WorldWideScience

Sample records for reducing environmental tobacco

  1. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  2. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  3. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  4. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  5. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Wang; Zhiqiang Huang; Mei Yang; Fuzhi Wang; Shuiyuan Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking ces...

  6. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P intervention group (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  7. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65 were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33 and control (no intervention groups (n = 32. In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002 and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0% (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26 in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted.

  8. A School-Based Environmental Intervention to Reduce Smoking among High School Students: The Acadiana Coalition of Teens against Tobacco (ACTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixye Brewer

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A school-based environmental program to reduce adolescent smoking was conducted in 20 schools (10 intervention; 10 control in south central Louisiana. The 9th grade cohort (n = 4,763; mean age = 15.4 yrs; 51% female; 61% Caucasian; 30-day smoking prevalence at baseline = 25% was followed over four years for 30-day smoking prevalence with the school as the unit of analysis. Although prevalence decreased in intervention schools and increased in control schools in Year 2 the significant difference between the two groups at baseline was not overcome by the intervention and increases in prevalence were observed in both groups in Years 3 and 4. The higher the percentage of white students in a school the higher the prevalence rates regardless of intervention/control status. Boys’ and girls’ smoking rates were similar. These outcome data, student feedback and process evaluation provide a basis for continuing to create more innovative adolescent tobacco control programs.

  9. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Joya; Cristina Manzano; Airam-Tenesor Álvarez; Maria Mercadal; Francesc Torres; Judith Salat-Batlle; Oscar Garcia-Algar

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. I...

  10. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polanska, K.; Hanke, W.; Ronchetti, R.; Hazel, P.J. van den; Zuurbier, M.; Koppe, J.G.; Bartonova, A.

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  12. Environmental tobacco smoke and children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Jong Hee; Moon, Jin Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon

    2012-02-01

    Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of long-term, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  13. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these countries are low- or middle-income countries. Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing ... have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years. Ad bans ...

  14. Transgenerational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joya, Xavier; Manzano, Cristina; Álvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Torres, Francesc; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Garcia-Algar, Oscar

    2014-07-16

    Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS), active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal) using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  15. Transgenerational Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Joya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nicotine from second hand smoke (SHS, active or passive, has been considered the most prevalent substance of abuse used during pregnancy in industrialized countries. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is associated with a variety of health effects, including lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Tobacco is also a major burden to people who do not smoke. As developing individuals, newborns and children are particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of SHS. In particular, prenatal ETS has adverse consequences during the entire childhood causing an increased risk of abortion, low birth weight, prematurity and/or nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Over the last years, a decreasing trend in smoking habits during pregnancy has occurred, along with the implementation of laws requiring smoke free public and working places. The decrease in the incidence of prenatal tobacco exposure has usually been assessed using maternal questionnaires. In order to diminish bias in self-reporting, objective biomarkers have been developed to evaluate this exposure. The measurement of nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in non-conventional matrices such as cord blood, breast milk, hair or meconium can be used as a non-invasive measurement of prenatal SMS in newborns. The aim of this review is to highlight the prevalence of ETS (prenatal and postnatal using biomarkers in non-conventional matrices before and after the implementation of smoke free policies and health effects related to this exposure during foetal and/or postnatal life.

  16. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  18. Environmental tobacco smoke: Sensory reactions of occupants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, William S.; Tosun, Tarik; See, Lai-Chu; Leaderer, Brian

    Occupants sat in a thermally-neutral environmental chamber for 2 h at a time and rated the following sensory attributes: magnitude of eye irritation and its acceptability, throat irritation and its acceptability, nose irritation and its acceptability, odor and its acceptability, and overall acceptability. Without the knowledge of the judges, cigarette smoking began at one or another time during occupancy. Smoking rate was tailored to achieve environmentally realistic levels of carbon monoxide, 2 ppm or 5 ppm above ambient background. Although the 2-ppm condition caused significant irritation above baseline, dissatisfaction among the occupants averaged only about 10%. The 5-ppm condition caused steadily increasing irritation and dissatisfaction in excess of 20% over time. Electrostatic precipitation of the paniculate matter diminished the magnitude of irritation and odor consistently, though not dramatically. It had a less consistent effect on dissatisfaction. Blockage of the nose via a noseclip in order to eliminate odor cues had no effect on eye irritation and implied that previous assessments of eye irritation in the presence of the possible biasing cue of odor can be trusted. The degree of dissatisfaction aroused from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) correlates very strongly with perceived intensity of irritation or odor, with overall dissatisfaction deriving almost exclusively from whichever channel (eyes, throat, etc.) is most severely affected.

  19. Can tobacco control be transformative? Reducing gender inequity and tobacco use among vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-07

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure.

  20. Social, Psychological, and Environmental-Structural Factors Associated with Tobacco Experimentation among Adolescents in Shanghai, China

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    Yun Qiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.

  1. Tobacco industry opposition to designating environmental tobacco smoke through E-codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givel, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This manuscript examines the public policy importance of 1993, United States Department of Health and Human Services actions to require doctors and hospitals to report a new external cause of injury code or E-code for environmental tobacco smoke related to causes of death such as lung cancer and severe heart disease. Methods included a qualitative archival analysis of all previously internal tobacco industry documents, pertinent newspaper and magazine articles, Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights database, and pertinent websites regarding environmental tobacco smoke and E-codes from 1993 to 1998. The E-code has continued to the present because of scientific and administrative recognition that environmental tobacco smoke is conclusively linked to illness and death. The industry argued that the E-code was unnecessary because of costs to business and no conclusive scientific evidence linking environmental tobacco smoke with pulmonary and cardiovascular deaths. This regulatory action based on current scientific evidence and medical decision-making contradicts the industry's claim that no deaths are conclusively associated with environmental tobacco smoke.

  2. Developing the science base for reducing tobacco harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Joseph, Anne M.; LeSage, Mark; Jensen, Joni; Murphy, Sharon E.; Pentel, Paul R.; Kotlyar, Michael; Borgida, Eugene; Le, Chap; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center has been examining the multiple dimensions and the scientific evidence required to determine the feasibility of tobacco harm reduction as a means to reduce tobacco-related mortality and morbidity. Because of the complexity associated with exploring this area, an interdisciplinary approach is necessary. The research components that have been of particular focus at our center include (a) developing and validating biomarkers of tobacco-related exposure and toxicity, (b) developing animal models and designing studies with humans to assess a variety of smoking reduction approaches and potential reduced exposure products, and (c) determining individual differences in response to these interventions and products. A description of the ongoing activities and challenges in these areas is provided, along with projected directions for the future. PMID:18067031

  3. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

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    Laurence William Gill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  4. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  5. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas E Novotny; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Arti...

  6. Residential exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, and its associates: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Expanding the information on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at home and its associates is of great public health importance. The aim of the current analysis was to evaluate associates of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among economically active male and female adults in Poland in their place of residence. Material and Methods: Data on the representative sample of 7840 adults from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS carried out in Poland in the years 2009 and 2010 were applied. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey is a nationally representative household study. The logistic regression model was used for relevant calculations. Results: The exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the place of living affected 59% of studied subjects. Out of non-smokers 42% of males and 46% females were exposed to the ETS in the at home. Increased risk of residential ETS exposure was associated with low education attainment, lack of awareness on adverse health consequences of second hand smoke (SHS, low level of support for tobacco control policies, living with a smoker. One of the factors associated with the ETS exposure was also the approval for smoking at home of both genders. The residential ETS exposure risk was the highest among males (odds ratio (OR = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI: 6.1–13.8, p < 0.001 and females (OR = 8.1, 95% CI 6.5–11.8, p < 0.001 who declared that smoking was allowed in their place of residence compared to respondents who implemented smoking bans at their place of residence. Conclusions: Campaigns to decrease social acceptance of smoking and encourage adopting voluntary smoke-free rules at home might decrease the ETS exposure and reduce related risks to the health of the Polish population. Educational interventions to warn about adverse health effects of the ETS should be broadly implemented particularly in high risk subpopulations.

  7. Tobacco Town: Computational Modeling of Policy Options to Reduce Tobacco Retailer Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Douglas A.; Hammond, Ross A.; Combs, Todd; Sorg, Amy; Kasman, Matt; Mack-Crane, Austen; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Henriksen, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the behavioral mechanisms and effects of tobacco control policies designed to reduce tobacco retailer density. Methods We developed the Tobacco Town agent-based simulation model to examine 4 types of retailer reduction policies: (1) random retailer reduction, (2) restriction by type of retailer, (3) limiting proximity of retailers to schools, and (4) limiting proximity of retailers to each other. The model examined the effects of these policies alone and in combination across 4 different types of towns, defined by 2 levels of population density (urban vs suburban) and 2 levels of income (higher vs lower). Results Model results indicated that reduction of retailer density has the potential to decrease accessibility of tobacco products by driving up search and purchase costs. Policy effects varied by town type: proximity policies worked better in dense, urban towns whereas retailer type and random retailer reduction worked better in less-dense, suburban settings. Conclusions Comprehensive retailer density reduction policies have excellent potential to reduce the public health burden of tobacco use in communities. PMID:28398792

  8. Reducing Tobacco Use. A report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-22

    This report of the Surgeon General on smoking and health, Reducing Tobacco Use, appears at a time of considerable upheaval in the arena of tobacco use control and prevention. Legal and legislative efforts to protect children from tobacco initiation and to diminish the prevalence of smoking among adults are in a state of flux, with some important gains and some sobering setbacks. Major changes in the public stance of the tobacco industry have evoked a reevaluation of strategies for controlling and preventing tobacco uptake. Enormous monetary settlements have provided the resources to fuel major new comprehensive antitobacco efforts, but the ultimate cost and benefit of these resources are still to be determined. Into this changing landscape, the report introduces an assessment of information about the value and efficacy of the major approaches that have been used--educational, clinical, regulatory, economic, and comprehensive--to reduce tobacco use. The report evaluates the scientific evidence for each approach, attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, and provides a vision of the trajectory for tobacco use prevention and control based on these available tools. Thus, although our knowledge about tobacco control remains imperfect, we know more than enough to act now. Widespread dissemination of the approaches and methods shown to be effective in each modality and especially in combination would substantially reduce the number of young people who will become addicted to tobacco, increase the success rate of young people and adults trying to quit using tobacco, decrease the level of exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke, reduce the disparities related to tobacco use and its health effects among different population groups, and decrease the future health burden of tobacco-related disease and death in this country. These achievable improvements parallel the health objectives set forth in Healthy People 2010, the national

  9. Is there a health benefit of reduced tobacco consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2007-01-01

    This review presents the available evidence on the health effects of reduced smoking. Smoking reduction was defined as reduction of the daily intake of tobacco without quitting. Only published papers were reviewed. Case reports and studies without a thorough definition of smoking reduction......% of baseline tobacco consumption. Most of the studies were small, with the populations selected and short follow-up periods. The limited data suggest that a substantial reduction in smoking improves several cardiovascular risk factors and respiratory symptoms. In addition, smoking reduction is associated...

  10. Guidelines for Controlling Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Ronald W.; And Others

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most widespread and harmful indoor pollutants. This document offers guidelines for controlling ETS in schools. The harmful effects of passive smoke and the Maryland policy regarding smoking in public places are first described. Strategies to control exposure to ETS are outlined, with consideration of…

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke and children`s health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Hwang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive exposure to tobacco smoke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Children, in particular, seem to be the most susceptible population to the harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. Paternal smoking inside the home leads to significant maternal and fetal exposure to ETS and may subsequently affect fetal health. ETS has been associated with adverse effects on pediatric health, including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal mortality, respiratory illness, neurobehavioral problems, and decreased performance in school. A valid estimation of the risks associated with tobacco exposure depends on accurate measurement. Nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine, are commonly used as smoking biomarkers, and their levels can be determined in various biological specimens such as blood, saliva, and urine. Recently, hair analysis was found to be a convenient, noninvasive technique for detecting the presence of nicotine exposure. Because nicotine/cotinine accumulates in hair during hair growth, it is a unique measure of longterm, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke. Although smoking ban policies result in considerable reductions in ETS exposure, children are still exposed significantly to tobacco smoke not only in their homes but also in schools, restaurants, child-care settings, cars, buses, and other public places. Therefore, more effective strategies and public policies to protect preschool children from ETS should be consolidated.

  12. Impact of the "Tobacco control law" on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain

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    Zorrilla Belén

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial evaluations of the introduction of legislation that regulates smoking in enclosed public places in European countries, describe an important effect in the control of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, the evidence is still limited. The objective of this study is to estimate the short-term effects of the comprehensive "Tobacco control law" introduced in Spain on January 2006, which includes a total ban of smoking in workplaces and a partial limitation of smoking in bars and restaurants. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based study. The self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home, at work, in bars and restaurants of the population aged 18 to 64 years in the Madrid Region during a period prior to the law (October and November 2005; n = 1750 was compared to that of the period immediately after the law came into force (January-July 2006; n = 1252. Adjusted odds ratios (OR were calculated using logistic regression models. Results Passive exposure to tobacco smoke at home has hardly changed. However, at indoor workplaces there has been a considerable reduction: after the law came into force the OR for daily exposure > 0–3 hours versus non-exposure was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.17 and for more than 3 hours, 0.12 (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.18. For fairly high exposure in bars and restaurants versus non-exposure, the OR in the former was 0.30 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.44 and in the latter was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.32; for very high exposure versus non-exposure they were 0.16 (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.24 and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.19, respectively. These results were similar for the smoking and non-smoking populations. Conclusion A considerable reduction in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and, to a lesser extent, in bars and restaurants, is related to the implementation of the "Tobacco control law". Although only initial figures, these results already demonstrate the effectiveness of

  13. Sustainable tobacco productions starting from the environmental education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Hernández Almanza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The tobacco is criticized by its negative incidence in the human health, although it understands each other the importance it has for the economy of the country and for the consumer's preferences, because of it, it is not suspend from the national production but we are conscious of the necessity to develop a less aggressive product to the environment. It was carried out an investigation in the central region of Cuba, in the period of the 2002-2009, with the purpose of promoting the environmental education in the tobacco sector, by means of the training and the agricultural extension, to contribute to obtain the sustainable productions. Theoretical and empiric methods were used, with them a diagnosis of the learning necessities was obtained on the topic and a program of pertinent training was applied through the agricultural extension. The obtained results indicated advances in the environmental education that were evidenced in the academic preparation of the professionals, the participation in events and development of projects referred to the environmental topic. Also the technical attendance to producers, the introduction and extension of scientific achievements, they propitiated the application of agroecological practices in the tobacco production with the purpose of obtaining high yield and quality with less noxious effects to the environment.

  14. Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General [and] Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA.

    This report offers a composite review of methods used to prevent tobacco use. The report evaluates five approaches currently used to reduce tobacco consumption: educational, clinical, regulatory, economic, and comprehensive approaches. The report explains these approaches in terms of the larger context of tobacco control and provides a vision for…

  15. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M; Bisgaard, H; Stage, M

    2007-01-01

    Non-invasive biomonitoring of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by means of hair is attractive in children, although systematic evaluation is required in infants. The objective was to compare nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair and plasma and parentally reported exposure to ETS...... microl plasma. Information was obtained on the number of days with ETS exposure during the first year of life, the smoking habits of the parents, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the home. All three parentally reported indices of ETS exposure were significantly associated...

  16. Effectiveness of Tobacco Control Measures in Reducing Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

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    Waduarachchige Don Aruna Shantha De Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sri Lanka became a signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in September 2003 and ratified in November 2003. Aiming to reduce tobacco burden in Sri Lanka, National Authority on Tobacco and Alcohol Act [NATA] No. 27 was authorized in 2006. The objective of this study was to assess the behavioral changes related to tobacco use among adolescents and young adults following the exposure to tobacco control measures implemented by NATA. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2011 to November 2011 among adolescent (13-19 years and young adult (20-39 years males in Anuradhapura divisional secretary area in Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions were used for data collection. Confounding factors were controlled by stratification and randomization. Results: A total of 456 male respondents including 168 (37% adolescents and 288 (63% young adults participated in the study. Among the ever smokers 66 (14 % had already quitted smoking while 151 (33% were current smokers. The majority of the respondents (95.4% of quitters and 88.0% of current smokers were acquainted with the dangers of smoking through the mass media. Among the current smokers and quitters, the knowledge on health risks of smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke was quite satisfactory. The current smokers as well as the quitters were well aware of the tobacco control measures. Smokers as well as the non-smokers and quitters supported these measures. Conclusion: Tobacco control measures implemented by NATA had a favorable influence on reducing tobacco burden among adolescents and young adults in Sri Lanka      

  17. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

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    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  18. DO CHILDREN BENEFIT FROM INCREASING CIGARETTE TAXES? ACCOUNTING FOR THE ENDOGENEITY OF LUNG HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    My research investigates the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and lung function in children. I use detailed individual health data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III) to measure the effect of environmental tobacco smoke ...

  19. Evaluation informs coalition programming for environmental tobacco smoke reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Mary E; Mueller, Keith J; Harrop, Dianne

    2003-01-01

    The objective for this formative evaluation was to establish baseline data for informing a community coalition's strategic planning in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) risk reduction. The coalition had chosen 3 targeted settings for ETS risk reduction: restaurants, childcare facilities, and government buildings. The evaluation methodology involved telephone interviews (restaurants, n = 805; governmental buildings, n = 258) and mailed surveys (childcare facilities, n = 1,142). Data on county residents and businesses were used for comparison purposes and were analyzed from the Nebraska Social Climate Survey (2001; n = 558). Evaluation baseline findings showed that licensed childcare facilities were more ETS knowledgeable, less ETS tolerant, and more smoke-free than restaurants. Residents were more bothered by ETS than what restaurant proprietors perceived. The majority of governmental buildings were not smoke-free. Conclusions were that community health nurse evaluators can provide coalitions with formative evaluative data to inform strategic planning and increase the likelihood of effective program interventions for community impact on ETS.

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Kondilis, Barbara; Travers, Mark J; Petsetaki, Elisabeth; Tountas, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-10-23

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 microm (PM2.5), performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February - March 2006. Levels of ETS ranged from 19 microg/m3 to 612 microg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 microg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 microg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 microg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p hospitality venues while levels in Ireland with a total smoking ban are 89% lower and smoke-free communities in the US are 91 - 96% lower than levels in Greece. Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke in hospitality venues in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tountas Yiannis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a major threat to public health. Greece, having the highest smoking prevalence in the European Union is seriously affected by passive smoking. The purpose of this study was to measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure in the non smoking areas of hospitality venues and offices in Greece and to compare the levels of exposure to levels in the US, UK and Ireland before and after the implementation of a smoking ban. Methods Experimental measurements of particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5, performed during a cross sectional study of 49 hospitality venues and offices in Athens and Crete, Greece during February – March 2006. Results Levels of ETS ranged from 19 μg/m3 to 612 μg/m3, differing according to the place of measurement. The average exposure in hospitality venues was 268 μg/m3 with ETS levels found to be highest in restaurants with a mean value of 298 μg/m3 followed by bars and cafes with 271 μg/m3. ETS levels were 76% lower in venues in which smoking was not observed compared to all other venues (p Conclusion Designated non-smoking areas of hospitality venues in Greece are significantly more polluted with ETS than outdoor air and similar venues in Europe and the United States. The implementation of a total indoor smoking ban in hospitality venues has been shown to have a positive effect on workers and patrons' health. The necessity of such legislation in Greece is thus warranted.

  2. Is the smokers exposure to environmental tobacco smoke negligible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Federico

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very few studies have evaluated the adverse effect of passive smoking exposure among active smokers, probably due to the unproven assumption that the dose of toxic compounds that a smoker inhales by passive smoke is negligible compared to the dose inhaled by active smoke. Methods In a controlled situation of indoor active smoking, we compared daily benzo(apyrene (BaP dose, estimated to be inhaled by smokers due to the mainstream (MS of cigarettes they have smoked, to the measured environmental tobacco smoke (ETS they inhaled in an indoor environment. For this aim, we re-examined our previous study on daily personal exposure to BaP of thirty newsagents, according to their smoking habits. Results Daily BaP dose due to indoor environmental contamination measured inside newsstands (traffic emission and ETS produced by smoker newsagents was linearly correlated (p = 0.001 R2 = 0.62 with estimated BaP dose from MS of daily smoked cigarettes. In smoker subjects, the percentage of BaP daily dose due to ETS, in comparison to mainstream dose due to smoked cigarettes, was estimated with 95% confidence interval, between 14.6% and 23% for full flavour cigarettes and between 21% and 34% for full flavour light cigarettes. Conclusions During indoor smoking, ETS contribution to total BaP dose of the same smoker, may be not negligible. Therefore both active and passive smoking exposures should be considered in studies about health of active smokers.

