WorldWideScience

Sample records for reducing ghg emissions

  1. A Systems Approach to Reducing Institutional GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sean R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to establish necessity and methods for considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policies at a system-level. The research emphasizes connecting narrowly focused GHG mitigation objectives (e.g. reduce single occupancy vehicle travel) with broader institutional objectives (e.g. growth in student population) to…

  2. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  3. Reducing Supply Chain GHG Emissions from LCD Panel Manufacturing Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-GHGs) are among the most potent and persistent greenhouse gases contributing to global climate change. Learn about the manufacturing processes which release F-GHGs, and how LCD suppliers are working to reduce emissions.

  4. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  5. A feasibility study of microgrids for reducing energy use and GHG emissions in an industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengyu; Zhang, Xiongwen; Li, Guojun; Jiang, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A life cycle assessment is conducted on the microgrids for an industry application. • The effect of renewable energy on the LCA performances of microgrids is illustrated. • The minimal life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of microgrids are evaluated. • The LCA of different pathways for electricity, heat and hydrogen are presented. - Abstract: Microgrids provide a new energy paradigm with the benefits of higher energy supply reliability, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a higher penetration of renewable sources, higher energy efficiencies through the use of local waste heat and the avoidance of losses in transmission and distribution. This study reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microgrids for an industry application of an ammonia plant in central Inner Mongolia, China. The life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of the microgrids are evaluated and compared to the existing fossil fuel-based energy system. The electricity, heat and hydrogen fuel loads of the ammonia plant are all modelled in the study. An optimization model is developed to estimate the minimum life cycle energy use and GHG emissions with the microgrids under three scenarios (natural gas (NG)-based, optimized, and maximum renewable energy microgrids). The results indicate that the use of wind and solar in the NG-based microgrid can only slightly reduce the energy use and GHG emissions. If there are no land area limitations on the deployment of solar and wind power, the maximum renewable energy microgrid offers significant reductions of fossil fuel energy of up to 56.9% and GHG emissions reductions of up to 66.3% compared to the existing energy system.

  6. Data supporting the assessment of biomass based electricity and reduced GHG emissions in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagastume Gutiérrez, Alexis; Cabello Eras, Juan J; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Hens, Luc

    2018-04-01

    Assessing the biomass based electricity potential of developing nations like Cuba can help to reduce the fossil fuels dependency and the greenhouse gas emissions. The data included in this study present the evolution of electricity production and greenhouse gas emissions in Cuba. Additionally, the potentialities to produce biomass based electricity by using the most significant biomass sources in Cuba are estimated. Furthermore, estimations of the potential reductions of greenhouse gas emissions, resulting from implementing the biomass based electricity potential of the different sources discussed in the study, are included. Results point to the most promising biomass sources for electricity generation and their potential to reduce GHG emissions.

  7. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurgel, Andreas; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO_2_e_q per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  8. Emerging biorefinery technologies for Indian forest industry to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Naman; Nainwal, Shubham; Jain, Shivani; Jain, Siddharth

    2015-11-01

    The production of biofuels as alternative energy source over fossil fuels has gained immense interest over the years as it can contribute significantly to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy production and utilization. Also with rapidly increasing fuel price and fall in oil wells, the present scenario forces us to look for an alternative source of energy that will help us in the operation of industrial as well as the transportation sector. The pulp mills in India are one of the many options. The pulp mills in India can help us to produce bio-fuels by thermo-chemical/biochemical conversion of black liquor and wood residues. These technologies include extraction of hemi-cellulose from wooden chips and black liquor, lignin from black liquor, methanol from evaporator condensates, biogas production from waste sludge, syngas production from biomass using gasification and bio-oil production from biomass using pyrolysis. The objective of this paper is to overview these emerging bio-refinery technologies that can be implemented in Indian Forest Industry to get bio-fuels, bio-chemicals and bio-energy to reduce GHG emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fleet view of electrified transportation reveals smaller potential to reduce GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel framework compares GHG of plugins vs. hybrids for any vehicle type/performance. • Fleet GHG can be compared without forecasting market penetrations of vehicle sizes. • GHG/km for pure electrics must account for limited range using novel, modified Utility Factor. • Applied to the US, this points to smaller GHG reduction at fleet level than traditional fleet analyses. - Abstract: Plugin and hybrid vehicles have been shown to offer possible reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depending on grid-carbon-intensity, range and thus life-cycle battery emissions and vehicle weight, and on trip patterns. We present a framework that enables GHG comparisons (well-to-wheel plus storage manufacturing) for three drivetrains (pure-electric, gasoline-hybrid, and plugin-hybrid), both for individual vehicles and for fleets. The framework captures effects of grid- versus vehicle-based electricity generation, grid transmission and charging losses, and manufacturing and carrying batteries. In contrast to previous work, GHG comparisons can be obtained for heterogeneous fleets of varying vehicle sizes (cars, vans, buses, trucks) and performances, without requiring forecasting of such vehicle specs and their respective market penetrations. Further, we show how a novel adaptation of the Utility Factor concept from plug-in-hybrids to mixed fleets of battery-only and gasoline-hybrids is crucial to quantifying battery-only-vehicles’ impact on fleet-wide GHG. To account for regional variations and possible future technology improvements, we show scenarios over a wide spectrum of grid-carbon-intensities (50–1200 g CO 2 e/kW h at wall), vehicle range (∼5–500 km), battery energy densities, and battery life-cycle GHG. Model uncertainties are quantified via sensitivity tests. Applying the framework to trip patterns of US passenger transportation, we find that owing to the interplay of GHG/km, battery size, all-electric range, and trip patterns, GHG

  10. Successful pilot of thermosyphon process heater reduces GHG emissions and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.A.; Neulander, J.I.

    1999-01-01

    A joint pilot study was conducted by Hudson Products Corporation and PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. to test the feasibility of using a thermosyphon as a part of a thermal recovery process for cold heavy oil reservoir exploitation in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. A thermosyphon process heater can transfer heat from an external combustion chamber to a liquid inside a tank. This paper described the pilot project in which such a heater was successfully tested in a heavy oil field production tank. The field trial was conducted at the Marwayne Field in northeastern Alberta. The results of the pilot study demonstrated that the thermosyphon not only improved process efficiency, but also reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, lowered operating costs and improved safety. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig., 3 appendices

  11. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; Seves, S Marije; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-20

    The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO 2 -equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO 2 -equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from - 15% to - 34%) and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the population not meeting energy or iron requirements as a

  12. Reducing GHG emissions while improving diet quality: exploring the potential of reduced meat, cheese and alcoholic and soft drinks consumption at specific moments during the day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam E. van de Kamp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Methods Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19–69 years (n = 2102. GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1 reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2 replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water by tap water, 3 replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4 two combinations of these scenarios. Effects on GHG emission as well as nutrient content of the diet were assessed. Results The mean habitual daily dietary GHG emission in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission was 6.7 kg CO2-equivalents for men and 5.1 kg CO2-equivalents for women. The scenarios with reduced meat consumption and/or replacement of all alcoholic and soft drinks were most successful in reducing dietary GHG emissions (ranging from − 15% to − 34% and also reduced saturated fatty acid intake and/or sugar intake. Both types of scenarios lead to reduced energy and iron intakes. Protein intake remained adequate. Conclusions Reducing the consumption of red and processed meat during dinner and of soft and alcoholic drinks throughout the day leads to significantly lower dietary GHG emissions of people in the Netherlands in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emissions, while also having health benefits. For subgroups of the

  13. Introducing renewable energy and industrial restructuring to reduce GHG emission: Application of a dynamic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy development is expanded and introduced into socioeconomic activities. • A dynamic optimization simulation model is developed based on input–output approach. • Regional economic, energy and environmental impacts are assessed dynamically. • Industrial and energy structure is adjusted optimally for GHG emission reduction. - Abstract: Specifying the renewable energy development as new energy industries to be newly introduced into current socioeconomic activities, this study develops a dynamic simulation model with input–output approach to make comprehensive assessment of the impacts on economic development, energy consumption and GHG emission under distinct levels of GHG emission constraints involving targeted GHG emission reduction policies (ERPs) and industrial restructuring. The model is applied to Jilin City to conduct 16 terms of dynamic simulation work with GRP as objective function subject to mass, value and energy balances aided by the extended input–output table with renewable energy industries introduced. Simulation results indicate that achievement of GHG emission reduction target is contributed by renewable energy industries, ERPs and industrial restructuring collectively, which reshape the terminal energy consumption structure with a larger proportion of renewable energy. Wind power, hydropower and biomass combustion power industries account for more in the power generation structure implying better industrial prospects. Mining, chemical, petroleum processing, non-metal, metal and thermal power industries are major targets for industrial restructuring. This method is crucial for understanding the role of renewable energy development in GHG mitigation efforts and other energy-related planning settings, allowing to explore the optimal level for relationships among all socioeconomic activities and facilitate to simultaneous pursuit of economic development, energy utilization and environmental preservation

  14. Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Omid, Mahmoud; Mousazadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In this study, DEA (data envelopment analysis) was applied to analyze the energy efficiency of wheat farms in order to separate efficient and inefficient growers and to calculate the wasteful uses of energy. Additionally, the degrees of TE (technical efficiency), PTE (pure technical efficiency) and SE (scale efficiency) were determined. Furthermore, the effect of energy optimization on GHG (greenhouse gas) emission was investigated and the total amount of GHG emission of efficient farms was compared with inefficient ones. Based on the results it was revealed that 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was calculated as 0.82. Based on the BCC (Banker–Charnes–Cooper) model 154 growers (59%) were identified efficient and the mean PTE of these farmers was found to be 0.99. Also, it was concluded that 2075.8 MJ ha −1 of energy inputs can be saved if the performance of inefficient farms rises to a high level. Additionally, it was observed that the total GHG emission from efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 , respectively. By energy optimization the total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 . - Highlights: • 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was 0.82. • An average 2075.8 MJ ha −1 from energy input could be saved without reducing the yield. • GHG emission of efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq. ha −1 . • Total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq. ha −1

  15. Potential for reducing GHG emissions and energy consumption from implementing the aluminum intensive vehicle fleet in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J.D.; Han, W.J.; Peng, Y.H.; Gu, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The automobile industry in China has rapidly developed in recent years which resulted in an increase in gasoline usage and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Focus on climate change has also accelerated to grow pressure on reducing vehicle weight and improving fuel efficiency. Aluminum (Al) as a light metal has demonstrated a great potential for weight savings in applications such as engine blocks, cylinder heads, wheels, hoods, tailgates etc. However, primary Al production requires intensive energy and the cost of Al is more than traditional steel, which may affect the total benefits realized from using Al in automobiles. Therefore, it is very essential to conduct a study to quantify the life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption if the plan is to achieve fleet-wide Al intensive vehicles. This paper describes a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and the general modeling assumptions used to evaluate the impact of Al intensive vehicle on GHG emissions and energy consumption. The results indicated that the reductions in life cycle GHG emissions and energy consumption were not significant when the maximum Al content in an automobile is 145 kg, which is the average level of Al usage in automobiles in North America. A neural network methodology was used to forecast the vehicle stock in China from 2010 to 2020 and a vehicle fleet model was established to track GHG emissions and energy consumption of the vehicle fleet. A material availability factor was also introduced into the LCA methodology to further assist decision makers in providing rational proposals for a widespread implementation of Al in automobiles. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to study the impact of the Al content in a vehicle on the final outcomes. The GHG emissions and energy consumption could be further reduced when the Al content in an automobile increases.

  16. Model and algorithm for bi-fuel vehicle routing problem to reduce GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoli, Behroz; MirHassani, Seyed Ali; Hooshmand, Farnaz

    2017-09-01

    Because of the harmful effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted by petroleum-based fuels, the adoption of alternative green fuels such as biodiesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) is an inevitable trend in the transportation sector. However, the transition to alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) fleets is not easy and, particularly at the beginning of the transition period, drivers may be forced to travel long distances to reach alternative fueling stations (AFSs). In this paper, the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles is proposed as an operational approach. We present a mathematical model to address vehicle routing problem (VRP) with bi-fuel vehicles and show that the utilization of bi-fuel vehicles can lead to a significant reduction in GHG emissions. Moreover, a simulated annealing algorithm is adopted to solve large instances of this problem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on some random instances.

  17. Biochar for reducing GHG emissions in Norway: opportunities and barriers to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasse, Daniel; O'Toole, Adam; Joner, Erik; Borgen, Signe

    2017-04-01

    Norway has ratified the Paris Agreement with a target nationally determined contribution (NDC) of 40% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, with the land sector (AFOLU) expected to contribute to this effort. Increased C sequestration in soil, as argued by the 4 per 1000 initiative, can provide C negative solutions towards reaching this goal. However, Norway has only 3% of its land surface that is cultivated, and management options are fairly limited because the major part is already under managed grasslands, which are assumed to be close to C saturation. By contrast, the country has ample forest resources, allowing Norway to report 25 Mt CO2-eq per year of net CO2 uptake by forest. In addition, the forest industry generates large amounts of unused residues, both at the processing plants but also left decaying on the forest floor. Because of the unique characteristics of the Norwegian land sector, the Norwegian Environment Agency reported as early as 2010 that biochar production for soil C storage had the largest potential for reducing GHG emissions through land-use measures. Although straw is a potential feedstock, the larger quantities of forest residues are a prime candidate for this purpose, as exemplified by our first experimental facility at a production farm, which is using wood chips as feedstock for biochar production. The highly controlled and subsidised Norwegian agriculture might offer a unique test case for implementing incentives that would support farmers for biochar-based C sequestration. However, multiple barriers remain, which mostly revolve around the complexity of finding the right implementation scheme (including price setting) in a changing landscape of competition for biomass (with e.g. bioethanol and direct combustion), methods of verification and variable co-benefits to the farmer. Here we will present some of these schemes, from on-farm biochar production to factories for biochar-compound fertilizers, and discuss barriers and

  18. Strengthening community participation in reducing GHG emission from forest and peatland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoha, A. S.; Saharjo, B. H.; Boer, R.; Ardiansyah, M.

    2018-02-01

    Strengthening community participation is needed to find solutions to encourage community more participate in reducing Green House Gas (GHG) from forest and peatland fire. This research aimed to identify stakeholders that have the role in forest and peatland fire control and to formulate strengthening model of community participation through community-based early warning fire. Stakeholder mapping and action research were used to determine stakeholders that had potential influence and interest and to formulate strengthening model of community participation in reducing GHG from forest and peatland fire. There was found that position of key players in the mapping of stakeholders came from the government institution. The existence of community-based fire control group can strengthen government institution through collaborating with stakeholders having strong interest and influence. Moreover, it was found several local knowledge in Kapuas District about how communities predict drought that have potential value for developing the community-based early warning fire system. Formulated institutional model in this research also can be further developed as a model institution in the preservation of natural resources based on local knowledge. In conclusion, local knowledge and community-based fire groups can be integrated within strengthening model of community participation in reducing GHG from forest and peatland fire.

  19. Peatland-GHG emissions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droesler, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Managed peatlands are hot spots for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions. GHG which have been not fully integrated in past European climate projects. Peatlands contribute to European GHG emissions 10 times more per unit area than other terrestrial ecosystems. Peatland management and exploration by drainage, agricultural use and peat extraction turned pristine peatland GHG sinks into sources. Emissions can reach more than 40 t CO2equiv. ha-1 a-1 in intensively managed peatlands. On the other hand, the restoration of degraded peatlands does normally reduce these emissions significantly towards climate neutral levels, once the restoration work is done wisely. But in some cases the net climate effect do not decrease significantly depending on hydrological regimes, fertilization status of the peatlands, climate and vegetation type. In many European countries with significant peatland cover nationally funded projects were set up to investigate peatland GHG fluxes and their drivers. These scattered data and knowledge are currently being brought together under the coverage of the GHG-Europe project (Grant agreement no.: 244122) within a new synthesis to develop the relevant EF, identify the drivers and develop upscaling options for GHG-emissions. The talk will: (1) show a first cut of new Emission Factors for peatlands in Europe and compare these with IPCC-default values. (2) discuss the developed sensible response functions for GHG-fluxes against natural and anthropogenic drivers such as land use intensity, land management with drainage and climate variability. (3) show case studies from Germany show the applicability of response functions for upscaling of GHG-balances. (4) An outlook is given to the future European peatland GHG-Balance.

  20. GHG emissions due to deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croezen, H.; Van Valkengoed, M.

    2009-05-01

    An assessment was made for the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in tropical forests in Malaysia and Indonesia related to Dutch economic activities. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are calculated in relation to (1) the emissions related to vegetation removal sec; and (2) the emissions related to removal and more long term effects related to assimilation of CO2 in forest regrowth and changes in organic material in soils. Emissions related to vegetation removal and aggregated emissions for both vegetation removal and long term effects are reported separately. Soil organic carbon stock changes are considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emissions. Changes in carbon stocks and N2O emissions and actually also changes in vegetation all are events that occur gradually, rather than immediately. Only removal of existing vegetation and possible burning of this vegetation and associated emissions related to both activities are immediate by nature. Carbon stocks and N2O emissions change to a new level within several decades after deforestation or forest degradation. Removed vegetation can grow back or be replaced eventually by other vegetation, thereby changing the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to deforestation or forest degradation. Vegetation extracted for commercial purposes such as timber or pulp will also take years or decades to become waste and be converted into CO2. In IPCC and LCA's all these emissions are taken into account - or at least all emissions occurring within a period of 20 years, as required by IPCC. Soil organic carbon stock changes are also considered by Greenpeace as more uncertain, so the emphasis will be on the direct emmissions.

  1. GHG emission estimates for road transport in national GHG inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Yang, H.

    2011-01-01

    The annual reporting procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have now produced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories from 40 so-called Annex I countries for 18 years. This article analyses a subset of these data: emissions from road transport. The article

  2. Evaluation of the potentialities to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions resulting from various treatments of municipal solid wastes (MSW) in moist tropical climates: application to Yaounde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngnikam, Emmanuel; Tanawa, Emile; Rousseaux, Patrick; Riedacker, Arthur; Gourdon, Rémy

    2002-12-01

    The authors here analyse the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) resulting from the various treatment of municipal solid waste found in the town of Yaounde. Four management systems have been taken as the basis for analyses. System 1 is the traditional collection and landfill disposal, while in system 2 the hiogas produced in the landfill is recuperated to produce electricity. In systems 3 and 4, in addition to the collection, we have introduced a centralised composting or biogas plant before the landfilling disposal of refuse. A Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of the four systems was made; this enable us to quantify the flux of matter and of energy, consumed or produced by the systems. Following this, only the greenhouse effect was taken into account to evaluate the ecological consequences of the MSW management systems. The method used to evaluate this impact takes into consideration on the one hand, GHG emissions or avoided emission following the substitution of fuel with methane recovered from landfills or produced in the digesters, and on the other hand, sequestrated carbon in the soil following the regular deposit of compost. Landfilling without recuperation of methane is the most emitting solution for greenhouse gas: it leads to the emission of 1.7 ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2E) per ton of household waste. Composting and methanisation allow one to have a comparable level of emission reduction, either respectively 1.8 and 2 tCO2E/t of MSW. In order to reduce the emission of GHG in the waste management systems, it is advisable to avoid first of all the emissions of methane coming from the landfills. System 2 seems to be a solution that would reduce the emissions of GHG at low cost (2.2 to 4 $/tCO2E). System 2 is calculated as the most effective at the environmental and economic level in the context of Yaounde. Therefore traditional collection, landfill disposal and biogas recuperation to produce electricity is preferable in moist tropical climates.

  3. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  4. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  5. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures; Senkung der THG-Emissionen in landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsverfahren zur Erzeugung von Biokraftstoffen durch Leguminosenanbau und produktionstechnische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO{sub 2eq} per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  6. Opportunities to integrate solar technologies into the Chilean lithium mining industry - reducing process related GHG emissions of a strategic storage resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telsnig, Thomas; Potz, Christian; Haas, Jannik; Eltrop, Ludger; Palma-Behnke, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    The arid northern regions of Chile are characterized by an intensive mineral mining industry and high solar irradiance levels. Besides Chile's main mining products, copper, molybdenum and iron, the production of lithium carbonate from lithium containing brines has become strategically important due to the rising demand for battery technologies worldwide. Its energy-intensive production may affect the ecological footprint of the product and the country's climate targets. Thus, the use of solar technologies for electricity and heat production might constitute an interesting option for CO2 mitigation. This study aims to quantify the impacts of the lithium carbonate production processes in Chile on climate change, and to identify site-specific integration options of solar energy technologies to reduce GHG life-cycle emissions. The considered solar integration options include a parabolic trough power plant with a molten salt storage, a solar tower power plant with molten salt receiver and molten salt storage, a one-axis tracking photovoltaic energy system for electricity, and two solar thermal power plants with Ruths storage (steam accumulator) for thermal heat production. CSP plants were identified as measures with the highest GHG mitigation potential reducing the CO2 emissions for the entire production chain and the lithium production between 16% and 33%. In a scenario that combines solar technologies for electricity and thermal energy generation, up to 59% of the CO2 emissions at the lithium production sites in Chile can be avoided. A comparison of the GHG abatement costs of the proposed solar integration options indicates that the photovoltaic system, the solar thermal plant with limited storage and the solar tower power plant are the most cost effective options.

  7. High-tech and climate change : promoting the application of enabling and high-tech solutions to reduce GHG emissions : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    This report identifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) reducing potential of the high-tech sector with particular reference to the following 5 key technology convergence groups: biotechnology and bio-products; intelligent systems; information and communications technology; advanced materials; and, nanotechnology. It was noted that Canada's efforts to reduce GHG emissions in the abatement of climate change can drive innovation, stimulate economic growth and attain international leadership in technology solutions. Although Canada's strong economic growth has resulted in the creation of more highly skilled jobs, expansion in innovation and new infrastructure, there is a challenge of preserving the environmental and social quality within communities, and ensuring that productivity within companies does not lapse. In response, the government is shaping policy responses that drive innovation, productivity and prosperity and which help Canadian companies capitalize on emerging global opportunities while minimizing environmental and social impacts. This report includes information on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol, Canada's Climate Change Action Plan and the emerging carbon marketplace. It also describes the role of technology innovation and the opportunity of convergence in spurring innovation. Several actions have been proposed to Industry Canada by different technology sectors to help climate change providers generate innovative solutions, commercialize products and expand market presence. This report includes those initiatives which further promote the convergence, growth and development of different enabling and high-tech sectors to develop climate change solutions; promote the opportunities that are emerging to apply innovative high-tech and enabling technologies to reduce GHG emissions; and help Canada meet its Kyoto commitments. 50 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in Indian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Feliciano, Diana; Sapkota, Tek; Hillier, Jon; Smith, Pete; Stirling, Clare

    2016-04-01

    India is one of the world's largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, accounting for about 5% of global emissions with further increases expected in the future. The Government of India aims to reduce emission intensities by 20-25% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. In a recent departure from past practice the reconvened Council on Climate Change stated that climate change in agriculture would include a component that would focus on reducing emissions in agriculture, particularly methane and nitrous oxide emissions. To develop recommendations for mitigation in agriculture in India, a baseline study is presented to analyse the GHG emissions from agriculture for current management (Directorate of Economics and Statistics of the government of India). This analysis is done for the two states Bihar and Haryana, which differ in their management and practises based on different climate and policies. This first analysis shows were the highest GHG emissions in agriculture is produced and were the highest mitigation potential might be. The GHG emissions and mitigation potential are calculated using the CCAFS Mitigation Option Tool (CCAFS-MOT) (https://ccafs.cgiar.org/mitigation-option-tool-agriculture#.VpTnWL826d4) with modifications for the special modelling. In a second step, stakeholder meetings provided a wide range of possible and definite scenarios (management, policy, technology, costs, etc.) for the future to mitigate emissions in agriculture as well as how to increase productivity. These information were used to create scenarios to give estimates for the mitigation potential in agriculture for India in 2020.

  9. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  10. Sustainable passenger road transport scenarios to reduce fuel consumption, air pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Baeza, Carlos; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents passenger road transport scenarios that may assist the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) in achieving lower emissions in both criteria air pollutants (CO, NO x , NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), and PM 10 ) and GHG (greenhouse gas) (CH 4 , N 2 O and CO 2 ), while also promoting better mobility and quality of life in this region. We developed a bottom-up model to estimate the historical trends of energy demand, criteria air pollutants and GHG emissions caused by passenger vehicles circulating in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) in order to construct a baseline scenario and two mitigation scenarios that project their impact to 2028. Mitigation scenario “eff” considers increasing fuel efficiencies and introducing new technologies for vehicle emission controls. Mitigation scenario “BRT” considers a modal shift from private car trips to a Bus Rapid Transport system. Our results show significant reductions in air pollutants and GHG emissions. Incentives and environmental regulations are needed to enable these scenarios. - Highlights: • More than 4.2 million passenger vehicles in the MCMA (Mexico City Metropolitan Area) that represent 61% of criteria pollutants and 44% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. • Emissions of CO, NO x and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) in baseline scenario decrease with respect to its 2008 value because emission standards. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG increase in baseline scenario. • Emissions of PM 10 and GHG decrease in eff + BRT scenario from year 2020. • Additional reductions are possible with better standards for diesel vehicles and other technologies

  11. A conceptual framework for the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of projects to reduce GHG emissions and sequester carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathaye, J.; Norgaard, R.; Makundi, W.

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a conceptual framework for evaluating the cost of projects to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). The evaluation of cost-effectiveness should account for both the timing of carbon emissions and the damage caused by the atmospheric stock of carbon. We develop a conceptual basis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of projects in terms of the cost of reducing atmospheric carbon (CRAC) and other GHGs. CRAC accounts for the economic discount rate, alternative functional forms of the shadow price, the residence period of carbon in the atmosphere, and the multiple monetary benefits of projects. The last item is of particular importance to the developing countries

  12. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory (EV-GHG)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  13. Towards better GHG emissions savings with use of ISO GHG standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Kook Weng

    2010-01-01

    The 15th Conference of Parties (COP 15) at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 highlighted the need to combat climate change by facing the challenge of committing to reducing our emissions at all three levels with locally appropriate mitigation actions (LAMAs) at the local level to be linked to the nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) and then contribute onwards to globally appropriate mitigation actions (GAMAs). The aim is to find solutions for both adaptation and mitigation by ensuring sufficient means are made available to support such efforts. This is because the world in entering a new phase that will be characterised by green growth in business. Thus be it agriculture that uses local knowledge of specific crop and livestock varieties to help in secure food supply, bio-energy, transport, industries, there must be policies to understand ecosystem-based to link people, biodiversity, energy, water and carbon so as to be more resilient and adaptable to the need for a low carbon economy in todays society.Climate change therefore affects organisations in many areas and they include legal compliance, carbon market, corporate social responsibility and sustainable development. Promoting sustainability requires making efficient use of energy, water and natural resources, decrease in waste load through recycling and streamlining the processes leading to everything that decreases their CO 2 and water footprints. Currently there are many GHG schemes and programmes and the issues centres around compatibility, costs and most importantly credibility. Achieving real GHG emissions reduction requires controlled and verified emissions reductions and quantification that are sound and verifiable. Thanks to the development of the ISO suite of standards on GHG and related matters, the use of these harmonised standards has given the assurance that a tonne of carbon is a tonne of carbon be it in Malaysia, Mali or Mongolia.The use of these standards like ISO 14064 Part 1

  14. Sustainable extensification as an alternative model for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture. The case of an extensively managed organic farm in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Braun, Martin; Henriksen, Christian Bugge

    2015-01-01

    GHG emissions of an extensively managed Danish organic farm were estimated upstream and on-farm. The results were compared to Danish national levels based on land area and output. Overall, the farm emitted 2.12 t CO2eq ha−1 yr−1. Excluding land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF) related...... emissions, the combined GHG emissions from energy- and agriculture-based activities at the case farm were 47% lower (per unit area) and 12% higher (per unit output), than GHG emissions from Danish agriculture. With current livestock density (0.64 LU ha−1) and crop production area, the case study farm would...... supply at average 1,466 kcal per inhabitant per day in Denmark, if the farm was scaled up to Danish national level. With a reduction of livestock density to 0.36 LU ha−1 and proportional cropland area expansion for food production (ceteris paribus), the case study farm could supply around 4,940 kcal...

  15. Potential and cost of clean development mechanism options in the energy sector. Inventory of options in non-Annex I countries to reduce GHG-emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, J.C.; Van der Linden, N.H.; Martens, J.W.; Ormel, F.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Heaps, C.; Kartha, S.; Lazarus, M.; Ruth, M. [Stockholm Environment Institute SEI, Boston (United States); Lee, R.; Mendis, M. [Alternative Energy Development, Inc., Silver Spring (United States)

    1999-12-01

    An assessment is presented of the potential and cost of the Clean Development Mechanism as an instrument to partially meet the Greenhouse Gases emission limitation commitments of the Netherlands for the first budget period, 2008-2012. Information about the cost and emission reduction potential in the energy sector has been collected from national mitigation studies. In total, some 300 GHG emission reduction options in 24 non-Annex I countries have been collected Together, these countries account for two-thirds of current non-Annex I GHG emissions. The mitigation potential in non-Annex I countries is significant when compared with Annex I reduction requirements. The inventory of mitigation options suggests that an annual mitigation potential in the first budget period at costs up to 1990 USD 10/ton CO2 is approximately 1.7 Gt CO2 equivalents. However, this estimate should be viewed with caution, as the mitigation studies on which this estimate is based have been carried out as capacity-building exercises and they should not be viewed as definitive, technically rigorous, exhaustive, analysis of national GHG mitigation potential. 15 refs.

  16. Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-12-01

    US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some

  17. GHG emission mitigation measures and technologies in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichy, M. [Energy Efficiency Center, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a short overview of main results in two fields: projection of GHG emission from energy sector in the Czech Republic and assessment of technologies and options for GHG mitigation. The last part presents an overview of measures that were prepared for potential inclusion to the Czech Climate Change Action Plan.

  18. Incorporation of electricity GHG emissions intensity variability into building environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubi, Eduard; Doluweera, Ganesh; Bergerson, Joule

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Current building assessment does not account for variability in the electric grid. • A new method incorporates hourly grid variability into building assessment. • The method is complementary with peak-shaving policies. • The assessment method can affect building design decisions. - Abstract: Current building energy and GHG emissions assessments do not account for the variable performance of the electric grid. Incorporating hourly grid variability into building assessment methods can help to better prioritize energy efficiency measures that result in the largest environmental benefits. This article proposes a method to incorporate GHG emissions intensity changes due to grid variability into building environmental assessment. The proposed method encourages building systems that reduce electricity use during peak periods while accounting for differences in grid GHG emissions intensity (i.e., peak shaving is more strongly encouraged in grids that have GHG intense peak generation). A set of energy saving building technologies are evaluated in a set of building variants (office, residential) and grid types (hydro/nuclear dominated, coal/gas dominated) to demonstrate the proposed method. Differences between total GHG emissions calculated with the new method compared with the standard (which assumes a constant GHG emissions intensity throughout the year) are in the 5–15% range when the contribution of electricity to total GHG emissions is more significant. The influence of the method on the assessment of the relative performance of some energy efficiency measures is much higher. For example, the estimated GHG emissions savings with heat pumps and photovoltaics can change by −40% and +20%, respectively, using the new assessment method instead of the standard. These differences in GHG emissions estimates can influence building design decisions. The new method could be implemented easily, and would lead to better decision making and more accurate

  19. Balance and saving of GHG emissions in thermochemical biorefineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Pedro; Aracil, Cristina; Vidal-Barrero, Fernando; Ollero, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified methodology for the balance and saving of GHG emissions is provided. • The GHG balance has a physical meaning and does not depend on the fossil reference. • The GHG saving depends on regulation of energy carriers. • The impact of Bio-CCS incorporation and multiproduction is analyzed. • The co-production of chemicals needs to be included in future regulation. - Abstract: In this study, a simplified methodology for the calculation of the balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corresponding saving compared with the fossil reference is presented. The proposed methodology allows the estimation of the anthropogenic GHG emissions of thermochemical biorefineries (net emitted to the atmosphere). In the calculation of the GHG balance, all relevant factors have been identified and analyzed including multiproduction, emissions from biogenic carbon capture and storage (Bio-CCS), co-feeding of fossil fuels (secondary feedstock) and possible carbon storage in biomass-derived products (chemicals). Therefore, it is possible to calculate the balance of GHG emissions of a hypothetical thermochemical biorefinery considering different alternatives of land-use, biomass feedstock, co-feeding of fossil fuels, Bio-CCS incorporation and final use of the products. The comparison of the estimated GHG balance with the corresponding fossil reference for each product is of special relevance in the methodology since it is the parameter used in European regulation for the fulfillment of sustainability criteria in biomass-derived fuels and liquids. The proposed methodology is tested using a previously assessed set of different process concepts of thermochemical biorefineries (techno-economic analysis). The resulting GHG balance and saving are analyzed to identify uncertainties and provide recommendations for future regulation. In all process concepts, the GHG savings are above the minimum requirement of GHG emissions for 2018. In the case of incorporating

  20. Effect of aeration interval on oxygen consumption and GHG emission during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianfei; Yin, Hongjie; Shen, Xiuli; Liu, Ning; Ge, Jinyi; Han, Lujia; Huang, Guangqun

    2018-02-01

    To verify the optimal aeration interval for oxygen supply and consumption and investigate the effect of aeration interval on GHG emission, reactor-scale composting was conducted with different aeration intervals (0, 10, 30 and 50 min). Although O 2 was sufficiently supplied during aeration period, it could be consumed to  0.902), suggesting that lengthening the duration of aeration interval to some extent could effectively reduce GHG emission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 98.243 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feedstock). (MWf)i = Molecular weight of gaseous feedstock i (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petrochemical Production § 98.243 Calculating GHG emissions. (a) If you route all process vent emissions and emissions from combustion of process off-gas to one...

  2. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  3. Assessment of GHG emissions of biomethane from energy cereal crops in Umbria, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, C.; Barbanera, M.; Fantozzi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions of biomethane from energy crops cultivated in a central Italian farm were investigated. • Electricity consumption of the biogas plant was monitored. • Current scenario does not allow to achieve a GHG saving according to Renewable Energy Directive. • GHG emissions could be reduced by covering the storage tanks of digestate and installing a CHP plant. - Abstract: Biomethane from energy crops is a renewable energy carrier and therefore it potentially contributes to climate change mitigation. However, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from cultivation and processing must be considered. Among those, the production and use of nitrogen fertilizers, the resulting nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions, the methane emissions from digestate storage and the energy consumption of the biogas plant are crucial factors. In the present paper an integrated life cycle assessment (LCA) of GHG emissions from biomethane production is carried out, taking into account own measurements and experience data from a modern biogas plant located in Umbria, Italy. The study is also focused on the electricity consumption of the biogas plant, assessing the specific absorption power of each machinery. The analysis is based on the methodology defined by the European Union Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC (RED). The main result is that the biomethane chain exceeds the minimum value of GHG saving (35%) mainly due to the open storage of digestate. However by varying the system, using heat and electricity from a biogas CHP plant and covering digestate storage tank, a reduction of 68.9% could be obtained

  4. GHG emission scenarios in Asia and the world: The key technologies for significant reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Osamu; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Kainuma, Mikiko

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world as part of the Asian Modeling Exercise and assess technology options for meeting a 2.6 W/m 2 radiative forcing target using AIM/Enduse[Global] and AIM/Impact[Policy]. Global GHG emissions in 2050 are required to be reduced by 72% relative to a reference scenario, which corresponds to a 57% reduction from the 2005 level, in order to meet the above target. Energy intensity improvement contributes a lot to curbing CO 2 emission in the short-term. Meanwhile, carbon intensity reduction and CO 2 capture play a large role for further emission reduction in the mid to long-term. The top five key technologies in terms of reduction amount are CCS, solar power generation, wind power generation, biomass power generation and biofuel, which, in total, account for about 60% of global GHG emissions reduction in 2050. We implement additional model runs, each of which enforced limited availability of one of the key technology. The result shows that the 2.6 W/m 2 target up to 2050 is achievable even if availability of any one of the key technologies is limited to half the level achieved in the default simulation. However, if the use of CCS or biomass is limited, the cumulative GHG abatement cost until 2050 increases considerably. Therefore CCS and biomass have a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions. - Highlights: ► We explore GHG emission scenarios up to 2050 in Asia and the world. ► Significant GHG emission reduction is required to limit radiative forcing at low level. ► We assess technology options for achieving significant GHG emission reduction. ► CCS, solar power, wind power, and biomass are the key technologies for reduction. ► Especially, CCS and biomass play a vital role in curbing costs to achieve significant emission reductions.

  5. Managing GHG emissions : performance to the end of 2003 and forecast to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents statistics of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Shell Canada Ltd., one of the largest integrated oil and gas companies in Canada. Strategies for future emissions reductions were also presented. Since 1995, Shell has both set and met targets to reduce emissions in base businesses. They have increased their target reductions to a further 6 per cent by 2008. Strategies included reductions in energy consumption and improvements in energy efficiency. Challenges presented by new governmental regulations were discussed. Alternate energy sources are being considered as a means of expanding the Shell energy business portfolio. Principles and management plans guiding the emissions reduction strategy were presented, as well as details of the Shell management structure and climate change advisory panel. Figures and statistics of emissions reductions were provided in relation to changes in business activity; energy efficiency; formation gas; energy in declining fields; and fuel mix. An emissions forecast to 2010 was presented with newly adjusted goals. In 2003, overall refinery energy efficiency improved by over 4 per cent. Statistics of refinery energy intensity were presented. Exploration and production businesses achieved a reduction of 6 per cent, with energy intensity per unit of production presented. Oil sands projects achieved a GHG emissions intensity of 69 kilograms per barrel of bitumen. In addition, the voluntary GHG management plan introduced a number of offsets including tree planting programs and the purchase of voluntary GHG credits. The methodology used to calculate GHG emissions was also provided. tabs., figs

  6. Connections between population density, energy use, and GHG emissions in water networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filion, Y.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-07-01

    There is a growing concern that urban sprawl and highly dispersed urban infrastructure in cities is posing significant environmental impacts. However, there is no agreement on the suitability of interventions such as population intensification on reducing environmental impacts. This paper investigated the connection between population intensification and environmental impact in water distribution networks. Specifically, it examined the relationship between population density, annual per capita energy use, and annual per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in water distribution networks. It also examined which population densities produce low levels of annual per capita energy use and GHG emissions. An analytical model of a trunk main was developed to connect population density to energy use and GHG emissions. The model considered energy use in five life activities of the trunk main, namely pipe fabrication, pipe repair, water pumping, and pipe recycling and/or disposal. The energy use model was combined with emission factors and electricity fuel-source mixtures from four Canadian regions (Atlantic Provinces, Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta) to compute representative levels of annual per capita GHGs emitted by the trunk main. It was concluded that increasing population density from 10 ca/ha to 150 ca/ha reduced energy use and GHG emissions by 67per cent and that increasing population density beyond 150 ca/ha produces no significant decrease in annual per capita energy use and GHG emissions. Further analysis on looped networks is required to verify these preliminary findings. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  7. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiming; Lee, Grace W.M.; Wu Chihcheng

    2008-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

  8. Fuel conservation and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Passenger vehicles are the main consumers of gasoline in China. We established a bottom-up model which focuses on the simulation of energy consumptions and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation effects of five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, strengthening fuel consumption rate (FCR) limits, vehicle downsizing and promoting electric vehicle (EV) penetration were evaluated. Based on the combination of these measures, the fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were analyzed. Under reference scenario with no measures implemented, the fuel consumptions and life cycle GHG emissions will reach 520 million tons of oil equivalent (Mtoe) and 2.15 billion tons in 2050, about 8.1 times the level in 2010. However, substantial fuel conservation can be achieved by implementing the measures. By implementing all five measures together, the fuel consumption will reach 138 Mtoe in 2030 and decrease to 126 Mtoe in 2050, which is only 37.1% and 24.3% of the consumption under reference scenario. Similar potential lies in GHG mitigation. The results and scenarios provided references for the Chinese government’s policy-making. -- Highlights: ► We established a bottom-up model to simulate the fuel consumptions and GHG (Greenhouse gas) emissions growth by China’s passenger vehicle fleet. ► Five measures including constraining vehicle registration, reducing vehicle travel, improving fuel efficiency, vehicle downsizing and promoting EV penetration were evaluated. ► The fuel conservation and GHG emissions mitigation scenarios for China’s passenger vehicle fleet were provided as references for policy-making.

