique to knockout Cx26 expression in the cochlea after birth. We found that deletion of Cx26 after postnatal day 5 (P5) in mice could lead to late-onset hearing loss. Similar to clinical observations, the mice demonstrated progressive, mild to moderate hearing loss. The hearing loss initiated at high frequencies and then extended to the middle- and low-frequency range. The cochlea showed normal development and had no apparent hair cell loss. However, distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was reduced. The reduction was also progressive and large at high-frequencies. Consistent with DPOAE reduction, we found that outer hair cell electromotility-associated nonlinear capacitance was shifted to the right and the slope of voltage dependence was reduced. The endocochlear potential was reduced in Cx26 conditional knockout (cKO) mice but the reduction was not associated with progressive hearing loss. These data suggest that Cx26 deficiency may impair active cochlear amplification leading to late-onset hearing loss. Our study also helps develop newer protective and therapeutic interventions to this common nonsyndromic hearing loss.

  14. Optimizing the District Heating Primary Network from the Perspective of Economic-Specific Pressure Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichao Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A district heating (DH system is one of the most important components of infrastructures in cold areas. Proper DH network design should balance the initial investment and the heat distribution cost of the DH network. Currently, this design is often based on a recommended value for specific pressure loss (R = ∆P/L in the main lines. This will result in a feasible network design, but probably not be optimal in most cases. The paper develops a novel optimization model to facilitate the design by considering the initial investment in the pipes and the heat distribution costs. The model will generate all possible network scenarios consisting of different series of diameters for each pipe in the flow direction of the network. Then, the annuity on the initial investment, the heat distribution cost, and the total annual cost will be calculated for each network scenario, taking into account the uncertainties of the material prices and the yearly operating time levels. The model is applied to a sample DH network and the results indicate that the model works quite well, clearly identifying the optimal network design and demonstrating that the heat distribution cost is more important than the initial investment in DH network design.

  15. Insulator coated magnetic nanoparticulate composites with reduced core loss and method of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Wang, Shihe (Inventor); Xiao, Danny (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A series of bulk-size magnetic/insulating nanostructured composite soft magnetic materials with significantly reduced core loss and its manufacturing technology. This insulator coated magnetic nanostructured composite is comprises a magnetic constituent, which contains one or more magnetic components, and an insulating constituent. The magnetic constituent is nanometer scale particles (1-100 nm) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase (continuous phase). While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase (or coupled nanoparticles) provide the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides the much demanded high resistivity which significantly reduces the eddy current loss. The resulting material is a high performance magnetic nanostructured composite with reduced core loss.

  16. Reducing Runoff Loss of Applied Nutrients in Oil Palm Cultivation Using Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled-release fertilizers are expected to minimize nutrient loss from crop fields due to their potential to supply plant-available nutrients in synchrony with crop requirements. The evaluation of the efficiency of these fertilizers in tropical oil palm agroecological conditions is not yet fully explored. In this study, a one-year field trial was conducted to determine the impact of fertilization with water soluble conventional mixture and controlled-release fertilizers on runoff loss of nutrients from an immature oil palm field. Soil and nutrient loss were monitored for one year in 2012/2013 under erosion plots of 16 m2 on 10% slope gradient. Mean sediments concentration in runoff amounted to about 6.41 t ha−1. Conventional mixture fertilizer posed the greatest risk of nutrient loss in runoff following fertilization due to elevated nitrogen (6.97%, potassium (13.37%, and magnesium (14.76% as percentage of applied nutrients. In contrast, this risk decreased with the application of controlled-release fertilizers, representing 0.75–2.44% N, 3.55–5.09% K, and 4.35–5.43% Mg loss. Meanwhile, nutrient loss via eroded sediments was minimal compared with loss through runoff. This research demonstrates that the addition of controlled-release fertilizers reduced the runoff risks of nutrient loss possibly due to their slow-release properties.

  17. Heat-induced phytohormone changes are associated with disrupted early reproductive development and reduced yield in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chao; Cui, Kehui; Wang, Wencheng; Li, Qian; Fahad, Shah; Hu, Qiuqian; Huang, Jianliang; Nie, Lixiao; Peng, Shaobing

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress causes morphological and physiological changes and reduces crop yield in rice (Oryza sativa). To investigate changes in phytohormones and their relationships with yield and other attributes under heat stress, four rice varieties (Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, Liangyoupeijiu, and Shanyou 63) were grown in pots and subjected to three high temperature treatments plus control in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 d during the early reproductive phase. Yield reductions in Nagina22, Huanghuazhan, and Liangyoupeijiu were attributed to reductions in spikelet fertility, spikelets per panicle, and grain weight. The adverse effects of high temperature were alleviated by application of exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in the heat-susceptible Liangyoupeijiu. High temperature stress reduced active cytokinins, gibberellin A1 (GA1), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), but increased abscisic acid (ABA) and bound cytokinins in young panicles. Correlation analyses and application of exogenous 6-BA revealed that high temperature-induced cytokinin changes may regulate yield components by modulating the differentiation and degradation of branches and spikelets, panicle exsertion, pollen vigor, anther dehiscence, and grain size. Heat-tolerant Shanyou 63 displayed minor changes in phytohormones, panicle formation, and grain yield under high temperature compared with those of the other three varieties. These results suggest that phytohormone changes are closely associated with yield formation, and a small reduction or stability in phytohormone content is required to avoid large yield losses under heat stress. PMID:27713528

  18. Numerical Studies on Natural Convection Heat Losses from Open Cubical Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural convection heat losses occurring from cubical open cavities are analysed in this paper. Open cubical cavities of sides 0.1 m, 0.2 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, and 1 m with constant temperature back wall boundary conditions and opening ratio of 1 are studied. The Fluent CFD software is used to analyse the three-dimensional (3D cavity models. The studies are carried out for cavities with back wall temperatures between 35°C and 100°C. The effect of cavity inclination on the convective loss is analysed for angles of 0° (cavity facing sideways, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° (cavity facing vertically downwards. The Rayleigh numbers involved in this study range between 4.5 × 105 and 1.5 × 109. The natural convection loss is found to increase with an increase in back wall temperature. The natural convection loss is observed to decrease with an increase in cavity inclination; the highest convective loss being at 0° and the lowest at 90° inclination. This is observed for all cavities analysed here. Nusselt number correlations involving the effect of Rayleigh number and the cavity inclination angle have been developed from the current studies. These correlations can be used for engineering applications such as electronic cooling, low- and medium-temperature solar thermal systems, passive architecture, and also refrigeration systems.

  19. Flow drag and heat transfer characteristics of drag-reducing nanofluids with CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2017-02-01

    A new kind of aqueous CuO nanofluid with drag-reducing performance was developed. The new working fluid was an aqueous CTAC (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) solution with CuO nanoparticles added and has both special effects of drag-reducing and heat transfer enhancement. An experiment was carried out to investigate the forced convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of conventional drag reducing fluid (aqueous CTAC solution) and the new drag-reducing nanofluid in a test tube with an inner diameter of 25.6 mm. Results indicated that there were no obvious differences of the drag-reducing characteristics between conventional drag reducing fluid and new drag-reducing nanofluid. However, their heat transfer characteristics were obvious different. The heat transfer characteristics of the new drag-reducing nanofluid significantly depend on the liquid temperature, the nanoparticle concentration and the CTAC concentration. The heat transfer enhancement technology of nanofluid could be applied to solve the problem of heat transfer deterioration for conventional drag-reducing fluids.

  20. Flow drag and heat transfer characteristics of drag-reducing nanofluids with CuO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2016-05-01

    A new kind of aqueous CuO nanofluid with drag-reducing performance was developed. The new working fluid was an aqueous CTAC (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride) solution with CuO nanoparticles added and has both special effects of drag-reducing and heat transfer enhancement. An experiment was carried out to investigate the forced convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of conventional drag reducing fluid (aqueous CTAC solution) and the new drag-reducing nanofluid in a test tube with an inner diameter of 25.6 mm. Results indicated that there were no obvious differences of the drag-reducing characteristics between conventional drag reducing fluid and new drag-reducing nanofluid. However, their heat transfer characteristics were obvious different. The heat transfer characteristics of the new drag-reducing nanofluid significantly depend on the liquid temperature, the nanoparticle concentration and the CTAC concentration. The heat transfer enhancement technology of nanofluid could be applied to solve the problem of heat transfer deterioration for conventional drag-reducing fluids.

  1. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  2. Effects of vertically ribbed surface roughness on the forced convective heat losses in central receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Ralf; Frantz, Cathy; Fritsch, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    External receiver configurations are directly exposed to ambient wind. Therefore, a precise determination of the convective losses is a key factor in the prediction and evaluation of the efficiency of the solar absorbers. Based on several studies, the forced convective losses of external receivers are modeled using correlations for a roughened cylinder in a cross-flow of air. However at high wind velocities, the thermal efficiency measured during the Solar Two experiment was considerably lower than the efficiency predicted by these correlations. A detailed review of the available literature on the convective losses of external receivers has been made. Three CFD models of different level of detail have been developed to analyze the influence of the actual shape of the receiver and tower configuration, of the receiver shape and of the absorber panels on the forced convective heat transfer coefficients. The heat transfer coefficients deduced from the correlations have been compared to the results of the CFD simulations. In a final step the influence of both modeling approaches on the thermal efficiency of an external tubular receiver has been studied in a thermal FE model of the Solar Two receiver.

  3. Reduced-calorie dietary weight loss, exercise, and sex hormones in postmenopausal women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Alfano, Catherine M; Wang, Chia-Chi; Wang, Ching-Yun; Duggan, Catherine R; Mason, Caitlin; Imayama, Ikuyo; Kong, Angela; Xiao, Liren; Bain, Carolyn E; Blackburn, George L; Stanczyk, Frank Z; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Estrogens and androgens are elevated in obesity and associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but the effect of weight loss on these biomarkers is unknown. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of a reduced-calorie weight loss diet and exercise on serum sex hormones in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. We conducted a single-blind, 12-month, randomized controlled trial from 2005 to 2009. Participants (age 50 to 75 years; body mass index > 25.0 kg/m(2), exercising exercise ("exercise"; n = 117), (3) combined reduced-calorie weight loss diet and moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise ("diet + exercise"; n = 117), or (4) control (n = 87). Outcomes were estrone concentration (primary) and estradiol, free estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (secondary). Mean age and body mass index were 58 years and 30.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Compared with controls, estrone decreased 9.6% (P = .001) with diet, 5.5% (P = .01) with exercise, and 11.1% (P exercise. Estradiol decreased 16.2% (P exercise, and 20.3% (P exercise. SHBG increased 22.4% (P exercise. Free estradiol decreased 21.4% (P exercise. Free testosterone decreased 10.0% (P exercise. Greater weight loss produced stronger effects on estrogens and SHBG. Weight loss significantly lowered serum estrogens and free testosterone, supporting weight loss for risk reduction through lowering exposure to breast cancer biomarkers.

  4. Applying Value Stream Mapping to reduce food losses and wastes in supply chains: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Steur, Hans; Wesana, Joshua; Dora, Manoj K; Pearce, Darian; Gellynck, Xavier

    2016-12-01

    The interest to reduce food losses and wastes has grown considerably in order to guarantee adequate food for the fast growing population. A systematic review was used to show the potential of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) not only to identify and reduce food losses and wastes, but also as a way to establish links with nutrient retention in supply chains. The review compiled literature from 24 studies that applied VSM in the agri-food industry. Primary production, processing, storage, food service and/or consumption were identified as susceptible hotspots for losses and wastes. Results further revealed discarding and nutrient loss, most especially at the processing level, as the main forms of loss/waste in food, which were adapted to four out of seven lean manufacturing wastes (i.e. defect, unnecessary inventory, overproduction and inappropriate processing). This paper presents the state of the art of applying lean manufacturing practices in the agri-food industry by identifying lead time as the most applicable performance indicator. VSM was also found to be compatible with other lean tools such as Just-In-Time and 5S which are continuous improvement strategies, as well as simulation modelling that enhances adoption. In order to ensure successful application of lean practices aimed at minimizing food or nutrient losses and wastes, multi-stakeholder collaboration along the entire food supply chain is indispensable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hae-Jin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Jiang, Zhenan; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2016-11-01

    The development of an effective high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator is currently a research focus; however, the reduction of heat loss of a large-scale HTS generator is a challenge. This study deals with a heat loss analysis-based design of a 12 MW wind power generator module having an HTS flux pump exciter. The generator module consists of an HTS rotor of the generator and an HTS flux pump exciter. The specifications of the module were described, and the detailed configuration of the module was illustrated. For the heat loss analysis of the module, the excitation loss of the flux pump exciter, eddy current loss of all of the structures in the module, radiation loss, and conduction loss of an HTS coil supporter were assessed using a 3D finite elements method program. In the case of the conduction loss, different types of the supporters were compared to find out the supporter of the lowest conduction loss in the module. The heat loss analysis results of the module were reflected in the design of the generator module and discussed in detail. The results will be applied to the design of large-scale superconducting generators for wind turbines including a cooling system.

  6. Domestic hot water. Measurements of consumption and heat loss from circulation pipes; Varmt brugsvand. Maaling af forbrug og varmetab fra cirkulationsledninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B.; Schroeder, F.; Bergsoee, N.C.

    2009-07-01

    circulation line or use of HWAT should be carefully analysed. 3) For office buildings it is recommended to consider the use of a decentralized, electrical hot water production in preference to a traditional solution with circulation lines. Even if the electricity consumption is weighted by a factor of 2.5 it may be advantageous to use decentralized, electrical water heaters. 4) For apartment buildings, the trend is that it should be possible to measure the consumption in each individual apartment. Therefore, flat stations with a district heating unit in each apartment should be compared with traditional ways of supplying and measuring heat to apartments (heat allocators). 5) New types of circulation lines should be considered, e.g. concentric pipes or twin pipes, which may reduce pipe heat losses considerably. Also, prefabricated vertical pipes should be considered. Regulations as regards inaccessible joints and penetrations including requirements regarding precautionary measures concerning fire must be observed. 6) It is recommended that in depth analyses are conducted on how much of the heat loss from the DHW system that actually can be utilised in a building. (LN)

  7. REDUCING FIBER LOSS IN LABORATORY-AND MILL-SCALE FLOTATION DEINKING USING SURFACTANT SPRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Greg.DeLozier; YulinZhao; YulinDeng; DavidWhite; JunyongZhu; MarkPrein

    2004-01-01

    As the cost of quality waste paper continues to escalate in response tofor the finite resource,an increased global demand loss of saleable fiber within flotation rejects becomes both environmentally and economically unacceptable. The ability of surfactant spray technology to reduce yield loss without detriment to pulp brightness gains has been demonstrated during both laboratory-and pilot-scale flotation deinking investigations. This paper documents the successful transfer of this technology to a single flotation unit within the deinking line of a mill producing newsprint from 100% secondary fiber. Initial results suggest that the loss of fiber across the unit may be reduced by more than 50% without obvious detriment to final pulp quality.

  8. REDUCING FIBER LOSS IN LABORATORY- AND MILL-SCALE FLOTATION DEINKING USING SURFACTANT SPRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Greg. DeLozier; Yulin Zhao; Yulin Deng; David White; Junyong Zhu; Mark Prein

    2004-01-01

    As the cost of quality waste paper continues to escalate in response to an increased global demand for the finite resource, loss of saleable fiber within flotation rejects becomes both environmentally and economically unacceptable. The ability of surfactant spray technology to reduce yield loss without detriment to pulp brightness gains has been demonstrated during both laboratory- and pilot-scale flotation deinking investigations. This paper documents the successful transfer of this technology to a single flotation unit within the deinking line of a mill producing newsprint from 100% secondary fiber. Initial results suggest that the loss of fiber across the unit may be reduced by more than 50%without obvious detriment to final pulp quality.

  9. A Magma Accretion Model for the Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere: Implications for Global Heat Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Hamza, V M; Alexandrino, C H

    2010-01-01

    A simple magma accretion model of the oceanic lithosphere is proposed and its implications for understanding the thermal field of oceanic lithosphere examined. The new model (designated VBA) assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. Heat flow and bathymetry variations calculated on the basis of the VBA model provide vastly improved fits to respective observational datasets. The improved fits have been achieved for the entire age range and without the need to invoke the ad-hoc hypothesis of large-scale hydrothermal circulation in stable ocean crust. The results suggest that estimates of global heat loss need to be downsized by at least 25%.

  10. Camshaft with roller bearings to reduce mechanical losses; Waelzgelagerte Nockenwelle zur Reduzierung von Reibungsverlusten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artur, Christophe; Lemaitre, Fabrice [Timken Europe, Colmar (France); Schneider, Falk; Kreisig, Michael [Mahle Ventiltrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Reducing frictional losses in combustion engine and power train applications is imperative to achieve future CO-2 emissions targets. Mahle and Timken have combined their expertise to develop new camshaft technology which could positively contribute to this industry effort. This paper describes the content and the results of this joint work and highlights the potential benefits of the proposed solution. (orig.)

  11. Diversity in forest management to reduce wildfire losses: implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Thomas A. Spies; Ana M. G. Barros; Eric M. White; Keith A. Olsen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how federal, state, and private corporate forest owners in a fire-prone landscape of southcentral Oregon manage their forests to reduce wildfire hazard and loss to high-severity wildfire. We evaluate the implications of our findings for concepts of social–ecological resilience. Using interview data, we found a high degree of "response...

  12. A method to determine stratification efficiency of thermal energy storage processes independently from storage heat losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haller, M.Y.; Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Andersen, Elsa

    2010-01-01

    A new method for the calculation of a stratification efficiency of thermal energy storages based on the second law of thermodynamics is presented. The biasing influence of heat losses is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretically, it does not make a difference if the stratification...... process is in agreement with the first law of thermodynamics. A comparison of the stratification efficiencies obtained from experimental results of charging, standby, and discharging processes gives meaningful insights into the different mixing behaviors of a storage tank that is charged and discharged...

  13. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  14. Protection reduces loss of natural land-cover at sites of conservation importance across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Alison E; Eshiamwata, George W; Donald, Paul F; Balmford, Andrew; Bertzky, Bastian; Brink, Andreas B; Fishpool, Lincoln D C; Mayaux, Philippe; Phalan, Ben; Simonetti, Dario; Buchanan, Graeme M

    2013-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that protected areas are key in reducing adverse land-cover change, but their efficacy remains difficult to quantify. Many previous assessments of protected area effectiveness have compared changes between sets of protected and unprotected sites that differ systematically in other potentially confounding respects (e.g. altitude, accessibility), have considered only forest loss or changes at single sites, or have analysed changes derived from land-cover data of low spatial resolution. We assessed the effectiveness of protection in reducing land-cover change in Important Bird Areas (IBAs) across Africa using a dedicated visual interpretation of higher resolution satellite imagery. We compared rates of change in natural land-cover over a c. 20-year period from around 1990 at a large number of points across 45 protected IBAs to those from 48 unprotected IBAs. A matching algorithm was used to select sample points to control for potentially confounding differences between protected and unprotected IBAs. The rate of loss of natural land-cover at sample points within protected IBAs was just 42% of that at matched points in unprotected IBAs. Conversion was especially marked in forests, but protection reduced rates of forest loss by a similar relative amount. Rates of conversion increased from the centre to the edges of both protected and unprotected IBAs, but rates of loss in 20-km buffer zones surrounding protected IBAs and unprotected IBAs were similar, with no evidence of displacement of conversion from within protected areas to their immediate surrounds (leakage).

  15. Natural hazards research and response; international decade for reducing loss from natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, W.W.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide losses from natural disasters are increasing rapidly due to population growth, urban sprawl, and increasing concentration of new construction in high-risk areas. to deal with these problems, the United Nations has designated the 1990's as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). The United States and more than 150 other nations signed the IDNDR resolution at the 44th General Assembly of the United Nations. The resolution calls on all nations to develop programs to reduce loss of life, economic impact, and human suffering caused by natural disasters. 

  16. Analytical Model for Predicting the Heat Loss Effect on the Pyrolysis of Biomass Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alireza Rahbari; Fatemeh Ebrahiminasab; Mehdi Bidabadi

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the combined influence of heat-loss and radiation on the pyrolysis of biomass parti-cles by considering the structure of one-dimensional, laminar and steady state flame propagation in uniformly pre-mixed wood particles. The assumed flame structure consists of a broad preheat-vaporization zone where the rate of gas-phase chemical reaction is small, a thin reaction zone composed of three regions:gas, tar and char combustion where convection and the vaporization rate of the fuel particles are small, and a broad convection zone. The analy-sis is performed in the asymptotic limit, where the value of the characteristic Zeldovich number is large and the equivalence ratio is larger than unity (i.e. u 1ϕ ≥ ). The principal attention is made on the determination of a non-linear burning velocity correlation. Consequently, the impacts of radiation, heat loss and particle size as the de-termining factors on the flame temperature and burning velocity of biomass particles are declared in this research.

  17. Simulating experimental investigation on the safety of nuclear heating reactor in loss-of-coolant accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhanjie

    1996-12-01

    The 5MW low temperature nuclear heating reactor (NHR-5) is a new and advanced type of nuclear reactor developed by Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology (INET) of Tsinghua University of China in 1989. Its main loop is a thermal-hydraulic system with natural circulation. This paper studies the safety of NHR under the condition of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) by means of simulant experiments. First, the background and necessity of the experiments are presented, then the experimental system, including the thermal-hydraulic system and the data collection system, and similarity criteria are introduced. Up to now, the discharge experiments with the residual heating power (20% rated heating power) have been carried out on the experimental system. The system parameters including circulation flow rate, system pressure, system temperature, void fraction, discharge mass and so on have been recorded and analyzed. Based on the results of the experiments, the conclusions are shown as follos: on the whole, the reactor is safe under the condition of LOCAs, but the thermal vacillations resulting from the vibration of the circulation flow rate are disadvantageous to the internal parts of the reactor core.

  18. A Magma Accretion Model for the Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere: Implications for Global Heat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valiya M. Hamza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A magma accretion model of oceanic lithosphere is proposed and its implications for understanding its thermal field examined. The new model (designated Variable Basal Accretion—VBA assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. However, unlike the previous thermal models of the lithosphere, the ratio of advection to conduction heat transfer is considered a space dependent variable. The results of VBA model simulations reveal that the thickness of the young lithosphere increases with distance from the ridge axis, at rates faster than those predicted by Half-Space Cooling models. Another noteworthy feature of the new model is its ability to account for the main features in the thermal behavior of oceanic lithosphere. The improved fits to bathymetry have been achieved for the entire age range and without the need to invoke the ad-hoc hypothesis of large-scale hydrothermal circulation. Also, use of VBA model does not lead to artificial discontinuities in the temperature field of the lithosphere, as is the case with GDH (Global Depth Heat Flow reference models. The results suggest that estimates of global heat loss need to be downsized by at least 25%.

  19. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin [Industrial Technology Research Institute-South, Tainan 709, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jin-Chen, E-mail: fengchiahsu@itri.org.t, E-mail: hsujc@yuntech.edu.t [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-21

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  20. A New Decision Model for Reducing Trim Loss and Inventory in the Paper Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Kwun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper industry, numerous studies have explored means of optimizing order allocation and cutting trim loss. However, enterprises may not adopt the resulting solutions because some widths of the inventory exceed or are less than those required for acceptable scheduling. To ensure that the results better suit the actual requirements, we present a new decision model based on the adjustment of scheduling and limitation of inventory quantity to differentiate trim loss and inventory distribution data. Differential analysis is used to reduce data filtering and the information is valuable for decision making. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method. The results show that our proposed method outperforms the manual method regarding scheduling quantity and trim loss.

  1. Reducing support loss in micromechanical ring resonators using phononic band-gap structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Chia; Hsu, Jin-Chen; Huang, Tsun-Che; Wang, Chin-Hung; Chang, Pin

    2011-09-01

    In micromechanical resonators, energy loss via supports into the substrates may lead to a low quality factor. To eliminate the support loss, in this paper a phononic band-gap structure is employed. We demonstrate a design of phononic-crystal (PC) strips used to support extensional wine-glass mode ring resonators to increase the quality factor. The PC strips are introduced to stop elastic-wave propagation by the band-gap and deaf-band effects. Analyses of resonant characteristics of the ring resonators and the dispersion relations, eigenmodes, and transmission properties of the PC strips are presented. With the proposed resonator architecture, the finite-element simulations show that the leaky power is effectively reduced and the stored energy inside the resonators is enhanced simultaneously as the operating frequencies of the resonators are within the band gap or deaf bands. Realization of a high quality factor micromechanical ring resonator with minimized support loss is expected.

  2. Technical and Economic Assessment of the Implementation of Measures for Reducing Energy Losses in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Alexander; Wilson, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    This paper develops a methodology to assess a group of measures of electrical improvements in distribution systems, starting from the complementation of technical and economic criteria. In order to solve the problem of energy losses in distribution systems, technical and economic analysis was performed based on a mathematical model to establish a direct relationship between the energy saved by way of minimized losses and the costs of implementing the proposed measures. This paper aims at analysing the feasibility of reducing energy losses in distribution systems, by changing existing network conductors by larger crosssection conductors and distribution voltage change at higher levels. The impact of this methodology provides a highly efficient mathematical tool for analysing the feasibility of implementing improvement projects based on their costs which is a very useful tool for the distribution companies that will serve as a starting point to the analysis for this type of projects in distribution systems.

  3. Tranexamic acid reduces perioperative blood loss of posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Houyin; Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Quan, Zhengxue; Zhao, Zenghui; Zhu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed. The routine usage of TA in spinal surgery is controversial. Only a few studies have focused on patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis, although a large clinical cohort exists in the population. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and safety of TA in reducing perioperative blood loss in posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. Methods: 100 eligible patients out of 126 were randomized to receive either a bolus dose of 30 mg/kg TA i.v, a maintenance dosage of 2 mg/kg/h TA, or an equivalent volume of normal saline. The pedicle screw system was used for fixing in all the patients, followed by decompression and posterior lumbar interbody fusion. The primary outcomes were intraoperative estimated blood loss and total blood loss. The secondary outcomes were receiving packed red blood cells and postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Results: In total, 4 patients were excluded from the analyses, 50 patients were in the TA group, and 46 in the placebo group. The demographic and baseline data between the groups were not statistically different. The intraoperative estimated blood loss and the total blood loss were 33% and 41% lower in the TA group than the placebo group, respectively. The blood transfusion rate did not vary significantly (P = 0.191). Except a patient with a dural tear in the placebo group, no other complications were observed. Conclusion: TA significantly reduced the perioperative blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar surgery for stenosis or spondylolisthesis. PMID:28072709

  4. Effect of prolonged heat treatments at low temperature on shear force and cooking loss in cows and young bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Andersen, L.; Løje, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    and cooking loss in semitendinosus from cows (4-6 years) and young bulls (12-14 months), representing 2 categories of beef with varying thermal strength of connective tissue. Vacuum packed muscle samples were heat treated at 53°C, 55°C, 58°C and 63°C in water baths for 2½, 7½ and 19½ h. Cooking loss...... 53°C to 55°C, or when increasing heating time from 2½ to 7½ h at 53°C. In semitendinosus from cows shear force decreased significantly with increasing temperature, and with increasing heating time from 2½ to 19½ h at 55°C and 63°C. Cooking loss increased with increasing heating temperature in both...

  5. A Novel Flux Focusing Magnetically Geared Machine with Reduced Eddy Current Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel flux focusing magnetically geared (MG machine for wind power generation, considering the permanent magnets (PMs eddy current loss and the balance between the pull-out torque of MG machine and the back-electromotive force (EMFof the PM brushless machine. The PM eddy current loss in the two rotors of the conventional surface-mounted MG machine is calculated and analyzed by using finite-element method. By adopting serial-spoke structure in the inner rotor, a novel rotor structure for a MG machine is proposed to reduce the PM eddy current loss. Moreover, in order to balance the pull-out torque and the back-EMF, several serial-spoke structures and the main design parameters are investigated. Then, a quantitative comparison between the proposed topology and the conventional surface-mounted MG machine is performed. The analysis results indicate that the PM eddy current loss of the proposed MG machine can be significantly reduced and its pull-out torque and back-EMF can be balanced well.

  6. Use of Insulated Covers over Product Crates to Reduce Losses in Amaranth during Shipping Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Wheeler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a leafy vegetable with high nutrient content which is sensitive to temperature and low relative humidity. Delays in shipment to market may result in significant losses, therefore improved packaging to minimize mechanical damage and reduce moisture loss are desirable. Amaranth was stored in three types of consumer packages, bunches, clamshells and thin plastic bags, within vented plastic crates. Pallet loads were either covered with insulated material or not, while awaiting transportation. Results indicated covering pallets improved the color and overall quality while reducing weight loss and wilting. Covered crates had a “good” (7.6/9.0 overall quality while uncovered averaged 5.5/9.0 or “moderate” quality. There were significant differences in consumer package type, with the bagged amaranth having almost “excellent” quality (8.8/9.0 compared to “good-fair” quality in clamshells (6.2/9.0 and “poor-fair” quality in the control bunches (4.7/9.0. Amaranth stored in thin plastic bags was better in quality and color, with less weight loss and wilting, however, temperatures at the end of six hours of storage were higher and this may lead to microbial growth. Storage of amaranth in thin bags or clamshell packages, within plastic crates covered with insulated pallet covers while awaiting shipping resulted in improved overall quality and color.

  7. Combined Intra-Articular and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Reduces Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian Skovgaard; Jans, Øivind; Ørsnes, Thue;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In total knee arthroplasty, both intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) have been shown to reduce blood loss in several randomized controlled trials, although routine use of systemic TXA is considerably more common. However, to our knowledge......-only administration of TXA. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 60 patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized to one of two interventions. The TXA IV and IA group received combined administration of TXA consisting of 1 g administered intravenously preoperatively......, the additional benefit of IA administration of TXA when combined with IV administration, without the use of a tourniquet, has not been previously investigated. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined IV and IA administration of TXA reduced total blood loss compared with IV...

  8. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in patients with extracapsular fractures of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, P T; Foss, N B; Palm, H

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: We chose unstable extra-capsular hip fractures as our study group because these types of fractures suffer the largest blood loss. We hypothesised that tranexamic acid (TXA) would reduce total blood loss (TBL) in extra-capsular fractures of the hip. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single......-centre placebo-controlled double-blinded randomised clinical trial was performed to test the hypothesis on patients undergoing surgery for extra-capsular hip fractures. For reasons outside the control of the investigators, the trial was stopped before reaching the 120 included patients as planned in the protocol.......7) in the TXA group. The 90-day mortality was 27.2% (n = 9) in the TXA group and 10.2% (n = 4) in the placebo group (p = 0.07). We were not able to ascertain a reliable cause of death in these patients. DISCUSSION: TXA significantly reduced TBL in extra-capsular hip fractures, but concerns regarding its safety...

  9. Role of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Kaur Bhatia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Association between caesarean section and intra operative and post operative bleeding is known. Post-partum hemorrhage is still a leading cause for maternal morbidity and mortality. This study will evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in reducing the blood loss after placental delivery following lower segment caesarean section (LSCS and note any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 women, who underwent elective or emergency primary caesarean section at term between 37 and 41 weeks have been studied prospectively. They were divided into two groups. In the study group of 50, tranexamic acid 1 gm IV was given 20 minutes before making incision for caesarean section and the control group of 50 did not receive tranexamic acid. Statistical Analysis: For quantitative outcomes, the t-test was used to test for difference in the two groups. For categorical outcomes, chi square and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used as applicable. Results: The patient characteristics, namely age, height, weight, gestational age and gravidity in two groups were similar which was statistically insignificant. Hemoglobin decreased slightly after birth in both groups but no statistical difference between two groups was noticed. There was no episode of thrombosis in the study. Tranexamic acid significantly reduced the quantity of the blood loss from time of placental delivery to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001 and from end of LSCS to 2 hours postpartum (P < 0.001. However, there was no statistical difference in quantity of blood loss from time of placental delivery to end of LSCS in both groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: A safe dose of tranexamic acid has an effective role in reducing blood loss during LSCS without causing adverse reaction. Thus, drug can be used effectively in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality during LSCS.