  3. Nonprofit organizations versus government agencies to reduce tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Vivien; Reinert, Bonita; Range, Lillian M; Campbell, Catherine; Boyd, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Tobacco settlement money can be allocated to nonprofit organizations or government agencies. Both have advantages and disadvantages. Nonprofit organizations may have relatively (a) more efficiency/flexibility, but less accountability; (b) narrower focus, but less experience; (c) more ability to advocate, but more obligations; (d) more independence from tobacco industry influence, but less funding; and, (e) more public trust, but less visibility. The present case study of the Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi focuses on six interconnected areas: education (school and community), raising awareness, advocacy, service, enforcement, and research. In 1999 and 2000, tobacco use declined in Mississippi, even compared to neighboring states. This unique partnership's multifaceted approach to social change probably facilitated this decline.

  4. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  5. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking r

  6. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  7. Rating the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for reducing youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Friend, Karen B; Grube, Joel W

    2014-04-01

    Important questions remain regarding the effectiveness of local tobacco policies for preventing and reducing youth tobacco use and the relative importance of these policies. The aims of this paper are to: (1) compare policy effectiveness ratings provided by researchers and tobacco prevention specialists for individual local tobacco policies, and (2) develop and describe a systematic approach to score communities for locally-implemented tobacco policies. We reviewed municipal codes of 50 California communities to identify local tobacco regulations in five sub-domains. We then developed an instrument to rate the effectiveness of these policies and administered it to an expert panel of 40 tobacco researchers and specialists. We compared mean policy effectiveness ratings obtained from researchers and prevention specialists and used it to score the 50 communities. High inter-rater reliabilities obtained for each sub-domain indicated substantial agreement among the raters about relative policy effectiveness. Results showed that, although researchers and prevention specialists differed on the mean levels of policy ratings, their relative rank ordering of the effectiveness of policy sub-domains were very similar. While both researchers and prevention specialists viewed local outdoor clean air policies as least effective in preventing and reducing youth cigarette smoking, they rated tobacco sales policies and advertising and promotion as more effective than the other policies. Moreover, we found high correlations between community scores generated from researchers' and prevention specialists' ratings. This approach can be used to inform research on local policies and prevention efforts and help bridge the gap between research and practice.

  8. Use of environmental tobacco smoke constituents as markers for exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaKind, J.S. [LaKind Associates (United States); Jenkins, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Naiman, D.Q. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Ginevan, M.E. [M.E. Ginevan and Associates (United States); Graves, C.G.; Tardiff, R.G. [Sapphire Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The 16-City Study analyzed for gas-phase environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) constituents (nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine [3-EP], and myosmine) and for particulate-phase constituents (respirable particulate matter [RSP], ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter [UVPM], fluorescing particulate matter [FPM], scopoletin, and solanesol). In this second of three articles, the authors discuss the merits of each constituent as a marker for ETS and report pair-wise comparisons of the markers. Neither nicotine nor UVPM were good predictors for RSP. However, nicotine and UVPM were good qualitative predictors of each other. Nicotine was correlated with other gas-phase constituents. Comparisons between UVPM and other particulate-phase constituents were performed. Its relation with FPM was excellent, with UVPM approximately 1 1/2 times FPM. The correlation between UVPM and solanesol was good, but the relationship between the two was not linear. The relation between UVPM and scopoletin was not good, largely because of noise in the scopoletin measures around its limit of detection. The authors considered the relation between nicotine and saliva cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. The two were highly correlated on the group level.

  9. Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy

  10. Lichen depsides and depsidones reduce symptoms of diseases caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Ingrid; Araya, Soledad; Piovano, Marisa; Carvajal, Marcela; Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Espinoza, Luis; Garbarino, Juan Antonio; Peña-Cortés, Hugo

    2012-05-01

    Two depsides and five depsidones, isolated from lichens, were tested to determine their in vivo protective effects on tobacco leaves challenged with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The results indicate that most of these compounds are able to reduce either the number and/or the size of necrotic lesions following virus infection. Pannarin, 1'-chloro-pannarin and stictic acid provided the more effective protective results, reducing by at least 45% the number and size of lesions. Real Time PCR assays were used to explore the target of action against TMV by examining the response behavior of genes involved in the plant defense mechanism. The application of the lichen substances did not lead to changes in the transcriptional levels of pathogen-related (PR1a), allene oxide synthase 2 (AOS2) or oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR3) genes. Thus, the protection observed in the tobacco leaves treated with the lichen compounds may be mediated by a mechanism which does not involved the SA- or JA-mediated defensive plant response. A possible structure-activity relationship is presented.

  11. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  12. Banning tobacco sales and advertisements near educational institutions may reduce students' tobacco use risk: evidence from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh; Pimple, Sharmila; Gupta, Prakash C; McCarthy, William J; Raute, Lalit J; Patel, Minal; Shastri, Surendra S

    2015-03-01

    India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act bans tobacco sales and advertisements within 100 yards of educational institutions. In school-adjacent neighbourhoods in Mumbai, we assessed adherence to these policies and whether tobacco vendor and advertisement densities were associated with students' tobacco use. High school students' tobacco use was measured using a multistage cluster sampling survey (n=1533). Field geographic information systems data were obtained for all tobacco vendors and advertisements within 500 m of schools (n=26). Random-effects multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations of tobacco vendor and advertisement densities with ever tobacco use, current smokeless tobacco use and current tobacco use. There were 1741 tobacco vendors and 424 advertisements within 500 m of schools, with 221 vendors (13%) and 42 advertisements (10%) located within 100 m. School-adjacent tobacco vendor density within 100 m was not associated with the tobacco use outcomes, but tobacco advertisement density within 100 m was associated with all outcomes when comparing highest to lowest density tertiles: ever use (OR: 2.01; 95% CI 1.00 to 4.07), current use (2.23; 1.16, 4.28) and current smokeless tobacco use (2.01; 1.02, 3.98). Tobacco vendor density within 200, 300, 400 and 500 m of schools was associated with current tobacco use and current smokeless tobacco use, but not ever use. The tobacco sales ban near educational institutions could be expanded beyond 100 m. Greater enforcement is needed regarding the current bans, particularly because advertisement density within 100 m of schools was associated with all students' tobacco use outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  14. Indoor Measurements of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Final Report to the Tobacco Related Disease Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Dod, Raymond L.; Russell, Marion L.; Singer, Brett C.; Sohn, Michael D.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Chang, Gee-Minn; Sextro, Richard G.

    2004-03-02

    The objective of this research project was to improve the basis for estimating environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposures in a variety of indoor environments. The research utilized experiments conducted in both laboratory and ''real-world'' buildings to (1) study the transport of ETS species from room to room, (2) examine the viability of using various chemical markers as tracers for ETS, and (3) to evaluate to what extent re-emission of ETS components from indoor surfaces might add to the ETS exposure estimates. A three-room environmental chamber was used to examine multi-zone transport and behavior of ETS and its tracers. One room (simulating a smoker's living room) was extensively conditioned with ETS, while a corridor and a second room (simulating a child's bedroom) remained smoking-free. A series of 5 sets of replicate experiments were conducted under different door opening and flow configurations: sealed, leaky, slightly ajar, wide open, and under forced air-flow conditions. When the doors between the rooms were slightly ajar the particles dispersed into the other rooms, eventually reaching the same concentration. The particle size distribution took the same form in each room, although the total numbers of particles in each room depended on the door configurations. The particle number size distribution moved towards somewhat larger particles as the ETS aged. We also successfully modeled the inter-room transport of ETS particles from first principles--using size fractionated particle emission factors, predicted deposition rates, and thermal temperature gradient driven inter-room flows, This validation improved our understanding of bulk inter-room ETS particle transport. Four chemical tracers were examined: ultraviolet-absorbing particulate matter (UVPM), fluorescent particulate matter (FPM), nicotine and solanesol. Both (UVPM) and (FPM) traced the transport of ETS particles into the non-smoking areas. Nicotine, on the other hand

  15. [Protection against environmental tobacco smoke exposure according to eu and Polish legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczko, Katarzyna; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Amendment to the Act on health protection against consequences of using tobacco and tobacco products, in force since 15 November 2010, has introduced a number of changes by extending the range of population protection against tobacco smoke exposure, of which the most controversial one for public was placing more restrictive ban on smoking in bars and restaurants. The changes in question caused that current legal bans, although more restrictive than earlier, are still not completely sufficient as far as the protection of all groups of workers against environmental tobacco smoke exposure is concerned. The text of WHO Framework Convention on Tobbacco Control, ratified by Poland, was discussed in the article together with the detailed WHO guidelines on the convention implementation in the field of workers' protection against tobacco smoke. In this paper the most important acts of EU, one of the convention parties, and current legislative situation in Poland were presented. Particular attention was paid to occupational groups, not yet fully protected against environmental tobacco smoke exposure and need to be the subject of future legislation.

  16. Medicine students and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szumska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although medicine students express positive attitudes toward providing lifestyle counseling, they require more instruction in many areas of health behavior in order to be helpful to their patients. The presented study included the students' questionnaires analysis regarding their lifestyle and exposure to tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to examine students' exposure to chosen xenobiotics by determination of selected biomarkers in urine samples, which underlay the basis for exposure assessment towards tobacco smoke. Materials and Methods: The investigated group consisted of first- and second-year medicine students from the Silesian Medical University (N = 133. Data obtained from a questionnaire survey was compared with the results of chosen biomarkers determined in urine samples. The analyses of the main nicotine metabolites were carried out firstly with use of ELISA, followed by the TLC technique with densitometry. Results: According to questionnaires, every third student examined was exposed to passive smoking. The mean concentration of the main nicotine metabolites determined by ELISA in urine samples of smoking students was 1293.52±396.70 μg/g creatinine. The results of the TLC analysis in the group of smoking students were as follows: for cotinine - 523.10±68.10 μg/g creatinine and for trans-3'-hydroxycotinine - 653.81±62.30 μg/g creatinine. Conclusions: Medicine students, regardless of their area of study, are a highly-exposed part of the population to tobacco smoke, not only actively but also passively. Tobacco smoke exposure can be assessed by ELISA as a screening method as well as by more specific TLC technique with densitometry.

  17. Environmental behavior of the fungicide metalaxyl in experimental tobacco field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidis, Vasilios; Hela, Dimitra; Patakioutas, George

    2013-01-01

    The loss of metalaxyl, a systemic fungicide, was determined in runoff water from loamy soil plots of various surface slopes cultivated with tobacco, over a period of 170 days. Conditions were selected to simulate agricultural practices employed in the Mediterranean region. The surface slopes of plots were 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10% and both cultivated and uncultivated (control) areas were simultaneously monitored. The cumulative losses of metalaxyl in surface runoff from tilled and untilled plots with a slope of 10% were estimated at 0.469% and 0.740% of the initial applied active ingredient respectively, while for the plots with a slope 0% they were 0.033% and 0.044%. The dissipation in topsoil was studied for a period of 110 days. The half-lives that were calculated using first-order kinetics ranged from 13.7 to 16.6 days in tobacco soil and from 13.8 to 17 days in non-cropped soil. The dissipation of metalaxyl from the topsoil in cultivation of tobacco was higher in comparison with the untilled plots (46-62% and 52-69% respectively, of the applied dose in 23 days after the second application). The slope of soil surface, the compound solubility and sorption capacities are the main parameters that influenced the transport of metalaxyl residues via surface water in soil-water systems.

  18. The effects of community policies to reduce youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, J L; Murray, D M; Wolfson, M; Blaine, T M; Wagenaar, A C; Hennrikus, D J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that adoption and implementation of local policies regarding youth access to tobacco can affect adolescent smoking. METHODS: A randomized community trial was conducted in 14 Minnesota communities. Seven intervention communities participated in a 32-month community-organizing effort to mobilize citizens and activate the community. The goal was to change ordinances, merchant policies and practices, and enforcement practices to reduce youth access to tobacco. Outcome measures were derived from surveys of students before and after the intervention and from tobacco purchase attempts in all retail outlets in the communities. Data analyses used mixed-model regression to account for the clustering within communities and to adjust for covariates. RESULTS: Each intervention community passed a comprehensive youth access ordinance. Intervention communities showed less pronounced increases in adolescent daily smoking relative to control communities. Tobacco purchase success declined somewhat more in intervention than control communities during the study period, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides compelling evidence that policies designed to reduce youth access to tobacco can have a significant effect on adolescent smoking rates. PMID:9702146

  19. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  20. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validity and reliability of self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in work offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, MC; Brug, J; Uges, DRA; VosdeWael, ML

    1997-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is an occupational carcinogen. Large companies often examine ETS exposure by employee surveys, However, reliable and valid self-report measures have been lacking. This study compared validity and reliability of various self-report measures, One hundred and seven non

  2. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for

  3. GST-omega genes interact with environmental tobacco smoke on adult level of lung function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; Boezen, Hendrika; ten Hacken, Nicolaas; Postma, Dirkje S; Vonk, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung growth in utero and lung function loss during adulthood can be affected by exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Both ETS exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Omega g

  4. The regional lung deposition of thoron progeny attached to the particulate phase of environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, J.C.; Black, A.; Knight, D.A.; Dickens, C.J.; McAughey, J. (AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    The [gamma] emitting isotope of lead (([sup 212]Pb), a decay product of thoron ([sup 220]Rn)), has been used to radiolabel the particulate phase of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke in situ. The radiolabelled aerosol is suitable for studies with human volunteers and as a marker for lung deposition and clearance of the attached fraction of thoron progeny, as well as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a variety of environmental situations. Total mean deposition values for nine male volunteers varied from 22% to 59% under different breathing conditions, including nasal as against mouth breathing. These data are higher than previously reported values for environmental tobacco smoke but are consistent with models of particle deposition in the lung. Data for regional deposition and clearance show deposition principally in the pulmonary region of the lung. Preliminary studies using radon ([sup 222]Rn) to determine the degree of association of progeny in the presence of ambient particulate or environmental tobacco smoke confirm that the degree of attachment rises with increasing particle concentration, and is therefore likely to influence both the magnitude and site of deposition in the lung. (author).

  5. A prospective study on active and environmental tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In a prospective cohort study among 120,852 adult subjects the authors investigated the associations between cigarette, cigar, pipe, environmental tobacco smoking (ETS), and bladder cancer. Methods: In 1986 all subjects completed a questionnaire on cancer risk factors. Follow-up for incid

  6. Reducing the gap between the economic costs of tobacco and funds for tobacco training in schools of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovniak, Liza S; Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn F; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco use costs approximately dollar 167 billion annually in the U.S., but few tobacco education opportunities are available in schools of public health. Reasons for the discrepancy between the costs of tobacco use and the creation of tobacco training opportunities have not been well explored. Based on the Behavioral Ecological Model, we present 10 recommendations for increasing tobacco training in schools of public health. Six recommendations focus on policy changes within the educational, legislative, and health care systems that influence funds for tobacco training, and four recommendations focus on strategies to mobilize key social groups that can advocate for change in tobacco control education and related policies. In addition, we present a model tobacco control curriculum to equip public health students with the skills needed to advocate for these recommended policy changes. Through concurrent changes in the ecological systems affecting tobacco control training, and through the collaborative action of legislators, the public, the media, and health professionals, tobacco control training can be moved to a higher priority in educational settings.

  7. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  8. The Effectiveness of Tobacco Marketing Regulations on Reducing Smokers’ Exposure to Advertising and Promotion: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Four Country Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Michael Cummings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4, were used in this study (N = 21,615. In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers’ reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  9. The effectiveness of tobacco marketing regulations on reducing smokers' exposure to advertising and promotion: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasza, Karin A; Hyland, Andrew J; Brown, Abraham; Siahpush, Mohammad; Yong, Hua-Hie; McNeill, Ann D; Li, Lin; Cummings, K Michael

    2011-02-01

    Exposure to tobacco product marketing promotes the initiation, continuation, and reuptake of cigarette smoking and as a result the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) has called upon member Parties to enact comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion. This study examines the immediate and long term effectiveness of advertising restrictions enacted in different countries on exposure to different forms of product marketing, and examines differences in exposure across different socioeconomic status (SES) groups. Nationally representative data from the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and the United States, collected from adult smokers between 2002 and 2008 using the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), were used in this study (N = 21,615). In light of the specific marketing regulation changes that occurred during the course of this study period, changes in awareness of tobacco marketing via various channels were assessed for each country, and for different SES groups within countries. Tobacco marketing regulations, once implemented, were associated with significant reductions in smokers' reported awareness of pro-smoking cues, and the observed reductions were greatest immediately following the enactment of regulations. Changes in reported awareness were generally the same across different SES groups, although some exceptions were noted. While tobacco marketing regulations have been effective in reducing exposure to certain types of product marketing there still remain gaps, especially with regard to in-store marketing and price promotions.

  10. Nicotine Dependence as a Mediator of Project EX's Effects to Reduce Tobacco Use in Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, María T; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Sussman, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In Spain, 44% of 14-18-year-olds have smoked, and 12.5% have smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances, and can lead to serious addiction in adulthood with adverse consequences to one's health. School plays a relevant role in health promotion and preventing risk behaviors such as tobacco consumption. Despite the fact that some school-based tobacco cessation and prevention interventions prove to be effective for their purposes, there is a lack of understanding as to why these programs succeed or fail. This longitudinal study aims to test the nicotine dependence (ND) as a mediator of Project EX's effect - a tobacco-use cessation program developed for high school youth to reduce tobacco consumption in scholars. Six high schools located in the Mediterranean coast were randomized for the participation of the program (Spanish version of Project EX) or a waiting-list group with baseline, immediate-posttest, and 12-month follow-up assessments. At baseline, 1,546 adolescents aged 14-21 years old (mean age: 15.28; SD = 1.20; 46% were women) were evaluated by self-administered tests on tobacco consumption and ND. A biomarker of smoke inhalation - a measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (ECM) - was used. Participants who were smokers (N = 501; 32%) were selected for this study. Mediation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS v2.12 macro for Windows. The significant criterion was p ≤ 0.05, and 5,000 samples were used for bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. Results indicated that Project EX indirectly decreased the number of cigarettes smoked in the last month, the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 7 days, the number of daily cigarettes, and ECM level at 12-month follow up through decreasing the level of ND in the short-term. This is the first Spanish study that explores ND as a mediator of the long-term efficacy of Project EX to reduce tobacco consumption in adolescents. Results suggest that interventions

  11. Testing a model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in military women with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Angela M; Agazio, Janice; Flaherty, Norma; Ephraim, Paula M

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in military women and their children. The convenience sample consisted of 238 women, 81 smokers and 157 nonsmokers, with a mean age of 37 years (SD = 9.9). Participants were either on active duty or were reservists and/or military dependents. Model constructs, some of which were adapted from the transtheoretical model of behavior change, measured personal and situational factors, pros and cons of ETS exposure, self-efficacy to resist ETS, mother's expectation for child's ETS exposure, and mother's self-efficacy to reduce child's ETS exposure. The mediating variable was the mother's daily ETS exposure, and the outcome variable was the child's daily ETS exposure. The trimmed model showed that 32% of the variance in mother's daily exposure (mediating variable) was accounted for by living with a smoker, having high ETS "pros" (as opposed to ETS "cons"), having less self-efficacy to resist ETS, and having greater self-efficacy to reduce the child's exposure. There was a significant, positive relationship (r = 0.51, p = 0.01) between the mother's and child's daily ETS exposure (outcome variable).

  12. Surveillance of tobacco industry retail marketing activities of reduced harm products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Sandy; Giovino, Gary; Chaloupka, Frank

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) and the interest in studying tobacco harm reduction, sound research and surveillance are needed to examine and understand the distribution and availability of PREPs in communities, as well as the tobacco industry's marketing practices surrounding these products. We examined the availability and marketing of PREPs in a national sample of tobacco retail stores. We also compared the price of PREPs to those of premium brand cigarettes and examined the distribution of PREPs in comparison with premium brand cigarettes by store type, urbanization, region, and race/ethnicity. We found that PREPs are not widely available, are priced similarly to leading cigarette brands, and have few promotional offers. We also found some significant differences in the distribution of PREPs and cigarettes, as well as in the distribution of Ariva and Omni, by store type and community demographics. The fact that this study used data collected nationally emphasizes the importance of these findings and helps shed some light on the tobacco industry's PREP marketing strategies. This study's national sample provides a unique perspective that needs to be replicated if and when other PREPs are widely marketed.