  9. 40 CFR 98.173 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Iron and Steel Production § 98.173 Calculating GHG emissions... for the process as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. The... the gaseous fuel (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard...

  10. 40 CFR 98.413 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculating GHG emissions. 98.413 Section 98.413 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse Gases § 98.413 Calculating...

  11. 40 CFR 98.73 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...). MW = Molecular weight of the gaseous feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor... stream (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5 scf per kg-mole at standard conditions... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Ammonia Manufacturing § 98.73 Calculating GHG emissions. You...

  12. 40 CFR 98.163 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... = Molecular weight of the gaseous fuel and feedstock (kg/kg-mole). MVC = Molar volume conversion factor (849.5... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Hydrogen Production § 98.163 Calculating GHG emissions. You... = Volume of the gaseous fuel and feedstock used in month n (scf (at standard conditions of 68 °F and...

  13. FORECASTING MODEL OF GHG EMISSION IN MANUFACTURING SECTORS OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruethsan Sutthichaimethee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the modeling and forecasting the GHG emission of energy consumption in manufacturing sectors. The scope of the study is to analysis energy consumption and forecasting GHG emission of energy consumption for the next 10 years (2016-2025 and 25 years (2016-2040 by using ARIMAX model from the Input-output table of Thailand. The result shows that iron and steel has the highest value of energy consumption and followed by cement, fluorite, air transport, road freight transport, hotels and places of loading, coal and lignite, petrochemical products, other manufacturing, road passenger transport, respectively. The prediction results show that these models are effective in forecasting by measured by using RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. The results forecast of each model is as follows: 1 Model 1(2,1,1 shows that GHG emission will be increasing steadily and increasing at 25.17% by the year 2025 in comparison to 2016. 2 Model 2 (2,1,2 shows that GHG emission will be rising steadily and increasing at 41.51% by the year 2040 in comparison to 2016.

  14. Short-Term Power Plant GHG Emissions Forecasting Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power generation in the total emissions at the global level was about 25 percent. From January 1st, 2013 Croatian facilities have been involved in the European Union Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). The share of the ETS sector in total GHG emissions in Croatia in 2012 was about 30 percent, where power plants and heat generation facilities contributed to almost 50 percent. Since 2013 power plants are obliged to purchase all emission allowances. The paper describes the short-term climate forecasting model of greenhouse gas emissions from power plants while covering the daily load diagram of the system. Forecasting is done on an hourly domain typically for one day, it is possible and more days ahead. Forecasting GHG emissions in this way would enable power plant operators to purchase additional or sell surplus allowances on the market at the time. Example that describes the operation of the above mentioned forecasting model is given at the end of the paper.(author).

  15. Vehicle lightweighting vs. electrification: Life cycle energy and GHG emissions results for diverse powertrain vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Anne Marie; Kelly, Jarod C.; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from diverse powertrain vehicles. • Lightweight versions of the vehicle models were compared against baseline models. • Maximum energy and GHG emissions occur with aluminum vs. advanced high strength steel. • Design harmonization method shows 0.2–0.3 kg of support required per 1 kg powertrain mass increase. - Abstract: This work assesses the potential of electrified vehicles and mass reduction to reduce life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to account for processes upstream and downstream of the vehicle operation, thereby incorporating regional variation of energy and GHG emissions due to electricity production and distinct energy and GHG emissions due to conventional and lightweight materials. Design harmonization methods developed in previous work are applied to create baseline and lightweight vehicle models of an internal combustion vehicle (ICV), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Thus, each vehicle is designed to be functionally equivalent and incorporate the structural support required for heavier powertrains. Lightweight vehicles are designed using body-in-white (BIW) mass reduction scenarios with aluminum and advanced/high strength steel (A/HSS). For the mass reduction scenarios considered in this work, results indicate that the greatest life cycle energy and GHG emissions reductions occur when steel is replaced by aluminum. However, since A/HSS requires less energy to produce as compared to aluminum, the energy and GHG reductions per unit mass removed is greatest for A/HSS. Results of the design harmonization modeling method show that 0.2–0.3 kg of structural support is required per unit increase in powertrain mass, thus extending previous methods

  16. Sensitivity analysis of GHG emissions from biofuels in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report identified key factors influencing the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ethanol and biodiesel production pathways in Canada. The report was prepared for use by policy makers in order to facilitate decision making that positively impacts the lifecycle GHG performance of renewable fuels. Four ethanol production pathways were considered: (1) ethanol production from corn; (2) ethanol production from wheat in conventional starch ethanol facilities; (3) ethanol produced from wheat straw using lignocellulosic technology; and (4) ethanol from sugar cane imported into Canada. For the pathway analysis, ethanols were blended at low levels with sulphur gasoline or used as E85 with low levels of gasoline. All ethanol scenarios were modelled for light duty vehicles. Results of the study demonstrated that all 4 pathways showed significant reductions in GHG emissions when compared to low sulphur gasoline. Differences in vehicle operation emissions between gasoline and ethanol-blended gasoline were related to a combination of the difference in the carbon content per unit of energy and the energy efficiency improvement. The study examined land use changes and feedstock production as well as all other lifecycle processes for diesel, canola, soy, palm, tallow, tallow grease, and yellow grease. A variety of transportation distances were considered. It was concluded that the alternative uses of co-products such as combustion to provide thermal energy resulted in improved GHG results. 17 refs., 117 tabs., 13 figs

  17. Optimizing production with energy and GHG emission constraints in Greece: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristu-Varsakelis, D.; Karagianni, S.; Pempetzoglou, M.; Sfetsos, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under its Kyoto and EU obligations, Greece has committed to a greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increase of at most 25% compared to 1990 levels, to be achieved during the period 2008-2012. Although this restriction was initially regarded as being realistic, information derived from GHG emissions inventories shows that an increase of approximately 28% has already taken place between 1990 and 2005, highlighting the need for immediate action. This paper explores the reallocation of production in Greece, on a sector-by-sector basis, in order to meet overall demand constraints and GHG emissions targets. We pose a constrained optimization problem, taking into account the Greek environmental input-output matrix for 2005, the amount of utilized energy and pollution reduction options. We examine two scenarios, limiting fluctuations in sectoral production to at most 10% and 15%, respectively, compared to baseline (2005) values. Our results indicate that (i) GHG emissions can be reduced significantly with relatively limited effects on GVP growth rates, and that (ii) greater cutbacks in GHG emissions can be achieved as more flexible production scenarios are allowed.

  18. EU GHG Emission Targets: 'Mind the gap'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lojodice, Ilaria

    2012-06-01

    In Durban, the European Union has been able to overcome the traditional dividing lines between developed and developing countries, setting a 'road-map' for a post-Kyoto framework. This would see countries conclude an 'agreed outcome with legal force' on emissions targets by 2015. Was this a key goal or a partial success for EU climate diplomacy? The main concerns are that the second commitment period would only come into force by 2021, and that necessary carbon cuts are not be increased before 2020. The direct by-product for the EU victory has been the awakening of the debate about raising emissions reductions to 30%. In fact, as stated in the Low Carbon Road-map, the EU has adopted a target of cutting emissions by 20% to by 2020, and of moving to a 30% reduction target if the conditions are right. Is this finally the time for Europe to improve its performance, even if it means going it alone? The EU has always been a strong defender of the Kyoto Protocol under certain constraints, such as developing and emerging countries entering into the deal. But does the EU have all the right assets to fight for this? Where is Europe in achieving its 2020 goal? In essence, this paper provides an estimate of what EU emissions could be in 2020, and how they stand compared to Kyoto and 20% objective of the 2020 strategy. (author)

  19. Life-cycle analysis on energy consumption and GHG emission intensities of alternative vehicle fuels in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Yan, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We analyzed the life cycle energy intensity and GHG emissions of about 40 pathways of alternative vehicle fuels in China. ► Coal-based liquid fuel has higher life cycle energy intensities and first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower intensity. ► By 2020 electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity and second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero intensities. -- Abstract: Fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities of major alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) in China are calculated and compared with conventional fuels by means of full life-cycle analysis. Currently most of the AVFs have not relatively obvious GHG emission reduction when compared to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF has higher intensities in terms of both the FEC and GHG emissions; (2) electricity from the average Chinese grid has the GHG emission intensity similar to that of gasoline pathway although relatively lower FEC intensity; and (3) first generation technology bio-fuel has relatively lower GHG emission intensity and substantially lower FEC intensity. It is forecasted that by 2020 when still comparing to the gasoline pathway: (1) coal-based AVF will still have FEC and GHG emission intensities that are 1.5–1.8 and 1.8–2.5 time those of gasoline pathway, and the application of carbon capture and storage technology can reduce the GHG emission intensity of coal-based AVF; (2) electricity will have significantly lower GHG intensity; and (3) second generation technology bio-fuel will have near zero FEC and GHG intensities.

  20. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  1. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: A case study in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hongwei, E-mail: luhw@ncepu.edu.cn; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information. • The model can minimize net system cost and mitigate GHG emissions. • The model is particularly developed for the city of Beijing, China. • It reduces system cost by [45, 61]% and mitigates GHG emissions by [141, 179]%. • It could provide implications to megacities regarding GHG emissions control. - Abstract: This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH{sub 4} emission from the landfills.

  2. Crowd-Sourcing Management Activity Data to Drive GHG Emission Inventories in the Land Use Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paustian, K.; Herrick, J.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the land use sector constitute the largest source category for many countries in Africa. Enhancing C sequestration and reducing GHG emissions on managed lands in Africa has to potential to attract C financing to support adoption of more sustainable land management practices that, in addition to GHG mitigation, can provide co-benefits of more productive and climate-resilient agroecosystems. However, robust systems to measure and monitor C sequestration/GHG reductions are currently a significant barrier to attracting more C financing to land use-related mitigation efforts.Anthropogenic GHG emissions are driven by a variety of environmental factors, including climate and soil attributes, as well as human-activities in the form of land use and management practices. GHG emission inventories typically use empirical or process-based models of emission rates that are driven by environmental and management variables. While a lack of field-based flux and C stock measurements are a limiting factor for GHG estimation, we argue that an even greater limitation may be availabiity of data on the management activities that influence flux rates, particularly in developing countries in Africa. In most developed countries there is a well-developed infrastructure of agricultural statistics and practice surveys that can be used to drive model-based GHG emission estimations. However, this infrastructure is largely lacking in developing countries in Africa. While some activity data (e.g. land cover change) can be derived from remote sensing, many key data (e.g., N fertilizer practices, residue management, manuring) require input from the farmers themselves. The explosive growth in cellular technology, even in many of the poorest parts of Africa, suggests the potential for a new crowd-sourcing approach and direct engagement with farmers to 'leap-frog' the land resource information model of developed countries. Among the many benefits of this approach

  3. Estimating GHG emissions of marine ports-the case of Barcelona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, Gara; Gemechu, Eskinder Demisse

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, GHG inventories of cities have expanded to include extra-boundary activities that form part of the city's urban metabolism and economy. This paper centers on estimating the emissions due to seaports, in such a way that they can be included as part of the city's inventory or be used by the port itself to monitor their policy and technology improvements for mitigating climate change. We propose the indicators GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled or per passenger and emissions per value of cargo handled as practical measures for policy making and emission prevention measures to be monitored over time. Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona, we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions (CO 2 equivalents) for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions). The highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. Knowing the highest emitters, the port can take action to improve the ship's activities within the port limits, such as maneuvering and hotelling. With these results, the port and the city can also find ways to reduce the land-based emissions. - Research highlights: → Adapting existing methodologies to the Port of Barcelona (PoB), we calculated a total of 331,390 tons of GHG emissions for the year of 2008, half of which were attributed to vessel movement (sea-based emissions) and the other half to port, land related activities (land-based emissions) → Emissions per ton of cargo handled is proposed as an indicator to pin point high polluting vessels-a measure independent of the city the port belongs to. For 2008, the highest polluters were auto carriers with 6 kg of GHG emissions per ton of cargo handled. → An additional measure of emissions per value of cargo handled is proposed to complement the emissions per weight indicator. For 2008, the volume of cargo

  4. The impact of uncertainties on predicted GHG emissions of dairy cow production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehetmeier, M.; Gandorfer, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Muller, U.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms produce significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and are therefore a focal point for GHG-mitigation practices. To develop viable mitigation options, we need robust (insensitive to changes in model parameters and assumptions) predictions of GHG emissions. To this end, we developed a

  5. Estimate of Fuel Consumption and GHG Emission Impact on an Automated Mobility District: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuche; Young, Stanley; Gonder, Jeff; Qi, Xuewei

    2015-12-11

    This study estimates the range of fuel and emissions impact of an automated-vehicle (AV) based transit system that services campus-based developments, termed an automated mobility district (AMD). The study develops a framework to quantify the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission impacts of a transit system comprised of AVs, taking into consideration average vehicle fleet composition, fuel consumption/GHG emission of vehicles within specific speed bins, and the average occupancy of passenger vehicles and transit vehicles. The framework is exercised using a previous mobility analysis of a personal rapid transit (PRT) system, a system which shares many attributes with envisioned AV-based transit systems. Total fuel consumption and GHG emissions with and without an AMD are estimated, providing a range of potential system impacts on sustainability. The results of a previous case study based of a proposed implementation of PRT on the Kansas State University (KSU) campus in Manhattan, Kansas, serves as the basis to estimate personal miles traveled supplanted by an AMD at varying levels of service. The results show that an AMD has the potential to reduce total system fuel consumption and GHG emissions, but the amount is largely dependent on operating and ridership assumptions. The study points to the need to better understand ride-sharing scenarios and calls for future research on sustainability benefits of an AMD system at both vehicle and system levels.

  6. The liability rules under international GHG emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xiang Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability rules has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. In general, a seller-beware liability works well in a strong enforcement environment. In the Kyoto Protocol, however, it may not always work. By contrast, a buyer-beware liability could be an effective deterrent to non-compliance, but the costs of imposing it are expected to be very high. To strike a middle ground, we suggest a combination of preventive measures with strong but feasible end-of-period punishments to ensure compliance with the Kyoto emissions commitments. Such measures aim to maximize efficiency gains from emissions trading and at the same time, to minimize over-selling risks. (author)

  7. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  8. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  9. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan; Guo, Qingfang [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and

  10. Energy consumption and GHG emissions of six biofuel pathways by LCA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan; Guo Qingfang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents life-cycle-analysis (LCA) energy consumption (EC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of China's current six biofuel pathways, which are: corn-derived ethanol (CE); cassava-derived ethanol (KE); sweet sorghum-derived ethanol (SE); soybean-derived bio-diesel (SB); jatropha fruit-derived bio-diesel (JB); and used cooking oil (UCO)-derived bio-diesel (UB). The tool utilized here is the WTW (Well-to-Wheels) module of Tsinghua-CA3EM model covering the entire lifecycle including: raw materials cultivation (or feedstock collection); fuel production; transportation and distribution; and application in automobile engines, compared with Conventional Petroleum-based gasoline and diesel Pathways (CPP). The results indicate: (1) the fossil energy inputs are about 1.0-1.5 times the energy contained in the fuel for the CE, SE and SB pathways, but 0.5-0.9 times for the KE, UB and JB pathways; (2) compared with CPP, the JB, KE and UB pathways can reduce both fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions; the CE and SB pathways can only reduce fossil fuel consumption, but increase GHG emission; the SE pathway increases not only fossil fuel consumption but also GHG emission; and (3) the main factors inducing high EC and GHG emission levels include: high EC levels during the fuel production stage and high fertilizer application rates during the planting of raw feedstocks. Conclusions are that of the aforementioned biofuel pathways in China: (1) only the JB, KE and UB pathways have energy-saving merits as indicated by the LCA energy inputs and outputs; (2) compared with CPP, all but the SE pathway reduces fossil fuel consumption. However, the SB and CE pathway increase GHG emission; (3) all six displace petroleum by utilizing more coal; and (4) feedstock productivity levels must be increased, and there must be a reduction in fertilizer utilization and EC consumption during the cultivation and transportation stages in order to achieve the goals of energy balance and GHG

  11. Analyzing the Effects of Car Sharing Services on the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Jung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the environmental impacts of roundtrip car sharing services by investigating transportation behavior. Car sharing should contribute to reduced greenhouse gas GHG emissions; however, such schemes include both positive and negative environmental effects, including: (1 reduced CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent from substituting private vehicle use for more fuel-efficient car sharing vehicles, (2 increased CO2e as car-less individuals switch from public transit to car sharing vehicles and (3 reduced CO2e due to fewer vehicles. This study examines the impacts of this modal shift on greenhouse gas (GHG emissions using three types of models: a mixed logit model to analyze car sharing service preferences; a binary logit model to analyze whether individuals are willing to forgo vehicle ownership or planned purchases to use car sharing services; and a linear regression to determine how much private vehicle or public transportation use would be replaced by car sharing and the resulting effects on mobility. Total emissions from the current car sharing market equal 1,025,589.36 t CO2e/year. However, an increase in electric vehicle (EV charging stations to 50% of the number of gasoline-fuel stations would increase the probability of electric car sharing vehicle use, thereby reducing emissions by 655,773 t CO2e. This study shows that forgoing vehicle purchases does not offset the increased GHG emissions caused by the shift from public transportation or private vehicle use to car sharing.

  12. Trends and Projected Estimates of GHG Emissions from Indian Livestock in Comparisons with GHG Emissions from World and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kumar Patra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents trends and projected estimates of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock of India vis-à-vis world and developing countries over the period 1961 to 2010 estimated based on IPCC guidelines. World enteric methane emission (EME increased by 54.3% (61.5 to 94.9 ×109 kg annually from the year 1961 to 2010, and the highest annual growth rate (AGR was noted for goat (2.0%, followed by buffalo (1.57% and swine (1.53%. Global EME is projected to increase to 120×109 kg by 2050. The percentage increase in EME by Indian livestock was greater than world livestock (70.6% vs 54.3% between the years 1961 to 2010, and AGR was highest for goat (1.91%, followed by buffalo (1.55%, swine (1.28%, sheep (1.25% and cattle (0.70%. In India, total EME was projected to grow by 18.8×109 kg in 2050. Global methane emission from manure (MEM increased from 6.81 ×109 kg in 1961 to 11.4×109 kg in 2010 (an increase of 67.6%, and is projected to grow to 15×109 kg by 2050. In India, the annual MEM increased from 0.52×109 kg to 1.1×109 kg (with an AGR of 1.57% in this period, which could increase to 1.54×109 kg in 2050. Nitrous oxide emission from manure in India could be 21.4×106 kg in 2050 from 15.3×106 kg in 2010. The AGR of global GHG emissions changed a small extent (only 0.11% from developed countries, but increased drastically (1.23% for developing countries between the periods of 1961 to 2010. Major contributions to world GHG came from cattle (79.3%, swine (9.57% and sheep (7.40%, and for developing countries from cattle (68.3%, buffalo (13.7% and goat (5.4%. The increase of GHG emissions by Indian livestock was less (74% vs 82% over the period of 1961 to 2010 than the developing countries. With this trend, world GHG emissions could reach 3,520×109 kg CO2-eq by 2050 due to animal population growth driven by increased demands for meat and dairy products in the world.

  13. Applying optimization techniques to improve of energy efficiency and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Qasemi-Kordkheili, Peyman; Kouchaki-Penchah, Hamed; Riahi-Dorcheh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    In this study a non-parametric method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and MOGA (Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm) were used to estimate the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction of wheat farmers in Ahvaz county of Iran. Data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire method from 39 farmers. The results showed that based on constant returns to scale model, 41.02% of wheat farms were efficient, though based on variable returns to scale model it was 53.23%. The average of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of wheat farms were 0.94, 0.95 and 0.98, respectively. By following the recommendations of this study, 3640.90 MJ ha"−"1 could be saved (9.13% of total input energy). Moreover, 42 optimal units were found by MOGA. The total energy required and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the best generation of MOGA were about 23105 MJ ha"−"1 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. The results revealed that the total energy required of MOGA was less than DEA, significantly. Also, the GHG emissions of present, DEA and MOGA farms were about 903, 837 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency and GHG emissions of wheat production in Iran. • The technical and pure technical efficiencies were 0.94 and 0.95 respectively. • DEA can be saved total energy and GHG emissions 9.13% and 7.28% respectively. • MOGA can be reduced total energy and GHG emissions more than DEA significantly.

  14. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G.

    2004-01-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs

  15. Energy consumption and GHG emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhargava, A.; Timilsina, G. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    After electricity generation, the oil and gas sector is the most emission intensive industry in Canada. This paper presents statistical data and research by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI). The aim of the research was to provide a comparative evaluation between Alberta's energy consumption and Canada-wide consumption. Data revealed that energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have increased faster in Alberta in comparison to the rest of Canada, but have slowed since 1997, while emissions in the rest of Canada still continued to increase. Aggregate emission intensities were presented. It was noted that there were no significant changes in fuel mix in either Alberta or the country as a whole. Key factors contributing to rapid increase in energy consumption and GHG emissions after 1996 were: increased energy intensive production and increased use of natural gas. Charts of oil and gas use were presented in energy consumption, economic output and GHG emissions, also indicating that Canadian trends followed Alberta trends. A list of reduction measures in the oil and gas sector were provided, with figures of total reductions and cost. Future actions were outlined and included: ratification of the Kyoto Accord, the negotiation of sectoral agreements, important elements such as cost cap and percentages of reduction; the limited ability to reduce emissions at lower cost per tonne within the oil and gas sector; technology breakthroughs; and adoption of new practices such as the use of alternate fuels in energy intensive processes. tabs, figs.

  16. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  17. GHG emissions inventory for on-road transportation in the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) accounts an increase of the total annual anthropogenic GHG emissions between 2000 and 2010 that directly came from the transport sector. In 2010, 14% of GHG emissions were released by transport and fossil-fuel-related CO2 emissions reached about 32 GtCO2 per year. The report also considers adaptation and mitigation as complementary strategies for reducing the risks of climate change for sustainable development of urban areas. This paper describes the on-road traffic emission estimated in the framework of a Sardinian regional project [1] for the town of Sassari (Sardinia, Italy), one of the Sardinian areas where the fuel consumption for on-road transportation purposes is higher [2]. The GHG emissions have been accounted (a) by a calculation-based methodology founded on a linear relationship between source activity and emission, and (b) by the COPERT IV methodology through the EMITRA (EMIssions from road TRAnsport) software tool [3]. Inventory data for annual fossil fuel consumption associated with on-road transportation (diesel, gasoline, gas) have been collected through the Dogane service, the ATP and ARST public transport services and vehicle fleet data are available from the Public Vehicle Database (PRA), using 2010 as baseline year. During this period, the estimated CO2 emissions accounts for more than 180,000 tCO2. The calculation of emissions due to on-road transport quantitatively estimates CO2 and other GHG emissions and represents a useful baseline to identify possible adaptation and mitigation strategies to face the climate change risks at municipal level. Acknowledgements This research was funded by the Sardinian Regional Project "Development, functional checking and setup of an integrated system for the quantification of CO2 net exchange and for the evaluation of mitigation strategies at urban and territorial scale", (Legge Regionale 7 agosto 2007, No. 7). References [1] Sanna L., Ferrara R., Zara P. & Duce P. (2014

  18. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  19. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  20. Modeling GHG emission and energy consumption in selected greenhouses in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefi, M.; Omid, M.; Rafiee, SH.; Khoshnevisan, B. [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    It is crucial to determine energy efficiency and environmental effects of greenhouse productions. Such study can be a viable solution in probing challenges and existing defects. The aims of this study were to analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for pepper production using biological method inside greenhouses which used natural gas (NG) heating system in Esfahan province. Data were collected from 22 greenhouse holders using a face to face questionnaire method, in 2010-2011. Also, functional area was selected 1000 m2. Total energy input, total energy output, energy ratio, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy gain and total GHG emissions were calculated as 297799.9 MJ area-1, 3851.84 MJ area-1, 0.013, 0.016 kg MJ-1, 61.85 MJ kg-1, -293948 MJ area-1 and 14390.85 kg CO2 equivalent area-1, respectively. Result revealed that replacing diesel fuel with NG will not be an effective way of reducing energy consumption for greenhouse production. However, it is crucial to focus on energy management in order to enhance the energy and environmental indices. One way to supply adequate input energy and a reduction in GHG emissions is the utilization of renewable and clean energy sources instead of NG and diesel fuel. Also, it is suggested to adopt solar greenhouses in the region and to supply electricity from non-fossil sources seriously.

  1. National Framework for GHG Emission Trading in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.; Nikitina, E.

    2003-01-01

    If Russia ratifies the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), domestic implementation of its international commitments under this international regime will require special national responses, i.e. institutional capacity building for application of its mechanisms. The Kyoto Protocol and its mechanisms, particularly, international emission trading (IET) and joint implementation (JI), mark a turning point, with opportunities for Russia to benefit from an economic and environmental standpoint from international cooperation. Russia might wish to sell to other parties a surplus in its assigned amount for the first commitment period in 2008-2012, as according to existing estimates its GHG emissions are expected to be below their 1990 base level. In order to participate in international emission trading, Russia has to meet several international requirements, including providing national inventory and reporting and establishing national registry compatible with the standard international format. It is to establish a domestic institutional regime defining laws and rules of behaviour for its participants, the administrative frameworks, and designing major schemes for domestic emission trading programme. Russia's emission trading system is not formed yet. This is a challenging innovation for Russia, as in its previous environmental management practices it did not have any experience in domestic emission trading with other air pollutants. The paper examines the key elements suggested in a number of existing proposals, assessments, and approaches of the government, parliamentarians and non-governmental experts for its institutional design which is at the core of ongoing climate policy debates in the country. These approaches and practical suggestions define the current state-of-the-art in domestic emission trading regime formation and channel the paths of its institutional development in the future. This paper analyses peculiarities

  2. General guidance and procedures for estimating and reporting national GHG emissions for agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rypdal, K.

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture account for a large share of total GHG emissions in most countries. Methane from ruminants, animal manure and rice fields, and nitrous oxide from agricultural soils are among the most important sources. In general, these emission estimates also are more uncertain than most other parts of the GHG emission inventory. IPCC has developed guidelines for estimating and reporting emissions of GHG. These guidelines shall be followed to secure complete, consistent, accurate and transparent reporting of emissions. However, the recommended methodologies are tiered, and choice of methods shall preferably reflect national circumstances, the national importance of a source, and different resources to prepare inventories. A country may also apply a national methodology given that it is well documented and not in conflict with good practice. Emission data reported under the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change are subject to external control, and the methodologies are reviewed by experts on agricultural inventories. (au)

  3. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Forest Resources Management; Mohn, W.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N{sub 2}O) and consumption of methane (CH{sub 4}) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N{sub 2}O production and CH{sub 4} oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N{sub 2}O emission and CH{sub 4} oxidation in forest soils. The actual N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity.

  4. Effects of forest fertilization on C sequestration and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.E.; Grayston, S.J.; Basiliko, N.; Seely, B.A.; Weetman, G.F.; Bull, G.Q.; Northway, S.; Mohn, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential to create carbon credits from the increased storage in all carbon pools on the forest landscape. It was conducted in response to the Kyoto Protocol provision which allows the inclusion of carbon sinks. The productivity of Canada's forest landbase is limited by availability of nutrients, particularly nitrogen (N). Studies have shown that forest fertilization not only increases productivity of many forest type, but offers the associated benefit of increased carbon (C) sequestration in biomass. There is increasing evidence that N fertilization will also increase C sequestration in soil organic matter, since higher N availability appears to interfere with litter decomposition causing more C to become humified. Many long-term fertilization experiments in British Columbia have provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of N addition on C sequestration in vegetation and soil organic matter. It was noted that determining the effects of fertilization on emission of nitrous oxides (N 2 O) and consumption of methane (CH 4 ) is critical since the greenhouse warming potential of these gases is much greater than that of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). This study also used state-of-the-art molecular methods to identify the soil microorganisms responsible for N 2 O production and CH 4 oxidation in order to determine the complex and often contradictory effects of fertilizers on N 2 O emission and CH 4 oxidation in forest soils. The actual N 2 O, CO 2 , and CH 4 fluxes from these soils were also measured. The main objective of the project was the development of microbial indicators as tools to detect soil GHG emission activity

  5. Life cycle assessment of energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production from alternative resources in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Dong; Yang, Siyu; Li, Xiuxi; Qian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conduct a life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of olefins production processes. • Analyse effects of carbon capture and efficiency on alternative olefins production. • Analyse life cycle performance of Chinese olefins industry in three key periods. • Present the advantages and challenges of alternative olefins routes. - Abstract: Olefins are important platform chemicals widely used in industry. In terms of the short supply of oil resources, natural gas and coal are two significant alternative feedstocks. In this paper, energy consumption and GHG emissions of olefins production are analysed with life cycle assessment methods. Results showed the energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas-to-olefins are roughly equivalent to those of oil-to-olefins, while coal-to-olefins suffers from higher energy consumption and serious GHG emissions, including 5793 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of direct emissions and 5714 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins of indirect emissions. To address the problem, the effect of carbon capture on coal-to-olefins is investigated. In comprehensive consideration of energy utilization, environmental impact, and economic benefit, the coal-to-olefins with 80% CO 2 capture of the direct emissions is found to be an appropriate choice. With this carbon capture configuration, the direct emissions of the coal-to-olefins are reduced to 1161 kg eq. CO 2 /t olefins. However, the indirect emissions are still not captured, which should be strictly monitored and significantly reduced. Finally, a scenario analysis is conducted to estimate resource utilization and GHG emissions of olefins production of China in 2020. Several suggestions are also proposed for policy making on the sustainable development of olefins industry

  6. GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China: Regional disparity and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Hang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions from primary aluminum production in China were accounted. • The impact of regional disparity of power generation was considered for this study. • GHG emissions factor of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO_2e/t Al ingot in 2013. • Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO_2e in 2013. - Abstract: China is the world-leading primary aluminum production country, which contributed to over half of global production in 2014. Primary aluminum production is power-intensive, for which power generation has substantial impact on overall Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we explore the impact of regional disparity of China’s power generation system on GHG emissions for the sector of primary aluminum production. Our analysis reveals that the national GHG emissions factor (GEF) of China’s primary aluminum production was 16.5 t CO_2e/t Al ingot in 2013, with province-level GEFs ranging from 8.2 to 21.7 t CO_2e/t Al ingot. There is a high coincidence of provinces with high aluminum productions and high GEFs. Total GHG emissions from China’s primary aluminum production were 421 mt CO_2e in 2013, approximately accounting for 4% of China’s total GHG emissions. Under the 2020 scenario, GEF shows a 13.2% reduction compared to the 2013 level, but total GHG emissions will increase to 551 mt CO_2e. Based on our analysis, we recommend that the government should further promote energy efficiency improvement, facilitate aluminum industry redistribution with low-carbon consideration, promote secondary aluminum production, and improve aluminum industry data reporting and disclosure.

  7. Alternative policy impacts on US GHG emissions and energy security: A hybrid modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarica, Kemal; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the possible impacts of energy and climate policies, namely corporate average fleet efficiency (CAFE) standard, renewable fuel standard (RFS) and clean energy standard (CES), and an economy wide equivalent carbon tax on GHG emissions in the US to the year 2045. Bottom–up and top–down modeling approaches find widespread use in energy economic modeling and policy analysis, in which they differ mainly with respect to the emphasis placed on technology of the energy system and/or the comprehensiveness of endogenous market adjustments. For this study, we use a hybrid energy modeling approach, MARKAL–Macro, that combines the characteristics of two divergent approaches, in order to investigate and quantify the cost of climate policies for the US and an equivalent carbon tax. The approach incorporates Macro-economic feedbacks through a single sector neoclassical growth model while maintaining sectoral and technological detail of the bottom–up optimization framework with endogenous aggregated energy demand. Our analysis is done for two important objectives of the US energy policy: GHG reduction and increased energy security. Our results suggest that the emission tax achieves results quite similar to the CES policy but very different results in the transportation sector. The CAFE standard and RFS are more expensive than a carbon tax for emission reductions. However, the CAFE standard and RFS are much more efficient at achieving crude oil import reductions. The GDP losses are 2.0% and 1.2% relative to the base case for the policy case and carbon tax. That difference may be perceived as being small given the increased energy security gained from the CAFE and RFS policy measures and the uncertainty inherent in this type of analysis. - Highlights: • Evaluates US impacts of three energy/climate policies and a carbon tax (CT) • Analysis done with bottom–up MARKAL model coupled with a macro model • Electricity clean energy standard very close to

  8. Changes of energy-related GHG emissions in China: An empirical analysis from sectoral perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xianshuo; Zhao, Tao; Liu, Nan; Kang, Jidong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the factors impacting China’s emissions from a sectoral perspective. • Sector-specific policies and measures for emissions mitigation were evaluated. • Economic growth dominantly increased the emissions in the economic sectors. • Energy intensity decrease primarily reduced the emissions in the economic sectors. • Residential emissions growth was mainly driven by increase in per-capita energy use. - Abstract: In order to better understand sectoral greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, this study utilized a logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) decomposition analysis to study emission changes from a sectoral perspective. Based on the decomposition results, recently implemented policies and measures for emissions mitigation in China were evaluated. The results show that for the economic sectors, economic growth was the dominant factor in increasing emissions from 1996 to 2011, whereas the decline in energy intensity was primarily responsible for the emission decrease. As a result of the expansion of industrial development, economic structure change also contributed to growth in emissions. For the residential sector, increased emissions were primarily driven by an increase in per-capita energy use, which is partially confirmed by population migration. For all sectors, the shift in energy mix and variation in emission coefficient only contributed marginally to the emissions changes. The decomposition results imply that energy efficiency policy in China has been successful during the past decade, i.e., Top 1000 Priorities, Ten-Key Projects programs, the establishment of fuel consumption limits and vehicle emission standards, and encouragement of efficient appliances. Moreover, the results also indicate that readjusting economic structure and promoting clean and renewable energy is urgently required in order to further mitigate emissions in China

  9. GHG emission control and solid waste management for megacities with inexact inputs: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Sun, Shichao; Ren, Lixia; He, Li

    2015-03-02

    This study advances an integrated MSW management model under inexact input information for the city of Beijing, China. The model is capable of simultaneously generating MSW management policies, performing GHG emission control, and addressing system uncertainty. Results suggest that: (1) a management strategy with minimal system cost can be obtained even when suspension of certain facilities becomes unavoidable through specific increments of the remaining ones; (2) expansion of facilities depends only on actual needs, rather than enabling the full usage of existing facilities, although it may prove to be a costly proposition; (3) adjustment of waste-stream diversion ratio directly leads to a change in GHG emissions from different disposal facilities. Results are also obtained from the comparison of the model with a conventional one without GHG emissions consideration. It is indicated that (1) the model would reduce the net system cost by [45, 61]% (i.e., [3173, 3520] million dollars) and mitigate GHG emissions by [141, 179]% (i.e., [76, 81] million tons); (2) increased waste would be diverted to integrated waste management facilities to prevent overmuch CH4 emission from the landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ► A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ► These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ► Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from −145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement

  11. Uncertainty in estimating and mitigating industrial related GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Zeinati, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Mezher, T.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change has been one of the challenging environmental concerns facing policy makers in the past decade. The characterization of the wide range of greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks as well as their behavior in the atmosphere remains an on-going activity in many countries. Lebanon, being a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is required to submit and regularly update a national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions sources and removals. Accordingly, an inventory of greenhouse gases from various sectors was conducted following the guidelines set by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory indicated that the industrial sector contributes about 29% to the total greenhouse gas emissions divided between industrial processes and energy requirements at 12 and 17%, respectively. This paper describes major mitigation scenarios to reduce emissions from this sector based on associated technical, economic, environmental, and social characteristics. Economic ranking of these scenarios was conducted and uncertainty in emission factors used in the estimation process was emphasized. For this purpose, theoretical and experimental emission factors were used as alternatives to default factors recommended by the IPCC and the significance of resulting deviations in emission estimation is presented. (author)

  12. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gaitán

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1, compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1. We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1 and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced. Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  13. Climate-Smart Livestock Systems: An Assessment of Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán, Lucía; Läderach, Peter; Graefe, Sophie; Rao, Idupulapati; van der Hoek, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Livestock systems in the tropics can contribute to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing carbon accumulation. We quantified C stocks and GHG emissions of 30 dual-purpose cattle farms in Nicaragua using farm inventories and lifecycle analysis. Trees in silvo-pastoral systems were the main C stock above-ground (16-24 Mg ha-1), compared with adjacent secondary forests (43 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that methane from enteric fermentation contributed 1.6 kg CO2-eq., and nitrous oxide from excreta 0.4 kg CO2-eq. per kg of milk produced. Seven farms that we classified as climate-smart agriculture (CSA) out of 16 farms had highest milk yields (6.2 kg cow-1day-1) and lowest emissions (1.7 kg CO2-eq. per kg milk produced). Livestock on these farms had higher-quality diets, especially during the dry season, and manure was managed better. Increasing the numbers of CSA farms and improving CSA technology will require better enabling policy and incentives such as payments for ecosystem services.

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  15. The impact of the economic crisis and policy actions on GHG emissions from road transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobrino, Natalia; Monzon, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic is the greatest contributor to the carbon footprint of the transport sector and reducing it has become one of the main targets of sustainable transport policies. An analysis of the main factors influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential for designing new energy- and environmentally efficient strategies for the road transport. This paper addresses this need by (i) identifying factors which influence the carbon footprint, including traffic activity, fuel economy and socioeconomic development; and (ii) proposing a methodological framework which uses Modified Laspeyres Index decomposition to analyze the effect of important drivers on the changes in emissions of road transport in Spain during the period from 1990 to 2010. The results demonstrate that the country's economic growth has been closely linked to the rise in GHG emissions. The innovative contribution of this paper is the special analysis of the changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions during the economic crisis, when, for the first time, Spanish road traffic emissions decreased. The reduction of road transport and improved energy efficiency has been powerful contributors to this decrease, demonstrating the effectiveness of energy-saving measures. On the basis of this analysis, several tailored policy recommendations have been suggested for future implementation. - Highlights: • Drivers contributing to GHG emissions of road transport are identified and analyzed. • Decomposition analysis based on Modified Laspeyres Index (MLI) is applied to the Spanish case. • Economic crisis and changes in mobility patterns and GHG emissions are analyzed. • Policies for the decarbonization of road transport are recommended

  16. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  17. ON THE STUDY OF GHG (GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN DARGAZ, IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important issue which has attracted the attention of many scientists is the climate change and global warming due to greenhouse gas emission which has caused the world faced with a great human and environmental disaster. In this study, the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions was estimated in the semi-traditional and semi-mechanized rice production systems in Dargaz region, Iran. All the agricultural and consuming inputs procedures responsible for greenhouse gas emissions were collected and recorded in both systems. The amount of GHG emission in semi-traditional and semi-mechanized was 813.17 and 968.31 kg CO2-eq ha-1, respectively. The fuel consumption with the share of 38.22% in semi-traditional method and 43.32% in semi-mechanized system had the largest share in GHG emission and using Nitrogen fertilizer on farms with the share of 31.97% in semi-traditional method and 26.91% in semi-mechanized system is in the second place of GHG emission. The semi-traditional system had greater GHG emissions in the unit of tone of harvested grain and unit of energy output. The use of alternative methods such as conservation tillage and organic fertilizers can be effective in improving the environmental status of the production area.