  10. Phosphorus-assisted biomass thermal conversion: reducing carbon loss and improving biochar stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhao

    Full Text Available There is often over 50% carbon loss during the thermal conversion of biomass into biochar, leading to it controversy for the biochar formation as a carbon sequestration strategy. Sometimes the biochar also seems not to be stable enough due to physical, chemical, and biological reactions in soils. In this study, three phosphorus-bearing materials, H3PO4, phosphate rock tailing (PRT, and triple superphosphate (TSP, were used as additives to wheat straw with a ratio of 1: 0.4-0.8 for biochar production at 500°C, aiming to alleviate carbon loss during pyrolysis and to increase biochar-C stabilization. All these additives remarkably increased the biochar yield from 31.7% (unmodified biochar to 46.9%-56.9% (modified biochars. Carbon loss during pyrolysis was reduced from 51.7% to 35.5%-47.7%. Thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the additives had no effect on thermal stability of biochar but did enhance its oxidative stability. Microbial mineralization was obviously reduced in the modified biochar, especially in the TSP-BC, in which the total CO2 emission during 60-d incubation was reduced by 67.8%, compared to the unmodified biochar. Enhancement of carbon retention and biochar stability was probably due to the formation of meta-phosphate or C-O-PO3, which could either form a physical layer to hinder the contact of C with O2 and bacteria, or occupy the active sites of the C band. Our results indicate that pre-treating biomass with phosphors-bearing materials is effective for reducing carbon loss during pyrolysis and for increasing biochar stabilization, which provides a novel method by which biochar can be designed to improve the carbon sequestration capacity.

  11. Reduced free carrier absorption loss in midinfrared double heterostructure diode lasers grown by liquid phase epitaxy. .

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, M; Krier, A.; Jones, Robert; Carrington, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An improved InAsSb/InAsSbP double heterojunction ridge laser was designed and grown by liquid phase epitaxy. The cladding layer absorption loss was minimized by the introduction of two undoped quaternary layers on either side of the active region to form a five layer epitaxial structure. The inserted layers also helped alleviate interdiffusion of unwanted dopants into the active region and reduced current leakage in the device. The resulting diode lasers operate readily in pulsed mode near 3....

  12. Diffusive, convective and Nernst-effect losses of magnetic flux and heat from a wall-confined magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2013-10-01

    The recently proposed MAGLIF approach to inertial fusion ignition involves compression and heating of plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. To reach fusion conditions, the compressed plasma should retain a large fraction of the magnetic flux and thermal energy enclosed by the liner. Magnetic flux and heat losses from strongly magnetized plasma to a cold liner wall are significantly influenced by the Nernst and Ettingshausen thermomagnetic effects. We present exact analytical solutions of 1D MHD equations with Ohmic heating, heat conductivity and thermomagnetic terms included and discuss relative roles of diffusive, conductive and Nernst-effect-related losses of magnetic flux and heat from the magnetized plasma to the wall. These solutions are compared to our 1D simulation results. They can serve for verification of plasma transport modeling by MHD codes. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  13. NGNP/HTE full-power operation at reduced high-temperature heat exchanger temperatures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VIlim, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-12

    Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) with reduced reactor outlet temperature at full power was investigated for the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen-production application. The foremost challenge for operation at design temperature is achieving an acceptably long service life for heat exchangers. In both the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) and the Process Heat Exchanger (PHX) (referred to collectively as high temperature heat exchangers) a pressure differential of several MPa exists with temperatures at or above 850 C. Thermal creep of the heat exchanger channel wall may severely limit heat exchanger life depending on the alloy selected. This report investigates plant performance with IHX temperatures reduced by lowering reactor outlet temperature. The objective is to lower the temperature in heat transfer channels to the point where existing materials can meet the 40 year lifetime needed for this component. A conservative estimate for this temperature is believed to be about 700 C. The reactor outlet temperature was reduced from 850 C to 700 C while maintaining reactor power at 600 MWt and high pressure compressor outlet at 7 MPa. We included a previously reported design option for reducing temperature at the PHX. Heat exchanger lengths were adjusted to reflect the change in performance resulting from coolant property changes and from resizing related to operating-point change. Turbomachine parameters were also optimized for the new operating condition. An integrated optimization of the complete system including heat transfer equipment was not performed. It is estimated, however, that by performing a pinch analysis the combined plant efficiency can be increased from 35.5 percent obtained in this report to a value between 38.5 and 40.1 percent. Then after normalizing for a more than three percent decrease in commodities inventory compared to the reference plant, the commodities-normalized efficiency lies between 40.0 and 41.3. This

  14. THERMAL POWER LOSS COMPENSATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF COOKED AND DRIED GRAINS WITH HEAT PUMPS USING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using scientificand practical experience and analysis of recent innovative activity on modernization of food concentrates production, a new variant of the energy-efficient processing of cereal crops using superheated steam and direct involvement in the cooking and drying process waste energy using the vapor compression heat pump was suggested. A method for production of cereal concentrates, which is realized using microprocessor control of technological parameters. According to the information on the processes of cereals washing, cooking, drying and cooling microprocessor provides regime parameters control under the restrictions due to both yield of cooked and dried cereal of high quality and economic feasibility. At the same time the amount of moisture is continuously determined in the recirculation loop formed by the evaporation from the cereals in the drying process. To implement the proposed method of cooked and dried cereals production it is offered to use refrigerationand compressor unit operating in a heat pump mode. The refrigerant to be used is khladon 12V1 CF2ClBr with a boiling point in the evaporator of 4°C and the condensing temperature of 153.7 °C. The use of the heat pump in the heat supply system of cooked and dried cereals production instead of electric heaters will reduce power costs by 1.72 times. The proposed method for the production and control of technological parameters in the field of the product acceptable technological properties will provide high quality cooked and dried cereals; an increase in thermal efficiency by making full use of the waste heat of superheated steam; the reduction of specific energy consumption by 25-30 %; the creation of waste-free and environmentally friendly technologies for cereal production.

  15. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  16. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  17. Temperature distributions in laser-heated semi-infinite and finite-thickness media with convective surface losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loze, M K; Wright, C D

    1998-10-01

    The temperature distributions produced within semi-infinite and finite-thickness media heated by a moving laser beam with a Gaussian power-density profile are examined by use of a time-domain method. Convective losses, described by Newton's law of cooling, from the medium surfaces are included. Various medium absorption models are considered. The solutions are given as single integrals with respect to time of simple functions. The resulting expressions have been used to examine the role of surface losses in information storage and medical applications. The role of convective losses in optical recording systems is found to be insignificant. However, for medical applications, combined convective and evaporative surface losses represent an important surface-heat-loss mechanism.

  18. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  19. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, E.; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Veltri, P.

    2014-02-01

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  20. Direct reduction of carburized pre-reduced pellets by microwave heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兵; 黄柱成; 易凌云; 姜涛

    2014-01-01

    A new iron-making process using carburized pre-reduced iron ore pellets and microwave heating is investigated. The pre-reduced pellets, with a porous structure, and fine particles are carburized homogeneously at 400-650 °C in a CO atmosphere. The carburized carbon not only acts reaction as a reduction agent, but also absorbs microwave in the reduction process. Hence, the carburized pre-reduced pellets can be rapidly reduced by microwave heating. There are three procedures involved in the process, namely, gas-based pre-reduction, low-temperature carburization and deep reduction by microwave heating. Carburized pre-reduced iron ore pellets show a rapid temperature rise that is twice as fast as the results for pre-reduced pellets in the laboratory. This not only improves the efficiency of the microwave heating, but also accelerates the reduction of iron oxides. The temperature of the pre-reduced pellets rises to 1050 °C in 45 min when the carburization rate is 2.02%, and the metallization rate and compressive strength reach 94.24%and 1725 N/pellet, respectively.

  1. Inhibition by sodium cromoglycate of bronchoconstriction stimulated by respiratory heat loss: comparison of pressurised aerosol and powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, K M; Roberts, R; Morris, M M; Hargreave, F E

    1984-01-01

    The protective effect was examined of three doses (2, 10, and 20 mg) of sodium cromoglycate inhaled from a pressurised metered dose inhaler on the response to isocapnic hyperventilation of cold dry air in 10 asthmatic subjects. This was compared with the effect of cromoglycate powder (20 mg) inhaled from a Spincap and with placebo given on two occasions. The medications were inhaled on separate days, in random order and with the use of a double blind double dummy technique, 20 minutes before isocapnic hyperventilation of two fold increasing volumes of air (-15 degrees C, 0% humidity) to produce a 20% fall in the post-treatment FEV1. The response was expressed as the provocative dose of respiratory heat loss required to cause a fall in FEV1 of 15% (PD15, kcal/min). The mean baseline spirometric indices exceeded 85% of predicted normal values on each test day; both placebo treatments reduced the baseline FEV1 by comparison with all active treatments (p less than 0.0001). Comparison of the PD15 on the two placebo days confirmed excellent reproducibility. All doses of cromoglycate shifted the respiratory heat loss dose-response curve to the right of the placebo curve; PD15 after all active treatments exceeded PD15 after placebo (p less than 0.0001). There was no cromoglycate dose-response relationship between the three doses of aerosol (p greater than 0.05), or between any dose of aerosol and powder (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that cromoglycate aerosol inhaled from a pressurised inhaler in a dose of 2 mg gives the same magnitude of protection against bronchoconstriction stimulated by airway cooling as 20 mg of pressurised aerosol or powder from a Spincap. PMID:6426073

  2. Radiative Heat Loss Measurements During Microgravity Droplet Combustion in a Slow Convective Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Michael C.; Kaib, Nathan; Easton, John; Nayagam, Vedha; Williams, Forman A.

    2003-01-01

    Radiative heat loss from burning droplets in a slow convective flow under microgravity conditions is measured using a broad-band (0.6 to 40 microns) radiometer. In addition, backlit images of the droplet as well as color images of the flame were obtained using CCD cameras to estimate the burning rates and the flame dimensions, respectively. Tests were carried out in air at atmospheric pressure using n-heptane and methanol fuels with imposed forced flow velocities varied from 0 to 10 centimeters per second and initial droplet diameters varied from 1 to 3 millimeters. Slow convective flows were generated using three different experimental configurations in three different facilities in preparation for the proposed International Space Station droplet experiments. In the 2.2 Second Drop-Tower Facility a droplet supported on the leading edge of a quartz fiber is placed within a flow tunnel supplied by compressed air. In the Zero-Gravity Facility (five-second drop tower) a tethered droplet is translated in a quiescent ambient atmosphere to establish a uniform flow field around the droplet. In the KC 135 aircraft an electric fan was used to draw a uniform flow past a tethered droplet. Experimental results show that the burn rate increases and the overall flame size decreases with increases in forced-flow velocities over the range of flow velocities and droplet sizes tested. The total radiative heat loss rate, Q(sub r), decreases as the imposed flow velocity increases with the spherically symmetric combustion having the highest values. These observations are in contrast to the trends observed for gas-jet flames in microgravity, but consistent with the observations during flame spread over solid fuels where the burning rate is coupled to the forced flow as here.

  3. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  4. Non-random species loss in bacterial communities reduces antifungal volatile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; Garbeva, Paolina; Hordijk, Cornelis; Hundscheid, P J; Gunnewiek, Paulien J A Klein; Van Agtmaal, Maaike; Kuramae, Eiko E; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-08-01

    The contribution of low-abundance microbial species to soil ecosystems is easily overlooked because there is considerable overlap between metabolic abilities (functional redundancy) of dominant and subordinate microbial species. Here we studied how loss of less abundant soil bacteria affected the production of antifungal volatiles, an important factor in the natural control of soil-borne pathogenic fungi. We provide novel empirical evidence that the loss of soil bacterial species leads to a decline in the production of volatiles that suppress root pathogens. By using dilution-to-extinction for seven different soils we created bacterial communities with a decreasing number of species and grew them under carbon-limited conditions. Communities with high bacterial species richness produced volatiles that strongly reduced the hyphal growth of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. For most soil origins loss of bacterial species resulted in loss of antifungal volatile production. Analysis of the volatiles revealed that several known antifungal compounds were only produced in the more diverse bacterial communities. Our results suggest that less abundant bacterial species play an important role in antifungal volatile production by soil bacterial communities and, consequently, in the natural suppression of soil-borne pathogens.

  5. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Solar receiver kara no shizen tairyu ni yoru netsusonshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Free convective heat loss from solar heat receivers was studied, using three laboratory model receivers (different in depth L and aperture diameter d) heated by electric heaters. Most of the heat produced by heaters was transmitted to the air inside. The cylindrical vessel walls were fully insulated against heat. Heat loss being supposed to result mainly from transfer by free convection, the experiment results were edited by use of Nusselt number Nu and Rayley number Ra. Relations between Nu(D/d){sup m1} and Ra(L/D){sup m2} were plotted in a chart. Here, D is the receiver inner diameter, and m1 and m2 are constants that can be determined by computation. Tests points were provided approximately lineally, irrespective of D, L, or receiver inclination. Air currents were found to produce one or more swirls inside, thanks to the current visualization technique, when the receiver inclination was not sharper than 120{degree} (except 0{degree}). The number of swirls increased as the inner wall temperature rose. This kind of behavior of air currents directly affects the degree of heat loss. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Reducing intraoperative lower segment blood loss in placenta previa with Ashok Anand stitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok R. Anand

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To avoid the need for blood transfusions and reducing complications in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section delivery by a new simple innovative technique developed by Dr ASHOK ANAND known as Ashok Anand’s stitch. Methods: This stitch is based on the reasoning that taking the stitch bilaterally occludes the collaterals supplying the lower segment. As these are end arteries, their occlusion causes hemostasis in the lower segment. Sample size: 20 cases in each study group. Blood loss was estimated by standardized visual method (fixed container and mop. Results: By applying this technique in 20 cases, there was significant reduction in the blood loss compared to the control group, thereby reducing the need for blood transfusion (p value <0.05. Conclusions: Ashok Anand’s stitch is a simple and effective technique in controlling lower segment bleeding in cases of placenta previa during cesarean section thus avoiding the need for blood transfusions for operative blood loss and obstetric hysterectomy. The technique is easy to apply, less invasive and does not require any special instruments. It can be life-saving. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 135-140

  7. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  8. Heat losses and 3D diffusion phenomena for defect sizing procedures in video pulse thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, N.; Teruzzi, P.

    2002-06-01

    Dynamical thermographic techniques like video pulse thermography are very useful for the non-destructive testing of structural components. In literature different models were proposed, which allow to describe the time evolution of the thermal contrast for materials with sub-superficial defects. In the case of circular defect the time evolution of the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the thermal contrast was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Nevertheless a mismatch in defect sizing between experimental results and theoretical simulations was found. Possible explanations of this disagreement was analysed. A factor widely neglected is the heat loss (radiation and convection). In this paper a theoretical analysis of the influence of these contributions is reported. Furthermore in order to explain the experimental evidence of FWHM time evolution we introduced a correction due to lateral heat diffusion around the defect. In this way a possible explanation for the experimental results was obtained. Brick samples with a circular flat bottom hole as defect was tested both for the interest in defect sizing in building material through NDT and for the low thermal diffusivity of this material which allows the study of the phenomenon in a slow motion.

  9. Exposure to ozone reduces postharvest quality loss in red and green chilli peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacz, Marcin; Rees, Deborah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of continuous exposure to ozone at 0.45, 0.9 and 2μmolmol(-1) on quality changes during the storage of red and green chilli peppers at 10°C was investigated. Ozone at 0.45 and 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced disease incidence in red peppers, with no further benefits at 2μmolmol(-1). Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) reduced weight loss during storage and improved firmness maintenance. Skin colour was bleached in red peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), and in green ones at all tested doses. Total phenolic content was not affected by ozone but antioxidant activity was reduced in green chilli peppers exposed to ozone at 2μmolmol(-1), due to lower ascorbic acid content in those samples. Ozone at 0.9μmolmol(-1) extended the shelf-life of chilli peppers.

  10. Long-term stable polymer solar cells with significantly reduced burn-in loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jaemin; Song, Suhee; Yoo, Minji; Lee, Ga Young; Kwon, Obum; Park, Jin Kuen; Back, Hyungcheol; Kim, Geunjin; Lee, Seoung Ho; Suh, Hongsuk; Lee, Kwanghee

    2014-12-08

    The inferior long-term stability of polymer-based solar cells needs to be overcome for their commercialization to be viable. In particular, an abrupt decrease in performance during initial device operation, the so-called 'burn-in' loss, has been a major contributor to the short lifetime of polymer solar cells, fundamentally impeding polymer-based photovoltaic technology. In this study, we demonstrate polymer solar cells with significantly improved lifetime, in which an initial burn-in loss is substantially reduced. By isolating trap-embedded components from pristine photoactive polymers based on the unimodality of molecular weight distributions, we are able to selectively extract a trap-free, high-molecular-weight component. The resulting polymer component exhibits enhanced power conversion efficiency and long-term stability without abrupt initial burn-in degradation. Our discovery suggests a promising possibility for commercial viability of polymer-based photovoltaics towards real solar cell applications.

  11. Beam studies for the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) -- reducing beam loss at the Fermilab Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Seiya, K; Johnson, D E; Kapin, V V; Pellico, W A; Tan, C Y; Tesarek, R J

    2015-01-01

    The Fermilab Booster is being upgraded under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) to be capable of providing a proton flux of $2.25^{17}$ protons per hour. The intensity per cycle will remain at the present operational $4.3^{12}$ protons per pulse, however the Booster beam cycle rate is going to be increased from 7.5 Hz to 15 Hz. One of the biggest challenges is to maintain the present beam loss power while the doubling the beam flux. Under PIP, there has been a large effort in beam studies and simulations to better understand the mechanisms of the beam loss. The goal is to reduce it by half by correcting and controlling the beam dynamics and by improving operational systems through hardware upgrades. This paper is going to present the recent beam study results and status of the Booster operations.

  12. Nitrogen footprints: Regional realities and options to reduce nitrogen loss to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideaki; Galloway, James N; Leach, Allison M; Cattaneo, Lia R; Cattell Noll, Laura; Erisman, Jan Willem; Gu, Baojing; Liang, Xia; Hayashi, Kentaro; Ma, Lin; Dalgaard, Tommy; Graversgaard, Morten; Chen, Deli; Nansai, Keisuke; Shindo, Junko; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Oita, Azusa; Su, Ming-Chien; Mishima, Shin-Ichiro; Bleeker, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) management presents a sustainability dilemma: N is strongly linked to energy and food production, but excess reactive N causes environmental pollution. The N footprint is an indicator that quantifies reactive N losses to the environment from consumption and production of food and the use of energy. The average per capita N footprint (calculated using the N-Calculator methodology) of ten countries varies from 15 to 47 kg N capita(-1) year(-1). The major cause of the difference is the protein consumption rates and food production N losses. The food sector dominates all countries' N footprints. Global connections via trade significantly affect the N footprint in countries that rely on imported foods and feeds. The authors present N footprint reduction strategies (e.g., improve N use efficiency, increase N recycling, reduce food waste, shift dietary choices) and identify knowledge gaps (e.g., the N footprint from nonfood goods and soil N process).

  13. Physiological Responses and Lactation to Cutaneous Evaporative Heat Loss in , , and Their Crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous evaporative heat loss in Bos indicus and Bos taurus has been well documented. Nonetheless, how crossbreds with different fractional genetic proportions respond to such circumstances is of interest. A study to examine the physiological responses to cutaneous evaporative heat loss, also lactation period and milk yield, were conducted in Sahiwal (Bos indicus, n = 10, 444±64.8 kg, 9±2.9 years, Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus, HF100% (n = 10, 488±97.9 kg, 6±2.8 years and the following crossbreds: HF50% (n = 10, 355±40.7 kg, 2±0 years and HF87.5% (n = 10, 489±76.8 kg, 7±1.8 years. They were allocated so as to determine the physiological responses of sweating rate (SR, respiration rate (RR, rectal temperature (RT, and skin temperature (ST with and without hair from 06:00 h am to 15:00 h pm. And milk yield during 180 days were collected at days from 30 to 180. The ambient temperature-humidity-index (THI increased from less than 80 in the early morning to more than 90 in the late afternoon. The interaction of THI and breed were highly affected on SR, RR, RT, and ST (p0.05 but did change over time. The ST with and without hair were similar, and was higher in HF100% (37.4°C; 38.0°C and their crossbred HF50% (35.5°C; 35.5°C and HF87.5% (37.1°C; 37.9°C than Sahiwal (34.8°C; 34.8°C (p<0.01. Moreover, the early lactation were higher at HF100% (25 kg and 87.5% (25 kg than HF50% (23 kg which were higher than Sahiwal (18 kg while the peak period of lactation was higher at HF100% (35 kg than crossbreds both HF87.5% and HF50% (32 kg which was higher than Sahiwal (26 kg (p<0.05. In conclusion, sweating and respiration were the main vehicle for dissipating excess body heat for Sahiwal, HF and crossbreds, respectively. The THI at 76 to 80 were the critical points where the physiological responses to elevated temperature displayed change.

  14. Safranin O reduces loss of glycosaminoglycans from bovine articular cartilage during histological specimen preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, K; Lammi, M; Arokoski, J; Lapveteläinen, T; Tammi, M; Helminen, H; Kiviranta, I

    1996-02-01

    The ability of Safranin O, added to fixation and decalcification solutions, to prevent the escape of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) from small cartilage tissue blocks during histological processing of cartilage has been studied. GAGs in the fixatives and decalcifying solutions used and those remaining in the 1 mm3 cubes of cartilage were assayed biochemically. The quantity of GAGs remaining in the cartilage cubes were determined from Safranin O-stained sections using videomicroscopy or microspectrophotometry. A quantity (10.6%) of GAGs were lost during a conventional 4% buffered formaldehyde fixation (48 h) and a subsequent decalcification in 10% EDTA (12 days) at 4 degrees C. Roughly one-quarter of the total GAG loss occurred during the 48 h fixation, and three-quarters during the 12 days of decalcification. Inclusion of 4% formaldehyde in the decalcification fluid decreased the loss of GAGs to 6.2%. The presence of 0.5% Safranin O in the fixative reduced this loss to 3.4%. When 0.5% Safranin O was included in the fixative and 4% formaldehyde in the decalcification solution, Safranin O staining of the histological sections increased on average by 13.5%. After fixation in the presence of 0.5% Safranin O, there was no difference in the staining intensities when decalcification was carried out in the presence of either Safranin O or formaldehyde, or both. It took 24 h for Safranin O to penetrate into the deep zone of articular cartilage, warranting a fixation period of at least this long. In conclusion, the addition of Safranin O to the fixative and either Safranin O or formaldehyde in the following decalcification fluid, markedly reduces the loss of GAGs from small articular cartilage explants during histological processing. However, for immunohistochemical studies, Safranin O cannot be included in the processing solutions, because it may interfere.

  15. Swine manure injection with low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, J L; Moorman, T B; Singer, J W; Cambardella, C A; Tomer, M D

    2011-01-01

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. We determined the effect of two manure application methods on P fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production system, with and without a winter rye (Secale cereale L.)-oat (Avena sativa L.) cover crop. Treatments included: (i) no manure; (ii) knife injection; and (iii) low-disturbance injection, each with and without the cover crop. Simulated rainfall runoff was analyzed for dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP). Rainfall was applied 8 d after manure application (early November) and again in May after emergence of the corn crop. Manure application increased soil bioavailable P in the 20- to 30-cm layer following knife injection and in the 5- to 20-cm layer following low-disturbance injection. The low-disturbance system caused less damage to the cover crop, so that P uptake was more than threefold greater. Losses of DRP were greater in both fall and spring following low-disturbance injection; however, application method had no effect on TP loads in runoff in either season. The cover crop reduced fall TP losses from plots with manure applied by either method. In spring, DRP losses were significantly higher from plots with the recently killed cover crop, but TP losses were not affected. Low-disturbance injection of swine manure into a standing cover crop can minimize plant damage and P losses in surface runoff while providing optimum P availability to a subsequent agronomic crop.

  16. Multilayer thin film coatings for reduced infrared loss in hollow glass waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledt, Carlos M.; Kopp, Daniel V.; Harrington, James A.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2011-09-01

    Hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) are an attractive alternative to traditional solid-core and 2D photonic crystal, infrared transmissive fibers. Applications for HGWs at wavelengths longer than 2 microns include use of the guides for the delivery of laser power and for use as chemical and thermal sensors. To date, the most common HGW is one with an inner coating of Ag followed by a single-dielectric layer of AgI. These single-layer dielectric coated HGWs have losses for a 700-micron bore guide as low as 0.2 dB/m at 10.6 microns. However, if a multilayer stack of alternating high/low index thin films is deposited instead of a single dielectric layer then the loss can be reduced substantially. In the present study, multilayer dielectric thin films have been deposited inside silica tubing using a liquid-phase deposition method. High index coating materials used include metal sulfides such as PbS while the low index materials include polystyrene (PS) and some sulfides. To date it has been possible to deposit two-layer coatings using, for example, CdS and PS but a lower loss is possible if the coating stack is composed of three dielectric layers. In past work CdS/PbS/CdS coatings were deposited and found to have a measured a loss at λ = 10.6 microns that is approximately two times lower than that for a single dielectric layer. In this paper the theory of multilayer coatings will be presented along with the optical loss measurements from λ = 2 to 12 microns for the multilayer dielectric coatings.

  17. Weight Loss Through Lifestyle Modification Significantly Reduces Features of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Gomez, Eduardo; Martinez-Perez, Yadina; Calzadilla-Bertot, Luis; Torres-Gonzalez, Ana; Gra-Oramas, Bienvenido; Gonzalez-Fabian, Licet; Friedman, Scott L; Diago, Moises; Romero-Gomez, Manuel

    2015-08-01

    It is not clear how weight loss affects histologic features of liver in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We examined the association between the magnitude of weight loss through lifestyle modifications and changes in histologic features of NASH. We conducted a prospective study of 293 patients with histologically proven NASH who were encouraged to adopt recommended lifestyle changes to reduce their weight over 52 weeks, from June 2009 through May 2013, at a tertiary medical center in Havana, Cuba. Liver biopsies were collected when the study began and at week 52 of the diet and were analyzed histologically. Paired liver biopsies were available from 261 patients. Among 293 patients who underwent lifestyle changes for 52 weeks, 72 (25%) achieved resolution of steatohepatitis, 138 (47%) had reductions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS), and 56 (19%) had regression of fibrosis. At week fifty-two, 88 subjects (30%) had lost ≥5% of their weight. Degree of weight loss was independently associated with improvements in all NASH-related histologic parameters (odds ratios = 1.1-2.0; P fasting glucose >5.5 mmol/L, and many ballooned cells, NAS scores decreased significantly with weight reductions ≥10%. A greater extent of weight loss, induced by lifestyle changes, is associated with the level of improvement in histologic features of NASH. The highest rates of NAS reduction, NASH resolution, and fibrosis regression occurred in patients with weight losses ≥10%. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Losartan administration reduces fibrosis but hinders functional recovery after volumetric muscle loss injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Koyal; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2014-11-15

    Losartan is a Food and Drug Administration approved antihypertensive medication that is recently emerging as an antifibrotic therapy. Previously, losartan has been successfully used to reduce fibrosis and improve both muscle regeneration and function in several models of recoverable skeletal muscle injuries, such as contusion and laceration. In this study, the efficacy of losartan treatment in reducing fibrosis and improving regeneration was determined in a Lewis rat model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury. VML has been defined as the traumatic or surgical loss of skeletal muscle with resultant functional impairment. It is among the top 10 causes for wounded service members to be medically retired from the military. This study shows that, after several weeks of recovery, VML injury results in little to no muscle regeneration, but is marked by persistent inflammation, chronic upregulation of profibrotic markers and extracellular matrix (i.e., collagen type I), and fat deposition at the defect site, which manifest irrecoverable deficits in force production. Losartan administration at 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) was able to modulate the gene expression of fibrotic markers and was also effective at reducing fibrosis (i.e., the deposition of collagen type I) in the injured muscle. However, there were no improvements in muscle regeneration, and deleterious effects on muscle function were observed instead. We propose that, in the absence of regeneration, reduction in fibrosis worsens the ability of the VML injured muscle to transmit forces, which ultimately results in decreased muscle function.

  19. Using Pretwist to Reduce Power Loss of Bend-Twist Coupled Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stäblein, Alexander; Tibaldi, Carlo; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2016-01-01

    Bend-twist coupling of wind turbine blades is known as a means to reduce the structural loads of the turbine. While the load reduction is desirable, bend-twist coupling also leads to a decrease in the annual energy production of the turbine. The reduction is mainly related to a no longer optimal...... twist distribution along the blade due to the coupling induced twist. Some of the power loss can be compensated by pretwisting the blade. This paper presents a pretwisting procedure for large blade deflections and investigates the effect of pretwisting on blade geometry, annual energy production...

  20. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L., E-mail: sasha.velikovich@nrl.navy.mil; Giuliani, J. L., E-mail: sasha.velikovich@nrl.navy.mil [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  1. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ωeτe effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  2. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  3. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  4. First and Second-Law Efficiency Analysis and ANN Prediction of a Diesel Cycle with Internal Irreversibility, Variable Specific Heats, Heat Loss, and Friction Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The variability of specific heats, internal irreversibility, heat and frictional losses are neglected in air-standard analysis for different internal combustion engine cycles. In this paper, the performance of an air-standard Diesel cycle with considerations of internal irreversibility described by using the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable specific heats, and losses due to heat transfer and friction is investigated by using finite-time thermodynamics. Artificial neural network (ANN is proposed for predicting the thermal efficiency and power output values versus the minimum and the maximum temperatures of the cycle and also the compression ratio. Results show that the first-law efficiency and the output power reach their maximum at a critical compression ratio for specific fixed parameters. The first-law efficiency increases as the heat leakage decreases; however the heat leakage has no direct effect on the output power. The results also show that irreversibilities have depressing effects on the performance of the cycle. Finally, a comparison between the results of the thermodynamic analysis and the ANN prediction shows a maximum difference of 0.181% and 0.194% in estimating the thermal efficiency and the output power. The obtained results in this paper can be useful for evaluating and improving the performance of practical Diesel engines.

  5. A Computing Approach with the Heat-Loss Model for the Transient Analysis of Liquid Metal Natural Circulation Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daogang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient behaviors of natural circulation loop (NCL are important for the system reliability under postulated accidents. The heat loss and structure thermal inertia may influence the transient behaviors of NCL greatly, so a transient analysis model with consideration of heat loss was developed based on the MATLAB/Simulink to predict the thermal-hydraulic characteristic of liquid metal NCL. The transient processes including the start-up, the loss of pump, and the shutdown of thermal-hydraulic ADS lead bismuth loop (TALL experimental facility were simulated by using the model. A good agreement is obtained to validate the transient model. The appended structure would provide significant thermal inertia and flatten the temperature distribution in the transients. The oscillations of temperature and flow rate are also weakened. The temperature difference between hot leg and cold leg would increase with the decrease of heat loss, so the flow rate increases as well. However, a significant increase of hot section temperature may cause a failure of facility integrity due to the decrease of heat loss. Hence, the full power of the core tank may also be limited.

  6. How Much CO2 Emissions Can Be Reduced in China’s Heating Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available China’s heating industry is a coal-fired industry with serious environmental issues. CO2 emissions from the heating industry accounted for an average 6.1% of China’s carbon emissions during 1985–2010. The potential for reducing emissions in China’s heating industry is evaluated by co-integration analysis and scenario analysis. The results demonstrate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship among CO2 emissions and the influencing factors, including energy intensity, industrial scale, labor productivity, and energy productivity. Monte Carlo technique is adopted for risk analysis. It is found that the CO2 emissions reduction potential of the heating industry will be 26.7 million tons of coal equivalent (Mtce in 2020 and 64.8 Mtce in 2025 under the moderate scenario, compared with 50.6 Mtce in 2020 and 122.1 Mtce in 2025 under the advanced scenario. Policy suggestions are provided accordingly.