  13. Mobilizing positive reinforcement in communities to reduce youth access to tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, A; Ary, D; Koehn, V; Levings, D; Smith, S; Wright, Z; James, L; Henderson, J

    1996-10-01

    A community intervention to mobilize positive reinforcement for not selling tobacco to young people was evaluated. The intervention had five components: (a) mobilization of community support, (b) merchant education, (c) changing consequences to clerks for selling or not selling to those under 18, (d) publicity about clerks' refusals to sell, and (e) feedback to store owners or managers about the extent of their sales to adolescents. A multiple baseline design experiment was conducted, in which two small Oregon communities received the intervention, while two other continued in baseline. Outlets' willingness to sell was assessed repeatedly by teenage volunteers. The intervention significantly reduced the proportion of stores willing to sell. Mobilizing social and material reinforcement for stores not selling tobacco to young people is a viable means of reducing such sales. It may be especially valuable in communities where laws against sales to minors go unenforced.

  14. [Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pre-school children--a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielskai, Dorota Emilia; Gomółka, Ewa; Kurpas, Donata; Chlabicz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work was to compare the socioeconomic situation and the structure of tobacco use in the families of children attending preschools in Bialystok in 2004 and 2012 in terms of 3-year-olds' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The study involved 313 children out of 1,200 3-year-olds attending 51 pre-schools in Bialystok in 2004 (Gr I) and 273 children out of 1,100 attending 49 pre-schools in 2012 (Gr I). Information on environmental conditions and the use of tobacco in the families of the studied 3-year-olds was obtained through anonymous questionnaires filled in by their parents or caregivers. The exposure of children to ETS was evaluated using the questionnaire and by determining the cotinine/creatinine ratio in urine. The children from Gr I had better educated (pgrandparents. The declared number of cigarettes smoked a day by the people living with the children was similar in both Groups The Groups did not differ significantly regarding the rules of tobacco smoke applying to the family members and guests (p=0.639). The mean cotinine/ creatinine concentration [ng/mg] in the urine of children from Gr I (60.78) was significantly higher than in those from Gr II (22.75) (pyoung parents decreased, but despite education activities in the community, only 1/4 of homes with children had the "no smoking" rule.

  15. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05).

  16. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Tobacco Smoke Pollution in Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Rosen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoke-free homes can help protect children from tobacco smoke exposure (TSE. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to quantify effects of interventions on changes in tobacco smoke pollution in the home, as measured by air nicotine and particulate matter (PM. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Embase. We included controlled trials of interventions which aimed to help parents protect children from tobacco smoke exposure. Two reviewers identified relevant studies, and three reviewers extracted data. Results: Seven studies were identified. Interventions improved tobacco smoke air pollution in homes as assessed by nicotine or PM. (6 studies, N = 681, p = 0.02. Analyses of air nicotine and PM separately also showed some benefit (Air nicotine: 4 studies, N = 421, p = 0.08; PM: 3 studies, N = 340, p = 0.02. Despite improvements, tobacco smoke pollution was present in homes in all studies at follow-up. Conclusions: Interventions designed to protect children from tobacco smoke are effective in reducing tobacco smoke pollution (as assessed by air nicotine or PM in homes, but contamination remains. The persistence of significant pollution levels in homes after individual level intervention may signal the need for other population and regulatory measures to help reduce and eliminate childhood tobacco smoke exposure.

  18. The effect of environmental tobacco smoke during pregnancy on birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study explores whether pregnant nonsmokers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the average birth weight at term. METHODS: The population studied consists of pregnant nonsmokers participating in a study called Smoke-free Newborn Study. The participants (n = 1612...... women should not be exposed to passive smoking, and that it should be considered whether workplace legislation should be instituted in order to protect pregnant women against the adverse effects of passive smoking....

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A

  20. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and determinants of support for complete smoking bans in psychiatric settings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, M.C.; Gorts, C.A.; Soelen, P. van; Jonkers, R.E.; Hilberink, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in psychiatric settings and to assess determinants of support for complete smoking bans. DESIGN: Cross sectional study SETTING: Dutch psychiatric hospitals, outpatient care institutions, and sheltered home facilities. SUBJECTS: A rando

  1. Polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars in air-cured tobacco leaves injured by ozone air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Chaplin, J.F.; Cheng, A.L.S.; Sorokin, T.

    1977-03-13

    Air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves of several production types were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of ozone-induced weather fleck on polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. Seven domestic cultivars provided leaf samples for analysis of polyphenols and phytosterols. Quantities of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, free quinic acid, and phytosterols were higher in severely flecked leaves than in leaves flecked only minimally. Greenhouse studies disclosed that leaves grown in carbon-filtered air analyzed as greenpunch samples contained significantly higher levels of reducing sugars than leaves grown in polluted air, regardless of plant injury.

  2. Expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase variant in tobacco reduces tobacco-specific nitrosamine accumulation in cured leaves and cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianli; Zhang, Leichen; Lewis, Ramsey S; Bovet, Lucien; Goepfert, Simon; Jack, Anne M; Crutchfield, James D; Ji, Huihua; Dewey, Ralph E

    2016-07-01

    Burley tobaccos (Nicotiana tabacum) display a nitrogen-use-deficiency phenotype that is associated with the accumulation of high levels of nitrate within the leaf, a trait correlated with production of a class of compounds referred to as tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Two TSNA species, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), have been shown to be strong carcinogens in numerous animal studies. We investigated the potential of molecular genetic strategies to lower nitrate levels in burley tobaccos by overexpressing genes encoding key enzymes of the nitrogen-assimilation pathway. Of the various constructs tested, only the expression of a constitutively active nitrate reductase (NR) dramatically decreased free nitrate levels in the leaves. Field-grown tobacco plants expressing this NR variant exhibited greatly reduced levels of TSNAs in both cured leaves and mainstream smoke of cigarettes made from these materials. Decreasing leaf nitrate levels via expression of a constitutively active NR enzyme represents an exceptionally promising means for reducing the production of NNN and NNK, two of the most well-documented animal carcinogens found in tobacco products. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Dynamics of Environmental Humidity and Water Content in Tobacco Leaf and Metabolism of Starch During Curing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; YUAN Hong-tao; CHEN Jiang-hua; WANG Na

    2003-01-01

    Effect of environmental humidity and water content in tobacco leaf on starch metabolism was studied by using the electric-heated auto-controlled flue-curing barn supplied by Henan Agricultural University, China. The results indicated that the degradation of starch and decrease of water content in tobacco leaf during early yellowing at low humidity was the most rapid, and the water loss was the highest while the lowest under high humidity. The duration for starch degradation under low humidity was longer than that of CK. So the starch residue in cured leaf of different treatment took the order of high humidity yellowing treatment>low humidity yellowing treatment> CK. When the leaf water content was decreased to around 50%, the starch degradation became slow and the content of starch was stable. Starch degradation and decrease of leaf water content was not synchronous. Starch in tobacco leaf during yellowing degraded more rapidly when humidity was decreased at a high speed, but the degradation stopped earlier at late stage. There was a quicker and higher degradation of starch under high environmental humidity. When the humidity decreased to 70 %,the content of starch was stable. The activity of amylase began to decrease when relative humidity was below 75 %, but it kept a high level of activity when the environmental humidity was below 70 %.

  4. Smokers' responses to advertisements for regular and light cigarettes and potential reduced-exposure tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Norton, Giulia diStefano; Ouellette, Tammy K; Rhodes, Wiliam M; Kling, Ryan; Connolly, Gregory N

    2004-12-01

    This study examines smokers' responses to advertisements for potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (PREP), light cigarettes, and regular cigarettes. A convenience sample of 600 adult smokers reviewed one actual advertisement for each type of product. Smokers ranked the products on health risk, amount of tar, and carcinogenicity, and identified the messages they perceived the advertisements to convey. Smokers perceived PREP products as having lower health risks (mean = 5.4 on a scale of 1-10) and carcinogens (6.6) than light cigarettes (5.8 and 6.9, respectively, p carcinogen levels than regular cigarettes (8.2 and 8.8, respectively, p tobacco products that are contrary to the scientific evidence. Explicit and implicit advertising messages may be strengthened by the perceived government endorsement. This supports the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to regulate the promotion, advertising, and labeling of PREP tobacco products and light cigarettes. Effective regulation may need to focus on consumer perceptions resulting from advertisements rather than the explicit content of advertising text.

  5. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  6. Lifetime environmental tobacco smoke exposure and the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balmes John

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, which contains potent respiratory irritants, may lead to chronic airway inflammation and obstruction. Although ETS exposure appears to cause asthma in children and adults, its role in causing COPD has received limited attention in epidemiologic studies. Methods Using data from a population-based sample of 2,113 U.S. adults aged 55 to 75 years, we examined the association between lifetime ETS exposure and the risk of developing COPD. Participants were recruited from all 48 contiguous U.S. states by random digit dialing. Lifetime ETS exposure was ascertained by structured telephone interview. We used a standard epidemiologic approach to define COPD based on a self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or COPD. Results Higher cumulative lifetime home and work exposure were associated with a greater risk of COPD. The highest quartile of lifetime home ETS exposure was associated with a greater risk of COPD, controlling for age, sex, race, personal smoking history, educational attainment, marital status, and occupational exposure to vapors, gas, dusts, or fumes during the longest held job (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.09 to 2.21. The highest quartile of lifetime workplace ETS exposure was also related to a greater risk of COPD (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.002 to 1.84. The population attributable fraction was 11% for the highest quartile of home ETS exposure and 7% for work exposure. Conclusion ETS exposure may be an important cause of COPD. Consequently, public policies aimed at preventing public smoking may reduce the burden of COPD-related death and disability, both by reducing direct smoking and ETS exposure.

  7. Determination of airborne cadmium in environmental tobacco smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis with a compton suppression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Larson, S; Wu, D

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of cadmium, a toxic trace element, were measured in the indoor air of several public places where environmental tobacco smoke was present. Particulate-phase cadmium concentrations were determined by analyzing air filter samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis in conjunction with a Compton suppression gamma-ray detection system, in which the detection limit for cadmium was reduced to a few nanograms per filter. A cascade impactor and a personal filter sampler were used to collect the indoor suspended particulate matter for size-fractionated mass as well as total mass, respectively. Results show that where environmental tobacco smoke is present, cadmium concentrations are significantly higher than background and that about 80% of the cadmium found in indoor airborne particulate matter is associated with particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 1.8 microns. In one instance, airborne cadmium concentrations in a music club were found to be 38 ng/m, which is at least 30 times higher than background.

  8. Tobacco mutants with reduced microtubule dynamics are less susceptible to TMV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouko, Maurice O; Sambade, Adrian; Brandner, Katrin; Niehl, Annette; Peña, Eduardo; Ahad, Abdul; Heinlein, Manfred; Nick, Peter

    2010-06-01

    A panel of seven SR1 tobacco mutants (ATER1 to ATER7) derived via T-DNA activation tagging and screening for resistance to a microtubule assembly inhibitor, ethyl phenyl carbamate, were used to study the role of microtubules during infection and spread of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In one of these lines, ATER2, alpha-tubulin is shifted from the tyrosinylated into the detyrosinated form, and the microtubule plus-end marker GFP-EB1 moves significantly slower when expressed in the background of the ATER2 mutant as compared with the SR1 wild type. The efficiency of cell-to-cell movement of TMV encoding GFP-tagged movement protein (MP-GFP) is reduced in ATER2 accompanied by a reduced association of MP-GFP with plasmodesmata. This mutant is also more tolerant to viral infection as compared with the SR1 wild type, implying that reduced microtubule dynamics confer a comparative advantage in face of TMV infection.

  9. RNA interference (RNAi)-induced suppression of nicotine demethylase activity reduces levels of a key carcinogen in cured tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Jack, Anne M; Morris, Jerry W; Robert, Vincent J M; Gavilano, Lily B; Siminszky, Balazs; Bush, Lowell P; Hayes, Alec J; Dewey, Ralph E

    2008-05-01

    Technologies for reducing the levels of tobacco product constituents that may contribute to unwanted health effects are desired. Target compounds include tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), a class of compounds generated through the nitrosation of pyridine alkaloids during the curing and processing of tobacco. Studies have reported the TSNA N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. NNN is formed via the nitrosation of nornicotine, a secondary alkaloid produced through enzymatic N-demethylation of nicotine. Strategies to lower nornicotine levels in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) could lead to a corresponding decrease in NNN accumulation in cured leaves. The major nicotine demethylase gene of tobacco has recently been isolated. In this study, a large-scale field trial was conducted to evaluate transgenic lines of burley tobacco carrying an RNA interference (RNAi) construct designed to inhibit the expression of this gene. Selected transgenic lines exhibited a six-fold decrease in nornicotine content relative to untransformed controls. Analysis of cured leaves revealed a commensurate decrease in NNN and total TSNAs. The inhibition of nicotine demethylase activity is an effective means of decreasing significantly the level of a key defined animal carcinogen present in tobacco products.

  10. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  11. Determination of nicotine in tobacco products based on mussel-inspired reduced graphene oxide-supported gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yanqiu; Yuan, Xiuxiu; Yuan, Qiu; He, Kuanxin; Liu, Yingjie; Lu, Ping; Li, Huaiqi; Li, Bin; Zhan, Hui; Li, Guangliang

    2016-07-01

    Polydopamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (PDA-RGO/Au) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a simple and mild procedure. The PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite is successfully formed in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 8.5) without using any reducing agent. FTIR confirmed the successful coating of PDA and informed the reduction of the surface functional groups of GO. The formation of reduced GO and Au NPs was further evidenced by UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. This method is environmentally friendly and highly beneficial for the mass production of graphene-noble metal based nanocomposite. The as prepared PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite could greatly enhance the electrochemical oxidation of nicotine. We fabricated an electrochemical nicotine sensor based on the prepared PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite. The proposed nicotine sensor showed a wide detection range from 0.05 to 500 μM with a low detection limit of 0.015 μM. Moreover, the proposed nicotine sensor was also successfully applied for determination nicotine content in tobacco products.

  12. Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and biomarkers of oxidative stress among patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian L Megson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. SETTING: Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (admission serum cotinine ≥3.0 ng/mL were compared with 60 never smokers who had not (admission serum cotinine ≤0.1 ng/mL. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three biomarkers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured on admission blood samples and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with serum concentrations of both protein carbonyl (beta coefficient 7.96, 95% CI 0.76, 15.17, p = 0.031 and MDA (beta coefficient 10.57, 95% CI 4.32, 16.81, p = 0.001 but not ox-LDL (beta coefficient 2.14, 95% CI -8.94, 13.21, p = 0.703. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with increased oxidative stress. Further studies are requires to explore the role of oxidative stress in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction.

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke measured by cotinine sup 125 I-radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, G.J.; Palomaki, G.E.; Lea, D.H.; Haddow, J.E. (Foundation for Blood Research, Scarborough, ME (USA))

    1989-06-01

    We describe a polyclonal-antiserum-based {sup 125}I-radioimmunoassay for cotinine that is suitable for measuring nonsmokers' passive exposure to tobacco smoke in the environment. The standard curve ranged from 0.25 to 12.0 micrograms/L, with an estimated lower limit of sensitivity of 0.2 microgram/L (95% B/Bo = 0.2 microgram/L; 50% B/Bo = 4.0 micrograms/L). The median within-assay CVs for patients' samples with cotinine values from 0.4 to 1.3, 1.4 to 2.4, 2.5 to 4.6, and 4.7 to 15.6 micrograms/L were 13.9%, 7.2%, 5.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. Between-assay CVs for two quality-control sera with average values of 1.53 and 3.68 micrograms/L were 14.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Analytical recoveries of cotinine from smokers' sera diluted in zero calibrant ranged from 91% to 116%. Cotinine values determined on 79 paired sera and urines from nonsmokers showed significant correlation with self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (r = 0.49, P less than 0.001 for sera; r = 0.57, P less than 0.001 for urine). The log of the values for serum and urine cotinine were also significantly correlated (r = 0.85, P less than 0.001). Evidently, polyclonal antiserum can be used to develop a cotinine assay for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that compares well with that described for monoclonal-based assays.

  14. Scientometric analysis and combined density-equalizing mapping of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vitzthum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is estimated to exert a major burden of disease. Currently, numerous countries have taken legal actions to protect the population against ETS. Numerous studies have been conducted in this field. Therefore, scientometric methods should be used to analyze the accumulated data since there is no such approach available so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: A combination of scientometric methods and novel visualizing procedures were used, including density-equalizing mapping and radar charting techniques. 6,580 ETS-related studies published between 1900 and 2008 were identified in the ISI database. Using different scientometric approaches, a continuous increase of both quantitative and qualitative parameters was found. The combination with density-equalizing calculations demonstrated a leading position of the United States (2,959 items published in terms of quantitative research activities. Charting techniques demonstrated that there are numerous bi- and multilateral networks between different countries and institutions in this field. Again, a leading position of American institutions was found. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive scientometric analysis of data on global scientific activities in the field of environmental tobacco smoke research. The present findings can be used as a benchmark for funding allocation processes.

  15. Association between environmental tobacco smoke and periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Bashir Ahmed, Hameeda; Romanos, Georgios E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to systematically review the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and periodontal disease. The addressed focused question was "Is there a relationship between ETS and periodontal disease?" PubMed/MEDLINE and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1987 up to March 2014 using different combinations of the following keywords: "Environmental tobacco smoke", "passive", "periodontal disease", "secondhand" and "smoking". Letters to the Editor, review articles, commentaries, case-reports and articles published in languages other than English were excluded. Thirteen studies were included. Nine studies were clinical and 4 studies were performed in-vitro. Five studies reported the odds ratios for periodontal disease to be significantly higher among individuals exposed to ETS than controls (non-smoking individuals unexposed to ETS). In 2 studies, ETS exposure showed no association with periodontal disease. In 2 studies, salivary aspartate aminotransferase, lactoferrin and albumin levels were reported to be significantly higher in individuals exposed to ETS than controls. In one study, levels of salivary interleukin-1β were reported to be significantly higher in individuals exposed to ETS than controls. The in-vitro studies reported ETS exposure to enhance the production of proinflammatory proteins and phagocytic activity of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes thereby contributing to periodontal disease. The association between ETS and periodontal disease remains debatable and requires further investigations.

  16. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  17. Using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane Appleyard; Duke, Jennifer C; Davis, Kevin C; Kim, Annice E; Nonnemaker, James M; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    This review synthesizes the published literature on using mass media campaigns to reduce youth tobacco use, with particular focus on effects within population subgroups and the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO conducted in March of 2014 yielded 397 studies with 34 suitable for inclusion. Included were quantitative studies that evaluate an antitobacco media campaign intended to influence youth cognitions or behavior or explore the relative effectiveness of campaign characteristics among youth. An automated search and assessment of suitability for inclusion was done. Study outcomes were compared and synthesized. Antitobacco media campaigns can be effective across racial/ethnic populations, although the size of the campaign effect may differ by race/ethnicity. Evidence is insufficient to determine whether campaign outcomes differ by socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. Youth are more likely to recall and think about advertising that includes personal testimonials; a surprising narrative; and intense images, sound, and editing. Evidence in support of using a health consequences message theme is mixed; an industry manipulation theme may be effective in combination with a health consequences message. Research is insufficient to determine whether advertising with a secondhand smoke or social norms theme influences youth tobacco use. Our recommendation is to develop antitobacco campaigns designed to reach all at-risk youth, which can be effective across racial/ethnic populations. Research priorities include assessing campaign influence among lower SES and rural youth, disentangling the effects of message characteristics, and assessing the degree to which this body of evidence may have changed as a result of changes in youth culture and communication technology.

  18. Modeling geographic and demographic variability in residential concentrations of environmental tobacco smoke using national data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, Teresa; Schultz, Bradley; Zartarian, Valerie; Subramanian, S V; Spengler, John; Hammitt, James; Levy, Jonathan I

    2011-01-01

    Despite substantial attention toward environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure, previous studies have not provided adequate information to apply broadly within community-scale risk assessments. We aim to estimate residential concentrations of particulate matter (PM) from ETS in sociodemographic and geographic subpopulations in the United States for the purpose of screening-level risk assessment. We developed regression models to characterize smoking using the 2006-7 Current Population Survey--Tobacco Use Supplement, and linked these with air exchange models using the 2007 American Housing Survey. Using repeated logistic and log-linear models (n = 1000), we investigated whether household variables from the 2000 United States census can predict exposure likelihood and ETS-PM concentration in exposed households. We estimated a mean ETS-PM concentration of 16 μg/m(3) among the 17% of homes with non-zero exposure (3 μg/m(3) overall), with substantial variability among homes. The highest exposure likelihood was in the South and Midwest regions, rural populations, and low-income households. Concentrations in exposed households were highest in the South and demonstrated a non-monotonic association with income, related to air exchange rate patterns. We provide estimates of ETS-PM concentration distributions for different subpopulations in the United States, providing a starting point for communities interested in characterizing aggregate and cumulative risks from indoor pollutants.