  18. Genetic mitigation strategies to tackle agricultural GHG emissions: The case for biological nitrification inhibition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Arango, J; Masahiro, K; Hooper, A M; Yoshihashi, T; Ando, Y; Nakahara, K; Deshpande, S; Ortiz-Monasterio, I; Ishitani, M; Peters, M; Chirinda, N; Wollenberg, L; Lata, J C; Gerard, B; Tobita, S; Rao, I M; Braun, H J; Kommerell, V; Tohme, J; Iwanaga, M

    2017-09-01

    Accelerated soil-nitrifier activity and rapid nitrification are the cause of declining nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE) and enhanced nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from farming. Biological nitrification inhibition (BNI) is the ability of certain plant roots to suppress soil-nitrifier activity, through production and release of nitrification inhibitors. The power of phytochemicals with BNI-function needs to be harnessed to control soil-nitrifier activity and improve nitrogen-cycling in agricultural systems. Transformative biological technologies designed for genetic mitigation are needed, so that BNI-enabled crop-livestock and cropping systems can rein in soil-nitrifier activity, to help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and globally make farming nitrogen efficient and less harmful to environment. This will reinforce the adaptation or mitigation impact of other climate-smart agriculture technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

  20. GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, Elena; Trois, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from −290 kg CO 2 e (glass) to −19 111 kg CO 2 e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO 2 e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard

  1. Alternative U.S. biofuel mandates and global GHG emissions: The role of land use change, crop management and yield growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosnier, A.; Havlík, P.; Valin, H.; Baker, J.; Murray, B.; Feng, S.; Obersteiner, M.; McCarl, B.A.; Rose, S.K.; Schneider, U.A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2) and several alternative biofuel policy designs on global GHG emissions from land use change and agriculture over the 2010–2030 horizon. Analysis of the scenarios relies on GLOBIOM, a global, multi-sectoral economic model based on a detailed representation of land use. Our results reveal that RFS2 would substantially increase the portion of agricultural land needed for biofuel feedstock production. U.S. exports of most agricultural products would decrease as long as the biofuel target would increase leading to higher land conversion and nitrogen use globally. In fact, higher levels of the mandate mean lower net emissions within the U.S. but when the emissions from the rest of the world are considered, the US biofuel policy results in almost no change on GHG emissions for the RFS2 level and higher global GHG emissions for higher levels of the mandate or higher share of conventional corn-ethanol in the mandate. Finally, we show that if the projected crop productivity would be lower globally, the imbalance between domestic U.S. GHG savings and additional GHG emissions in the rest of the world would increase, thus deteriorating the net global impact of U.S. biofuel policies. - Highlights: ► We model the impact of the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS2). ► RFS2 would require more agricultural land and nitrogen globally. ► Increasing the mandates reduce GHG emissions within the U.S. ► Increasing the mandates increase GHG emissions in the rest of the world. ► Total GHG emissions increase with higher levels of mandate; higher share of corn-ethanol; lower productivity growth

  2. India’s GHG Emission Reduction and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    India has made voluntary commitment for reducing the emission intensity of GDP in the year 2020 by 20–25 % below that in the year 2005. The Indian approach is based on delineating and implementing cost-effective mitigation actions which can contribute to national sustainable development goals while...... an optimal roadmap of actions in India which can maximize net total benefits of carbon emissions mitigation and national sustainable development. A key contribution of the paper is the estimation of the net social value of carbon in India which is an important input for provisioning carbon finance...... model ANSWER-MARKAL, which is embedded within a soft-linked integrated model system (SLIMS). The central themes of the three scenario storylines and assumptions are as follows: first, a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario that assumes the socioeconomic development to happen along the conventional path...

  3. Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA): Application of Pinch Analysis for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction in municipal solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Wai Shin; Hashim, Haslenda; Lim, Jeng Shiun; Lee, Chew Tin; Sam, Kah Chiin; Tan, Sie Ting

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) is presented. • WAMPA aims to identify waste management strategies based on specific target. • WAMPA is capable to examine the capacity of waste management strategies through graphical representation. - Abstract: Improper waste management happened in most of the developing country where inadequate disposal of waste in landfill is commonly practiced. Apart from disposal, MSW can turn into valuable product through recycling, energy recovery, and biological recovery action as suggested in the hierarchy of waste management. This study presents a method known as Waste Management Pinch Analysis (WAMPA) to examine the implication of a dual-objective – landfill and GHG emission reduction target in sustainable waste management. WAMPA is capable to identify the capacity of each waste processing strategy through graphical representation. A general methodology of WAMPA is presented through a demonstration of a SWM case followed by a detailed representation of WAMPA for five waste types. Application of the WAMPA is then applied on a case study for sustainable waste management planning from year 2015 to 2035. Three waste management strategies are incorporated into the case study – landfill, Waste-to-Energy (WtE), and reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R). The results show a 13.5% of total GHG emission reduction and 54.6% of total reduction of landfill are achieved. The major contributor of GHG emission which are from food waste (landfill emission) and plastic (WtE emission) is reduced.

  4. Control of GHG emission at the microbial community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, H; Wett, B

    2008-01-01

    All organic material eventually is decomposed by microorganisms, and considerable amounts of C and N end up as gaseous metabolites. The emissions of greenhouse relevant gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides largely depend on physico-chemical conditions like substrate quality or the redox potential of the habitat. Manipulating these conditions has a great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such options are known from farm and waste management, as well as from wastewater treatment. In this paper examples are given how greenhouse gas production might be reduced by regulating microbial processes. Biogas production from manure, organic wastes, and landfills are given as examples how methanisation may be used to save fossil fuel. Methane oxidation, on the other hand, might alleviate the problem of methane already produced, or the conversion of aerobic wastewater treatment to anaerobic nitrogen elimination through the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process might reduce N2O release to the atmosphere. Changing the diet of ruminants, altering soil water potentials or a change of waste collection systems are other measures that affect microbial activities and that might contribute to a reduction of carbon dioxide equivalents being emitted to the atmosphere.

  5. Assessment of GHG Emission Reduction Potential from Source-separated Organic Waste (SOW) Management: Case Study in a Higher Educational Institution in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.G.; Sumiani Yusoff

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction via composting of source-separated organic waste (SOW) in municipal solid waste (MSW) has not been assessed. Assessment of GHG emissions reduction via composting of SOW is important as environmental impacts from waste management are waste-specific and local-specific. The study presents the case study for potential carbon reduction via composting of SOW in University of Malaya (UM). In this study, a series of calculations were used to evaluate the GHG emission of different SOW management scenarios. The calculations based on IPCC calculation methods (AM0025) include GHGs emissions from land filling, fuel consumption in transportation and SOW composting activity. The methods were applied to assess the GHG emissions from five alternative SOW management scenarios in UM. From the baseline scenario (S0), a total of 1,636.18 tCO2e was generated. In conjunction with target of 22 % recycling rate, as shown in S1, 14 % reduction in potential GHG emission can be achieved. The carbon reduction can be further enhanced by increasing the SOW composting capacity. The net GHG emission for S1, S2, S3 and S4 were 1,399.52, 1,161.29, 857.70 and 1,060.48 tCO2e, respectively. In general, waste diversion for composting proved a significant net GHG emission reduction as shown in S3 (47 %), S4 (35 %) and S2 (29 %). Despite the emission due to direct on-site activity, the significant reduction in methane generation at landfill has reduced the net GHG emission. The emission source of each scenario was studied and analysed. (author)

  6. Modelling the impacts of challenging 2020 non-ETS GHG emissions reduction targets on Ireland′s energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Alessandro; Gargiulo, Maurizio; Deane, J.P.; Lavigne, Denis; Rout, Ullash K.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on Ireland's ambitious target for 2020 to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% below 2005 levels for sectors not covered by ETS (Non-ETS). Ireland is an interesting case study due to the role of agriculture (a particularly challenging sector with regard to GHG emissions reduction), that represents 29% of Ireland's GHG emissions compared with less than 10% for the EU. The analysis is carried out with the Irish TIMES model, a bottom-up energy systems modelling tool with detailed characterization of Ireland's energy system. The paper uses scenario analysis to provide pathways that demonstrate how Ireland can meet the non-ETS target at least cost. The paper considers the impacts (in terms of different technology choices and higher marginal abatement costs) arising from higher targets for the energy system to compensate for growth in agriculture activity and low mitigation potential in that sector. The results point to a need to reconsider Ireland's renewable energy focus, with a need for increased effort in renewable transport and renewable heat in particular. The results also point to significant electrification of residential heating. The results also point to a high marginal abatement cost (€213/tCO 2 ), which challenges the analysis carried out at EU level to establish Ireland's non-ETS target. - Highlights: • Techno-economic energy model to deliver EU GHG mitigation target by 2020 in Ireland. • Agriculture represents nearly half of Non-ETS emissions in Ireland. • The target set for Non-ETS GHG for Ireland is far from a cost optimal target. • The results point to a need to reconsider Ireland's renewable energy focus. • Key pathways: electrification of heating in buildings and biofuels in transport

  7. GHG-emissions for cars with different power trains over the whole life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    The method of life-cycle assessment (LCA) has been applied to cars with different power trains. As an example, the results for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are presented. They show possibilities and limits for the reduction of these emissions in the transportation sector by means of advanced technology. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  8. Whole farm quantification of GHG emissions within smallholder farms in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebauer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The IPCC has compiled the best available scientific methods into published guidelines for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission removals from the land-use sector. In order to evaluate existing GHG quantification tools to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions and removals in smallholder conditions, farm scale quantification was tested with farm data from Western Kenya. After conducting a cluster analysis to identify different farm typologies GHG quantification was exercised using the VCS SALM methodology complemented with IPCC livestock emission factors and the cool farm tool. The emission profiles of four farm clusters representing the baseline conditions in the year 2009 are compared with 2011 where farmers adopted sustainable land management practices (SALM). The results demonstrate the variation in both the magnitude of the estimated GHG emissions per ha between different smallholder farm typologies and the emissions estimated by applying two different accounting tools. The farm scale quantification further shows that the adoption of SALM has a significant impact on emission reduction and removals and the mitigation benefits range between 4 and 6.5 tCO 2  ha −1  yr −1 with significantly different mitigation benefits depending on typologies of the crop–livestock systems, their different agricultural practices, as well as adoption rates of improved practices. However, the inherent uncertainty related to the emission factors applied by accounting tools has substantial implications for reported agricultural emissions. With regard to uncertainty related to activity data, the assessment confirms the high variability within different farm types as well as between different parameters surveyed to comprehensively quantify GHG emissions within smallholder farms. (paper)

  9. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    OpenAIRE

    W. Michael Griffin; Jeremy Michalek; H. Scott Matthews; Mohd Nor Azman Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO 2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model wa...

  10. GHG emission quantification for pavement construction projects using a process-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charinee Limsawasd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have attracted much attention for their impacts upon the global environment. Initiating of new legislation and regulations for control of GHG emissions from the industrial sectors has been applied to address this problem. The transportation industries, which include operation of road pavement and pavement construction equipment, are the highest GHG-emitting sectors. This study presents a novel quantification model of GHG emissions of pavement construction using process-based analysis. The model is composed of five modules that evaluate GHG emissions. These are: material production and acquisition, (2 material transport to a project site, (3 heavy equipment use, (4 on-site machinery use, and, (5 on-site electricity use. The model was applied to a hypothetical pavement project to compare the environmental impacts of flexible and rigid pavement types during construction. The resulting model can be used for evaluation of environmental impacts, as well as for designing and planning highway pavement construction.

  11. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Beibei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wei, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: Zhangb@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bi, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-03-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%.

  12. Life cycle GHG emissions of sewage sludge treatment and disposal options in Tai Lake Watershed, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Beibei; Wei, Qi; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and disposal of sewage sludge generate considerable amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and pose environmental and economic challenges to wastewater treatment in China. To achieve a more informed and sustainable sludge management, this study conducts a life cycle inventory to investigate the GHG performances of six scenarios involving various sludge treatment technologies and disposal strategies. These scenarios are landfilling (S1), mono-incineration (S2), co-incineration (S3), brick manufacturing (S4), cement manufacturing (S5), and fertilizer for urban greening (S6). In terms of GHG emissions, S2 demonstrates the best performance with its large offset from sludge incineration energy recovery, followed by S4 and S6, whereas S1 demonstrates the poorest performance primarily because of its large quantity of methane leaks. The scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. In most scenarios, GHG performance could be improved by using waste gas or steam from existing facilities for drying sludge. Furthermore, considering the GHG performance along with economic, health, and other concerns, S6 is recommended. We thus suggest that local governments promote the use of composted sludge as urban greening fertilizers. In addition, the use of sludge with 60% water content, in place of the current standard of 80%, in wastewater treatment plants is proposed to be the new standard for Tai Lake Watershed in China. - Highlights: ► Life-cycle GHG emissions of six sludge handling scenarios are examined. ► Scenario rankings are affected by the assumptions of GHG offset calculation. ► Using heat from existing facilities to dry sludge can improve GHG performance. ► Fertilizer for urban greening is recommended due to its integrated performance. ► The sludge water-content standard is suggested to changed from 80% to 60%

  13. Scenarios for the use of GHG-reduction instruments - how can policy-instruments as carbon emission trading and tradable green certificates be used simultaneously to reach a common GHG-reduction target?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2000-01-01

    According to the agreed burden sharing in the EU, a number of member states have to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases substantially. To achieve these reductions various policy-instruments - national as well as international - are on hand. Two international instruments are emphasized in this paper: tradable quotas for limiting carbon emissions and tradable green certificates for promoting the deployment of renewable energy technologies. In the analyses of these two instruments two main questions are considered: (1) Will there be any international trade in green certificates, if no GHG-credits are attached to them? (2) Will it make any difference if the EU sets the targets to be achieved by the two instruments or alternatively the individual member countries do? An incentive-analysis in which four scenarios are set up and discussed is performed for the EU member states. The main conclusion is that if no GHG-credits are attached to the green certificates there seems to be limited of no incentives for a permanent international trade in certificates. On the other hand, if GHG-credits are attached to the certificates an efficient international trade will take place regardless of whether the EU or the member countries fix the quotas. Thus, the use of international instruments as tradable green certificates and tradable emissions permits will not lead to an optimal GHG-reduction strategy unless GHG-credits are attached to the certificates. (author)

  14. Estimating GHG emission mitigation supply curves of large-scale biomass use on a country level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, Veronika; Dam, Jinke van; Faaij, Andre

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the possible influences of a large-scale introduction of biomass material and energy systems and their market volumes on land, material and energy market prices and their feedback to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation costs. GHG emission mitigation supply curves for large-scale biomass use were compiled using a methodology that combines a bottom-up analysis of biomass applications, biomass cost supply curves and market prices of land, biomaterials and bioenergy carriers. These market prices depend on the scale of biomass use and the market volume of materials and energy carriers and were estimated using own-price elasticities of demand. The methodology was demonstrated for a case study of Poland in the year 2015 applying different scenarios on economic development and trade in Europe. For the key technologies considered, i.e. medium density fibreboard, poly lactic acid, electricity and methanol production, GHG emission mitigation costs increase strongly with the scale of biomass production. Large-scale introduction of biomass use decreases the GHG emission reduction potential at costs below 50 Euro /Mg CO 2eq with about 13-70% depending on the scenario. Biomaterial production accounts for only a small part of this GHG emission reduction potential due to relatively small material markets and the subsequent strong decrease of biomaterial market prices at large scale of production. GHG emission mitigation costs depend strongly on biomass supply curves, own-price elasticity of land and market volumes of bioenergy carriers. The analysis shows that these influences should be taken into account for developing biomass implementations strategies

  15. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO 2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  16. Electricity trade and GHG emissions: Assessment of Quebec's hydropower in the Northeastern American market (2006-2008)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Amor, Mourad; Pineau, Pierre-Olivier; Gaudreault, Caroline; Samson, Rejean

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide electricity sector reforms open up electricity markets and increase trades. This has environmental consequences as exports and imports either increase or decrease local production and consequently greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper's objective is to illustrate the importance of electricity trade's impact on GHG emissions by providing an estimate of the net GHG emissions resulting from these trades. To achieve this objective, Quebec hourly electricity exchanges with adjacent jurisdictions were examined over the 2006-2008 period. In order to associate a specific GHG emission quantity to electricity trades, hourly marginal electricity production technologies were identified and validated using the Ontario hourly output per power plant and information released in the Quebec adjacent system operator reports. It is estimated that over three years, imports into Quebec were responsible for 7.7 Mt of GHG, while Quebec hydropower exports avoided 28.3 Mt of GHG emissions. Hence, the net result is 20.6 Mt of avoided emissions over 2006-2008, or about 7 Mt per year, which corresponds to more than 8% of the Quebec yearly GHG emissions. When GHG emissions from all life cycle stages (resource extraction to end-of-life) are accounted for, the net avoided GHG emissions increase by 35%, to 27.9 Mt. - Research highlights: → Environmental benefits of hydropower exports are considerable. → Detailed GHG assessment of such electricity trade is missing from the literature. → Net GHG emissions estimate resulting from such trade is provided. → GHG gains are significant in the Northeast American electricity market due to such electricity trade.

  17. A Study on Portfolio of Domestic Policies and Measures for GHG emission Abatement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    After the climate change negotiation reaches an agreement in COP7, the next main issue to be addressed is the way of involvement of developing countries in emission abatement commitments and the development of domestic policies and measures to achieve GHG emission reduction target. Many Annex I countries have developed and implemented policies and measures to achieve its quantified GHG emission reduction target. The purpose of this paper is to propose a portfolio of policies and measures, that is, which policies and measures Korea will have to take in preparing future commitment for GHG emission reduction as well as in strengthening mitigation of climate change. Various policies and measures can be used, such as regulations, economic instruments, and covenants, etc., but it is desirable to implement them in some portfolio, taking advantage of their characteristics. Among the possible policies and measures, this study found that economic instruments such as carbon tax and domestic emissions trading have attracted considerable interest recently due to their cost effectiveness. This study also found that, in practice, many developed countries have used these policy instruments in achieving their quantified GHG emission reduction target. In order to develop a portfolio of policies and measures, the comprehension of the features of each policy and measure and the synergetic reconciliation with other objectives than climate change is important. (author). 82 refs., 11 figs., 31 tabs.

  18. The relevance of supply chain characteristics in GHG emissions: The carbon footprint of Maltese juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roibás, L; Rodríguez-García, S; Valdramidis, V P; Hospido, A

    2018-05-01

    Foods and drinks are major contributors (17%) to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by private consumption in Europe. The carbon footprint (CF) of a certain product expresses the total GHG emissions over its whole life cycle, and its calculation for foodstuff is a necessary first step to reduce their contribution to global warming. The calculation of the CF of Maltese food products is especially relevant for two reasons: the economic characteristics of the island, whose food sector is highly dependent on imports, implying longer transport distances; and the Maltese electricity production mix, based almost exclusively on oil combustion. The CF of ten multi-fruit juices marketed in Malta has been determined, covering all the processes from the agricultural stage to the distribution of the final products. As a functional unit (FU), a 250 ml bottle of packaged product arriving at the retailer has been considered. The Maltese orange juice, the only final product in which only local ingredients are used, presents the lowest CF (0.50 kgCO 2 /FU), while the remaining ones range from 0.67 kgCO 2 /FU to 0.80 kgCO 2 /FU. The major contributor to all the CFs is juice processing at the Maltese plant (0.42 kgCO 2 /FU), mainly due to the use of electricity (78%). The influence of both the electricity mix and the Maltese supply chain in the CF of the final products has been demonstrated. Alternatives to reduce the impacts of the final products have been proposed and evaluated that could lower the average CF of the juices by 32%. The calculation of the CF of Maltese juices represents an innovative case study due to the characteristics of the island, and it is expected to act as a first step to lower their environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reassessing the Links between GHG Emissions, Economic Growth, and the UNFCCC: A Difference-in-Differences Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Cifci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International climate agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol of 1997 and, more recently, the Paris Climate Agreement are fragile because, at a national level, political constituencies’ value systems may conflict with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to sustainable levels. Proponents cite climate change as the most pressing challenge of our time, contending that international cooperation will play an essential role in addressing this challenge. Political opponents argue that the disproportionate requirements on developed nations to shoulder the financial burden will inhibit their economic growth. We find empirical evidence that both arguments are likely to be correct. We use standard regression techniques to analyze a multi-country dataset of GHG emissions, GDP per capita growth, and other factors. We estimate that after the Kyoto Protocol (KP entered into force ‘Annex I’ countries reduced GHG emissions on average by roughly 1 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MTCO2e, relative to non-Annex I countries. However, our estimates reveal that these countries also experienced an average reduction in GDP per capita growth rates of around 1–2 percentage points relative to non-Annex I countries.

  20. Contributing to local policy making on GHG emission reduction through inventorying and attribution: A case study of Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Fengming; Geng Yong; Chen Xudong; Zhang Yunsong; Wang Xinbei; Xue Bing; Dong Huijuan; Liu Zhu; Ren Wanxia; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Zhu Qinghua

    2011-01-01

    Cities consumed 84% of commercial energy in China, which indicates cities should be the main areas for GHG emissions reduction. Our case study of Shenyang in this paper shows how a clear inventory analysis on GHG emissions at city level can help to identify the major industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts so as to facilitate low-carbon policy-making. The results showed total carbon emission in 2007 was 57 Mt CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 e), of which 41 Mt CO 2 e was in-boundary emissions and 16 Mt CO 2 e was out-of-boundary emissions. The energy sector was dominant in the emission inventory, accounting for 93.1% of total emissions. Within energy sector, emissions from energy production industry, manufacturing and construction industry accounted for 88.4% of this sector. Our analysis showed that comparing with geographical boundary, setting system boundary based on single process standard could provide better information to decision makers for carbon emission reduction. After attributing electricity and heating consumption to final users, the resident and commercial sector became the largest emitter, accounting for 28.5% of total emissions. Spatial analysis of emissions showed that industrial districts such as Shenbei and Tiexi had the large potential to reduce their carbon emissions. Implications of results are finally discussed. - Highlights: → An inventory analysis can help identify key industries and societal sectors for reduction efforts. → Setting system boundary can provide better information for carbon emission reduction. → Urban districts with heavy industrial plants have potential to reduce their carbon emissions. → Policies that support urban energy structure optimization can accelerate low-carbon development.

  1. Decoupling urban transport from GHG emissions in Indian cities-A critical review and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun

    2011-01-01

    How to sustain rapid economic and urban growth with minimised detriment to environment is a key challenge for sustainable development and climate change mitigation in developing countries, which face constraints of technical and financial resources scarcity as well as dearth of infrastructure governance capacity. This paper attempts to address this question by investigating the driving forces of transport demand and relevant policy measures that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in the urban transport sector in Indian cities based on a critical review of the literature. Our overview of existing literature and international experiences suggests that it is critical to improve urban governance in transport infrastructure quality and develop efficient public transport, coupled with integrated land use/transport planning as well as economic instruments. This will allow Indian cities to embark on a sustainable growth pathway by decoupling transport services demand of GHG emissions in the longer term. Appropriate policy instruments need to be selected to reconcile the imperatives of economic and urban growth, aspiration to higher quality of life, improvements in social welfare, urban transport-related energy consumption and GHG emissions mitigation target in Indian cities. - Highlights: → Investigating the relevant policies that facilitate mitigating GHG emissions in urban transport in Indian cities. → Determining the factors of increase in energy demand and carbon emissions in transport. → Improving urban governance in transport infrastructure with integrated transport planning. → Designing and implementing the policy and economic instruments for low-carbon urban transport in India.

  2. The influence of urban form on GHG emissions in the U.S. household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Bumsoo

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of sustainable urban development in greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation, this study examines the paths by which urban form influences an individual household's carbon dioxide emissions in the 125 largest urbanized areas in the U.S. Our multilevel SEM analyses show that doubling population-weighted density is associated with a reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel and residential energy consumption by 48% and 35%, respectively. Centralized population and polycentric structures have only a moderate impact in our analyses. Given that household travel and residential energy use account for 42% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions, these findings highlight the importance of smart growth policies to build more compact and transit friendly cities as a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and to stabilize climate. - Highlights: • We examine how urban form influences household CO 2 emissions using a multilevel SEM. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 48% reduction in CO 2 emissions from household travel. • Doubling population-weighted density is associated with a 35% reduction in CO 2 emissions from residential energy use. • Doubling per capita transit subsidy is associated with a 46% lower VMT and 18% reduction in transportation CO 2 emissions. • Smart growth policies should be a crucial part of any strategic efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and stabilize climate

  3. Lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel: Unintended market effects negate direct benefits of the Malaysian Economic Transformation Plan (ETP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel expansion can lead to unintended effects that offset the direct GHG benefits of biofuels. Two documented unintended effects are the indirect land use change (ILUC) and indirect energy use change (IEUC). ILUC has been included in many lifecycle GHG studies of biofuels, but IEUC has remained relatively elusive. This paper presents an updated assessment of the lifecycle GHG emissions of palm biodiesel from Malaysia and, for the first time, incorporating the two estimated indirect effects simultaneously. Future GHG emissions of palm biodiesel are projected by taking into account of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) that aims to reform the oil palm industry in order to achieve a high-income nation. Uncertainties associated with lifecycle GHG models were dealt with using Monte Carlo simulation in order to identify the breadth and likelihood of GHG reductions relative to petroleum-based fuels in the context of the European directives. This study has shown that the ETP, if successfully implemented, can significantly improve the direct GHG emissions of palm biodiesel, but the benefits are offset by the rise in global emissions due to ILUC and IEUC. Biofuel policies should also include IEUC, in addition to ILUC, to avoid GHG emissions leakages. - Highlights: • Estimate current and future lifecycle GHG emissions of Malaysian palm biodiesel. • Evaluate the GHG effects of Malaysia's Economic Transformation Plan (ETP). • Direct GHG benefits of biodiesel offset by indirect market effects. • Palm biodiesel unlikely to enable global GHG emissions reductions. • Global biofuel policy must account for indirect effects.

  4. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  5. GHG emission factors for bioelectricity, biomethane, and bioethanol quantified for 24 biomass substrates with consequential life-cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Hamelin, Lorie; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings from biofuels dramatically depend upon the source of energy displaced and the effects induced outside the energy sector, for instance land-use changes (LUC). Using consequential life-cycle assessment and including LUC effects, this study provides GHG emission...

  6. A dynamic modelling approach to evaluate GHG emissions from wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Arnell, Magnus; Amerlinck, Youri

    2012-01-01

    The widened scope for wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to consider not only water quality and cost, but also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change calls for new tools to evaluate operational strategies/treatment technologies. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model no. 2 (BSM2) has been ...

  7. Reduction potentials of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaoyu; Crookes, Roy J.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid growth of road vehicles, private vehicles in particular, has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand and imports, which has been widely accepted as a major factor effecting future oil availability and prices, and a major contributor to China's GHG emission increase. This paper is intended to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector and to assess the effectiveness of possible reduction measures. A detailed model has been developed to derive a reliable historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector between 2000 and 2005 and to project future trends. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future strategies relating to the development of China's road transport sector. The 'Business as Usual' scenario is used as a baseline reference scenario, in which the government is assumed to do nothing to influence the long-term trends of road transport energy demand. The 'Best Case' scenario is considered to be the most optimized case where a series of available reduction measures such as private vehicle control, fuel economy regulation, promoting diesel and gas vehicles, fuel tax and biofuel promotion, are assumed to be implemented. Energy demand and GHG emissions in China's road transport sector up to 2030 are estimated in these two scenarios. The total reduction potentials in the 'Best Case' scenario and the relative reduction potentials of each measure have been estimated

  8. Assessing GHG emissions, ecological footprint, and water linkage for different fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F; Nebra, Silvia A

    2010-12-15

    Currently, transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and responsible for about 23% of world energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions. Ethanol from sugar cane and corn emerges as an alternative for gasoline in order to mitigate GHG emissions. Additionally, deeper offshore drilling projects such as in the Brazilian Pre-Salt reservoirs and mining projects of nonconventional sources like Tar Sands in Canada could be a solution for supplying demand of fossil fuels in the short and midterm. Based on updated literature, this paper presents an assessment of GHG emissions for four different fuels: ethanol from sugar cane and from corn and gasoline from conventional crude oil and from tar sands. An Ecological Footprint analysis is also presented, which shows that ethanol from sugar cane has the lowest GHG emissions and requires the lowest biocapacity per unit of energy produced among these fuels. Finally, an analysis using the Embodied Water concept is made with the introduction of a new concept, the "CO(2)-Water", to illustrate the impacts of releasing carbon from underground to atmosphere and of the water needed to sequestrate it over the life cycle of the assessed fuels. Using this method resulted that gasoline from fossil fuels would indirectly "require" on average as much water as ethanol from sugar cane per unit of fuel energy produced.

  9. Examination of the optimal operation of building scale combined heat and power systems under disparate climate and GHG emissions rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.; Modi, V.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CHP attributable reductions, not viable by electric generation alone, are defined. • Simplified operating strategy heuristics are optimal under specific circumstances. • Phosphoric acid fuel cells yield the largest reductions except in the extremes. • Changes in baseline emissions affect the optimal system capacity and operating hours. - Abstract: This work aims to elucidate notions concerning the ideal operation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions benefits of combined heat and power (CHP) systems by investigating how various metrics change as a function of the GHG emissions from the underlying electricity source, building use type and climate. Additionally, a new term entitled “CHP Attributable” reductions is introduced to quantify the benefits from the simultaneous use of thermal and electric energy, removing benefits achieved solely from fuel switching and generating electricity more efficiently. The GHG emission benefits from implementing internal combustion engine, microturbines, and phosphoric acid (PA) fuel cell based CHP systems were evaluated through an optimization approach considering energy demands of prototypical hospital, office, and residential buildings in varied climates. To explore the effect of electric GHG emissions rates, the ideal operation of the CHP systems was evaluated under three scenarios: “High” GHG emissions rates, “Low” GHG emissions rates, and “Current” GHG emissions rate for a specific location. The analysis finds that PA fuel cells achieve the highest GHG emission reductions in most cases considered, though there are exceptions. Common heuristics, such as electric load following and thermal load following, are the optimal operating strategy under specific conditions. The optimal CHP capacity and operating hours both vary as a function of building type, climate and GHG emissions rates from grid electricity. GHG emissions reductions can be as high as 49% considering a PA fuel cell for a

  10. Time series GHG emission estimates for residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Riya Rachel

    2018-04-01

    Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are the major cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main GHG emitted through human activities, at the household level, by burning fuels for cooking and lighting. As per the 2006 methodology of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the energy sector is divided into various sectors like electricity generation, transport, fugitive, 'other' sectors, etc. The 'other' sectors under energy include residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries. Time series GHG emission estimates were prepared for the residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors in India, for the time period 2005 to 2014, to understand the historical emission changes in 'other' sector. Sectoral activity data, with respect to fuel consumption, were collected from various ministry reports like Indian Petroleum and Natural Gas Statistics, Energy Statistics, etc. The default emission factor(s) from IPCC 2006 were used to calculate the emissions for each activity and sector-wise CO2, CH4, N2O and CO2e emissions were compiled. It was observed that the residential sector generates the highest GHG emissions, followed by the agriculture/fisheries and commercial sector. In the residential sector, LPG, kerosene, and fuelwood are the major contributors of emissions, whereas diesel is the main contributor to the commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors. CO2e emissions have been observed to rise at a cumulative annual growth rate of 0.6%, 9.11%, 7.94% and 5.26% for the residential, commercial, agriculture and fisheries sectors, respectively. In addition to the above, a comparative study of the sectoral inventories from the national inventories, published by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, for 2007 and 2010 was also performed.

  11. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  12. Urban GHG emissions and resource flows: Methods for understanding the complex functioning of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yetano Roche, María

    2015-01-01

    This paper sums up the recent developments in concepts and methods being used to measure the impacts of cities on environmental sustainability. It differentiates between a dominant trend in research literature that concentrates on the accounting and allocation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use to cities, and a re-emergence of studies focusing on the direct and indirect urban material and resource flows. The availability of reliable data and standard protocols is greater in the GHG accounting field and continues to grow rapidly

  13. Energy Innovations-GHG Emissions Nexus: Fresh Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Herránz, Agustín; Balsalobre, Daniel; Cantos, José María; Shahbaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the impact of improvements in energy research development (ERD) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for 28 OECD countries over the period of 1990–2014. In doing so, we have employed a panel data where public budget in energy research development and demonstration (ERD&D) has transformed into a finite inverted V-lag distribution model developed by De Leeuw (1962). This model considers that energy innovation accumulates in time and presents empirical evidence, how energy innovation contributes in reducing energy intensity and environmental pollution as well. Our results indicate that energy innovation measures require lapses of time to reach their full effect i.e. innovation applied to measures for environmental correction does not reach its whole effect immediately, requiring instead a certain amount of time to pass. Innovation policies have recommended for improving environmental quality. - Highlights: • This study analyses the impact of public budget in energy RD&D for 28 OECD countries on environmental quality. • Energy innovation contributes positively to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • Advances in energy technology seem to be the key of improved environmental quality.

  14. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Watterson, J. [AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past GHG emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2010. (Author)

  15. End-user GHG emissions from energy. Reallocation of emissions from energy industries to end users 2005-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R. (European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Watterson, J. (AEA Technology plc - EEA' s European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation (ETC/ACM) (United Kingdom))

    2011-12-15

    The objective of this report is to help improve the understanding of past greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends in the energy sector from the demand or end-user side. To do this, the report develops a methodology to redistributes emissions from energy industries to the final users (by sector) of that energy. This reallocation is done on the basis of Eurostat's energy balances and GHG inventories for the energy sector as reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the period 2005-2009. (Author)

  16. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  17. Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Redha Qader

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CO2, N2O, and CH4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs. Electricity consumption and the related CO2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.

  18. Electricity consumption and GHG emissions in GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qader, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Electricity consumption and the related CO 2 -equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), Kuwait (KW), Bahrain (BH), Oman (OM), United Arab Emirates (AE) and Qatar (QA); also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC)] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO 2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption. (author)

  19. Electricity consumption and GHG emissions in GCC countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qader, M. R. [Applied Studies College, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain)

    2009-07-01

    CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4} are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Electricity consumption and the related CO{sub 2}-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA), Kuwait (KW), Bahrain (BH), Oman (OM), United Arab Emirates (AE) and Qatar (QA); also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC)] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO{sub 2} emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption. (author)

  20. Long-term optimal energy mix planning towards high energy security and low GHG emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thangavelu, Sundar Raj; Khambadkone, Ashwin M.; Karimi, Iftekhar A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop long-term energy planning considering the future uncertain inputs. • We analyze the effect of uncertain inputs on the energy cost and energy security. • Conventional energy mix prone to cause high energy cost and energy security issues. • Stochastic and optimal energy mix show benefits over conventional energy planning. • Nuclear option consideration reduces the energy cost and carbon emissions. - Abstract: Conventional energy planning focused on energy cost, GHG emission and renewable contribution based on future energy demand, fuel price, etc. Uncertainty in the projected variables such as energy demand, volatile fuel price and evolution of renewable technologies will influence the cost of energy when projected over a period of 15–30 years. Inaccurate projected variables could affect energy security and lead to the risk of high energy cost, high emission and low energy security. The energy security is an ability of generation capacity to meet the future energy demand. In order to minimize the risks, a generic methodology is presented to determine an optimal energy mix for a period of around 15 years. The proposed optimal energy mix is a right combination of energy sources that minimize the risk caused due to future uncertainties related to the energy sources. The proposed methodology uses stochastic optimization to address future uncertainties over a planning horizon and minimize the variations in the desired performance criteria such as energy security and costs. The developed methodology is validated using a case study for a South East Asian region with diverse fuel sources consists of wind, solar, geothermal, coal, biomass and natural gas, etc. The derived optimal energy mix decision outperformed the conventional energy planning by remaining stable and feasible against 79% of future energy demand scenarios at the expense of 0–10% increase in the energy cost. Including the nuclear option in the energy mix resulted 26

  1. 40 CFR 98.253 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (metric tons/year). NCD = Number of atmospheric crude oil distillation columns at the facility. NPU1... = Methane emission rate from blowdown systems (mt CH4/year). QRef = Quantity of crude oil plus the quantity...) For storage tanks other than those processing unstabilized crude oil, you must either calculate CH4...

  2. Quantitative evaluation of time-series GHG emissions by sector and region using consumption-based accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Takashi; Akimoto, Keigo; Tomoda, Toshimasa

    2012-01-01

    This study estimates global time-series consumption-based GHG emissions by region from 1990 to 2005, including both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions. Estimations are conducted for the whole economy and for two specific sectors: manufacturing and agriculture. Especially in the agricultural sector, it is important to include non-CO 2 GHG emissions because these are the major emissions present. In most of the regions examined, the improvements in GHG intensities achieved in the manufacturing sector are larger than those in the agricultural sector. Compared with developing regions, most developed regions have consistently larger per-capita consumption-based GHG emissions over the whole economy, as well as higher production-based emissions. In the manufacturing sector, differences calculated by subtracting production-based emissions from consumption-based GHG emissions are determined by the regional economic level while, in the agricultural sector, they are dependent on regional production structures that are determined by international trade competitiveness. In the manufacturing sector, these differences are consistently and increasingly positive for the U.S., EU15 and Japan but negative for developing regions. In the agricultural sector, the differences calculated for the major agricultural importers like Japan and the EU15 are consistently positive while those of exporters like the U.S., Australia and New Zealand are consistently negative. - Highlights: ► We evaluate global time-series production-based and consumption-based GHG emissions. ► We focus on both CO 2 and non-CO 2 GHG emissions, broken down by region and by sector. ► Including non-CO 2 GHG emissions is important in agricultural sector. ► In agriculture, differences in accountings are dependent on production structures. ► In manufacturing sector, differences in accountings are determined by economic level.

  3. Energy self-reliance, net-energy production and GHG emissions in Danish organic cash crop farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halberg, Niels; Dalgaard, Randi; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2008-01-01

    -energy production were modeled. Growing rapeseed on 10% of the land could produce bio-diesel to replace 50-60% of the tractor diesel used on the farm. Increasing grass-clover area to 20% of the land and using half of this yield for biogas production could change the cash crop farm to a net energy producer......, and reduce GHG emissions while reducing the overall output of products only marginally. Increasing grass-clover area would improve the nutrient management on the farm and eliminate dependence on conventional pig slurry if the biogas residues were returned to cash crop fields...

  4. Kyoto, the oil sands and the GHG emissions market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickers, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews uncertainties in the oil sands industry in relation to climate change, greenhouse gas emissions and the Kyoto Protocol. Other issues contributing to uncertainties in the industry were also discussed, including water and natural gas issues, refinery capacity and markets, price and exchange rates as well as capital availability and project cost overruns. The potential economic impact of the Kyoto Protocol on oil sands was outlined with prices per barrel. Government regulations were examined in the context of the evolving expectations of the Canadian public. U.S. actions on climate change were examined at the federal and state level. Emissions trading systems were reviewed with reference to a post 2012 regime. The 2005 budget was discussed, along with the Canadian legislative agenda and domestic offsets program, as well as the regulatory agenda in June of 2005. Post 2012 issues were examined, including discussions on the next commitment period, with reference to the fact that there was no support for new commitments among developing countries but that domestic pressures was building in the U.S. for air and climate regulations. Pressures from shareholders and the scientific community were discussed. Emissions trading in the European Union was reviewed. Stabilization goals will mean significant cuts to emissions in order to accommodate growth. Scenario planning and climate change uncertainties were also reviewed. The benefits of scenario planning in complex situations were outlined and were seen to encourage the development of strategic options. Issues concerning environmental stewardship and possible responses by the Unites States were discussed. Three scenarios were outlined: that climate change is not man-made and all the problems will go away; that technology will evolve to accommodate changes; and that policy will be insensitive to the economy, technology will lag and the energy sector will be faced with much higher costs. Various risk management

  5. FUTURE FOSSIL FUEL PRICE IMPACTS ON NDC ACHIEVEMENT; ESTIMATION OF GHG EMISSIONS AND MITIGATION COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Arino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Shale Revolution in the US, a supply-side innovation in oil and gas production, has been dramatically changing the world’s fossil fuel energy markets – leading to a decrease in oil, gas and coal prices. Some projections suggest that low fossil fuel prices might continue at least over the next few decades. Uncertainty in fossil fuel prices might affect the levels of emission reductions expected from submitted nationally determined contributions (NDCs and/or influence the difficulty of achieving the NDCs. This paper evaluated the impact of different (high, medium, and low fossil fuel prices, sustained through to 2050, on worldwide GHG emissions reductions and associated costs (mainly marginal abatement costs (MACs. Total global GHG emissions were estimated to be 57.5-61.5 GtCO2eq by 2030, with the range shown reflecting uncertainties about fossil fuel prices and the target levels of several NDCs (i.e., whether their upper or lower targets were adopted. It was found that lower fuel prices not only diminished the environmental effectiveness of global NDCs but also widened regional differences of marginal and total abatement costs, thereby generating more room for carbon leakage. One possible policy direction in terms of abatement efficiency, fairness and environmental effectiveness would be to require countries with low marginal and total abatement costs but having a major influence on global GHG emissions (such as China and India to increase their mitigation efforts, especially in a low-fuelprice world.