  7. USING CENTER HOLE HEAT TRANSFER TO REDUCE FORMATION TIMES FOR CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FROM PYROPROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth J. Bateman; Charles W. Solbrig

    2006-07-01

    The waste produced from processing spent fuel from the EBR II reactor must be processed into a waste form suitable for long term storage in Yucca Mountain. The method chosen produces zeolite granules mixed with glass frit, which must then be converted into a solid. This is accomplished by loading it into a can and heating to 900 C in a furnace regulated at 915 C. During heatup to 900 C, the zeolite and glass frit react and consolidate to produce a sodalite monolith. The resultant ceramic waste form (CWF) is then cooled. The waste is 52 cm in diameter and initially 300 cm long but consolidates to 150 cm long during the heating process. After cooling it is then inserted in a 5-DHLW/DOE SNF Long Canister. Without intervention, the waste takes 82 hours to heat up to 900 C in a furnace designed to geometrically fit the cylindrical waste form. This paper investigates the reduction in heating times possible with four different methods of additional heating through a center hole. The hole size is kept small to maximize the amount of CWF that is processed in a single run. A hole radius of 1.82 cm was selected which removes only 1% of the CWF. A reference computation was done with a specified inner hole surface temperature of 915 C to provide a benchmark for the amount of improvement which can be made. It showed that the heatup time can potentially be reduced to 43 hours with center hole heating. The first method, simply pouring high temperature liquid aluminum into the hole, did not produce any noticeable effect on reducing heat up times. The second method, flowing liquid aluminum through the hole, works well as long as the velocity is high enough (2.5 cm/sec) to prevent solidification of the aluminum during the initial front movement of the aluminum into the center hole. The velocity can be reduced to 1 cm/sec after the initial front has traversed the ceramic. This procedure reduces the formation time to near that of the reference case. The third method, flowing a gas

  8. Forebrain-Specific Loss of BMPRII in Mice Reduces Anxiety and Increases Object Exploration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofeyah L McBrayer

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor Type II (BMPRII in learning, memory, and exploratory behavior in mice, a tissue-specific knockout of BMPRII in the post-natal hippocampus and forebrain was generated. We found that BMPRII mutant mice had normal spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze, but showed significantly reduced swimming speeds with increased floating behavior. Further analysis using the Porsolt Swim Test to investigate behavioral despair did not reveal any differences in immobility between mutants and controls. In the Elevated Plus Maze, BMPRII mutants and Smad4 mutants showed reduced anxiety, while in exploratory tests, BMPRII mutants showed more interest in object exploration. These results suggest that loss of BMPRII in the mouse hippocampus and forebrain does not disrupt spatial learning and memory encoding, but instead impacts exploratory and anxiety-related behaviors.

  9. Dual capillary tube / heat exchanger in combination with cycle priming for reducing charge migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian

    2017-07-04

    A refrigerator appliance including a multi-capacity compressor and a refrigerant circuit with two conduits and pressure reducing devices arranged in parallel between an evaporator and a condenser. Refrigerant can flow through one, both or none of the conduits and pressure reducing devices. The appliance also has a heat exchanger in contact with either one pressure reducing device, or one conduit between the pressure reducing device and the valve system. The appliance also includes a controller for priming the compressor above a nominal capacity for a predetermined or calculated duration at the beginning of an ON-cycle.

  10. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933: a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundgren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design: Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS model. Results and conclusions: All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7, often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989. Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2, with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the

  11. Buccal bone loss after immediate implantation can be reduced by the flapless approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR BELÉM NOVAES JR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the buccal bone remodeling after immediate implantation with flap or flapless approach. Material and Methods: The mandibular bilateral premolars of 3 dogs were extracted and immediately three implants were placed in both hemi-arches of each dog. Randomly, one hemi-arch was treated with the flapless approach, while in the contra lateral hemi-arch tooth extractions and implant placement were done after mucoperiosteal flap elevation. Non-submerged healing of 12 weeks was provided for both groups. Histomorphometric analysis was done to compare buccal and lingual bone height loss, bone density and bone-to-implant contact in the groups. Fluorescence analysis was performed to investigate the dynamic of bone remodeling in the different groups. Results: There was a significant association between the surgical flap and the extent of bone resorption around immediate implants. The loss of buccal bone height was significantly lower in the flapless group when compared to the flap group (0.98 mm x 2.14 mm, respectively, p<0.05. The coronal and apical buccal bone densities of the flap group were significantly higher when compared to the lingual components, showing anatomical differences between the bone plates. Fluorescence analysis showed no major differences in bone healing between the flap and flapless groups, supporting that the higher loss of buccal bone height is linked to the anatomic characteristics of this plate and to the negative influence of the detachment of the periosteum in immediate implant therapy. Conclusion: The flapless approach for immediate post-extraction implants reduces the buccal bone height loss.

  12. Weight loss reduces circulating asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Kopp, Hans-Peter; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2004-12-01

    The endogenous nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) is elevated in patients with increased risk for arteriosclerosis. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We measured plasma ADMA concentrations in morbidly obese women before and after weight loss following gastroplastic surgery. ADMA and symmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine concentrations were analyzed by HPLC from 34 female patients (age 41 +/- 7 yr) with a body mass index (BMI) of 49 +/- 1 kg/m2 before and 14 months after vertical ring gastroplasty. Age-matched healthy women (BMI < 25 kg/m2; n = 24) were studied as controls. After gastroplastic surgery, BMI decreased to 34 +/- 1 kg/m2 in obese women (P < 0.00001), and ADMA concentrations were reduced from 1.06 +/- 0.06 micromol/liter at baseline to 0.81 +/- 0.04 micromol/liter after weight loss (P < 0.00001). Symmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine plasma levels were not affected. ADMA correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein at baseline (r = 0.42; P < 0.05) and after weight loss (r = 0.56; P < 0.005). No association with blood pressure or plasma lipids could be observed. ADMA concentrations were lower in controls (0.68 +/- 0.04 micromol/liter; P < 0.05) compared with obese patients before or after weight reduction. The decrease of highly elevated ADMA concentrations in morbidly obese patients is paralleled by improvement of parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome after weight loss.

  13. Analysis of the Pipe Heat Loss of the Water Flow Calorimetry System in EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; Chen, Yu; Xu, Yongjian; Yu, Ling; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Weitang

    2016-11-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is one of the main auxiliary heating methods in controllable nuclear fusion research. In the EAST neutral beam injector, a water flow calorimetry (WFC) system is applied to measure the heat load on the electrode system of the ion source and the heat loading components of the beamline. Due to the heat loss in the return water pipe, there are some measuring errors for the current WFC system. In this paper, the errors were measured experimentally and analyzed theoretically, which lay a basis for the exact calculation of beam power deposition distribution and neutralization efficiency. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB101001) and the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950)

  14. How filaments can reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Francesco; Kario, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Second-generation high-temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes, known also as coated conductors, are very promising tapes for HTS applications, in virtue of their extremely high critical current density, in-field behavior, and mechanical strength. Yet, the extremely large (typically in the range 1000-10 000) width-to-thickness ratio of the superconducting material makes them prone to high power dissipation in the presence of time-varying magnetic fields perpendicular to their flat face—a condition frequently met in several applications. Since the dissipation is directly proportional to the square of the superconductor's width, an obvious way of reducing it is by striating the superconductor into narrow filaments (stripes): in that case, provided that the filaments are electromagnetically uncoupled, the losses are reduced by a factor equal to the number of filaments. In the past two decades, many researchers from groups around the world have tried to apply this idea to practical conductors using different techniques. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of such efforts, focusing on the different approaches to make filamentized conductors, on the effectiveness of the AC loss reduction, and on the applicability of those techniques to long lengths.

  15. Ecologically informed engineering reduces loss of intertidal biodiversity on artificial shorelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark A; Chapman, M Gee

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide responses to urbanization, expanding populations and climatic change mean biodiverse habitats are replaced with expensive, but necessary infrastructure. Coastal cities support vast expanses of buildings and roads along the coast or on "reclaimed" land, leading to "armouring" of shorelines with walls, revetments and offshore structures to reduce erosion and flooding. Currently infrastructure is designed to meet engineering and financial criteria, without considering its value as habitat, despite artificial shorelines causing loss of intertidal species and altering ecological natural processes that sustain natural biodiversity. Most research on ameliorating these impacts focus on soft-sediment habitats and larger flora (e.g., restoring marshes, encouraging plants to grow on walls). In response to needs for greater collaboration between ecologists and engineers to create infrastructure to better support biodiversity, we show how such collaborations lead to small-scale and inexpensive ecologically informed engineering which reduces loss of species of algae and animals from rocky shores replaced by walls. Adding experimental novel habitats to walls mimicking rock-pools (e.g., cavities, attaching flowerpots) increased numbers of species by 110% within months, in particular mobile animals most affected by replacing natural shores with walls. These advances provide new insights about melding engineering and ecological knowledge to sustain biodiversity in cities.

  16. Reducing Digging Losses by Using Automated Steering to Plant and Invert Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vellidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available GPS guidance of farm machinery has been increasingly adopted by farmers because of the perceived gains in efficiency that it provides. In the southeastern USA one of the reasons farmers adopt GPS guidance, and specifically automated steering (auto-steer, is that it can theoretically result in large yield gains when used to plant and invert peanuts—one of the region’s most important crops. The goal of our study was to quantify the yield benefit of using real time kinematic (RTK-based auto-steer to plant and invert peanuts under a variety of terrain conditions. Yield benefits result from reduced digging losses. The study was conducted for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011 on a private farm in Georgia, USA. When all data are grouped together, auto-steer outperformed conventional by 579 kg/ha in 2010 and 451 kg/ha in 2011. We also evaluated the performance of auto-steer under different curvature conditions using low, medium, and high curvature rows. The results showed that auto-steer outperformed conventional under all curvature by a minimum of 338 kg/ha. Finally, we evaluated passive implement guidance in combination with auto-steer and found that it holds tremendous potential for further reducing digging losses. In many cases, auto-steer will pay for itself within a year.

  17. Warming reduces carbon losses from grassland exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Pendall

    Full Text Available The flux of carbon dioxide (CO2 between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere may ameliorate or exacerbate climate change, depending on the relative responses of ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration to warming temperatures, rising atmospheric CO2, and altered precipitation. The combined effect of these global change factors is especially uncertain because of their potential for interactions and indirectly mediated conditions such as soil moisture. Here, we present observations of CO2 fluxes from a multi-factor experiment in semi-arid grassland that suggests a potentially strong climate - carbon cycle feedback under combined elevated [CO2] and warming. Elevated [CO2] alone, and in combination with warming, enhanced ecosystem respiration to a greater extent than photosynthesis, resulting in net C loss over four years. The effect of warming was to reduce respiration especially during years of below-average precipitation, by partially offsetting the effect of elevated [CO2] on soil moisture and C cycling. Carbon losses were explained partly by stimulated decomposition of soil organic matter with elevated [CO2]. The climate - carbon cycle feedback observed in this semiarid grassland was mediated by soil water content, which was reduced by warming and increased by elevated [CO2]. Ecosystem models should incorporate direct and indirect effects of climate change on soil water content in order to accurately predict terrestrial feedbacks and long-term storage of C in soil.

  18. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Substantiation of the simplified method of determining heat losses through underground parts of building enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the successful development of construction industry depends on the improved energy performance of buildings, structures and facilities, as well as on the quality assurance of the indoor climate. The approximate calculation of two-dimensional temperature field of the ground outside the underground part of the building is considered using the analytical solution of differential equation of thermal conduction by the method of sources and sinks according to the existing boundary conditions. This problem is a very high-priority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing demands to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the heat losses through the floor situated on the ground. The results of the estimation of thermal resistance of floor areas on the ground are presented on the basis of the obtained temperature field. The comparison of these results with the regulatory requirements specified in SP 50.13330.2012, and with the data of numerical calculations of other authors using finite difference approximation of the thermal conduction equation with consideration of soil freezing is held. It is shown that the requirements of the SP 50.13330.2012 are physically reasonable, and numerical calculations can also be described by the analytical dependence obtained in this paper with appropriate selection of the numerical coefficients with the preservation of engineering form of the calculation procedure. The obtained model is easy to use in engineering practice especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.

  20. Strategies to Reduce the Harmful Effects of Extreme Heat Events: A Four-City Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalonne L. White-Newsome

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme heat events (EHEs are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ—cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

  1. Strategies to reduce the harmful effects of extreme heat events: a four-city study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L; McCormick, Sabrina; Sampson, Natalie; Buxton, Miatta A; O'Neill, Marie S; Gronlund, Carina J; Catalano, Linda; Conlon, Kathryn C; Parker, Edith A

    2014-02-13

    Extreme heat events (EHEs) are becoming more intense, more frequent and longer lasting in the 21st century. These events can disproportionately impact the health of low-income, minority, and urban populations. To better understand heat-related intervention strategies used by four U.S. cities, we conducted 73 semi-structured interviews with government and non-governmental organization leaders representing public health, general social services, emergency management, meteorology, and the environmental planning sectors in Detroit, MI; New York City, NY; Philadelphia, PA and Phoenix, AZ-cities selected for their diverse demographics, climates, and climate adaptation strategies. We identified activities these leaders used to reduce the harmful effects of heat for residents in their city, as well as the obstacles they faced and the approaches they used to evaluate these efforts. Local leaders provided a description of how local context (e.g., climate, governance and city structure) impacted heat preparedness. Despite the differences among study cities, political will and resource access were critical to driving heat-health related programming. Upon completion of our interviews, we convened leaders in each city to discuss these findings and their ongoing efforts through day-long workshops. Our findings and the recommendations that emerged from these workshops could inform other local or national efforts towards preventing heat-related morbidity and mortality.

  2. Reducing Loss to Follow-Up with Tele-audiology Diagnostic Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmar, Madan; Simon, Anne; Sadorra, Candace; Friedland, Gerald; Sherwood, Jennifer; Morrow, Hallie; Deines, Dawn; Nickell, Deborah; Lucatorta, David; Marcin, James P

    2015-11-06

    Infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screen require diagnostic follow-up visits but often face access barriers such as travel distance and shortage of pediatric audiologists. Telemedicine (tele-audiology) is a potential solution to provide diagnostic hearing evaluations for families of infants facing access barriers. We determined the feasibility and impact of a tele-audiology program that provided comprehensive diagnostic evaluations to a region with a high lost to follow-up rate among newborns who did not pass their newborn hearing screen. We evaluated the tele-audiology program using parent and provider surveys to determine the perception of quality and satisfaction of care. We also compared the lost to follow-up rate of the tele-audiology program with the loss to follow-up in the region before the implementation of the program. Twenty-two infants who did not pass their newborn hearing screen were referred to the tele-audiology program for diagnostic evaluation. Among these infants, 59.1% were diagnosed with some form of hearing loss. The mean quality score rated by both parents and providers on the telemedicine interaction was over 6.5 on a 7-point Likert scale. All parents rated the importance of tele-audiology as 7 (extremely important) for their family, whereas the provider rated the mean importance as 6.4 (95% confidence interval, 5.9, 6.9) on a 7-point Likert scale. Almost all parents actively participated or were engaged during history taking and counseling and were comfortable in discussing their child's hearing status remotely over telemedicine. All infants completed their diagnostic evaluation with no loss to follow-up compared with 22% loss to follow-up in the region before the implementation of the program. Tele-audiology is a feasible solution that reduces the loss to follow-up among infants who do not pass their newborn hearing screen and have access barriers to qualified audiologists for diagnostic evaluations.

  3. Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.

  4. Heat Loss in a Laser-Driven, Magnetized, X-Ray Source with Thermoelectric Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, J. L.; Velikovich, A. L.; Kemp, G. E.; Colvin, J. D.; Koning, J.; Fournier, K. B.

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of laser-driven K-shell radiation sources, i.e., pipes containing a gas or a metal foam, may be improved by using an axial magnetic field to thermally insulate the pipe wall from the hot interior. A planar, self-similar solution for the magnetic and thermal diffusion is developed to model the near wall physics that includes the thermoelectric Nernst and Ettingshausen effects. This solution extends previous work for the MagLIF concept to include the full dependence of the transport coefficients on the electron Hall parameter. The analytic solution assumes a constant pressure. This case is matched with a 1D MHD code, which is then applied to the case allowing for pressure gradients. These numerical solutions are found to evolve toward the self-similar ones. The variation of the time integrated heat loss with and without the thermoelectric terms will be examined. The present work provides a verification test for general MHD codes that use Braginskii's or Epperlein-Haines' transport model to account for thermoelectric effects. NRL supported by the DOE/NNSA. LLNL work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Tidal heating and mass loss in neutron star binaries - Implications for gamma-ray burst models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, P.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron star in a close binary orbit around another neutron star (or stellar-mass black hole) spirals inward owing to gravitational radiation. We discuss the effects of tidal dissipation during this process. Tidal energy dissipated in the neutron star's core escapes mainly as neutrinos, but heating of the crust, and outward diffusion of photons, blows off the outer layers of the star. This photon-driven mass loss precedes the final coalescence. The presence of this eject material impedes the escape of gamma-rays created via neutrino interactions. If an e(+) - e(-) fireball, created in the late stages of coalescence, were loaded with (or surrounded by) material with the mean column density of the ejecta, it could not be an efficient source of gamma-rays. Models for cosmologically distant gamma-rays burst that involve neutron stars must therefore be anisotropic, so that the fireball expands preferentially in directions where the column density of previously blown-off material is far below the spherically averaged value which we have calculated. Some possible 'scenarios' along these lines are briefly discussed.

  6. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent.

  7. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated...... during grain filling. There is in particular a need to model how heat and other stresses, including interacting effects of heat and drought, affect duration of GLA after flowering and how this affects source–sink relations during grain filling....... with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...

  8. Delayed plowing of forages within potato rotation reduces nitrate leaching losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Jamieson, T.; Nyiraneza, J.; Somers, G.; Thompson, B.; Murray, B.; Grimmett, M.

    2013-12-01

    The potato industry plays an important role in the economics in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada. Intensive potato production has been conducted on sandy soil underlain by a semi-confined or unconfined sandstone aquifer, which provides all the drinking water and a large majority of stream flow on the island. Typically, potato is grown in rotation with grain underseeded with forages, with the latter being plowed down in the fall of the third season. High levels of nitrate leaching losses from the potato production systems have adversely affected both groundwater and associated surface water quality. Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) were proposed for maintaining optimal crop production while mitigating the nitrate contamination in PEI. But there is limited information on the environmental performance of the BMPs in commercial fields. The potentials of delayed forage plowing from fall to spring to reduce nitrate losses were evaluated in commercial fields at two separated sites in PEI during October 2010 and March 2013. At Site 1, two tile-drained fields were paired for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (with pre-plow herbicidal treatment); weekly tile-drainage samples were collected to evidence the effects of the treatments. At Site 2, a field was split in half for spring vs. fall plowing treatments (without pre-plow herbicidal treatment). Shallow piezometers were installed at the upper and lower ends of the field for water sampling, with the upper end one indicating the effects of shallow groundwater inflow and the lower ones evidencing the combined effects of groundwater inflow and drainage from plowing treatments. Soil drainage was estimated through coupled LEACHN and MODFLOW simulations. Nitrate leaching losses were calculated as the integration of measured leached nitrate concentrations and simulated drainage. Field monitoring showed that nitrate leaching mainly occurred during the offseason. Nitrate leaching during the forage phase were estimated to be

  9. Does Regular Exercise without Weight Loss Reduce Insulin Resistance in Children and Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YoonMyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable efforts to tackle childhood obesity, it is recognized as one of the biggest health problems globally. Childhood obesity is a leading cause of many comorbid conditions such as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance as well as type 2 diabetes. A strong body of evidence suggests that regular exercise without calorie restriction or weight loss is associated with reduced insulin resistance as well as improved insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. However, despite the well-known benefits associated with regular exercise alone, the independent role of exercise training without calorie restriction on insulin resistance is still uncertain in youth. Some studies observed that both the aerobic and resistance type of exercise training without calorie restriction resulted in meaningful changes in insulin sensitivity, suggesting that exercise alone is an effective therapeutic strategy for reducing insulin resistance in overweight and obese youth. However, only few studies are available on the optimal dose of exercise training without calorie restriction or preferred exercise modality for reducing insulin resistance, which warrants further investigations in the pediatric population.

  10. Study and verification of the superposition method used for determining the pressure losses of the heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with study of the pressure losses of the new heat convectors product line. For all devices connected to the heating circuit of the building, it‘s required to declare a tabulated values of pressure drops. The heat exchangers are manufactured in a lot of different dimensions and atypical shapes. An individual assessment of the pressure losses for each type is very time consuming. Therefore based on the resulting data of the experiments and numerical models, an electronic database was created that can be used for calculating the total values of the pressure losses in the optionally assembled exchanger. The measurements are standardly performed by the manufacturer Licon heat hydrodynamic laboratory and the numerical models are carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics. Different variations of the convectors geometry cause non-linear process of energy losses, which is proportionately about 30% larger for the smaller exchanger than for the larger types. The results of the experiments and the numerical simulations were in a very good conjuncture. Considerable influence of the water temperature onto the total size of incurred energy losses has been proven. This is mainly caused by the different ranges of the Reynolds number depending on the viscosity of the used liquid. Concerning to the tested method of superposition, it is not possible to easily find the characteristic values appropriate for the each individual components of the heat exchanger. Every of the components behaves differently, depend on the complexity of the exchanger. However, the correction coefficient, depended on the matrix of the exchanger, that is suitable for the entire range of the developed product line has been found.

  11. Numerical analysis of an osseointegrated prosthesis fixation with reduced bone failure risk and periprosthetic bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, P K; van Diest, M; Bulstra, S K; Verdonschot, N; Verkerke, G J

    2012-07-26

    Currently available implants for direct attachment of prosthesis to the skeletal system after transfemoral amputation (OPRA system, Integrum AB, Sweden and ISP Endo/Exo prosthesis, ESKA Implants AG, Germany) show many advantages over the conventional socket fixation. However, restraining biomechanical issues such as considerable bone loss around the stem and peri-prosthetic bone fractures are present. To overcome these limiting issues a new concept of the direct intramedullary fixation was developed. We hypothesize that the new design will reduce the peri-prosthetic bone failure risk and adverse bone remodeling by restoring the natural load transfer in the femur. Generic CT-based finite element models of an intact femur and amputated bones implanted with 3 analyzed implants were created and loaded with a normal walking and a forward fall load. The strain adaptive bone remodeling theory was used to predict long-term bone changes around the implants and the periprosthetic bone failure risk was evaluated by the von Mises stress criterion. The results show that the new design provides close to physiological distribution of stresses in the bone and lower bone failure risk for the normal walking as compared to the OPRA and the ISP implants. The bone remodeling simulations did not reveal any overall bone loss around the new design, as opposed to the OPRA and the ISP implants, which induce considerable bone loss in the distal end of the femur. This positive outcome shows that the presented concept has a potential to considerably improve safety of the rehabilitation with the direct fixation implants.

  12. Loss of VHL in RCC reduces repair and alters cellular response to benzo[a]pyrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten eSchults

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL tumor suppressor gene occur in the majority of sporadic renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. Loss of VHL function is associated with stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIFα. We and others demonstrated that there is a two-way interaction between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which is an important mediator in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogens, and the HIF1-pathway leading to an increased genetic instability when both pathways are simultaneously activated. The aim of this study was to investigate how environmental carcinogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which can be metabolically activated to BaP-7,8-diOH-9,10-epoxide (BPDE play a role in the etiology of renal-cell carcinomas (RCC. We exposed VHL deficient RCC4 cells, in which HIFα is stabilized regardless of oxygen tension, to 0.1µM BaP for 18 hours. The mutagenic BPDE-DNA adduct levels were increased in HIFα stabilized cells. Using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that absence of VHL significantly induced the mRNA levels of AhR downstream target CYP1A1. Furthermore, HPLC analysis indicated that loss of VHL increased the concentration of BaP-7,8-dihydroxydiol, the pre-cursor metabolite of BPDE. Interestingly, the capacity to repair BPDE-DNA adducts in the HIFα stabilized RCC4 cells, was markedly reduced. Taken together, these data indicate that loss of VHL affects BaP-mediated genotoxic responses in renal-cell carcinoma and decreases repair capacity.

  13. Effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates to reduce post-fire soil and organic matter losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Flavio; Prats, Sergio; Vieira, Diana; Puga, João; Lopes, Rita; Gonzaléz-Pelayo, Oscar; Caetano, Ana; Campos, Isabel; Keizer, Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Wildfire-affected soils can reveal strong responses in runoff generation and associated soil (fertility) losses, thereby constituting a major threat to the typically shallow and poor forest soils of the Portuguese mountain areas. Mulching with logging residues from these forests has proven to provide a protective soil cover that is highly effective in reducing post-fire runoff and especially erosion (Prats et al., 2012, 2014, 2016a, 2016b). However, these past experiments have all applied comparatively large amounts of forest residues, in the order of 10 Mg ha-1, so that the relationship between application rate and effectiveness is still poorly known. Such relationship would nonetheless be of crucial importance for the employment of forest residue mulching in practice, as one of the possible emergency stabilization measures to be contemplated in post-fire land management of a recently-burned area. Further research gaps that exist in relation to post-fire forest residue mulching include its effectiveness in reducing soil fertility losses (C, N, P; Ferreira et al., 2016a, 2016b) and in minimizing export of contaminants (especially PAHs and metals; Campos et al., 2016), and its (secondary) impacts on soil biological activity and diversity (Puga et al., 2016) and on forest productivity (including through the addition of organic matter to the soil surface, partially replacing the burned litter layer; Prats et al. 2016b). In the framework of the EU-project RECARE, the effectiveness of two contrasting mulching rates with forest logging residues has been tested following a wildfire that on August 9th - 10th 2015 consumed some 715 ha of eucalypt plantations in the Semide municipality, central Portugal. Commercially-available logging residues (chopped bark and twigs) from eucalypt plantations were purchased, transported to the study site and applied to six out of nine 16 m2 erosion bounded plots that had been installed in a burned eucalypt plantation using a randomized

  14. Reducing nitrogen loss and phytotoxicity during beer vinasse composting with biochar addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueqin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Xinyu; Cui, Hongyang; Wei, Zimin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of composting of beer vinasse generated from brewing industry, the effect of biochar amendment on beer vinasse composting was also evaluated based on the changes of different physicochemical parameters, phytotoxicity and final compost quality. Four different treatments were performed of beer vinasse with biochar addition at 0, 5%, 10%, 15% (w/w dry basis). The final product obtained from beer vinasse composting was phytotoxicity-free (GI: 120.8%), mature (C/N: 19.88, NH4(+)-N: 295.0mg/kg, DOC: 9.76g/kg) and nutrient-rich (especially for P: 1.92%) compost except high N loss (60.76%), which had the potential to be as soil amendment or fertilizer. Biochar addition contributed to decomposition of DOC indicating higher microbial activity and attain phytotoxicity-free standard rapidly. N loss significantly reduced by 27% with biochar at 15% addition. And 15% biochar addition ensured all parameters, which was involved in composts quality, to attain the mature standard. Therefore, it was suggested that biochar addition at 15% was optimal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficient light storage with reduced energy loss via nonlinear compensation in rubidium vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Hong-Li; Xue, Yan; Wu, Jin-Hui; Xu, Huai-Liang; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2016-06-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of efficient light storage based on a modified technique of electromagnetically induced transparency in hot rubidium vapor. By introducing an auxiliary pump field to go beyond the Λ -type configuration, we find that the undesired four-wave mixing can be greatly suppressed to result in sufficiently reduced energy loss of a probe pulse. The light storage efficiency can be as high as  ∼80% within the storage time of 100 ns with the pump field applied, which is almost 6 times larger than that in the absence of the pump field. We may also amend the light storage efficiency in a linear way by increasing the optical depth of our atomic vapor even without saturation effect. We obtain, in fact, an amplified probe pulse via Raman gain during light storage and retrieval, which should have practical applications in classical and quantum information processing.

  16. NLP modeling for the optimization of LiBr-H2O absorption refrigeration systems with exergy loss rate, heat transfer area, and cost as single objective functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Gernaey, Krist; Morosuk, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    exergy loss rate, the total heat transfer area, and the total annual cost of the system. It was found that the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total exergy loss rate provides “theoretical” upper bounds not only for the total heat transfer area of the system but also for each process unit...... and all stream temperatures, while the optimal solution obtained by minimization of the total heat transfer area provides the lower bounds for these model variables, to solve a cost optimization problem. The minimization of the total exergy loss rate by varying parametrically the available total heat...... and quantitatively with increasing available total heat transfer area. These optimization results allowed to find a “practical” value of the total heat transfer area, i.e. no benefits can be obtained by increasing the available total heat transfer area above this value since the minimal total exergy loss value...

  17. Neutrophil depletion reduces edema formation and tissue loss following traumatic brain injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenne Ellinor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain edema as a result of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major clinical concern. Neutrophils are known to cause increased vascular permeability leading to edema formation in peripheral tissue, but their role in the pathology following TBI remains unclear. Methods In this study we used controlled cortical impact (CCI as a model for TBI and investigated the role of neutrophils in the response to injury. The outcome of mice that were depleted of neutrophils using an anti-Gr-1 antibody was compared to that in mice with intact neutrophil count. The effect of neutrophil depletion on blood-brain barrier function was assessed by Evan's blue dye extravasation, and analysis of brain water content was used as a measurement of brain edema formation (24 and 48 hours after CCI. Lesion volume was measured 7 and 14 days after CCI. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell death, using a marker for cleaved caspase-3 at 24 hours after injury, and microglial/macrophage activation 7 days after CCI. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. Results Neutrophil depletion did not significantly affect Evan's blue extravasation at any time-point after CCI. However, neutrophil-depleted mice exhibited a decreased water content both at 24 and 48 hours after CCI indicating reduced edema formation. Furthermore, brain tissue loss was attenuated in neutropenic mice at 7 and 14 days after injury. Additionally, these mice had a significantly reduced number of activated microglia/macrophages 7 days after CCI, and of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells 24 h after injury. Conclusion Our results suggest that neutrophils are involved in the edema formation, but not the extravasation of large proteins, as well as contributing to cell death and tissue loss following TBI in mice.

  18. The costs of reducing loss to follow-up in South African cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Louise

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to quantify the resources used in reestablishing contact with women who missed their scheduled cervical cancer screening visits and to assess the success of this effort in reducing loss to follow-up in a developing country setting. Methods Women were enrolled in this Cape Town, South Africa-based screening study between 2000 and 2003, and all had scheduled follow-up visits in 2003. Community health worker (CHW time, vehicle use, maintenance, and depreciation were estimated from weekly logs and cost accounting systems. The percentage of women who attended their scheduled visit, those who attended after CHW contact(s, and those who never returned despite attempted contact(s were determined. The number of CHW visits per woman was also estimated. Results 3,711 visits were scheduled in 2003. Of these, 2,321 (62.5% occurred without CHW contact, 918 (24.8% occurred after contact(s, and 472 (12.7% did not occur despite contact(s. Loss to follow-up was reduced from 21% to 6%, 39% to 10%, and 50% to 24% for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. CHWs attempted 3,200 contacts in 530 trips. On average, 3 CHWs attempted to contact 6 participants over each 111 minute trip. The per-person cost (2003 Rand for these activities was 12.75, 24.92, and 40.50 for 6, 12, and 24-month visits. Conclusion CHW contact with women who missed scheduled visits increased their return rate. Cost-effectiveness analyses aimed at policy decisions about cervical cancer screening in developing countries should incorporate these findings.

  19. An Approximate Solution for Predicting the Heat Extraction and Preventing Heat Loss from a Closed-Loop Geothermal Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximate solutions are found for a mathematical model developed to predict the heat extraction from a closed-loop geothermal system which consists of two vertical wells (one for injection and the other for production and one horizontal well which connects the two vertical wells. Based on the feature of slow heat conduction in rock formation, the fluid flow in the well is divided into three stages, that is, in the injection, horizontal, and production wells. The output temperature of each stage is regarded as the input of the next stage. The results from the present model are compared with those obtained from numerical simulator TOUGH2 and show first-order agreement with a temperature difference less than 4°C for the case where the fluid circulated for 2.74 years. In the end, a parametric study shows that (1 the injection rate plays dominant role in affecting the output performance, (2 higher injection temperature produces larger output temperature but decreases the total heat extracted given a specific time, (3 the output performance of geothermal reservoir is insensitive to fluid viscosity, and (4 there exists a critical point that indicates if the fluid releases heat into or absorbs heat from the surrounding formation.