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  20. Surveillance methods for identifying, characterizing, and monitoring tobacco products: potential reduced exposure products as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Richard J.; Cummings, K. Michael; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Norton, Kaila J.; Sweanor, David; Parascandola, Mark; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Shields, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco products are widely sold and marketed, yet integrated data systems for identifying, tracking, and characterizing products are lacking. Tobacco manufacturers recently have developed potential reduction exposure products (PREPs) with implied or explicit health claims. Currently, a systematic approach for identifying, defining, and evaluating PREPs sold at the local, state or national levels in the US has not been developed. Identifying, characterizing, and monitoring new tobacco products could be greatly enhanced with a responsive surveillance system. This paper critically reviews available surveillance data sources for identifying and tracking tobacco products, including PREPs, evaluating strengths and weaknesses of potential data sources in light of their reliability and validity. Absent regulations mandating disclosure of product-specific information, it is likely that public health officials will need to rely on a variety of imperfect data sources to help identify, characterize, and monitor tobacco products, including PREPs. PMID:19959680

  1. Reduced tobacco consumption, improved diet and life expectancy for 1988-1998: analysis of New Zealand and OECD data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Murray; Grace, Randolph C

    2017-06-02

    We compared changes in tobacco consumption and diet in relation to changes in life expectancy in 1988-1998 in 22 OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. Between 1985 and 1995 using regression analysis we estimated differences in tobacco consumption per adult and the differences in the sum of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices against life expectancy. Each index was derived from the various fats per gram of food from standard texts, and from the annual measurements of fat in the food balance sheets of each country. In 1985-1995, New Zealand showed the largest decrease in tobacco consumption per adult (41%) and the greatest decrease (except for Switzerland) in the sum of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices (17%) as a measure of diet. New Zealand ranked first for life expectancy increases from 1988-1998 for men (3.2 years), women (2.8 years) and both sexes combined. Regression analyses revealed that increases in life expectancy across the OECD for males, but not females, were strongly associated with decreases in tobacco consumption, with a weaker effect of diet improvement. These results suggest that reduced tobacco consumption in 1985-1995 likely contributed to New Zealand's gains in life expectancy from 1988-1998.

  2. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  3. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on nasal responses to live attenuated influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Published and preliminary data in our laboratory suggest that airborne pollutants including tobacco smoke increase susceptibility of respiratory epithelium to infection with influenza A. However, no studies have specifically looked at the interaction between tobacco s...

  4. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  5. Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children’s Intelligence at 8–11 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Cho, Soo-Churl; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Han, Doug Hyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting a link between postnatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and cognitive problems among children is mounting, but inconsistent. Objectives: We examined the relationship between ETS exposure, measured using urine cotinine, and IQ scores in Korean school-aged children. Methods: The participants were 996 children 8–11 years of age recruited from five administrative regions in South Korea. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of urinary cotinine concentrations and IQ scores obtained using the abbreviated form of a Korean version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, and estimates were derived with and without adjustment for mother’s Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) score. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and developmental covariates, urinary cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with FSIQ, Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), vocabulary, math, and block design scores. Following further adjustment for maternal IQ, only the VIQ scores remained significantly associated with urinary cotinine concentration (B = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.60, –0.03 for a 1-unit increase in natural log-transformed urine cotinine concentration; p = 0.03). Conclusion: Urine cotinine concentrations were inversely associated with children’s VIQ scores before and after adjusting for maternal IQ. Further prospective studies with serial measurements of cotinine are needed to confirm our findings. Citation: Park S, Cho SC, Hong YC, Kim JW, Shin MS, Yoo HJ, Han DH, Cheong JH, Kim BN. 2014. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children’s intelligence at 8–11 years of age. Environ Health Perspect 122:1123–1128; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307088 PMID:24911003

  6. Investigation of the capacitive performance of tobacco solution reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2015-02-01

    A facile and green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using tobacco leaves solution was reported. The benefits of this approach were the use of green and cheap reducing agent as compared to the commercially available toxic and hazardous chemicals. Moreover, the purification of reduced GO (rGO) sheets can be avoided by using naturally occurring reducing agents. The obtained rGO sheets were characterised by Ultra violet visible, Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy analysis. The morphologies were recorded by transmission electron and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis and these showed the formation of a few layer rGO sheets. The electrical conductivity of rGO was found to be ∼410 S m{sup −1} at room temperature. Electrochemical performances were characterised by cyclic voltammetry, charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. A two electrode symmetric supercapacitor device was designed using nickel foam as current collector. The specific capacitance of the two-electrode device reached to 206 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.16 A g{sup −1}. The retention in specific capacitance was found to be ∼112% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene has been prepared by bio-reduction of graphene oxide. • Few layers of graphene has been synthesised as observed by Raman spectra. • Two electrode based supercapacitors are fabricated. • Highest specific capacitance is found to be 206 F g{sup −1}. • Retention in specific capacitance is 112% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles.

  7. Consumer awareness and attitudes related to new potential reduced-exposure tobacco product brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik; O'Connell, Mary E; Marcus, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of potential reduced-exposure tobacco products (PREPs) marketed that claim to be less harmful or less addictive, compared with conventional cigarettes. Tobacco control scientists have raised concerns about the potential adverse impact of marketing of these products for smoking prevention and cessation efforts. Although these products have not been widely used among smokers, there are few data available on consumers' awareness and attitudes toward these products. Data were obtained from the 2003 and 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of adults 18 years and older regarding health communication and associated beliefs and behaviors. Our study population consisted of 6,369 respondents in 2003 and 5,586 respondents in 2005, of whom 19% were current smokers and 28% were former smokers. In 2005, 45% of respondents had heard of at least one PREP product, while only 4.8% had actually tried one. Awareness and use were substantially higher among current smokers (55.6% and 12.7%). Awareness was highest for Marlboro Ultra Smooth (MUS) (30.2%), Eclipse (18.2%), Quest (7.8%), and Ariva (5.4%), while less than 2% for any other product. Of respondents who had tried a PREP, 50% cited harm reduction or assistance in quitting as a reason for trying the product and 30% believed that the product was less harmful than their usual brand. In the combined 2003 and 2005 dataset, 54.4% of current smokers stated that they would be "very" or "somewhat" interested in trying a cigarette advertised as less harmful, while only 3.2% of former smokers and 1.1% of never-smokers were interested. Among current smokers, interest was higher in females and non-Hispanic Whites, and among daily smokers, those who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day and those who were not considering quitting. Smokers interested in PREPs were substantially more likely to rate their perceived lung cancer risk as high (40

  8. ENVIRONMENTALLY REDUCING OF COOLANTS IN METAL CUTTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veijo KAUPPINEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Strained environment is a global problem. In metal industries the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8 - 16 % of the total production costs.The traditional methods that use coolants are now obviously becoming obsolete. Hence, it is clear that using a dry cutting system has great implications for resource preservation and waste reduction. For this purpose, a new cooling system is designed for dry cutting. This paper presents the new eco-friendly cooling innovation and the benefits gained by using this method. The new cooling system relies on a unit for ionising ejected air. In order to compare the performance of using this system, cutting experiments were carried out. A series of tests were performed on a horizontal turning machine and on a horizontal machining centre.

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants accumulating osmolytes show reduced oxidative damage under freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvanova, Daniela; Ivanov, Sergei; Konstantinova, Tatyana; Karanov, Emanuil; Atanassov, Atanas; Tsvetkov, Tsvetan; Alexieva, Vera; Djilianov, Dimitar

    2004-01-01

    We studied the reaction to the oxidative component of freezing in several tobacco lines, transformed with genes coding for enzymes involved in the synthesis of osmoprotectants (proline, fructan or glycine betaine) along with their wild type. The levels of some oxidative stress markers (leakage of electrolytes, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde) as well as the activity of antioxidative enzymes catalase (EC 1.11.1.6.) and guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7.) have been followed at acclimation, 12 and 24 h freezing and at recovery. Freezing for 24 h resulted in severe damages for the wild type. A corresponding increase of electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde contents, a rise of peroxidase activity and inhibition of catalase activity occurred in the non-transformants. Similar, but significantly lower trend of the same parameters has been found for the transgenic lines. Moreover, the oxidative markers returned to their normal levels when the transformants were able to recover from freezing. It could be speculated that transfer of genes, coding for accumulation of osmoprotectants, is related to reduced intensity of freezing-induced oxidative processes. Our lines and model system could serve as a good prerequisite for additional studies to gain further insights into the complex role of osmoprotectants in freezing tolerance.

  10. Hair nicotine concentration measurement in cats and its relationship to owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V A; McBrearty, A R; Watson, D G; Mellor, D J; Spence, S; Knottenbelt, C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between hair nicotine concentration in cats and owner-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Owner questionnaires documented exposure. Nicotine was extracted from hair by sonification in methanol followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with mass spectrometry. Relationships between hair nicotine concentration and owner-reported exposure were examined using hypothesis-testing statistics and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The hair nicotine concentration of reportedly exposed cats was significantly higher than unexposed cats and groups of cats with different levels of exposure had significantly different median hair nicotine concentrations corresponding to exposure. A hair nicotine concentration of 0·1 ng/mg had a specificity of 98% (95% confidence interval: 83 to 100) and a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval: 54 to 84) for detecting environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Outdoors access, coat colour, urban or rural environment and length of time living with the owner were not obviously associated with hair nicotine concentration. Feline hair nicotine concentration appears strongly associated with owner-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Feline hair nicotine concentration could therefore be used as a biomarker for tobacco smoke exposure, allowing future studies to assess whether exposed cats have an increased risk of specific diseases. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  11. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-03-16

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  12. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Patricia Fabian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC systems, stack effect. In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls, resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans, and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing.

  13. Modeling Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Infiltration in Low-Income Multifamily Housing before and after Building Energy Retrofits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Maria Patricia; Lee, Sharon Kitman; Underhill, Lindsay Jean; Vermeer, Kimberly; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Levy, Jonathan Ian

    2016-01-01

    Secondhand exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in multifamily housing remains a health concern despite strong recommendations to implement non-smoking policies. Multiple studies have documented exposure to ETS in non-smoking units located in buildings with smoking units. However, characterizing the magnitude of ETS infiltration or measuring the impact of building interventions or resident behavior on ETS is challenging due to the complexities of multifamily buildings, which include variable resident behaviors and complex airflows between numerous shared compartments (e.g., adjacent apartments, common hallways, elevators, heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, stack effect). In this study, building simulation models were used to characterize changes in ETS infiltration in a low income, multifamily apartment building in Boston which underwent extensive building renovations targeting energy savings. Results suggest that exterior wall air sealing can lead to increases in ETS infiltration across apartments, while compartmentalization can reduce infiltration. The magnitude and direction of ETS infiltration depends on apartment characteristics, including construction (i.e., level and number of exterior walls), resident behavior (e.g., window opening, operation of localized exhaust fans), and seasonality. Although overall ETS concentrations and infiltration were reduced post energy-related building retrofits, these trends were not generalizable to all building units. Whole building smoke-free policies are the best approach to eliminate exposure to ETS in multifamily housing. PMID:26999174

  14. A Prototypical First-Generation Electronic Cigarette Does Not Reduce Reports of Tobacco Urges or Withdrawal Symptoms among Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arit M. Harvanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether first-generation electronic cigarettes reduce smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms following a 24 h deprivation period. This study tested whether a first-generation electronic cigarette reduces smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms in cigarette smokers. Following 24 h of tobacco deprivation, using a within-subjects design, eight nontreatment seeking tobacco cigarette smokers (3 females administered 10 puffs from a conventional cigarette or a first-generation electronic cigarette containing liquid with 0, 8 or 16 mg/ml nicotine. Conventional cigarettes ameliorated smoking urges and electronic cigarettes did not, regardless of nicotine concentration. First-generation electronic cigarettes may not effectively substitute for conventional cigarettes in reducing smoking urges, regardless of nicotine concentration.

  15. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  16. Nicotine dependence as a mediator of Project EX’s effects to reduce tobacco use in scholars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María T Gonzálvez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, 44% of 14-18-year-olds have smoked, and 12.5% have smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances, and can lead to serious addiction in adulthood with adverse consequences to one’s health. School plays a relevant role in health promotion and preventing risk behaviors such as tobacco consumption. Despite the fact that some school-based tobacco cessation and prevention interventions prove to be effective for their purposes, there is a lack of understanding as to why these programs succeed or fail. This longitudinal study aims to test the nicotine dependence (ND as a mediator of Project EX’s effect – a tobacco-use cessation program developed for high school youth to reduce tobacco consumption in scholars. Six high schools located in the Mediterranean coast were randomized for the participation of the program (Spanish version of Project EX or a waiting-list group with baseline, immediate-posttest, and 12-month follow-up assessments. At baseline, 1,546 adolescents aged 14-21 years old (mean age: 15.28; SD = 1.20; 46% were women were evaluated by self-administered tests on tobacco consumption and nicotine dependence. A biomarker of smoke inhalation – a measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (ECM – was used. Participants who were smokers (N= 501; 32% were selected for this study. Mediation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS v2.12 macro for Windows. The significant criterion was p ≤.05, and 5,000 samples were used for bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals. Results indicated that Project EX indirectly decreased the number of cigarettes smoked in the last month, the number of cigarettes smoked within the last 7 days, the number of daily cigarettes, and ECM level at 12-month follow up through decreasing the level of ND in the short-term. This is the first Spanish study that explores ND as a mediator of the long-term efficacy of Project EX to reduce tobacco consumption in

  17. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastang, Julie; Baïz, Nour; Cadwallader, Jean Sébastien; Cadwalladder, Jean Sébastien; Robert, Sarah; Dywer, John L; Dywer, John; Charpin, Denis André; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frédéric; Raherison, Chantal; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren. In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems) were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the parents. ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)= 1.36-2.17), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems) were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50), whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84) in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood. Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  18. Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Related to Behavioral Problems in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Chastang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre and post environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and behavioral problems in schoolchildren.In the cross-sectional 6 cities Study conducted in France, 5221 primary school children were investigated. Pre- and postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke at home was assessed using a parent questionnaire. Child's behavioral outcomes (emotional symptoms and conduct problems were evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the parents.ETS exposure during the postnatal period and during both pre- and postnatal periods was associated with behavioral problems in children. Abnormal emotional symptoms (internalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI= 1.36-2.17, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.38 (95% CI= 1.12-1.69 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Abnormal conduct problems (externalizing problems were related to ETS exposure in children who were exposed during the pre- and postnatal periods with an OR of 1.94 (95% CI= 1.51-2.50, whereas the OR was estimated to be 1.47 (95% CI=1.17-1.84 in the case of postnatal exposure only. Effect estimates were adjusted for gender, study center, ethnic origin, child age, low parental education, current physician diagnosed asthma, siblings, preterm birth and single parenthood.Postnatal ETS exposure, alone or in association with prenatal exposure, increases the risk of behavioral problems in school-age children.

  19. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  20. Interindividual differences in hair uptake of air nicotine and significance of cigarette counting for estimation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlsen, K; Nilsen, T; Nilsen, O G

    1996-10-01

    Hair from 80 male subjects, smokers and non-smokers, was exposed continuously in a dynamic exposure chamber to constant nicotine vapour concentrations of 20, 200 or 2000 micrograms/m3 for 72 hr. Subgroups of high and low nicotine adsorbing hair were also exposed intermittantly to environmental tobacco smoke for 8 months. Air and hair concentrations of nicotine were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chamber experiments demonstrated a hair nicotine uptake which followed a second order relation to the applied concentrations of nicotine, y = -0.00018x2 + 0.715x + 1.13, r2 = 0.99999. The function and the experimental points showed linearity up to an air nicotine vapour concentration of about 200 micrograms/m+, covering the most relevant range of environmental exposure. An approximately 7- and 2-fold interindividual variation was observed in the hair uptake rate constant of nicotine vapour for the investigated material within the 10 to 90 and 25 to 75% percentiles, respectively. The factors causing this variation were not identified. It was shown that subject age, hair diameter and hair content of eumelanin were without correlation to the rate constants of hair nicotine uptake. The exposure of subgroups of hair to environmental tobacco smoke showed similar uptake profiles of nicotine as that experienced with exposure to pure nicotine vapour, supporting the relevance of controlled chamber nicotine vapour exposures as a relevant tool for the evaluation of hair nicotine uptake from a more complex environmental situation. Standardized measurements of air nicotine vapour and particulate concentrations in a modern office during 3 hr periodical smoking periods, showed that the number of cigarettes smoked was a poor indicator for the estimation of individual exposure to environmental tobacco smoke constituents. Hair nicotine measurements so far seem to be superior to other suggested methodologies for estimation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure, but

  1. Implementation strategy to reduce environmental impact of energy related activities in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 UNEP-Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UNEP-CCEE), Denmark and Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE), Zimbabwe, prepared a country report for Zimbabwe on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Abatement Costing. Abatement technologies for both supply and demand side were identified in order to reduce GHG emission. The present study addresses environmental impacts of the entire energy cycle focusing on coal use in industry and power generation. Zimbabwe has proven coal reserves of more than 700 million tonnes, and the potential of geological coal resources is estimated beyond 30 billion tonnes. The conventional applications of coal include electricity generation, steam traction in railway transport, industrial boilers, tobacco curing and coking. As coal is the major source of energy for Zimbabwe, the present study aims at identification of environmental impacts of the entire coal cycle from mining to end-users of electrical energy. (EG)

  2. Increased Burden of Respiratory Disease in the First Six Months of Life Due to Prenatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Krakow Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Galas, Alek Sander; Flak, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Penar, Agnieszka; Spengler, John; Perera, Frederica P.

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of our study was to assess the effects of prenatal tobacco smoke on respiratory symptoms and on doctor consultations in a birth cohort of 445 infants who had no smoking mothers and who had no postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Before and after delivery, questionnaires and interviews with mothers were…

  3. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  4. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence in California: results from the California tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Remer, Lillian; Compton, Christine

    2007-07-01

    Tobacco control policies are examined utilizing a simulation model for California, the state with the longest running comprehensive program. We assess the impact of the California Tobacco Control Program (CTCP) and surrounding price changes on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Modeling begins in 1988 and progresses chronologically to 2004, and considers four types of policies (taxes, mass media, clean air laws, and youth access policies) independently and as a package. The model is validated against existing smoking prevalence estimates. The difference in trends between predicted smoking rates from the model and other commonly used estimates of smoking prevalence for the overall period were generally small. The model also predicted some important changes in trend, which occurred with changes in policy. The California SimSmoke model estimates that tobacco control policies reduced smoking rates in California by an additional 25% relative to the level that they would have been if policies were kept at their 1988 level. By 2004, the model attributes 59% of the reduction to price increases, 28% of the overall effect to media policies, 11% to clean air laws, and only a small percent to youth access policies. The model estimates that over 5000 lives will be saved in the year 2010 alone as a result of the CTCP and industry-initiated price increases, and that over 50,000 lives were saved over the period 1988-2010. Tobacco control policies implemented as comprehensive tobacco control strategies have significantly impacted smoking rates. Further tax increases should lead to additional lives saved, and additional policies may result in further impacts on smoking rates, and consequently on smoking-attributable health outcomes in the population.

  5. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  6. Reducing environmental impact of dairy cattle: A Czech case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havlikova, M.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze options to reduce the future environmental impact of dairy cattle production, using an optimization model (DAIRY) applied to the Czech Republic. The DAIRY model can be used to calculate the overall environmental impact (OEI). We show that aquatic eutrophication and global warming are the

  7. How many deaths will it take? A death from asthma associated with work-related environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Martha; Chester, Debra; Hanna, Elizabeth A; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2008-02-01

    Despite epidemiologic, experimental and observational data on the association of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and adverse health effects, bar and restaurant workers remain exposed to ETS in the majority of states and countries. Three public health surveillance systems were used to identify and conduct a follow-up investigation of a reported acute asthma death of a young waitress in a bar. The waitress collapsed at the bar where she worked and was declared dead shortly thereafter. Evaluation of the circumstances of her death and her medical history concluded that her death was from acute asthma due to environmental tobacco smoke at work. This is the first reported acute asthma death associated with work-related ETS. Recent studies of asthma among bar and restaurant workers before and after smoking bans support this association. This death dramatizes the need to enact legal protections for workers in the hospitality industry from secondhand smoke.