  6. Assessment of mitigation pathways of GHG emissions from the Korean waste sector through 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjoo Chung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The waste sector may play a significant role in national mitigation policies with further greenhouse gas (GHG reduction opportunities mainly because of its linkage to other sectors. However, the waste sector has not drawn much attention from research community mainly because the amount of GHG emissions from the waste sector is notably smaller than other sectors. This study presents emissions estimation and mitigation potentials of the waste sector in Korea. Emission estimates and business-as-usual emissions through 2050 are estimated based on four different treatment methods, including landfill, incineration, wastewater, and biological treatment by considering country-specific emission parameters of wastes, where available. Different types of wastes for each treatment method are investigated to obtain accurate emission estimates. It is expected that GHG emissions in 2050 are about 12.0 Tg CO2eq, which is 17% less than those in 2010. Mitigation potentials and economic impacts of five different measures are also investigated, and it is revealed that the production of refuse drive fuel from combustible municipal solid wastes may render the greatest benefit with the most mitigation potential of 649 kt CO2eq. An interdependent nature among mitigation measures is further discussed and it is shown that, if implemented together, the accumulated mitigation potentials are far less than the simple sum of individual potentials. It is implied that an aggregate potential of individual measures needs to be examined when implementing several mitigation measures simultaneously. This study outlines how to investigate emissions estimation and mitigation pathways for the waste sector in a national level. Keywords: Greenhouse gas, Emissions estimation, Waste treatment, Mitigation potential, Marginal abatement cost

  7. Understanding the issues around quantifying GHG emissions in the financial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacono, Caline; Poivet, Romain; Havette, Didier; Maille, Catherine; Jaubert, Nathalie; Grandjean, Alain; Cottenceau, Jean-Baptiste; Finidori, Esther; Le Teno, Helene; Cochard, Eric; Sanchez, Thomas; Michaux, Elisabeth; Courcier, Jerome; Marie Lapalle; Guez, Herve; Mia, Ladislas; Agnes Guiral; Martinez, Emmanuel; Rose, Antoine; Breton, Herve; Meyssonier, Guillaume; Arndt, Matthew; Saichs, Nancy; Desfosses, Philippe; Bonnet, Olivier; Rouchon, Jean-Philippe; Smart, Lauren; Lenoel, Benjamin; Dupre, Stanislas; Chenet, Hugues; Lavaud, Patricia; Laviale, Michel; Lucas-Leclin, Valery; Bernasconi, Maxime; Merlin, Alexis; Delettang, Catherine; Gerardi, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In the face of climate change, the financial sector shows a need to have access to methods and tools for quantifying GHG emissions. This guide proposes to address multiple needs of financial institutions (Investment banks, insurers, retail bank, commercial bank, asset managers...) in terms of financed emissions quantification. It meets two objectives: Make formal methodological recommendations for financial institutions about their operating related emissions, and propose methodological recommendations to quantify financed emissions (Scop3 - Poste 15 'Investments'). The guide is divided in three parts. Volume 1 gives background, identifies sectorial challenges related to climate change and offers an overview of the main existing quantification methods and tools. Volume 2 offers practical and operational guidance for estimating emissions from organisation's back-office functions into the financial sector. Volume 3 (through case studies) offers methodological information to quantify the financed emissions through a 'top-down' approach, with an 'excel' tool to calculate emission factors related to this method

  8. Activities of four bus terminals of Semarang City gateway and the related GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huboyo, H. S.; Wardhana, I. W.; Sutrisno, E.; Wangi, L. S.; Lina, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    The activities of the bus terminal, including loading-unloading passengers, bus idling, and bus movements at the terminal, will emit GHG’s emission. This research analyzes GHG emission from four terminals, i.e., Mangkang, Terboyo, Penggaron, and Sukun in Semarang City. The emission was estimated by observing detail activities of public transport means, especially for moving and idling time. The emission was calculated by Tier 2 method based on the vehicle type as well as fuel consumption. The highest CO2e during vehicle movements at Sukun area was contributed by large bus about 2.08 tons/year, while at Terboyo terminal was contributed by medium bus about 347.97 tons/year. At Mangkang terminals, the highest emission for vehicle movements was attributed by medium bus as well of about 53.18 tons/year. At last, Penggaron terminal’s highest GHG emission was attributed by BRT about 26.47 tons/year. During idling time, the highest contributor to CO2e was the large bus at the three terminals, i.e., Sukun of 43.53 tons/year, Terboyo of 196.56 tons/year, and Mangkang of 84.26 tons/year, while at Penggaron, BRT dominated with CO2e of 26.47 tons/year. The management of public transport in terminals is crucial to mitigate the emission related to bus terminals activities.

  9. Cost, energy use and GHG emissions for forest biomass harvesting operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fengli; Johnson, Dana M.; Wang, Jinjiang; Yu, Chunxia

    2016-01-01

    For forest-based biomass to become a significant contribution to the United States' energy portfolio, harvesting operations must be physically feasible and economically viable. An assessment of cost, energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of forest biomass harvesting was conducted. The assessment differentiates harvesting systems by cut-to-length and whole tree; harvest types of 30%, 70%, and 100% cut; and forest types of hardwoods, softwoods, mixed hardwood/softwood, and softwood plantations. Harvesting cost models were developed for economic assessment and life cycle energy and emission assessment was applied to calculate energy and emissions for different harvesting scenarios, considering material and energy inputs (machinery, diesel, etc.) and outputs (GHG emissions) for each harvesting process (felling, forwarding/skidding, etc.). The developed harvesting cost models and the life cycle energy and emission assessment method were applied in Michigan, U.S. using information collected from different sources. A sensitivity analysis was performed for selected input variables for the harvesting operations in order to explore their relative importance. The results indicated that productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost followed by machinery purchase price, yearly scheduled hours, and expected utilization. Productivity and fuel use, as well as fuel factors, are the most influential environmental impacts of harvesting operations. - Highlights: • Life cycle energy and emissions for forest biomass harvesting operations. • Harvesting cost models were developed for economic assessment. • Productivity had the largest impact on harvesting cost. • Fuel use contributes the most emissions while lubricants contribute the least.

  10. Comparative life cycle GHG emissions from local electricity generation using heavy oil, natural gas, and MSW incineration in Macau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Qingbin; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    Wh, respectively. The mean value for aggregated GHG emissions of the local power grid (imported electricity excluded) was 0.69kg CO2 per kWh, noticeably lower than many neighboring countries and regions, such as mainland China, Taiwan, and Japan. Our scenario analysis indicated that the development of natural gas......, for changing GHG emissions, and should be allocated to the highest priority for GHG reduction. All the obtained results could be useful for decisions makers, with providing a robust support for assessing the environmental performance and drawing up the appropriate improvement planning of power systems....

  11. The Padanian LiMeS. Spatial Interpretation of Local GHG Emission Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Pezzagno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevant role of spatial planning in the enforcement of climate change mitigation, managing the development of new low-carbon infrastructures and increasing system-wide efficiencies across sectors, has been addressed at global level (IPCC, 2014 WGIII. In this context, local GHG inventories appear a relevant tool toward the definition of a coherent, inter-sectorial background for local planning, mitigation, and adaptation policies.Taking advantage of consistent GHG emissions data availability in the Lombard context, local maps of direct GHG emissions have been linked with geographic data, including municipal boundaries, population data, and land-use information, produced and organized within the research PRIN 2007 From metropolitan city to metropolitan corridor: the case of the Po Valley Corridor.The results of this mapping exercise have been evaluated on the background of consolidated knowledge about northern Italy urban patterns, including the Linear Metropolitan System – LiMeS – and preliminary observations about characteristics, potential, and limits of the tool are proposed.

  12. Advanced biofuels - GHG emissions and energy balances. A report to IEA bioenergy task 39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Don [S and T 2 Consultants Inc., Delta, British Columbia (Canada)

    2013-05-25

    In this work, a number of advanced biofuel pathways were examined with respect to their energy balances and GHG emission performance. Some of these pathways have relatively detailed public techno-economic modelling studies available on which the energy and GHG lifecycle modelling has been based. However there is a continuum in the quality of publicly available data and, for some of the pathways a significant number of assumptions had to be made in order to generate results. Some caution is therefore warranted when the results of different systems are compared. Furthermore, none of the modelling data is based on actual operating systems, as the processes being assessed are not yet in commercial operation; rather, they are each in different stages of research, development and demonstration.

  13. Availability of Biomass Residues for Co-Firing in Peninsular Malaysia: Implications for Cost and GHG Emissions in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Michael Griffin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels comprise 93% of Malaysia’s electricity generation and account for 36% of the country’s 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. The government has targeted the installation of 330 MW of biomass electricity generation capacity by 2015 to avoid 1.3 Mt of CO2 emissions annually and offset some emissions due to increased coal use. One biomass option is to co-fire with coal, which can result in reduced GHG emissions, coal use, and costs of electricity. A linear optimization cost model was developed using seven types of biomass residues for Peninsular Malaysia. Results suggest that about 12 Mt/year of residues are available annually, of which oil-palm residues contribute 77%, and rice and logging residues comprise 17%. While minimizing the cost of biomass and biomass residue transport, co-firing at four existing coal plants in Peninsular Malaysia could meet the 330 MW biomass electricity target and reduce costs by about $24 million per year compared to coal use alone and reduces GHG emissions by 1.9 Mt of CO2. Maximizing emissions reduction for biomass co-firing results in 17 Mt of CO2 reductions at a cost of $23/t of CO2 reduced.

  14. GHG emissions quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution at urban scale: the case of the town of Sassari (NW Sardinia - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Laura; Ferrara, Roberto; Zara, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    The European Union has set as priorities the fight against climate change related to greenhouse gas releases. The largest source of these emissions comes from human activities in urban areas that account for more than 70% of the world's emissions and several local governments intend to support the European strategic policies in understanding which crucial sectors drive GHG emissions in their city. Planning for mitigation actions at the community scale starts with the compilation of a GHG inventories that, among a wide range of measurement tools, provide information on the current status of GHG emissions across a specific jurisdiction. In the framework of a regional project for quantitative estimate of the net exchange of CO2 (emissions and sinks) at the municipal level in Sardinia, the town of Sassari represents a pilot site where a spatial and temporal high resolution GHG emissions inventory is built in line with European and international standard protocols to establish a baseline for tracking emission trends. The specific purpose of this accurate accounting is to obtain an appropriate allocation of CO2 and other GHG emissions at the fine building and hourly scale. The aim is to test the direct measurements needed to enable the construction of future scenarios of these emissions and for assessing possible strategies to reduce their impact. The key element of the methodologies used to construct this GHG emissions inventory is the Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GPC) (March 2012) that identifies four main types of emission sources: (i) Stationary Units, (ii) Mobile Units, (iii) Waste, and (iv) Industrial Process and Product Use Emissions. The development of the GHG emissions account in Sassari consists in the collection of a range of alternative data sources (primary data, IPCC emission factors, national and local statistic, etc.) selected on the base on relevance and completeness criteria performed for 2010, as baseline year, using

  15. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  16. A national inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG), criteria air contaminants (CAC) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry : volume 1, overview of the GHG emissions inventory : technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    A detailed inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector in Canada was presented along with explanations of the methodologies and data sources used. This report is based on previous work done on methane and volatile organic compound emissions from the upstream oil and gas sector for the period of 1990 to 1995, but it includes key improvements in identifying primary types of emissions sources such as emissions from fuel combustion, flaring, venting, fugitive equipment leaks and accidental releases. It also includes criteria air contaminants and hydrogen sulfide emissions, an analysis of GHG emission intensities and a change in the definition of volatile organic compounds from comprising all non-methane hydrocarbons to comprising all non-methane and non-ethane hydrocarbons. The report covers portions of the upstream oil and gas industry in Canada plus the natural gas transmission and natural gas distribution industries with reference to well drilling, oil production, and natural gas production, processing, transmission and distribution. Accidents and equipment failures are also included. The report reveals the total GHG emissions by source type, sub-sector, facility type and sub-type for the year 2000 at the national level. In 2000, the total carbon dioxide equivalent GHG emissions from the entire oil and gas sector were 101,211 kilo tonnes. For the upstream oil and gas sector alone, total GHG emissions were 84,355 kilo tonnes, representing 12 per cent of Canada's total national emissions of GHGs in 2000. This is an increase of about 25 per cent from 1995 levels. The biggest primary source of these emissions is fuel combustion, which accounts for 40.8 per cent of the total. This report also includes a provincial breakdown of GHG emissions for the natural gas transmission, storage and distribution sub-sectors in Canada for the year 2000. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Farchi

    Full Text Available Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid.We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat, we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet.The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for

  18. Meat consumption reduction in Italian regions: Health co-benefits and decreases in GHG emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farchi, Sara; De Sario, Manuela; Lapucci, Enrica; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture has exponentially grown in recent decades in response to the rise in global demand for meat, even in countries like Italy that traditionally eat a Mediterranean, plant-based diet. Globalization related dietary changes are contributing to the epidemic of non-communicable diseases and to the global climate crisis, and are associated with huge carbon and water footprints. The objective of the study is to assess inequalities in health impacts and in attributable greenhouse gases-GHG emissions in Italy by hypothesizing different scenarios of reduction in red and processed meat consumption towards healthier consumption patterns more compliant with the recommendations of the Mediterranean food pyramid. We used demographic and food consumption patterns from national surveys and risk relationships between meat intake and cardiovascular and colorectal cancer mortality from IARC and other meta-analyses. From the baseline data (year 2005-2006, average 406 gr/week beef and 245 gr/week processed meat), we considered hypothetical meat reduction scenarios according to international dietary guidelines such as the Mediterranean pyramid targets. For each geographical area (Northwest, Northeast, Centre, and South) and gender, we calculated the number of avoidable deaths from colorectal cancer, and cardiovascular disease among the adult population. Moreover, years of life gained by the adult population from 2012 to 2030 and changes in life expectancy of the 2012 birth cohort were quantified using gender-specific life tables. GHG emission reductions under Mediterranean scenario were estimated only for beef by applying the Global Warming Potential (GWP) coefficient to total consumption and to a low carbon food substitution in adult diet. The deaths avoidable (as percentage change compared to baseline) according to the three reduction scenarios for beef consumption were between 2.3% and 4.5% for colorectal cancer, and between 2.1% and 4.0% for cardiovascular disease

  19. Biofuels that cause land-use change may have much larger non-GHG air quality emissions than fossil fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, C-C; Campbell, J E; Mena-Carrasco, M; Spak, S N; Carmichael, G R; Chen, Y

    2012-10-02

    Although biofuels present an opportunity for renewable energy production, significant land-use change resulting from biofuels may contribute to negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. Here we examined non-GHG air pollution impacts from both indirect and direct land-use change caused by the anticipated expansion of Brazilian biofuels production. We synthesized information on fuel loading, combustion completeness, and emission factors, and developed a spatially explicit approach with uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to estimate air pollution emissions. The land-use change emissions, ranging from 6.7 to 26.4 Tg PM(2.5), were dominated by deforestation burning practices associated with indirect land-use change. We also found Brazilian sugar cane ethanol and soybean biodiesel including direct and indirect land-use change effects have much larger life-cycle emissions than conventional fossil fuels for six regulated air pollutants. The emissions magnitude and uncertainty decrease with longer life-cycle integration periods. Results are conditional to the single LUC scenario employed here. After LUC uncertainty, the largest source of uncertainty in LUC emissions stems from the combustion completeness during deforestation. While current biofuels cropland burning policies in Brazil seek to reduce life-cycle emissions, these policies do not address the large emissions caused by indirect land-use change.

  20. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrotas, George; Skoulaxinou, Sotiria; Gakis, Nikos; Katsouros, Vassilis; Georgopoulou, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH 4 generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the application

  1. A multi-objective programming model for assessment the GHG emissions in MSW management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavrotas, George, E-mail: mavrotas@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, Zografou, Athens, 15780 (Greece); Skoulaxinou, Sotiria [EPEM SA, 141 B Acharnon Str., Athens, 10446 (Greece); Gakis, Nikos [FACETS SA, Agiou Isidorou Str., Athens, 11471 (Greece); Katsouros, Vassilis [Athena Research and Innovation Center, Artemidos 6 and Epidavrou Str., Maroussi, 15125 (Greece); Georgopoulou, Elena [National Observatory of Athens, Thisio, Athens, 11810 (Greece)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • The multi-objective multi-period optimization model. • The solution approach for the generation of the Pareto front with mathematical programming. • The very detailed description of the model (decision variables, parameters, equations). • The use of IPCC 2006 guidelines for landfill emissions (first order decay model) in the mathematical programming formulation. - Abstract: In this study a multi-objective mathematical programming model is developed for taking into account GHG emissions for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management. Mathematical programming models are often used for structure, design and operational optimization of various systems (energy, supply chain, processes, etc.). The last twenty years they are used all the more often in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management in order to provide optimal solutions with the cost objective being the usual driver of the optimization. In our work we consider the GHG emissions as an additional criterion, aiming at a multi-objective approach. The Pareto front (Cost vs. GHG emissions) of the system is generated using an appropriate multi-objective method. This information is essential to the decision maker because he can explore the trade-offs in the Pareto curve and select his most preferred among the Pareto optimal solutions. In the present work a detailed multi-objective, multi-period mathematical programming model is developed in order to describe the waste management problem. Apart from the bi-objective approach, the major innovations of the model are (1) the detailed modeling considering 34 materials and 42 technologies, (2) the detailed calculation of the energy content of the various streams based on the detailed material balances, and (3) the incorporation of the IPCC guidelines for the CH{sub 4} generated in the landfills (first order decay model). The equations of the model are described in full detail. Finally, the whole approach is illustrated with a case study referring to the

  2. CAP payments and agricultural GHG emissions in Italy. A farm-level assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderoni, Silvia; Esposti, Roberto

    2018-06-15

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is an important external driver of European agricultural production. Nowadays and in its envisioned future structure post-2020, the CAP has among its major objectives tackling climate change, for what concerns both adaptation and mitigation strategies. However, little is known about the link between past CAP reforms and agricultural greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. This paper investigates the possible role played by the Fischler Reform (FR) on the agricultural GHG emissions at the farm level. The FR represents a major CAP reform for which data availability allows an ex-post analysis about its actual impacts. The empirical analysis concerns a balanced panel of 6542 Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network observed over years the 2003-2007. Multinomial Logit models are estimated in sequence to express how the farm-level production choices, and the respective emissions, vary over time also in response to CAP expenditure. Results suggest that CAP expenditure had a role in the evolution of the farm-level emissions, though the direction of this effect may differ across farms and deserves further investigation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, Dario, E-mail: caro2@unisi.it [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rugani, Benedetto [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg); Pulselli, Federico Maria [Ecodynamics Group/DEEPS, Department of Environment, Earth and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Via A. Moro, 2, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Benetto, Enrico [Public Research Centre Henri Tudor (CRPHT), Resource Centre for Environmental Technologies (CRTE), 6A, avenue des Hauts-Fourneaux, L-4362 Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2015-03-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO{sub 2}e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared.

  4. Implications of a consumer-based perspective for the estimation of GHG emissions. The illustrative case of Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, Dario; Rugani, Benedetto; Pulselli, Federico Maria; Benetto, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO 2 e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared

  5. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M.M.; Otazo-Sánchez, E.M.; Romo-Gómez, C.; Gordillo-Martínez, A.J.; Galindo-Castillo, E.

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO{sub 2} emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO{sub 2} sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO{sub 2} gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO{sub 2} (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. - Highlights: • First GHG & black carbon inventory for Mezquital Valley: Mexico City energy supplier • Energy industries caused the largest CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions from residual fuel oil. • Diesel

  6. Review of the Fuel Saving, Life Cycle GHG Emission, and Ownership Cost Impacts of Lightweighting Vehicles with Different Powertrains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Kim, Hyung Chul; De Kleine, Robert; Wallington, Timothy J; MacLean, Heather L

    2017-08-01

    The literature analyzing the fuel saving, life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and ownership cost impacts of lightweighting vehicles with different powertrains is reviewed. Vehicles with lower powertrain efficiencies have higher fuel consumption. Thus, fuel savings from lightweighting internal combustion engine vehicles can be higher than those of hybrid electric and battery electric vehicles. However, the impact of fuel savings on life cycle costs and GHG emissions depends on fuel prices, fuel carbon intensities and fuel storage requirements. Battery electric vehicle fuel savings enable reduction of battery size without sacrificing driving range. This reduces the battery production cost and mass, the latter results in further fuel savings. The carbon intensity of electricity varies widely and is a major source of uncertainty when evaluating the benefits of fuel savings. Hybrid electric vehicles use gasoline more efficiently than internal combustion engine vehicles and do not require large plug-in batteries. Therefore, the benefits of lightweighting depend on the vehicle powertrain. We discuss the value proposition of the use of lightweight materials and alternative powertrains. Future assessments of the benefits of vehicle lightweighting should capture the unique characteristics of emerging vehicle powertrains.

  7. Lack of Energy Efficiency Legislation in the Malaysian Building Sector Contributes to Malaysia’s Growing GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid Suzaini M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s carbon emissions grew by +235.6% from 1990 to 2005, largely due to an increase in national energy demand of 210.7% from 1990 to 2004. This unparalleled carbon emission growth, along with business-as-usual (BAU practices will put Malaysia at high risk for carbon lock-in and a very unsustainable path of development. Malaysia clearly needs to make significant and urgent changes in its policy, economy, industries and lifestyle in order to reduce its climate change impacts. In 2010 Malaysia announced a voluntary commitment to reduce 40% of its greenhouse gases (GHG emissions by 2020 (from 1990 levels. Without emissions mitigation and conservation policies, Malaysia is unlikely to meet its emissions reduction targets. Presently, Malaysia has no energy efficiency legislation in its growing building sector. This paper reviews existing building policies and energy efficiency measures in Malaysia and highlights the need to implement mandatory energy efficiency building codes in reducing the sector’s impact on climate change.

  8. Socio-technological impact analysis using an energy IO approach to GHG emissions issues in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Whan-Sam; Tohno, Susumu; Choi, Ki-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Using the Sato-Vartia index for the three periods of 1985-1995, 1995-2000, and 2000-2005, the changes in three factors affecting GHG emissions in South Korea were analyzed. → A total emission matrix including both direct and indirect GHG emissions showed plain shape; however, ripple effects were observed in some sectors. → This process is useful in measuring national energy policies. → Several limitations of the Divisia decomposition analysis were pointed out. -- Abstract: Through energy input-output (E-IO) analyses from 1985 to 2005, the changes in three factors affecting GHG emissions in South Korea were analyzed. Based on the E-IO results, the changes in the direct and total (embodied) GHG emissions from the pertinent sectors were decomposed into three factors-the energy consumption effect, the social effect, and the technological effect-using the Sato-Vartia index for the three periods of 1985-1995, 1995-2000, and 2000-2005. The decomposition analysis demonstrated that a total emission matrix including both direct and indirect GHG emissions showed an evolution pattern that was very similar to the changes in direct GHG emissions; however, ripple effects were observed in the case of emissions from sector number -59 (Synthetic resins, synthetic rubber-p). The results showed that national energy policies such as those pertaining to the diversification of energy sources, shifts in the energy consumption structure (social effect), and the transformation to a low-carbon energy economy (technology effect) were effective. Finally, several limitations of the Divisia decomposition analysis were pointed out.

  9. Nitrogen Cycling and GHG Emissions of Natural and Managed Tropical Ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutlein, A.; Ralf, K.; Gerschlauer, F.; Dannenmann, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Diaz-Pines, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a rapidly changing world understanding of natural ecosystems response to human perturbations such as land use and climate changes as well as habitat destruction is crucial with respect to sustainability of ecosystem services. This is particularily true for tropical forest ecosystems which have significant effects on the major biogeochemical cycles and global climate. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of nitrogen cycling and GHG emissions of natural and managed ecosystems along land use and climate gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania including different forest ecosystems, homegardens, and coffee plantations. Soil N turnover rates were highest in the Ocotea forest and progressively decreased with decreasing annual rainfall and increasing land use intensity. Nitrogen production and immobilization rates positively correlated with soil organic C and total N concentrations as well as substrate availability of dissolved organic C and N, but correlated less with soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. By using indicators of N retention and characteristics of soil nutrient status, we observed a grouping of faster, but tighter N cycling in the (semi-) natural savanna, Helychrysum and Ocotea forest. This contrasted with a more open N cycle in managed systems (homegarden and coffee plantation) where N was more prone to leaching or gaseous losses due to high nitrate production rates. The partly disturbed lower montane forest ranged in between these two groups. These finding could be supported by differences in natural 15N abundance of litter and soil across all sites. Comparing GHG emissions at the land use gradient showed, that with increasing intensification (lower montane forest - homegarden - coffee plantation) N2O emissions increased but at the same time the soil sink for atmospheric CH4 decreased. GHG emission measurements at the climate gradient (savanna, lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forest, Helychrysum) revealed that differences in soil moisture

  10. The impacts of climate change on irrigation and crop production in Northeast China and implications for energy use and GHG Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Tingju

    2018-06-01

    The water-food-energy-GHG nexus under climate change has been gaining increasing attention from both the research and policy communities, especially over the past several years. However, most existing nexus studies are qualitative and explorative in nature. So far, very few studies provide integrated analysis of this nexus across all the four sectors. The purpose of this paper is to examine this nexus by assessing the effects of climate change on agricultural production through the change in water availability, evaluating the adjustment responses and resulting energy consumption and GHG emission, with the Northeast China as a case study. Based on our simulation results, by 2030, climate change is projected to increase water supply and demand gap for irrigation in Northeast China. Due to the increase in water scarcity, irrigated areas will decrease, and the cropping pattern will be adjusted by increasing maize sown areas and decreasing rice sown areas. As a result, the total output of crops and profits will clearly be reduced. Finally, energy consumption and GHG emission from irrigation will be reduced. This study suggests that climate change impact assessment fully consider the nexus among water, food, energy and GHG; however, more studies need to be conducted in the future.

  11. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  12. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O

    The BioChain project focuses on value chains for biogas production in Denmark. Biogas production is based on liquid manure (slurry) from agriculture and other biomasses to increase the energy yield. To a great extent the digestates are recycled to agricultural lands as a valuable fertilizer...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...

  13. Essays on the U.S. biofuel policies: Welfare impacts and the potential for reduction of GHG emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossiso, Kassu Wamisho

    This dissertation study investigates the impact of the US biofuel policies related to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission regulation, tax credit and renewable fuel standard (RFS2) mandate over production and consumption of ethanol as well as technical and environmental performance of corn ethanol plants. The study develops analytical models and provides quantitative estimation of the impact of various biofuel policies in each of the three chapters. Chapter 1 of this dissertation examines the tradeoff between achieving the environmental goal of minimizing life cycle GHG emissions and minimizing production costs in recently built dry-grind corn ethanol plants. The results indicate that the average ethanol plant is able to reduce GHG emissions by 36 % relative to the level under cost minimization, but production costs are 22 % higher. To move from least cost to least emissions allocations, ethanol plants would on average produce 25 % more of wet byproduct and 47% less of dry byproduct. Using a multi-output, multi-input partial equilibrium model, Chapter 2 explores the impact of the tax credit and RFS2 mandate policy on market price of ethanol, byproducts, corn, and other factor inputs employed in the production of corn ethanol. In the short-run, without tax credit ethanol plants will not have the incentive to produce the minimum level of ethanol required by RFS2. In the long-run, if ethanol plants to have the incentive to produce the minimum RFS2 mandate without tax credit policy, gasoline price will need to increase by order of 50% or more relative to the 2011 price. Chapter 3 develop meta-regression model to investigate the extent to which statistical heterogeneity among results of multiple studies on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates can be related to one or more characteristics of the studies in response to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT). Regarding the difference in the rate of SOC sequestration between NT and CT, our results shows that the

  14. On-Grid Solar PV versus Diesel Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Economics and GHG Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Baurzhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many power utilities in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have inadequate generation capacity, unreliable services, and high costs. They also face capital constraints that restrict them from making the investments necessary for capacity expansion. Capacity shortages have compelled power utilities to use leased emergency power-generating units, mainly oil-fired diesel generators, as a short-term solution. An economic analysis is carried out to compare the economic net present value (ENPV of fuel savings, as well as the greenhouse gas (GHG savings, from investing capital in a solar PV power-generation plant with those from investing the same amount of funds into a diesel power plant. The results show that ENPV is negative for the solar PV plant, whereas it has a large positive value for the diesel plant. In addition, the diesel plant would be almost three times as effective in reducing GHG emissions as the same value of investment in the solar PV plant. Even with solar investment costs falling, it will take 12 to 24 years of continuous decline before solar PV becomes cost-effective for SSA. The capital cost of solar PV would need to drop to US$1058.4 per kW to yield the same level of ENPV as the diesel plant.

  15. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  16. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Biogenic CH4 and N2O emissions overwhelm land CO2 sink in Asia: Toward a full GHG budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    The recent global assessment indicates the terrestrial biosphere as a net source of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere (Tian et al Nature 2016). The fluxes of greenhouse gases (GHG) vary by region. Both TD and BU approaches indicate that human-caused biogenic fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the biosphere of Southern Asia led to a large net climate warming effect, because the 100-year cumulative effects of CH4 and N2O emissions together exceed that of the terrestrial CO2 sink. Southern Asia has about 90% of the global rice fields and represents more than 60% of the world's nitrogen fertilizer consumption, with 64%-81% of CH4 emissions and 36%-52% of N2O emissions derived from the agriculture and waste sectors. Given the large footprint of agriculture in Southern Asia, improved fertilizer use efficiency, rice management and animal diets could substantially reduce global agricultural N2O and CH4 emissions. This study highlights the importance of including all three major GHGs in regional climate impact assessments, mitigation option and climate policy development.

  18. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  19. Towards a meaningful metric for the quantification of GHG emissions of electric vehicles (EVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjunath, Archana; Gross, George

    2017-01-01

    A key motivator for wider deployment of electric vehicles (EVs) – vehicles that are fully powered by battery charged from grid electricity – is to bring about environmental cleanliness. This goal is based on the fact that EVs produce zero tailpipe emissioon the associated carbon emissins. However, the generation and transmission of the charge electricity produce emissions that are not explicitly accounted by current measurement metrics for EV greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and as such, the notion of environmental cleanliness of EVs becomes questionable. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive metric to quantify the actual environmental impacts of EVs. The new metric that we call the electric vehicle emissions index (EVEI) captures CO_2 emissions in the electricity production to consumption stages. Our metric is the first that provides transparency in the comparison of total emissions among various EV models, as well as in the side-by-side comparison of an EV with a gasoline vehicle (GV). Illustrative results indicate that the actual environmental impacts of an EV may show wide spatial variations and in some case, these impacts may be even greater than that of GV. Such insights that the EVEI provides may be useful in a wide range of applications, particularly in policy and incentive formulation. - Highlights: • We propose the Electric Vehicle Emission Index (EVEI) metric. • EVEI indicates the EV environmental impacts w.r.t gasoline vehicles (GVs). • Fuel economy and resource mix are the major contributors to emissions. • Results indicate EVs may prove to be dirtier than GVs in certain areas of usage. • Insights may prove to be valuable to policy and incentive formulation.

  20. Sensitivity of Technical Choices on the GHG Emissions and Expended Energy of Hydrotreated Renewable Jet Fuel from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patouillard Laure

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the environmental impacts of biofuel production is essential to develop new and innovative low-emission processes. The assessment of life cycle GreenHouse Gas (GHG emissions of biofuel is mandatory for the countries of the European Union. New biomass resources that hardly compete with food crops are been developed increasingly. Microalgae are an interesting alternative to terrestrial biomass thanks to their high photosynthetic efficiency and their ability to accumulate lipids. This article provides an analysis of potential environmental impacts of the production of algal biofuel for aviation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. Evaluated impacts are GHG emissions and the primary energy consumption, from extraction of raw materials to final waste treatment. This study compared two management choices for oilcakes generated after oil extraction from microalgae. In the first system, these cakes are treated by energetic allocation and in the second by anaerobic digestion. In both cases, the steps of cultivation and harvesting have the highest impact on the results. Sensitivity analyzes are performed on technical choices of operating systems (choice of the type of nutrients, mode of harvesting, drying and oil extraction as well as a Monte-Carlo analysis on key parameter values for GHG emissions (concentration of microalgae in ponds, productivity and oil content. The results highlight the impact of the use of chemical fertilizers and the importance of the concentration of algae on GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  1. GHG and black carbon emission inventories from Mezquital Valley: The main energy provider for Mexico Megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelongo-Reyes, M M; Otazo-Sánchez, E M; Romo-Gómez, C; Gordillo-Martínez, A J; Galindo-Castillo, E

    2015-09-15

    The greenhouse gases and black carbon emission inventory from IPCC key category Energy was accomplished for the Mezquital Valley, one of the most polluted regions in Mexico, as the Mexico City wastewater have been continuously used in agricultural irrigation for more than a hundred years. In addition, thermoelectric, refinery, cement and chemistry industries are concentrated in the southern part of the valley, near Mexico City. Several studies have reported air, soil, and water pollution data and its main sources for the region. Paradoxically, these sources contaminate the valley, but boosted its economic development. Nevertheless, no research has been done concerning GHG emissions, or climate change assessment. This paper reports inventories performed by the 1996 IPCC methodology for the baseline year 2005. Fuel consumption data were derived from priority sectors such as electricity generation, refineries, manufacturing & cement industries, transportation, and residential use. The total CO2 emission result was 13,894.9 Gg, which constituted three-quarters of Hidalgo statewide energy category. The principal CO2 sources were energy transformation (69%) and manufacturing (19%). Total black carbon emissions were estimated by a bottom-up method at 0.66 Gg. The principal contributor was on-road transportation (37%), followed by firewood residential consumption (26%) and cocked brick manufactures (22%). Non-CO2 gas emissions were also significant, particularly SO2 (255.9 Gg), which accounts for 80% of the whole Hidalgo State emissions. Results demonstrated the negative environmental impact on Mezquital Valley, caused by its role as a Megacity secondary fuel and electricity provider, as well as by the presence of several cement industries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  3. Modelling methane emissions from natural wetlands by development and application of the TRIPLEX-GHG model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing; Liu, Jinxun; Peng, C.; Chen, H.; Fang, X.; Jiang, H.; Yang, G.; Zhu, D.; Wang, W.; Zhou, X.

    2014-01-01

    A new process-based model TRIPLEX-GHG was developed based on the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), coupled with a new methane (CH4) biogeochemistry module (incorporating CH4 production, oxidation, and transportation processes) and a water table module to investigate CH4 emission processes and dynamics that occur in natural wetlands. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the most sensitive parameters to evaluate CH4 emission processes from wetlands are r (defined as the CH4 to CO2 release ratio) and Q10 in the CH4 production process. These two parameters were subsequently calibrated to data obtained from 19 sites collected from approximately 35 studies across different wetlands globally. Being heterogeneously spatially distributed, r ranged from 0.1 to 0.7 with a mean value of 0.23, and the Q10 for CH4 production ranged from 1.6 to 4.5 with a mean value of 2.48. The model performed well when simulating magnitude and capturing temporal patterns in CH4 emissions from natural wetlands. Results suggest that the model is able to be applied to different wetlands under varying conditions and is also applicable for global-scale simulations.

  4. 75 FR 62739 - 2017 and Later Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Model Year Light Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards; Notice of Intent AGENCIES: Environmental... fuel economy (CAFE) standards in accordance with the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as... FR 49454, 49460 (September 28, 2009). The NHTSA CAFE standards are only based on technologies that...

  5. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  6. Management of GHG, a successful business approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnier, D.

    2003-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of Alcan, an aluminium producer with operations in Quebec and in several other markets and countries. Alcan's strategy regarding climate change involves both short term and long term objectives and a public commitment to reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Alcan has implemented a company-wide GHG management program called TARGET, which involves measuring, monitoring and better management of emissions inventory. The TARGET program includes: measurement of data, quality assurance and reports; communications and public relations; improved processes; risk management systems; development of emissions trading systems; and support of functional groups. Alcan has also implemented voluntary GHG emissions reductions measures, encourages broad participation of GHG emissions reduction initiatives, and promotes economic growth and long term durability. figs

  7. A modified GHG intensity indicator: Toward a sustainable global economy based on a carbon border tax and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrahi Moghaddam, Reza; Farrahi Moghaddam, Fereydoun; Cheriet, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    It will be difficult to gain the agreement of all the actors on any proposal for climate change management, if universality and fairness are not considered. In this work, a universal measure of emissions to be applied at the international level is proposed, based on a modification of the Greenhouse Gas Intensity (GHG-INT) measure. It is hoped that the generality and low administrative cost of this measure, which we call the Modified Greenhouse Gas Intensity measure (MGHG-INT), will eliminate any need to classify nations. The core of the MGHG-INT is what we call the IHDI-adjusted Gross Domestic Product (IDHIGDP), based on the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI). The IDHIGDP makes it possible to propose universal measures, such as MGHG-INT. We also propose a carbon border tax applicable at national borders, based on MGHG-INT and IDHIGDP. This carbon tax is supported by a proposed global Emissions Trading System (ETS). The proposed carbon tax is analyzed in a short-term scenario, where it is shown that it can result in a significant reduction in global emissions while keeping the economy growing at a positive rate. In addition to annual GHG emissions, cumulative GHG emissions over two decades are considered with almost the same results. - Highlights: ► An IHDI-adjusted GDP (IHDIGDP) is introduced to universally account the activities of nations. ► A modified GHG emission intensity (MGHG-INT) is introduced based on the IHDIGDP. ► Based on green and red scenarios, admissible emissions and RED percentage are introduced. ► The RED percentage is used to define a border carbon tax (BCT) and emission trading system. ► The MGHG-INT can provide a universal control on emissions while allowing high economical growth

  8. Management of irrigation frequency and nitrogen fertilization to mitigate GHG and NO emissions from drip-fertigated crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalos@upm.es [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez-Martin, Laura; Garcia-Torres, Lourdes [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Groenigen, Jan Willem van [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Vallejo, Antonio [ETSI Agronomos, Technical University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Drip irrigation combined with split application of fertilizer nitrogen (N) dissolved in the irrigation water (i.e. drip fertigation) is commonly considered best management practice for water and nutrient efficiency. As a consequence, its use is becoming widespread. Some of the main factors (water-filled pore space, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup −}) regulating the emissions of greenhouse gases (i.e. N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) and NO from agroecosystems can easily be manipulated by drip fertigation without yield penalties. In this study, we tested management options to reduce these emissions in a field experiment with a melon (Cucumis melo L.) crop. Treatments included drip irrigation frequency (weekly/daily) and type of N fertilizer (urea/calcium nitrate) applied by fertigation. Crop yield, environmental parameters, soil mineral N concentrations and fluxes of N{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} were measured during 85 days. Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O and NO emissions by a factor of 2.4 and 2.9, respectively (P < 0.005). Daily irrigation reduced NO emissions by 42% (P < 0.005) but increased CO{sub 2} emissions by 21% (P < 0.05) compared with weekly irrigation. We found no relation between irrigation frequency and N{sub 2}O emissions. Based on yield-scaled Global Warming Potential as well as NO cumulative emissions, we conclude that weekly fertigation with a NO{sub 3}{sup −}-based fertilizer is the best option to combine agronomic productivity with environmental sustainability. Our study shows that adequate management of drip fertigation, while contributing to the attainment of water and food security, may provide an opportunity for climate change mitigation. - Highlights: • The effect of fertigation management techniques on GHG and NO emissions was studied. • Fertigation with urea instead of calcium nitrate increased N{sub 2}O by a factor of 2.4. • Daily irrigation reduced NO (42%) but increased CO

  9. Comparative evaluation of GHG emissions from the use of Miscanthus for bio-hydrocarbon production via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemfe, Mobolaji B.; Whittaker, Carly; Gu, Sai; Fidalgo, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions from the upgrading of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil is quantified.. • Soil organic carbon sequestration rate had a significant effect on GHG emission. • Increasing plant scale could improve the environmental performance of the system. • Nitrogen to the pyrolysis reactor had significant impact on GHG emissions. - Abstract: This study examines the GHG emissions associated with producing bio-hydrocarbons via fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus. The feedstock is then upgraded to bio-oil products via hydroprocessing and zeolite cracking. Inventory data for this study were obtained from current commercial cultivation practices of Miscanthus in the UK and state-of-the-art process models developed in Aspen Plus®. The system boundary considered spans from the cultivation of Miscanthus to conversion of the pyrolysis-derived bio-oil into bio-hydrocarbons up to the refinery gate. The Miscanthus cultivation subsystem considers three scenarios for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates. These were assumed as follows: (i) excluding (SOC), (ii) low SOC and (iii) high (SOC) for best and worst cases. Overall, Miscanthus cultivation contributed moderate to negative values to GHG emissions, from analysis of excluding SOC to high SOC scenarios. Furthermore, the rate of SOC in the Miscanthus cultivation subsystem has significant effects on total GHG emissions. Where SOC is excluded, the fast pyrolysis subsystem shows the highest positive contribution to GHG emissions, while the credit for exported electricity was the main ‘negative’ GHG emission contributor for both upgrading pathways. Comparison between the bio-hydrocarbons produced from the two upgrading routes and fossil fuels indicates GHG emission savings between 68% and 87%. Sensitivity analysis reveals that bio-hydrocarbon yield and nitrogen gas feed to the fast pyrolysis reactor are the main parameters that influence the total GHG emissions for both pathways.