  20. [Application of perineum heat therapy during partum to reduce injuries that require post-partum stitches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré-Rull, Carmen; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente; Gol-Gómez, Roser; Garriga-Comas, Neus; Ferrer-Comalat, Alicia; Salgado-Poveda, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of heat, moist or dry to the perineum during delivery in order to reduce injuries requiring perineal suturing after birth, and to assess its safety in relation to the adaptation of the newborn to extrauterine life. An open multicentre clinical trial directed from the School of Nursing at the University of Barcelona was carried out between 2009 and 2010 in 5 Catalan Hospitals. The sample consisted of 198 pregnant women subjected to the natural protocol for normal delivery assistance. The pregnant women were randomized to three study groups: moist heat (MHG), dry heat (DHG), and control (CG). Usual care of the perineum was performed during labour in all groups and MHG or GCS was also applied in the perineum in the intervention groups. The Apgar score in the newborn and perineum postpartum was then assessed. Statistical tests were performed using a 95% confidence interval. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 17. Perinea that required no suturing: MHG 71% (47) versus CG 56% (37), OR: 1.803; (95% CI: 0.881-3.687); DHG 62% (41) versus CG 56% (37), OR:1.285 (95% CI: 0.641-2.577); MHG 71% (47) versus DHG 62% (41), OR:1.402 (95% CI: 0.680-2.890). MEAN: Apgar score 5', MHG: 9.91; DHG: 9.98, CG: 9.98. p=0.431. The application of heat therapy to the perineum during labour did not significantly reduce perineal suturing after birth. However, better perineal results were observed with moist heat. Heat therapy does not alter neonatal outcomes measured by Apgar score. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Free convective heat loss from cavity-type solar furnace; Sora reshiba karano shizen tairyu ni yoru netsu sonshitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Ito, N. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-30

    Heat loss by free convective heat transfer from the solar furnace is investigated experimentally, and the result is arranged in formulas. It may be unjustifiable somewhat to apply the result of the experiment as it is to actual systems, but it seems that the result is not apart so far from those of actual systems, at lease when there is no wind. Moreover, arrangement of the experimental point in a formula can be considered to be a very useful result. A simulated receiver system is prepared which heats air in the cavity of the receiver by an electric heater, and has been used for experiments. In addition, a glass receiver having affixed transparent heaters on the bottom and side surfaced is prepared separately for the observation of convective phenomenon of air in the receiver and leaking of heat with air flow from the aperture, which enables visualization of the air flow. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314406514; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  3. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, S.O.; Hess, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive

  4. Temporal niche switching and reduced nest attendance in response to heat dissipation limits in lactating common voles (Microtus arvalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Simons, Mirre J.P.; Reimert, Inonge; Gerkema, Menno P.

    2014-01-01

    According to the heat dissipation limit theory, maximum metabolic turnover is limited by the capacity of the body to dissipate excess heat. Small mammals, including common voles (Microtus arvalis), face a heat dissipation limitation during lactation. Pup growth and milk production are reduced under

  5. Peptic and tryptic hydrolysis of native and heated whey protein to reduce its antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Ki, K S; Khan, M A; Lee, W S; Lee, H J; Ahn, B S; Kim, H S

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the effects of enzymes on the production and antigenicity of native and heated whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysates. Native and heated (10 min at 100 degrees C) WPC (2% protein solution) were incubated at 50 degrees C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min with 0.1, 0.5, and 1% pepsin and then with 0.1, 0.5, and 1% trypsin on a protein-equivalent basis. A greater degree of hydrolysis was achieved and greater nonprotein nitrogen concentrations were obtained in heated WPC than in native WPC at all incubation times. Hydrolysis of WPC was increased with an increasing level of enzymes and higher incubation times. The highest hydrolysis (25.23%) was observed in heated WPC incubated with 1% pepsin and then with 1% trypsin for 120 min. High molecular weight bands, such as BSA, were completely eliminated from sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE of both native and heated WPC hydrolysates produced with pepsin for the 30-min incubation. The alpha-lactalbumin in native WPC was slightly degraded when incubated with 0.1% pepsin and then with 0.1% trypsin; however, it was almost completely hydrolyzed within 60 min of incubation with 0.5% pepsin and then with 0.5% trypsin. Incubation of native WPC with 1% pepsin and then with 1% trypsin for 30 min completely removed the BSA and alpha-lactalbumin. The beta-lactoglobulin in native WPC was not affected by the pepsin and trypsin treatments. The beta-lactoglobulin in heated WPC was partially hydrolyzed by the 0.1 and 0.5% pepsin and trypsin treatments and was completely degraded by the 1% pepsin and trypsin treatment. Antigenicity reversibly mimicked the hydrolysis of WPC and the removal of beta-lactoglobulin from hydrolysates. Antigenicity in heated and native WPC was reduced with an increasing level of enzymes. A low antigenic response was observed in heated WPC compared with native WPC. The lowest antigenicity was observed when heated WPC was incubated with 1% pepsin and then with 1% trypsin. These results suggested that

  6. Morphological dependency of cutaneous blood flow and sweating during compensable heat stress when heat-loss requirements are matched across participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Sean R; Park, Joonhee; Tagami, Kyoko; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2016-07-01

    Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm(2)/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1°C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W/m(2); moderate, ∼200 W/m(2)). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r = 0.63 and r = 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P principles governing heat transfer.

  7. Spaceflight-induced bone loss alters failure mode and reduces bending strength in murine spinal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts.

  8. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) treatment prevents bone loss and reduces body fat in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2007-02-01

    This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an aryl-propionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature.

  9. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) Treatment Prevents Bone Loss and Reduces Body Fat in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Gao, Wenqing; Narayanan, Ramesh; Fisher, Scott J.; Wu, Di; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose This study was conducted to examine the bone and body composition effects of S-4, an arylpropionamide derived Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) in an ovariectomy induced model of accelerated bone loss. Methods One hundred twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats aged to twenty-three weeks were randomly assigned to twelve treatment groups. Drug treatment was initiated immediately following ovariectomy and continued for one hundred twenty days. Whole body bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and lumbar vertebrae BMD were measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. More stringent regional pQCT and biomechanical strength testing was performed on excised femurs. Results We found that S-4 treatment maintained whole body and trabecular BMD, cortical content, and increased bone strength while decreasing body fat in these animals. Conclusions The data presented herein show the protective skeletal effects of S-4. Our previous reports have shown the tissue selectivity and muscle anabolic activity of S-4. Together these data suggest that S-4 could reduce the incidence of fracture via two different mechanisms (i.e., via direct effects in bone and reducing the incidence of falls through increased muscle strength). This approach to fracture reduction would be advantageous over current therapies in these patients which are primarily antiresorptive in nature. PMID:17063395

  10. Reducing And Analysizing of Flow Accelerated Corrosion at Thermal Power Plant, Heat Recovery Steam Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Akın Avşaroğlu; Suphi URAL

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to Reducing and Analysing of Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Thermal Plant Heat Recovery Steam Generators. All these studies have been performed in a new and 16 year-old established Combined Cycle Power Plants in Turkey. Corrosion cases have been investigated due to Mechanical Outage Reports at Power Plant in 2011-2015. Flow Accelerated Corrosion study has been based on specific zone related with Economizer Low Pressure connection pipings. It was issued a performanc...

  11. Reduced Heat Flux Through Preferential Surface Reactions Leading to Vibrationally and Electronically Excited Product States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0124 Reduced Heat Flux Through Preferential Surface Reactions Leading to Vibrationally and Electronically Excited Product...Reactions Leading to Vibrationally and Electronically Excited Product States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0486 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM... Leading to Vibrationally and Electronically Excited Product States FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT: Grant #FA9550-12-1-0486 2013 Basic Research Initiative (BRI

  12. Loss of glial lazarillo, a homolog of apolipoprotein D, reduces lifespan and stress resistance in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diego; López-Arias, Begoña; Torroja, Laura; Canal, Inmaculada; Wang, Xiaohui; Bastiani, Michael J; Ganfornina, Maria D

    2006-04-01

    The vertebrate Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin secreted from subsets of neurons and glia during neural development and aging . A strong correlation exists between ApoD overexpression and numerous nervous system pathologies as well as obesity, diabetes, and many forms of cancer . However, the exact relationship between the function of ApoD and the pathophysiology of these diseases is still unknown. We have generated loss-of-function Drosophila mutants for the Glial Lazarillo (GLaz) gene , a homolog of ApoD in the fruit fly, mainly expressed in subsets of adult glial cells. The absence of GLaz reduces the organism's resistance to oxidative stress and starvation and shortens male lifespan. The mutant flies exhibit a smaller body mass due to a lower amount of neutral lipids stored in the fat body. Apoptotic neural cell death increases in aged flies or upon paraquat treatment, which also impairs neural function as assessed by behavioral tests. The higher sensitivity to oxidative stress and starvation and the reduced fat storage revert to control levels when a GFP-GLaz fusion protein is expressed under the control of the GLaz natural promoter. Finally, GLaz mutants have a higher concentration of lipid peroxidation products, pointing to a lipid peroxidation protection or scavenging as the mechanism of action for this lipocalin. In agreement with Walker et al. (, in this issue of Current Biology), who analyze the effects of overexpressing GLaz, we conclude that GLaz has a protective role in stress situations and that its absence reduces lifespan and accelerates neurodegeneration.

  13. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy reduces body weight without accelerating age-related bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Russell T; Dube, Michael; Branscum, Adam J; Wong, Carmen P; Olson, Dawn A; Zhong, Xiaoying; Kweh, Mercedes F; Larkin, Iske V; Wronski, Thomas J; Rosen, Clifford J; Kalra, Satya P; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain in adults is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes. Unfortunately, dieting, exercise, and pharmacological interventions have had limited long-term success in weight control and can result in detrimental side effects, including accelerating age-related cancellous bone loss. We investigated the efficacy of using hypothalamic leptin gene therapy as an alternative method for reducing weight in skeletally-mature (9 months old) female rats and determined the impact of leptin-induced weight loss on bone mass, density, and microarchitecture, and serum biomarkers of bone turnover (CTx and osteocalcin). Rats were implanted with cannulae in the 3rd ventricle of the hypothalamus and injected with either recombinant adeno-associated virus encoding the gene for rat leptin (rAAV-Leptin, n=7) or a control vector encoding green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, n=10) and sacrificed 18 weeks later. A baseline control group (n=7) was sacrificed at vector administration. rAAV-Leptin-treated rats lost weight (-4±2%) while rAAV-GFP-treated rats gained weight (14±2%) during the study. At study termination, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats weighed 17% less than rAAV-GFP-treated rats and had lower abdominal white adipose tissue weight (-80%), serum leptin (-77%), and serum IGF1 (-34%). Cancellous bone volume fraction in distal femur metaphysis and epiphysis, and in lumbar vertebra tended to be lower (PLeptin and rAAV-GFP rats. In summary, rAAV-Leptin-treated rats maintained a lower body weight compared to baseline and rAAV-GFP-treated rats with minimal effects on bone mass, density, microarchitecture, or biochemical markers of bone turnover.

  14. Reducing disorder-induced losses for slow light photonic crystal waveguides through Bloch mode engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Nishan; Combrié, Sylvian; Colman, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We present theory and measurements ofdisorder-induced losses for low loss 1.5 mmlong slow light photonic crystal waveguides. A recent class of dispersion engineered waveguides increases the bandwidth of slow light and shows lower propagation losses for the same group index. Our theory and experim...

  15. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    , risk of mortality was higher in the black community, and in those living in certain types of low-income and multi-tenant housing. Interventions in the built environment to promote urban heat island mitigation can reduce ambient temperatures, potentially reducing heat-related mortality rates in vulnerable populations, electricity consumption and air pollutant emissions, and slow ozone formation, an important health stressor. These mitigation measures may also serve as adaptive responses for a range of potential future climate conditions. Here we review current research that assesses the health, air quality, and energy conservation benefits in cities from these interventions in the built environment, and discuss the techniques and research objectives of a new pilot community-based project to mitigate the heat island effect in the South Bronx, New York City through implementation of vegetated and high albedo roofing on residential and institutional buildings. Recent studies use mesoscale climate models and a variety of land-use and land-cover scenarios to project the effects of increasing vegetative fraction and albedo within metropolitan regions and to evaluate the impacts of measures that may serve both as adaptive responses to current conditions and mitigation for future climate variability. Through this perspective, we address the questions: What urban design approaches make for resilient cities in a changing environment? What costs and benefits may be expected by the adoption of heat island mitigation techniques within the New York metropolitan region?

  16. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    and insulation has to be fulfilled. Based on a given design of the tapered insulation the total heat loss coefficient of the roof can be calculated using formulae in EN ISO 6946 for typical segments of the tapered insulation. Performing design and calculations for large roofs with numerous different segments can...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction.......In order to achieve durability of flat roofs with external insulation, it is necessary to secure proper drainage of the roof, i.e. to avoid water leaking into the insulation. The design of the tapered insulation of the roof is quite difficult as requirements with respect to both drainage...

  17. An effect of heat insulation parameters on thermal losses of water-cooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mihailov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is research in the insulation parameters effect on the thermal losses of watercooled roofs for secondary steelmaking electric arc furnaces. An analytical method has been used for the investigation in heat transfer conditions in the working area. The results of the research can be used to choose optimal cooling parameters and select a suitable kind of insulation for water-cooled surfaces.

  18. Measurement of limiter heating due to fusion product losses during high fusion power deuterium-tritium operation of TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janos, A.; Owens, D.K.; Darrow, D.; Redi, M.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zweben, S.

    1995-03-01

    Preliminary analysis has been completed on measurements of limiter heating during high fusion power deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation of TFTR, in an attempt to identify heating from alpha particle losses. Recent operation of TFTR with a 50-50 mix of D-T has resulted in fusion power output ({approx} 6.2 MW) orders of magnitude above what was previously achieved on TFTR. A significantly larger absolute number of particles and energy from fusion products compared to D-D operation is expected to be lost to the limiters. Measurements were made in the vicinity of the midplane ({plus_minus} 30{degree}) with thermocouples mounted on the tiles of an outboard limiter. Comparisons were made -between discharges which were similar except for the mix of deuterium and tritium beam sources. Power and energy estimates of predicted alpha losses were as high as 0.13 MW and 64 kJ. Depending on what portion of the limiters absorbed this energy, temperature rises of up to 42 {degrees}C could be expected, corresponding to a heat load of 0.69 MJ/m{sup 2} over a 0.5 sec period, or a power load of 1.4 MW/m{sup 2}. There was a measurable increase in the limiter tile temperature as the fusion power yield increased with a more reactive mixture of D and T at constant beam power during high power D-T operation. Analysis of the data is being conducted to see if the alpha heating component can be extracted. Measured temperature increases were no greater than 1 {degree}C, indicating that there was probably neither an unexpectedly large fraction of lost particles nor unexpected localization of the losses. Limits on the stochastic ripple loss contribution from alphas can be deduced.

  19. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers.

  20. Development and agronomical validation of new fertilizer compositions of high bioavailability and reduced potential nutrient losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Javier; Urrutia, Oscar; San Francisco, Sara; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2007-09-19

    To optimize the economical cost of each unit of fertilizer applied and to reduce the environmental contamination caused by nutrient losses, the development of highly efficient granulated fertilizers is of great importance. This study proposes a strategy that consists of developing specific fertilizers having nutrient release patterns that are dependent on plant activity in the rhizosphere. This type of fertilizer is named "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" (RCF fertilizer). This fertilizer is based on the introduction of an organomineral matrix composed of metal [Mg (Ca is also possible), Zn (Fe and other metals are also possible)]-humic phosphates. The presence of this matrix modifies the nutrient release pattern of the fertilizer. In this way there are two main nutrient fractions: (i) a water-soluble fraction or "starter" fraction and (ii) a "rhizosphere-controlled" fraction insoluble in water but soluble by the action of the rhizospheric acids released by plants and microorganisms. This study shows the chemical and structural characterization of the organomineral matrix, as well as its efficiency in slowing the nutrient release rate of the RCF fertilizer, principally with respect to P and N. It is demonstrated how these properties of the matrix were also reflected in the significant reduction in both ammonia volatilization and N leaching in a pot system consisting of wheat plants cultivated in a calcareous soil and fertilized with a RCF fertilizer.

  1. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  2. Role of odanacatib in reducing bone loss due to endodontic disease: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Rachana; Jain, Atul; Khan, Suleman Abbas; Arvind, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Through a comprehensive literature review, this article provides an overview of the potential role of odanacatib (ODN) in reducing bone loss due to endodontic disease. Materials and Methods: A literature review was performed in PubMed Central, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and EBSCO databases. The articles identified included those published between 2002 and 2016. Based on the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, out of 237 articles found, 50 were selected for this review. Results: Cathepsin K (CstK), which is indispensible to the immune system, also plays an important role in osteoclastic bone resorption. ODN, which is an orally active, selective, and effective inhibitor of CstK, decreases bone resorption by selectively inhibiting proteolysis of matrix proteins by CstK, without affecting other osteoclastic activity or osteoblast viability. Conclusion: The goal of endodontic treatment is to achieve a clinically asymptomatic state along with formation of reparative bone. This process could take 6 months or longer, hence, an earlier reversal of the resorption process could lead to faster healing and resolution of the periapical lesion. Use of ODN can be of help in achieving this goal. PMID:28217533

  3. Loss of arylformamidase with reduced thymidine kinase expression leads to impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Hugill

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tryptophan metabolites have been linked in observational studies with type 2 diabetes, cognitive disorders, inflammation and immune system regulation. A rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan conversion is arylformamidase (Afmid, and a double knockout of this gene and thymidine kinase (Tk has been reported to cause renal failure and abnormal immune system regulation. In order to further investigate possible links between abnormal tryptophan catabolism and diabetes and to examine the effect of single Afmid knockout, we have carried out metabolic phenotyping of an exon 2 Afmid gene knockout. These mice exhibit impaired glucose tolerance, although their insulin sensitivity is unchanged in comparison to wild-type animals. This phenotype results from a defect in glucose stimulated insulin secretion and these mice show reduced islet mass with age. No evidence of a renal phenotype was found, suggesting that this published phenotype resulted from loss of Tk expression in the double knockout. However, despite specifically removing only exon 2 of Afmid in our experiments we also observed some reduction of Tk expression, possibly due to a regulatory element in this region. In summary, our findings support a link between abnormal tryptophan metabolism and diabetes and highlight beta cell function for further mechanistic analysis.

  4. A model for the analysis of loss of decay heat removal during loss of coolant accident in MTR pool type research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousbia-salah, Anis [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleari e della Produzione, Facolta di Ingegneria, Universita di Pisa, Via Diotisalvi, 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: b.salah@ing.unipi.it; Meftah, Brahim [Division Reacteur - Centre de Recherche Nucleaire Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala DRARIA - Algiers (Algeria); Hamidouche, Tewfik [Laboratoire des Analyses de Surete, Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399, 16000 Algiers (Algeria)]. E-mail: thamidouche@comena-dz.org; Si-Ahmed, El Khider [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Polyhpasiques, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie d' Alger, Algiers (Algeria)

    2006-03-15

    During a loss of coolant accident leading to total emptying of the reactor pool, the decay heat could be removed through air natural convection. However, under partial pool emptying the core is partially submerged and the coolant circulation inside the fuel element could no more be possible. Under such conditions, a core overheat takes place, and the thermal energy is essentially diffused from the core to its periphery by combined thermal radiation and conduction. In order to predict fuel element temperature evolution under such conditions a mathematical model is performed. The model is based on a 3D geometry and takes into account a variety of core configurations including fuel elements (standard and control), reflector elements and grid plates. The homogeneous flow model is used and the fluid conservation equations are solved using a semi-implicit finite difference method. Preliminary tests of the developed model were made by considering a series of hypothetical accidents. In the current framework a loss of decay heat removal accidents in the IAEA benchmark open pool MTR-type research reactor is considered. It is shown that in the case of a low core immersion height no water boiling is observed and the fuel surface temperature rise remains below the melting point of the aluminium cladding.

  5. Reduced milk production in udder quarters with subclinical mastitis and associated economic losses in crossbred dairy cows in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungube, E O; Tenhagen, B A; Regassa, F; Kyule, M N; Shiferaw, Y; Kassa, T; Baumann, M P O

    2005-08-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the losses associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM) in crossbred dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. A split udder investigation was performed with 30 cows to determine production losses associated with SCM. Each quarter of the study cows was examined using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and quarter milk production was measured over a period of 8 days. Production losses were determined for different CMT scores by comparing production of quarters with CMT score 0 to quarters with CMT scores trace, 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using data from a recently published study, economic losses were determined for different farm sizes and production subsystems by multiplying the prevalence of the respective CMT scores with the production losses associated with these CMT scores. Mean quarter milk production was 0.82 +/- 0.40 kg per milking in the split udder trial. Milk production was reduced by 1.2%, 6.3%, and 33% in quarters with CMT scores 1+, 2+, and 3+, respectively. Using data from the published study, a quarter with SCM lost an average of 17.2% of its milk production. Production losses associated with SCM were estimated at 5.6% for the Addis Ababa Milk Shed. Stratified losses were highest (9.3%) in urban dairy farms (UDF) and small-scale farms (6.3%). The estimates of the financial losses ranged from US dollars 29.1 in dairy herds in secondary towns (DHIST) to US dollars 66.6 in UDF. A total loss of US dollars 38 was estimated for each cow per lactation. Reducing mastitis in UDF (highest prevalence) to the level of DHIST (lowest prevalence) could reduce the loss by US dollars 35. As this does not include costs associated with treatment or culling of diseased cows, this figure probably underestimates the possible benefits of control measures.

  6. Body temperature depression and peripheral heat loss accompany the metabolic and ventilatory responses to hypoxia in low and high altitude birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham R; Cadena, Viviana; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2008-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the thermoregulatory, metabolic and ventilatory responses to hypoxia of the high altitude bar-headed goose with low altitude waterfowl. All birds were found to reduce body temperature (T(b)) during hypoxia, by up to 1-1.5 degrees C in severe hypoxia. During prolonged hypoxia, T(b) stabilized at a new lower temperature. A regulated increase in heat loss contributed to T(b) depression as reflected by increases in bill surface temperatures (up to 5 degrees C) during hypoxia. Bill warming required peripheral chemoreceptor inputs, since vagotomy abolished this response to hypoxia. T(b) depression could still occur without bill warming, however, because vagotomized birds reduced T(b) as much as intact birds. Compared to both greylag geese and pekin ducks, bar-headed geese required more severe hypoxia to initiate T(b) depression and heat loss from the bill. However, when T(b) depression or bill warming were expressed relative to arterial O(2) concentration (rather than inspired O(2)) all species were similar; this suggests that enhanced O(2) loading, rather than differences in thermoregulatory control centres, reduces T(b) depression during hypoxia in bar-headed geese. Correspondingly, bar-headed geese maintained higher rates of metabolism during severe hypoxia (7% inspired O(2)), but this was only partly due to differences in T(b). Time domains of the hypoxic ventilatory response also appeared to differ between bar-headed geese and low altitude species. Overall, our results suggest that birds can adjust peripheral heat dissipation to facilitate T(b) depression during hypoxia, and that bar-headed geese minimize T(b) and metabolic depression as a result of evolutionary adaptations that enhance O(2) transport.

  7. Characterization of the frictional losses and heat transfer of oscillatory viscous flow through wire-mesh regenerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Boroujerdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new relations for calculating heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of oscillatory flow through wire-mesh screen regenerator such as Darcy permeability, Forchheimer’s inertial coefficient, and heat transfer area per unit volume, as a function of the wire diameter are presented. According to the derived relations, thinner wires have higher pressure drop and higher heat transfer rate. The relations are applicable for all regenerative cryocoolers. Embedding the new relations into a numerical model, three Stirling-type orifice pulse tube cryocoolers with three regenerators different in length and diameter but same volume in a variety of wire diameters, have been modeled. The results achieved by the model reveal that the local heat transfer coefficient decreases with increase of the wire diameter and the length-to-diameter ratio. In addition, it was shown that the mean absolute gas–solid wire temperature difference is a linear function of wire diameter in the range investigated. The results show that for larger length-to-diameter ratios, Forchheimer’s effect will dominate frictional losses, and the variations of the frictional losses are proportional to the inverse of the wire diameter. Wire diameter has been optimized to maximize the coefficient of performance of the cryocooler. Shorter regenerators have thinner optimum wires.

  8. Heat stress reduces intestinal barrier integrity and favors intestinal glucose transport in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Sarah C; Mani, Venkatesh; Boddicker, Rebecca L; Johnson, Jay S; Weber, Thomas E; Ross, Jason W; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Gabler, Nicholas K

    2013-01-01

    Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (Pintestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; PIntestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (PIntestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (Pintestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport.

  9. The Impact of Reduced Gravity on Free Convective Heat Transfer from a Finite, Flat, Vertical Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Michael A.; Johnson, Kirstyn M.; Nie, Christopher W.; Klaus, David M.

    2017-09-01

    Convective heat transfer is governed by a number of factors including various fluid properties, the presence of a thermal gradient, geometric configuration, flow condition, and gravity. Empirically-derived analytical relationships can be used to estimate convection as a function of these governing parameters. Although it is relatively straightforward to experimentally quantify the contributions of the majority of these variables, it is logistically difficult to assess the influence of reduced-gravity due to practical limitations of establishing this environment. Therefore, in order to explore this regime, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate convection under reduced-gravity conditions averaging 0.45 m/sec2 (0.05 g) achieved aboard a parabolic aircraft. The results showed a reduction in net heat transfer of approximately 61% in flight relative to a 1g terrestrial baseline using the same setup. The average experimental Nusselt Number of 19.05 ± 1.41 statistically correlated with the predicted value of 18.90 ± 0.63 (N = 13), estimated using the Churchill-Chu correlation for free convective heat transfer from a finite, flat, vertical plate. Extrapolating this to similar performance in true microgravity (10-6 g) indicates that these conditions should yield a Nusselt Number of 1.27, which is 2.6% the magnitude of free convection at 1g, or a reduction of 97.4%. With advection essentially eliminated, heat transfer becomes limited to diffusion and radiation, which are gravity-independent and nearly equivalent in magnitude in this case. These results offer a general guideline for integrating components that utilize natural (free) convective gas cooling in a spacecraft habitat and properly sizing the thermal control system.

  10. Influence of exercise training with thigh compression on heat-loss responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, T; Inoue, Y; Koga, S; Nishiyasu, T; Kondo, N

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of thigh compression, which accelerates activation of central command and muscle metabo- and mechanoreceptors, on the adaptation of sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise heat acclimation. Nine non-heat-acclimated male subjects were acclimated to heat (32 °C and 50% RH) while cycling [50% of maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x )] 60 min/day for 7 days (control group). The experimental group (n = 9) conducted the same training while the proximal thighs were compressed by a cuff at 60 mmHg. V ˙ O 2 m a x , acetylcholine-induced forearm sweating rate (iontophoresis), and mean sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the forehead, chest, and forearm (SRmean and CVCmean ) during passive heating were evaluated before and after training. Training significantly increased V ˙ O 2 m a x while did not affect acetylcholine-induced sweating rates in either group. Training significantly decreased Tb thresholds for SRmean and CVCmean during passive heating without the alternations of sensitivities in both groups. Although SRmean during passive heating at a given ΔTb was not improved in either group, CVCmean was significantly (P training only in experimental group. Our results indicate that thigh cuff compression during exercise heat acclimation does not influence adaptation of the sweating response but attenuate cutaneous vasodilation.

  11. Heating requirements for the BARREL toroid coil cryostat of ATLAS in case of vacuum loss

    CERN Document Server

    Vila-Nova-Goncalves, L

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Barrel Toroid cryostat external surface has to be heated by means of heating tapes in order to avoid air condensation in case a major vacuum leak occurs in the coil system. The present note concentrates on the evaluation of the strategies for placing the heating tapes as a basis for calculating their necessary overall length. After a brief description of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid system, the problem is described. A 2D model of a representative portion of the vacuum vessel, on which finite element studies will be performed, is then introduced. The results of the simulations and the conclusions will follow.

  12. Sensitivity of the total heat loss coefficient determined by the energy signature approach to different time periods and gained energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoegren, J.-U.; Andersson, S.; Olofsson, T. [Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    In order to identify buildings that have energy saving potential there is a need for further development of robust methods for evaluation of energy performance as well as reliable key energy indicators. To be able to evaluate a large database of buildings, the evaluation has to be founded on available data, since an in-depth analysis of each building would require large measurement efforts in terms of both parameters and time. In practice, data are usually available for consumed energy, water, and so on, namely consumption that the tenants or property holder has to pay for. In order to evaluate the energy saving potential and energy management, interesting key energy indicators are the total heat loss coefficient K{sub tot} (W/K), the indoor temperature (T{sub i}), and the utilisation of the available heat (solar radiation and electricity primarily used for purposes other than heating). The total heat loss coefficient, K{sub tot}, is a measure of the heat lost through the building's envelope, whereas T{sub i} and the gained energy reflect the user's behaviour and efficiency of the control system. In this study, a linear regression approach (energy signature) has been used to analyse data for 2003-2006 for nine fairly new multifamily buildings located in the Stockholm area, Sweden. The buildings are heated by district heating and the electricity used is for household equipment and the buildings' technical systems. The data consist of monthly energy used for heating and outdoor temperature together with annual water use, and for some buildings data for household electricity are also available. For domestic hot water and electricity, monthly distributions have been assumed based on data from previous studies and energy companies. The impact on K{sub tot} and T{sub i} of the time period and assumed values for the utilised energy are investigated. The results show that the obtained value of K{sub tot} is rather insensitive to the time period and utilised

  13. Nonstop Selection for High and Stable Crop Yield by Two Prognostic Equations to Reduce Yield Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysia A. Fasoula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Yield losses occurring at the field level, whether due to plant diseases or abiotic stresses, reveal reduced stability of the crop yield potential. The paper argues that the stability of crop yield potential is a trait with a clear genetic component, which can be successfully selected for at the single-plant level and incorporated into high-yielding cultivars. Two novel selection equations with prognostic power are presented, capable to objectively phenotype and evaluate individual plants in real field conditions in the absence of the masking effects of interplant competition and soil heterogeneity. The equations predict performance at the crop stand through the key concept of coefficient of homeostasis and are equally useful for early generation selection and for nonstop selection within finished cultivars in order to continuously incorporate the adaptive (genetic or epigenetic responses of plants. Exploitation of adaptive responses acquires particular importance in view of the climate change effects on crop productivity and the changing biotic or abiotic micro-environments. Cotton is used as a case study to highlight the potential of nonstop selection for increasing crop yield and for the gradual build-up of disease resistance. In addition, the paper envisions and proposes the formation of international networks of researchers focusing on specific diseases as, for example, the cereal root-rot or the cotton Verticillium wilt that will concurrently use the proposed strategy in their respective environments to select for resistant genotypes, while gaining a deeper understanding of the nature of the genetic or epigenetic changes at the phenotypic and genomic levels.