  8. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  9. Correlation between Odor Concentration and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Composition of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Miyuki; Tanaka, Saya; Watanabe, Kaede; Yamasaki, Akihiro

    2016-10-09

    We examined the correlation between the odor concentration and the chemical composition of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Three types of ETS samples were prepared: secondhand smoke (SHS), thirdhand smoke (THS), and field ETS samples from an outside smoking area. The odor concentrations of the ETS, SHS, and THS samples were determined by the triangle-odor-bag method, and the chemical compositions were determined by proton transfer mass spectrometry. The odor concentration of the SHS samples was three or four orders of magnitude higher than that of the field ETS samples, and three orders of magnitude higher than that of the THS samples. The concentration ratios of the constituent chemicals in THS to those in SHS were about 10(-4), corresponding to the ratio of the odor concentration. The concentration ratios of the constituent chemicals in the field ETS samples were much lower than the ratios of the odor concentrations. This suggests that the main contributing components to the odor of the field ETS samples are different from those in SHS and THS. The main contributors of the odor in the field ETS samples could be acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, acetic acid, and other unknown components with a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 39 and 43.

  10. Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke in relation to asthma severity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy A A Comhair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has adverse effects on the health of asthmatics, however the harmful consequences of ETS in relation to asthma severity are unknown. METHODS: In a multicenter study of severe asthma, we assessed the impact of ETS exposure on morbidity, health care utilization and lung functions; and activity of systemic superoxide dismutase (SOD, a potential oxidative target of ETS that is negatively associated with asthma severity. FINDINGS: From 2002-2006, 654 asthmatics (non-severe 366, severe 288 were enrolled, among whom 109 non-severe and 67 severe asthmatics were routinely exposed to ETS as ascertained by history and validated by urine cotinine levels. ETS-exposure was associated with lower quality of life scores; greater rescue inhaler use; lower lung function; greater bronchodilator responsiveness; and greater risk for emergency room visits, hospitalization and intensive care unit admission. ETS-exposure was associated with lower levels of serum SOD activity, particularly in asthmatic women of African heritage. INTERPRETATION: ETS-exposure of asthmatic individuals is associated with worse lung function, higher acuity of exacerbations, more health care utilization, and greater bronchial hyperreactivity. The association of diminished systemic SOD activity to ETS exposure provides for the first time a specific oxidant mechanism by which ETS may adversely affect patients with asthma.

  11. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure, urine CC-16 levels, and asthma outcomes among Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-N; Qian, Z; Wang, J; Rodemich, E; Lee, Y L; Lv, X-F; Liu, Y-Q; Zhao, Y; Huang, M-M; Liu, Y; Sun, J; He, Q-C; Dong, G-H

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have shown the relationship between club cell secretory protein (Clara) (CC-16) and respiratory diseases. However, few studies have explored the associations between urine CC-16 levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether ETS exposure is associated with CC-16 when stratified by asthma status. In our study, CC-16 was measured on 537 children aged 9-15 from northeast China in 2011-2012 using the Human Clara Cell Protein ELISA kits. Doctor-diagnosed asthma was defined as having ever been diagnosed with asthma by a physician. The relationship between ETS exposure and urine CC-16 level was assessed using linear regression. When stratified by asthma status, a negative association between ETS exposure and urine CC-16 was observed after adjusting for the effects of the related covariates, with an adjusted β coefficient [P value] = -0.31 [0.006] in the first 2 years of life and with an adjusted β coefficient [P value] = -0.68 [0.004] in the first 2 years of life and current. Our study shows long-term exposure to ETS was associated with urinary CC-16 among children without asthma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inhibition of HMGB1 Translocation by Green Tea Extract in Rats Exposed to Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirintip Chaichalotornkul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is linked to carcinogenic, oxidative and inflammatory cellular reactions. Green tea polyphenol reportedly plays a role in the prevention of inflammation-related diseases. To evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE on cellular location of High Mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1 protein, we studied the lung tissue in rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS. Rats were divided into three groups; CS, CSG, and C, which were groups of CS-treated only, CS-treated with GTE dietary supplement, and the control, respectively. Our findings by immunocytochemistry showed that abundant HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the lung tissues of rats that were exposed to CS, whereas HMGB1 was localized to the nuclei of CSG and C group. For in vitro studies, cotinine stimulated the secretion of HMGB1 in a dose and time dependent manner and the HMGB1 level was suppressed by GTE in murine macrophage cell lines. Our results could suggest that GTE supplementation which could suppress HMGB1 may offer a beneficial effect against diseases.

  13. Do Fines for Violating Possession-Use-Purchase Laws Reduce Youth Tobacco Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven B.; Adams, Monica; Hunt, Yvonne; Gadiraju, Praveena; Schoeny, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The present brief report followed children exposed to consequences for violating Purchase, Use, and Possession (PUP) laws over time to assess changes in their smoking status. Youth in 24 towns were surveyed once a year for 3 years, and rates of tobacco use for those fined for PUP law violations were assessed. Of those who were given a ticket for a…

  14. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  15. The role of environmental tobacco exposure and Helicobacter pylori infection in the risk of chronic tonsillitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li'e, Chen; Juan, Che; Dongying, Jiang; Guiling, Feng; Tihua, Zheng; Yanfei, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a chronic infectious pathogen with high prevalence. This study investigated the interaction between environmental tobacco exposure and H. pylori infection on the incidence of chronic tonsillitis in Chinese children. Cross-sectional study performed in an outpatient clinic in China. Pediatric patients with chronic tonsillitis were enrolled. H. pylori infection was determined according to the presence of H. pylori CagA IgG antibodies. Serum cotinine levels and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure were determined for all participants. There was no significant difference in H. pylori infection between the children with chronic tonsillitis and children free of disease, but there was a significant difference in ETS between the two groups (P = 0.011). We next studied the association between ETS and chronic tonsillitis based on H. pylori infection status. In the patients with H. pylori infection, there was a significant difference in ETS distribution between the chronic tonsillitis and control groups (P = 0.022). Taking the participants without ETS as the reference, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with high ETS had higher susceptibility to chronic tonsillitis (adjusted OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.67-3.25; adjusted P chronic tonsillitis. Our findings suggest that tobacco exposure should be a putative mediator risk factor to chronic tonsillitis among children with H. pylori infection.

  16. Inactivation of two newly identified tobacco heavy metal ATPases leads to reduced Zn and Cd accumulation in shoots and reduced pollen germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermand, Victor; Julio, Emilie; Dorlhac de Borne, François; Punshon, Tracy; Ricachenevsky, Felipe K; Bellec, Arnaud; Gosti, Françoise; Berthomieu, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal, which is classified as a “known human carcinogen” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Understanding the mechanisms controlling Cd distribution in planta is essential to develop phytoremediation approaches as well as for food safety. Unlike most other plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants translocate most of the Cd taken up from the soil, out of the roots and into the shoots, leading to high Cd accumulation in tobacco shoots. Two orthologs to the Arabidopsis thaliana HMA2 and HMA4 Zn and Cd ATPases that are responsible for zinc (Zn) and Cd translocation from roots to shoots were identified in tobacco and sequenced. These genes, named NtHMAα and NtHMAβ, were more highly expressed in roots than in shoots. NtHMAα was expressed in the vascular tissues of both roots and leaves as well as in anthers. No visual difference was observed between wild-type plants and plants in which the NtHMAα and NtHMAβ genes were either mutated or silenced. These mutants showed reduced Zn and Cd accumulation in shoots as well as increased Cd tolerance. When both NtHMA genes were silenced, plant development was altered and pollen germination was severely impaired due to Zn deficiency. Interestingly, seeds from these lines also showed decreased Zn concentration but increased iron (Fe) concentration. PMID:24760325

  17. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  18. Cotinine versus questionnaire: early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure and incident asthma

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    Carlsten Chris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of biomarkers has expanded considerably, as an alternative to questionnaire-based metrics of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS; few studies have assessed the affect of such alternative metrics on diverse respiratory outcomes in children, and we aimed to do so. Methods We evaluated various measures of birth-year ETS, in association with multiple respiratory endpoints early years of life, in the novel context of a birth cohort at high risk for asthma. We administered questionnaires to parents, both at the end of pregnancy and at one year of life, and measured cotinine in cord blood (CCot; in 275 children and in urine (UCot; obtained at 12 months in 365 children, each by radioimmunoassay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of the various metrics with recurrent wheeze at age 2 and with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR and asthma at age 7. Results Self-reported 3rd trimester maternal smoking was associated with significantly increased risk for recurrent wheeze at age 2 (odds ratio 3.5 [95% confidence interval = 1.2,10.7]; the risks associated with CCot and 3rd trimester smoking in any family member were similar (OR 2.9 [1.2,7.0] and 2.6 [1.0,6.5], respectively. No metric of maternal smoking at 12 months appeared to significantly influence the risk of recurrent wheeze at age 2, and no metric of ETS at any time appeared to significantly influence risk of asthma or BHR at age 7. Conclusions Biomarker- and questionnaire-based assessment of ETS in early life lead to similar estimates of ETS-associated risk of recurrent wheeze and asthma.

  19. Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Apte, Michael G.; Gundel, Lara A.; Sextro, Richard G.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-07-07

    Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides--in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors--estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange-rate 20 m{sup 3} chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes.

  20. Occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a study in Lisbon restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Aguiar, Fátima; Ruivo, Patrícia; Proença, Maria Carmo; Sekera, Michael; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2012-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), also referred to as secondhand smoke (SHS), is a major threat to public health and is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the hospitality industry. Therefore, several countries have implemented smoke-free regulations at hospitality industry sites. In Portugal, since 2008, legislation partially banned smoking in restaurants and bars but until now no data have been made available on levels of indoor ETS pollution/exposure at these locations. The aim of this study was to examine the occupational exposure to ETS/SHS in several restaurants in Lisbon, measured by indoor fine particles (PM(2.5)) and urinary cotinine concentration in workers, after the partial smoking ban in Portugal. Results showed that the PM(2.5) median level in smoking designated areas was 253 μg/m³, eightfold higher than levels recorded in canteens or outdoor. The nonsmoking rooms of mixed restaurants exhibited PM(2.5) median level of 88 μg/m³, which is higher than all smoke-free locations studied, approximately threefold greater than those found in canteens. Importantly, urinary cotinine concentrations were significantly higher in nonsmoker employees working in those smoking designated areas, confirming exposure to ETS. The proportion of smokers in those rooms was found to be significantly positively correlated with nonsmoker urinary cotinine and indoor PM(2.5) levels, establishing that both markers were occupational-ETS derived. The use of reinforced ventilation systems seemed not to be sufficient to decrease the observed ETS pollution/exposure in those smoking locations. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the partial restrictions on smoking in Portuguese venues failed to provide adequate protection to their employees, irrespective of protective measures used. Therefore, a smoke-free legislation protecting individuals from exposure to ETS/SHS in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed in Portugal.

  1. Household environmental tobacco smoke and risks of asthma, wheeze and bronchitic symptoms among children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bing-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies show that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risks of respiratory outcomes in childhood, evidence concerning the effects of household environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure remains inconsistent. Methods We conducted a population-based study comprised of 5,019 seventh and eighth-grade children in 14 Taiwanese communities. Questionnaire responses by parents were used to ascertain children's exposure and disease status. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the effects of ETS exposures on the prevalence of asthma, wheeze, and bronchitic symptoms. Results The lifetime prevalence of wheeze was 11.6% and physician-diagnosed asthma was 7.5% in our population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in utero exposure showed the strongest effect on all respiratory outcomes. Current household ETS exposure was significantly associated with increased prevalence of active asthma, ever wheeze, wheeze with nighttime awakening, and bronchitis. Maternal smoking was associated with the increased prevalence of a wide range of wheeze subcategories, serious asthma, and chronic cough, but paternal smoking had no significant effects. Although maternal smoking alone and paternal smoking alone were not independently associated with respiratory outcomes, joint exposure appeared to increase the effects. Furthermore, joint exposure to parental smoking showed a significant effect on early-onset asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.00-4.02, but did not show a significant effect on late-onset asthma (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.36-3.87. Conclusion We concluded that prenatal and household ETS exposure had significant adverse effects on respiratory health in Taiwanese children.

  2. Environmental tobacco exposure is associated with vaccine modified measles in junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shuichi; Sato, Kazuki; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nezu, Yoko; Nishimuta, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine modified measles (VMM) affects individuals with attenuated vaccine induced immunity. An outbreak of measles occurred in a junior high school, starting from an unvaccinated eighth-grade student who developed natural measles and affected a majority of students who were immunized with a low potent strain of measles vaccine (TD97). To determine whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure was associated with the development of VMM in this population, a questionnaire was used asking whether students had VMM symptoms during the outbreak and the smoking status of family members. VMM was defined in the study population as occurrence of fever and/or erythema, along with documented history of measles vaccination. A total of 513 students (85.9%) responded. Overall, the presence of in-house smokers did not differ between VMM students (49.3%) and non-VMM students (50.2%). However, in the ninth grade, presence of an in-house smoker was significantly higher in the family of VMM students (54.0%) than in non-VMM students (36.6%) (P = 0.044). Urinary cotinine levels were also measured in selected students (n = 37). Among families with at least one smoker, urinary cotinine levels were significantly higher in VMM students than in non-VMM students (P = 0.032). Furthermore, a multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that a high urinary cotinine level (>10 ng/mg creatinine; 13.5 percentile) was associated with the development of VMM. Our findings suggest that a high level of ETS exposure may be associated with an increased risk of VMM in a population with attenuated vaccine induced immunity against measles.

  3. Mobile phone text messaging to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Severin Haug Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction at Zurich University, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are major causes of the disease burden in most countries of the world. Mobile phone text messaging is very popular among adolescents and young adults and has the potential to deliver individualized information to large population groups at low costs. Objective: To provide a narrative review on studies testing the appropriateness and effectiveness of text messaging-based programs to reduce alcohol and tobacco use in young people. Results: Two published studies on text message-based programs for the reduction of problem drinking and two studies on programs for enhancing smoking cessation were identified. A US-American pilot experimental study tested the feasibility and initial efficacy of a text messaging-based assessment and brief intervention among young adults identified during their emergency department visit with hazardous drinking. It demonstrated the feasibility of the text messaging-based program to collect drinking data in young adults after emergency department discharge. A Swiss pre–post study tested the appropriateness and initial effectiveness of a combined, individually tailored web- and text messaging (SMS-based program to reduce problem drinking in vocational school students. It provided evidence for the appropriateness of the intervention and initial evidence for its efficacy to reduce problem drinking. One of the two studies addressing smoking cessation was a US-American pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited via online advertisements and received text messages tailored according to their quitting stage. The intervention significantly affected self-reported quitting rates at 4 weeks but not at 3 months after the quit date. Within a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted in Switzerland, smoking students were proactively recruited within vocational

  4. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  5. Lived experiences of reducing environmental risks in an environmental justice community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dory

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental risks cause physical and psychological distresses to individuals who live in environmental justice (EJ communities and significantly affect their perception of wellbeing. Little is known about how these individuals perceive and manage to reduce environmental risks. The study utilizes a phenomenological approach to explore and describe these individuals' perceived environmental risk and their experience of reducing such risks. A qualitative and longitudinal design with a descriptive phenomenological method was used to recruit 23 participants living in a known EJ community in the Ironbound, New Jersey. A total of 43 indepth interviews were completed, audio recorded, and transcribed. Interview transcripts and field notes were the data sources. Data was analyzed to identify the essential structure of their experience. Participants described their awareness and perception of environmental risks in their community and the strategies they purposively assumed to protect themselves. Three essential intentional risk reduction strategies undertaken by the participants were: reducing personal exposure to environmental hazards, trying to work with the community to improve environmental conditions, and taking individual action to improve the community. The environmental risks perceived by participants tended to be small and insignificant in scale and local in space, but directly affect their wellbeing. To enhance individuals' intentional risk reduction strategies and optimize the living experiences in EJ communities, future research and policy making should focus on comprehensive strategies that incorporate individuals' perceptions and intentional strategies to develop community specific environmental policy and action plans.

  6. Environmental pollen trapped by tobacco leaf as indicators of the provenance of counterfeit cigarette products: a preliminary investigation and test of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Margaret P; Stephens, William E

    2010-05-01

    The global trade in counterfeit tobacco products is increasingly taking market share from legal brands in many parts of the developed world, with attendant adverse economic, health, criminal, and other societal impacts. Knowing the geographical source is central to developing new strategies for curbing this illicit trade, and here, the potential of environmental pollen extracted from manufactured cigarettes is examined. Two samples representing U.S. and Chinese brands were investigated for their pollen content. Results indicate that tobacco leaf very efficiently captures environmental pollen (about 1800 and 12,600 grains per cigarette, respectively) with no detectable self-contamination by the tobacco plant. In both cases, the flora is typical of open space environments, but pollen type counts indicate very different distributions of species. This preliminary investigation indicates that palynology has the potential to constrain geographical source(s) of tobacco, particularly if regionally localized species can be recognized among the pollen.

  7. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don’t sell tobacco to kids. Frequent restaurants and other places that are tobacco-free. Be ... reduces the oxygen available for muscles used in sports. Smokers suffer from shortness of breath almost 3 ...

  8. EUREST PLUS - European Regulatory Science on Tobacco: Policy implementation to reduce lung diseases - Proposal (Horizon2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available EUREST-PLUS, a thirteen –partner EU joint proposal, coordinated by ENSP (Coordinator: Constantine Vardavas, aims to monitor and evaluate the impact of the TPD at an EU level. The specific objectives of the proposal are: 1. To evaluate the psychosocial and behavioural impact of TPD implementation and FCTC implementation, through the creation of a longitudinal cohort of adult smokers in 6 EU MS (Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Spain in a pre- vs. post- study design. 2. To assess support for TPD implementation through secondary dataset analyses of the 2015 Special Eurobarometer on Tobacco Survey (SETS, and through trend analyses on the merged datasets of the 2009, 2012 and2015 SETS datasets. 3. To document changes in e-cigarette product parameters (technical design, labelling, packaging and chemical composition following implementation of Article 20 of the TPD. 4. To enhance innovative joint research collaborations, through the pooling and comparisons across both other EU countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC Project, and other non-EU countries.

  9. Perinatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS Enhances Susceptibility to Viral and Secondary Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn A. Claude

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggest childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS leads to increased incidence of infections of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this study was to determine whether perinatal exposure to ETS increases the incidence, morbidity and severity of respiratory influenza infection and whether a secondary bacterial challenge at the peak of a pre-existing viral infection creates an enhanced host-pathogen susceptibility to an opportunistic infection. Timed-pregnant female Balb/c mice were exposed to either ETS for 6 h/day, 7 d/week beginning on gestation day 14 and continuing with the neonates to 6 weeks of age. Control animals were exposed to filtered air (FA. At the end of exposure, mice were intranasally inoculated with a murine-adapted influenza A. One week later, an intranasal inoculation of S. aureus bacteria was administered. The respective treatment groups were: bacteria only, virus only or virus+bacteria for both FA and ETS-exposed animals for a total of six treatment groups. Animal behavior and body weights were documented daily following infection. Mice were necropsied 1-day post-bacterial infection. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell analysis demonstrated perinatal exposure to ETS, compared to FA, leads to delayed but enhanced clinical symptoms and enhanced total cell influx into the lungs associated with viral infection followed by bacterial challenge. Viral infection significantly increases the number of neutrophils entering the lungs following bacterial challenge with either FA or ETS exposure, while the influx of lymphocytes and monocytes is significantly enhanced only by perinatal ETS exposure. There is a significant increase in peribronchiolar inflammation following viral infection in pups exposed to ETS compared with pups exposed to FA, but no change is noted in the degree of lung injury between FA and ETS-exposed animals following bacterial challenge. The data suggests perinatal exposure to ETS

  10. Engineered tobacco and microalgae secreting the fungal laccase POXA1b reduce phenol content in olive oil mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaiese, Pasquale; Palomba, Francesca; Tatino, Filippo; Lanzillo, Carmine; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Filippone, Edgardo

    2011-12-10

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWs) are characterised by low pH and a high content of mono- and polyaromatic compounds that exert microbial and phytotoxic activity. The laccase cDNA of the poxA1b gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying a signal peptide sequence for enzyme secretion and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector. Nuclear genetic transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cv Samsun NN leaves and cells of five different microalgae accessions belonging to the genera Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Ankistrodesmus. Transgenic plants and microalgae were able to express and secrete the recombinant laccase in the root exudates and the culture medium, respectively. In comparison to untransformed controls, the ability to reduce phenol content in OMW solution was enhanced up to 2.8-fold in transgenic tobacco lines and by up to about 40% in two microalgae accessions. The present work provides new evidence for metabolic improvement of green organisms through the transgenic approach to remediation.