  10. Effect of fertilising with pig slurry and chicken manure on GHG emissions from Mediterranean paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maris, S.C., E-mail: stefania@macs.udl.cat [Environment and Soil Science Department, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Bosch-Serra, A.D. [Environment and Soil Science Department, University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E-25198 Lleida (Spain); Moreno-García, B. [Soils and Irrigation Department, Agrifood Research and Technology Centre of Aragon (CITA), Av. Montañana 930, E-50059 Zaragoza (Spain); Català, M.M. [Ebre Field Station, Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Ctra. de Balada, km 1, E-43870 Amposta (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    } {sup 1}; high C/N) increases GHG emissions. • Mineral N had no effect on N{sub 2}O, while chicken manure increased CH{sub 4} emission. • The postharvest period was a sink of CH{sub 4} without N{sub 2}O emissions. • During seedling chicken manure increased GHG; mineral N and pig slurry did not.

  11. Mathematical Optimization Algorithm for Minimizing the Cost Function of GHG Emission in AS/RS Using Positive Selection Based Clonal Selection Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi; Murugesan, R.

    2018-04-01

    This paper regards with the minimization of total cost of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) efficiency in Automated Storage and Retrieval System (AS/RS). A mathematical model is constructed based on tax cost, penalty cost and discount cost of GHG emission of AS/RS. A two stage algorithm namely positive selection based clonal selection principle (PSBCSP) is used to find the optimal solution of the constructed model. In the first stage positive selection principle is used to reduce the search space of the optimal solution by fixing a threshold value. In the later stage clonal selection principle is used to generate best solutions. The obtained results are compared with other existing algorithms in the literature, which shows that the proposed algorithm yields a better result compared to others.

  12. Modeling of policies for reduction of GHG emissions in energy sector using ANN: case study-Croatia (EU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolanča, Tomislav; Strahovnik, Tomislav; Ukić, Šime; Stankov, Mirjana Novak; Rogošić, Marko

    2017-07-01

    This study describes the development of tool for testing different policies for reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy sector using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The case study of Croatia was elaborated. Two different energy consumption scenarios were used as a base for calculations and predictions of GHG emissions: the business as usual (BAU) scenario and sustainable scenario. Both of them are based on predicted energy consumption using different growth rates; the growth rates within the second scenario resulted from the implementation of corresponding energy efficiency measures in final energy consumption and increasing share of renewable energy sources. Both ANN architecture and training methodology were optimized to produce network that was able to successfully describe the existing data and to achieve reliable prediction of emissions in a forward time sense. The BAU scenario was found to produce continuously increasing emissions of all GHGs. The sustainable scenario was found to decrease the GHG emission levels of all gases with respect to BAU. The observed decrease was attributed to the group of measures termed the reduction of final energy consumption through energy efficiency measures.

  13. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  14. Assessment of soil GHG emission in different functional zones of Moscow urbanized areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizirskaya, Maria; Epikhina, Anna; Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo; Mazirov, Il'ya

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric greenhouse-gas concentrations are increasing rapidly, causing global climate changes. Growing concentrations of CO2, CH4 and N2O are occurring not only as a result of industry activity, but also from changes in land use and type of land management due to urbanization. Up to now there were not so many studies in Russia that dealt with urbanization effects (functional zoning, land-use type, soil contamination etc.) on GHG emission from the soil in spatial-temporal variability at the local and regional scale. The aim of our study is to provide the analysis of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 efflux's response to different biotic and abiotic factors, as well as to management activities and anthropogenic impact in different functional zones of the city. The principal objects of our study are representative urban landscapes with different land-use practices, typical for urbanized area. The varieties of urban ecosystems are represented by urban forest, green lawns with different functional subzoning and agro landscapes (16 sites in total). Forest sites have been studied during 7 years and they are differing in mezorelief (small hill summit and two slopes). Green lawns vary in level of human impact (normal, medium and high) and are represented by managed and non-managed lawns. Agro landscapes are represented by two crop types: barley and grass mixture (oats and vetch) with till and no-till cultivation. In each plot we measured: soil respiration in field conditions using system based on IR-gas analyzer Li- COR 820, CH4 and N2O emission using the method of exposition chamber. Samples were taken from soil exposition chamber by syringe, and then analyzed on gas chromatograph. The measurements with Li-COR have been done on 10 days base since June till October 2013, and till September by exposition chamber in 5 replicas per plot. The conducted research have shown high spatial and temporal variability of CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes due to functional zoning, slope, vegetation type

  15. An Assessment Of The Life Cycle Costs And GHG Emissions For Alternative Generation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, C. Richard; Carias, Anibal; Ali, Mohammad; Wood, Nicholas; Morgenroth, Michael; Bridgeman, Andrew

    2010-09-15

    The best choices for supplying energy in a manner that can reduce emissions at a reasonable cost while still ensuring grid stability and reliability of supply is a matter of some debate. In this paper, a first principles analysis is performed to look at life-cycle costs and emissions as well as the amount of energy that is provided to the system from various low-emission alternatives, including wind, water, solar and nuclear power. These low-emission sources are then benchmarked against coal-fired energy production to establish a normalized assessment of the clean energy alternatives currently available.

  16. Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Dwivedi

    Full Text Available Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

  17. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report quantifies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector and identifies opportunities for non-GHG-emitting thermal energy sources to replace the most significant GHG-emitting U.S. industries based on targeted, process-level analysis of industrial heat requirements. The intent is to provide a basis for projecting opportunities for clean energy use. This provides a prospectus for small modular nuclear reactors (including nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems), solar industrial process heat, and geothermal energy. This report provides a complement to analysis of process-efficiency improvement by considering how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions.

  18. Research and Development of a DNDC Online Model for Farmland Carbon Sequestration and GHG Emissions Mitigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zaidi; Yin, Shan; Zhang, Xianxian; Li, Changsheng; Shen, Guangrong; Zhou, Pei; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate agricultural practices for carbon sequestration and emission mitigation have a significant influence on global climate change. However, various agricultural practices on farmland carbon sequestration usually have a major impact on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is very important to accurately quantify the effect of agricultural practices. This study developed a platform-the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) online model-for simulating and evaluating the agricultural carbon sequestration and emission mitigation based on the scientific process of the DNDC model, which is widely used in the simulation of soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. After testing the adaptability of the platform on two sampling fields, it turned out that the simulated values matched the measured values well for crop yields and GHG emissions. We used the platform to estimate the effect of three carbon sequestration practices in a sampling field: nitrogen fertilization reduction, straw residue and midseason drainage. The results indicated the following: (1) moderate decrement of the nitrogen fertilization in the sampling field was able to decrease the N₂O emission while maintaining the paddy rice yield; (2) ground straw residue had almost no influence on paddy rice yield, but the CH₄ emission and the surface SOC concentration increased along with the quantity of the straw residue; (3) compared to continuous flooding, midseason drainage would not decrease the paddy rice yield and could lead to a drop in CH₄ emission. Thus, this study established the DNDC online model, which is able to serve as a reference and support for the study and evaluation of the effects of agricultural practices on agricultural carbon sequestration and GHG emissions mitigation in China.

  19. EV-GHG Mobile Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EV-GHG Mobile Source Data asset contains measured mobile source GHG emissions summary compliance information on light-duty vehicles, by model, for certification...

  20. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  1. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  3. Initial scoping of GHG emissions trading potential in Alberta : CABREE discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.

    2002-03-01

    The past five years have seen the emergence of the concept of emissions trading for greenhouse gases, which would make possible a reduction of the costs required to meet emissions targets agreed upon under the Kyoto Protocol. Emissions trading potential and initial scoping in Alberta is examined in this document, with a special emphasis placed on greenhouse gases. The design of a system, encompassing the theory underlying the mechanism, the current developments, issues of importance in this context, as well as the potential for inclusion of other sectors in Alberta were also discussed. For the purpose of this document, emissions trading was defined as one party reducing its emissions levels then transferring the ownership of that reduction to another party who can then purchase this reduction to assist in meeting its own emissions target. Emission trading can be divided into two basic types called Cap and Trade, and Baseline and Credit. Market creation and behaviour, and regulatory behaviour are factors that can render a trading system more feasible. It is important to analyze the goals before designing the specifics of the system. The incorporation of the various sectors of the economy of Alberta would be affected by their unique features. The greatest promise for emissions trading in Alberta is shown by the energy sector. The percentage of emissions covered, the number of participants, the economic effectiveness are all criteria that affect the performance of any system. figs

  4. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  5. Accounting of GHG emissions and removals from forest management: a long road from Kyoto to Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Joachim H A

    2018-01-03

    GHG emission reductions. This also concerns forests as a resource for the bio-based economy and wood products, and for increasing carbon reservoirs. By discussing the existing elements of forest accounting rules and conditions for establishing an accounting system post 2030, it is concluded that core requirements like factoring out direct human-induced from indirect human-induced and natural impacts on managed lands, a facilitation of incentives for management changes and providing safeguards for the integrity of the accounting system are not sufficiently secured by currently discussed accounting rules. A responsibility to fulfil these basic requirements is transferred to Nationally Determined Contributions. Increased incentives for additional human induced investments are not stipulated by the accounting approach but rather by the political decision to make use of the substitution effect and potential net removals from LULUCF to contribute to self-set targets.

  6. Forest biomass supply chains in Ireland: A life cycle assessment of GHG emissions and primary energy balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Fionnuala; Devlin, Ger; McDonnell, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wood energy supply chains are analysed for energy requirements and GHG emissions. • Use of residues and stumps for energy is evaluated for Irish conditions. • Results highlight transportation as the most energy and GHG emission intensive step. • Wood energy compares favourably with other biomass sources and fossil fuels. - Abstract: The demand for wood for energy production in Ireland is predicted to double from 1.5 million m 3 over bark (OB) in 2011 to 3 million m 3 OB by 2020. There is a large potential for additional biomass recovery for energetic purposes from both thinning forest stands and by harvesting of tops and branches, and stumps. This study builds on research within the wood-for-energy concept in Ireland by analysing the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions associated with thinning, residue bundling and stump removal for energy purposes. To date there have been no studies on harvesting of residues and stumps in terms of energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions across the life cycle in Ireland. The results of the analysis on wood energy supply chains highlights transport as the most energy and greenhouse gas emissions intensive step in the life cycle. This finding illustrates importance of localised production and use of forest biomass. Production of wood chip, and shredded bundles and stumps, compares favourably with both other sources of biomass in Ireland and fossil fuels

  7. Biomass direct-fired power generation system in China: An integrated energy, GHG emissions, and economic evaluation for Salix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Chang, Yuan; Pang, Mingyue

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the options of biomass power generation in China, this study presented an integrated energy, environmental, and economic evaluation for Salix in China, and a typical Salix direct-fired power generation system (SDPGS) in Inner Mongolia was selected for case study. A tiered hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to calculate the “planting-to-wire” (PTW) energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic cost and profit of the SDPGS, including feedstock cultivation, power plant construction and operation, and on-grid price with/without government subsidies. The results show that the PTW energy consumption and GHG emissions of Salix are 0.8 MJ/kWh and 114 g CO 2 -eq/kWh, respectively, indicating an energy payback time (EPBT) of 3.2 years. The SDPGS is not economically feasible without government subsidies. The PTW costs are dominated by feedstock cultivation. The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits are still robust, even when the power plant runs at only 60% design capacity. For future development of biomass power in China, scientific planning is necessary to guarantee a sufficient feedstock supply. In addition, technology progress, mature industrial chains, and reasonable price setting policy are required to enable potential energy and environmental advantages of biomass power moving forward. -- Highlights: •A hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate overall performance of the SDPGS. •On-site processes dominate the “planting-to-wire” footprints. •The energy saving and GHG mitigation benefits of the SDPGS are robust. •The economic profit of the SDPGS is feeble without government subsidies. •Generating efficiency promotion has a comprehensive positive effect on the system

  8. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  9. Summary report on GHG emission markets. Experiences and projects. Version from December 18, 2000, completed with the update from January 27, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document provides a brief and succinct overview of all the initiatives taken by governments, parliaments and industry in a number of countries to examine or establish systems for trading greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It is intended chiefly for non-specialists (details of the precise mechanisms at work in each system have been purposely omitted in order to emphasize only the fundamental principles adopted in each case). We note a remarkable trend (especially in the English speaking world) in preparing such systems, which are felt to be an effective way of reducing companies' GHG emissions. France will need to adopt a much more proactive approach in this area if it wants to play any role in defining the future international system and if its industry and authorities are to be ready to take part in it. This document is based in part on a much more detailed report by the NHO (Federation of Norwegian Companies) and on the MIES/Industry document entitled 'Implementing an emission credits trading system in France to optimise industry's contribution to reducing greenhouse gases'. Having proven its ability to meet an environmental objective at a low cost, the system consisting of setting targets and trading emissions is now widely recognized as being the most effective tool for tackling the problem of how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacturing sector. The last three years have witnessed an intense process of research, preparation, simulation and real life experimentation, chiefly in the UK, North America, Europe, the Nordic countries, Australia,... Simulations has shown just how easy it is to implement such a system, the speed with which those involved can learn to master the tool, and the market's effectiveness in encouraging actors to make the necessary investment once has been established a long-term vision of the objectives to be achieved in a system of unchanging rules. Real life experience has shown that by setting a

  10. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO 2 -equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: → We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. → Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. → Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. → Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. → At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  11. Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman, E-mail: mohdnorh@andrew.cmu.ed [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Jaramillo, Paulina [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Griffin, W. Michael [Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States); Tepper School of Business, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This paper addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270-530 and 120-190 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 and 85 g CO{sub 2}-equivalent per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. These findings are used to recommend policies for mitigating GHG emissions impacts from the growth of palm oil use in the transportation sector. - Research highlights: {yields} We modeled greenhouse gas emissions in the production of palm-biodiesel. {yields} Five land types were included to model emissions associated with land-use change. {yields} Land-use change has the biggest impact on the emissions in making palm-biodiesel. {yields} Emissions from fertilizer use and effluent treatment are still significant. {yields} At 5% biodiesel grown on suitable lands Malaysia would obtain an emissions savings.

  12. Scenarios for use of biogas for heavy-duty vehicles in Denmark and related GHG emissions impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steen Solvang; Winther, Morten; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2017-01-01

    of biogas is of concern. This study has analysed the potential biomass and biogas production from all Danish organic waste sources under different scenario assumptions for future scenario years. The analysis includes energy demand of the road transportation sector by means of transport and fuel types......, and potential use of the limited biogas resource taking into account alternative fuel options available for transportation (electricity, hydrogen, biofuels). Further, the total differences in fuel consumption and GHG emissions due to the replacement of diesel-powered heavy-duty vehicles by gas-powered heavy...

  13. Precision Agriculture Technologies Positively Contributing to GHG Emissions Mitigation, Farm Productivity and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Balafoutis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a short description of the technology and the impacts that have been reported in literature on greenhouse gases reduction and the associated impacts on farm productivity and economics. The technologies presented span all agricultural practices, including variable rate sowing/planting, fertilizing, spraying, weeding and irrigation.

  14. What can we learn from field experiments about the development of SOC and GHG emissions under different management practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Lehtinen, Taru; Schlatter, Norman; Haslmayr, Hans-Peter; Baumgarten, Andreas; ten Berge, Hein

    2015-04-01

    Successful agricultural management practices are required to maintain or enhance soil quality; at the same time climate change mitigation is becoming increasingly important. Within the EU project CATCH-C we analysed the effects of different agricultural practices not only on crop productivity, but also on soil quality indicators (e.g. soil organic carbon (SOC)) and climate change (CC) mitigation indicators (e.g. CO2, CH4, N2O emissions). European data sets and associated literature, mainly from long-term experiments were evaluated. This evaluation of agricultural management practices was carried out comparing a set of improved ("best") and often applied ("current") management practices. Positive and negative effects occurred when best management practices are adopted. As expected, none of the investigated practices could comply with all objectives simultaneously, i.e. maintaining high yields, mitigating climate change and improving chemical, physical and biological soil quality. The studied soil management practices "non-inversion tillage", "organic fertilisation" (application of farm yard manure, slurry, compost) and "incorporation of crop residues" represent important management practices for farmers to increase SOC, thus improving soil quality. However, CO2 and, especially, N2O emissions may rise as well. The evaluation of CC mitigation is often limited by the lack of data from - preferably - continuous GHG emission measurements. Thus, more long-term field studies are needed to better assess the CO2, CH4 and, especially, N2O emissions following the above mentioned favorably rated MPs. Only if SOC and GHG emissions are measured in the same field experiments, it will be possible to compute overall balances of necessary CO2-C equivalent emissions. CATCH-C is funded within the 7th Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, Theme 2 - Biotechnologies, Agriculture & Food. (Grant Agreement N° 289782).

  15. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  16. Quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastewater treatment plants using a ground-based remote sensing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    The direct release of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is important because it contributes to the global greenhouse gases (GHGs) release and strongly effects the WWTP carbon footprint. Biological nitrogen removal technologies could increase the direct emission of N2O (IPCC, 2006), while CH4 losses are of environmental, economic and safety concern. Currently, reporting of N2O and CH4 emissions from WWTPs are performed mainly using methods suggested by IPCC which are not site specific (IPCC, 2006). The dynamic tracer dispersion method (TDM), a ground based remote sensing approach implemented at DTU Environment, was demonstrated to be a novel and successful tool for full-scale CH4 and N2O quantification from WWTPs. The method combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the facility with concentration measurements downwind of the plant (Mønster et al., 2014; Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM in general is based on the assumption that a tracer gas released at an emission source, in this case a WWTP, disperses into the atmosphere in the same way as the GHG emitted from process units. Since the ratio of their concentrations remains constant along their atmospheric dispersion, the GHG emission rate can be calculated using the following expression when the tracer gas release rate is known: EGHG=Qtr*(CGHG/Ctr)*(MWGHG/MWtr) EGHG is the GHG emission in mass per time, Qtr is the tracer release in mass per time, CGHG and Ctr are the concentrations measured downwind in parts per billion subtracted of their background values and integrated over the whole plume, and MWGHG and MWtr are the molar weights of GHG and tracer gas respectively (Mønster et al. 2014). In this study, acetylene (C2H2) was used as tracer. Downwind plume concentrations were measured driving along transects with two cavity ring down spectrometers (Yoshida et al., 2014). TDM was successfully applied in different seasons at several Scandinavian WWTPs characterized by

  17. Life cycle assessment of lignocellulosic ethanol: a review of key factors and methods affecting calculated GHG emissions and energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbrandt, Kelsey; Chu, Pei Lin; Simmonds, Allison; Mullins, Kimberley A; MacLean, Heather L; Griffin, W Michael; Saville, Bradley A

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic ethanol has potential for lower life cycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline and conventional grain-based ethanol. Ethanol production 'pathways' need to meet economic and environmental goals. Numerous life cycle assessments of lignocellulosic ethanol have been published over the last 15 years, but gaps remain in understanding life cycle performance due to insufficient data, and model and methodological issues. We highlight key aspects of these issues, drawing on literature and a case study of corn stover ethanol. Challenges include the complexity of feedstock/ecosystems and market-mediated aspects and the short history of commercial lignocellulosic ethanol facilities, which collectively have led to uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates, and to debates on LCA methods and the role of uncertainty in decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  19. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  20. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...

  1. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  2. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  3. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  4. Measuring the potential of GHG emissions reductions on the food and beverage processing sector in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, M.; Ciccone, A.D.

    2000-07-01

    Seven per cent of the greenhouse gas emissions from the industrial sector in Ontario relate to the food and beverage processing sector. This report provides the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs with the ability to identify the effects of reducing greenhouse gas emissions on Ontario's food and beverage processing sector. The study was undertaken in response to Ontario's efforts to address the challenges set by the Kyoto Protocol and the proposed release of Canada's National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change. The objective of the report is to help Ontario decide if it should support a national strategy and/or ratify the Kyoto Protocol. Potential ways to meet the Kyoto commitments were also identified in the report. The study was based on an analysis of large amounts of data and information regarding the economic and technological aspects that affect the food and beverage processing industry in Ontario, including the seven major sub-sectors, located mostly in southern Ontario. The types of plants and their associated processes and fuel use were assessed to determine the size and nature of fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions for each sub-sector. The study examined end uses and base technologies for each sub-sector and compared them with energy efficient technologies and opportunities within the industry. Barriers, and how to overcome them, were also described. Ontario's results were then compared with results from Canada's Foundation Paper and Options Analysis prepared for the Agriculture and Agri-Food Table on Climate Change. It was determined that the primary source of greenhouse gases for the industry comes from the use of energy directly from the combustion of fossil fuels and indirectly from the use of electricity. The contributions to greenhouse gases through chlorofluorocarbons or through waste stream is small and shrinking. It was concluded that mitigation strategies should concentrate on energy conservation through energy

  5. An Evaluation of the Potential for Shifting of Freight from Truck to Rail and Its Impacts on Energy Use and GHG Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guo, Zhaomiao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report summarizes our evaluation of the potential energy-use and GHG-emissions reduction achieved by shifting freight from truck to rail under a most-likely scenario. A sensitivity analysis is also included. The sensitivity analysis shows changes in energy use and GHG emissions when key parameters are varied. The major contribution and distinction from previous studies is that this study considers the rail level of service (LOS) and commodity movements at the origin-destination (O-D) level. In addition, this study considers the fragility and time sensitivity of each commodity type.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  7. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  8. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  9. A Study of the Social Effects of International GHG Emission Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Jick [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    International efforts of greenhouse gas mitigation to prevent climate change reduce not only emission of greenhouse gases, but emission of the pollutants such as SO{sub 2}, NOx, CO, PM, and O{sub 3}. These pollutants are known to be responsible for the negative impact on human health and ecosystem. Ancillary benefits and costs should be included in the calculation of net benefit of greenhouse gas mitigation policies. Ancillary benefit, on the one hand, directly affects the optimal level of greenhouse gas mitigation. On the other hand, the size of ancillary benefit could play a crucial role in adopting greenhouse gas mitigation policies, especially for the Non-Annex I countries because ancillary benefits are directly realized in the country implementing those policies. Ancillary benefit is estimated using both top-down approach and bottom-up approach. Most of ancillary benefit result from benefits related to the health effect. However, ancillary benefits are estimated quite differently between studies. Ancillary benefits in Europe are estimated from $300/TC to $600/TC, while in USA they are estimated from $3/TC to $300/TC. In the developing countries ancillary benefits vary in the range of $6/TC to $300/TC. Differences in the population density, and the exposure rate are partially responsible for the difference in the size of estimated ancillary benefits. However the main source of difference in the estimates are related to the baseline, methodological differences in monetization of the benefits among others. Despite the importance of ancillary benefits is of no doubt, it is too early to argue that the size of ancillary benefit is sufficient to offset the greenhouse gas mitigation cost such as decrease in GDP and the employment rate. Estimation of ancillary benefits could be improved by incorporating geographical and time factors and the differences in environmental and industrial policies. Further improvement could be made by maintaining consistency in assumptions

  10. The complexity and challenges of determining GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions from grid electricity consumption and conservation in LCA (life cycle assessment) – A methodological review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Kiviluoma, Juha; Saikku, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The way in which GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions associated with grid electricity consumption is handled in different LCA (life cycle assessment) studies, varies significantly. Apart from differences in actual research questions, methodological choices and data set selection have a significant impact on the outcomes. These inconsistencies result in difficulties to compare the findings of various LCA studies. This review paper explores the issue from a methodological point of view. The perspectives of ALCA (attributional life cycle assessment) and CLCA (consequential life cycle assessment) are reflected. Finally, the paper summarizes the key issues and provides suggestions on the way forward. The major challenge related to both of the LCA categories is to determine the GHG emissions of the power production technologies under consideration. Furthermore, the specific challenge in ALCA is to determine the appropriate electricity production mix, and in CLCA, to identify the marginal technologies affected and related consequences. Significant uncertainties are involved, particularly in future-related LCAs, and these should not be ignored. Harmonization of the methods and data sets for various purposes is suggested, acknowledging that selections might be subjective. -- Highlights: ► Methods to assess GHG emissions from grid electricity consumption in LCA vary. ► We explored the major challenges related to various methods. ► Significant uncertainties are involved particularly in future-related GHG emissions. ► The most appropriate method depends on the equity viewpoints.

  11. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions for New and Recovered Softwood Framing Lumber and Hardwood Flooring Considering End-of-Life Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Robert H. Falk; Hongmei Gu; Thomas R. Napier; Jamie Meil

    2013-01-01

    Within the green building fields is a growing movement to recover and reuse building materials in lieu of demolition and land fill disposal. However, they lack life-cycle data to help quantify environmental impacts. This study quantifies the primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions released from the production of wood recovered from an old house and from new...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  13. The use of Meta-Regression Analysis to harmonize LCA literature: an application to GHG emissions of 2. and 3. generation biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, Fabio; Cheze, Benoit; Patouillard, Laure; Bouvart, Frederique

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of a literature review performs with a meta-regression analysis (MRA) that focuses on the estimates of advanced biofuel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions assessed with a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The mean GHG emissions of both second (G2) and third generation (G3) biofuels and the effects of factors influencing these estimates are identified and quantified by means of specific statistical methods. 47 LCA studies are included in the database, providing 593 estimates. Each study estimate of the database is characterized by i) technical data/characteristics, ii) author's methodological choices and iii) typology of the study under consideration. The database is composed of both the vector of these estimates - expressed in grams of CO 2 equivalent per MJ of biofuel (g CO 2 eq/MJ) - and a matrix containing vectors of predictor variables which can be continuous or dummy variables. The former is the dependent variable while the latter corresponds to the explanatory variables of the meta-regression model. Parameters are estimated by mean of econometrics methods. Our results clearly highlight a hierarchy between G3 and G2 biofuels: life cycle GHG emissions of G3 biofuels are statistically higher than those of Ethanol which, in turn, are superior to those of BtL. Moreover, this article finds empirical support for many of the hypotheses formulated in narrative literature surveys concerning potential factors which may explain estimates variations. Finally, the MRA results are used to address the harmonization issue in the field of advanced biofuels GHG emissions thanks to the technique of benefits transfer using meta-regression models. The range of values hence obtained appears to be lower than the fossil fuel reference (about 83.8 in g CO 2 eq/ MJ). However, only Ethanol and BtL do comply with the GHG emission reduction thresholds for biofuels defined in both the American and European directives. (authors)

  14. 50% REDUCTION IN GLOBAL GHG EMISSION BY 2050 AND ITS IMPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    To prevent the global temperature increase by two degrees, global greenhouse gas emission in 2050 should be cut by half relative to its 1990 level. This study shows following three things by using multi regions and sectors recursive dynamic type computable general equilibrium model. One is the feasibility of that global emission target. The others are the counter measures and the impact on the macro economy, if that target were feasible. In addition, the scenarios with and without international emission trading are implemented and the effect of the trading is analyzed. As a result, that target can be achieved. The marginal abatement cost is 750/tCO2-eq in 2050. Energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy and carbon capture and storage technologies are the main players as counter measures. If the emission trading is available freely, GDP loss is 4.5% globally in 2050. Otherwise, the loss is increased to 6.1%. The emission trading mechanism is also one of the important measures.

  15. Automated Vehicle Regulation: An Energy and Emissions Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2016-05-18

    This presentation provides a summary of the current automated vehicles polices in the United States and how they related to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The presentation then looks at future automated vehicle trends that will increase and reduce GHG emissions and what current policies utilized in other areas of law could be adapted for automated vehicle GHG emissions.

  16. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  17. Analysis of standard and innovative methods for allocating upstream and refinery GHG emissions to oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Christian; Moro, Alberto; Edwards, Robert; Rocco, Matteo Vincenzo; Colombo, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Traditional and innovative methods for allocating emissions at refinery level are reviewed. •Added value has been introduced as a novel allocation method. •Hydrogen-based consistency test has been introduced to validate the allocation methods. •Consistent allocation methods assign negative refinery emissions to heavy products. -- Abstract: Alternative fuel policies need accurate and transparent methods to find the embedded carbon intensity of individual refinery products. This study investigates different ways of allocating greenhouse gases emissions deriving from refining and upstream crude oil supply. Allocation methods based on mass, energy content, economic value and, innovatively, added-value, are compared with the marginal refining emissions calculated by CONCAWE’s linear-programming model to the average EU refinery, which has been adopted as reference in EU legislation. Beside the most important transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, kerosene/jet fuel and heavy fuel oil), the analysis extends to petroleum coke and refinery hydrogen. Moreover, novel criteria, based on the implications due to hydrogen usage by each fuel pathway, have been introduced to test the consistency of the analyzed approaches. It is found that only two economic-based allocation methods are consistent with the introduced criteria. These two methods also give negative refinery emissions for heavy products, which is coherent with the marginal emissions calculated through the CONCAWE refinery model. The recommended allocation methods are transparent and use only publicly available statistical data, so they may be useful not only for future EU legislation, but also in jurisdictions where a representative refinery model is not available.

  18. Worldwide Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions from Petroleum Jet Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-09

    The main objective of this project was to calculate greenhouse gas emissions estimates for petroleum jet fuels for the recent past and for future scenarios in the coming decades. Results were reported globally and broken out by world regions, and the...

  19. Mapping the international flows of GHG emissions within a more feasible consumption-based framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario; Pulselli, Federico; Borghesi, Simone

    2017-01-01

    and consumed outside its boundaries. A relevant example is the export from China to consumers located in the USA, Japan, and Germany. A focus on the Mediterranean area, that resulted as a net importer of CO2 embodied in traded goods, identifies the export of emissions from Italy and Spain to France and from...

  20. Estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy use efficiency (EUE) analysis in rainfed canola production (case study: Golestan province, Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Hossein; Bourkheili, Saeid Hassanpour; Kamkar, Behnam; Soltani, Afshin; Gharanjic, Kambiz; Nazari, Noor Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of energy inputs in agricultural section has been led to numerous environmental concerns such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, high consumption of non-renewable resources, loss of biodiversity and environment pollutions. The study was aimed to analyze the energy use efficiency (EUE) and estimation of GHG emissions from rainfed–based canola production systems (RCPSs) in Iran. In this study, data were collected from 35 farms in Golestan province (northeast of Iran) by a face to face questionnaire performed and statistical yearbooks of 2014. The amount of GHG emissions (per hectare) from inputs used in RCPSs was calculated using CO 2 emissions coefficient of agricultural inputs. Results showed that the EUE and net energy (NE) were as 3.44 and 35,537.81 MJ ha −1 , respectively. The value of these indices for the study area indicated that surveyed fields are approximately efficient in the use of energy for canola production. The highest share of energy consumption belonged to nitrogen fertilizer (42.09%) followed by diesel fuel (39.81%). In production of rainfed canola, GHG emission was estimated as 1009.91 kg CO 2 equivalent per hectare. Based on the results, nitrogen fertilizer (44.15%), diesel fuel (30.16%) and machinery (14.49%) for field operations had the highest share of GHG emission. The total consumed energy by inputs could be classified as direct energy (40.09%), and indirect energy (59.91%) or renewable energy (2.02%) and nonrenewable energy (97.98%). These results demonstrate that the share of renewable energies in canola production is very low in the studied region and agriculture in Iran is very much dependent on non-renewable energies. In this study, the energy use status in RCPSs has analyzed and the main involved causes have been interpreted. - Highlights: • Fertilizers had the highest share in GHG emission. • The share of renewable energy was low in canola production. • Canola production is efficient in Iran.

  1. Life cycle GHG analysis of rice straw bio-DME production and application in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Sagisaka, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Katsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production in Thailand are assessed. • Bio-DME replaces diesel in engines and supplements LPG for household application. • Rice straw bio-DME in both cases of substitution helps reduce GHG emissions. - Abstract: Thailand is one of the leading countries in rice production and export; an abundance of rice straw, therefore, is left in the field nowadays and is commonly burnt to facilitate quick planting of the next crop. The study assesses the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of using rice straw for bio-DME production in Thailand. The analysis is divided into two scenarios of rice straw bio-DME utilization i.e. used as automotive fuel for diesel engines and used as LPG supplement for household application. The results reveal that that utilization of rice straw for bio-DME in the two scenarios could help reduce GHG emissions by around 14–70% and 2–66%, respectively as compared to the diesel fuel and LPG substituted. In case rice straw is considered as a by-product of rice cultivation, the cultivation of rice straw will be the major source of GHG emission contributing around 50% of the total GHG emissions of rice straw bio-DME production. Several factors that can affect the GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production are discussed along with measures to enhance GHG performance of rice straw bio-DME production and utilization

  2. Energy and GHG abatement cost curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Rafael [BHP Billiton Base Metals (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Global warming due to various reasons but especially to emission of green house gases (GHGs) has become a cause for serious concern. This paper discusses the steps taken by BHP Billiton to reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions using cost curves. According to forecasts, global warming is expected to impact Chile badly and the rise in temperature could be between 1 and more than 5 degrees Celsius. Mining in Chile consumes a lot of energy, particularly electricity. Total energy and electricity consumption in 2007 was 13 and 36 % respectively. BHP base metals developed a set of abatement cost curves for energy and GHG in Chile and these are shown in figures. The methodology for the curves consisted of consultant visits to each mine operation. The study also includes mass energy balance and feasibility maps. The paper concludes that it is important to evaluate the potential for reducing emissions and energy and their associated costs.

  3. Analysing methodological choices in calculations of embodied energy and GHG emissions from buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard; Malmqvist, Tove; Moncaster, Alice

    2018-01-01

    The importance of embodied energy and embodied greenhouse gas emissions (EEG) from buildings is gaining increased interest within building sector initiatives and on a regulatory level. In spite of recent har- monisation efforts, reported results of EEG from building case studies display large...... obtained, thus providing a framework for reinterpretation and more effective comparison. The collection of over 80 international case studies developed within the International Energy Agency’s EBC Annex 57 research programme is used as the quantitative foundation to present a comprehensive analysis......, and the combination potentials between these many parameters signifies a multitude of ways in which the outcome of EEG studies are affected....

  4. Evaluating Uncertainty in GHG Emission Scenarios: Mapping IAM Outlooks With an Energy System Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, W. J.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change modeling relies on projections of future greenhouse gas emissions and other phenomena leading to changes in planetary radiative forcing (RF). Pathways for long-run fossil energy use that map to total forcing outcomes are commonly depicted with integrated assessment models (IAMs). IAMs structure outlooks for 21st-century emissions with various theories for developments in demographics, economics, land-use, energy markets and energy service demands. These concepts are applied to understand global changes in two key factors relevant for scenarios of carbon emissions: total energy use (E) this century and the carbon intensity of that energy (F/E). A simple analytical and graphical approach can also illustrate the full range of outcomes for these variables to determine if IAMs provide sufficient coverage of the uncertainty space for future energy use. In this talk, we present a method for understanding uncertainties relevant to RF scenario components in a phase space. The phase space of a dynamic system represents significant factors as axes to capture the full range of physically possible states. A two-dimensional phase space of E and F/E presents the possible system states that can lead to various levels of total 21st-century carbon emissions. Once defined in this way, a phase space of these energy system coordinates allows for rapid characterization of large IAM scenario sets with machine learning techniques. This phase space method is applied to the levels of RF described by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). The resulting RCP phase space identifies characteristics of the baseline energy system outlooks provided by IAMs for IPCC Working Group III. We conduct a k-means cluster analysis to distinguish the major features of IAM scenarios for each RCP range. Cluster analysis finds the IAM scenarios in AR5 illustrate RCPs with consistent combinations of energy resources. This suggests IAM scenarios understate uncertainty ranges for future

  5. Model of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (Ghg's in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarildo da Cruz Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The warming of Earth's atmosphere is a natural phenomenon and necessary to sustain life on the planet, being caused by the balance between the electromagnetic radiation received by the Earth from the Sun and the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth back into space. Since the mid-eighteenth century, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the consequent increase in burning fossil fuels, changes in land use and agriculture, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O has increased significantly. By the year 2010, the concentrations of these three gases showed increments respectively in the order of 39%, 158% and 20% (WMO 2009, 2010 and 2011. Such increases in the concentrations of these gases are changing the Earth's radioactive balance, intensifying the natural greenhouse effect, which over millions of years has been essential to support life on the planet. The main objective of this paper is to present the development of a model based on the language of System Dynamics (SD, of how the emission of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs is in complex installations Exploration and Production (E & P of oil and gas. To illustrate one of the results of this modeling process a computer simulation was performed involving emissions from production estimate for the Pilot Production System and Drainage Area Tupi - Tupi Pilot (ICF, 2008.

  6. The Best (and Worst) of GHG Emission Trading Systems: Comparing the EU ETS with Its Followers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghesi, Simone; Montini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    The European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) is generally considered as the prototype system for the other Emission Trading Systems (ETSs) for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are rapidly spreading around the world. To get a deeper understanding on the actual capacity of the EU ETS to stand as a model for the other ETSs, the present paper discusses the differences and similarities of the EU ETS with respect to the other main ETSs and the emerging trends that these systems seem to share, comparing the different cap-and-trade regimes in order to identify the best practices and the desirable features that future ETSs should have. As emerges from the comparative analysis performed in this article, although the followers share some common flaws with the EU ETS, they have also shown the capacity to innovate and possibly devise alternative ways to manage their own ETS regimes, which may in the long term jeopardize the EU leadership in the ETSs context.

  7. The Best (and Worst) of GHG Emission Trading Systems: Comparing the EU ETS with Its Followers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghesi, Simone, E-mail: simone.borghesi@unisi.it; Montini, Massimiliano [University of Siena, Siena (Italy)

    2016-07-29

    The European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) is generally considered as the prototype system for the other Emission Trading Systems (ETSs) for the reduction of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are rapidly spreading around the world. To get a deeper understanding on the actual capacity of the EU ETS to stand as a model for the other ETSs, the present paper discusses the differences and similarities of the EU ETS with respect to the other main ETSs and the emerging trends that these systems seem to share, comparing the different cap-and-trade regimes in order to identify the best practices and the desirable features that future ETSs should have. As emerges from the comparative analysis performed in this article, although the followers share some common flaws with the EU ETS, they have also shown the capacity to innovate and possibly devise alternative ways to manage their own ETS regimes, which may in the long term jeopardize the EU leadership in the ETSs context.