  14. Loss of Glycosaminoglycan Receptor Binding after Mosquito Cell Passage Reduces Chikungunya Virus Infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiraj Acharya

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that can cause fever and chronic arthritis in humans. CHIKV that is generated in mosquito or mammalian cells differs in glycosylation patterns of viral proteins, which may affect its replication and virulence. Herein, we compare replication, pathogenicity, and receptor binding of CHIKV generated in Vero cells (mammal or C6/36 cells (mosquito through a single passage. We demonstrate that mosquito cell-derived CHIKV (CHIKV mos has slower replication than mammalian cell-derived CHIKV (CHIKV vero, when tested in both human and murine cell lines. Consistent with this, CHIKV mos infection in both cell lines produce less cytopathic effects and reduced antiviral responses. In addition, infection in mice show that CHIKV mos produces a lower level of viremia and less severe footpad swelling when compared with CHIKV vero. Interestingly, CHIKV mos has impaired ability to bind to glycosaminoglycan (GAG receptors on mammalian cells. However, sequencing analysis shows that this impairment is not due to a mutation in the CHIKV E2 gene, which encodes for the viral receptor binding protein. Moreover, CHIKV mos progenies can regain GAG receptor binding capability and can replicate similarly to CHIKV vero after a single passage in mammalian cells. Furthermore, CHIKV vero and CHIKV mos no longer differ in replication when N-glycosylation of viral proteins was inhibited by growing these viruses in the presence of tunicamycin. Collectively, these results suggest that N-glycosylation of viral proteins within mosquito cells can result in loss of GAG receptor binding capability of CHIKV and reduction of its infectivity in mammalian cells.

  15. The early heat loss evolution of Mars and their implications for internal and environmental history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Javier

    2014-03-11

    The time around 3.7 Ga ago was an epoch when substantial changes in Mars occurred: a substantial decline in aqueous erosion/degradation of landscape features; a change from abundant phyllosilicate formation to abundant acidic and evaporitic mineralogy; a change from olivine-rich volcanism to olivine-pyroxene volcanism; and maybe the cessation of the martian dynamo. Here I show that Mars also experienced profound changes in its internal dynamics in the same approximate time, including a reduction of heat flow and a drastic increasing of lithosphere strength. The reduction of heat flow indicates a limited cooling (or even a heating-up) of the deep interior for post-3.7 Ga times. The drastic increasing of lithosphere strength indicates a cold lithosphere above the inefficiently cooled (or even heated) interior. All those changes experienced by Mars were most probably linked and suggest the existence of profound interrelations between interior dynamics and environmental evolution of this planet.

  16. Reducing And Analysizing of Flow Accelerated Corrosion at Thermal Power Plant, Heat Recovery Steam Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Avşaroğlu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to Reducing and Analysing of Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Thermal Plant Heat Recovery Steam Generators. All these studies have been performed in a new and 16 year-old established Combined Cycle Power Plants in Turkey. Corrosion cases have been investigated due to Mechanical Outage Reports at Power Plant in 2011-2015. Flow Accelerated Corrosion study has been based on specific zone related with Economizer Low Pressure connection pipings. It was issued a performance report. Results and lessons learnt from these studies will be used as a preventive action manner in all similar Plants.

  17. Laser surface modification of medical grade alloys for reduced heating in a magnetic resonance imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benafan, O.; Chen, S.-Y.; Kar, A.; Vaidyanathan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale surface modification of medical grade metallic alloys was conducted using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-based dopant diffusion technique. The objective of this approach was to minimize the induction heating by reducing the absorbed radio frequency field. Such an approach is advantageous in that the dopant is diffused into the alloy and is not susceptible to detachment or spallation as would an externally applied coating, and is expected to not deteriorate the mechanical and electrical properties of the base alloy or device. Experiments were conducted using a controlled environment laser system with the ability to control laser properties (i.e., laser power, spot size, and irradiation time) and dopant characteristics (i.e., temperature, concentration, and pressure). The reflective and transmissive properties of both the doped and untreated samples were measured in a radio frequency (63.86 MHz) magnetic field using a system comprising a high power signal generator, a localized magnetic field source and sensor, and a signal analyzer. The results indicate an increase in the reflectivity of the laser-treated samples compared to untreated samples. The effect of reflectivity on the heating of the alloys is investigated through a mathematical model incorporating Maxwell's equations and heat conduction.

  18. Laser surface modification of medical grade alloys for reduced heating in a magnetic resonance imaging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov, E-mail: raj@ucf.edu; Vaidyanathan, R., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov, E-mail: raj@ucf.edu [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC), Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Chen, S.-Y.; Kar, A. [Laser-Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL), College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Nanoscale surface modification of medical grade metallic alloys was conducted using a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-based dopant diffusion technique. The objective of this approach was to minimize the induction heating by reducing the absorbed radio frequency field. Such an approach is advantageous in that the dopant is diffused into the alloy and is not susceptible to detachment or spallation as would an externally applied coating, and is expected to not deteriorate the mechanical and electrical properties of the base alloy or device. Experiments were conducted using a controlled environment laser system with the ability to control laser properties (i.e., laser power, spot size, and irradiation time) and dopant characteristics (i.e., temperature, concentration, and pressure). The reflective and transmissive properties of both the doped and untreated samples were measured in a radio frequency (63.86 MHz) magnetic field using a system comprising a high power signal generator, a localized magnetic field source and sensor, and a signal analyzer. The results indicate an increase in the reflectivity of the laser-treated samples compared to untreated samples. The effect of reflectivity on the heating of the alloys is investigated through a mathematical model incorporating Maxwell’s equations and heat conduction.

  19. Waste Tyres as Heat Sink to Reduce the Driveway Surface Temperatures in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniza Abdul Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of roads and driveways are on the rise as automobiles are now a necessity to all. This excessive development with its requirements increased the urban heat temperature and the generation of waste tyres. Waste tyre management has therefore been taken seriously by developed countries and since the European directive to ban used tyre products and whole tire disposal from landfill in 2003 and 2006 respectively, many researchers have looked for alternative ways to use the waste tyre. In Malaysia, The Smart and Cool Home Developer attempted to develop an eco-house by utilising waste tyre as the foundation for the driveway and claimed that the buried tyres act as a heat sink for the concrete and reduce the surface temperature of the driveway. Hence investigations were conducted on two sample houses to investigate this phenomenon. Findings from this pilot study show that waste tyres do act as a heat sink to the concrete driveways which affect the ambient temperature and relative humidity of the immediate surroundings.

  20. The Use of Drugs to Reduce Hearing Loss Following Acute Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    the sensory cells. In October of 2005 a symposium entitled "Pharmacologic Strategies for Prevention and Treatment of Hearing Loss and Tinnitus " was...above and depressed between 1 and 2 kHz (Figs. 45 and 46). The sensory cell loss is similar to the lesion calibration group (N = 20) shown in Figure...loss at 8 kHz. (Fig. 53). DPOAEs were effectively absent or severely depressed from 2 kHz and above (Figs. 54 & 55). Individual cochleograms for all

  1. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Loss of Dfg5 glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein confers enhanced heat tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Olviyani; Lee, Jaok; Srinivasa, Kavitha; Choi, In-Geol; Lee, Young Mi; Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Wankee

    2015-08-01

    The protein product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DFG5 gene is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored plasma membrane protein and a putative glycosidase/glycosyltransferase that links other GPI-anchored proteins to β-glucans in the cell wall. Upon exposure to heat (41°C), DFG5 deletion mutant dfg5Δ displayed significantly enhanced heat tolerance as well as lowered level of reactive oxygen species and decreased membrane permeability compared with those in the control (BY4741). Comparative transcriptome profiles of BY4741 and dfg5Δ revealed that 38 and 23 genes were up- and down-regulated in dfg5Δ respectively. Of the 23 down-regulated genes, 11 of 13 viable deletion mutants were identified to be tolerant to heat, suggesting that the down-regulation of those genes might have contributed to the enhanced heat tolerance in dfg5Δ. Deletion of DFG5 caused slight activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases Hog1 in the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway and Slt2 in the cell wall integrity pathway. Therefore, a model is proposed on the signal transduction pathways associated with deletion of DFG5 upon heat stress.

  3. Theoretical modeling of time-dependent skin temperature and heat losses during whole-body cryotherapy: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, G; Marreiro, A; Pron, H; Lestriez, P; Boyer, F C; Quinart, H; Tourbah, A; Taïar, R

    2016-11-01

    This article establishes the basics of a theoretical model for the constitutive law that describes the skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses undergone by a subject during a session of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC). This study focuses on the few minutes during which the human body is subjected to a thermal shock. The relationship between skin temperature and thermolysis heat losses during this period is still unknown and have not yet been studied in the context of the whole human body. The analytical approach here is based on the hypothesis that the skin thermal shock during a WBC session can be thermally modelled by the sum of both radiative and free convective heat transfer functions. The validation of this scientific approach and the derivation of temporal evolution thermal laws, both on skin temperature and dissipated thermal power during the thermal shock open many avenues of large scale studies with the aim of proposing individualized cryotherapy protocols as well as protocols intended for target populations. Furthermore, this study shows quantitatively the substantial imbalance between human metabolism and thermolysis during WBC, the explanation of which remains an open question.

  4. Investigation of heat transfer and exergy loss in a concentric double pipe exchanger equipped with swirl generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavak Akpinar, Ebru; Bicer, Yasar [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the effect on heat transfer rates, friction factor and exergy loss of swirl generators with holes for the entrance of fluid were investigated by placing them at the entrance section of inner pipe of heat exchanger. Various swirl generators having circular holes at different number and diameter were used. Hot air and cold water were passed through the inner pipe and annulus, respectively. Experiments were carried out for both parallel and counter flow models of the fluids at Reynolds numbers between 8500-17 500. Heat transfer, friction factor and exergy analyses were made for the conditions with and without swirl generators and compared to each other. Some empirical correlations expressing the results were also derived and discussed. It was observed that the Nusselt number could increase up to 130% at a value of about 2.9 times increase in the friction factor by giving rotation to the air with the help of the swirl elements. The increase the dimensionless exergy loss was about 1.25 times in comparison with that for the inner pipe without swirl generators. (authors)

  5. The Scaling of Loss Pathways and Heat Transfer in Small Scale Internal Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Objective 1 addressed the relative importance of loss pathways. The Small Engine Research Bench was constructed to measure the energy pathways in a family...efficiency is essentially a measure of losses relative to the amount of energy supplied to the engine as fuel. This scaling of efficiency is generally...the total concentration for both molecules. That measurement will be in error if the sensor was tuned using only one of the molecules or if it was

  6. A New Decision Model for Reducing Trim Loss and Inventory in the Paper Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Fu-Kwun; Liu, Feng-Tai

    2014-01-01

    .... To ensure that the results better suit the actual requirements, we present a new decision model based on the adjustment of scheduling and limitation of inventory quantity to differentiate trim loss...

  7. Energy losses in the Polish power system and possibilities of reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchta, F.; Janiczek, R.; Sobieszczanski, S. [Politechnika Slaska, Katowice (Poland). PSE SA

    1993-11-01

    Analyzes energy losses in power generation and power distribution systems in Poland. The following aspects of power losses in power generation are evaluated: structure of existing power plants in Poland, types of equipment used in coal-fired power plants, efficiency of condensation units (about 36.0% or 11.6-10 MJ/kWxh), efficiency of planned modernization of existing power units, effects of flue gas desulfurization on efficiency of power generation in coal-fired power plants, energy policy of Poland, investment in coal-fired power plants, feasibility of clean coal programs, effects of replacing conventional coal combustion by combined-cycle power plants with coal gasification on energy efficiency and energy losses, energy losses during power transmission and distribution. 19 refs.

  8. Quality of life is reduced in obese dogs but improves after successful weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Holden, S L; Wiseman-Orr, M L; Reid, J; Nolan, A M; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Scott, E M

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P=0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (Panxiety (P=0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (r(P)=0.43, P=0.02) and percentage body fat loss (r(P)=0.39, P=0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight.

  9. Optimization of loss and gain multilayers for reducing the scattering of a perfect conducting cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Zhong, Yu; Guo-Shu, Zhao; Gang, Sun; Hai-Fei, Si; Zhong, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of electromagnetic scattering from a conducting cylinder could be achieved by covering it with optimized multilayers of normal dielectric and plasmonic material. The plasmonic material with intrinsic losses could degrade the cloaking effect. Using a genetic algorithm, we present the optimized design of loss and gain multilayers for reduction of the scattering from a perfect conducting cylinder. This multilayered structure is theoretically and numerically analyzed when the plasmonic material with low loss and high loss respectively is considered. We demonstrate by full-wave simulation that the optimized nonmagnetic gain-loss design can greatly compensate the decreased cloaking effect caused by loss material, which facilitates the realization of practical electromagnetic cloaking, especially in the optical range. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Jinling Institute of Technology, China (Grant No. JIT-B-201426), the Jiangsu Modern Education and Technology Key Project, China (Grant No. 2014-R-31984), the Jiangsu 333 Project Funded Research Project, China (Grant No. BRA2010004), and the University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. 15KJB520010).

  10. The influence of activewear worn under standard work coveralls on whole-body heat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jill M; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the influence of activewear undergarments worn under the standard mining coveralls on whole-body heat exchange and change in body heat content during work in the heat. Each participant performed 60 min of cycling at a constant rate of heat production of 400 W followed by 60 min of recovery in a whole-body calorimeter regulated at 40°C and 15% relative humidity donning one of the four clothing ensembles: (1) cotton underwear and shorts only (Control, CON); (2) Activewear only (ACT); (3) Coveralls+Cotton undergarments (COV+COT); or (4) Coveralls+Activewear undergarments (COV+ACT). In the latter two conditions a hard hat with earmuffs, gloves, and socks with closed toe shoes were worn. We observed that both COV+COT and COV+ACT resulted in a similar mean (±SE) change in body heat content, which was significantly greater compared with the CON and ACT during exercise, suggesting that the rate of thermal strain was elevated to a similar degree in both coverall conditions (CON: 245±32 kJ; ACT: 260±29 kJ; COV+COT: 428±36 kJ; COV+ACT: 466±15 kJ; p<0.001). During recovery, the negative change in body heat content was greater for both COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT but similar between COV+COT and COV+ACT due to the greater amount of heat stored during exercise (CON: -83±16 kJ; ACT: -104±33 kJ; COV+COT: -198±30 kJ; COV+ACT: -145±12 kJ; p=0.048). Core temperatures and heart rate were also significantly elevated for the COV+COT and COV+ACT compared with the CON and ACT conditions during and following exercise (p<0.05). These results suggest that while activewear undergarments are not detrimental, they provide no thermoregulatory benefit when replacing the cotton undergarment worn under the standard coverall during work in the heat.

  11. Maintaining yields and reducing nitrogen loss in rice-wheat rotation system in Taihu Lake region with proper fertilizer management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lihong; Yu, Yingliang; Yang, Linzhang

    2014-11-01

    In the Tailake region of China, heavy nitrogen (N) loss of rice-wheat rotation systems, due to high fertilizer-N input with low N use efficiency (NUE), was widely reported. To alleviate the detrimental impacts caused by N loss, it is necessary to improve the fertilizer management practices. Therefore, a 3 yr field experiments with different N managements including organic combined chemical N treatment (OCN, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 20% organic fertilizer), control-released urea treatment (CRU, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, 70% resin-coated urea), reduced chemical N treatment (RCN, 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer), and site-specific N management (SSNM, 333 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer) were conducted in the Taihu Lake region with the ‘farmer’s N’ treatment (FN, 510 kg N ha-1 yr-1, all common chemical fertilizer) as a control. Grain yield, plant N uptake (PNU), NUE, and N losses via runoff, leaching, and ammonia volatilization were assessed. In the rice season, the FN treatment had the highest N loss and lowest NUE, which can be attributed to an excessive rate of N application. Treatments of OCN and RCN with a 22% reduced N rate from FN had no significant effect on PNU nor the yield of rice in the 3 yr; however, the NUE was improved and N loss was reduced 20-32%. OCN treatment achieved the highest yield, while SSNM has the lowest N loss and highest NUE due to the lowest N rate. In wheat season, N loss decreased about 28-48% with the continuous reduction of N input, but the yield also declined, with the exception of OCN treatment. N loss through runoff, leaching and ammonia volatilization was positively correlated with the N input rate. When compared with the pure chemical fertilizer treatment of RCN under the same N input, OCN treatment has better NUE, better yield, and lower N loss. 70% of the urea replaced with resin-coated urea had no significant effect on yield and NUE improvement, but decreased the ammonia volatilization loss. Soil

  12. Use of New Water Soluble Surface Film—Forming Material to Reduce Ammonia Loss from Water Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINBIN; SHENRENFANG; 等

    1996-01-01

    A new water soluble surface film-forming material was developed and its effect on reducing ammonia volatilization from an alkaline solution was investigated in laboratory,Results showed that the new film formed by the material was not only more effective in reducing ammonia loss than any other films tested but also much cheaper.The optimum amount of addition of the new film-forming material was about 10times the theoretical amount to form a monomolecular film.Under the experimental conditions,the new film could effectively depress the ammonia volatilization for at least 6 days.The cumulative ammonia loss rates for different films were fitted to a simple logistic equation ,and some important parameters such as the cumulative loss,and the maximum and average volatilization rates were calculated.The effect of different films could be,therefore,compared quantitatively,indicating the new film was most effective in depressing ammonia volatilization.

  13. Effect of Stabilization Heat Treatment on Time-Dependent Polarization Losses in Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuominen S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some companies in the motor and generator industry utilizing sintered NdFeB magnets have adopted pre-ageing heat treatment in order to improve the stability of the magnets. The parameters of this stabilization heat treatment are based mainly on assumptions rather than on any published research results. In this work, the effects of pre-ageing treatment on the time-dependent polarization losses of two different types of commercial sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. The material showing the squarer J(H curve did not benefit from the pre-ageing treatment, since it seems to be stable under a certain critical temperature. In contrast, a stabilizing effect was observed in the material showing rounder J(H curve. After the stabilization heat treatment, the polarization of the magnets was found to be at lower level, but unchanged over a certain period of time. The length of this period depends on the temperature and the duration of the pre-ageing treatment. In addition, our analysis reveals that the stabilization heat treatment performed in an open circuit condition does not stabilize the magnet uniformly.

  14. DEVELOPING OF A NEW COMPREHENSIVE SPARK IGNITION ENGINES CODE FOR HEAT LOSS ANALYSIS WITHIN COMBUSTION CHAMBER WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Khalilarya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to develop the existing a zero-dimensional model named ODES to provide detailed insights into the internal process of the modern high speed spark ignition engines. Therefore, it has been concentrated on the development of new sub models for incorporation in an extended form of ODES, as follows: - the existing semi-empirical combustion model has been replaced by a new comprehensive model, which is based on the turbulent flame speed in the combustion chamber. - the existing three wall heat transfer model has been replaced by a new one in which, the combustion chamber is divided in to three zones including cylinder head, cylinder wall, and piston head. The steady-state heat transfer equation is solved through finite difference method with replaced boundary and initial conditions. The results gave the temperature distribution of combustion chamber walls. The rate of heat losses from combustion chamber to the coolant is calculated by using the mean temperature of each part. The code has been extensively validated with respect to performance and heat transfer against experimental results obtained on XU7JP spark ignition engine with two kinds of fuel, gasoline and compresed natural gas and gave good agreement with available experimental.

  15. Study on the heat transfer of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2010-10-01

    One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). There is no doubt that the gases leaking into the insulation jacket have some influence on the heat transfer process of it. However, this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, a test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using a SCLIV cryogenic tank and with nitrogen, helium and air as the working medium, respectively. The venting rates of the tank and temperature in the insulation jacket were measured respectively after the three different gases leaking into the jacket. A heat transfer model describing the heat transfer process of a SCLIV tank was also presented. The calculated results using this model were compared against the experimental data. It is found that the heat transfer performance of the HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV is strong relevant to the type of gas leaking into the insulation jacket.

  16. On the Thermal Decomposition of Reactive Materials of Variable Thermal Conductivity and Heat Loss Characteristics in a Long Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, O. D.

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we investigate the thermal decomposition of a stockpile of reactive material undergoing a steady-state exothermic chemical reaction inside a long pipe with heat loss characteristics at its surface. It is assumed that the thermal conductivity (k) of the material varies exponentially with temperature and the pipe surface exchanges heat with the ambient following Newton's law of cooling. The nonlinear differential equation governing the problem is tackled analytically using a regular perturbation technique (RPT) coupled with a computer-extended series solution (CESS) and a special type of Hermite-Padé approximation. The effects of various thermophysical parameters on the temperature field together with critical conditions for thermal ignition represented by turning points on the bifurcation diagram are obtained and discussed quantitatively. An increase in critical behavior is observed with a decrease in the material's thermal conductivity. However, the stability of the material is enhanced by an increase in the material's thermal conductivity.

  17. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  18. New cylinder head concept for reducing costs, weight and friction losses; Neues Zylinderkopfkonzept - Reduzierung von Kosten, Masse und Reibungsverlusten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heywood, Jonathan [ThyssenKrupp Presta Chemnitz GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Simulation/Testing R and D Valve Train Systems

    2009-11-15

    The camshaft bearing in an internal combustion engine plays a major role in the design of the cylinder head. The name Presta Integrated Cam Assembly (PICA) describes a large number of different development approaches for the cylinder head area. ThyssenKrupp presents a solution for reducing costs, weight and friction losses while at the same time providing lower engine-out emissions. (orig.)

  19. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge from the literature and experimental studies on the role of cover crops (CCs) in reducing nitrogen (N) leaching and phosphorus (P) losses to waters under the marine and humid continental climate conditions of southern Scandinavia and Finland. Field leaching...

  20. Vermicomposting as a technology for reducing nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions from small-scale composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuijper, Thomas; Bruun, Sander; Neergaard, de Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic composting produces a significant amount of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of vermicomposting to reduce nitrogen losses and greenhouse gases emissions compared to thermophilic composting, and (ii) to determine the effect of

  1. Influence of body mass loss on changes in heart rate during exercise in the heat: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Ferraro, Elizabeth M; Huggins, Robert A; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this review was to compare the changes in heart rate (HR) for every 1% change in body mass loss (ΔBML) in individuals while exercising in the heat. PubMed, SPORTDiscus, ERIC, CINAHL, and Scopus were searched from the earliest entry to February 2013 using the search terms dehydration, heart rate, and exercise in various combinations. Original research articles that met the following criteria were included: (a) valid measure of HR, (b) exercise in the heat (>26.5° C [79.7 °F]), (c) the level of dehydration reached at least 2%, (d) a between-group comparison (a euhydrated group or a graded dehydration protocol) was evident, and (e) for rehydration protocols, only oral rehydration was considered for inclusion. Twenty articles were included in the final analysis. Mean values and SDs for HR and percentage of body mass loss immediately after exercise were used for this review. The mean change in HR for every 1% ΔBML was 3 b·min-1. In trials where subjects arrived euhydrated and hypohydrated, the mean change in HR for every 1% ΔBML was 3 and 3 b·min-1, respectively. Fixed intensity and variable intensity trials exhibited a mean HR change of 4 and 1 b·min-1, respectively. Exercising in the heat while hypohydrated (≥2%) resulted in an increased HR after exercise. This increase in HR for every 1% ΔBML exacerbates cardiovascular strain in exercising individuals, thus causing decrements in performance. It should be encouraged that individuals should maintain an adequate level of hydration to maximize performance, especially in the heat.

  2. Reducing Energy Usage in Residential and Industrial Buildings via the Sealing of Heating and Air Conditioning Ductwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witriol, Norman; Katz, Myron; McKim, Robert; Erinjeri, Jinson; Saber, Aziz

    2003-03-01

    Many existing residential and industrial heating and cooling systems have leaky ductwork. These leaks result in large energy losses, and thus significantly higher than necessary utility costs. We will discuss the use of extensions of well investigated cost effective sealing methodologies to ductwork, and quantify the energy savings that can be achieved by sealing these leaks.

  3. Total heat loss coefficient of flat roof constructions with external insulation in tapered layers including the effects of thermal bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    be quite tedious, and therefore a method to generate and optimize solutions has been developed and implemented in a program that also takes into account the effects of different types of thermal bridges, i.e. roof windows, insulation fasteners, roof/wall joints etc. This paper describes a new method...... for design of flat roofs and a pc-program that can be used for calculating the total heat loss coefficient of externally insulated roofs with insulation in tapered layers, taking into account thermal bridges in the roof construction....

  4. Practical modeling of acoustic losses in air due to heat conduction and viscosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, René; Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Accurate acoustics models of small devices with cavities and narrow slits and ducts should include the socalled boundary layer attenuation caused by thermal conduction and viscosity. The purpose of this paper is to present and compare different methods for including these loss mechanisms in analy......Accurate acoustics models of small devices with cavities and narrow slits and ducts should include the socalled boundary layer attenuation caused by thermal conduction and viscosity. The purpose of this paper is to present and compare different methods for including these loss mechanisms...

  5. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  6. On reversible, endoreversible, and irreversible heat device cycles versus the Carnot cycle: a pedagogical approach to account for losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Ayala, J.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Calvo Hernández, A.; Velasco, S.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we analyze the deviations of reversible cycles (for both heat engines and refrigerators) from the corresponding Carnot cycle operating between the same extreme temperatures, and deviations of irreversible cycles from their corresponding reversible realization while putting emphasis on the corresponding losses. The endoreversible models fit in the proposed framework. Two suitable loss factors, which do not need the explicit calculation of entropy variations, are introduced. The behavior of these factors and their interplay allow for a clear and pedagogical visualization of where external and internal irreversibilities are located, and their intensities in terms of the main variables describing the cycle. The analysis could be used as a starting point for more advanced studies on modeling and optimization of real devices and installations.

  7. A simple method for reducing inevitable dielectric loss in high-permittivity dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Yu, Liyun; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw;

    2016-01-01

    Commercial viability of dielectric elastomers (DEs) is currently limited by a few obstacles, including high driving voltages (in the kV range). Driving voltage can be lowered by either decreasing the Young's modulus or increasing the dielectric permittivity of silicone elastomers, or a combinatio...... also decreased the dielectric losses of an elastomer containing dielectric permittivity-enhancing TiO2 fillers. Commercially available chloropropyl-functional silicone oil thus constitutes a facile method for improved silicone DEs, with very low dielectric losses....

  8. Cover cropping to reduce nitrate loss through subsurface drainage in the northern U.S. corn belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, J S; Porter, P M; Russelle, M P

    2004-01-01

    Despite the use of best management practices for nitrogen (N) application rate and timing, significant losses of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) in drainage discharge continue to occur from row crop cropping systems. Our objective was to determine whether a autumn-seeded winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop following corn (Zea mays L.) would reduce NO3(-)-N losses through subsurface tile drainage in a corn-soybean [Glycine mar (L.) Merr.] cropping system in the northern Corn Belt (USA) in a moderately well-drained soil. Both phases of the corn-soybean rotation, with and without the winter rye cover crop following corn, were established in 1998 in a Normania clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, mesic Aquic Haplustoll) soil at Lamberton, MN. Cover cropping did not affect subsequent soybean yield, but reduced drainage discharge, flow-weighted mean nitrate concentration (FWMNC), and NO3(-)-N loss relative to winter fallow, although the magnitude of the effect varied considerably with annual precipitation. Three-year average drainage discharge was lower with a winter rye cover crop than without (p = 0.06). Over three years, subsurface tile-drainage discharge was reduced 11% and NO3(-)-N loss was reduced 13% for a corn-soybean cropping system with a rye cover crop following corn than with no rye cover crop. We estimate that establishment of a winter rye cover crop after corn will be successful in one of four years in southwestern Minnesota. Cover cropping with rye has the potential to be an effective management tool for reducing NO3(-)-N loss from subsurface drainage discharge despite challenges to establishment and spring growth in the north-central USA.

  9. DETERMINATION OF HEAT LOSS FACTOR OF SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR WITH THE ABSORBER MADE FROM POLYMERIC PIPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratskii V.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is studied thermal loss factor of solar energy collector, which absorber represents the register made from polymeric pipes. Input data are results of tests in non-stationary thermal regime at the zero water flow rate and the minimum sunlight.

  10. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...

  11. Can surface-applied zeolite reduce ammonia losses from feedyard manure? A laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia emission from beef cattle feedyard manure results in losses of nitrogen (N), which may negatively affect air, soil, and water quality. The magnitude and rate of ammonia volatilization from feedyards partially depends on the amount of urinary urea excreted and dissociation of ionic ammonium ...

  12. Reducing power losses caused by ionic shortcut currents in reverse electrodialysis stacks by a validated model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, J.; Post, J. W.; Saakes, M.; Metz, S. J.; Harmsen, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    Both in electrodialysis and in reverse electrodialysis ionic shortcut currents through feed and drain channels cause a considerable loss in efficiency. Model calculations based on an equivalent electric system of a reverse electrodialysis stack reveal that the effect of these salt bridges could be r

  13. The impact of reduced mass loss rates on the evolution of massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, Raphael

    2007-01-01

    Mass loss is a very important aspect of the life of massive stars. After briefly reviewing its importance, we discuss the impact of the recently proposed downward revision of mass loss rates due to clumping (difficulty to form Wolf-Rayet stars and production of critically rotating stars). Although a small reduction might be allowed, large reduction factors around ten are disfavoured. We then discuss the possibility of significant mass loss at very low metallicity due to stars reaching break-up velocities and especially due to the metal enrichment of the surface of the star via rotational and convective mixing. This significant mass loss may help the first very massive stars avoid the fate of pair-creation supernova, the chemical signature of which is not observed in extremely metal poor stars. The chemical composition of the very low metallicity winds is very similar to that of the most metal poor star known to date, HE1327-2326 and offer an interesting explanation for the origin of the metals in this star. W...

  14. Reducing food losses to protect domestic food security in the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.; Kavallari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Food security policies are usually costly and involve trade-offs. We investigated this issue by simulating three policy responses to rising world food prices, using the MAGNET model applied to the Middle East and North Africa. A policy of tackling agricultural food losses increases food consumption

  15. Enhancing Intrinsic Cochlear Stress Defenses to Reduce Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    trauma were wearing hearing protection when the hearing loss causing the accident took place. Poor fit of the protector will further degrade...periments in animals-evidence for a non- osseous mecha- nism. Hear Res 2000;146:72-80. 125. Sorbi S, Forleo P, Fani C, Piacentini S. Double-blind

  16. The stoichiometric approach in determining total evaporative water loss and the relationship between evaporative and non-evaporative heat loss in two resting bird species: passerine and non-passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valery M.Gavrilov

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evaporation is of significant ecological interest.Evaporation from an animal always results in a decrease in the temperature of the surface from which the evaporation occurs.Therefore,evaporation is a one-way transfer which causes heat loss from the organism.Biological evaporation always involves the loss of water which is a vital resource for nearly all biochemical processes.Evaporation is loss of heat via loss of body mass.Methods: The simultaneous determination of energy expenditure and loss of body mass in resting birds allows us to estimate evaporative heat loss.This method includes direct measurements of the energetic equivalent of the loss of body mass as the ratio between heat production,determined by the rate of oxygen consumption and the loss of body mass at various ambient temperatures.Results: The data indicate that evaporation was minimal at lower critical temperature and that the rate of evaporation increased at lower or higher temperatures.Obtained results indicate that passerine and non-passerine species have the ability to change their non-evaporative heat conductance the same number of times(approximately fourfold),and that their abilities in this respect are similar.Conclusions: The novelty of the study resides in the stoichiometric approach to determination of total evaporative water loss.The analysis shows that determinations by stoichiometric approach of total evaporative water loss yielded the values,which fit into the confidence intervals of all equations from literatures.The basal metabolic rate and nonevaporative thermal conductance are fundamental parameters of energetics and determine the level of physiological organization of an endothermic animal.

  17. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser 404 (p-tau (S 404 , and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S 404 levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  18. Ventilation Loss in the NASA Space Shuttle Crew Protective Garments: Potential for Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Gregory K.; Kaufman, Jonathan W.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) S1035 Launch/Entry suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment has been studied. The testing was designed to determine if the NASA S1035 poses a greater threat of inducing heat stress than the NASA S1032. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme prelaunch situation, with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature - 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Four males, aged 28-48, were employed in this study, with three subjects having exposures in all four conditions and the fourth subject exposed to 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. No significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal temperatures, heart rates or sweat rates. The results indicate that the S1032 and S1035 garments, in either the V or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Shuttle cabin during launch or re-entry.

  19. Ventilation loss and pressurization in the NASA launch/entry suit: Potential for heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jonathan W.; Dejneka, Katherine Y.; Askew, Gregory K.