  11. Aerosol from Tobacco Heating System 2.2 has reduced impact on mouse heart gene expression compared with cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Justyna; Boué, Stéphanie; Talikka, Marja; Guedj, Emmanuel; Martin, Florian; Phillips, Blaine; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Experimental studies clearly demonstrate a causal effect of cigarette smoking on cardiovascular disease. To reduce the individual risk and population harm caused by smoking, alternative products to cigarettes are being developed. We recently reported on an apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mouse inhalation study that compared the effects of exposure to aerosol from a candidate modified risk tobacco product, Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), and smoke from the reference cigarette (3R4F) on pulmonary and vascular biology. Here, we applied a transcriptomics approach to evaluate the impact of the exposure to 3R4F smoke and THS2.2 aerosol on heart tissues from the same cohort of mice. The systems response profiles demonstrated that 3R4F smoke exposure led to time-dependent transcriptomics changes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) < 0.05; 44 differentially expressed genes at 3-months; 491 at 8-months). Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the heart tissue indicated that 3R4F exposure induced the downregulation of genes involved in cytoskeleton organization and the contractile function of the heart, notably genes that encode beta actin (Actb), actinin alpha 4 (Actn4), and filamin C (Flnc). This was accompanied by the downregulation of genes related to the inflammatory response. None of these effects were observed in the group exposed to THS2.2 aerosol. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing the local environmental impacts of passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maentynen, J.; Kalenoja, H.; Maekelae, S. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Inst. of Transportation Engineering

    1995-12-31

    The local injurious effects of traffic appear mostly in densely populated areas, where the demand for transport is high. The local environmental effects of transportation can be reduced by measures of urban planning, traffic planning, vehicle technology and economical restrictions. Land use planning, concentration of urban structure and promoting distance working are examples of expedients of urban planning. The methods of urban planning usually affect very slowly on transport structure, but they also have a significant and continuous influence on travel demand. The methods of traffic planning generally tend to increase the fluency of traffic flow or reduce private car traffic with diverse restrictions by supporting environmentally more favourable vehicles or modes of travel. The improvements in vehicle technology can be significant in the short run. By economical regulations it is possible to guide the demand for traffic to a desirable direction. The local injurious effects of traffic vary by the size of urban areas. Local conditions, such as urban structure, population density, structure of employment, and composition of transport structure, influence on travel pattern and modal split. In Tampere University of Technology several measures to reduce environmental effects and energy consumption of transportation has been evaluated. This article presents three types of categories. As technological measures the introduction of electric vehicles and the alternative bus fuels have been studied. In addition, the effects of introducing midibuses, the car pool system and the increasing of vehicle occupancy have been evaluated as measures, which generally increase transportation system efficiency. (author)

  13. Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Linzer, J; Kropp, R; Descheemaeker, N; Feighery, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

  14. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  15. Transgenic and mutation-based suppression of a berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family reduces alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramsey S; Lopez, Harry O; Bowen, Steve W; Andres, Karen R; Steede, William T; Dewey, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    Motivation exists to develop tobacco cultivars with reduced nicotine content for the purpose of facilitating compliance with expected tobacco product regulations that could mandate the lowering of nicotine levels per se, or the reduction of carcinogenic alkaloid-derived tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). A berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBL) gene family was recently characterized for N. tabacum and found to catalyze one of the final steps in pyridine alkaloid synthesis for this species. Because this gene family acts downstream in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway, it may represent an attractive target for genetic strategies with the objective of reducing alkaloid content in field-grown tobacco. In this research, we produced transgenic doubled haploid lines of tobacco cultivar K326 carrying an RNAi construct designed to reduce expression of the BBL gene family. Field-grown transgenic lines carrying functional RNAi constructs exhibited average cured leaf nicotine levels of 0.684%, in comparison to 2.454% for the untransformed control. Since numerous barriers would need to be overcome to commercialize transgenic tobacco cultivars, we subsequently pursued a mutation breeding approach to identify EMS-induced mutations in the three most highly expressed isoforms of the BBL gene family. Field evaluation of individuals possessing different homozygous combinations of truncation mutations in BBLa, BBLb, and BBLc indicated that a range of alkaloid phenotypes could be produced, with the triple homozygous knockout genotype exhibiting greater than a 13-fold reduction in percent total alkaloids. The novel source of genetic variability described here may be useful in future tobacco breeding for varied alkaloid levels.

  16. Personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in workplace and away from work settings: A 16 city case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W.; Guerin, M.R.; Dindal, A.B.; Bayne, C.K.

    1995-08-01

    A large study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air are collected, and subsequently analyzed for both particle phase and gas phase markers of ETS, including respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP), UV-absorbing and fluorescing particulate matter, solanesol, nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and myosmine. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status may be determined using salivary cotinine. Participants are segregated into a 2{times}2 factorial study design: smoking and non-smoking homes and workplaces. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the United States indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. The data indicates that median 8-hour or 16-hour exposure levels are considerably lower than those which would be extrapolated from short duration area measurements. Median exposure levels of nicotine, 3-ethenyl pyridine, and RSP were 0.034, 0.029, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} respectively in non-smoking workplaces, vs. 0.21, 0.16, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in workplaces where smoking was observed. Median 16-hour exposure levels for these same components away from work where subjects observed tobacco products in use were 0.36, 0.25, and 23 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, compared with 0.024, 0.019, and 15 {mu}g/m{sup 3} when no tobacco products were observed.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke in designated smoking areas in the hospitality industry: exposure measurements, exposure modelling and policy assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabola, A; Eyre, G J; Gill, L W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco control policy has been enacted in many jurisdictions worldwide banning smoking in the workplace. In the hospitality sector many businesses such as bars, hotels and restaurants have installed designated smoking areas on their premises and allowance for such smoking areas has been made in the tobacco control legislation of many countries. An investigation was carried out into the level of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) present in 8 pubs in Ireland which included designated smoking areas complying with two different definitions of a smoking area set out in Irish legislation. In addition, ETS exposure in a pub with a designated smoking area not in compliance with the legislation was also investigated. The results of this investigation showed that the two differing definitions of a smoking area present in pubs produced similar concentrations of benzene within smoking areas (5.1-5.4 μg/m(3)) but differing concentrations within the 'smoke-free' areas (1.42-3.01 μg/m(3)). Smoking areas in breach of legislative definitions were found to produce the highest levels of benzene in the smoking area (49.5 μg/m(3)) and 'smoke-free' area (7.68 μg/m(3)). 3D exposure modelling of hypothetical smoking areas showed that a wide range of ETS exposure concentrations were possible in smoking areas with the same floor area and same smoking rate but differing height to width and length to width ratios. The results of this investigation demonstrate that significant scope for improvement of ETS exposure concentrations in pubs and in smoking areas may exist by refining and improving the legislative definitions of smoking areas in law. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating environmental tobacco smoke exposure in a group of Turkish primary school students and developing intervention methods for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davutoglu Mehmet

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In countries like Turkey where smoking is highly prevalent, children's exposure to tobacco smoke is an important public health problem. The goals of this study were to determine the self-reported environmental tobacco smoke exposure status of primary school students in grades 3 to 5, to verify self-reported exposure levels with data provided from a biomarker of exposure, and to develop methods for preventing school children from passive smoking. Methods The study was conducted on 347 primary school students by using a standard questionnaire and urinary cotinine tests. Children with verified ETS exposure were randomly assigned to 2 intervention groups. Two phone interviews were conducted with the parents of the first group regarding their children's passive smoking status and its possible consequences. On the other hand, a brief note concerning urinary cotinine test result was sent to parents of the second group. Nine months after the initial urinary cotinine tests, measurements were repeated in both groups. Results According to questionnaire data, 59.9% of the study group (208 of 347 were exposed to ETS. Urinary cotinine measurements of children were highly consistent with the self-reported exposure levels (P 0.05. Conclusion Self-reported ETS exposure was found to be pretty accurate in the 9–11 age group when checked with urinary cotinine tests. Only informing parents that their childrens' ETS exposure were confirmed by a laboratory test seems to be very promising in preventing children from ETS.

  19. A descriptive analysis of relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauck Matthias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of the present study were to examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking behavior and infants' daily exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as assessed by urinary cotinine-to-creatinine ratio (CCR, and to describe the CCR over seven days among infants at home. Methods A convenience sample of 27 households was drawn. Each household had to have at least one daily tobacco smoker and one child up to three years of age. Over a seven-day period, urine samples were obtained from the child daily. To examine relations between parents' self-reported smoking and infants' daily CCR, generalized estimating equation (GEE analysis was used. Results The data revealed that infants from households with indoor smoking had higher CCRs than infants in households with outdoor smoking. CCRs were higher in girls than in boys. Older infants had lower CCRs than younger infants. Smoking outside the home versus inside the home, infant's gender, and infants' age accounted for 68% of the variance in CCR in a GEE data analysis model. No increase or decrease of CCR over time was found. Conclusion The findings suggest that parents' self-reported smoking indoors at home versus outdoors is predictive of CCR among infants three and younger. Higher CCR concentrations in girls' urine need further examination. Furthermore, significant fluctuations in daily CCR were not apparent in infants over a seven-day time period.

  20. The effectiveness of breath carbon monoxide analyzer in screening for environmental tobacco smoke exposure in Saudi pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmieh Ayed Alzeidan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has harmful effects on the pregnancy outcomes similar to those observed in actively smoking pregnant women. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the breath carbon monoxide (BCO analysis in the assessment of smoking status among Saudi pregnant women, including ETS exposure compared to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used during January 2012, 560 pregnant women, irrespective of their gestational age, agreed to undergo BCO testing and completed the data collection sheet for the study. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated to compare the BCO test with self-reported exposure to ETS. Results: Of the study population 151 (27% women self-reported ETS exposure during the index pregnancy, 409 (73% self-reported non-exposure. Sensitivity of the test was 32.5% (95% CI; 25.2-40.3%, the Specificity was much higher at 69.2% (95% CI; 64.4-73.5%, the positive predictive value was 28% (95% CI, 21.9-35.1%, and the negative predictive value was 73.5% (95% CI; 68.9-77.7%. Conclusion: The BCO test is an ineffective tool to detect the level of ETS exposure among Saudi pregnant women.

  1. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.

  2. Functional components of the bacterial CzcCBA efflux system reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Manara, Anna; Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Argese, Emanuele; Furini, Antonella

    2017-03-25

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed. Plants expressing PpCzcC showed no differences in Cd accumulation, whereas those expressing PpCzcB or PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots, but more Cd in the roots. Plants expressing both PpCzcB and PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots and roots compared to controls, whereas plants expressing all three genes showed a significant reduction in Cd levels only in shoots. These results show that components of the CzcCBA system can be expressed in plants and may be useful for developing plants with a reduced capacity to accumulate Cd in the shoots, potentially reducing the toxicity of food/feed crops cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Model estimates of the contributions of environmental tobacco smoke to volatile organic compound exposures in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Gadgil, A.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1990-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) in office buildings originate from multiple sources, such as outdoor air, building materials, occupants, office supplies, and office equipment. Many of the VOC found in office buildings are also present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), e.g., benzene, toluene, formaldehyde. Measurements made to date in Office buildings have been interpreted by some to imply that the contributions to ETS to VOC exposures in office buildings are small. Four different ventilation-infiltration scenarios were modeled for a typical office building. The purpose of this investigation was to provide first-order estimate of the range of contributions of ETS to VOC contributions in office buildings under various ventilation conditions through the use of a mass-balance model and to evaluate the significance of such contributions relative to the VOC concentration measured in office buildings. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  4. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  5. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cance

  6. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  7. Host Recovery and Reduced Virus Level in the Upper Leaves after Potato virus Y Infection Occur in Tobacco and Tomato but not in Potato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhou Nie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recovery phenomenon following infection with Potato virus Y (PVY was investigated in tobacco (Nicotiana tobaccum, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum and potato (Solanum tuberosum plants. In tobacco plants, infection of severe strains of PVY (PVYN or PVYN:O induced conspicuous vein clearing and leaf deformation in the first three leaves above the inoculated leaves, but much milder symptoms in the upper leaves. The recovery phenotype was not obvious in tobacco plants infected with PVY strain that induce mild symptoms (PVYO. However, regardless of the virus strains, reduction in PVY RNA levels was similarly observed in the upper leaves of these plants. Removal of the first three leaves above the inoculated leaves interfered with the occurrence of recovery, suggesting that the signal(s mediating the recovery is likely generated in these leaves. In PVYN or PVYN:O but not in PVYO-infected tobacco plants, the expression of PR-1a transcripts were correlated with the accumulation level of PVY RNA. Reduced level of PVY RNA in the upper leaves was also observed in infected tomato plants, whereas such phenomenon was not observed in potato plants. PVY-derived small RNAs were detected in both tobacco and potato plants and their accumulation levels were correlated with PVY RNA levels. Our results demonstrate that the recovery phenotype following PVY infection is host-specific and not necessarily associated with the expression of PR-1a and generation of PVY small RNAs.

  8. How exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollutants, and increased pollen burdens influences the incidence of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, M Ian; Jaakkola, Maritta S; London, Stephanie J; Nel, Andre E; Rogers, Christine A

    2006-04-01

    Asthma is a multifactorial airway disease that arises from a relatively common genetic background interphased with exposures to allergens and airborne irritants. The rapid rise in asthma over the past three decades in Western societies has been attributed to numerous diverse factors, including increased awareness of the disease, altered lifestyle and activity patterns, and ill-defined changes in environmental exposures. It is well accepted that persons with asthma are more sensitive than persons without asthma to air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, traffic emissions, and photochemical smog components. It has also been demonstrated that exposure to a mix of allergens and irritants can at times promote the development phase (induction) of the disease. Experimental evidence suggests that complex organic molecules from diesel exhaust may act as allergic adjuvants through the production of oxidative stress in airway cells. It also seems that climate change is increasing the abundance of aeroallergens such as pollen, which may result in greater incidence or severity of allergic diseases. In this review we illustrate how environmental tobacco smoke, outdoor air pollution, and climate change may act as environmental risk factors for the development of asthma and provide mechanistic explanations for how some of these effects can occur.

  9. Improved shoot regeneration, salinity tolerance and reduced fungal susceptibility in transgenic tobacco constitutively expressing PR-10a gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinita eAgarwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants in ecosystems are simultaneously exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses, which restrict plant growth and development. The complex responses to these stresses are largely regulated by plant hormones, which in turn, orchestrate the different biochemical and molecular pathways to manoeuvre stress tolerance. The PR-10 protein family is reported to be involved in defence regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. The JcPR-10a overexpression resulted in increased number of shoot buds in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, which could be due to high cytokinin to auxin ratio in the transgenics. The docking analysis shows the binding of three BAP molecules at the active sites of JcPR-10a protein. JcPR-10a transgenics showed enhanced salt tolerance, as was evident by increased germination rate, shoot and root length, relative water content, proline, soluble sugar and amino acid content under salinity. Interestingly, the transgenics also showed enhanced endogenous cytokinin level as compared to WT, which, further increased with salinity. Exposure of gradual salinity resulted in increased stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, photosynthesis rate and reduced transpiration rate. Furthermore, the transgenics also showed enhanced resistance against Macrophomina fungus. Thus, JcPR-10a might be working in co-ordination with cytokinin signalling in mitigating the stress induced damage by regulating different stress signalling pathways, leading to enhanced stress tolerance.

  10. Effects of occupational exposure to tobacco smoke: is there a link between environmental exposure and disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Solange A; Torres, Vukosava M; Louro, Henriqueta; Gomes, Filomena; Lopes, Carlos; Marçal, Nelson; Fragoso, Elsa; Martins, Carla; Oliveira, Cátia L; Hagenfeldt, Manuela; Bugalho-Almeida, António; Penque, Deborah; Simões, Tânia

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, evidence was provided that indoor secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) air pollution remains high in Lisbon restaurants where smoking is allowed, regardless of the protective measures used. The aim of this study was to determine in these locations the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with the particulate phase of SHS (PPAH), a fraction that contains recognized carginogens, such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Data showed that restaurant smoking areas might contain PPAH levels as high as 110 ng/m(3), a value significantly higher than that estimated for nonsmoking areas (30 ng/m(3)) or smoke-free restaurants (22 ng/m(3)). The effective exposure to SHS components in restaurant smoking rooms was confirmed as cotinine levels found in workers' urine. Considering that all workers exhibited normal lung function, eventual molecular changes in blood that might be associated with occupational exposure to SHS and SHS-associated PPAH were investigated by measurement of two oxidative markers, total antioxidant status (TAS) and 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and serum, respectively. SHS-exposed workers exhibited higher mean levels of serum 8-OHdG than nonexposed workers, regardless of smoking status. By using a proteomics approach based on 2D-DIGE-MS, it was possible to identify nine differentially expressed proteins in the plasma of SHS-exposed nonsmoker workers. Two acute-phase inflammation proteins, ceruloplasmin and inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), were predominant. These two proteins presented a high number of isoforms modulated by SHS exposure with the high-molecular-weight (high-MW) isoforms decreased in abundance while low-MW isoforms were increased in abundance. Whether these expression profiles are due to (1) a specific proteolytic cleavage, (2) a change on protein stability, or (3) alterations on post-translational modification pattern of these proteins remains to be investigated. Considering that these

  11. A ventilação e a fumaça ambiental de cigarros Ventilation and environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fonseca Seelig

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A fumaça ambiental de cigarros (FAC é uma das principais contribuintes para o aumento da concentração e da exposição a partículas em ambientes fechados. É comprovado que muitos de seus compostos químicos são tóxicos ou cancerígenos e que sua inalação pode causar vários danos à saúde. Embora, salvo em áreas especificadas, proibido por lei, o fumo em recintos coletivos é comum no Brasil e, na maioria dos casos, as áreas destinadas a ele, quando existentes, não são devidamente isoladas, prejudicando os não-fumantes. A indústria do tabaco e a da hospitalidade vendem a ventilação como a solução desse problema, mas estudos indicam que ela não o é. Este artigo aborda a problemática da exposição à FAC por seus aspectos ligados à saúde e à poluição.Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS is a major contributor to indoor air concentrations and exposure to particles. It's known that many of its chemical compounds are toxic or carcinogens and its inhalation may cause many health injuries. Although, except in specified areas, forbidden by law, smoking in collective places is a common activity in Brazil, and, in most of the cases, specified areas, when existing, are not propriety isolated, injuring nonsmokers. Tobacco and hospitality industries maintain ventilation as a solution for this problem, but studies indicate that it is not the appropriate solution. This article approaches the ETS exposure problem through health and pollution implications.

  12. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. Both the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among US adults and black adolescents and the decline in per capita consumption are encouraging. These changes have probably been influenced by factors operating at the individual (e.g., school-based prevention programs and cessation programs) and environmental (e.g., mass media educational strategies, the presence of smoke-free laws and policies, and the price of tobacco products) levels (for a discussion of these factors, see, e.g., refs. 2, 48, 52, 183, and 184). The lack of progress among adolescents, especially whites and males, and the high risk for experimenters of developing tobacco dependence present cause for great concern (48, 183-186). In addition to those discussed above, several areas of research can be recommended. 1. Better understanding of the clustering of tobacco use with the use of other drugs, other risk behaviors, and other psychiatric disorders could better illuminate the causal processes involved, as well as the special features of the interventions needed to prevent and treat tobacco dependence. 2. To better understand population needs, trend analyses of prevalence, initiation, and cessation should, whenever possible, incorporate standardized measures of these other risk factors. Future research should compare the effect of socioeconomic status variables on measures of smoking behavior among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 3. For reasons that may be genetic, environmental, or both, some persons do not progress beyond initial experimentation with tobacco use (2, 48, 183, 187-192), but about one-third to one-half of those who experiment with cigarettes become regular users (48, 193, 194). Factors, both individual and environmental, that can influence the susceptibility of individuals to tobacco dependence need further attention. 4. To

  13. Evaluation of the Modeling of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in the SHEDS-PM Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Frey, H Christopher; Liu, Xiaozhen; Deshpande, Bela K

    2009-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is estimated to be a major contributor to indoor PM concentration and human exposures to fine particulate matter of 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5). The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation for Particulate Matter (SHEDS-PM) model developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency estimates distributions of outdoor and indoor PM2.5 exposure for a specified population based on ambient concentrations and indoor emissions sources. Because indoor exposures to ETS can be high, especially in indoor residential microenvironments, a critical assessment was conducted of the methodology and data used in SHEDS-PM for estimation of indoor exposure to ETS. For the residential microenvironment, SHEDS uses a mass-balance approach which is comparable to best practices. The default inputs in SHEDS-PM were reviewed and more recent and extensive data sources were identified. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine which inputs should be prioritized for updating. Data regarding the cigarette emission rate was found to be the most important. SHEDS-PM does not currently account for in-vehicle ETS exposure; however, in-vehicle ETS-related PM2.5 levels can exceed those in residential microenvironments by a factor of 10 or more. Therefore, a mass-balance based methodology for estimating in-vehicle ETS PM2.5 concentration is evaluated. Recommendations are made regarding updating of input data and algorithms related to ETS exposure in the SHEDS-PM model.