  8. GHG emission assessment of full energy chain for solar power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Junfeng

    1997-01-01

    Solar PV technologies have been made a very important role for meeting the energy demand in the remote area and some commercial case in China. The annual PV production is about 1 MW and the total installation of solar PV is about 3 MW in China. However, from the full energy chain point view, during the manufacturing of solar PV, some energy should be used. This paper will focus on the analysis of full energy chain for the solar PV production and utilization. This paper consists two parts: current status of solar PV production and utilization in China and analysis of greenhouse gas emission from the full energy chain of solar PV production. (author)

  9. Nuclear energy. Choice for GHG emission reduction and sustainable energy development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rui; Zou Lin; Wang Yongping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the sustainability of China's energy development and the major challenges in four energy priorities are discussed by establishing and applying of Indicators of Sustainable Energy Development (ISED) with consideration of nuclear power as one viable option. On this basis, China's Energy Strategy to 2020 is discussed in detail. On the other hand, the crucial role that nuclear energy will play in the fields of emission reduction and climate change is discussed by analyzing illustrative models under different energy development scenarios. An assessment on what could look like in a fast developing country like China when an equivalent fund was invested in five different energy options of hydro-power, coal-fired power, nuclear power, wind power and gas-fired power would be presented with a discussion about possible future international climate protection regimes and the methodologies to evaluate the potential roles of those energy options, especially, the nuclear energy. (author)

  10. Future energy loads for a large-scale adoption of electric vehicles in the city of Los Angeles: Impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae D.; Rahimi, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Using plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has become an important component of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategy in the transportation sector. Assessing the net effect of PEVs on GHG emissions, however, is dependent on factors such as type and scale of electricity generation sources, adoption rate, and charging behavior. This study creates a comprehensive model that estimates the energy load and GHG emissions impacts for the years 2020 and 2030 for the city of Los Angeles. For 2020, model simulations show that the PEV charging loads will be modest with negligible effects on the overall system load profile. Contrary to previous study results, the average marginal carbon intensity is higher if PEV charging occurs during off-peak hours. These results suggest that current economic incentives to encourage off-peak charging result in greater GHG emissions. Model simulations for 2030 show that PEV charging loads increase significantly resulting in potential generation shortages. There are also significant grid operation challenges as the region's energy grid is required to ramp up and down rapidly to meet PEV loads. For 2030, the average marginal carbon intensity for off-peak charging becomes lower than peak charging mainly due to the removal of coal from the power generation portfolio. - Highlights: • Future energy load from PEV charging in the city of Los Angeles is modeled. • Changes in the marginal carbon intensity of the region's electric grid are modeled. • In the short run, offpeak charging results in higher marginal carbon intensity. • There is a mismatch between emissions and economic incentives for charging

  11. Cofiring versus biomass-fired power plants: GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions savings comparison by means of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, F.; Royo, J.; Gomez, M.

    2011-01-01

    One way of producing nearly CO 2 free electricity is by using biomass as a combustible. In many cases, removal of CO 2 in biomass grown is almost the same as the emissions for the bioelectricity production at the power plant. For this reason, bioelectricity is generally considered CO 2 neutral. For large-scale biomass electricity generation two alternatives can be considered: biomass-only fired power plants, or cofiring in an existing coal power plant. Among other factors, two important aspects should be analyzed in order to choose between the two options. Firstly, which is the most appealing alternative if their Greenhouse Gases (GHG) Emissions savings are taken into account. Secondly, which biomass resource is the best, if the highest impact reduction is sought. In order to quantify all the GHG emissions related to each system, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been performed and all the processes involved in each alternative have been assessed in a cradle-to-grave manner. Sensitivity analyses of the most dominant parameters affecting GHG emissions, and comparisons between the obtained results, have also been carried out.

  12. Regulatory and economic instruments in order to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050: financial impacts on industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taithe, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Industrial groups will be exposed to increasingly stringent regulation measures against GHG emissions. Uncertainties over the form and extent of international cooperation on climate change should not begin to weaken the European voluntarism otherwise than concerning the targets level of ambition. Therefore, the degree of restraint will remain strong. Halving global emissions between 1990 and 2050 will involve a reduction by a factor of 4 of those in developed countries. However, given the difficulty of achieving such a goal in the diffuse sectors (households, agriculture, transport...), the European industry will most likely reduce its GHG emissions by a factor of 5 to 6. (author)

  13. Accounting for time-dependent changes in GHG emissions in the Ribeiro appellation (NW Spain): Are land use changes an important driver?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva-Rey, Pedro; Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Otero, Marta; Moreira, María Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The environmental profile of a wine appellation was assessed for a 20 year period. • LUCs and LCA methods were linked to assess the GHG emissions in the appellation. • Winegrowing operations and land use were monitored up to the gate of the winery. • Different trends were found depending on the period assessed. • Demographic and social changes triggered changes in the carbon stocks. - Abstract: Land use changes (LUCs) constitute a crucial source of environmental impact in production systems, which are mostly associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This circumstance is especially important for the agricultural sector, since these imply an important proportion of the total GHG emissions occurring worldwide. Wine and grape production is a key sector in Spain, representing the largest surface area at European level. In the past decades, important wine related LUCs have been observed due to changes in farming methods/type, number of Denominations of Origin, and the establishment of larger wineries that have enhanced exports. The current study presents a temporally based Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of the Ribeiro appellation in NW Spain, in which the gradual changes in the land use, as well as the technological improvements are analyzed in detail in order to understand how the environmental profile of this specific wine producing area has shifted in the past two decades (i.e., from 1990 to 2009). On the one hand, phenomena such as afforestation and agricultural intensification are analyzed throughout the appellation to estimate the impact due to GHG emissions linked to LUCs, based on IPCC standards. On the other hand, trends linked to technological improvements, operational changes, such as changes in the use and management of plant protection agents or fertilizers or the change in the energy sources for machinery on the vineyards, were assessed in detail

  14. Maximizing peatland forest regeneration success at lowest cost to the atmosphere. Effects of soil preparation on Scots pine seedling vitality and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, M.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation investigated the impacts of soil preparation after clearcutting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on thick-peated soil from silvicultural and climatic standpoints. Three growing seasons after outplanting, mounding most effectively secured seedling survival, growth, and vitality through improved soil aeration of the planting spot. However, other presumed benefits of mounding to seedlings such as warmer soil temperatures and faster organic matter decomposition were not confirmed here. Regeneration in scalps was unsuccessful due to waterlogged soil. Importantly when scalping, only the humus layer should be scraped off without creating depressions in the peat. Seedling tolerance to desiccated as well as waterlogged peat soil over one growing season was remarkable in controlled conditions. The impact of drought, however, was more immediate and severe as root and shoot growth, fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and root hydraulic conductance were reduced. Nevertheless, maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency (expressed as variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm) especially in current-year needles despite harsh drought seemed to indicate a potential for seedling recovery. Polyamine analysis also revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Wet-stressed seedlings, on the other hand, exhibited few signs of suffering. It was also demonstrated how the experimental environment a controlled versus field setting influences seedling tolerance to stress. The differing moisture levels within comparable microsites dry vs. wet scalps and ditch vs. inverted mounds had little influence on seedling growth and condition although physiological upset (i.e., Fv/Fm) was evident within scalps. Namely, the wetter the soil was, the lower Fv/Fm was. The fear of soil preparation accelerating GHG emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, from peat into the atmosphere

  15. An assessment of urban form and pedestrian and transit improvements as an integrated GHG reduction strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    In the last several years, Washington State has adopted a series of policy goals intended to : reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Because transportation is one of the states largest sources of : GHG emissions, the Washington State Department of Trans...

  16. Brazilian agribusiness and the greenhouse gases emissions (GHG reduction = O papel do agronegócio brasileiro na redução de emissão de gases de efeito estufa (GEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Scharnberg Brandão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, climate change has been accelerated by anthropogenic activity and became a currently issue on global discussion. Due to the importance that Brazil has a global supplier of food, this article aims to verify the representativeness of the emissions in the Brazilian agribusiness and the different roles to be played in agriculture to reduce GHG emissions. As methodological approach, a literature review was realized based from 124 articles related to the keywords “climate change” and “agribussiness” in the database. Firstly, we analyses the history of international meetings on climate change, as the Meadows Report (1968, Brundtland Report (1987, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (1988, the United Nations Framework Convention (1992, the Kyoto Protocol (1997, the Stern Report (2006 and Report GHF (2009. The situation created the need for targets to reduce GHG emissions for major world economies, as in the case of Brazil, where it is almost impossible to exclude such liability. The results indicate that Brazil is one of the most responsible for the GHG emissions in the agricultural sector (including forestry, agriculture and livestock mainly due to deforestation. However, it also indicates that the opportunities to significant reduction’s emissions in the upcoming years arise from these agricultural segments. = Nas últimas décadas a ação antropogênica tem acelerado o processo natural de mudança no clima e, consequentemente, as discussões acerca dessa questão estão cada vez mais presentes. Dada a importância que o Brasil tem como fornecedor mundial de alimentos, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho verificar a representatividade nas emissões de GEEs do agronegócio brasileiro e os diferentes papéis a serem desempenhados na agropecuária para reduzi-las. Quanto aos procedimentos técnicos, utilizou-se a pesquisa bibliográfica em diferentes bases de dados, onde foram pesquisados 124 artigos relacionados com

  17. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport: Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology.

  18. Scenario analysis on alternative fuel/vehicle for China's future road transport. Life-cycle energy demand and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    The rapid growth of vehicles has resulted in continuing growth in China's oil demand. This paper analyzes future trends of both direct and life cycle energy demand (ED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's road transport sector, and assesses the effectiveness of possible reduction measures by using alternative vehicles/fuels. A model is developed to derive a historical trend and to project future trends. The government is assumed to do nothing additional in the future to influence the long-term trends in the business as usual (BAU) scenario. Four specific scenarios are used to describe the future cases where different alternative fuel/vehicles are applied. The best case scenario is set to represent the most optimized case. Direct ED and GHG emissions would reach 734 million tonnes of oil equivalent and 2384 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050 in the BAU case, respectively, more than 5.6 times of 2007 levels. Compared with the BAU case, the relative reductions achieved in the best case would be 15.8% and 27.6% for life cycle ED and GHG emissions, respectively. It is suggested for future policy implementation to support sustainable biofuel and high efficient electric-vehicles, and the deployment of coal-based fuels accompanied with low-carbon technology. (author)

  19. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  20. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  1. Alternative Drive Systems as a Part of a GHG Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevto Lučić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as a consequence of a modern way of life contaminates the natural environment and brings us the global warming which poses a clear and present danger to civilization. The main causes of global warming are greenhouse gasses, which arise of reliance on fossil fuels, deforestation, agriculture, industrial processes and transport. The transport itself makes 14% of the main causes of greenhouse gasses. Its dependence on fossil fuels, together with the decrease of a world fossil fuels reserves, force us to look for alternative fuels and to develop alternative drive systems, which can stabilize and reduce the greenhouse effect, and at the same time offer us new technologies, independent on a fossil fuels. This paper will try to present potential solutions for this problem, and to show the development of alternative drive systems

  2. Distributed generation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions : a case study for residential sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, P.S. [Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Mallela, V.S. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Sciences Shaikpet, Hyderabad (India); Allan, M.; Zhou, C. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a case study undertaken in Oman involving the use of a proposed hybrid diesel-photovoltaic distributed power system to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. A model of the hybrid power system comprising a photovoltaic module, a diesel generator, and essential auxiliary devices was presented. Solar energy was selected for the Distributed Generation Technology (DGT) because Oman has an abundance of direct solar radiation. A typical house located in a remote area was considered to determine the potential greenhouse gas reduction and the economic feasibility when it is powered by the proposed hybrid system, the diesel system alone, and the main interconnected grid. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electricity Renewables (HOMER) software was used for energy simulation, economic analysis, and the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results of the simulation indicated that the proposed hybrid system would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 38 percent relative to the stand-alone diesel system and by 2.67 percent compared to the main grid. The hybrid system has lower operating costs and a lower per-unit energy cost than the diesel system, but the per-unit energy cost estimated for the main interconnected system is better. The latter system is less favourable for GHG emissions. Extending the hybrid system to the entire residential sector has the potential to substantially reduce GHG emissions. The proposed hybrid system is also a cost effective choice for remote locations. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Methods to determine the relative value of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; de Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Current decisions on breeding in dairy farming are mainly based on economic values of heritable traits, as earning an income is a primary objective of farmers. Recent literature, however, shows that breeding also has potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this paper was to compare 2 methods to determine GHG values of genetic traits. Method 1 calculates GHG values using the current strategy (i.e., maximizing labor income), whereas method 2 is based on minimizing GHG per kilogram of milk and shows what can be achieved if the breeding results are fully directed at minimizing GHG emissions. A whole-farm optimization model was used to determine results before and after 1 genetic standard deviation improvement (i.e., unit change) of milk yield and longevity. The objective function of the model differed between method 1 and 2. Method 1 maximizes labor income; method 2 minimizes GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and total milk production at least at the level before the change in trait. Results show that the full potential of the traits to reduce GHG emissions given the boundaries that were set for income and milk production (453 and 441kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively) is about twice as high as the reduction based on maximizing labor income (247 and 210kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively). The GHG value of milk yield is higher than that of longevity, especially when the focus is on maximizing labor income. Based on a sensitivity analysis, it was shown that including emissions from land use change and using different methods for handling the interaction between milk and meat production can change results, generally in favor of milk yield. Results can be used by breeding organizations that want to include GHG values in their breeding goal. To verify GHG values, the effect of prices and emissions

  4. Beneficial effect of compost utilization on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in a rice cultivation system through the overall management chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gil Won; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH 4 ) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH 4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes. Fresh manure emitted 30MgCO 2 -eq.ha -1 , 90% and 10% of which were contributed by CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes, respectively, during rice cultivation. Compost utilization decreased net GWP by 25% over that of the fresh manure during the whole process. The composting process increased the GWP of the industrial processes by 35%, but the 60% reduction in CH 4 emissions from the rice paddy mainly influenced the reduction of GWP during the overall process. Therefore, compost application could be a good management strategy to reduce GHG emissions from rice paddy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO 2 -e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using $/metric-ton CO 2 -e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment. (paper)

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  7. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K; Flury, S; Jayakumar, R; Fiener, P; Steger, K; Arya, V; Wilken, F; van Geldern, R; Premke, K

    2016-02-05

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km(2)) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  8. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K.; Flury, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Fiener, P.; Steger, K.; Arya, V.; Wilken, F.; van Geldern, R.; Premke, K.

    2016-02-01

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km2) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  9. Healthy diets with reduced environmental impact? - The greenhouse gas emissions of various diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Mirjam E; van Dooren, Corné; Hollander, Anne; Geurts, Marjolein; Brink, Elizabeth J; van Rossum, Caroline; Biesbroek, Sander; de Valk, Elias; Toxopeus, Ido B; Temme, Elisabeth H M

    2018-02-01

    To determine the differences in environmental impact and nutrient content of the current Dutch diet and four healthy diets aimed at lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions (as proxy for environmental impact) and nutrient content of the current Dutch diet and four diets adhering to the Dutch food based dietary guidelines (Wheel of Five), were compared in a scenario study. Scenarios included a healthy diet with or without meat, and the same diets in which only foods with relatively low GHG emissions are chosen. For the current diet, data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were used. GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -equivalents) were based on life cycle assessments. Results are reported for men and women aged 19-30years and 31-50years. The effect on GHG emissions of changing the current Dutch diet to a diet according to the Wheel of Five (corresponding with the current diet as close as possible), ranged from -13% for men aged 31-50years to +5% for women aged 19-30years. Replacing meat in this diet and/or consuming only foods with relatively low GHG emissions resulted in average GHG emission reductions varying from 28-46%. In the scenarios in which only foods with relatively low GHG emissions are consumed, fewer dietary reference intakes (DRIs) were met than in the other healthy diet scenarios. However, in all healthy diet scenarios the number of DRIs being met was equal to or higher than that in the current diet. Diets adhering to food based dietary guidelines did not substantially reduce GHG emissions compared to the current Dutch diet, when these diets stayed as close to the current diet as possible. Omitting meat from these healthy diets or consuming only foods with relatively low associated GHG emissions both resulted in GHG emission reductions of around a third. These findings may be used to expand food based dietary guidelines with information on how to reduce the environmental impact of healthy diets. Copyright © 2017 The

  10. Plug-in hybrid vehicle GHG impacts in California: Integrating consumer-informed recharge profiles with an electricity-dispatch model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.; McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) may reduce source-to-wheel Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from passenger vehicles. The two primary advances are the incorporation of (1) explicit measures of consumer interest in and potential use of different types of PHEVs and (2) a model of the California electricity grid capable of differentiating hourly and seasonal GHG emissions by generation source. We construct PHEV emissions scenarios to address inherent relationships between vehicle design, driving and recharging behaviors, seasonal and time-of-day variation in GHG-intensity of electricity, and total GHG emissions. A sample of 877 California new vehicle buyers provide data on driving, time of day recharge access, and PHEV design interests. The elicited data differ substantially from the assumptions used in previous analyses. We construct electricity demand profiles scaled to one million PHEVs and input them into an hourly California electricity supply model to simulate GHG emissions. Compared to conventional vehicles, consumer-designed PHEVs cut marginal (incremental) GHG emissions by more than one-third in current California energy scenarios and by one-quarter in future energy scenarios-reductions similar to those simulated for all-electric PHEV designs. Across the emissions scenarios, long-term GHG reductions depends on reducing the carbon intensity of the grid. - Research highlights: → We estimate California Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle (PHEV) GHGs using consumer data and an electricity supply model. → Consumer-designed (mostly 'blended') PHEVs can reduce GHG emissions compared to conventional vehicles. → These PHEVs can also reduce GHG emissions relative to 'all-electric' PHEV designs. → 'All-electric' designs may further reduce GHG emissions as electricity carbon intensity falls. → Ranking of GHG savings from off-peak versus daytime charging scenarios depends on electricity carbon intensity.

  11. Lack of Energy Efficiency Legislation in the Malaysian Building Sector Contributes to Malaysia’s Growing GHG Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Zaid Suzaini M.; Myeda Nik Elyna; Mahyuddin Norhayati; Sulaiman Raha

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia’s carbon emissions grew by +235.6% from 1990 to 2005, largely due to an increase in national energy demand of 210.7% from 1990 to 2004. This unparalleled carbon emission growth, along with business-as-usual (BAU) practices will put Malaysia at high risk for carbon lock-in and a very unsustainable path of development. Malaysia clearly needs to make significant and urgent changes in its policy, economy, industries and lifestyle in order to reduce its climate change impacts. In 2010 Mal...

  12. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, Maria Nuria

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  13. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled. (author)

  14. Electricity price, energy production and emissions impact : evaluating proposed GHG emission reduction frameworks for the Alberta electricity industry : updated reference case and sensitivity results prepared for CASA EPT Greenhouse Gas Allocation Subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the results of a study which quantified the potential impact of various greenhouse gas (GHG) policy scenarios on Alberta generators' energy production, airborne emissions and electricity wholesale market price. The study examined proactive policy frameworks compared to business as usual scenarios. A reference case scenario was included to represent the status quo environment where electricity demand continues on its current path. Five additional sensitivity cases were examined, of which 3 evaluated the impact of many key assumptions regarding progressive GHG reduction levels and costs related to meeting GHG requirements. The other two evaluated an all-coal future electricity supply both with and without GHG emission reduction costs. Environmental costs were also evaluated in terms of emissions of nitrous oxides, sulphurous oxides, mercury and particulate matter. The impact of generation retirement and renewable energy source development was also analyzed. Demand and supply forecasts for oil, natural gas, electric energy and energy sales were presented along with generation supply forecasts for the reference case scenario, coal generation and natural gas fired retirements. refs., tabs., figs

  15. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-06-02

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  16. Optimizing Blendstock Composition and Ethanol Feedstock to Reduce Gasoline Well-to-Pump CO 2 Emission

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani; Abdul-Manan, Amir F.N.

    2017-01-01

    Lifecycle CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline was simulated to investigate how fuel properties and composition affect overall emission. Fuel research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity and ethanol content (derived from sugarcane and corn) were varied in the simulations to formulate blended fuels that economically achieve target specifications. The well-to-pump (WTP) simulation results were then analyzed to understand the effects of fuel composition on emission. Elevated ethanol content displaces aromatics and olefins required in gasoline blendstock to reach a target fuel specification. The addition of greater sugarcane-based ethanol percentage in constant aromatics and olefins fuel reduces its WTP CO2 emission. Corn-based ethanol blending does not offer CO2 emission offset due to its high production emissions. The mixing of sugarcane-based with corn-based ethanol is shown to be a potentially effective method for achieving a blended fuel with a lower lifecycle CO2 emission. Besides CO2 emission, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from land-use conversions (LUC), CH4, and N2O are also significant in determining the optimal fuel blend. Herein, we present preliminary results showing that total GHG emissions significantly increase when either corn or sugarcane ethanol is blended at even small percentages; detailed results will be addressed in future communications.

  17. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meirong [Dongguan University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan, Guangdong Province (China); Beijing Normal University, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing (China); Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany); Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao [Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO{sub 2} and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  18. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO_2 and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  19. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  20. A stochastic optimization approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karan, Ebrahim; Asadi, Somayeh; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of building- and transportation-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions makes the adoption of all-EVs (electric vehicles) powered with renewable power as one of the most effective strategies to reduce emission of GHGs. This paper formulates the problem of GHG mitigation strategy under uncertain conditions and optimizes the strategies in which EVs are powered by solar energy. Under a pre-specified budget, the objective is to determine the type of EV and power generation capacity of the solar system in such a way as to maximize GHG emissions reductions. The model supports the three primary solar systems: off-grid, grid-tied, and hybrid. First, a stochastic optimization model using probability distributions of stochastic variables and EV and solar system specifications is developed. The model is then validated by comparing the estimated values of the optimal strategies and actual values. It is found that the mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a hybrid solar system lead to the best cost-expected reduction of CO_2 emissions ratio. The results show an accuracy of about 4% for mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a grid-tied or hybrid solar system and 11% when applied to estimate the CO_2 emissions reductions of an off-grid system. - Highlights: • The problem of GHG mitigation is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem. • The objective is to maximize CO_2 emissions reductions within a specified budget. • The stochastic model is validated using actual data. • The results show an estimation accuracy of 4–11%.

  1. Effectiveness of US state policies in reducing CO2 emissions from power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don; Bergstrand, Kelly; Running, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    President Obama's landmark initiative to reduce the CO2 emissions of existing power plants, the nation's largest source of greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutants, depends heavily on states and their ability to devise policies that meet the goals set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Under the EPA's proposed Clean Power Plan, states will be responsible for cutting power plants' carbon pollution 30% from 2005 levels by 2030. States have already adopted several policies to reduce the electricity sector's climate impact. Some of these policies focus on reducing power plants' CO2 emissions, and others address this outcome in a more roundabout fashion by encouraging energy efficiency and renewable energy. However, it remains unclear which, if any, of these direct and indirect strategies actually mitigate plants' emissions because scholars have yet to test their effects using plant-level emission data. Here we use a newly released data source to determine whether states' policies significantly shape individual power plants' CO2 emissions. Findings reveal that certain types of direct strategy (emission caps and GHG targets) and indirect ones (public benefit funds and electric decoupling) lower plants' emissions and thus are viable building blocks of a federal climate regime.

  2. Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ∼ 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants.

  3. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  4. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such

  5. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  6. Comparative study of Fischer–Tropsch production and post-combustion CO2 capture at an oil refinery: Economic evaluation and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Daniella; Franck, Per-Åke; Pettersson, Karin; Berntsson, Thore

    2013-01-01

    The impact on CO 2 emissions of integrating new technologies (a biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel plant and a post-combustion CO 2 capture plant) with a complex refinery has previously been investigated separately by the authors. In the present study these designs are integrated with a refinery and evaluated from the point-of-view of economics and GHG (greenhouse gas emissions) emissions and are compared to a reference refinery. Stand-alone Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is included for comparison. To account for uncertainties in the future energy market, the assessment has been conducted for different future energy market conditions. For the post-combustion CO 2 capture process to be profitable, the present study stresses the importance of a high charge for CO 2 emission. A policy support for biofuels is essential for the biomass-to-Fischer–Tropsch fuel production to be profitable. The level of the support, however, differs depending on scenario. In general, a high charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production, while a low charge for CO 2 economically favours Fischer–Tropsch fuel production. Integrated Fischer–Tropsch fuel production is most profitable in scenarios with a low wood fuel price. The stand-alone alternative shows no profitability in any of the studied scenarios. Moreover, the high investment costs make all the studied cases sensitive to variations in capital costs. - Highlights: • Comparison of Fischer–Tropsch (FT) fuel production and CO 2 capture at a refinery. • Subsidies for renewable fuels are essential for FT fuel production to be profitable. • A high charge for CO 2 is essential for post-combustion CO 2 capture to be profitable. • A low charge for CO 2 economically favours FT fuel production. • Of the studied cases, CO 2 capture shows the greatest reduction in GHG emissions

  7. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  8. Evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a feedlot surface amendment to reduce ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas emissions from beef feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concentrated feeding operations are a concern. The poultry industry has successfully used aluminum sulfate (Alum) as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 emissions from poultry barns. Alum has not been eval­uated for similar uses on cattle feedlot su...

  9. Potential of Windbreak Trees to Reduce Carbon Emissions by Agricultural Operations in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ballesteros-Possu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with sequestering C in forest, trees on farms are able to contribute to greenhouse mitigation through emission avoidance mechanisms. To evaluate the magnitude of these contributions, emission avoidance contributions for field and farmstead windbreak designs in regions across the United States were estimated, along with greenhouse gas (GHG emission budgets for corn, soybean, winter wheat, and potato operations. We looked at farming scenarios with large (600 ha, mid (300 ha, and small-size (60 ha farms containing farmsteads built before and after 2000, and growing different cropping systems. Windbreak scenarios were assumed to be up to 5% of the crop area for field windbreaks, while emission avoidance for farmstead windbreaks were assumed to provide a 10% and 25% reduction in energy usage for space conditioning and heating, respectively. Total reduction of C equivalent (CE emissions by windbreaks on farm systems ranged from a low of 0.9 Mg CE year−1 for a 60-ha farm with a home built before 2000 to 39.1 Mg CE year−1 for a 600-ha farm with a home built after 2000. By reducing fossil fuel usage from farm operations, windbreaks provide a promising strategy for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture in the USA.

  10. Reducing emissions from uranium dissolving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Huxtable, W.P.; Googin, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of decreasing NO x emissions from the current uranium alloy scrap tray dissolving facility. In the current process, uranium scrap is dissolved in boiling nitric acid in shallow stainless-steel trays. As scrap dissolves, more metal and more nitric acid are added to the tray by operating personnel. Safe geometry is assured by keeping liquid level at or below 5 cm, the depth of a safe infinite slab. The accountability batch control system provides additional protection against criticality. Both uranium and uranium alloys are dissolved. Nitric acid is recovered from the vapors for reuse. Metal nitrates are sent to uranium recovery. Brown NO x fumes evolved during dissolving have occasionally resulted in a visible plume from the trays. The fuming is most noticeable during startup and after addition of fresh acid to a tray. Present environmental regulations are expected to require control of brown NO x emissions. A detailed review of the literature, indicated the feasibility of slightly altering process chemistry to favor the production of NO 2 which can be scrubbed and recycled as nitric acid. Methods for controlling the process to manage offgas product distribution and to minimize chemical reaction hazards were also considered

  11. A consumption-based GHG inventory for the U.S. state of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Allaway, David; Lazarus, Michael; Stanton, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-03

    Many U.S. states conduct greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories to inform their climate change planning efforts. These inventories usually follow a production-based method adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. States could also take a consumption-based perspective, however, and estimate all emissions released to support consumption in their state, regardless of where the emissions occur. In what may be the first such comprehensive inventory conducted for a U.S. state, we find that consumption-based emissions for Oregon are 47% higher than those released in-state. This finding implies that Oregon's contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint) is considerably higher than traditional production-based methods would suggest. Furthermore, the consumption-based inventory helps highlight the role of goods and services (and associated purchasing behaviors) more so than do production-based methods. Accordingly, a consumption-based perspective opens new opportunities for many states and their local government partners to reduce GHG emissions, such as initiatives to advance lower-carbon public sector or household consumption, that are well within their sphere of influence. State and local governments should consider conducting consumption-based GHG inventories and adopting consumption-based emission reductions targets in order to broaden the reach and effectiveness of state and local actions in reducing global GHG emissions. Consumption-based frameworks should be viewed as a complement to, but not a substitute for, production-based (in-state) GHG emissions inventories and targets.

  12. Member States in Top Gear. Opportunities for national policies to reduce GHG emissions in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Essen, H.; Den Boer, E.; Warringa, G.

    2012-10-15

    National sustainable transport policies in EU Member States are compared, with a focus on both current legislation and long-term climate policy. The study is input for the conference 'Keep moving, towards sustainable mobility' to be held in Rotterdam, October 11, 2012, and organised by the European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC) and the Dutch Council for the Environment and Infrastructure (Rli). The study reviews the main trends in transport and climate policy in EU Member States, for ten of which an in-depth analysis of relevant policies was also performed.

  13. Reducing GHG Emissions from Traditional Livestock Systems to Mitigate Changing Climate and Biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mushi, D.E.; Eik, L.O.; Bernués, A.; Ripoll Bosch, R.; Sundstol, F.; Mo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change (CC) directly impacts the economy, ecosystems, water resources, weather events, health issues, desertification, sea level rise, and even political and social stability. The effects of CC affect different groups of societies differently. In Tanzania, the effects of CC have even

  14. Engaging to reduce emissions and solidarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombier, M.; Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    1997-01-01

    The different negotiations about the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions is studied in this article. The problem of developing countries or fast developing countries such asian countries is evoked. The rate of carbon dioxide emission could be calculated in function of GDP (gross domestic product) to allow to reduce the gaps between the different countries. (N.C.)

  15. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  16. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  17. Using Market Forces to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Product-Level Life Cycle Analysis and Eco-Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J. F.; Davis, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Established protocols allow entity-level accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The information contained within GHG inventories is used by entities to manage their carbon footprint and to anticipate future exposure to compulsory GHG markets or taxes. The efficacy of such inventories, as experienced by the consumer, can be improved upon by product-level GHG inventories applying the methods of traditional life cycle analysis (LCA). A voluntary product-level assessment of this type, coupled with an eco-label, would 1) empower consumers with information about the total embodied GHG content of a product, 2) allow companies to understand and manage GHG emissions outside the narrow scope of their entities, and 3) drive reduction of GHG emissions throughout product value chains. The Climate Conservancy (TCC) is a non-profit organization founded to help companies calculate their GHG emissions at the level of individual product units, and to inform consumers about the GHG intensity of the products they choose to purchase. With the assistance of economists, policy experts and scientists, TCC has developed a useful metric for reporting product-level GHG emissions that allows for a normalized comparison of a product's GHG intensity irrespective of industry sector or competitors, where GHG data are often unavailable or incomplete. Using this metric, we envision our Climate Conscious label becoming an important arbiter of choice for consumers seeking ways to mitigate their climate impacts without the need for governmental regulation.

  18. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N_2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N_2O and CH_4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N_2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH_4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N_2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH_4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al"3"+ toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N_2O and CH_4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH_4 emissions and, under CT, abate N_2O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N_2O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N_2O and CH_4 emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT. • NT and liming provide an opportunity for N_2O and CH_4 mitigation.

  19. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  20. A Portable, Low-Power Analyzer and Automated Soil Flux Chamber System for Measuring Wetland GHG Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Nick; Kim-Hak, David; McArthur, Gordon

    2017-04-01

    Preservation and restoration of wetlands has the potential to help sequester large amounts of carbon due to the naturally high primary productivity and slow turnover of stored soil carbon. However, the anoxic environmental conditions present in wetland soils are also the largest natural contributor to global methane emissions. While it is well known that wetlands are net carbon sinks over long time scales, given the high global warming potential of methane, the short-term balances between C uptake and storage and loss as CO2 and CH4 need to be carefully considered when evaluating the climate effects of land-use change. It is relatively difficult to measure methane emissions from wetlands with currently available techniques given the temporally and spatially sporadic nature of the processes involved (methanogenesis, methane oxidation, ebullition, etc.). For example, using manual soil flux chambers can often only capture a portion of either the spatial or temporal variability, and often have other disadvantages associated with soil atmosphere disturbance during deployment in these relatively compressible wetland soils. Automated chamber systems offer the advantage of collecting high-resolution time series of gaseous fluxes while reducing some human and method induced biases. Additionally, new laser-based analyzers that can be used in situ alongside automated chambers offer a greater minimum detectable flux than can be achieved using alternative methods such as Gas Chromatography. Until recently these types of automated measurements were limited to areas that had good power coverage, as laser based systems were power intensive and could not easily be supplemented with power from field-available sources such as solar. Recent advances in laser technology has reduced the power needed and made these systems less power intensive and more field portable in the process. Here we present data using an automated chamber system coupled to a portable laser based greenhouse gas

  1. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth [Department of Agroecology and Environment, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark)

    2010-05-15

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (2) manure management; and (3) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork. (author)

  2. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T.; Hermansen, John E.; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular, a combination of improvements in all mentioned aspects offers the highest savings potential of up to 61% fossil energy and 49% GHG emissions. In weighing these three aspects, manure utilization for energy production is found to be the most important factor in reducing fossil energy use and GHG emissions. However, when GHG implications of land use change and land opportunity cost associated with the production of feed crops (e.g. soy meal, cereals) are considered, reducing feed use becomes the main factor in improving GHG performance of EU pork.

  3. Methods for the quantification of GHG emissions at the landscape level for developing countries in smallholder contexts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Eleanor; Easter, Mark; Ogle, Stephen; Denef, Karolien; Paustian, Keith; Neufeldt, Henry; Rosenstock, Todd; Smalligan, Mike; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo; Malin, Daniella; Bernoux, Martial; Casarim, Felipe; Pearson, Timothy; Bird, David Neil; Steglich, Evelyn; Ostwald, Madelene

    2013-01-01

    Landscape scale quantification enables farmers to pool resources and expertise. However, the problem remains of how to quantify these gains. This article considers current greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods that can be used in a landscape scale analysis in terms of relevance to areas dominated by smallholders in developing countries. In landscape scale carbon accounting frameworks, measurements are an essential element. Sampling strategies need careful design to account for all pools/fluxes and to ensure judicious use of resources. Models can be used to scale-up measurements and fill data gaps. In recent years a number of accessible models and calculators have been developed which can be used at the landscape scale in developing country areas. Some are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and others on dynamic ecosystem models. They have been developed for a range of different purposes and therefore vary in terms of accuracy and usability. Landscape scale assessments of GHGs require a combination of ground sampling, use of data from census, remote sensing (RS) or other sources and modelling. Fitting of all of these aspects together needs to be performed carefully to minimize uncertainties and maximize the use of scarce resources. This is especially true in heterogeneous landscapes dominated by smallholders in developing countries. (letter)

  4. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xunmin; Zhang Xiliang; Chang Shiyan

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  5. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China: Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Xunmin, E-mail: oxm07@mails.tsinghua.edu.c [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang Xiliang, E-mail: zhang_xl@tsinghua.edu.c [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chang Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources.

  6. Alternative fuel buses currently in use in China. Life-cycle fossil energy use, GHG emissions and policy recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Xiliang; Chang, Shiyan [China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-01-15

    The Chinese government has enacted policies to promote alternative vehicle fuels (AVFs) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), including city bus fleets. The life cycle (LC), energy savings (ES) and GHG reduction (GR) profiles of AVFs/AFVs are critical to those policy decisions. The well-to-wheels module of the Tsinghua-CA3EM model is employed to investigate actual performance data. Compared with conventional buses, AFVs offer differences in performance in terms of both ES and GR. Only half of the AFVs analyzed demonstrate dual benefits. However, all non-oil/gas pathways can substitute oil/gas with coal. Current policies seek to promote technology improvements and market creation initiatives within the guiding framework of national-level diversification and district-level uniformity. Combined with their actual LC behavior and in keeping with near- and long-term strategies, integrated policies should seek to (1) apply hybrid electric technology to diesel buses; (2) encourage NG/LPG buses in gas-abundant cities; (3) promote commercialize electric buses or plug-in capable vehicles through battery technology innovation; (4) support fuel cell buses and hydrogen technology R and D for future potential applications; and (5) conduct further research on boosting vehicle fuel efficiency, applying low-carbon transportation technologies, and addressing all resultant implications of coal-based transportation solutions to human health and natural resources. (author)

  7. Comparison greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming potential (GWP) effect of energy use in different wheat agroecosystems in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy requirement and global warming potential (GWP) in low and high input wheat production systems in western of Iran. For this purpose, data were collected from 120 wheat farms applying questionnaires via face-to-face interviews. Results showed that total energy input and output were 60,000 and 180,000 MJ ha(-1) in high input systems and 14,000 and 56,000 MJ ha(-1) in low input wheat production systems, respectively. The highest share of total input energy in high input systems recorded for electricity power, N fertilizer, and diesel fuel with 36, 18, and 13 %, respectively, while the highest share of input energy in low input systems observed for N fertilizer, diesel fuel, and seed with 32, 31, and 27 %. Energy use efficiency in high input systems (3.03) was lower than of low input systems (3.94). Total CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in high input systems were 1981.25, 31.18, and 1.87 kg ha(-1), respectively. These amounts were 699.88, 0.02, and 0.96 kg ha(-1) in low input systems. In high input wheat production systems, total GWP was 11686.63 kg CO2eq ha(-1) wheat. This amount was 725.89 kg CO2eq ha(-1) in low input systems. The results show that 1 ha of high input system will produce greenhouse effect 17 times of low input systems. So, high input production systems need to have an efficient and sustainable management for reducing environmental crises such as change climate.

  8. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the U.S. Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center; Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The industrial sector was the third-largest source of direct U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 behind electricity generation and transportation and accounted for roughly 20% of total emissions (EPA 2016). The Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects that total U.S. energy consumption will grow to about 108 exajoules (1 EJ = 1018 J) or 102 quads (1 quad = 1015 British thermal units) in 2025, with nearly all of the growth coming from the industrial sector (DOE 2015b). Energy consumption in the industrial sector is forecast to increase to 39.5 EJ (37.4 quads)—a 22% increase, exceeding 36% of total energy consumption in the United States. Therefore, it is imperative that industrial GHG emissions be considered in any strategy intent on achieving deep decarbonization of the energy sector as a whole. It is important to note that unlike the transportation sector and electrical grid, energy use by industry often involves direct conversion of primary energy sources to thermal and electrical energy at the point of consumption. About 52% of U.S. industrial direct GHG emissions are the result of fuel combustion (EPA 2016) to produce hot gases and steam for process heating, process reactions, and process evaporation, concentration, and drying. The heterogeneity and variations in scale of U.S. industry and the complexity of modern industrial firms’ global supply chains are among the sector’s unique challenges to minimizing its GHG emissions. A combination of varied strategies—such as energy efficiency, material efficiency, and switching to low-carbon fuels—can help reduce absolute industrial GHG emissions. This report provides a complement to process-efficiency improvement to consider how clean energy delivery and use by industry could reduce GHG emissions. Specifically, it considers the possibility of replacing fossil-fuel combustion in industry with nuclear (specifically small modular reactors [SMRs]), solar thermal (referred to

  9. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory: a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pezzagno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From a thermodynamic point of view, the attribution of the adjective sustainable to an open system like the city is, at least, very problematic. The biosphere is a closed system, kept far from the thermodynamic equilibrium by the flow of energy coming from the sun. The biosphere maintains and increases its internal order dispersing entropy, generated by all the internal processes, as thermal infrared radiation. But then, the elegant picture of sustainability given by thermodynamics can not be applied to open systems, and notably to the city, without raising both theoretical and practical problems. The city is almost by definition a place of consumption and of degradation of potentials, kept in local equilibrium by external flows of matter and energy, but at the same time plays a key role in shaping and maintaining the global flows of matter, energy, and information, and this role must be taken into account when interpreting thermodynamic-based descriptions. The urban capital probably represents the greatest investment made by mankind. Materials have been harvested from the earth crust and from the natural systems, and have been concentrated and ordered in the city. But the "city" is not the infrastructure: it's concept of a different logical type. The city is a further level of organization that produces services of higher level. The urban infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient to produce the city services. The city is the most important social and health "device". A proper accounting must consider the city-performance of the urban infrastructure, beyond the mere, local energy and carbon efficiency. In this context, local GHG accounting is proposed as a rather simple and useful basis to ground process-wise studies and projects, including the creation of effective local industrial ecologies, in a continuous city-making effort toward higher sustainability.