    1989-01-01

    The potential of the NASA Launch/Entry Suit (LES) for producing heat stress in a simulated Space Shuttle cabin environment was studied. The testing was designed to identify potential heat stress hazards if the LES were pressurized or if ventilation were lost. Conditions were designed to simulate an extreme pre-launch situation with chamber temperatures maintained at dry bulb temperature = 27.2 +/- 0.1 C, globe temperature = 27.3 +/- 0.1 C, and wet bulb temperature = 21.1 +/- 0.3 C. Two females and two males, 23 to 34 years of age, were employed in this study, with two subjects having exposures in all 3 conditions. Test durations in the ventilated (V) and unventilated (UV) conditions were designed for 480 minutes, which all subjects achieved. Pressurized runs (Pr) were designed for 45 minutes, which all subjects also achieved. While some significant differences related to experimental conditions were noted in rectal and mean skin temperatures, evaporation rates, sweat rates, and heart rate, these differences were not thought to be physiologically significant. The results indicate that the LES garment, in either the Pr or UV state, poses no danger of inducing unacceptable heat stress under the conditions expected within the Space Shuttle cabin during launch or reentry.

  20. Using Recycled Glass and Zeolite in Concrete Pavement to Mitigate Heat Island and Reduce Thermal Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Burak Pancar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban heat island (UHI effect is built environmental issue related to pavements. It is desired to reduce pavement high surface temperature in summer to mitigate UHI effect. High surface temperature also affects slab temperature difference (the top surface temperature minus the bottom surface temperature of the slab. The increased slab temperature difference induces a high possibility of cracking in concrete roads. The prime aim of this study was to reduce the slab surface temperature by using recycled glass as a fine aggregate and zeolite as cement in concrete. Recycled glass was used to replace fine aggregate in proportions of 10%, 20%, and 30% by total weight of aggregate. Zeolite replaced Portland cement in proportions of 10% and 30% for three different proportions of recycled glass concrete mixtures. Optimum proportions were determined by examining mechanical properties of samples and alkali-silica reactions. It was noticed that using recycled glass and zeolite together in concrete reduces pavement surface temperature and temperature gradient in summer.

  1. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. METHODS: Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit, a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. RESULTS: Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67% in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. CONCLUSION: TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  2. Adalimumab reduces hand bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis independent of clinical response: Subanalysis of the PREMIER study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elden Aake

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anti-TNF therapy has been shown to reduce radiographic joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA independent of clinical response. This has previously not been examined for periarticular bone loss, the other characteristic feature of bone involvement in RA. The objective of this study was to examine if treatment with the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab also could reduce periarticular bone loss in RA patients independent of disease activity. Methods RA patients were recruited from the PREMIER study and included 214 patients treated with methotrexate (MTX plus adalimumab and 188 patients treated with MTX monotherapy. Periarticular bone loss was assessed by digital X-ray radiogrammetry metacarpal cortical index (DXR-MCI. Change in DXR-MCI was evaluated in patients with different levels of clinical response, as assessed by changes in DAS28 score at 52 weeks and in mean C-reactive protein (CRP levels during follow-up. Results In the MTX group, there was a greater median DXR-MCI loss among patients with moderate and high disease activity compared to those in remission or with low disease activity (-3.3% vs. -2.2%, p = 0.01. In contrast, periarticular bone loss was independent of disease activity (-1.9% vs. -2.4%, p = 0.99 in the combination group. In the MTX group patients with a mean CRP of ≥ 10 mg/l lost significantly more DXR-MCI than patients with low CRP (-3.1% vs. -1.9%, p Conclusion Adalimumab in combination with MTX reduces periarticular bone loss independently of clinical response. These results support the hypothesis that TNF-α stimulates the osteoclast not only by the inflammatory pathway but do also have a direct effect on the osteoclast. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT001195663

  3. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Kumar, Anita Ashok; Kahan, Scott; Irukulla, Pavan Kumar; Cheskin, Lawrence Jay

    2013-01-01

    Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL)/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit), a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67%) in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR) + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  4. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  5. Isochoric heating of reduced mass targets by ultra-intense laser produced relativistic electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumayer, P; Lee, H J; Offerman, D; Shipton, E; Kemp, A; Kritcher, A L; Doppner, T; Back, C A; Glenzer, S H

    2009-02-04

    We present measurements of the chlorine K-alpha emission from reduced mass targets, irradiated with ultra-high intensity laser pulses. Chlorinated plastic targets with diameters down to 50 micrometers and mass of a few 10{sup -8} g were irradiated with up to 7 J of laser energy focused to intensities of several 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The conversion of laser energy to K-alpha radiation is measured, as well as high resolution spectra that allow observation of line shifts, indicating isochoric heating of the target up to 18 eV. A zero-dimensional 2-temperature equilibration model, combined with electron impact K-shell ionization and post processed spectra from collisional radiative calculations reproduces the observed K-alpha yields and line shifts, and shows the importance of target expansion due to the hot electron pressure.

  6. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  7. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  8. CHIP Knockdown Reduced Heat Shock Response and Protein Quality Control Capacity in Lens Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, Z; Bao, X; Qin, Y; Taylor, A; Shang, F; Wu, M

    2015-01-01

    Protein quality control (PQC) systems, including molecular chaperones and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP), plays an important role in maintaining intracellular protein homeostasis. Carboxyl terminus of Hsc70- interacting protein (CHIP) links the chaperone and UPPs, thus contributing to the repair or removal of damaged proteins. Over-expression of CHIP had previously been used to protect cells from environmental stress. In order to gain a more physiologic mechanism of the advantage conferred by CHIP, we induced a CHIP knockdown and monitored the ability of cells to cope with environmental stress. To knockdown CHIP, the human lens epithelial cell line HLE B3 was transfected with lentiviral particles that encode a CHIP short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or negative control lentiviral particles. Stable CHIP-knock down cells (KD) and negative control cells (NC) were selected with puromycin. After exposure to heat shock stress, there was no change observed in the expression of Hsp90. In contrast, Hsp70 levels increased significantly in NC cells but less so in KD cells. Hsp27 levels also increased after heat shock, but only in NC cells. Protein ubiquitination was reduced when CHIP was knocked down. CHIP knockdown reduced the ability to clear aggregation proteins. When same levels of aggregation-prone RFP-mutant crystallin fusion protein, RFP/V76D-γD, was expressed, there was ~9- fold more aggregates in KD cells as compared to that observed in NC cells. Furthermore, KD cells were more sensitive to toxicity of amino acid analog canavanine as compared to NC cells. Together, these data indicate that CHIP is required for PQC and that CHIP knockdown diminished cellular PQC capacity in lens cells.

  9. Benefit Assessment of Forest Function in Reducing Soil Erosion and Nutrient Loss in Anji County of Taihu Lake Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao; ZHANG; Jixi; GAO; Gaodi; XIE; Changxin; ZOU; Bin; WANG

    2013-01-01

    The non-point source pollution arising from soil erosion is one of the main reasons for the deterioration of the water quality of the Taihu Lake Basin. Forest plays an important role in controlling soil erosion and reducing nutrient loss. Based on the survey data on forest resources in Anji County, we estimate the amount of soil erosion and nutrient loss of nitrogen and phosphorus reduced by forest, using soil erosion modulus method and soil nutrient content. In accordance with the degradation coefficient of pollutant and regional compensation standards of environmental resources, we assess the ecological benefits of forest function in reducing nutrient loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in Anji County. The results show that the forest in Anji County can reduce the soil erosion amount at 1.51 million t annually on the average, so as to control the nutrient loss of 1 409 t of total nitrogen and 577 t of total phosphorus in soil, equivalent to annually avoiding the flow of 824 t of total nitrogen and 410 t of total phosphorus into river water; this ecological service function can make forests in Anji County get 92.55 million yuan of ecological compensation funds (about 688 yuan/hm2·a), equivalent to 15 times of the current ecological compensation standard (47 yuan/hm2). The study reveals the importance of forest function in controlling soil erosion and nutrient loss in the upper reaches of Taihu Lake Basin to water environment protection in the basin, conducive to carrying out pollution control and protection work of the water environment in the basin.

  10. Water Table Management Reduces Tile Nitrate Loss in Continuous Corn and in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F. Drury

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Water table management systems can be designed to alleviate soil water excesses and deficits, as well as reduce nitrate leaching losses in tile discharge. With this in mind, a standard tile drainage (DR system was compared over 8 years (1991 to 1999 to a controlled tile drainage/subirrigation (CDS system on a low-slope (0.05 to 0.1% Brookston clay loam soil (Typic Argiaquoll in southwestern Ontario, Canada. In the CDS system, tile discharge was controlled to prevent excessive drainage, and water was pumped back up the tile lines (subirrigation to replenish the crop root zone during water deficit periods. In the first phase of the study (1991 to 1994, continuous corn (Zea mays, L. was grown with annual nitrogen (N fertilizer inputs as per local soil test recommendations. In the second phase (1995 to 1999, a soybean (Glycine max L., Merr.-corn rotation was used with N fertilizer added only during the two corn years. In Phase 1 when continuous corn was grown, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 26% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 55%, compared to DR. In addition, the 4-year flow weighted mean (FWM nitrate concentration in tile discharge exceeded the Canadian drinking water guideline (10 mg N l–1 under DR (11.4 mg N l–1, but not under CDS (7.0 mg N l–1. In Phase 2 during the soybean-corn rotation, CDS reduced total tile discharge by 38% and total nitrate loss in tile discharge by 66%, relative to DR. The 4-year FWM nitrate concentration during Phase 2 in tile discharge was below the drinking water guideline for both DR (7.3 mg N l–1 and CDS (4.0 mg N l–1. During both phases of the experiment, the CDS treatment caused only minor increases in nitrate loss in surface runoff relative to DR. Hence CDS decreased FWM nitrate concentrations, total drainage water loss, and total nitrate loss in tile discharge relative to DR. In addition, soybean-corn rotation reduced FWM nitrate concentrations and total nitrate loss in tile discharge

  11. Hilar somatostatin interneuron loss reduces dentate gyrus inhibition in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabrielle; Balgooyen, Laura; Mattis, Joanna; Deisseroth, Karl; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, seizures usually start in the hippocampus, and dentate granule cells are hyperexcitable. Somatostatin interneurons are a major subpopulation of inhibitory neurons in the dentate gyrus, and many are lost in patients and animal models. However, surviving somatostatin interneurons sprout axon collaterals and form new synapses, so the net effect on granule cell inhibition remains unclear. The present study uses optogenetics to activate hilar somatostatin interneurons and measure the inhibitory effect on dentate gyrus perforant path-evoked local field potential responses in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. In controls, light activation of hilar somatostatin interneurons inhibited evoked responses up to 40%. Epileptic pilocarpine-treated mice exhibited loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons and less light-induced inhibition of evoked responses. These findings suggest that severe epilepsy-related loss of hilar somatostatin interneurons can overwhelm the surviving interneurons' capacity to compensate by sprouting axon collaterals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Tranexamic acid reduces the blood loss and blood transfusion requirements following peri-acetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassilew, G I; Perka, C; Janz, V; Krämer, M; Renner, L

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the effect of using tranexamic acid (TXA) during peri-acetabular osteotomy (PAO) on peri-operative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. In addition we analysed whether the use of TXA was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following this procedure. A consecutive series of 96 PAOs, performed by a single surgeon, were reviewed. A total of 48 patients received TXA and 48 did not. The TXA group received a continuous infusion of TXA at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. The primary outcome measure was the requirement for blood transfusion. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss, the decrease in the level of haemoglobin in the blood, the length of hospital stay, and the complications of this treatment. The mean rate of transfusion was significantly lower in the TXA group (62.5% vs 12.5%, p transfusion after PAO significantly, without adverse effects such as an increased rate of VTE.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizae reducing water loss in maize plants under low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xian Can; Song, Feng Bin; Liu, Tie Dong; Liu, Sheng Qun

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic mycorrhizal symbiotic associations with the roots of approximately 80% of all terrestrial plant species while facilitate the uptake of soil mineral nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Also, AM symbiosis increase plants resistance to abiotic stress such as chilling. In a recent study we reported that AM fungi improve low temperature stress in maize plants via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Here, the influence of AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on water loss rate and growth of maize plants was studied in pot culture under low temperature stress. The results indicated that low temperature stress significantly decreases the total fresh weight of maize plants, and AM symbiosis alleviate the water loss in leaves of maize plants.

  14. Integration of internet of things to reduce various losses of jatropha seed supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Anitha, J.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of bio fuel supply chain has revolutionized the organization by restructuring the practices of the traditional management. A flexible distribution system is becoming the need of our society. The main focus of this paper is to integrate IoT technologies into a cultivation, extraction and management of Jatropha seed. It was noticed that major set-back of farmers due to poor supply chain integration. The various losses like information about the Jatropha seed availability, the location of esterification plants and distribution details are identified through this IoT. This enables the farmers to reorganize the land resources, yield estimation and distribution functions. The wastage and the scarcity of energy can be tackled by using the smart phone technologies. This paper is proposes a conceptual frame work on various losses involved in the supply chain of Jatropha seed.

  15. Reducing the extraction loss via laser notching the H- beam at the Booster injection revolution frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    With the requirement for more protons per hour from Booster, the radiation is a limiting factor. Laser notching the H{sup -} beam at the Booster injection revolution frequency and properly aligning those notches on top of each other at the injection and relative to the trigger of firing extraction kickers can remove most of the extraction loss caused by the slow rise time of the kicker field.

  16. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  17. Neuroligin-1 loss is associated with reduced tenacity of excitatory synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zeidan

    Full Text Available Neuroligins (Nlgns are postsynaptic, integral membrane cell adhesion molecules that play important roles in the formation, validation, and maturation of synapses in the mammalian central nervous system. Given their prominent roles in the life cycle of synapses, it might be expected that the loss of neuroligin family members would affect the stability of synaptic organization, and ultimately, affect the tenacity and persistence of individual synaptic junctions. Here we examined whether and to what extent the loss of Nlgn-1 affects the dynamics of several key synaptic molecules and the constancy of their contents at individual synapses over time. Fluorescently tagged versions of the postsynaptic scaffold molecule PSD-95, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit GluA2 and the presynaptic vesicle molecule SV2A were expressed in primary cortical cultures from Nlgn-1 KO mice and wild-type (WT littermates, and live imaging was used to follow the constancy of their contents at individual synapses over periods of 8-12 hours. We found that the loss of Nlgn-1 was associated with larger fluctuations in the synaptic contents of these molecules and a poorer preservation of their contents at individual synapses. Furthermore, rates of synaptic turnover were somewhat greater in neurons from Nlgn-1 knockout mice. Finally, the increased GluA2 redistribution rates observed in neurons from Nlgn-1 knockout mice were negated by suppressing spontaneous network activity. These findings suggest that the loss of Nlgn-1 is associated with some use-dependent destabilization of excitatory synapse organization, and indicate that in the absence of Nlgn-1, the tenacity of excitatory synapses might be somewhat impaired.

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, D.C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, G.M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  19. Reducing the loss of genetic diversity associated with assisted colonization-like introductions of animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaana KEKKONEN; Jon E BROMMER

    2015-01-01

    Translocations, especially assisted colonizations, of animals are increasingly used as a conservation management tool. In many cases, however, limited funding and other logistic challenges limit the number of individuals available for translocation. In conservation genetics, small populations are predicted to rapidly lose genetic diversity which can deteriorate population sur-vival. Thus, how worried should we be about the loss of genetic diversity when introducing small, isolated populations? Histori-cal species introductions provide a means to assess these issues. Here we review 13 studies of “assisted colonization-like” intro-ductions of animals, where only a small known number of founders established an isolated population without secondary contact to the source population. We test which factors could be important in retaining genetic diversity in these cases. In many cases, loss in heterozygosity (-12.1%) was detected, and more seriously the loss in allelic richness (-27.8 %). Number of founders seemed to have an effect but it also indicated that high population growth rate could help to retain genetic diversity, i.e. future management actions could be effective even with a limited number of founders if population growth would be enhanced. On the contrary, translocated organisms with longer generation times did not seem to retain more genetic diversity. We advocate that, where possible, future studies on translocated animals should report the loss of genetic diversity (both heterozygosity and allelic richness), which is essential for meta-analyses like this one for deepening our understanding of the genetic consequences of as-sisted colonization, and justifying management decisions [Current Zoology 61 (5): 827–834, 2015].

  20. Reducing burn-in voltage loss in polymer solar cells by increasing the polymer crystallinity

    KAUST Repository

    Heumueller, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    In order to commercialize polymer solar cells, the fast initial performance losses present in many high efficiency materials will have to be managed. This burn-in degradation is caused by light-induced traps and its characteristics depend on which polymer is used. We show that the light-induced traps are in the bulk of the active layer and we find a direct correlation between their presence and the open-circuit voltage loss in devices made with amorphous polymers. Solar cells made with crystalline polymers do not show characteristic open circuit voltage losses, even though light-induced traps are also present in these devices. This indicates that crystalline materials are more resistant against the influence of traps on device performance. Recent work on crystalline materials has shown there is an energetic driving force for charge carriers to leave amorphous, mixed regions of bulk heterojunctions, and charges are dominantly transported in pure, ordered phases. This energetic landscape allows efficient charge generation as well as extraction and also may benefit the stability against light-induced traps. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  1. Biochar-amended filter socks reduce herbicide losses via tile line surface inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing water in depressions and behind terraces in fields with subsurface drainage systems can result in reduced crop yields. This concern can be partially alleviated by installing surface inlets that reduce the duration of ponding. Unfortunately, these inlets provide an open conduit for surface w...

  2. SDCCAG8 obesity alleles and reduced weight loss after a lifestyle intervention in overweight children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherag, André; Kleber, Michaela; Boes, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association analyses (GWAS) contributed to the detection of a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity. However, little is known about the impact of the obesity-risk alleles on weight loss-related phenotypes after lifestyle interventions. A recent meta......-analysis of GWAS reported five genomic loci near or in the genes FTO, MC4R, TMEM18, SDCCAG8, TNKS/MSRA that were associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Here, we analyzed the effect of the 10 SNPs representative of the five loci on measures of weight loss and cardiometabolic risk after a 1-year...... hypoenergetic diet program. Intronic variants of SDCCAG8, which are associated with early onset obesity, are associated with reduced weight loss after a 1-year lifestyle intervention in overweight children and adolescents even after adjusting for age, sex, baseline measurement, or multiple testing (all P

  3. Which Route of Tranexamic Acid Administration is More Effective to Reduce Blood Loss Following Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab Keyhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most appropriate route of tranexamic acid administration is controversial. In the current study, we compared the efficacy of intravenous (IV and topical intra-articular tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion rate in patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred twenty 120 patients were scheduled to undergo primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomly allocated to three equal groups: IV tranexamic acid (500 mg, topical tranexamic acid (3 g in 100 mL normal saline and the control. In the topical group, half of the volume was used to irrigate the joint and the other half was injected intra-articularly. The volume of blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb level at 24 hours postoperative, and rate of transfusion was compared between groups. Results: The blood loss and Hb level were significantly greater and lower in the control group, respectively (P

  4. Subsidence and carbon loss in drained tropical peatlands: reducing uncertainty and implications for CO2 emission reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Idris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of tropical peatlands to agriculture leads to a release of carbon from previously stable, long-term storage, resulting in land subsidence that can be a surrogate measure of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. We present an analysis of recent large-scale subsidence monitoring studies in Acacia and oil palm plantations on peatland in SE Asia, and compare the findings with previous studies. Subsidence in the first 5 years after drainage was found to be 142 cm, of which 75 cm occurred in the first year. After 5 years, the subsidence rate in both plantation types, at average water table depths of 0.7 m, remained constant at around 5 cm yr−1. Bulk density profiles indicate that consolidation contributes only 7 % to total subsidence, in the first year after drainage, and that the role of compaction is also reduced quickly and becomes negligible after 5 years. Over 18 years after drainage, 92 % of cumulative subsidence was caused by peat oxidation. The average rate of carbon loss over the first 5 years was 178 t ha−1 yr−1 CO2eq, which reduced to 73 t ha−1 yr−1 CO2eq over subsequent years, resulting in an average loss of 100 t ha−1 yr−1 CO2eq annualized over 25 years. Part of the observed range in subsidence and carbon loss values is explained by differences in water table depth, but vegetation cover and addition of fertilizers also influence peat oxidation. A relationship with groundwater table depth shows that subsidence and carbon loss are still considerable even at the highest water table levels theoretically possible in plantations. This implies that improved water management will reduce these impacts by only 20 % at most, relative to current conditions, and that high rates of carbon loss and land subsidence should be accepted as inevitable consequences of conversion of forested tropical peatlands to other land uses.

  5. Reduced basal autophagy and impaired mitochondrial dynamics due to loss of Parkinson's disease-associated protein DJ-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Krebiehl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction and degradation takes a central role in current paradigms of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD. Loss of DJ-1 function is a rare cause of familial PD. Although a critical role of DJ-1 in oxidative stress response and mitochondrial function has been recognized, the effects on mitochondrial dynamics and downstream consequences remain to be determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using DJ-1 loss of function cellular models from knockout (KO mice and human carriers of the E64D mutation in the DJ-1 gene we define a novel role of DJ-1 in the integrity of both cellular organelles, mitochondria and lysosomes. We show that loss of DJ-1 caused impaired mitochondrial respiration, increased intramitochondrial reactive oxygen species, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and characteristic alterations of mitochondrial shape as shown by quantitative morphology. Importantly, ultrastructural imaging and subsequent detailed lysosomal activity analyses revealed reduced basal autophagic degradation and the accumulation of defective mitochondria in DJ-1 KO cells, that was linked with decreased levels of phospho-activated ERK2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that loss of DJ-1 leads to impaired autophagy and accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that under physiological conditions would be compensated via lysosomal clearance. Our study provides evidence for a critical role of DJ-1 in mitochondrial homeostasis by connecting basal autophagy and mitochondrial integrity in Parkinson's disease.

  6. Reduced sCD36 following weight loss corresponds to improved insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and liver fat in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knøsgaard, L; Kazankov, K; Birkebæk, N H; Holland-Fischer, P; Lange, A; Solvig, J; Hørlyck, A; Kristensen, K; Rittig, S; Vilstrup, H; Grønbæk, H; Handberg, A

    2016-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major health problem with serious long-term metabolic consequences. CD36 is important for the development of obesity-related complications among adults. We aimed to investigate circulating sCD36 during weight loss in childhood obesity and its associations with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hepatic fat accumulation and low-grade inflammation. The impact of a 10-week weight loss camp for obese children (N=113) on plasma sCD36 and further after a 12-month follow-up (N=68) was investigated. Clinical and biochemical data were collected, and sCD36 was measured by an in-house assay. Liver fat was estimated by ultrasonography and insulin resistance by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Along with marked weight loss, sCD36 was reduced by 21% (P=0.0013) following lifestyle intervention, and individual sCD36 reductions were significantly associated with the corresponding decreases in HOMA-IR, triglycerides and total cholesterol. The largest sCD36 decrease occurred among children who reduced HOMA-IR and liver fat. After 12 months of follow-up, sCD36 was increased (P=0.014) and the metabolic improvements were largely lost. Weight-loss-induced sCD36 reduction, coincident with improved insulin resistance, circulating lipids and hepatic fat accumulation, proposes that sCD36 may be an early marker of long-term health risk associated with obesity-related complications.

  7. Short communication: Proteins in heat-processed skim milk powder have no positive effects on bone loss of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Kong, Y; Wang, C; Gao, H; Han, X; Yi, H; Zhang, L

    2011-06-01

    Milk has positive effects on bone growth. However, the effect of skim milk powder (SMP) on bone properties has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of SMP on bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and another 10 rats received a sham operation. The OVX rats were randomly separated into 4 groups: OVX control, OVX SMP1 (SMP at 0.04 g/d), OVX SMP2 (SMP at 0.20 g/d), and OVX SMP3 (SMP at 0.40 g/d). Skim milk powder was supplied in the rat diet for 12 wk, and the rats were gavaged once per day. The effects of SMP on calcium content and bone mineral density of femur were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Compared with the control, SMP at all dose levels tested had no particular effect on weight:length, calcium content, or bone mineral density of femurs. It was demonstrated that SMP (0.04 to 0.40 g/d) had no positive effect on bone loss in OVX rats, probably because the heat treatment used during SMP processing caused a loss of biological activity in the protein.

  8. Reducing the power loss potential in commercial vehicles. Verringerung des Verlustleistungspotentials bei Nutzfahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, D.; Kraemer, W.

    1993-12-01

    In addition to aerodynamic drag, the rolling resistances constitute the highest power loss potential. In this paper a selection of representative standard-production tyres of a heavyduty tractor/semitrailer combination is used as an example to demonstrate the wide range of tyre rolling resistance and its influence on overall drag, fuel consumption and economy. The effects of all measures - improved aerodynamics, drive train optimization, tyres with low rolling resistance - on the fuel consumption and economy of the investigated tractor/semitrailer are quantified. In addition, the influence of important factors on tyre rolling resistance and fuel consumption is explained. (orig./HW)

  9. The Role of Geoscience Information in Reducing Catastrophic Loss Using a Web-Based Economics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Brookshire, David S.; Ganderton, Philip T.

    2003-01-01

    What role can geoscience information play in the assessment of risk and the value of insurance, especially for natural hazard type risks? In an earlier, related paper Ganderton and others (2000) provided subjects with relatively simple geoscience information concerning natural hazard-type risks. Their research looked at how subjects purchase insurance when faced with relatively low probability but high loss risks of the kind that characterize natural hazards and now, increasingly, manmade disasters. They found evidence to support the expected utility theory (definitions of economics terms can be found in a glossary at the end of report), yet there remained the implication that subjects with excessive aversion to risk were willing to pay considerably more for insurance than the actuarially fair price plus any reasonable risk premium. Here, we report the results of additional experiments that provide further support for the basic postulates of expected utility theory. However, these new experiments add considerably to the decision environment facing subjects by offering an option to purchase geoscientific information that would assist them when calculating expected losses from hazards more accurately. Using an Internet-based mechanism to present information and gather data in an experimental setting, this research provided subjects with considerable textual and graphical information, and time to process it. Over a period of three months, almost 400 subjects participated in on-line experiments that generated approximately 22,000 usable data points for the empirical analysis discussed in this report. In the design of the experiment, we modeled the decisions to purchase (1) a detailed map giving subjects more information regarding the distribution of losses from a hazard and (2) insurance to indemnify them from any losses should they occur. On the basis of this design, we find strong evidence in support of the expected utility theory. Many of the findings reinforce

  10. Bi-Directional Relationship Between Self-Regulation and Improved Eating: Temporal Associations With Exercise, Reduced Fatigue, and Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Severely obese men and women (body mass index ≥ 35 ≤ 55 kg/m(2); M(age) = 44.8 years, SD = 9.3) were randomly assigned to a 6-month physical activity support treatment paired with either nutrition education (n = 83) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 82) methods for weight loss. Both groups had significant improvements in physical activity, fatigue, self-regulation for eating, and fruit and vegetable intake. Compared to those in the nutrition education group, participants in the behavioral group demonstrated greater overall increases in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity. These group differences were associated with changes that occurred after Month 3. Increased physical activity predicted reduced fatigue, β = -.19, p =.01. A reciprocal relationship between the mediators of that relationship, which were changes in self-regulation and fruit and vegetable intake, was identified. There was significantly greater weight loss over six months in the behavioral nutrition group when contrasted with the nutrition education group. Self-regulation for eating and fruit and vegetable intake were significant predictors of weight loss over both three and six months. Findings enabled a better understanding of psychosocial effects on temporal aspects of weight loss and may lead to more effective behavioral treatments for weight loss.

  11. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Sabine; Zittermann, Armin; Berthold, Heiner K; Götting, Christian; Kuhn, Joachim; Kleesiek, Knut; Stehle, Peter; Körtke, Heinrich

    2009-07-18

    We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and Bluetooth technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg) in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg) in the low-fat group (p = 0.065). In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005-0.037). Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387.

  12. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a telemedically guided weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehle Peter

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated whether macronutrient composition of energy-restricted diets influences the efficacy of a telemedically guided weight loss program. Methods Two hundred overweight subjects were randomly assigned to a conventional low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet group (target carbohydrate content: >55% energy and ® technology by mobile phone. Various fatness and fat distribution parameters, energy and macronutrient intake, and various biochemical risk markers were measured at baseline and after 6, and 12 months. Results In both groups, energy intake decreased by 400 kcal/d compared to baseline values within the first 6 months and slightly increased again within the second 6 months. Macronutrient composition differed significantly between the groups from the beginning to month 12. At study termination, weight loss was 5.8 kg (SD: 6.1 kg in the low-carbohydrate group and 4.3 kg (SD: 5.1 kg in the low-fat group (p = 0.065. In the low-carbohydrate group, triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were lower at month 6 and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure were lower at month 12 compared with the low-fat group (P = 0.005–0.037. Other risk markers improved to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion Despite favourable effects of both diets on weight loss, the carbohydrate-reduced diet was more beneficial with respect to cardiovascular risk factors compared to the fat-reduced diet. Nevertheless, compliance with a weight loss program appears to be even a more important factor for success in prevention and treatment of obesity than the composition of the diet. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00868387

  13. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatterer, Hannes; Schenk, Kai; Laninschegg, Lisa; Schlemmer, Philipp; Lukaski, Henry; Burtscher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI) is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower. Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H): 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg) exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG) in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity), then had a cold shower (15 min). Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again. Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (pcold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R) indicated greater Posm increase.

  14. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sérgio M; Almendinger, Johann; Cabello, Juan; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  15. Loss of Acetylcholine Signaling Reduces Cell Clearance Deficiencies in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M Pinto

    Full Text Available The ability to eliminate undesired cells by apoptosis is a key mechanism to maintain organismal health and homeostasis. Failure to clear apoptotic cells efficiently can cause autoimmune diseases in mammals. Genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have greatly helped to decipher the regulation of apoptotic cell clearance. In this study, we show that the loss of levamisole-sensitive acetylcholine receptor, but not of a typical neuronal acetylcholine receptor causes a reduction in the number of persistent cell corpses in worms suffering from an engulfment deficiency. This reduction is not caused by impaired or delayed cell death but rather by a partial restoration of the cell clearance capacity. Mutants in acetylcholine turn-over elicit a similar phenotype, implying that acetylcholine signaling is the process responsible for these observations. Surprisingly, tissue specific RNAi suggests that UNC-38, a major component of the levamisole-sensitive receptor, functions in the dying germ cell to influence engulfment efficiency. Animals with loss of acetylcholine receptor exhibit a higher fraction of cell corpses positive for the "eat-me" signal phosphatidylserine. Our results suggest that modulation by ion channels of ion flow across plasma membrane in dying cells can influence the dynamics of phosphatidylserine exposure and thus clearance efficiency.

  16. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Mary C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC or reduced fat (RF weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Methods Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of ~2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30% intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Results Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p > 0.05. The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p p > 0.05. Conclusion Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  17. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham [Purdue University; Jiang, Zheyu [Purdue University; Tawarmalani, Mohit [Purdue University; Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue University

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  18. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  19. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  20. An ABA-mimicking ligand that reduces water loss and promotes drought resistance in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjie Cao; Xue Liu; Yan Zhang; Xiaoqian Xue; X Edward Zhou; Karsten Melcher; Pan Gao

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses.ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors,resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling.It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought,cold and soil salinity.However,chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application ofABA itseif.Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors.In Arabidopsis,AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA.Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination,prevent leaf water loss,and promote drought resistance.We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C,which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latchlock interacting network,a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex.Together,these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress.Moreover,the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules.