  14. An overview of the tobacco problem in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S

    2012-01-01

    This is a review paper comprehensively encompassing the different aspects of tobacco control with particular reference to the Indian scenario. The information on prevalent tobacco habits in India, health hazards and environmental hazards due to tobacco use, passive smoking and its impact, economics of tobacco, legislation to control tobacco in India, the tobacco cessation services and the way ahead for effective tobacco control are discussed. Tobacco is a leading preventable cause of death, k...

  15. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Olive Mill Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Khatib

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: A research was needed to monitor the environmental impact of olive mill wastewater (OMW: production and relative production of olive mill waste. This was achieved by collecting data from 92 local olive mills in order to study the olive production yield, water consumption in olive washing and in oil recovery, wastewater generation relative to olive processed and oil generated, and solid waste generation. The OMW is usually discharged in the open environment, thus producing pollution to the soil surface and underground water. Approach: The progress on this problem is made by reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD as a major OMW pollutant. An upper flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB facility was constructed and operated for eight months in a progressive program operation for standardization and optimization purpose, and so to treat the waste by COD reduction. Results: The results reveal local variation in most of the investigated parameters. The olives in some area are found to contain large solid waste than other areas, resulting in lower oil yield and higher solid generation per ton of olive produced. The COD concentration was increased gradually from 5,000-30,000 mg/L and the efficiency improved significantly during the operation from 46%-84% COD removal. The organic load of OMW 27,000mg/L was reduce below 5,000 mg/L, that permits its direct discharge into municipal wastewater treatment plants. Conclusion: The implications and relevance of the results imply that OMW must be treated before discharge to the sewer system. On the other hand, the nonconformity between areas must be taken into consideration for future work.

  16. TcCYS4, a cystatin from cocoa, reduces necrosis triggered by MpNEP2 in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, L S; Costa, M G C; Pirovani, N M; Almeida, A F; Alvim, F C; Pirovani, C P

    2014-09-26

    In Brazil, most cocoa bean production occurs in Southern Bahia. Witches' broom disease arrived in this area in 1989 and has since caused heavy losses in production. The disease is caused by the basidiomycete fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, a hemibiotrophic fungus that produces the necrosis and ethylene-inducting protein (MpNEP2) during infection; this protein can activate cysteine proteases and induce programmed cell death. Cysteine proteases can be modulated by cystatin. In this study, we overexpressed TcCYS4, a cocoa cystatin, in tobacco plants and evaluated the effect on MpNEP2 in model plants. Tccys4 cDNA was cloned into the pCAMBIA 1390 vector and inserted into the tobacco plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transgene expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Transcript and protein levels in Tcccys4:tobacco lines were 8.9- and 1.5-fold higher than in wild-type plants (wt). Tcccys4:tobacco lines showed no change in growth compared to wt plants. CO2 net assimilation (A) increased in Tcccys4:tobacco lines compared to wt plants. Only one line showed statistically significant stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration rate (E) changes. MpNEP2 was infiltered into the foliar mesophyll of Tcccys4:tobacco lines and wt plants, and necrotic lesions were attenuated in lines highly expressing Tccys4. Our results suggest that cocoa cystatin TcCYS4 affects MpNEP2 activity related to the progression of programmed cell death in tobacco plants. This may occur through the action of cystatin to inhibit cysteine proteases activated by MpNEP2 in plant tissues. Further studies are necessary to examine cystatin in the Theobroma cacao-M. perniciosa pathosystem.

  17. Smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure among 6th-grade students in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K; Forster-Cox, Sue; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Buckingham, Robert W

    2007-02-01

    This study assessed the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among adolescents in Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. We used a cross-sectional method to examine the smoking practices, risk perception of smoking, and ETS exposure of 6th-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years, attending six randomly selected middle schools. Schools were classified by school setting (i.e., public vs. private) and socioeconomic status (SES; i.e., low, middle, or high). The results indicated that 6th-grade students attending a public, low-SES school setting in Ciudad Juárez not only exhibited significantly higher rates of ETS exposure at home and in public places (p<.01) but also were more likely to have tried smoking (p<.01) and to be current smokers (p<.01), and were less likely to support a ban on smoking in public places (p<.01), compared with students who attended a private school or a public, middle- or high-SES school setting. These results provide further evidence that public health interventions to prevent initiation of smoking and to assist in smoking cessation among adolescents and to reduce their ETS exposure at home and in public need to target all school-aged students, especially those attending school in a low-SES settings.

  18. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I.; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 μM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death. PMID:20219776

  19. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in nonsmoking men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diver, W Ryan; Teras, Lauren R; Gaudet, Mia M; Gapstur, Susan M

    2014-04-15

    Little is known about the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in nonsmokers who are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Previous research on NHL and ETS has not included men or examined doses of ETS exposure during childhood. The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort collected information on smoking habits and exposure to ETS during childhood and adulthood. Among 61,326 never-smoking men and women, 884 incident cases of NHL were identified between 1992 and 2009. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression to identify associations between ETS and NHL risk. Compared with no exposure to ETS as a child or an adult, childhood and/or adult ETS exposure was not associated with NHL overall. There was a positive association between the number of smokers in the house as a child (P for trend = 0.05) and exposure to 6 or more hours per week of ETS as an adult (relative risk = 2.37, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 5.04) with follicular lymphoma risk. Adult ETS exposure was associated with a lower risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (relative risk = 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 0.97). This study suggests that adult and childhood ETS exposure may affect the risk of NHL, and that the associations differ by histological subtype.

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in children with asthma-relation between lead and cadmium, and cotinine concentrations in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Stefan; Gerhardsson, Lars; Lundh, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Exposure to heavy metals from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was investigated in 23 children with asthma (8.4+/-3.7 yr). ETS exposure was assessed by an inquiry data-based exposure index, the urinary concentration of cotinine (U-cotinine; a major nicotine metabolite) and the house dust (fine and coarse fractions) concentrations of nicotine at home. The corresponding concentrations of the heavy metals cadmium and lead in dust and urine (U-Cd; U-Pb) were determined in the same samples. There were strong associations between the ETS exposure index and U-cotinine (r(s)=0.62; Plead and cadmium concentrations in both fine (r(s)=0.86; Plead concentrations in fine dust (r(s)=0.52; P=0.06), no other significant associations were found between house dust metals and nicotine concentrations. U-Cd correlated well with U-cotinine (r(s)=0.50; P=0.02). Further, U-Pb were associated with U-cotinine, however not statistically significant (r(s)=0.41; P=0.06). A probable explanation is a direct inhalation of side-stream smoke containing heavy metals and/ or an increased pulmonary uptake, due to a small airways disease in children with asthma.

  1. Association between environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children and parental socioeconomic status: a cross-sectional study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Okhee; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Ho; Ha, Mina; Hong, Soo-Jong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Leem, Jong-Han; Sakong, Joon; Lee, Chul Gab; Kim, Su-Young; Kang, Dongmug

    2012-05-01

    It has been reported that most environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of children occurs at home, and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES) increases the risk of this exposure. We estimated the independent and interactive effects of parental SES and residential area SES on ETS exposure of children at home. We evaluated whether ETS exposure was associated with parental SES by entering data from 7,059 school-aged children in Korea into fixed effects models. The empirical model, including the interaction variable of the level of deprivation of each residential area, was fitted with parental SES. After adjustment for possible confounding variables, low paternal education (odds ratio [OR], 1.81; 95% CI, 1.30-2.54) and highly deprived areas (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.69) were significantly associated with the ETS exposure of children, especially among children whose fathers had children directly, as well as interactively with parental SES, in Korea. Findings from this study will help inform policy decision makers that intervention to promote smoking cessation should consider not only the SES of individuals but also that of residential areas.

  2. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and birth outcome: increased effects on pregnant women aged 30 years or older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, I B; Grummer-Strawn, L; Scanlon, K S

    1997-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the association between self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy and birth weight, prematurity, and small-for-gestational age infants and to determine whether these associations differ by maternal age. Data from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System from two states that collected data on both passive and active smoking for the period 1989-1994 were analyzed. ETS exposure was defined as reported exposure to the cigarette smoke of a household member. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between ETS and birth outcomes. The mean adjusted birth weight among infants of nonsmoking mothers age 30 years or older was 90 g less among infants exposed to ETS than among infants not exposed. No significant association was found among infants of younger nonsmoking mothers. Similarly, the risks for low birth weight (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval 1.51-3.87) and preterm delivery (adjusted OR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.88) were elevated among older nonsmokers exposed to ETS, but not among younger nonsmokers exposed to ETS (adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.23; adjusted OR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.13, for low birth weight and preterm delivery, respectively). These findings indicate that the association between ETS exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes appears to be modified by maternal age.

  3. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such devel

  4. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  5. Nicotine Dependence as a Mediator of Project EX’s Effects to Reduce Tobacco Use in Scholars

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In Spain, 44% of 14-18-year-olds have smoked, and 12.5% have smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances, and can lead to serious addiction in adulthood with adverse consequences to one’s health. School plays a relevant role in health promotion and preventing risk behaviors such as tobacco consumption. Despite the fact that some school-based tobacco cessation and prevention interventions prove to be effective for their purposes, there is a lack of u...

  6. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  7. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Periodontitis Endpoints Among Nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke A; Slade, Gary D; Divaris, Kimon; Poole, Charles

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted to summarize the epidemiological evidence on environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and prevalent periodontitis endpoints among nonsmokers. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Pro-Quest dissertations, and conference proceedings of a dental research association. We included studies from which prevalence odds ratios (POR) could be extracted for periodontitis determined by examiner measurements of clinical attachment level (CAL) and/or probing pocket depth (PD) or self-report of missing teeth. Studies determined ETS exposure by self-report or biomarker (cotinine) levels. For studies reporting CAL and/or PD (n = 6), associations were stronger with cotinine-measured exposure (n = 3; random effects POR [95% prediction interval] = 1.63 (0.90, 2.96)) than self-reported exposure (n = 3; random effects POR = 1.15 (0.68, 1.96)). There was no meaningful difference in summary estimate for studies reporting CAL and/or PD endpoint (n = 6; random effects POR = 1.34 (0.93, 1.94)) as opposed to tooth loss (n = 2; random effects POR = 1.33 (0.52, 3.40)). There appears to be a positive association between exposure to ETS and prevalent periodontitis endpoints among nonsmokers, the magnitude of which depended mostly on the method of ETS assessment. The notoriety of ETS is often discussed in terms of its associations with cancer, chronic conditions like cardiovascular diseases, and respiratory illnesses in children. However, very little attention is paid to its association with oral diseases, especially periodontitis. Periodontitis affects a large proportion of the population and is a major cause of tooth loss. This study summarized the epidemiologic association between exposure to ETS and periodontitis among nonsmokers. Although the findings are consistent with a positive association, methodological weaknesses relating to study design, assessment of ETS, periodontitis, and adjustment covariates were highlighted and recommendations for

  8. Overexpression of Rice Sphingosine-1-Phoshpate Lyase Gene OsSPL1 in Transgenic Tobacco Reduces Salt and Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Zhang; Jing Zhai; Jibo Mo; Dayong Li; Fengming Song

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids,including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P),have been shown to function as signaling mediators to regulate diverse aspects of plant growth,development,and stress response.In this study,we performed functional analysis of a rice (Oryza sativa) S1P lyase gene OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco plants and explored its possible involvement in abiotic stress response.Overexpression of OsSPL1 in transgenic tobacco resulted in enhanced sensitivity to exogenous abscisic acid (ABA),and decreased tolerance to salt and oxidative stress,when compared with the wild type.Furthermore,the expression levels of some selected stress-related genes in OsSPL1-overexpressing plants were reduced after application of salt or oxidative stress,indicating that the altered responsiveness of stress-related genes may be responsible for the reduced tolerance in OsSPL1-overexpressing tobacco plants under salt and oxidative stress.Our results suggest that rice OsSPL1 plays an important role in abiotic stress responses.

  9. Parental smoking and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with waterpipe smoking among youth: results from a national survey in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, M; Nakkash, R T; Mahfoud, Z; Bteddini, D; Haddad, P; Afifi, R A

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is a growing public health concern worldwide yet little is known about the epidemiology of use among young people. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of WTS among students across Lebanon. The study design was a cross sectional survey. 126-item tobacco questionnaire was conducted among 1128 sixth and seventh grade students across Lebanon. Current patterns of use were descriptively analysed, and logistic regression models examined correlates of WTS. Ever WTS prevalence was 44.3%, current WTS prevalence was triple that of cigarettes (22.1% vs 7.4%), and 40.0% of current users were at least weekly or daily smokers. Initiation and patterns of use, as well as addiction and cessation attitudes have been reported. Significant correlates of current WTS included older age, reduced religiosity, peer and parent tobacco use, recent waterpipe advertisement exposure, increased pluralistic ignorance and current cigarette use. Significant correlates of ever WTS were similar to current WTS, but included second hand waterpipe tobacco smoke exposure at home and did not include recent waterpipe advertisement exposure. Neither gender nor socio-economic status were significant correlates of current or ever WTS. Waterpipe is the most common form of tobacco smoking, and is used regularly, among sixth and seventh grade Lebanese students. It should be considered a public health priority with increased tobacco surveillance and legislation. Widespread educational and policy interventions might help denormalize the social acceptability of WTS. Meanwhile, more research is needed to understand the changing paradigm of WTS epidemiology and the health outcomes among young smokers. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke.

  11. A rat pancreatic ribonuclease fused to a late cotton pollen promoter severely reduces pollen viability in tobacco plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Bernd-Souza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an animal RNase fused to the late cotton pollen-specific promoter G9 in a plant system were investigated. Expression of the chimeric genes G9-uidA and G9-RNase in tobacco plants showed that the 1.2-kb promoter fragment of the G9 gene was sufficient to maintain tissue and temporal specificity in a heterologous system. GUS (beta-glucuronidase expression was detected only in pollen from anther stage 6 through anthesis, with maximal GUS activity in pollen from stage 10 anthers. Investigating the effects of the rat RNase on pollen viability at stage 10, we found that pollen viability was reduced from 79 to 8% and from 89 to 40%, in pollen germination and fluoresceine diacetate assays, respectively, in one G9-RNase transgenic line, suggesting a lethal effect of the RNase gene. This indicates that the rat RNase produces deleterious effects in this plant system and may be useful for engineering male sterility.Foram investigados os efeitos da expressão de uma ribonuclease de origem animal em um sistema vegetal, ligando-se esta ao promotor do gene pólen-específico G9 de algodão. Examinou-se a expressão dos genes quiméricos G9-uidA e G9-RNase em plantas de tabaco e determinou-se que o fragmento de 1.2 kb do promotor do gene G9 foi suficiente para manter a especificidade temporal e espacial da expressão, em sistema heterólogo. A expressão do gene GUS foi detectada somente em pólen, do estágio 6 do desenvolvimento da antera até a antese, com atividade máxima em pólen de anteras no estágio 10. Estudos neste estágio com linhagens transgênicas contendo G9-RNase mostraram que um clone transgênico apresentava reduções na viabilidade do pólen de 79 para 8% e de 89 para 40% nos testes de germinação e coloração com diacetato de fluoresceína, respectivamente, sugerindo letalidade na expressão do gene de RNase. Estes resultados indicam que a RNase animal apresenta um efeito deletério em planta e oferece possibilidade de uso

  12. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke: views from the Dunedin hospitality industry on prohibition of smoking in licensed premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A; Blair, A

    2000-11-24

    To describe Dunedin hospitality industry perceptions of difficulties in enforcement of a prohibition on smoking in licensed premises, and possible effects on staff, customers and business. To identify any need for education to assist transition and reduce compliance difficulties with smoke-free legislation. A reply paid questionnaire was mailed to all 311 licensed premises registered with the Dunedin District Licensing Agency, operational in May 1999. overall response rate (67%) differed significantly by type of premises (bar, club, restaurant and off-licence). Overall, a smoking ban was considered likely to be difficult to enforce (82%), upset customers (74%), reduce business (59%) and negatively effect employees (51%). On each issue, there was a consistent pattern of increasing concern from off-licenses (least concern) through restaurants, to clubs and bars (most concern). Considerable concern exists in the hospitality industry about the effects of extending smoke-free status to licensed premises. To assist transition and future compliance, there is a need to address these concerns and provide reliable information to calm unnecessary fears and develop appreciation of the need for change.

  14. Price and consumption of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Virendra Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Puneet Saxena; Hardayal Meena; Daya Krishan Mangal

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jai...

  15. The environmental profile of a community's health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K

    2015-12-01

    To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15-1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17-5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23-5.17, respectively). Of the 11,842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24-76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities.

  16. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savell, Emily; Gilmore, Anna B; Sims, Michelle; Mony, Prem K; Koon, Teo; Yusoff, Khalid; Lear, Scott A; Seron, Pamela; Ismail, Noorhassim; Calik, K Burcu Tumerdem; Rosengren, Annika; Bahonar, Ahmad; Kumar, Rajesh; Vijayakumar, Krishnapillai; Kruger, Annamarie; Swidan, Hany; Gupta, Rajeev; Igumbor, Ehimario; Afridi, Asad; Rahman, Omar; Chifamba, Jephat; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Mohan, V; Mohan, Deepa; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Poirier, Paul; Orlandini, Andres; Li, Wei; McKee, Martin; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine and compare tobacco marketing in 16 countries while the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control requires parties to implement a comprehensive ban on such marketing. Methods Between 2009 and 2012, a kilometre-long walk was completed by trained investigators in 462 communities across 16 countries to collect data on tobacco marketing. We interviewed community members about their exposure to traditional and non-traditional marketing in the previous six months. To examine differences in marketing between urban and rural communities and between high-, middle- and low-income countries, we used multilevel regression models controlling for potential confounders. Findings Compared with high-income countries, the number of tobacco advertisements observed was 81 times higher in low-income countries (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 80.98; 95% confidence interval, CI: 4.15–1578.42) and the number of tobacco outlets was 2.5 times higher in both low- and lower-middle-income countries (IRR: 2.58; 95% CI: 1.17–5.67 and IRR: 2.52; CI: 1.23–5.17, respectively). Of the 11 842 interviewees, 1184 (10%) reported seeing at least five types of tobacco marketing. Self-reported exposure to at least one type of traditional marketing was 10 times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries (odds ratio, OR: 9.77; 95% CI: 1.24–76.77). For almost all measures, marketing exposure was significantly lower in the rural communities than in the urban communities. Conclusion Despite global legislation to limit tobacco marketing, it appears ubiquitous. The frequency and type of tobacco marketing varies on the national level by income group and by community type, appearing to be greatest in low-income countries and urban communities. PMID:26668437

  17. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and respiratory tract infections in pre-school children – a cross-sectional study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Emilia Bielska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Introduction and objective. Knowledge of the harmful influence of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS has a positive impact on changing social behaviours worldwide. In many homes smoking is totally prohibited; in some others, partial limitations of tobacco consumption have been introduced. Objective. To study the correlation between the adopted rules of tobacco use in homes of 3-year-olds, and the kind and frequency of acute respiratory system infections within a 6-month period of attending pre-schools. Materials and methods. The study was performed among children attending municipal pre-schools in Białystok, Poland. The data was collected by anonymous questionnaires completed by the parents of 302 children aged 3 years chosen randomly from 1,200 children attending 51 pre-schools. The exposure of children to tobacco smoke was measured by determining cotinine to creatinine ratio (CCR in urine. Results. In the 150 families of children who were surveyed, 210 were smokers. Every day, the smokers consisted of fathers (37.3% and mothers (23.6%. The 3-year-old children were divided into 3 groups according to smoking habits in their homes: 28.5% of the children under examination came from homes where tobacco smoking was forbidden (mean CCR – 15.21ng/mg, SD=11.86, 26.2% came from homes where tobacco was smoked in separate rooms (mean CCR – 65.75 ng/ml, SD=81.51, 45.4% lived in homes where no rules connected with smoking had been established (mean CCR – 61.75 ng/ml, SD= 70.29. During the analyzed period of 6 months, 85% of the children had at least 1 respiratory tract infection (60% – upper, 16.9% – lower, 16.5% – upper and lower, 7.1% – otitis media. Conclusions. The majority of the 3-year-old children who had lower respiratory tract infections required antibiotics and hospitalization. Living in a home where no tobacco rules were established may cause an increase of respiratory tract infections.