  10. Reducing emissions from agriculture to meet the 2 °C target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberg, Eva; Richards, Meryl; Smith, Pete

    2016-01-01

    identify a preliminary global target for reducing emissions from agriculture of ~1 GtCO2e yr−1 by 2030 to limit warming in 2100 to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Yet plausible agricultural development pathways with mitigation cobenefits deliver only 21–40% of needed mitigation. The target indicates...... that more transformative technical and policy options will be needed, such as methane inhibitors and finance for new practices. A more comprehensive target for the 2 °C limit should be developed to include soil carbon and agriculture-related mitigation options. Excluding agricultural emissions from......More than 100 countries pledged to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2015 Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Yet technical information about how much mitigation is needed in the sector vs. how much is feasible remains poor. We...

  11. The role of population density on the impact of urbaniza-tion on GHG emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonghong; Gao, Chaochao; Lu, Yingying

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization directly drives rural to urban population migration and indirectly causes west to east migration in China, two phenomena that may significantly impact China's greenhouse gas emissions given its huge population and vast difference between the western rural and eastern urban areas. These two phenomena were analyzed by using emissions as a per capita term, and extending the impact from the traditional urbanization rate effect to include population density effect. The results show that population density has actually been the dominant demographic player in changing per capita emissions for the past two decades in China, and its elasticity changed from positive in economically less-developed provinces to negative for the developed provinces. This study provides a new perspective in the study of the relationship between urbanization and greenhouse gas emissions, and the results indicate that population density change should be taken into account to accurately assess the impact of urbanization.

  12. Sustainable Milk and Meat Production while Reducing Methane Emissions from Livestock Enteric Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelan-Ortega, O. A.; Molina, L. T.; Pedraza-Beltrán, P. E.; Hernández-Pineda, G.; Ku-Vera, J. C.; Benaouda, M.; Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ruminants produce all the milk and most of the meat demanded by humans; however, ruminant production generates large quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG), around 15% of anthropogenic emissions of GHG are attributed to ruminant production. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives to mitigate GHG emissions by ruminants and to increase the supply of high quality protein for human consumption in a climate change scenario. The objective of this work is to present sustainable options to mitigate methane (CH4) production from enteric fermentation by cattle and to illustrate how productivity can be increased at the same time. We conducted several experiments to measure CH4 emission in vivo by cattle in order to estimate emission factors in the temperate and tropical climate regions of Mexico followed by inventory calculation. We then evaluated the supplementation to cattle of different tanniferous plants to reduce enteric CH4 formation and finally established two mitigation scenarios for each region. Leucaena leucocephala and Cosmos bipinnatus are the tanniferous plants that produced the largest reduction in CH4 formation. In scenario 1, a moderate mitigation scenario, it was assumed 16% reduction of enteric CH4 emission in the temperate climate regions (TEMP) and 36% in the tropical regions (TROP) with cattle population of 37.8 million heads, from which 22.3 are in the TEMP (emission factor 529 l/day/head) and 15.5 in the TROP (emission factor 137 l/day/head). Reduction potential resulting from the use of C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala over a year is 1,203Gg. In scenario 2, a high mitigation situation, it was assumed a 26% reduction of CH4 emission in the TEMP and 36% in the TROP and the same cattle population. The reduction potential resulting from C. bipinnatus and L. Leucocephala use in a year is 1,512 Gg. Results showed that in both scenarios the CH4 released by enteric fermentation could be reduced by the use of the plants evaluated

  13. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-09-20

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as "Blue Carbon"), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH 4 ) and CO 2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH 4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.

  14. Restoring tides to reduce methane emissions in impounded wetlands: A new and potent Blue Carbon climate change intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crooks, Stephen; Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Tang, Jianwu

    2017-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are sites of rapid carbon (C) sequestration and contain large soil C stocks. Thus, there is increasing interest in those ecosystems as sites for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission offset projects (sometimes referred to as “Blue Carbon”), through preservation of existing C stocks or creation of new wetlands to increase future sequestration. Here we show that in the globally-widespread occurrence of diked, impounded, drained and tidally-restricted salt marshes, substantial methane (CH4) and CO2 emission reductions can be achieved through restoration of disconnected saline tidal flows. Modeled climatic forcing indicates that tidal restoration to reduce emissions has a much greater impact per unit area than wetland creation or conservation to enhance sequestration. Given that GHG emissions in tidally-restricted, degraded wetlands are caused by human activity, they are anthropogenic emissions, and reducing them will have an effect on climate that is equivalent to reduced emission of an equal quantity of fossil fuel GHG. Thus, as a landuse-based climate change intervention, reducing CH4 emissions is an entirely distinct concept from biological C sequestration projects to enhance C storage in forest or wetland biomass or soil, and will not suffer from the non-permanence risk that stored C will be returned to the atmosphere.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation : mitigation potential and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions : from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050reduct...

  17. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  18. Monitoring Oilfield Operations and GHG Emissions Sources Using Object-based Image Analysis of High Resolution Spatial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, J. G.; Brodrick, P. G.; Brandt, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction have become a greater concern with the recent increases in development of shale hydrocarbon resources. There are significant gaps in the tools and research used to estimate fugitive emissions from oil and gas extraction. Two approaches exist for quantifying these emissions: atmospheric (or 'top down') studies, which measure methane fluxes remotely, or inventory-based ('bottom up') studies, which aggregate leakage rates on an equipment-specific basis. Bottom-up studies require counting or estimating how many devices might be leaking (called an 'activity count'), as well as how much each device might leak on average (an 'emissions factor'). In a real-world inventory, there is uncertainty in both activity counts and emissions factors. Even at the well level there are significant disagreements in data reporting. For example, some prior studies noted a ~5x difference in the number of reported well completions in the United States between EPA and private data sources. The purpose of this work is to address activity count uncertainty by using machine learning algorithms to classify oilfield surface facilities using high-resolution spatial imagery. This method can help estimate venting and fugitive emissions sources from regions where reporting of oilfield equipment is incomplete or non-existent. This work will utilize high resolution satellite imagery to count well pads in the Bakken oil field of North Dakota. This initial study examines an area of ~2,000 km2 with ~1000 well pads. We compare different machine learning classification techniques, and explore the impact of training set size, input variables, and image segmentation settings to develop efficient and robust techniques identifying well pads. We discuss the tradeoffs inherent to different classification algorithms, and determine the optimal algorithms for oilfield feature detection. In the future, the results of this work will be leveraged to be provide activity

  19. Reducing methane emissions from ruminant animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathison, G.W.; Okine, E.K.; McAllister, T.A.; Dong, Y.; Galbraith, J.; Dmytruk, O.I.N. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Science

    1998-09-01

    In 1992 it was estimated that 30 x 10{sup 12}g more methane was emitted into the atmosphere than was removed, with animals being considered the largest single anthropogenic source. Ruminants produce 97% of the methane generated in enteric fermentation by animals. Estimates for methane emissions from animal wastes vary between 6 and 31% of that produced directly by the animal, with the most likely value being between 5 and 10% globally. Methane inhibitors can reduce methane emissions to zero in the short term but due to microbial adaptation the effects of these compounds are quickly neutralized and feed intake is often depressed. Methane emissions per unit of feed consumed from sheep and cattle fed hay diets appear to be quite similar but differences between other ruminants have been measured. The most practical way of influencing methane emissions per unit product is to increase productivity level since the proportion of feed energy required to just maintain the animal will be reduced, methane production falls with increased intake level, and the animal may go to market sooner. The most promising avenues for future research for reducing methanogenesis are the development of new products for reducing protozoal numbers in the rumen and the use of bacterocins or other compounds which specifically target methanogenic bacteria.

  20. Costs of emission-reducing manure application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijsmans, J.F.M.; Verwijs, B.; Rodhe, L.; Smith, K.

    2004-01-01

    Favourable economics of handling and application of manure are of fundamental importance to encourage the implementation of emission-reducing application techniques. The economics of manure application depend on the costs of the equipment and the time to carry out the field operation. In this study

  1. Assessment of GHG mitigation and CDM technology in urban transport sector of Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Nitin; Gurjar, Bhola Ram; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2018-01-01

    The increase in number of vehicles in metropolitan cities has resulted in increase of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in urban environment. In this study, emission load of GHGs (CO, N 2 O, CO 2 ) from Chandigarh road transport sector has been estimated using Vehicular Air Pollution Inventory (VAPI) model, which uses emission factors prevalent in Indian cities. Contribution of 2-wheelers (2-w), 3-wheelers (3-w), cars, buses, and heavy commercial vehicles (HCVs) to CO, N 2 O, CO 2 , and total GHG emissions was calculated. Potential for GHG mitigation through clean development mechanism (CDM) in transport sector of Chandigarh under two scenarios, i.e., business as usual (BAU) and best estimate scenario (BES) using VAPI model, has been explored. A major contribution of GHG load (~ 50%) in Chandigarh was from four-wheelers until 2011; however, it shows a declining trend after 2011 until 2020. The estimated GHG emission from motor vehicles in Chandigarh has increased more than two times from 1065 Gg in 2005 to 2486 Gg by 2011 and is expected to increase to 4014 Gg by 2020 under BAU scenario. Under BES scenario, 30% of private transport has been transformed to public transport; GHG load was possibly reduced by 520 Gg. An increase of 173 Gg in GHGs load is projected from additional scenario (ADS) in Chandigarh city if all the diesel buses are transformed to CNG buses by 2020. Current study also offers potential for other cities to plan better GHG reduction strategies in transport sector to reduce their climate change impacts.

  2. Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Automobiles (OMEGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so.

  3. Air quality enhancement by reducing emissions from electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzeh, Ali

    2006-01-01

    The electric power industry is responsible for electricity generations, transmission and distribution. The system is dominated by thermal electricity generation (in Syria its share is about 80%). The fossil fuels used in te thermal power plants are a major stationary source of greenhouse gases (GHG) in addition to other pollutant. The primary GHG are CO 2 , NO x , SO 2 , CO, and VOC, of which CO 2 is believed to account for about half of the global warming. There are many approaches to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted from power systems. The best measures as given mainly by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996 are presented in the paper. From the efficiency and sustainability side of view, the implementation of these approaches cannot be done optimally without an integrated environmental management program (EMP). The paper proposes an EMP as a conceptual strategy using a set of evaluation criteria to be applied on the power system on concern. As a final item, a case study of the Syrian power system is presented. The energy system in Syria emitted about 115 million tons of CO 2 in the year 2000. The electric power system alone consumes approximately 36% of the total consumed fossil fuels in the country, and is responsible of about 35-40% of the CO 2 emissions. The Syrian power system has three major problems (like many systems in the region) which need to be resolved in order to improve its operation and consequently to reduce the emission of green house gases. First, the technical electrical losses are about 25-30% of net generated electricity. Second, the power factor has reached alarming levels in various parts of the power system. Third, the efficiencies in all power plant units are very low and still decreasing rapidly. The paper gives an overview of the energy sector in Syria showing a significant potential for energy efficiency and environmental protection projects. The main outcome of the case study is a comprehensive program

  4. GHG policies and the role of innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, Georg

    1999-01-01

    The recent debate about the use of economic instruments aiming at achieving the GHG goals led to a number of important insights and conclusions. However, the implementation of these instruments is still rather weak. One reason is that the proposed GHG solutions (particularly CO 2 -taxes) are faced with some ambiguities and shortcomings, which require further analysis and discussion. Another reason is that any democratic government has problems to solve problems being identified through scientific analyses but not through daily experience. Any progress in implementing GHG policies requires to convince the larger public about the necessity of an active GHG policy and the unavoidability of costs associated to this policy. In this dilemma situation the change to implement GHG strategies can be improved by a sophisticated combination of voluntary agreements and monetary as well as non-monetary incentives to environmental innovations. According to the game theoretical view, voluntary agreements can't perform better than CO 2 -taxes that will be implemented in case of non-compliance. The paper argues that voluntary agreements can improve the credibility of governmental threats to implement hard measures at a later time. Still voluntary agreement s alone are negligible with respect to GHG emission reductions beyond business as usual. But they may be useful for focusing private business plans on ecological innovations. As far as such innovations become feasible they contribute to the low cost GHG reduction potential as well as the public support for a more active GHG policy. (Author)

  5. Energy and GHG Analysis of Rural Household Biogas Systems in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government has taken great efforts to popularize rural household scale biogas digesters, since they are regarded as an effective approach to address energy shortage issues in rural areas and as a potential way of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Focusing on a typical rural household biogas system, the aim of this study is to systematically quantify its total direct and indirect energy, concentrating on non-renewable energy and the associated GHG emission cost over the entire life cycle to understand its net dynamic benefits. The results show that the total energetic cost for biogas output is 2.19 J/J, of which 0.56 J is from non-renewable energy sources and the GHG emission cost is 4.54 × 10−5 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq, with respect to its design life cycle of 20 years. Correspondingly, a net non-renewable energy saving of 9.89 × 1010 J and GHG emission reduction of 50.45 t CO2-eq can be obtained considering the coal substitution and manure disposal. However, it must be run for at least 10 and 3 years, to obtain positive net non-renewable energy savings and GHG emission reduction benefits, respectively. These results have policy implications for development orientation, follow-up services, program management and even national financial subsidy methods.

  6. Global climate targets and future consumption level: an evaluation of the required GHG intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, Bastien; Van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-01-01

    Discussion and analysis on international climate policy often focuses on the rather abstract level of total national and regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At some point, however, emission reductions need to be translated to consumption level. In this article, we evaluate the implications of the strictest IPCC representative concentration pathway for key consumption categories (food, travel, shelter, goods, services). We use IPAT style identities to account for possible growth in global consumption levels and indicate the required change in GHG emission intensity for each category (i.e. GHG emission per calorie, person kilometer, square meter, kilogram, US dollar). The proposed concept provides guidance for product developers, consumers and policymakers. To reach the 2 °C climate target (2.1 tCO 2 -eq. per capita in 2050), the GHG emission intensity of consumption has to be reduced by a factor of 5 in 2050. The climate targets on consumption level allow discussion of the feasibility of this climate target at product and consumption level. In most consumption categories products in line with this climate target are available. For animal food and air travel, reaching the GHG intensity targets with product modifications alone will be challenging and therefore structural changes in consumption patterns might be needed. The concept opens up possibilities for further research on potential solutions on the consumption and product level to global climate mitigation. (letter)

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Asphalt Pavement Construction: A Case Study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Feng; Sha, Aimin; Lin, Ruiyu; Huang, Yue; Wang, Chao

    2016-03-22

    In China, the construction of asphalt pavement has a significant impact on the environment, and energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from asphalt pavement construction have been receiving increasing attention in recent years. At present, there is no universal criterion for the evaluation of GHG emissions in asphalt pavement construction. This paper proposes to define the system boundaries for GHG emissions from asphalt pavement by using a process-based life cycle assessment method. A method for evaluating GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction is suggested. The paper reports a case study of GHG emissions from a typical asphalt pavement construction project in China. The results show that the greenhouse gas emissions from the mixture mixing phase are the highest, and account for about 54% of the total amount. The second highest GHG emission phase is the production of raw materials. For GHG emissions of cement stabilized base/subbase, the production of raw materials emits the most, about 98%. The GHG emission for cement production alone is about 92%. The results indicate that any measures to reduce GHG emissions from asphalt pavement construction should be focused on the raw materials manufacturing stage. If the raw materials production phase is excluded, the measures to reduce GHG emissions should be aimed at the mixture mixing phase.

  8. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-12-16

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

  9. Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions

  10. Progress toward an Integrated Global GHG Information System (IG3IS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCola, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and precise atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations have shown the inexorable rise of global GHG concentrations due to human socioeconomic activity. Scientific observations also show a resulting rise in global temperatures and evidence of negative impacts on society. In response to this amassing evidence, nations, states, cities and private enterprises are accelerating efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs, and the UNFCCC process recently forged the Paris Agreement. Emission reduction strategies will vary by nation, region, and economic sector (e.g., INDCs), but regardless of the strategies and mechanisms applied, the ability to implement policies and manage them effectively over time will require consistent, reliable and timely information. A number of studies [e.g., Verifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Methods to Support International Climate Agreements (2010); GEO Carbon Strategy (2010); IPCC Task Force on National GHG Inventories: Expert Meeting Report on Uncertainty and Validation of Emission Inventories (2010)] have reported on the state of carbon cycle research, observations and models and the ability of these atmospheric observations and models to independently validate and improve the accuracy of self-reported emission inventories based on fossil fuel usage and land use activities. These studies concluded that by enhancing our in situ and remote-sensing observations and atmospheric data assimilation modeling capabilities, a GHG information system could be achieved in the coming decade to serve the needs of policies and actions to reduce GHG emissions. Atmospheric measurements and models are already being used to provide emissions information on a global and continental scale through existing networks, but these efforts currently provide insufficient information at the human-dimensions where nations, states, cities, and private enterprises can take valuable, and additional action that can reduce emissions for a specific GHG

  11. Climate policy, interconnection and carbon leakage: the effect of unilateral UK policy on electricity and GHG emissions in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    DI COSMO, VALERIA; CURTIS, JOHN; DEANE, PAUL

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED This paper examines the effect on Ireland?s Single Electricity Market (SEM) of the UK?s unilateral policy to implement a carbon price floor for electricity generation based on fossil-fuel. We simulate electricity markets and find that, subject to efficient use of the interconnectors between the two markets, a carbon price floor will lead to carbon leakage, with associated emissions in the Republic of Ireland increasing by 8% and SEM?s electricity prices increasing by 2.4%. As the...

  12. The capacity for integrated community energy solutions policies to reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Goldberg, S.; Sharp, J.; Melton, N.; Peters, J.; Wolinetz, M. [Quality Urban Energy Systems of Tomorrow, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miller, E. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cavens, D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-08-26

    The implementation of policies promoting integrated urban energy solutions (ICES) could allow a reduction in Canada's urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. The concept and its related policies impact all urban sectors of the economy, such as residential, commercial, urban and inter-city personal transportation, freight transportation, waste and water. ICES policies are considered feasible and necessary, and many cities around the world, like Stockholm and Utrecht, have implemented them successfully. Sustainable land use policies should be the first to be developed since all urban form, transportation, and energy use decisions are made within the framework they generate. In the long term, moderate to aggressive ICES policies generate reductions of GHG emission and energy use but also an increase of 0.3-0.9% of the GDP. Aggressive ICES policies also allow a reduction in the structural unemployment and an increase of the number of jobs. While the effects of the implementation of targeted abatement policies such as the carbon tax or technology regulations are observed within a few years, ICES produce effects on a longer term. In the short term, they allow the release of money that could be spent by households to reduce the economic burden generated by abatement policies. In the longer term, they allow reductions to take over the effects of the short term policies, taking into consideration the increasing size of the population and the economy. Therefore, ICES policies seem to be an important part of comprehensive policy efforts intending to satisfy Canada's energy use and GHG emissions objectives. 218 refs., 49 tabs., 41 figs.

  13. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  14. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF EU COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE GHG INDICATOR USING CLUSTER ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU CRISTIAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases are one of the main factors that influence the Earth's global temperature variation. As the result of both the beginning of the industrial revolution (the 1750’s and the intensificication and diversification of human activities, the volume of greenhouse gasses increases significantly. The risk of an accelerated global warming can be decreased by reducing the volume of greenhouse gasses emissions resulting from human activities. The annual volume of these emissions is reflected by the Greenhouse gas (GHG indicator. This work carries out a classification of EU countries on the basis of the evolution of the GHG indicator using Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM method.

  16. GHG emissions from sugar cane ethanol, plug-in hybrids, heavy duty gasoline vehicles and hybrids, and materials review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided updates of new work and new pathways added to the GHGenius model. The model was developed to analyze lifecycle emissions of contaminants associated with the production and use of alternative and traditional fuels, and is continually updated with new information on existing processes and new innovations. The report described the addition of a new table that showed fossil energy consumption per km driven. New information on energy requirements to remove sulphur from gasoline and diesel fuel in Canada were provided. The report also outlined a new pathway for plug-in hybrid battery-powered electric and gasoline vehicles. Vehicle weight was included as part of the user inputs for modelling gasoline powered heavy duty vehicles and gasoline hybrid heavy duty vehicles. Information on the production processes of ethanol from sugar cane were also added to the model. Amounts of energy consumed during the manufacture of materials for vehicles were also incorporated into the model. 34 refs., 39 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Effect of Bio based rejuvenator on mix design, Energy consumption and GHG Emission of High RAP Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi Ahmad, Kabiru; Ezree Abdullah, Mohd; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Usman, Nura; Hassan, Mohd Rosli Mohd; Bilema, Munder A. M.; Modibbo Saeed, Saeed; Batari, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Concerns about the cost, availability, and environmental impact of using petroleum-based materials have led to increased usage of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). Mean-while, the demand of the road industry to decrease the energy consumptions and reduce the release of greenhouse gases as well as other harmful gases, which cause serious air pollution has increased due to the amount of energy consumed is a major component of pavement construction that significantly contributes to the total cost. This paper evaluates the effects of Biobased rejuvenator known as JCO on the required heat energy and the amount of CO2 produced to increase the temperature of RAP and virgin aggregates and one binder from 25C to the point of mixing. The results showed that incorporating Biobased rejuvenator (JCO) can potentially reduce the required heat energy and amount of greenhouse gas produced by RAP and virgin, respectively.

  18. Life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts of a novel process for converting food waste to ethanol and co-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebner, Jacqueline; Babbitt, Callie; Winer, Martin; Hilton, Brian; Williamson, Anahita

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Co-fermentation using SSF at ambient temperature has potential as an ethanol pathway. • Bio-refinery GHG emissions are similar to corn and MSW ethanol production processes. • Net production GHG impact is negative with inclusion of waste disposal avoidance. • Food waste diversion from landfills is the largest contributor to GHG benefits. - Abstract: Waste-to-ethanol conversion is a promising technology to provide renewable transportation fuel while mitigating feedstock risks and land use conflicts. It also has the potential to reduce environmental impacts from waste management such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. This paper analyzes the life cycle GHG emissions associated with a novel process for the conversion of food processing waste into ethanol (EtOH) and the co-products of compost and animal feed. Data are based on a pilot plant co-fermenting retail food waste with a sugary industrial wastewater, using a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process at room temperature with a grinding pretreatment. The process produced 295 L EtOH/dry t feedstock. Lifecycle GHG emissions associated with the ethanol production process were 1458 gCO 2 e/L EtOH. When the impact of avoided landfill emissions from diverting food waste to use as feedstock are considered, the process results in net negative GHG emissions and approximately 500% improvement relative to corn ethanol or gasoline production. This finding illustrates how feedstock and alternative waste disposal options have important implications in life cycle GHG results for waste-to-energy pathways

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions accounting of urban residential consumption: a household survey based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Accounting of Urban Residential Consumption: A Household Survey Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Yu, Yunjun; Bai, Xuemei; Feng, Ling; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon city requires a careful understanding of the characteristics of urban residential lifestyle and consumption. The production-based accounting approach based on top-down statistical data has a limited ability to reflect the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from residential consumption. In this paper, we present a survey-based GHG emissions accounting methodology for urban residential consumption, and apply it in Xiamen City, a rapidly urbanizing coastal city in southeast China. Based on this, the main influencing factors determining residential GHG emissions at the household and community scale are identified, and the typical profiles of low, medium and high GHG emission households and communities are identified. Up to 70% of household GHG emissions are from regional and national activities that support household consumption including the supply of energy and building materials, while 17% are from urban level basic services and supplies such as sewage treatment and solid waste management, and only 13% are direct emissions from household consumption. Housing area and household size are the two main factors determining GHG emissions from residential consumption at the household scale, while average housing area and building height were the main factors at the community scale. Our results show a large disparity in GHG emissions profiles among different households, with high GHG emissions households emitting about five times more than low GHG emissions households. Emissions from high GHG emissions communities are about twice as high as from low GHG emissions communities. Our findings can contribute to better tailored and targeted policies aimed at reducing household GHG emissions, and developing low GHG emissions residential communities in China. PMID:23405187

  1. Potential of windbreak trees to reduce carbon emissions by agricultural operations in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Ballesteros-Possu; James R. Brandle; Michele Schoeneberger

    2017-01-01

    Along with sequestering C in forest, trees on farms are able to contribute to greenhouse mitigation through emission avoidance mechanisms. To evaluate the magnitude of these contributions, emission avoidance contributions for field and farmstead windbreak designs in regions across the United States were estimated, along with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission budgets for...

  2. New Jersey proposes rule reducing NOx emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy has proposed a rule requiring utility and industrial sources to significantly reduce their emission levels of nitrogen oxide (NO x ). If approved, it will be the first major rule mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 to affect New Jersey's stationary sources of these air pollutants - primarily electric generating utilities and other large fossil fuel burning facilities. The proposed rule requires all facilities with the potential to emit 25 tons or more of NO x each year to install reasonably available control technology by May 30, 1995. According to Richard Sinding, the environment and energy agency's assistant commissioner for policy and planning, the rule will likely require installation of low-NO x burners or other modifications to the combustion process. Sinding says the proposed rule will reduce the State's NO x emissions by approximately 30,000 tons a year, roughly 30 percent from current levels from these stationary sources. The pollution prevention measures are estimated to cost approximately $1,000 for each ton of NO x removed. The state energy agency estimates the average residential utility customer will see an increase in the monthly electric bill of about 50 cents. The agency said the proposed regulation includes provisions to make implementation more flexible and less costly for achieving the NO x reductions. It has approved the use of natural gas during the ozone season if low-NO x burners are not available. Additionally, emissions may be averaged from all units at the same utility or company location, effectively allowing a company to select the most cost-effective method of achieving the required emissions reductions

  3. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  4. Invited review: Enteric methane in dairy cattle production: quantifying the opportunities and impact of reducing emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J R; Laur, G L; Vadas, P A; Weiss, W P; Tricarico, J M

    2014-01-01

    Many opportunities exist to reduce enteric methane (CH4) and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per unit of product from ruminant livestock. Research over the past century in genetics, animal health, microbiology, nutrition, and physiology has led to improvements in dairy production where intensively managed farms have GHG emissions as low as 1 kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM), compared with >7 kg of CO2 e/kg of ECM in extensive systems. The objectives of this review are to evaluate options that have been demonstrated to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions per unit of ECM (CH4/ECM) from dairy cattle on a quantitative basis and in a sustained manner and to integrate approaches in genetics, feeding and nutrition, physiology, and health to emphasize why herd productivity, not individual animal productivity, is important to environmental sustainability. A nutrition model based on carbohydrate digestion was used to evaluate the effect of feeding and nutrition strategies on CH4/ECM, and a meta-analysis was conducted to quantify the effects of lipid supplementation on CH4/ECM. A second model combining herd structure dynamics and production level was used to estimate the effect of genetic and management strategies that increase milk yield and reduce culling on CH4/ECM. Some of these approaches discussed require further research, but many could be implemented now. Past efforts in CH4 mitigation have largely focused on identifying and evaluating CH4 mitigation approaches based on nutrition, feeding, and modifications of rumen function. Nutrition and feeding approaches may be able to reduce CH4/ECM by 2.5 to 15%, whereas rumen modifiers have had very little success in terms of sustained CH4 reductions without compromising milk production. More significant reductions of 15 to 30% CH4/ECM can be achieved by combinations of genetic and management approaches, including improvements in heat abatement, disease and fertility management, performance

  5. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  6. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  7. Project baselines and boundaries for project-based GHG emission reduction trading : a report to the Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, M.; Kartha, S.; Bernow, S. [Tellus Inst., Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-04-01

    One of the great challenges for policy makers in the twenty first century is turning out to be global climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Recent setbacks in international negotiations do not preclude the imposition of national emission targets. One option being studied to increase the economic efficiency of meeting these targets is the creation of emissions trading markets. The exploration of credit trading in the field of greenhouse gas emissions is carried out under the banner of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Trading (GERT) Pilot Project. One of its objectives is the development of the institutional framework required for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI), and other international credit trading programs. To ensure credits are awarded to projects in a fair and transparent manner, technical, methodological, and administrative processes must be put in place. The determination of project baselines and project boundaries represent two of the main challenges confronting policy makers in awarding the credits. A review of baseline and boundary methods was initiated by GERT, and this report also contains a description of the main advantages and drawbacks of the various methods being considered. Lessons learned and opportunities are especially important for GERT to provide proper guidance to developers. The context and rationale for baselines and boundary setting are first explored in this report, as well as the issues of importance, and common criteria for the evaluation of alternative methods. The principal options for baseline determination, advantages and disadvantages, and applicability in various contexts were reviewed in section 2. The topic of avoided electricity use, and how to set consistent baselines for it are discussed in section 3. Project boundary is the topic of section 4, including leakage, upstream and downstream emissions, rebound and positive spillover effects, and means by which these issues can de

  8. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double

  9. How will greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles be constrained in China around 2030?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Huo, Hong; Guan, Dabo; Klimont, Zbigniew; Peters, Glen P.; He, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We build a projection model to predict vehicular GHG emissions on provincial basis. • Fuel efficiency gains cannot constrain vehicle GHGs in major southern provinces. • We propose an integrated policy set through sensitivity analysis of policy options. • The policy set will peak GHG emissions of 90% provinces and whole China by 2030. - Abstract: Increasing emissions from road transportation endanger China’s objective to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The unconstrained growth of vehicle GHG emissions are mainly caused by the insufficient improvement of energy efficiency (kilometers traveled per unit energy use) under current policies, which cannot offset the explosion of vehicle activity in China, especially the major southern provinces. More stringent polices are required to decline GHG emissions in these provinces, and thereby help to constrain national total emissions. In this work, we make a provincial-level projection for vehicle growth, energy demand and GHG emissions to evaluate vehicle GHG emission trends under various policy options in China and determine the way to constrain national emissions. Through sensitivity analysis of various single policies, we propose an integrated policy set to assure the objective of peak national vehicle GHG emissions be achieved around 2030. The integrated policy involves decreasing the use of urban light-duty vehicles by 25%, improving fuel economy by 25% by 2035 comparing 2020, and promoting electric vehicles and biofuels. The stringent new policies would allow China to constrain GHG emissions from road transport sector around 2030. This work provides a perspective to understand vehicle GHG emission growth patterns in China’s provinces, and proposes a strong policy combination to constrain national GHG emissions, which can support the achievement of peak GHG emissions by 2030 promised by the Chinese government

  10. Gasoline tax best path to reduced emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinner, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Lowering gasoline consumption is the quickest way to increase energy security and reduce emissions. Three policy initiatives designed to meet such goals are current contenders in Washington, DC: higher gasoline taxes; higher CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards; and an auto registration fee scheme with gas-guzzler taxes and gas-sipper subsidies. Any of these options will give us a more fuel-efficient auto fleet. The author feels, however, the gasoline tax holds several advantages: it is fair, flexible, smart, and honest. But he notes that he is proposing a substantial increase in the federal gasoline tax. Real commitment would translate into an additional 50 cents a gallon at the pump. While the concept of increasing taxes at the federal level is unpopular with voters and, thus, with elected officials, there are attractive ways to recycle the $50 billion in annual revenues that higher gas taxes would produce

  11. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker

    2001-12-31

    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  13. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  14. REDUCING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS AND FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  16. The challenge of greenhouse gas emissions. The 'why' and 'how' of accounting and reporting for GHG emissions. An industry guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    The New Zealand Business Council for Sustainable Development (NZBCSD) established in May 1999, is a coalition of leading businesses united by a shared commitment to sustainable development via the three pillars of economic growth, environmental protection and social progress. This guide is the second phase of NZBCSD's climate change project. It describes 32 potential business opportunities that the six participating companies have identified within their operations. These opportunities range from the provision of knowledge and services, to 'climate friendly' branding to investment in emissions reduction projects at home and in developing countries.

  17. Assessment of the GHG Reduction Potential from Energy Crops Using a Combined LCA and Biogeochemical Process Models: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for developing biofuel is to reduce GHG (greenhouse gas emissions, but the comprehensive environmental impact of such fuels is not clear. Life cycle analysis (LCA, as a complete comprehensive analysis method, has been widely used in bioenergy assessment studies. Great efforts have been directed toward establishing an efficient method for comprehensively estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction potential from the large-scale cultivation of energy plants by combining LCA with ecosystem/biogeochemical process models. LCA presents a general framework for evaluating the energy consumption and GHG emission from energy crop planting, yield acquisition, production, product use, and postprocessing. Meanwhile, ecosystem/biogeochemical process models are adopted to simulate the fluxes and storage of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen in the soil-plant (energy crops soil continuum. Although clear progress has been made in recent years, some problems still exist in current studies and should be addressed. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art method for estimating GHG emission reduction through developing energy crops and introduces in detail a new approach for assessing GHG emission reduction by combining LCA with biogeochemical process models. The main achievements of this study along with the problems in current studies are described and discussed.

  18. Fossil energy and GHG saving potentials of pig farming in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Hermansen, John Erik

    2010-01-01

    ) savings can be feasibly achieved. As shown in the results of the analysis, pig farming in the EU has a high potential to reduce fossil energy use and GHG emissions by taking improvement measures in three aspects: (i) feed use; (ii) manure management; and (iii) manure utilization. In particular......In Europe, the highly developed livestock industry places a high burden on resource use and environmental quality. This paper examines pig meat production in North-West Europe as a base case and runs different scenarios to investigate how improvements in terms of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG...

  19. Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth of population and economy during the past two decades has resulted in continuing growth of transport’s oil demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study are to examine pattern and growth in energy demand as well as related GHG emissions from the transport sector and to analyze potential pathways of energy demand and GHG emissions reduction from this sector of the measures being set by the Thai Government. A set of econometric models has been developed to estimate the historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in the transport sector during 1989–2007 and to forecast future trends to 2030. Two mitigation option scenarios of fuel switching and energy efficiency options have been designed to analyze pathways of energy consumption and GHG emissions reduction potential in Thailand’s transport sector compared with the baseline business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumed to do nothing influences the long-term trends of transport energy demand. It has been found that these two mitigation options can reduce the GHG emissions differently. The fuel-switching option could significantly reduce the amount of GHG emissions in a relatively short time frame, albeit it will be limited by its supply resources, whereas the energy efficiency option is more effective for GHG emissions mitigation in the long term. Therefore, both measures should be implemented simultaneously for both short and long term mitigation effects in order to more effectively achieve GHG emissions reduction target.

  20. Protection from wintertime rainfall reduces nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions during the decomposition of poultry and horse manure-based amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Neufeld, Katarina; Poon, David; Grant, Nicholas; Nesic, Zoran; Smukler, Sean

    2018-04-01

    Manure-based soil amendments (herein "amendments") are important fertility sources, but differences among amendment types and management can significantly affect their nutrient value and environmental impacts. A 6-month in situ decomposition experiment was conducted to determine how protection from wintertime rainfall affected nutrient losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in poultry (broiler chicken and turkey) and horse amendments. Changes in total nutrient concentration were measured every 3 months, changes in ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations every month, and GHG emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) every 7-14 days. Poultry amendments maintained higher nutrient concentrations (except for K), higher emissions of CO 2 and N 2 O, and lower CH 4 emissions than horse amendments. Exposing amendments to rainfall increased total N and NH 4 + losses in poultry amendments, P losses in turkey and horse amendments, and K losses and cumulative N 2 O emissions for all amendments. However, it did not affect CO 2 or CH 4 emissions. Overall, rainfall exposure would decrease total N inputs by 37% (horse), 59% (broiler chicken), or 74% (turkey) for a given application rate (wet weight basis) after 6 months of decomposition, with similar losses for NH 4 + (69-96%), P (41-73%), and K (91-97%). This study confirms the benefits of facilities protected from rainfall to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions during amendment decomposition. The impact of rainfall protection on nutrient losses and GHG emissions was monitored during the decomposition of broiler chicken, turkey, and horse manure-based soil amendments. Amendments exposed to rainfall had large ammonium and potassium losses, resulting in a 37-74% decrease in N inputs when compared with amendments protected from rainfall. Nitrous oxide emissions were also higher with rainfall exposure, although it had no effect on carbon dioxide and methane emissions

  1. Using a multi-scale approach to identify and quantify oil and gas emissions: a case study for GHG emissions verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C.; Kort, E. A.; Rella, C.; Conley, S. A.; Karion, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Frankenberg, C.

    2015-12-01

    Along with a boom in oil and natural gas production in the US, there has been a substantial effort to understand the true environmental impact of these operations on air and water quality, as well asnet radiation balance. This multi-institution effort funded by both governmental and non-governmental agencies has provided a case study for identification and verification of emissions using a multi-scale, top-down approach. This approach leverages a combination of remote sensing to identify areas that need specific focus and airborne in-situ measurements to quantify both regional and large- to mid-size single-point emitters. Ground-based networks of mobile and stationary measurements provide the bottom tier of measurements from which process-level information can be gathered to better understand the specific sources and temporal distribution of the emitters. The motivation for this type of approach is largely driven by recent work in the Barnett Shale region in Texas as well as the San Juan Basin in New Mexico and Colorado; these studies suggest that relatively few single-point emitters dominate the regional emissions of CH4.

  2. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reduction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Olesen, Jørgen E; Petersen, Søren O

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG e...

  3. BP Canada Energy Company energy efficiency and GHG reduction opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, B. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented an outline of the BP Canada Energy Company's energy efficiency program, which uses an innovative approach that relies on front line operations staff to generate, evaluate and implement ideas for energy reduction projects. An outline of the organization team was presented, with details of the small central Calgary group responsible for coordination, technical support and tracking of data. Key objectives of the team were identified as: the promotion of energy efficiency; sharing of best practices; and coordination of efforts at operations at both the development and corporate level. An outline of BP upstream operations and emissions reduction strategies was provided along with a timeline of BP Canada greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainable reductions projects. A chart representing energy savings through conversion to natural gas was also presented, sorted by project type. Results included over 400 GHG or energy reduction projects completed, with an average pay out of 30 months as well as 300,000 tonnes equivalent of GHGs reduced at an estimated value of of $13,000,000. Areas of focus for future projects include: compression; fired equipment; flaring; venting; and fugitive emissions. Strategies to reduce emissions in all areas of future research were also provided. tabs, figs.