  1. Antifibrinolytic agents reduce blood loss during pediatric vertebral column resection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Peter O; Bastrom, Tracey P; Emans, John B; Shah, Suken A; Shufflebarger, Harry L; Sponseller, Paul D; Sucato, Daniel J; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2012-11-01

    Retrospective multicenter review. To evaluate the effect of intraoperative antifibrinolytic (AF) agents on blood loss associated with vertebral column resection (VCR) procedures for pediatric patients. VCR procedures may be associated with substantial blood loss. A multicenter review of 147 patients (aged EBL) was calculated as percentage of blood volume (BV) (EBL/BV × 100), which was normalized on the basis of the number of vertebral levels removed (%BV/level). The use of AF agents was noted (tranexamic acid [TXA], aminocaproic acid, aprotinin, none) and based on surgeons' choice. EBL was compared using analysis of covariance (controlling for deformity magnitude) (P EBL averaged 1317 mL (range, 50-6026 mL). Eleven patients were excluded: 7 with incomplete data and 4 who received aminocaproic acid (too few to compare). This resulted in 136 cases; 64 with no AF, 42 received TXA, and 30 received aprotinin. Overall %BV/level EBL was 41% ± 39% (range, 6%-162%) and was significantly higher in the no-AF group (52% ± 37%) than the TXA (30% ± 34%; P EBL associated with VCR was highly variable and in many cases exceeded the patient's BV. AF agents were not routinely used and we had insufficient data to assess the efficacy of aminocaproic acid. Both aprotinin and TXA resulted in less EBL than when no AF was used; however, the effect of the reduction varied by site. Aprotinin has since been removed from the market. When normalized to patient size and levels excised, the use of TXA resulted in a reduction in intraoperative EBL.

  2. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality. © 2015 World Obesity.

  3. Effectiveness of biological geotextiles in reducing runoff and soil loss under different environmental conditions using laboratory and field plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, T.

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary investigations suggest biological geotextiles could be an effective and inexpensive soil conservation method, with enormous global potential. Biological geotextiles are a possible temporary alternative for vegetation cover and can offer immediate soil protection. However, limited data are available on the erosion-reducing effects of biological geotextiles. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of selected types of biological geotextile in reducing runoff and soil loss under controlled laboratory conditions and under field conditions reflecting different environments (i.e. continental, temperate and tropical). In laboratory experiments, interrill runoff, interrill erosion and concentrated flow erosion were simulated using various rainfall intensities, flow shear stresses and slope gradients. Field plot data on the effects of biological geotextiles on sheet and rill erosion were collected in several countries under natural rainfall (U.K., Hungary, Lithuania, South Africa, Brazil, China and Thailand). The laboratory experiments indicate that all tested biological geotextiles were effective in reducing interrill runoff (on average 59% of the value for bare soil) and interrill erosion rates (on average 16% of the value for bare soil). Since simulated concentrated flow discharge sometimes flowed below the geotextiles, the effectiveness in reducing concentrated flow erosion was significantly less (on average 59% of the value for bare soil). On field plots, where both interrill and rill erosion occur, all tested geotextiles reduced runoff depth by a mean of 54% of the control value for bare soil and in some cases, runoff depth increased compared to bare soil surfaces, which can be attributed to the impermeable and hydrophobic characteristics of some biological geotextiles. In the field, soil loss rates due to interrill and rill erosion were reduced by a mean of 21% of the value of bare soil by biological geotextiles. This study

  4. Hydroxyethyl Starch Reduces Coagulation Competence and Increases Blood Loss During Major Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    to frequency of reoperations or the length of hospital stay, but use of HES 130/0.4 was both more expensive and less efficacious than the use of lactated Ringer. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of HES 130/0.4 reduced clot strength and perioperative hemorrhage increased by more than 50%, while administration...

  5. Reducing herbicides and veterinary antibiotics losses from agroecosystems using vegetative buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Ho; Lerch, Robert N; Goyne, Keith W; Garrett, Harold E

    2011-01-01

    Multiple species vegetative buffer strips (VBSs) have been recommended as a cost-effective approach to mitigate agrochemical transport in surface runoff derived from agronomic operations, while at the same time offering a broader range of long-term ecological and environmental benefits. However, the effect of VBS designs and species composition on reducing herbicide and veterinary antibiotic transport has not been well documented. An experiment consisting of three VBS designs and one continuous cultivated fallow control replicated in triplicate was conducted to assess effectiveness in reducing herbicide and antibiotic transport for claypan soils. The three VBS designs include (i) tall fescue, (ii) tall fescue with a switchgrass hedge barrier, and (iii) native vegetation (largely eastern gamagrass). Rainfall simulation was used to create uniform antecedent soil moisture content in the plots and to generate runoff. Our results suggested that all VBS significantly reduced the transport of dissolved and sediment-bound atrazine, metolachlor, and glyphosate in surface runoff by 58 to 72%. Four to 8 m of any tested VBS reduced dissolved sulfamethazine transport in the surface runoff by more than 70%. The tall fescue VBS was overall most effective at reducing dissolved tylosin and enrofloxacin transport in the runoff (>75%). The developed exponential regression models can be used to predict expected field-scale results and provide design criteria for effective field implementation of grass buffers. Our study has demonstrated that an optimized VBS design may achieve desired agrochemical reductions and minimize acreage removed from crop production. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  6. Numerical analysis of Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla heat-treatment: A dynamically detecting method of mass loss during the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijian; Ma, Qing; Mu, Jun; Yi, Songlin; He, Zhengbin

    Eucalyptus particles, lamellas and boards were applied to explore a simply-implemented method with neglected heat and mass transfer to inspect the mass loss during the heat-treatment course. The results revealed that the mass loss of a certain period was theoretically the definite integration of loss rate to time in this period, and a monitoring model for mass loss speed was developed with the particles and validated with the lamellas and boards. The loss rate was correlated to the temperature and temperature-evolving speed in the model which was composed of three functions during different temperature-evolving period. The sample mass loss was calculated in the MATLAB for the lamellas and boards and the model was validated and adjusted based on the difference between the computed results and the practically measured loss values. The error ranges of the new models were -16.30% to 18.35% for wood lamellas and -9.86% to 6.80% for wood boards. This method made it possible to acquire the instantaneous loss value through continuously detecting the wood temperature evolution. This idea could provide a reference for the Eucalyptus heat-treatment to detect the treating course and control the final material characteristics.

  7. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  8. Response of four foliage plants to heated soil and reduced air temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnaruk, W.H. Jr.; Mills, T.W.; Ingram, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Tip cuttings of Dieffenbachia maculata (Lodd.) G. Donn Exotic Perfection Compacta' and Aglaonema commutatum Schott Silver Queen and single eye cuttings of Epipremnum aureum (Linden and Andre) Bunt, and Philodendron scandens oxycardium (Schott) Bunt. were propagated in combinations of 4 minimum air temperatures, 45/sup 0/, 50/sup 0/, 55/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/F (7.2/sup 0/, 10/sup 0/, 12.7/sup 0/, 15.5/sup 0/C), and 2 soil temperature treatments; controlled 70/sup 0/F (21/sup 0/C) minimum and variable. Maintaining minimum soil temperatures at 70/sup 0/F reduced production times for rooted Dieffenbachia and Aglaonema tips by 45% and of Epipremnum and Philodendron suitable for 3 inch pots by 35% and 25%, respectively, regardless of minimum air temperature. Minimum air temperature had little effect on Dieffenbachia or Aglaonema root number and length at 70/sup 0/F soil temperature. Similarly shoot length and number of leaves of Philodendron and Epipremnum were not affected by minimum air temperatures with 70/sup 0/F soil temperature. Plant quality was uniformly high in all crops at the 70/sup 0/F soil minimum for all air temperatures except Epipremnum which was chlorotic at 45/sup 0/F. A description of a warm water in-benching heating system is included. 6 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Reduced energy consumption by massive thermoelectric waste heat recovery in light duty trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetto, D.; Vidiella, G.

    2012-06-01

    The main objective of the EC funded HEATRECAR project is to reduce the energy consumption and curb CO2 emissions of vehicles by massively harvesting electrical energy from the exhaust system and re-use this energy to supply electrical components within the vehicle or to feed the power train of hybrid electrical vehicles. HEATRECAR is targeting light duty trucks and focuses on the development and the optimization of a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) including heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and DC/DC converter. The main objective of the project is to design, optimize and produce a prototype system to be tested on a 2.3l diesel truck. The base case is a Thermo Electric Generator (TEG) producing 1 KWel at 130 km/h. We present the system design and estimated output power from benchmark Bi2Te3 modules. We discuss key drivers for the optimization of the thermal-to-electric efficiency, such as materials, thermo-mechanical aspects and integration.

  10. Quantitative trait loci for energy balance traits in an advanced intercross line derived from mice divergently selected for heat loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J. Leamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in human populations, currently a serious health concern, is considered to be the consequence of an energy imbalance in which more energy in calories is consumed than is expended. We used interval mapping techniques to investigate the genetic basis of a number of energy balance traits in an F11 advanced intercross population of mice created from an original intercross of lines selected for increased and decreased heat loss. We uncovered a total of 137 quantitative trait loci (QTLs for these traits at 41 unique sites on 18 of the 20 chromosomes in the mouse genome, with X-linked QTLs being most prevalent. Two QTLs were found for the selection target of heat loss, one on distal chromosome 1 and another on proximal chromosome 2. The number of QTLs affecting the various traits generally was consistent with previous estimates of heritabilities in the same population, with the most found for two bone mineral traits and the least for feed intake and several body composition traits. QTLs were generally additive in their effects, and some, especially those affecting the body weight traits, were sex-specific. Pleiotropy was extensive within trait groups (body weights, adiposity and organ weight traits, bone traits and especially between body composition traits adjusted and not adjusted for body weight at sacrifice. Nine QTLs were found for one or more of the adiposity traits, five of which appeared to be unique. The confidence intervals among all QTLs averaged 13.3 Mb, much smaller than usually observed in an F2 cross, and in some cases this allowed us to make reasonable inferences about candidate genes underlying these QTLs. This study combined QTL mapping with genetic parameter analysis in a large segregating population, and has advanced our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex traits related to obesity.

  11. A framework for assessing technology and management options to reduce water losses.

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Tim M.; Knox, Jerry W.

    2013-01-01

    Water saving in agriculture often refers to reducing the amount of water abstracted or diverted and used for different purposes. However, this is not the only option: reductions in water use can also be achieved by using appropriate techniques for irrigation, applying relevant management practices, using water from alternative sources or influencing behaviour – for example, via awareness-raising, dissemination of best practices, regulation, water pricing and/or the use of financial incentives...

  12. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages

    KAUST Repository

    Baran, D.

    2016-11-09

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  13. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-09-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment.

  14. Long-term incorporation of manure with chemical fertilizers reduced total nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yinghua; Xu, Minggang; Gao, Suduan; Liu, Hua; Huang, Shaomin; Wang, Boren

    2016-01-01

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization are essential for sustainable agriculture. Quantifying the contribution of various fertilization regimes to soil N storage and loss has been lacking in a wide range of spatiotemporal scales. Based on data collected from field experiments at three typical agricultural zones in China, soil N dynamics and N changes in soil profile (0–100 cm) were examined during 1990–2009 under chemical fertilization, manure incorporation with fertilizer, and fertilizer with straw return treatments. We employed a mass balance approach to estimate the N loss to the environment after taking into account soil N change. Results showed a significant increase in soil N storage under manure incorporation treatments, accompanied with the lowest N loss (ave.20–24% of total N input) compared to all other treatments (ave.35–63%). Both soil N distribution and mass balance data suggested higher leaching risk from chemical fertilization in acidic soil of southern China with higher precipitation than the other two sites. This research concludes that manure incorporation with chemical fertilizer not only can achieve high N use efficiency and improve soil fertility, but also leads to the lowest total N loss or damage to the environment. PMID:27650801

  15. Reduced voltage losses yield 10% efficient fullerene free organic solar cells with >1 V open circuit voltages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, D; Kirchartz, T; Wheeler, S; Dimitrov, S; Abdelsamie, M; Gorman, J; Ashraf, R S; Holliday, S; Wadsworth, A; Gasparini, N; Kaienburg, P; Yan, H; Amassian, A; Brabec, C J; Durrant, J R; McCulloch, I

    2016-12-01

    Optimization of the energy levels at the donor-acceptor interface of organic solar cells has driven their efficiencies to above 10%. However, further improvements towards efficiencies comparable with inorganic solar cells remain challenging because of high recombination losses, which empirically limit the open-circuit voltage (Voc) to typically less than 1 V. Here we show that this empirical limit can be overcome using non-fullerene acceptors blended with the low band gap polymer PffBT4T-2DT leading to efficiencies approaching 10% (9.95%). We achieve Voc up to 1.12 V, which corresponds to a loss of only Eg/q - Voc = 0.5 ± 0.01 V between the optical bandgap Eg of the polymer and Voc. This high Voc is shown to be associated with the achievement of remarkably low non-geminate and non-radiative recombination losses in these devices. Suppression of non-radiative recombination implies high external electroluminescence quantum efficiencies which are orders of magnitude higher than those of equivalent devices employing fullerene acceptors. Using the balance between reduced recombination losses and good photocurrent generation efficiencies achieved experimentally as a baseline for simulations of the efficiency potential of organic solar cells, we estimate that efficiencies of up to 20% are achievable if band gaps and fill factors are further optimized.

  16. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation and to st......Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation...... by a questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......, smoking cessation was associated with the duration of the periods of unemployment (ranging from 1–5 years (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.85) to 10–23 years (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.38)) and with living without a partner for >5 years (ranging from 6–9 years to 10–23 years (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.97) to 10...

  17. MS-20, a chemotherapeutical adjuvant, reduces chemo-associated fatigue and appetite loss in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Li, Chung-Pin; Chen, Sheng-Yu; Chao, Yee

    2014-01-01

    A small pilot study of the fermented soybean extract MicrSoy-20(MS-20) demonstrated its ability to restore chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression and improve quality of life (QoL). This randomized, cross-over, comparative trial was conducted to confirm the effects of MS-20 on QoL and to understand its underlying mechanism when used in conjunction with chemotherapy. One hundred forty-three patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Group 1 was administered MS-20 for 1 wk followed by 3 wk of concomitant MS-20 plus chemotherapy. Group 2 was administered chemotherapy for 3 wk. QoL was assessed by the EORTC/QLQ-C30 questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS). Changes in immunological parameters and antioxidant profiles were also examined. Significant increases were observed in EORTC/QLQ-C30 scores for physical (4.45, P = 0.023) and social (3.99, P = 0.023) functioning in Group 1 patients compared to Group 2 patients. VAS scores for fatigue and appetite loss significantly improved with MS-20 treatment (P MS-20 as an adjuvant to chemotherapy can be effective in improving QoL for cancer patients.

  18. A study of coating mechanical and optical losses in view of reducing mirror thermal noise in gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Michel, C; Morgado, N; Pinard, L; Sassolas, B, E-mail: flaminio@lma.in2p3.f [Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, CNRS/IN2P3, 7 Avenue Pierre de Coubertin, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2010-04-21

    Mirror coatings play a crucial role in the performance of laser interferometers devoted to gravitational wave detection such as Virgo and LIGO. Mechanical losses in the coating material limit the sensitivity of the detectors due to the associated mirror thermal noise. The absorption of light in the coating induces a thermal lens in the mirror substrate which reduces the quality of the optical interference and requires sophisticated thermal compensation systems. This paper describes the work ongoing at LMA in order to reduce mechanical losses and optical absorption in the coating. The results obtained by doping Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers and testing different high-index materials are described. Finally the performances of different potential coatings are compared and the results obtained with a 40 kg mirror are reported. Titania doped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} shows mechanical losses of 2 x 10{sup -4} and absorption below 0.5 ppm. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} appears to be the best competitor from the thermal noise point of view but it has an optical absorption four to five times larger.

  19. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer`s disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soricelli, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Postiglione, A. [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy); Grivet-Fojaja, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Mainenti, P.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Discepolo, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Varrone, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Salvatore, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Lassen, N.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine/Clinical Physiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-10-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABA{sub A} receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (V{sub d}) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer`s disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured V{sub d} in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex V{sub d} was significantly (P<0.02) reduced: Temporal V{sub d} averaged 69 ml/ml in normals and 51 ml/ml in AD, and parietal V{sub d} averaged 71 ml/ml in normals and 48 ml/ml in AD. These results accord well with emission tomographic studies of blood flow or labelled glucose. This supports the idea that while only measuring a subpopulation of synapses, the IMZ method reflects synaptic loss and hence functional loss in AD. The method constitutes an in vivo version of synaptic quantitation that in histopathological studies has been shown to correlated closely with the mental deterioration in AD. (orig.)

  20. Shifts of heat availability and stressful temperatures in Russian Federation result in gains and losses of wheat thermal suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Caporaso, Luca; Santini, Monia; Di Paola, Francesco; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes are likely to shift the suitability of lands devoted to cropping systems. We explored the past-to-future thermal suitability of Russian Federation for wheat (Triticum aestivum) culture through an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5-GCMs outputs considering two representative concentration pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Thermal suitability assesses where wheat heat requirement, counted from suggested sowing dates, is satisfied without the occurrence of stressful hot and frost temperatures. Thermal requirement was estimated by means of phenological observations on soft wheat involving different wheat cultivar collected in different regions of Russian Federation, Azerbaidhan, Kazakhstan and Tadzhikistan, whilst stressful temperatures were taken from a literature survey. Results showed projected geographical shift of heat resource toward the north-eastern regions, currently mainly covered by forests and croplands, but also an increase of very hot temperatures in the most productive areas of the southern regions. Gains and losses were then quantified and discussed from both agronomical and climatic perspective.

  1. Compact High Efficiency Adsorption Heat Pump

    OpenAIRE

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Sweeney, Josh B

    2012-01-01

    An innovative adsorption cycle heat pump technology is presented that is compact and capable of achieving high energy efficiency for integrated space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. High energy efficiency is accomplished by effectively recuperating heat within the system to minimize energy consumption. This substantially reduces the thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. Furthermore, equipment cost is reduc...

  2. Down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Lin; Fu, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Min-Yan; Li, Hui-Xia

    2016-09-01

    Heat stress can weaken the immune system and even increase livestock's susceptibility to disease. MicroRNA (miR) is short non-coding RNA that functions in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and some phenotypes. Our recent study found that miR-181a is highly expressed in the serum of heat-stressed Holstein cows, but the potential function of miR-181a is still not clarified. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated from Holstein cows' peripheral blood, were used to investigate the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on heat stress damage. Our results showed that significant apoptosis and oxidative damage were induced by heat stress in PBMCs. However, with apoptosis, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced, while the content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were increased even under heat stress conditions after transfecting miR-181a inhibitors to PBMCs. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of bax and caspase-3 was significantly decreased, but mRNA expression of bcl-2 was increased in transfected PBMCs. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that down-regulation of miR-181a can reduce heat stress damage in PBMCs of Holstein cows.

  3. MASS LOSS OF FOUR COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HEAT-POLYMERIZED ACRYLIC RESINS AFTER TOOTHBRUSHING WITH THREE DIFFERENT DENTIFRICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas-Pontes, Karina M.; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia H.; Paranhos, Helena F. O.

    2009-01-01

    The association between a toothbrush and a dentifrice is the most used denture cleaning method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasiveness of specific and non-specific denture cleaning dentifrices on different heat-polymerized acrylic resins. Sixteen specimens (90x30x3mm) of each acrylic resin (QC-20, Lucitone 550, Clássico, Vipi-Cril) were prepared and randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1: control (distilled water), 2: Colgate, 3: Bonyplus and 4: Dentu-Creme. The specimens were subjected to simulated toothbrushing in an automatic brushing machine using 35,600 brush strokes for each specimen. Brushing abrasion run at a 200-g load with the specimens immersed in 2:1 dentifrice/water slurry. Specimens were reconditioned to constant mass and the mass loss (mg) was evaluated. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Analysis of dentifrices' abrasive particles was made by scanning electron microscopy. Colgate produced the greatest mass reduction (42.44 mg, p0.05). The mass loss values indicated that QC-20 (33.13 mg) and Lucitone 550 (33.05 mg) resins were less (pdentifrices for dentures tend to cause less damage to acrylic resins.

  4. Mass loss of four commercially available heat-polymerized acrylic resins after toothbrushing with three different dentifrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Freitas-Pontes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between a toothbrush and a dentifrice is the most used denture cleaning method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasiveness of specific and non-specific denture cleaning dentifrices on different heat-polymerized acrylic resins. Sixteen specimens (90x30x3mm of each acrylic resin (QC-20, Lucitone 550, Clássico, Vipi-Cril were prepared and randomly assigned to 4 groups: 1: control (distilled water, 2: Colgate, 3: Bonyplus and 4: Dentu-Creme. The specimens were subjected to simulated toothbrushing in an automatic brushing machine using 35,600 brush strokes for each specimen. Brushing abrasion run at a 200-g load with the specimens immersed in 2:1 dentifrice/water slurry. Specimens were reconditioned to constant mass and the mass loss (mg was evaluated. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05. Analysis of dentifrices' abrasive particles was made by scanning electron microscopy. Colgate produced the greatest mass reduction (42.44 mg, p0.05. The mass loss values indicated that QC-20 (33.13 mg and Lucitone 550 (33.05 mg resins were less (p<0.05 resistant to abrasion than Clássico (26.04 mg and Vipi-Cril (23.43 mg. In conclusion, Colgate produced the greatest abrasion. Specific dentifrices for dentures tend to cause less damage to acrylic resins.

  5. Studies of Two-Phase Flow Dynamics and Heat Transfer at Reduced Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Larry C.; Bousman, W. Scott; Fore, Larry B.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to predict gas-liquid flow patterns is crucial to the design and operation of two-phase flow systems in the microgravity environment. Flow pattern maps have been developed in this study which show the occurrence of flow patterns as a function of gas and liquid superficial velocities as well as tube diameter, liquid viscosity and surface tension. The results have demonstrated that the location of the bubble-slug transition is affected by the tube diameter for air-water systems and by surface tension, suggesting that turbulence-induced bubble fluctuations and coalescence mechanisms play a role in this transition. The location of the slug-annular transition on the flow pattern maps is largely unaffected by tube diameter, liquid viscosity or surface tension in the ranges tested. Void fraction-based transition criteria were developed which separate the flow patterns on the flow pattern maps with reasonable accuracy. Weber number transition criteria also show promise but further work is needed to improve these models. For annular gas-liquid flows of air-water and air- 50 percent glycerine under reduced gravity conditions, the pressure gradient agrees fairly well with a version of the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation but the measured film thickness deviates from published correlations at lower Reynolds numbers. Nusselt numbers, based on a film thickness obtained from standard normal-gravity correlations, follow the relation, Nu = A Re(sup n) Pr(exp l/3), but more experimental data in a reduced gravity environment are needed to increase the confidence in the estimated constants, A and n. In the slug flow regime, experimental pressure gradient does not correlate well with either the Lockhart-Martinelli or a homogeneous formulation, but does correlate nicely with a formulation based on a two-phase Reynolds number. Comparison with ground-based correlations implies that the heat transfer coefficients are lower at reduced gravity than at normal gravity under the same

  6. Esmolol is more effective than sodium nitroprusside in reducing blood loss during orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, W S; Kafer, E R; Anderson, J A

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of esmolol and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as primary drugs for producing controlled hypotension and limiting blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Thirty ASA physical status I and II patients (mean age 22 yr) undergoing LeFort I maxillary osteotomies were randomly assigned to receive either esmolol (n = 15) or SNP (n = 15) as the primary drug to induce hypotension. All patients received a balanced anesthetic technique including isoflurane, with controlled hypotension during the downfracture of the maxilla. Patients assigned to the esmolol treatment group received boluses of 500 micrograms/kg of esmolol, followed by a continuous infusion of 100-300 micrograms.kg-1.min-1, and the SNP treatment group received a continuous infusion of SNP at 0.25-4.00 micrograms.kg-1.min-1; both infusions were titrated to obtain a mean arterial blood pressure within the target range of 55-65 mm Hg. The mean arterial blood pressure during the hypotensive period was 58.7 +/- 0.7 (mean +/- SEM) and 61.8 +/- 0.4 mm Hg for esmolol and SNP, respectively (P less than 0.001). In addition, 40% +/- 4% of the observed values in the esmolol group and 53% +/- 3% in the SNP group were outside the target range for mean arterial blood pressure (difference significant at P less than 0.05), and a greater proportion of the deviations were above 65 mm Hg in the SNP group than in the esmolol group (0.64 vs 0.46, respectively, P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Loss of SynDIG1 Reduces Excitatory Synapse Maturation But Not Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Inderpreet; Liu, Xiao-Bo; Kirk, Lyndsey M.; Speca, David J.; McMahon, Samuel A.; Zito, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Modification of the strength of excitatory synaptic connections is a fundamental mechanism by which neural circuits are refined during development and learning. Synapse Differentiation Induced Gene 1 (SynDIG1) has been shown to play a key role in regulating synaptic strength in vitro. Here, we investigated the role of SynDIG1 in vivo in mice with a disruption of the SynDIG1 gene rather than use an alternate loxP-flanked conditional mutant that we find retains a partial protein product. The gene-trap insertion with a reporter cassette mutant mice shows that the SynDIG1 promoter is active during embryogenesis in the retina with some activity in the brain, and postnatally in the mouse hippocampus, cortex, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Ultrastructural analysis of the hippocampal CA1 region shows a decrease in the average PSD length of synapses and a decrease in the number of synapses with a mature phenotype. Intriguingly, the total synapse number appears to be increased in SynDIG1 mutant mice. Electrophysiological analyses show a decrease in AMPA and NMDA receptor function in SynDIG1-deficient hippocampal neurons. Glutamate stimulation of individual dendritic spines in hippocampal slices from SynDIG1-deficient mice reveals increased short-term structural plasticity. Notably, the overall levels of PSD-95 or glutamate receptors enriched in postsynaptic biochemical fractions remain unaltered; however, activity-dependent synapse development is strongly compromised upon the loss of SynDIG1, supporting its importance for excitatory synapse maturation. Together, these data are consistent with a model in which SynDIG1 regulates the maturation of excitatory synapse structure and function in the mouse hippocampus in vivo.

  8. Amorphous TiO2-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures for polymer composites with low dielectric loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wangshu; Zhang, Yihe; Yu, Li; Lv, Fengzhu; Liu, Leipeng; Zhang, Qian; An, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Nanocomposite of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) incorporated with titanium dioxide-modified reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO-TiO2/PVDF-HFP) was prepared by in situ assembling TiO2 on graphene oxide (GO), and its dielectric properties were carefully characterized. The GO layers were completely coated with amorphous TiO2. The dielectric permittivity increased stably as rGO-TiO2 content increased, and the loss was low at low frequencies. TiO2 inter-layer acted as an inter-particle barrier to prevent direct contact of rGO, which provided a new simple way for tuning the dielectric properties of polymer composites with low dielectric loss by controlling the structure of fillers.

  9. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Viviam de Oliveira; Lobato, Raquel Vieira; Andrade, Eric Francelino; de Macedo, Cristina Gomes; Napimoga, Juliana Trindade Clemente; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Messora, Michel Reis; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça; Pereira, Luciano José

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p periodontal disease (p periodontal disease (p periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease.

  10. β-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae on the metabolic profile, expression of gingival inflammatory markers and amount of alveolar bone loss in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 48 Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). After confirming the diabetes diagnosis, the animals were treated with β-glucans (by gavage) for 28 days. On the 14th day of this period, periodontal disease was induced using a ligature protocol. β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p diabetic animals, both with and without periodontal disease (p diabetes and periodontal disease (p periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease. PMID:26291983

  11. Efficient use of health care resources: the interaction between improved health and reduced health related income loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Cost effectiveness is a criterion that is often recommended for prioritizing between different types of health care. A modified use of this criterion can be justified as the outcome of a choice that is made "behind a veil of ignorance." Reduced health will in many cases also gives an income loss that is shared between the patient and society ar large. In the special case where the marginal utilities of health status (measured by QALYs) and income are independent of the health state, an efficient allocation of health resources is characterized by net marginal costs per QALY being equalized across different types of health care. Net marginal costs are equal to gross marginal costs minus the reduction in health related income losses due to treatment. In the general case where marginal utilities depend on the health state this rule must be modified.

  12. Role of Local Infiltration of Tranexamic Acid in Reducing Blood Loss in Peritrochanteric Fracture Surgery in the Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virani SR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peritrochanteric fractures are common injuries occurring in elderly patients. Surgeries for these fractures are associated with significant blood loss. Intravenous tranexamic acid has a proven track record in many orthopaedic surgeries including trauma, arthroplasty and spine surgeries. Objective: To study the effect of local subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss and the requirement for blood transfusion in intertrochanteric fracture surgery. Study Design: Single centre prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients above 65 years of age were included in the study, divided into two groups: the intervention group received subfascial and intramuscular infiltration of 2g tranexamic acid before wound closure and the control group of alternate patients did not receive any tranexamic acid infiltration. The postoperative drain output was recorded, as well as the haemoglobin level and the patients needing blood transfusion. Results and Conclusions: The preoperative and postoperative haemoglobin values were recorded. The mean preoperative haemoglobin was 10.9% and 10.8% (p=0.79 in the trial and control groups respectively. The mean postoperative haemoglobin was 9.5gm% and 9.2gm% (p=0.36 in the two groups. The total postoperative blood loss in the tranexamic acid group and the control group was 190.3ml and 204.3ml respectively (p=0.25. Ten patients (14.9% in the intervention group and 12 patients (17.1% in the control group required blood transfusion. We conclude that tranexamic acid does not play a significant role in reducing postoperative blood loss and blood transfusion when used locally in peritochanteric fracture surgery. However a larger double blinded study comparing various modalities of use of tranexamic acid is needed to conclusively establish its role.

  13. A new topical hemostatic agent TT-173 reduces blood loss in a sheep model of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Alberto; Rojas, Santiago; Arias, Belén; Miquel, Ignasi; Sánchez, Pilar; Ureta, Claudia; Rincón, Esther; López, Ramón; Murat, Jesús

    2017-08-30

    Total knee arthroplasty is associated with blood loss during the intervention and may require allogenic blood transfusion. Treatments such as tranexamic acid and fibrin sealants improved the bleeding control in several clinical trials, but the hemorrhage associated with the intervention is still significant. Thus far, very few studies have evaluated hemostatic treatments in animal models of total knee arthroplasty. This work describes a sheep model of bleeding associated with total knee arthroplasty and investigates a new class of hemostatic treatment based on recombinant tissue factor. Sheep were treated with the anticoagulant heparin, and the joint was accessed by a paramedial incision. Ligaments and menisci were eliminated and femoral condyles and tibia plateau were sectioned exposing the trabecular bone. An intra-articular drain was used to recover and quantify the blood loss during the 90-min period after treatment. The efficacy of one milligram and three milligrams of TT-173 was evaluated and compared with tranexamic acid. The occurrence of analytical alterations and systemic absorption was also investigated. Treatment with TT-173 reduced the blood loss in comparison with control or tranexamic acid. No significant differences were observed between the two doses evaluated. Moreover, a dose of six milligrams of TT-173 did not induce any clinical or analytical alteration, and significant systemic absorption was not observed. Data obtained strongly suggest that TT-173 could be useful in reducing the blood loss associated with total knee arthroplasty and without safety concerns derived from the systemic absorption of the product. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss during and after cesarean section:A double blinded, randomized, controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr H Yehia; Magdy H Koleib; Ibrahim A Abdelazim; Ahmed Atik

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid in reduction of blood loss during and after cesarean section.Methods:Women included in the current double blinded, randomized, controlled trial were recruited from women attending for elective cesarean section and randomized into two groups; study group: received tranexamic acid with induction of anesthesia plus10IU of oxytocin injection after delivery of the baby.Control group: received only oxytocin 10IU injection after delivery of the baby.Results:Twenty four hours post-operative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in study group(11.2±1.5 mg/dL) compared to control(9.6±1.2 mg/dL), also24 hours post-operative hematocrit was significantly higher in study group(30.2±6.6) compared to control(29.2±2.8).Calculated total blood loss from placental delivery till end of cesarean section was significantly less in study group compared to control(369.5±198.0 versus606.8±193.0 mL; respectively), also, calculated vaginal bleeding during first6 hours post-operative was significantly less in study group compared to control(85.0±30.7 mL versus130.8±49.3 mL, respectively).The incidence of post-partum hemorrhage was significantly less in study group compared to control(31.1% versus63.2%; respectively), also the need for iron replacement therapy was significantly less frequent in study group compared to control(0.9% versus6.6%, respectively). Conclusions:Tranexamic acid can be used safely to reduce blood loss during cesarean section. Reduced blood loss after tranexamic acid was associated with improvement of post-operative hemoglobin, hematocrit and with reduction of post-partum need for iron replacement.