  4. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  5. Impact of Spanish electricity mix, over the period 2008–2030, on the Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of Electric, Hybrid Diesel-Electric, Fuel Cell Hybrid and Diesel Bus of the Madrid Transportation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García Sánchez, Juan Antonio; López Martínez, José María; Lumbreras Martín, Julio; Flores Holgado, María Nuria; Aguilar Morales, Hansel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the performance of 4 buses that run on different alternative fuel types and technologies. • The buses assessed are Fuel Cell-Hybrid Bus, Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus, Battery Electric Bus, and a Diesel Bus. • We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each vehicle technology, fossil fuel and energy carrier. • Life Cycle of Battery Electric Bus shows that it has a big potential of improvement in terms of environmental impact. - Abstract: In spite of the advanced research in automotive technology, and the improvement of fuels, the road transport sector continues to be an environmental concern, since the increase in transport demand is offsetting the effects of these technological improvements. Therefore, this poses the following question: what combination of technology and fuel is more efficient in terms of energy consumption and green house gas (GHG) emissions? To fully address this question it is necessary to carry out a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents a global LCA of 4 buses that run on the following fuel types and technologies: (1) Fuel Cell- Hybrid Bus, (2) Hybrid Diesel-Electric Bus (series configuration), (3) Battery Electric Bus and (4) Combustion Ignition Engine Bus. The impact categories assessed are: primary energy consumption, fossil energy and GHG emissions. Among the principal results, we can conclude that the Global LCA of buses (3) and (1) (which are the more sensitive pathways to the electricity mix variation) have for the 2008–2030 period a room for improvement of 25.62% and 28.16% in terms of efficiency of fossil energy consumption and a potential GHG emission reduction of 28.70% and 30.88% respectively

  6. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GHG trading awaits early action credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The challenges facing the Canadian government in implementing a green house gas (GHG) emissions trading program were discussed. The government of Canada is proposing to establish a program offering credit for early action on GHG reduction. However, the program is proving to be difficult to design because Canada's national implementation strategy for climate change has not yet been defined. The program is intended to reveal how emitters can invest in GHG reduction now, and use them against future regulations limiting emissions. The intention is to design the program on the principle that any company which decreases GHG emissions below its 'business-as-usual' level will receive a credit which can later be sold to another source which wants to offset its emissions. Nevertheless, the government is looking for real reductions in the sense that it is trying to bend the 'business-as-usual' forecast down towards the Kyoto targets, and is trying to ensure that the system is a rigorous one before any credits are issued

  8. Fundamental cooperation project in fiscal 2000 for improving international energy consumption efficiency. Investigations in relation with prevention of global warming (analytical comparison centering around cost effectiveness related to greenhouse effect gas (GHG) reduction in overseas countries); 2000 nendo kokusai energy shohi koritsu ka chosa nado kyoryoku kiso jigyo - chikyu ondanka boshi kanren chosa hokokusho. Kaigai deno GHG sakugen ni kansuru hiyo tai koka wo chushin to shita bunseki hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    In order to provide discussion materials for measures to achieve the GHG emission reduction target, investigations and discussions have been made on the following subjects: cost effectiveness of reducing GHG emission by target countries and target technologies, use of maps and databases on the possible reduction quantity of GHG emission, the targeted countries and business categories. Regarding the target countries, investigations were made on the general situation of the energy consumption efficiency, difference between their energy consumption efficiency by industries and that in Japan, and the GHG emission quantities by sectors. As a result, 31 counties hopeful in reducing CO2 emission were selected. With regard to technologies to reduce CO2 emission, technologies having been practically used and proliferated in Japan were used as the base, whereas 43 technologies were systematized for such departments as industries, business operations, households, and transportation. According to a trial calculation on the effect of CO2 emission reduction, if the 43 technologies are applied to the 31 target countries, CO2 emission reduction of 698 million tons as a whole would be possible, for which the required expense was calculated as 114.4 trillion yen. In evaluating the CO2 emission reducing technologies, the cost effectiveness of each technology was evaluated by cost per GHG emission reduction of 1t-CO2. (NEDO)

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions for the EU in four future scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Rienks, W.; Staritsky, I. [Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Eickhout, B.; Prins, A.G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    The European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will be revised in the near future. A proposed agricultural policy reform will affect many dimensions of the sustainable development of agriculture. One of these dimensions are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of four scenarios of the future, from the Eururalis study, and the effects of CAP options on GHG emissions from agriculture. The results provide an indication of the range of GHG emissions between the four diverging base scenarios and the differences with current emission levels in Member States and on EU level. Analysis of the possible impact of the measures on GHG emissions showed that this would be much larger from mitigation measures than from CAP options. Full implementation of the mitigation measures could lead to a reduction in GHG emissions from agriculture of 127 Mt CO2 equivalents. This is about a quarter of current GHG emissions from agriculture. Promoting mitigation measures, therefore, is more effective for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture, than influencing income and price subsidies within the CAP. On the global scale, CAP options hardly play a role in total GHG emissions from land use. Much more important are developments in global population, economic growth, policies and technological developments, as depicted in the various scenarios.

  10. How to reduce household carbon emissions: A review of experience and policy design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Global warming and environment problems caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), along with rapid economic development has attracted the attention of many countries and regions of the world. Reducing GHG emissions is essential to mitigate the threat of global warming. Household carbon (dioxide) emissions have been recognized as one of the most important contributors to climate change, with a significant impact on both the local and global environment, and various policy instruments have been implemented by governments to bring about the reduction. This paper reviews these carbon abatement policy measures from demand-side and supply-side perspectives based on 144 countries across the world. The advantages and disadvantages of the policies are analyzed and it is found that income level largely affects the choice of policy, with high-income countries being mostly associated with demand-side policy instruments. Low-income countries adopt less demand-side policy measures and mainly depend on supply-side polices such as targets and regulations. Geographic location is also an important factor influencing the choice of policy instruments due to the different climates between different regions, although targets, regulations and carbon taxes are dominant GHG reduction policy measures worldwide. In America, tendering and net metering are popular, while in Europe feed-in-tariff (FIT) policies are implemented for more than 70% of the time. In Asia, policy measures, whether supply-side or demand-side, are comparatively weakly implemented and influenced by location, urbanization and economic growth. This paper suggests that, although the economic level is different, low-income countries and particularly developing countries can promote carbon abatement as well as the financial market by gradually changing from supply-side policy instruments to demand-side policies. This critical review provides a systematic understanding of various carbon emission policies in

  11. Reducing errors in aircraft atmospheric inversion estimates of point-source emissions: the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak as a natural tracer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, S. M.; Yadav, V.; Karion, A.; Mueller, K. L.; Conley, S.; Ryerson, T.; Nehrkorn, T.; Kort, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    Urban greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimation with atmospheric measurements and modeling, i.e. the ‘top-down’ approach, can potentially support GHG emission reduction policies by assessing trends in surface fluxes and detecting anomalies from bottom-up inventories. Aircraft-collected GHG observations also have the potential to help quantify point-source emissions that may not be adequately sampled by fixed surface tower-based atmospheric observing systems. Here, we estimate CH4 emissions from a known point source, the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak in Los Angeles, CA from October 2015–February 2016, using atmospheric inverse models with airborne CH4 observations from twelve flights ≈4 km downwind of the leak and surface sensitivities from a mesoscale atmospheric transport model. This leak event has been well-quantified previously using various methods by the California Air Resources Board, thereby providing high confidence in the mass-balance leak rate estimates of (Conley et al 2016), used here for comparison to inversion results. Inversions with an optimal setup are shown to provide estimates of the leak magnitude, on average, within a third of the mass balance values, with remaining errors in estimated leak rates predominantly explained by modeled wind speed errors of up to 10 m s‑1, quantified by comparing airborne meteorological observations with modeled values along the flight track. An inversion setup using scaled observational wind speed errors in the model-data mismatch covariance matrix is shown to significantly reduce the influence of transport model errors on spatial patterns and estimated leak rates from the inversions. In sum, this study takes advantage of a natural tracer release experiment (i.e. the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak) to identify effective approaches for reducing the influence of transport model error on atmospheric inversions of point-source emissions, while suggesting future potential for integrating surface tower and

  12. Subsurface watering resulted in reduced soil N2O and CO2 emissions and their global warming potentials than surface watering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Xu, Junzeng; Yang, Shihong; Liao, Linxian; Jin, Guangqiu; Li, Yawei; Hameed, Fazli

    2018-01-01

    Water management is an important practice with significant effect on greenhouse gases (GHG) emission from soils. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their global warming potentials (GWPs) from subsurface watering soil (SUW) were investigated, with surface watering (SW) as a control. Results indicated that the N2O and CO2 emissions from SUW soils were somewhat different to those from SW soil, with the peak N2O and CO2 fluxes from SUW soil reduced by 28.9% and 19.4%, and appeared 72 h and 168 h later compared with SW. The fluxes of N2O and CO2 from SUW soils were lower than those from SW soil in both pulse and post-pulse periods, and the reduction was significantly (p0.1) lower that from SW soil. Moreover, N2O and CO2 fluxes from both watering treatments increased exponentially with increase of soil water-filled pore space (WFPS) and temperature. Our results suggest that watering soil from subsurface could significantly reduce the integrative greenhouse effect caused by N2O and CO2 and is a promising strategy for soil greenhouse gases (GHGs) mitigation. And the pulse period, contributed most to the reduction in emissions of N2O and CO2 from soils between SW and SUW, should be a key period for mitigating GHGs emissions. Response of N2O and CO2 emissions to soil WFPS and temperature illustrated that moisture was the dominant parameters that triggering GHG pulse emissions (especially for N2O), and temperature had a greater effect on the soil microorganism activity than moisture in drier soil. Avoiding moisture and temperature are appropriate for GHG emission at the same time is essential for GHGs mitigation, because peak N2O and CO2 emission were observed only when moisture and temperature are both appropriate.

  13. Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions from Optimizing Urban Transit Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Public transit systems with efficient designs and operating plans can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to low-occupancy transportation modes, but many current transit systems have not been designed to reduce environmental impacts. This ...

  14. EU Transport GHG. Routes to 2050 II Project. Developing a better understanding of the secondary impacts and key sensitivities for the decarbonisation of the EU's transport sector by 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, N.; Brannigan, C. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom); Smokers, R. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Schroten, A.; Vam Essen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Skinner, I. [Transport and Environmental Policy Research TEPR, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    The title study directly builds on the work previously completed under the EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 project. This new work (dubbed EU Transport GHG: Routes to 2050 II) started in January 2011 and was completed in March 2012. The outputs from this new project help to support the Commission in prioritising and developing their strategy for reducing GHG emissions from the transport sector. CE Delft successfully organised the stakeholder engagement as well as the in-depth research on several topics: greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicle production and infrastructure development, CO2 reduction costs, co-benefits of GHG policies and knock-on consequences of such policies. Also alternative economic development paths were investigated, such as paths that could be less transport intensive, but still deliver increasing levels of prosperity.

  15. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  16. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    -char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.......05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition...

  18. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  19. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Grassland Ecosystems of the Central Lithuania: Multi-Criteria Evaluation on a Basis of the ARAS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligita Balezentiene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N2O, CH4, and CO2 are potential greenhouse gas (GHG contributing to climate change; therefore, solutions have to be sought to reduce their emission from agriculture. This work evaluates GHG emission from grasslands submitted to different mineral fertilizers during vegetation period (June–September in two experimental sites, namely, seminatural grassland (8 treatments of mineral fertilizers and cultural pasture (intensively managed in the Training Farm of the Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Chamber method was applied for evaluation of GHG emissions on the field scale. As a result, soil chemical composition, compactness, temperature, and gravimetric moisture as well as biomass yield of fresh and dry biomass and botanical composition, were assessed during the research. Furthermore, a simulation of multi-criteria assessment of sustainable fertilizers management was carried out on a basis of ARAS method. The multicriteria analysis of different fertilizing regimes was based on a system of environmental and productivity indices. Consequently, agroecosystems of cultural pasture (N180P120K150 and seminatural grassland fertilizing rates N180P120K150 and N60P40K50 were evaluated as the most sustainable alternatives leading to reduction of emissions between biosphere-atmosphere and human-induced biogenic pollution in grassland ecosystems, thus contributing to improvement of countryside environment.

  20. Contribution of plastic waste recovery to greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigné-Itoiz, Eva; Gasol, Carles M; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    This paper concentrates on the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of post-consumer plastic waste recovery (material or energy) by considering the influence of the plastic waste quality (high or low), the recycled plastic applications (virgin plastic substitution or non-plastic substitution) and the markets of recovered plastic (regional or global). The aim is to quantify the environmental consequences of different alternatives in order to evaluate opportunities and limitations to select the best and most feasible plastic waste recovery option to decrease the GHG emissions. The methodologies of material flow analysis (MFA) for a time period of thirteen years and consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) have been integrated. The study focuses on Spain as a representative country for Europe. The results show that to improve resource efficiency and avoid more GHG emissions, the options for plastic waste management are dependent on the quality of the recovered plastic. The results also show that there is an increasing trend of exporting plastic waste for recycling, mainly to China, that reduces the GHG benefits from recycling, suggesting that a new focus should be introduced to take into account the split between local recycling and exporting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technology Roadmap: Energy and GHG reductions in the chemical industry via catalytic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    The chemical industry is a large energy user; but chemical products and technologies also are used in a wide array of energy saving and/or renewable energy applications so the industry has also an energy saving role. The chemical and petrochemical sector is by far the largest industrial energy user, accounting for roughly 10% of total worldwide final energy demand and 7% of global GHG emissions. The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) has partnered with the IEA and DECHEMA (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) to describe the path toward further improvements in energy efficiency and GHG reductions in the chemical sector. The roadmap looks at measures needed from the chemical industry, policymakers, investors and academia to press on with catalysis technology and unleash its potential around the globe. The report uncovers findings and best practice opportunities that illustrate how continuous improvements and breakthrough technology options can cut energy use and bring down greenhouse gas (GHG) emission rates. Around 90% of chemical processes involve the use of catalysts – such as added substances that increase the rate of reaction without being consumed by it – and related processes to enhance production efficiency and reduce energy use, thereby curtailing GHG emission levels. This work shows an energy savings potential approaching 13 exajoules (EJ) by 2050 – equivalent to the current annual primary energy use of Germany.

  2. The political economy of a tradable GHG permit market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, P.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU has committed itself to meet an 8% greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction target level following the Kyoto agreement. Therefore, the EU Commission has just proposed a new directive establishing a framework for GHG emissions trading within the European Union. This proposal is the outcome of a policy...... that the dominant interest groups indeed influenced the final design of an EU GHG market....

  3. Enhanced rice production but greatly reduced carbon emission following biochar amendment in a metal-polluted rice paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Afeng; Bian, Rongjun; Li, Lianqing; Wang, Xudong; Zhao, Ying; Hussain, Qaiser; Pan, Genxing

    2015-12-01

    Soil amendment of biochar (BSA) had been shown effective for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and alleviating metal stress to plants and microbes in soil. It has not yet been addressed if biochar exerts synergy effects on crop production, GHG emission, and microbial activity in metal-polluted soils. In a field experiment, biochar was amended at sequential rates at 0, 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively, in a cadmium- and lead-contaminated rice paddy from the Tai lake Plain, China, before rice cropping in 2010. Fluxes of soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored using a static chamber method during the whole rice growing season (WRGS) of 2011. BSA significantly reduced soil CaCl2 extractable pool of Cd, and DTPA extractable pool of Cd and Pb. As compared to control, soil CO2 emission under BSA was observed to have no change at 10 t ha(-1) but decreased by 16-24% at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). In a similar trend, BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1) increased rice yield by 25-26% and thus enhanced ecosystem CO2 sequestration by 47-55% over the control. Seasonal total N2O emission was reduced by 7.1, 30.7, and 48.6% under BSA at 10, 20, and 40 t ha(-1), respectively. Overall, a net reduction in greenhouse gas balance (NGHGB) by 53.9-62.8% and in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by 14.3-28.6% was observed following BSA at 20 and 40 t ha(-1). The present study suggested a great potential of biochar to enhancing grain yield while reducing carbon emission in metal-polluted rice paddies.

  4. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  5. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  6. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  7. World commitment to reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burge, R.

    1991-01-01

    A meeting of energy experts in Toronto, sponsored by the Canadian World Energy Council (CANWEC), to examine the implications of sustainable development for the energy industry, is reported. Canada, according to the World Resources Institute, ranks second only to the Arab oil producers as the world's worst energy hog. Although it contributes only 2% of total world greenhouse gases, its per capita emissions rank higher than even the United States, and this despite the fact that over 75% of its electrical energy is produced by hydro and nuclear power. Its intentions to stabilize CO 2 emissions by 2000 have already been signalled. Although arguments on the supply side strategies of clean coal and nuclear power were presented at the CANWEC meeting, the accent was firmly on demand side management, through energy conservation and efficiency, to meet the challenge of global warming. (author)

  8. Panorama 2009 - greenhouse gas emissions and the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The fact that the transport sector is growing quickly brings advantages, such as quick access to any geographical location on earth, but also disadvantages: noise, congestion and polluting emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the greenhouse gas (GHG) primarily responsible for global warming. In the effort to bring GHG emissions under control, improving results in the transport sector is a prime long-term objective. What proportion of CO 2 emissions generated at global and national level are due to the road, air, maritime and rail transport sectors, respectively? What mechanisms can be used to reduce GHG emissions in the transport sector at large?

  9. Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butze, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

  10. Retrofitting compressor engines to reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Cenovus Energy Inc. is upgrading its natural gas compression facilities at 37 sites it operates in Alberta. The project itself consists of a retrofit of the natural-fas fired engines that power the compressors that fill its natural gas sales pipe-line. Piping to capture fugitive natural gas will also be installed. These emissions will be used as fuel. The efficiency rating of such engine will be the same as a new fuel-injected engine. One of the challenge in the design of the parts of these engines ss to to ensure the least possible downtime to minimize production losses.

  11. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  12. 77 FR 51499 - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 535 [NHTSA 2012-0126] RIN 2127-AK74 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium... purpose of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because the GHG standards fundamentally regulate fuel...

  13. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  14. The role of reduced aerosol precursor emissions in driving near-term warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Von Salzen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios all assume stringent emissions controls on aerosols and their precursors, and hence include progressive decreases in aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions through the 21st century. Recent studies have suggested that the resultant decrease in aerosols could drive rapid near-term warming, which could dominate the effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) increases in the coming decades. In CanESM2 simulations, we find that under the RCP 2.6 scenario, which includes the fastest decrease in aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions, the contribution of aerosol reductions to warming between 2000 and 2040 is around 30%. Moreover, the rate of warming in the RCP 2.6 simulations declines gradually from its present-day value as GHG emissions decrease. Thus, while aerosol emission reductions contribute to gradual warming through the 21st century, we find no evidence that aerosol emission reductions drive particularly rapid near-term warming in this scenario. In the near-term, as in the long-term, GHG increases are the dominant driver of warming. (letter)

  15. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  16. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A. [Oeko-Institut (Oeko), Freiburg (Germany); Fernandez, R. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2011. The official submission of 2011 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2013. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2011 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2012 submissions to UNFCCC (which relate to emissions in 2010). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2011. Finally, the EEA has also used the early estimates of 2011 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2011 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (LN)

  17. Approximated EU GHG inventory: Early estimates for 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, A.; Busche, J.; Hermann, H.; Joerss, W.; Scheffler, M. (OEko-Institut, Freiburg (Germany))

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this report is to provide an early estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU-15 and EU-27 for the year 2010. The official submission of 2010 data to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will occur in 2012. In recent years, the EEA and its European Topic Centre on Air Pollution and Climate Change Mitigation have developed a methodology to estimate GHG emissions using a bottom up approach - based on data or estimates for individual countries, sectors and gases - to derive EU GHG estimates in the preceding year (t-1). For transparency, this report shows the country-level GHG estimates from which the EU estimates have been derived. The 2010 estimates are based on the latest activity data available at country level and assume no change in emission factors or methodologies as compared to the official 2011 submissions to UNFCCC (which re-late to emissions in 2009). Some Member States estimate and publish their own early estimates of GHG emissions for the preceding year. Where such estimates exist they are clearly referenced in this report in order to ensure complete transparency regarding the different GHG estimates available. Member State early estimates were also used for quality assurance and quality control of the EEA's GHG early estimates for 2010. Finally, EEA has also used the early estimates of 2010 GHG emissions produced by EEA member countries to assess progress towards the Kyoto targets in its annual trends and projections report (due to be published alongside the present report). In that report, the EEA's early estimates for 2010 were only used for countries that lack their own early estimates to track progress towards national and EU targets. (Author)

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine

  19. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  20. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  1. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  2. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  3. Policies to reduce carbon emissions from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The two long-term scenarios carried out for Mexico attempt to paint a picture of carbon emissions and energy use in the year 2025. The scenarios reveal that Mexico's current energy path is not optimal; the energy-intensity indicators show an increasing reliance on petroleum products and electricity over the next 40 years. Thus, Mexico must embark on a program of energy conservation in the near future. Mexico recently has undertaken several energy conservation efforts. The Mexican government implemented a National Program for Energy Modernization. This program identifies the promotion of energy conservation in Mexico as one of its top priorities between 1990 and 1994. It incorporates a number of actions geared at improving energy conservation, including: establishing pricing policies which pay special attention to electricity tariffs; setting aside budget appropriations for energy-savings programs; carrying out an energy diagnosis in the transportation and industrial sectors; promoting cogeneration and new legislation in this field; setting efficiency standards for equipment; initiating a public education campaign to inform people about energy conservation; promoting the participation of research institutes and consulting firms in the research of the technological aspects of energy-saving measures; and creating agreement with industrial and commerce associations

  4. Optimal scenario balance of reduction in costs and greenhouse gas emissions for municipal solid waste management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓娜; 张强; 陈广武; 齐长青; 崔文谦; 张于峰; 马洪亭

    2015-01-01

    To reduce carbon intensity, an improved management method balancing the reduction in costs and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is required for Tianjin’s waste management system. Firstly, six objective functions, namely, cost minimization, GHG minimization, eco-efficiency minimization, cost maximization, GHG maximization and eco-efficiency maximization, are built and subjected to the same constraints with each objective function corresponding to one scenario. Secondly, GHG emissions and costs are derived from the waste flow of each scenario. Thirdly, the range of GHG emissions and costs of other potential scenarios are obtained and plotted through adjusting waste flow with infinitely possible step sizes according to the correlation among the above six scenarios. And the optimal scenario is determined based on this range. The results suggest the following conclusions. 1) The scenarios located on the border between scenario cost minimization and GHG minimization create an optimum curve, and scenario GHG minimization has the smallest eco-efficiency on the curve;2) Simple pursuit of eco-efficiency minimization using fractional programming may be unreasonable; 3) Balancing GHG emissions from incineration and landfills benefits Tianjin’s waste management system as it reduces GHG emissions and costs.

  5. Farming for a Better Climate by Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (FarmClim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Schröck, Andrea; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Schaller, Lena; Moser, Tobias; Baumgarten, Andreas; Dersch, Georg; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Kitzler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The project FarmClim (Farming for a better climate) assesses impacts of agriculture on N and GHG fluxes in Austria and proposes measures for improving N efficiency and mitigating emissions, including their economic assessment. This paper focuses on animal husbandry and crop production measures, and on N2O emissions from soils. FarmClim applies national inventory reporting methods to assess Austrian NH3 and GHG fluxes in order to develop flux estimates with implementation of mitigation measures. Based on scientific literature and on the outcome of the Austrian working group agriculture and climate protection a list of potential mitigation measures has been produced: phase feeding, dairy cattle diet, biogas production. Data cover resulting production levels as well as GHG mitigation. In crop production, an optimisation potential remains with respect to N fertilization and nutrient uptake efficiency. Projected regional yield data and information on the N content of arable crops have been delivered from field experiments. These data complement official statistics and allow assessing the effect of increasing proportions of legume crops in crop rotations and reducing fertilizer input on a regional scale. Economic efficiency of measures is a crucial factor for their future implementation on commercial farms. The economic model evaluates investment costs as well as changes in direct costs, labour costs and economic yield. Biophysical modelling with Landscape DNDC allows establishing a framework to move from the current approach of applying the IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions from soils. We select two Austrian model regions to calculate N fluxes taking into account region and management practices. Hot spots and hot moments as well as mitigation strategies are identified. Two test regions have been identified for soil emission modelling. The Marchfeld is an intensively used agricultural area in North-East Austria with very fertile soils and dry climate. The

  6. Apparatus for reducing solvent luminescence background emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affleck, Rhett L. (Los Alamos, NM); Ambrose, W. Patrick (Los Alamos, NM); Demas, James N. (Charlottesville, VA); Goodwin, Peter M. (Jemez Springs, NM); Johnson, Mitchell E. (Pittsburgh, PA); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Petty, Jeffrey T. (Los Alamos, NM); Schecker, Jay A. (Sante Fe, NM); Wu, Ming (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    The detectability of luminescent molecules in solution is enhanced by reducing the background luminescence due to impurity species also present in the solution. A light source that illuminates the solution acts to photolyze the impurities so that the impurities do not luminesce in the fluorescence band of the molecule of interest. Molecules of interest may be carried through the photolysis region in the solution or may be introduced into the solution after the photolysis region.

  7. Incentives for reducing emissions in Krakow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uberman, R.; Pierce, B.; Lazecki, A.

    1994-01-01

    This effort is identifying, specific incentives that may be used by Krakow city officials to encourage, residents to change the way they heat their homes and businesses in order to reduce pollution. This paper describes the incentives study for converting small coal or coke-fired boilers to gas in the Old Town area. A similar study looked at incentives for expanding the district heating system and future analyses will be performed for home stove options

  8. Reducing local traffic emissions at urban intersection using ITS countermeasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.; Arem, B. van; Pueboobpaphan, R.; Lange, R. de

    2013-01-01

    In many countries traffic emissions have significantly increased during the last two decades because of the increased number of vehicles. As such, traffic emissions have become the main source of air pollution in urban areas, where breaches of the EU limit values frequently occur. To reduce these

  9. Reducing global NOx emissions: developing advanced energy and transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael J; Jones, Brian M

    2002-03-01

    Globally, energy demand is projected to continue to increase well into the future. As a result, global NOx emissions are projected to continue on an upward trend for the foreseeable future as developing countries increase their standards of living. While the US has experienced improvements in reducing NOx emissions from stationary and mobile sources to reduce ozone, further progress is needed to reduce the health and ecosystem impacts associated with NOx emissions. In other parts of the world, (in developing countries in particular) NOx emissions have been increasing steadily with the growth in demand for electricity and transportation. Advancements in energy and transportation technologies may help avoid this increase in emissions if appropriate policies are implemented. This paper evaluates commercially available power generation and transportation technologies that produce fewer NOx emissions than conventional technologies, and advanced technologies that are on the 10-year commercialization horizon. Various policy approaches will be evaluated which can be implemented on the regional, national and international levels to promote these advanced technologies and ultimately reduce NOx emissions. The concept of the technology leap is offered as a possibility for the developing world to avoid the projected increases in NOx emissions.

  10. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  11. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Passenger Cars and Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  12. Contribution of ICT to Climate Targets of Cities. Exploring the potential of Information and Communication Technologies in reducing emissions and energy use from buildings and travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, Anna

    2012-07-01

    -generation ATIS. In the third part of the thesis, ICT applications that can be used to reduce energy use and GHG emissions of buildings within the already built environment were identified. In addition, a brief analysis was made of how different actors such as the tenant, the building owner and the energy provider can reduce energy usage in buildings by means of ICT solutions.

  13. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  14. Assessment of the potential REDD+ as a new international support measure for GHG reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Ahn, J.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    As part of the Paris Agreement, the mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has high potential to simultaneously contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation through forest conservation and poverty alleviation. Some of 162 Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted by 189 countries representing approximately 98.8% of global GHG emissions include not only unconditional mitigation goals but also conditional goals based on the condition of the provision of international support such as finance, technology transfer and capacity building. Considering REDD+ as one of the main mechanisms to support such work, this study selected ten countries from among Korea's 24 ODA priority partners, taking into consideration their conditional INDC targets alongside sectoral quantified targets such as land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). The ten selected countries are Indonesia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Ghana, Senegal, Colombia, Peru and Paraguay. Of these countries, most REDD+ projects have been conducted in Indonesia mainly due to the fact that 85% of the country's total GHG emissions are caused by forest conversion and peatland degradation. Therefore, GHG reduction rates and associated projected costs of the Indonesia's REDD+ projects were analyzed in order to offer guidance on the potential of REDD+ to contribute to other INDCs' conditional goals. The result showed that about 0.9 t CO2 ha-1 could be reduced at a cost of USD 23 per year. Applying this estimation to the Cambodian case, which has submitted a conditional INDC target of increasing its forest coverage by 60% (currently 57%) by 2030, suggests that financial support of USD 12.8 million would reduce CO2 emissions by about 5.1 million tones by increasing forest coverage. As there is currently no consideration of LULUCF in Cambodia's INDC, this result represents the opportunity for an additional contribution to

  15. OPTIONS FOR REDUCING REFRIGERANT EMISSIONS FROM SUPERMARKET SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characteriz...

  16. How much can wind reduce the French CO2 emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    2010-03-01

    This report analyses the information recently made available by the French electricity transport network RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite). It consists in a detailed data set which gives the time evolution of the power either consumed by the country or generated with the diverse production modes exploited by utilities within France. For the first time the French public is also provided some analytical information on a major renewable energy: wind. Our analysis shows that the French wind-turbine-fleet efficiency over last fall-winter semester is 24.3%. The wind production displays the strong fluctuations expected for this intermittent non-controllable energy. It is observed that the time and energy distributions of the power delivered by the French wind turbines are not related to the increased electricity needs which occurred during a semester where a few cold waves hit the country. As a consequence, the controllable productions which already ensure the balance of consumption versus production had also to carry the extra load associated with the handling of wind fluctuations. In a second part of this report, based on the actual data provided by RTE, the report determines the maximal reduction of the CO 2 emissions which can be expected from the completion of the national wind energy program endorsed by the government. We conclude that in the absence of a significant strengthening of the electric network and an increase of the national energy storage capacity, the wind energy policy decided by the French government will only yield limited results on the reduction of both the GHG emissions and the country reliance on fossil fuel burning plants. (author)

  17. Inventory and projection of greenhouse gases emissions for Sumatera Utara Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Soeharwinto; Ginting, N.; Basyuni, M.; Zen, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions which result in global warming is a serious problem for the human being. Total globally anthropogenic GHG emissions were the highest in the history of the year 2000 to 2010 and reached 49 (4.5) Giga ton CO2eq per year in 2010. Many governments addressed their commitment to reducing GHG emission. The Government of Indonesia (GoI) has released a target in reducing its GHG emissions by 26% from level business as usual by 2020, and this target can be increased up to 41% by international aid. In this study, the GHG emissions for Sumatera Utara province are assessed and divided into six sectors. They are Agricultural, Land Use and Forestry, Energy, Transportation, Industrial, and Waste sectors. The results show that total GHG emissions for Sumatera Utara province in the baseline year 2010 is 191.4 million tons CO2eq. The business-as-usual projection of the GHG emission in 2020 is 354.5 million tons CO2eq. Mitigation actions will reduce GHG emissions up to 30.5% from business as usual emission in 2020.

  18. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    . Ridges usually emitted N2O, whilst N2O emissions from hollows and ditches were very low. As much as 25% of the total GHG flux resulted from large intermittent emissions from the ditches following rainfall. Addition of green needles from the brash immediately increased soil respiration and reduced CH4 emission in comparison to controls. To upscale our high-frequency 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements at the different topographic features to the field scale, we collected high resolution imagery from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flights. We will compare results using this upscaling technique to GHG emissions simultaneously measured by eddy covariance with the 'SkyLine' system in the predominant footprint. This detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal distribution of GHG emissions in an upland forest after felling and their drivers, and development of robust upscaling techniques can provide important tools to improve GHG flux models and to design appropriate management practices in upland forestry to mitigate GHG emissions following clearfell.

  19. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of the adoption of the EU Directive on biofuels in Spain. Effect of the import of raw materials and land use changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of the use of different alternative biofuels in passenger vehicles in Spain in order to meet EU biofuel goals. Different crop production alternatives are analysed, including the possible import of some raw materials. Availability of land for national production of the raw materials is analysed and indirect land use changes and associated GHG emissions are quantified. There are important differences in GHG emissions of biofuels depending on the raw material used and whether this is domestically produced or imported. Ethanol production using imported cereals and FAME production using domestic rapeseed have the highest GHG emissions per kilometre driven. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from sunflower has shown the lowest emissions. When taking into account the results of GHG emissions savings per hectare, these findings are somehow reversed. Production of ethanol and around 12% of FAME can be done domestically. The rest will need to be imported and will cause indirect land use change (ILUC). Therefore, ethanol production will not displace any land, whereas FAME production will displace some amounts of land. Calculated ILUC factors are 29%-34%. The additional GHG emissions due to these indirect land use changes are significant (67%-344% of life cycle GHG emissions). Standalone, the EU biofuel targets can have important benefits for Spain in terms of global warming emissions avoided. However, when considering the impact of land use change effects, these benefits are significantly reduced and can even be negative. -- Highlights: → Biofuel greenhouse gas emissions in Spain using domestic and imported raw materials. → Availability of land, indirect land use changes (ILUC) and GHG emissions quantified. → Important differences in biofuels GHG emissions depending on the raw material found. → All ethanol and 12% FAME can be produced domestically with ILUC factors of 29

  20. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  1. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  2. Heat pipes to reduce engine exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel combustor is presented that consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end, and having an opposite exit end. An elongated heat pipe is mounted longitudinally in the casing and is offset from and extends alongside the combustion space. The heat pipe is in heat transmitting relationship with the air intake conduit for heating incoming air. A guide conduit structure is provided for conveying the heated air from the intake conduit into the combustion space. A fuel discharge nozzle is provided to inject fuel into the combustion space. A fuel conduit from a fuel supply source has a portion engaged in heat transfer relationship of the heat pipe for preheating the fuel. The downstream end of the heat pipe is in heat transfer relationship with the casing and is located adjacent to the downstream end of the combustion space. The offset position of the heat pipe relative to the combustion space minimizes the quenching effect of the heat pipe on the gaseous products of combustion, as well as reducing coking of the fuel on the heat pipe, thereby improving the efficiency of the combustor.

  3. The Welfare Costs of GHG Reduction with Renewable Energy Policies in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Madhu; Oliver, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    A range of policies have been implemented in the agricultural, transportation, and electric power sectors, which comprise the majority of GHG emissions in the US. Two prominent policy sets are the national RFS and state-level RPSs. The purpose of this research is to examine the GHG implications of the state RPSs and their welfare costs of mitigating GHG emissions. We also analyze the interactions between the RFS and state RPS policies and the extent to which these policies create competition ...

  4. Reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries (REDD): insights from the UNFCCC COP-13 in Bali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz-Kanounnikoff, S.

    2007-01-01

    At the 10. anniversary of the Kyoto Protocol, the goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that cause climate change remains of alarming importance. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, these emissions have grown by 70% since 1970; and in 2005 the concentration of the most important GHG, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), peaked at its highest level for 650,000 years (IPCC 2007). The proposal to compensate reduced emissions from deforestation and degradation in developing countries (REDD), as an additional element in the international climate regime, was put forward to address the so far ignored up to 20% of global GHG emissions arising from forestry. Although excluded from the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, the idea was submitted by Papua New Guinea and Costa Rica, on behalf of the Coalition of Rain forest Nations, at the 11. Conference of Parties (COP-11) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change in Montreal in 2005. The proposal has initiated a two year examination process, facilitated by the UNFCCC, and has attracted extremely high participation levels of the concerned stakeholders. As the examination process on REDD took place between 2005 and 2007, several points of agreement and disagreement were being revealed among the different country proposals. Points of agreement included inter alia: that REDD would need to play a role in future climate regimes; that there was a need to take into account national circumstances to successfully integrate developing countries; and capacity-building and pilot or demonstration activities (prior to 2012) are crucial to enable developing countries to effectively participate and benefit from REDD. Points of contention consisted in inter alia: the potential financing systems (market- or fund/ODA-based), the scope of activity (deforestation only or with forest degradation or with forest conservation), and the scale of implementation (national or project level). Decisive advance on the

  5. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  6. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  7. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  8. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  9. Evolution of the household vehicle fleet : anticipating fleet composition, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) adoption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Automobile ownership plays an important role in determining vehicle use, emissions, fuel : consumption, congestion and traffic safety. This work provides new data on ownership decisions : and owner preferences under various scenarios, coupled with ca...

  10. Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinfei; Li, Fengbo; Zhou, Xiyue; Xu, Chunchun; Ji, Long; Chen, Zhongdu; Fang, Fuping

    2018-01-01

    The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields. The results showed that NT/RT significantly mitigated the overall global warming potential (GWP) of CH4 and N2O emissions by 6.6% as compared with conventional tillage (CT). Rotation cropping systems and crop straw remove facilitated no-tillage (NT) to reduce the CH4, N2O, or overall GWP both in upland and paddy field. NT significantly mitigated the overall GWP when the percentage of basal N fertilizer (PBN) >50%, when tillage duration > 10 years or rainfed in upland, while when PBN agronomy practices and land use type.

  11. Totally impermeable film (TIF reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suduan Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many perennial nursery fields and replanted orchards and vineyards in California are treated with preplant soil fumigants to control soilborne pests. In annual crops, such as strawberry, covering fumigated fields with totally impermeable film (TIF has shown promise in controlling emissions and improving fumigant distribution in soil. The objective of this research was to optimize the use of TIF for perennial crops via three field trials. TIF reduced peak emission flux and cumulative emissions by > 90% relative to polyethylene tarp during a 2-week covering period. After the TIF was cut, emissions were greatly reduced compared to when tarps were cut after 6 days. TIF maintained higher fumigant concentrations under tarp and in the soil than polyethylene film. The results indicate that TIF can increase fumigation efficiency for perennial crop growers.

  12. New technologies reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oravainen, H.

    1997-01-01

    In reducing CO 2 emissions, bioenergy will be the most important source of renewable energy in the next few decades. In principle, combustion of biomass is friendly to the environment because CO 2 released during combustion is recycled back into natural circulation. Biofuels normally contain little nitrogen and sulphur. However, depending on the combustion technology used, emissions may be quite high. This is true of combustion of biomass fuels in small appliances like wood stoves, fireplaces, small boilers etc. When fuels having high content of volatile matter are burnt in appliances using batch type combustion, the process is rather an unsteady-state combustion. Emissions of carbon monoxide, other combustible gases and particulates are quite difficult to avoid. With continuous combustion processes this is not normally a problem. This conference paper presents some means of reducing emissions from combustion of biofuels. 5 refs., 4 figs

  13. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skutsch, M.; Bird, N.; Trines, E.; Dutschke, M.; Frumhoff, P.; Jong, B.H.J. de; Laake, P. van; Masera, O.; Murdiyarso, D.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised

  14. Clearing the way for reducing emissions from tropical deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skutsch, M. [Department of Technology and Sustainable Development, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Bird, N. [Joanneum Research, Elizabethstrasse 5/1, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Trines, E. [Gramserweg 2, 3711 AW Austerlitz (Netherlands); Dutschke, M. [Biocarbon, Badstrasse 41, 77652 Offenburg (Germany); Frumhoff, P. [Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238-9105 (United States); De Jong, B.H.J. [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Unidad Villahermosa, Carr. Vhsa-Reforma Km. 15.5, C.P. 86280, Ra Guineo 2da Secc, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Van Laak, P. [ITC, Department of Natural Resources, P.O. Box 6, 7500 AA Enschede (Netherlands); Masera, O. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas, UNAMAP 27-3 Xangari 58089, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Murdiyarso, D. [Center for International Forestry Research, Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede Sindangbarang, Bogor 16680 (Indonesia)

    2007-06-15

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation account for about 25% of all anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions but cannot be credited under current climate change agreements. In the discussions around the architecture of the post-2012 climate regime, the possibility of including credits for reduced emissions from deforestation arises. The paper reviews two approaches for this, compensated reductions (CR) as proposed by Santilli et al. and the Joint Research Centre proposal that combine voluntary commitments by non-Annex I countries to reduce emissions from deforestation with carbon market financing. Both approaches have the clear advantages of simplicity and the possibility of fitting to an evolving greenhouse gas emission reduction regime. The authors consider the strengths and limitations of each proposal and build upon them to address several implementation challenges and options for improvement. Given the urgency of avoiding dangerous climate change, the timely development of technically sound, politically acceptable, cost-effective and practicable measures to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation is essential. These two approaches take us a step closer to this goal, but they need to be refined rapidly to enable this goal to be realised.

  15. Comparing climate policies to reduce carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China is the largest carbon emitter mainly due to growing consumption of fossil fuels. In 2009, the Chinese government committed itself to reducing domestic carbon emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% by 2020 compared to 2005 levels. Therefore, it is a top priority for the Chinese government to adopt efficient policy instruments to reduce its carbon intensity. Against this background, this paper develops a general equilibrium model and seeks to provide empirical contributions by comparing the potential impacts of several different policy options to reduce China's carbon emissio