  15. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change.

  16. 槽式太阳能真空集热管的热损失研究%HEAT LOSS OF PARABOLIC TROUGH EVACUATED TUBULAR COLLECTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚广杰; 王军; 黄鑫炎; 郝梦龙; 张耀明

    2011-01-01

    建立了真空集热管中吸收管与玻璃管之间热辐射和残余气体热对流、玻璃管与外界环境之间热对流和玻璃管对天空热辐射的数学模型,提出了模型的计算方法,并通过和实验数据的比较验证了模型的准确性.同时利用模型分析了几种影响热损失的主要因素,分析结果表明:吸收管温度越高,热损失越大;环境温度越低,风速越大,热损失越大,但影响很小;选择性吸收涂层的发射率是影响热损失的主要因素;真空度对热损失也有很大影响.%Mathematical model of radiation and residual gas convection heat transfer from absorber to glass envelope, convection and radiation heat transfer from glass to ambient was established, the calculation method of the model was also proposed in this paper, and the accuracy of the model was verified by comparing with experimental results.Several major factors that can influence heat loss were analysed using this model.The results show that the heat loss is much more when the absorber temperature is higher; lower ambient temperature and higher wind speed will cause more heat loss, but not very much; the emittance of the selective coating is a key factor to heat loss; vacuum level will also influence heat loss a lot.

  17. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone loss and enhanced tendon graft to bone tunnel healing in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PPY Lui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Peri-tunnel bone loss after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction is commonly observed, both clinically and experimentally. We aimed to study the effect and mechanisms of different doses of alendronate in the reduction of peri-tunnel bone loss and promotion of graft-bone tunnel healing in ACL reconstruction. Eighty-four ACL-reconstructed rats were divided into 4 groups. Alendronate at different dosages, or saline, were injected subcutaneously weekly, for 2 or 6 weeks post-reconstruction, for vivaCT (computed tomography imaging, biomechanical tests, histology and immunohistochemistry. Alendronate significantly increased bone mass and density of tissue inside bone tunnels except at the epiphyseal region of tibial tunnel. The femoral tunnel diameter decreased significantly in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups compared to that in the saline group at week 6. Alendronate significantly increased the peri-tunnel bone mass and density along all tunnel regions at week 6. Better graft-bone tunnel integration and intra-tunnel graft integrity were observed in the alendronate groups. The ultimate load was significantly higher in the mid-dose and high-dose alendronate groups at week 2, but not at week 6. There was a reduction in matrix metalloprotein (MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells at the peri-tunnel region and graft-bone interface in the alendronate-treated group compared to the saline group. Alendronate reduced peri-tunnel bone resorption, increased mineralised tissue inside bone tunnel as well as histologically and biomechanically promoted graft-bone tunnel healing, probably by reducing the expression of MMP1, MMP13 and CD68-positive cells. Alendronate might be used for reducing peri-tunnel bone loss and promoting graft-bone tunnel healing at early stage post-ACL reconstruction.

  18. Encapsulated phosphates reduce lipid oxidation in both ground chicken and ground beef during raw and cooked meat storage with some influence on color, pH, and cooking loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, B; Simşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E

    2014-05-01

    Effects of encapsulated sodium tripolyphosphate (STP), sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) on lipid oxidation in uncooked (0, 2, 24h) and cooked (0, 1, 7 d) ground chicken and beef during storage were determined. Ten phosphate treatments included a control (no phosphate), three unencapsulated (u) at 0.5% and three encapsulated (e) phosphates (0.5%) each at a low (e-low) and high (e-high) coating level. Two heating rates (slow, fast) were investigated. Cooking loss (CL), pH, color, orthophosphate (OP), TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) were determined. A fast heating and uSTP resulted in lower CL (pphosphate incorporation, slow heating and storage (pphosphates and increased coating level reduced OP (pphosphates and the greater coating level had no effect on the pH in cooked samples. Not increased coating level but encapsulated phosphates decreased lipid oxidation in cooked samples (p<0.05).

  19. Exploring the role of forest resources in reducing community vulnerability to the heat effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z.L. Walton; N.C. Poudyal; J. Hepinstall; C. Johnson Gaither; B.B. Boley

    2015-01-01

    While the growing literature on forest ecosystem services has examined the value and significance of a range ofservices, our understanding of the health-related benefits of ecosystem services from forests is still limited. Tocharacterize the role of forest resources in reducing community vulnerability to the heat effects of climate...

  20. Reduced heating level during the end-of-year closure (from December 14, 2011 to January 4, 2012)

    CERN Multimedia

    GS/SE/HE

    2011-01-01

    To save on energy costs, the heating will once again be operating at a reduced level during the end-of-year closure of the Laboratory. We would ask all those in charge of premises where normal temperature have to be maintained to let us know by 14 December 2011 at the latest by e-mail to paul.cruz@cern.ch  

  1. Is Soaking Cows During Dry Period an Effective Management Tool to Reduce Heat Stress and Improve Pospartum Productivity?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avendaño-Reyes, L; Alvarez-Valenzuela, F. D; Correa-Calderón, A; Fadel, J. G; Robinson, P. H

    2008-01-01

    Avendaño-Reyes, L., Alvarez-Valenzuela, F.D., Correa-Calderón, A., Fadel, J.G. and Robinson, P.H. 2008. Is soaking cows during dry period an effective management tool to reduce heat stress and improve pospartum productivity...

  2. A sonic net excludes birds from an airfield: implications for reducing bird strike and crop losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddle, John P; Moseley, Dana L; Hinders, Mark K; Smith, Elizabeth P

    2016-03-01

    Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a "sonic net"), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before deployment of our sonic net, and for four weeks during deployment. We found an 82% reduction in bird presence in the sonic net area compared with change in the reference areas. This effect was as strong in the fourth week of exposure as in the first week. We also calculated the potential costs avoided resulting from this exclusion. We propose that spatially controlled acoustic manipulations that mask auditory communication for birds may be an effective long term and fairly benign way of excluding problem birds from areas of socioeconomic importance, such as airfields, agricultural sites, and commercial properties.

  3. Reducing phosphorus runoff and inhibiting ammonia loss from poultry manure with aluminum sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.A. Jr.; Daniel, T.C.; Edwards, D.R.

    2000-02-01

    Applications of aluminum sulfate (Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {center_dot} 14H{sub 2}O), commonly referred to as alum, to poultry litter have been shown to decrease P runoff from lands fertilized with litter and to inhibit NH{sub 3} volatilization. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of alum applications in commercial broiler houses on: (1) NH{sub 3} volatilization (in-house), (2) poultry production, (3) litter chemistry, and (4) P runoff following litter application. Two farms were used for this study: one had six poultry houses and the other had four. The litter in half of the houses at each farm was treated with alum; the other houses were controls. Alum was applied at a rate of 1,816 kg/house, which corresponded to 0.091 kg/bird. Each year the houses were cleaned in the spring and the litter was broadcast onto paired watersheds in tall fescue at each farm. Results from this study showed that alum applications lowered the litter pH, particularly during the first 3 to 4 wk of each growout. Reductions in litter pH resulted in less NH{sub 3} volatilization, which led to reductions in atmospheric NH{sub 3} in the alum-treated houses. Broilers grown on alum-treated litter were significantly heavier than controls (1.73 kg vs. 1.66 kg). Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in runoff from pastures fertilized with alum-treated litter averaged 73% lower than that from normal litter throughout a 3-yr period. These results indicate that alum-treatment of poultry litter is a very effective best management practice that reduces nonpoint source pollution while it increases agricultural productivity.

  4. Method for cutting steam heat losses during cyclic steam injection of wells. Second quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Midway-Sunset Field (CA) is the largest Heavy Oil field in California and steam injection methods have been successfully used for more than 30 years to produce the Heavy Oil from many of its unconsolidated sand reservoirs. In partnership with another DOE/ERIP grantee, our Company has acquired an 80 ac. lease in the SE part of this field, in order to demonstrate our respective technologies in the Monarch sand, of Miocene Age, which is one of the reservoirs targeted by the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. This reservoir contains a 13 API oil, which has a much higher market value, as a Refinery Feedstock, than the 5 to 8 API Vaca Tar, used only as road paving material. This makes it easier to justify the required investment in a vertical well equipped with two horizontal drainholes. The economic viability of such a project is likely to be enhanced if Congress approves the export to Japan of a portion of the 27 API (1% Sulfur) AK North Slope oil, which currently is landed in California in preference to lighter and sweeter Far East imported crudes. This is a major cause of the depressed prices for California Heavy Oil in local refineries, which have reduced the economic viability of all EOR methods, including steam injection, in California. Two proposals, for a Near-Term (3 y.) and for a Mid-Term (6 y.) project respectively, were jointly submitted to the DOE for Field Demonstration of the Partners` new technologies under the DOE Class 3 Oil Program. The previous design of a special casing joint for the Oxnard field well was reviewed and adapted to the use of existing Downhole Hardware components from three suppliers, instead of one. The cost of drilling and completion of a well equipped with two horizontal drainholes was re-evaluated for the conditions prevailing in the Midway Sunset field, which are more favorable than in the Oxnard field, leading to considerable reductions in drilling rig time and cost.

  5. Hydroxyethyl starch reduces coagulation competence and increases blood loss during major surgery: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Johansson, Pär I; Højskov, Michael; Kridina, Irina; Kistorp, Thomas; Thind, Peter; Nielsen, Henning B; Ruhnau, Birgitte; Pedersen, Tom; Secher, Niels H

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated whether administration of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 affects coagulation competence and influences the perioperative blood loss. Artificial colloids substitute blood volume during surgery; with the administration of HES 130/0.4 (Voluven, Fresenius Kabi, Uppsala, Sweden) only a minor effect on coagulation competence is expected. Eighty patients were scanned for enrollment in the study, and 40 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two patients withdrew their consent to participate in the study, and 5 patients were excluded. Thus, 16 patients were randomized to receive lactated Ringer's solution and 17 to receive HES 130/0.4. Among the patients receiving HES 130/0.4, thrombelastography indicated reduced clot strength (P Administration of HES 130/0.4 reduced clot strength and perioperative hemorrhage increased by more than 50%, while administration of lactated Ringer's solution provoked an approximately 2.5 times greater positive volume balance at the end of surgery.

  6. Applying theories and interventions from behavioral medicine to understand and reduce visual field variability in patients with vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Collin; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Dagnelie, Gislin; Bittner, Ava K

    2014-08-01

    Visual field (VF) test results are often unreliable in visually impaired patients, but continue to be a cornerstone of clinical trials and play a vital role in clinical decision making since they are the primary method to determine patients' functional vision loss or progression. Currently, patients are typically asked to perform VF tasks with minimal instruction or consideration of their psychological experience during the test. The gradual loss of vision due to retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or glaucoma can contribute to the experience of negative psychosocial states, such as anxiety, stress, and depression, as well as diminished quality of life. We hypothesize that VF testing elicits test performance anxiety and perception of functional losses of vision, which induces distracting negative thoughts that result in increased VF test variability. Resources for processing and responding to vision-related information may be diverted from task-relevant VF stimuli to task-irrelevant ones, such as internal worry and test anxiety, thereby resulting in VF test performance decrements. We present a theoretical model to support the hypothesis that VF variability is linked to patients' negative thoughts during VF testing. This conceptual framework provides a basis for the development of coping strategies and mindfulness-based interventions to be evaluated in future research aimed at improving psychosocial states and VF reliability in visually-impaired patients. It would be highly significant to intervene by modifying negative thoughts during VF testing to reduce test variability in glaucoma patients who are progressively losing vision to a blinding eye disease, but whose vision loss has not been accurately identified and treated early enough due to variable VF results. In clinical trials of potential interventions for RP and non-neovascular AMD, reducing VF variability would effectively increase the precision for

  7. Applying Theories and Interventions from Behavioral Medicine to Understand and Reduce Visual Field Variability in Patients with Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Collin; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Dagnelie, Gislin; Bittner, Ava K.

    2014-01-01

    Visual field (VF) test results are often unreliable in visually impaired patients, but continue to be a cornerstone of clinical trials and play a vital role in clinical decision making since they are the primary method to determine patients’ functional vision loss or progression. Currently, patients are typically asked to perform VF tasks with minimal instruction or consideration of their psychological experience during the test. The gradual loss of vision due to retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), or glaucoma can contribute to the experience of negative psychosocial states, such as anxiety, stress, and depression, as well as diminished quality of life. We hypothesize that VF testing elicits test performance anxiety and perception of functional losses of vision, which induces distracting negative thoughts that result in increased VF test variability. Resources for processing and responding to vision-related information may be diverted from task-relevant VF stimuli to task-irrelevant ones, such as internal worry and test anxiety, thereby resulting in VF test performance decrements. We present a theoretical model to support the hypothesis that VF variability is linked to patients’ negative thoughts during VF testing. This conceptual framework provides a basis for the development of coping strategies and mindfulness-based interventions to be evaluated in future research aimed at improving psychosocial states and VF reliability in visually-impaired patients. It would be highly significant to intervene by modifying negative thoughts during VF testing to reduce test variability in glaucoma patients who are progressively losing vision to a blinding eye disease, but whose vision loss has not been accurately identified and treated early enough due to variable VF results. In clinical trials of potential interventions for RP and non-neovascular AMD, reducing VF variability would effectively increase the precision

  8. Does a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing reduce intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusions in pediatric spinal deformity surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Emily M; Nandyala, Sreeharsha V; Schwend, Richard M

    2014-09-01

    Retrospective case-control study. To evaluate the hemostatic benefits of using a kaolin-impregnated dressing during pediatric spinal deformity correction surgery. Minimizing blood loss and transfusions are clear benefits for patient safety. A technique common in both severe trauma and combat medicine that has not been reported in the spine literature is wound packing with a kaolin-impregnated hemostatic dressing. Estimated blood loss and transfusion amounts were analyzed in a total of 117 retrospectively identified cases. The control group included 65 patients (46 females, 19 males, 12.7±4.5 yr, 10.2±4.8 levels fused) who received standard operative care with gauze packing between June 2007 and March 2010. The treatment group included 52 patients (33 females, 19 males, 13.9±3.2 yr, 10.4±4.3 levels fused) who underwent intraoperative packing with QuikClot Trauma Pads (QCTP, Z-Medica Corporation) for all surgical procedures from July 2010 to August 2011. No other major changes in the use of antifibrinolytics or perioperative, surgical, or anesthesia technique were noted. Statistical differences were analyzed using analysis of covariance in R with P value of less than 0.05. The statistical model included sex, age, weight, scoliosis type, the number of vertebral levels fused, and surgery duration as covariates. The treatment group had 40% less intraoperative estimated blood loss than the control group (974 mL vs. 1620 mL) (Pkaolin-impregnated intraoperative trauma pad seems to be an effective and inexpensive method to reduce intraoperative blood loss and transfusion volume in pediatric spinal deformity surgery. 3.

  9. Varying protein source and quantity do not significantly improve weight loss, fat loss, or satiety in reduced energy diets among midlife adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Noel D; Reicks, Marla M; Sibley, Shalamar D; Redmon, J Bruce; Thomas, William; Raatz, Susan K

    2011-02-01

    We hypothesized that a whey protein diet would result in greater weight loss and improved body composition compared with standard weight loss diets. Weight change, body composition, and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system activity in midlife adults were compared between diet groups. Eighteen subjects enrolled in a 5-month study of 8-week controlled food intake followed by 12-weeks ad libitum intake. Subjects were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: control diet (CD) (55% carbohydrate/15% protein/30% fat), mixed protein (40% carbohydrate/30% protein/30% fat), or whey protein (WP) (40% carbohydrate/15% mixed protein/15% whey protein/30% fat). Measurements included weight, metabolic measures, body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure. No statistically significant differences in total weight loss or total fat loss were observed between treatments; however, a trend toward greater total weight loss (P = .08) and total fat loss (P = .09) was observed in the WP group compared with the CD group. Fat loss in the leg and gynoid regions was greater (P loss or in total fat loss, but significant differences in regional fat loss and in decreased blood pressure were observed in the WP group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, M., E-mail: shams@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Pardis St., Molla-Sadra Ave, Vanak. Sq., P.O. Box: 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-13

    A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack. -- Highlights: → Heat transfer and ionization energy losses were analyzed in the cavitation bubble. → Radiation of hydrodynamic bubble was approximately equal to the black body. → Radiation heat transfer did not affect the bubble dynamic. → Conduction decreased the bubble pressure and increased the bubble temperature. → Ionization decreased the temperature and increased the pressure in the bubble.

  11. Multi-Bed Multi-Stage Adsorption Refrigeration Cycle-Reducing Driving Heat Source Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, K. C. Amanul; Akahira, Akira; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Saha, Bidyut Baran; Koyama, Shigeru; Ng, Kim Choon; Chua, Hui Tong

    The study aims at designing a multi-bed multi-stage adsorption chiller that can be driven by waste heat at near ambient temperature. The chiller is designed such a way that it can be switched into different modes depending on the driving heat source temperature. Stage regeneration techniques have been applied to operate the chiller by relatively low temperature heat source. Driving heat source temperature is validated by simulated data and the performances obtained from different modes are compared. In terms of COP (Coefficient of performance),the chiller shows best performance in conventional single-stage mode for driving heat source temperature greater than 60°C, two stage mode for driving source temperature between 42 and 60°C,in three-stage mode for driving source temperature less than 42°C. In terms of cooling capacity, it shows the best performance in single-stage mode for heat source temperature greater than 70°C. The mass recovery process in single-stage mode is also examined. It is seen that the mass recovery process improve cooling capacity significantly, specially for the low regenerating temperature region.

  12. Is the Cortical Deficit in Amblyopia Due to Reduced Cortical Magnification, Loss of Neural Resolution, or Neural Disorganization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavagnier, Simon; Dumoulin, Serge O; Hess, Robert F

    2015-11-04

    The neural basis of amblyopia is a matter of debate. The following possibilities have been suggested: loss of foveal cells, reduced cortical magnification, loss of spatial resolution of foveal cells, and topographical disarray in the cellular map. To resolve this we undertook a population receptive field (pRF) functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in the central field in humans with moderate-to-severe amblyopia. We measured the relationship between averaged pRF size and retinal eccentricity in retinotopic visual areas. Results showed that cortical magnification is normal in the foveal field of strabismic amblyopes. However, the pRF sizes are enlarged for the amblyopic eye. We speculate that the pRF enlargement reflects loss of cellular resolution or an increased cellular positional disarray within the representation of the amblyopic eye. The neural basis of amblyopia, a visual deficit affecting 3% of the human population, remains a matter of debate. We undertook the first population receptive field functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis in participants with amblyopia and compared the projections from the amblyopic and fellow normal eye in the visual cortex. The projection from the amblyopic eye was found to have a normal cortical magnification factor, enlarged population receptive field sizes, and topographic disorganization in all early visual areas. This is consistent with an explanation of amblyopia as an immature system with a normal complement of cells whose spatial resolution is reduced and whose topographical map is disordered. This bears upon a number of competing theories for the psychophysical defect and affects future treatment therapies. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514740-16$15.00/0.

  13. Enhanced summer warming reduces fungal decomposer diversity and litter mass loss more strongly in dry than in wet tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Casper T; Haugwitz, Merian S; Priemé, Anders; Nielsen, Cecilie S; Elberling, Bo; Michelsen, Anders; Grogan, Paul; Blok, Daan

    2017-01-01

    Many Arctic regions are currently experiencing substantial summer and winter climate changes. Litter decomposition is a fundamental component of ecosystem carbon and nutrient cycles, with fungi being among the primary decomposers. To assess the impacts of seasonal climatic changes on litter fungal communities and their functioning, Betula glandulosa leaf litter was surface-incubated in two adjacent low Arctic sites with contrasting soil moisture regimes: dry shrub heath and wet sedge tundra at Disko Island, Greenland. At both sites, we investigated the impacts of factorial combinations of enhanced summer warming (using open-top chambers; OTCs) and deepened snow (using snow fences) on surface litter mass loss, chemistry and fungal decomposer communities after approximately 1 year. Enhanced summer warming significantly restricted litter mass loss by 32% in the dry and 17% in the wet site. Litter moisture content was significantly reduced by summer warming in the dry, but not in the wet site. Likewise, fungal total abundance and diversity were reduced by OTC warming at the dry site, while comparatively modest warming effects were observed in the wet site. These results suggest that increased evapotranspiration in the OTC plots lowered litter moisture content to the point where fungal decomposition activities became inhibited. In contrast, snow addition enhanced fungal abundance in both sites but did not significantly affect litter mass loss rates. Across sites, control plots only shared 15% of their fungal phylotypes, suggesting strong local controls on fungal decomposer community composition. Nevertheless, fungal community functioning (litter decomposition) was negatively affected by warming in both sites. We conclude that although buried soil organic matter decomposition is widely expected to increase with future summer warming, surface litter decay and nutrient turnover rates in both xeric and relatively moist tundra are likely to be significantly restricted by

  14. Catch crops as universal and effective method for reducing nitrogen leaching loss in spring cereal production: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkama, Elena; Lemola, Riitta; Känkänen, Hannu; Turtola, Eila

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable farms produce adequate amounts of a high-quality product, protect their resources and are both environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Nitrogen (N) fertilization decisively influences the cereal yields as well as increases soil N balance (N input in fertilizer - N output in harvested yield), thereby leading to N losses to the environment. However, while N input reduction affects soil N balance, such approach would markedly reduce N leaching loss only in case of abnormally high N balances. As an alternative approach, the growing of catch crops aims to prevent nutrient leaching in autumn after harvest and during the following winter, but due to competition, catch crops may also reduce yields of the main crop. Although studies have explored the environmental effects of catch crops in cereal production in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) during the past 40 years, none has yet carried out a meta-analysis. We quantitatively summarized 35 studies on the effect of catch crops (non-legume and legume) undersown in spring cereals on N leaching loss or its risk as estimated by the content of soil nitrate N or its sum with ammonium in late autumn. The meta-analysis also included the grain yield and N content of spring cereals. To identify sources of variation, we studied the effects of soil texture and management (ploughing time, the amount of N applied, fertilizer type), as well as climatic (annual precipitation) and experimental conditions (duration of experiments, lysimeter vs. field experiments). Finally, we examined whether the results differed between the countries or over the decades. Compared to control groups with no catch crops, non-legume catch crops, mainly ryegrass species, reduced N leaching loss by 50% on average, and soil nitrate N or inorganic N by 35% in autumn. Italian ryegrass depleted soil N more effectively (by 60%) than did perennial ryegrass or Westerwolds ryegrass (by 25%). In contrast, legumes (white

  15. The inactivation of RNase G reduces the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptibility to quinolones by triggering the heat shock response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eBernardini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinolone resistance is usually due to mutations in the genes encoding bacterial topoisomerases. However different reports have shown that neither clinical quinolone resistant isolates nor in vitro obtained S. maltophilia mutants present mutations in such genes. The mechanisms so far described consist on efflux pumps' overexpression. Our objective is to get information on novel mechanisms of S. maltophilia quinolone resistance. For this purpose, a transposon-insertion mutant library was obtained in S. maltophilia D457.. One mutant presenting reduced susceptibility to nalidixic acid was selected. Inverse PCR showed that the inactivated gene encodes RNase G. Complementation of the mutant with wild-type RNase G allele restored the susceptibility to quinolones. Transcriptomic and real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that several genes encoding heat-shock response proteins were expressed at higher levels in the RNase defective mutant than in the wild-type strain. In agreement with this situation, heat-shock reduces the S. maltophilia susceptibility to quinolone. We can then conclude that the inactivation of the RNase G reduces the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to quinolones, most likely by regulating the expression of heat-shock response genes. Heat-shock induces a transient phenotype of quinolone resistance in S. maltophilia.

  16. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    In the recent decades, extreme temperature events and derived hazards are frequent and trigger noteworthy impacts in Romania, especially over the large urban areas. The cities produce significant disturbances of many elements of the regional climate, and generates adverse effects such as Urban Heat Islands (UHI). This presentation condenses the outputs of an ongoing research project (REDBHI) developed through (2013-2017) focused on developing a methodology for monitoring and forecasting indoor climate and energy challenges related to the intensity of UHI of Bucharest (Romania), based on relevant urban climate zones (UCZs). Multi-criteria correlations between the UHI and architectural, urban and landscape variables were determined, and the vulnerability of buildings expressed in the form of transfer function between indoor micro-climate and outdoor urban environment. The vulnerability of civil buildings was determined in relation with the potential for amplifying the thermal hazards intensity through the anthropogenic influence. The project REDBHI aims at developing innovative and original products, with direct applicability, which can be used in any urban settlement and have market potential with regards to energy design and consulting. The concrete innovative outcomes consist of a) localization of the Bucharest UCZs according to the UHI intensity, identifying reference buildings and sub-zones according to urban anthropic factors and landscape pattern; b) typology of representative buildings with regards to energy consumption and CO2 emitted as a result of building exploitation; c) 3D modelling of the reference buildings and of the thermal/energy reaction to severe climatic conditions d) empirical validation of the dynamic thermal/energy analysis; d) development of an pilot virtual studio capable to simulate climate alerts, analyse scenarios and suggest measures to mitigate the UHI effects, and disseminate the outcomes for educational purposes; e) compendium of

  17. The use of pruned chipped branches to increase the soil infiltration capacity and reduce the soil losses on citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Llovet, Joan; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil water erosion is causing problems on the agriculture land of the world. The high erosion rates registered in the agriculture land are due to the lack of a vegetation cover that protects the soil. High erosion rates in agriculture lands are found in Africa, Europe, Asia, and any other continent. Soil erosion on citrus orchards has been researched recently and shown huge erosion rates in the Mediterranean and in China. All this research findings allow us to confirm that the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards are not sustainable and strategies to control the soil erosion should be applied. The increasing erosion rates are due to the bare soils, but also are due to the soil structure degradation and soil organic matter exhaustion. Some authors applied cover on crops to avoid the raindrop impact and the surfaces wash but there is a need to develop new strategies to reduce soil losses and keep sustainable the citrus productions. The agriculture production also results in a large amount of residues than can be a resource to improve the soil cover. This has been done in road embankments, in forest land affected by wildfires and on afforestation. As a consequence of the mechanization of the agriculture, and the reduction of the draft animals (mainly horses, mules, donkeys and oxen), the straw and the pruned branches are being a residue instead of a resource in many developed countries. Straw was used as a forage and the pruned branches as a source of heat and energy but both can be used as a mulch to control the soil erosion. The pruned branches can contribute with a valuable source of nutrients and a good soil protection. The leaves of the trees, and some parts of the plants, once harvest can contribute to reduce the soil losses. Our goal is to test if a residue such as the chipped pruned branches can be transformed as a resource that will help to control the soil erosion rates. Straw has been seen as a very efficient to reduce the water losses in agriculture land

  18. A solution to reducing insertion loss and achieving high sidelobe rejection for wavelet transform and reconstruction processor using SAW devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Lu, Wenke; Zhang, Guoan; Xie, Zhengguang

    2013-02-01

    An arbitrary wavelet transform and reconstruction processor is composed of multiple single-scale wavelet transform devices (SSWTDs) with different scales. For improving the performance of the processor using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, this research investigates how to reduce the insertion loss (IL) and achieve a high sidelobe rejection. To reduce the triple transit echo (TTE) and to achieve a high signal-noise ratio (SNR), the structure of the SSWTD consists of two electrode-widths-controlled (EWC) single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs). In the propagation process of the SAW, the unidirectional characteristic of the new structure reduces the bidirectional loss of the entire device. In addition, to enlarge the fractional bandwidth and the sidelobe rejection, the internal structure of the SSWTD uses an input apodized transducer according to the envelope of the Morlet wavelet function as well as an output withdrawal weighting transducer. In this paper, we present a SSWTD for scale 2-2 as an example to illustrate the design method and experimental results. The new device is fabricated on 128° rotated YX-cut lithium niobate (Y128°X-LiNbO3) with the electromechanical coupling coefficient k2 = 5.5% and the SAW velocity 3992 m/s. We get the experimental frequency response with the center frequency 68.14 MHz, the minimum IL -9.96 dB, the fractional bandwidth 3.3%, the maximum passband ripples 0.4 dB and the sidelobe rejection greater than 40 dB. The proposed method and structure can be extended to an arbitrary SSWTD. The experimental results confirm that the performance of the wavelet transform and reconstruction processor can be improved by the proposed solution.

  19. Surveillance of Summer Mortality and Preparedness to Reduce the Health Impact of Heat Waves in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelozzi, Paola; de’ Donato, Francesca K.; Bargagli, Anna Maria; D’Ippoliti, Daniela; De Sario, Manuela; Marino, Claudia; Schifano, Patrizia; Cappai, Giovanna; Leone, Michela; Kirchmayer, Ursula; Ventura, Martina; di Gennaro, Marta; Leonardi, Marco; Oleari, Fabrizio; De Martino, Annamaria; Perucci, Carlo A.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, the Italian Department for Civil Protection and the Ministry of Health have implemented a national program for the prevention of heat-health effects during summer, which to-date includes 34 major cities and 93% of the residents aged 65 years and over. The Italian program represents an important example of an integrated approach to prevent the impact of heat on health, comprising Heat Health Watch Warning Systems, a mortality surveillance system and prevention activities targeted to susceptible subgroups. City-specific warning systems are based on the relationship between temperature and mortality and serve as basis for the modulation of prevention measures. Local prevention activities, based on the guidelines defined by the Ministry of Health, are constructed around the infrastructures and services available. A key component of the prevention program is the identification of susceptible individuals and the active surveillance by General Practitioners, medical personnel and social workers. The mortality surveillance system enables the timely estimation of the impact of heat, and heat waves, on mortality during summer as well as to the evaluation of warning systems and prevention programs. Considering future predictions of climate change, the implementation of effective prevention programs, targeted to high risk subjects, become a priority in the public health agenda. PMID:20623023

  20. Conversion of Conservation Tillage to Rotational Tillage to Reduce Phosphorus Losses during Snowmelt Runoff in the Canadian Prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kui; Elliott, Jane A; Lobb, David A; Flaten, Don N; Yarotski, Jim

    2014-09-01

    In a preceding study, converting conventional tillage (ConvT) to conservation tillage (ConsT) was reported to decrease nitrogen (N) but to increase phosphorus (P) losses during snowmelt runoff. A field-scale study was conducted from 2004 to 2012 to determine if conversion of ConsT to rotational tillage (RotaT), where conservation tillage was interrupted by a fall tillage pass every other year, could effectively reduce P losses compared with ConsT. The RotaT study was conducted on long-term paired watersheds established in 1993. The ConvT field in the pair has remained under ConvT practice since 1993, whereas tillage was minimized on the ConsT field from 1997 until 2007. In fall 2007, RotaT was introduced to the ConsT field, and heavy-duty cultivator passes were conducted in the late fall of years 2007, 2009, and 2011. Runoff volume and nutrient content were monitored at the edge of the two fields, and soil and crop residue samples were taken in each field. Greater soil Olsen P and more P released from crop residue are likely the reasons for the increased P losses in the ConsT treatment (2004-2007) relative to the ConvT treatment (2004-2007). Analysis of covariance indicated that, compared with ConsT (2004-2007), RotaT (2008-2012) increased the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 62%, total dissolved N (TDN) by 190%, and total N (TN) by 272% and increased the loads of DOC by 34%, TDN by 34%, and TN by 60%. However, RotaT (2008-2012) decreased soil test P in surface soil, P released from crop residue, and duration of runoff compared with ConsT (2004-2007) and thus decreased the concentrations of total dissolved P (TDP) by 46% and total P (TP) by 38% and decreased the loads of TDP by 56% and TP by 42%. In the Canadian Prairies, where P is a major environmental concern compared with N, RotaT was demonstrated to be an effective practice to reduce P losses compared with ConsT.