  18. Reducing the environmental impact of a gas operated cogeneration installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irimie Sabin Ioan

    2017-01-01

    The amount of energy saved yearly, the specific fuel consumption and the environmental impact were determined by the comparative study. The diagrams representing the variation of the performance indicators according to the operation period were also created. The usefulness of the paper consists in the creation of the yearly optimum installation operation time chart.

  19. Downregulation of a pathogen-responsive tobacco UDP-Glc:phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferase reduces scopoletin glucoside accumulation, enhances oxidative stress, and weakens virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Julie; Baltz, Rachel; Schmitt, Corinne; Beffa, Roland; Fritig, Bernard; Saindrenan, Patrick

    2002-05-01

    Plant UDP-Glc:phenylpropanoid glucosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the transfer of Glc from UDP-Glc to numerous substrates and regulate the activity of compounds that play important roles in plant defense against pathogens. We previously characterized two tobacco salicylic acid- and pathogen-inducible UGTs (TOGTs) that act very efficiently on the hydroxycoumarin scopoletin and on hydroxycinnamic acids. To identify the physiological roles of these UGTs in plant defense, we generated TOGT-depleted tobacco plants by antisense expression. After inoculation with Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), TOGT-inhibited plants exhibited a significant decrease in the glucoside form of scopoletin (scopolin) and a decrease in scopoletin UGT activity. Unexpectedly, free scopoletin levels also were reduced in TOGT antisense lines. Scopolin and scopoletin reduction in TOGT-depleted lines resulted in a strong decrease of the blue fluorescence in cells surrounding TMV lesions and was associated with weakened resistance to infection with TMV. Consistent with the proposed role of scopoletin as a reactive oxygen intermediate (ROI) scavenger, TMV also triggered a more sustained ROI accumulation in TOGT-downregulated lines. Our results demonstrate the involvement of TOGT in scopoletin glucosylation in planta and provide evidence of the crucial role of a UGT in plant defense responses. We propose that TOGT-mediated glucosylation is required for scopoletin accumulation in cells surrounding TMV lesions, where this compound could both exert a direct antiviral effect and participate in ROI buffering.

  20. Oxidative stress is reduced in Wistar rats exposed to smoke from tobacco and treated with specific broad-band pulse electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of attempts to reduce the oxidative radical burden of tobacco. A recently patented technology, pulse electromagnetic technology, has been shown to induce differential action of treated tobacco products versus untreated products on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in vivo. In a 90-day respiratory toxicity study, Wistar rats were exposed to cigarette smoke from processed and unprocessed tobacco and biomarkers of oxidative stress were compared with pathohistological analysis of rat lungs. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity was decreased in a dose-dependent manner to 81% in rats exposed to smoke from normal cigarettes compared to rats exposed to treated smoke or the control group. These results correspond to pathohistological analysis of rat lungs, in which those rats exposed to untreated smoke developed initial signs of emphysema, while rats exposed to treated smoke showed no pathology, as in the control group. The promise of inducing an improved health status in humans exposed to smoke from treated cigarettes merits further investigation.

  1. Second-hand tobacco smoke in Oklahoma: a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality and means of reducing exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Robert N; Crutcher, James M

    2002-03-01

    Evidence has mounted in recent years establishing second-hand tobacco smoke exposure as a cause of morbidity and mortality in nonsmokers. The ratio of deaths is approximately one nonsmoker dying from illness caused by second-hand smoke exposure for every eight smokers who die from diseases caused by tobacco use. This is equivalent to about 750 nonsmoker deaths each year in Oklahoma caused by exposure to second-hand smoke. This article reviews the components of second-hand smoke, its health effects, its prevalence in Oklahoma, and the means of protecting children and nonsmoking adults from exposure. Oklahoma physicians are encouraged to advise their patients about the harmful effects of second-hand smoke and to actively support public policies that decrease exposure to second-hand smoke in public places and workplaces.

  2. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P avoid pubs with non-smoking areas thus reducing source strengths in the smoking areas of these pubs. Nicotine concentrations were not found to be significantly different in smoking areas of the two types of establishment indicating that nicotine is not as mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements

  3. Effect of sorption on exposures to organic gases from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of sorption processes on dynamic ETS organic gas concentrations and potential exposures were studied in a carpeted and furnished 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at 0.6 h{sup -1}. Ten cigarettes were machine-smoked on six of every seven days over four weeks. Concentrations of ETS-specific tracers and regulated toxic compounds were quantified during daily smoking, post-smoking and background periods. Potential exposures were calculated by period and day. Large sorption effects were observed for the widely used tracers 3-ethenylpyridine and nicotine, and for several toxic compounds including naphthalene and cresol isomers. Short-term adsorption to indoor surfaces reduced concentrations and potential exposures during smoking, while later reemission increased concentrations and exposures hours after smoking ended. Concentrations during nonsmoking periods rose from day to day over the first few weeks, presumably from increased reemission associated with increased sorbed mass concentrations. For sorbing compounds, more than half of daily potential exposures occurred during nonsmoking periods.

  4. [New scientific arguments for further reducing the use of tobacco, also in the hotel, restaurant and catering business].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, R J G

    2007-01-20

    The prohibition of smoking in public places that has been implemented in various European countries has led to a noticeable decrease in the number of hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction. This effect became manifest within one year after the adoption of the measure. A significant proportion of the benefit can probably be ascribed to the reduction of passive smoking. The recently published INTERHEART study is a case-control study involving approximately 12,500 patients who had been admitted for an acute myocardial infarction and approximately 14,500 apparently healthy controls. The study was carried out in 52 countries and reveals that an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction as the result of tobacco use can be seen in all investigated countries and races. Smoking as well as the chewing or sniffing of tobacco are associated with an increased risk; there is also a clear proportional relationship between the level of tobacco use and the degree of risk. Moreover, passive smoking was again shown to be an important and avoidable cause ofacute myocardial infarction. In the Netherlands, smoking in public buildings has been prohibited since 1990, with the exception of the hotel, restaurant and catering industry. It would be a good thing if this exception were eliminated in our country as well.

  5. Reduced number of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium of rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, D.; Kato, G.

    1981-04-09

    The concentration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors--as measured by specific (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 and (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding--was diminished by 60% below control values in the hearts of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. These changes in receptor numbers took place almost immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and were rapidly reversible after termination of the exposure. The dissociation constant, KD, for (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 was identical in exposed (KD . 0.34 +/- 0.09 nM) and control (KD . 0.35 +/- 0.07 nM) hearts but was significantly different in the case of (-)-(3H)dihydroalprenolol binding (exposed, KD . 2.83 +/- 0.30 mM vs. control KD . 5.22 +/- 0.61 nM). For beta-receptor binding there was no significant difference between exposed and control animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-propranolol or timolol. (-)-Isoproterenol, however, was found to bind with lower affinity in exposed compared with control hearts. For alpha-receptor binding there was no significant difference between control and 'smoked' animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-0)-norepinephrine or phentolamine. The decrease in alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentration may be related to the phenomenon of receptor desensitization resulting from a release of catecholamines in rats exposed to tobacco smoke.

  6. What is the role of tobacco control advertising intensity and duration in reducing adolescent smoking prevalence? Findings from 16 years of tobacco control mass media advertising in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; Durkin, Sarah J; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-03-01

    To examine how the intensity and duration of tobacco control advertising relate to adolescent smoking prevalence. Australian students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a national survey conducted triennially between 1993 and 2008 (sample size range 12 314-16 611). The outcome measure was students' smoking in the previous 4 weeks collected through anonymous, self-completed surveys. For each student, monthly targeted rating points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure) for tobacco control advertising was calculated for the 3 and 12 months prior to surveying. For each time period, cumulative TRPs exposure and exposure to three intensity levels (≥100 TRPs/month; ≥400 TRPs/month; ≥800 TRPs/month) over increasing durations (eg, 1 month, 2 months, etc) were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between TRPs and adolescent smoking after controlling for demographic and policy variables. Past 3-month cumulative TRPs were found to have an inverse relationship with smoking prevalence. Low TRPs exposure in the past 12 months was positively associated with adolescent smoking prevalence. However, smoking prevalence reduced with cumulative exposure levels above 5800 cumulative TRPs. Additionally, exposure to ≥400 TRPs/month and ≥800 TRPs/month were associated with reduced likelihood of smoking, although the duration needed for this effect differed for the two intensity levels. When intensity was ≥400 TRPs/month, the odds of smoking only reduced with continuous exposure. When intensity was ≥800 TRPs/month, exposure at levels less than monthly was associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. Both antismoking advertising intensity and duration are important for ensuring reductions in adolescent smoking prevalence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The economics of tobacco use in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweis, Nadia J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an independent survey of tobacco use in Jordan following the methods and template of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Using data collected on cigarette use and cigarette prices, we estimated the price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan. We used a 2-part model of cigarette demand. In the first part, we estimate the impact of prices on the decision to smoke while controlling for individual demographic and environmental characteristics. Conditional on smoking, we then estimate the effect of price on the number of cigarettes smoked. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand in Jordan was estimated to be -0.6. Smoking among women was found to be relatively unresponsive to price (elasticity of -0.01), whereas smoking among men was much more responsive to price (elasticity of -0.81). The price elasticity estimates suggest that significant increases in tobacco taxes are likely to be effective in reducing smoking in Jordan, particularly smoking among men.

  8. Protecting Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Groner, Judith; Walley, Susan; Nelson, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    This technical report serves to provide the evidence base for the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statements "Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke" and "Public Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke." Tobacco use and involuntary exposure are major preventable causes of morbidity and premature mortality in adults and children. Tobacco dependence almost always starts in childhood or adolescence. Electronic nicotine delivery systems are rapidly gaining popularity among youth, and their significant harms are being documented. In utero tobacco smoke exposure, in addition to increasing the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, stillbirth, placental abruption, and sudden infant death, has been found to increase the risk of obesity and neurodevelopmental disorders. Actions by pediatricians can help to reduce children's risk of developing tobacco dependence and reduce children's involuntary tobacco smoke exposure. Public policy actions to protect children from tobacco are essential to reduce the toll that the tobacco epidemic takes on our children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Notification: EPA Progress in Reducing Taxpayer Environmental Liabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY15-0052, May 28, 2015. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA’s progress in reducing taxpayer liabilities through the use of financial assurance instruments for RCRA facilities and Superfund sites.

  10. Solution to Reduce Air Environmental Pollution from Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phẁm Tân HỚu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas emissions from ships are increasingly polluting the air environment seriously. Therefore, the MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI is applied for all ships from 2017, Annex VI provided that the concentrations of NOx,SOx CO contained in ship’s exhaust gases must be less than 6.4 g/kWh, 0.6 g/kWh, and 5.5g/kWh respectively. Today, there are many solutions to reduce pollution emissions from exhaust gas of ships, such as improving combustion, using oil emulsion, using biofuel,…However, these solutions also have a handful of disadventages such as being unable to thoroughly resoulve problems, high cost, and very difficult to improve the quality of ship exhaust gas emissions for old ships. Exhaust gas treatment method uses a centralized treatment system where exhaust gas from the thermal engines is taken in a centralized treatment system before discharging into the air. After centralized treatment system, in comparision with raw exhaust gas, soot can be reduced by 98%, NOx can be reduced by 75%, SOx can be reduced by 80%. This method of treatment is not only low cost, good quality but also make marine heat-engines still use traditional fuels as well as need not improve its structure.

  11. Heat reduces nitric oxide production required for auxin-mediated gene expression and fate determination in tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Robert A; Anderson, David J; Bufford, Jennifer L; Tallman, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) is an equatorial perennial with a high basal thermotolerance. Cultured tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) are useful for studying the effects of heat stress on fate-determining hormonal signaling. At lower temperatures (32°C or less), exogenous auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) cause GCPs to expand 20- to 30-fold, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, and divide. At higher temperatures (34°C or greater), GCPs expand only 5- to 6-fold; they do not regenerate walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, or divide. Heat (38°C) suppresses activation of the BA auxin-responsive transgene promoter in tree tobacco GCPs, suggesting that inhibition of cell expansion and cell cycle reentry at high temperatures is due to suppressed auxin signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in auxin signaling in other plant systems. Here, we show that heat inhibits NO accumulation by GCPs and that L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine, an inhibitor of NO production in animals and plants, mimics the effects of heat by limiting cell expansion and preventing cell wall regeneration; inhibiting cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and cell division; and suppressing activation of the BA auxin-responsive promoter. We also show that heat and L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine reduce the mitotic indices of primary root meristems and inhibit lateral root elongation similarly. These data link reduced NO levels to suppressed auxin signaling in heat-stressed cells and seedlings of thermotolerant plants and suggest that even plants that have evolved to withstand sustained high temperatures may still be negatively impacted by heat stress.

  12. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  13. A modified method for diffusive monitoring of 3-ethenylpyridine as a specific marker of environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusimäki, Leea; Peltonen, Kimmo; Vainiotalo, Sinikka

    A previously introduced method for monitoring environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) was further validated. The method is based on diffusive sampling of a vapour-phase marker, 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP), with 3 M passive monitors (type 3500). Experiments were done in a dynamic chamber to assess diffusive sampling in comparison with active sampling in charcoal tubes or XAD-4 tubes. The sampling rate for 3-EP collected on the diffusive sampler was 23.1±0.6 mL min -1. The relative standard deviation for parallel samples ( n=6) ranged from 4% to 14% among experiments ( n=9). No marked reverse diffusion of 3-EP was detected nor any significant effect of relative humidity at 20%, 50% or 80%. The diffusive sampling of 3-EP was validated in field measurements in 15 restaurants in comparison with 3-EP and nicotine measurements using active sampling. The 3-EP concentration in restaurants ranged from 0.01 to 9.8 μg m -3, and the uptake rate for 3-EP based on 92 parallel samples was 24.0±0.4 mL min -1. A linear correlation ( r=0.98) was observed between 3-EP and nicotine concentrations, the average ratio of 3-EP to nicotine being 1:8. Active sampling of 3-EP and nicotine in charcoal tubes provided more reliable results than sampling in XAD-4 tubes. All samples were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after elution with a 15% solution of pyridine in toluene. For nicotine, the limit of quantification of the charcoal tube method was 4 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04 μg m -3 for an air sample of 96 L. For 3-EP, the limit of quantification of the diffusive method was 0.5-1.0 ng per sample, corresponding to 0.04-0.09 μg m -3 for 8 h sampling. The diffusive method proved suitable for ETS monitoring, even at low levels of ETS.

  14. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  15. Personal and environmental characteristics related to epithelial ovarian cancer. II. Exposures to talcum powder, tobacco, alcohol, and coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, A S; Wu, M L; Paffenbarger, R S; Sarles, D L; Kampert, J B; Grosser, S; Jung, D L; Ballon, S; Hendrickson, M

    1988-12-01

    Vaginal exposures to talc and other particulates may play an etiologic role in epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical sterilization may protect against ovarian cancer by blocking entry of such particulates into the peritoneal cavity. The authors assessed histories of talcum powder use, tubal sterilization, and hysterectomy with ovarian conservation in 188 women in the San Francisco Bay Area with epithelial ovarian cancers diagnosed in 1983-1985 and in 539 control women. To investigate the roles of blood-borne environmental exposures on ovarian cancer risk, they assessed lifetime consumption of coffee, tobacco, and alcohol in these women. Of the 539 controls, 280 were hospitalized women without overt cancer, and 259 were chosen from the general population by random digit telephone dialing. Ninety-seven (52%) of the cancer patients habitually used talcum powder on the perineum, compared with 247 (46%) of the controls. Adjusted for parity, the relative risk (RR) = 1.40, p = 0.06. There were no statistically significant trends with increasing frequency or duration of talc use, and patients did not differ from controls in use of talc on sanitary pads and/or contraceptive diaphragms. Fewer ovarian cancer patients (7%) than controls (13%) reported prior fallopian tube ligation (RR, adjusted for parity, = 0.56, p = 0.06), and fewer patients (20%) than controls (28%) reported prior hysterectomy (RR = 0.66, p = 0.05). The protective effect of hysterectomy was confined to those who underwent this surgery 10 or more years prior to interview and to those who had not undergone prior tubal sterilization. Consumption of cigarettes and alcohol did not differ between cases and controls. By contrast, 11 (6%) cases never regularly consumed coffee, compared with 31 (11%) hospital controls and 26 (10%) population controls (RR, adjusted for smoking, = 2.2, p = 0.03, for the comparison using all controls). Overall, ovarian cancer risk among women who had drunk coffee for more than 40 years

  16. Reduced content of homogalacturonan does not alter the ion-mediated increase in xylem hydraulic conductivity in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Andrea; Gascó, Antonio; Cervone, Felice; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2007-04-01

    Xylem hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) in stems of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) wild-type SR1 was compared to that of PG7 and PG16, two transgenic lines with increased levels of expression of the gene encoding the Aspergillus niger endopolygalacturonase (AnPGII). Activity of AnPGII removes in planta blocks of homogalacturonan (HG) with deesterified carboxyls, thus increasing the degree of neutrality of pectins. The effect of K+ was tested in increasing stem K(s) using model plants with more neutral polysaccharides in primary walls and, hence, in intervessel pit membranes. K(s) measured with deionized water was compared to that with KCl solutions at increasing concentrations (DeltaK(s), %). Plants transformed for HG degree of neutrality showed a dwarfed phenotype, but DeltaK(s) did not differ among the three experimental groups. The ion-mediated hydraulic effect saturated at a KCl concentration of 25 mm in SR1 plants. All the three tobacco lines showed DeltaK(s) of around +12.5% and +17.0% when perfused with 10 and 25 mm KCl, respectively. Because modification of HG content did not influence ion-mediated hydraulic enhancement, we suggest that pectin components other than HG, like rhamnogalacturonan-I and/or rhamnogalacturonan-II, might play important roles in the hydrogel behavior of pit membranes.

  17. Novel approaches and tools to reduce environmental impacts in agrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Fabrizio; Macagnano, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    possible to obtain fibres in the range of tens of nanometres to few micrometres to create 2D and 3D fibrous scaffolds. These nanostructures are characterised by considerable porosity and large surface area. The further possibility to use a variety of materials (inorganic and organic) to produce pure and composite polymers enlarge the possible properties of the resulting nanostructures for a multitude of applications (medicine, environment, healthcare, textile, energy, etc.) considerably. The nanofibrous scaffolds we created on purpose were specifically aimed at i) preventing micronutrient deficiency in plants (iron mobilisation mediated by siderophore release followed by plant uptake); ii) developing PGPR-biofilms stimulating plant growth by hormones and mobilising nutrients (phosphorus) and micronutrients (iron); iii) developing biocontrol fungal biofilms protecting plants from diseases by suppressing phytopathogen activity; iv) removing organic xenobiotics by adsorption and degradation mechanisms, thus limiting their environmental and health impact; v) developing sensing systems to detect xenobiotics, monitor their degradation and assess holistic soil metabolic activity.

  18. Insulating wool production plant of reduced environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratti, A.

    1990-11-09

    A plant for producing insulating wool, such as glass wool and/or rock wool, comprises at least one forming machine, at least one polymerization oven, and first and second air treatment means. The total air load of the forming machine and the total air load of the polymerization oven are fed to the first air treament means, from the buffer vessel of which a recycle air load is drawn off. Both the forming machine and the polymerization oven introduce infiltration air loads, which result in the need for a bleed air load to be discharged into the atmosphere through the second air treatment means. In addition, in plants of sufficiently high capacity, it is economically attractive to feed the total air load of the forming machine and polymerization oven separately to the first air treatment means so that the temperature of the forming machine air load undergoes temperature control while the oven air load not only retains its entire heat content, but if possible increases it by heat exchange with other points of the plant at higher temperature. For example, it is possible to increase the temperature of the oven air load with heat recovery downstream of the incinerator furnace so as to recycle it to the oven and reduce or eliminate fuel consumption there. An example of the air load and energy savings possible at a typical plant is included. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  20. Reducing Environmental Risks by Information Disclosure: Evidence in Residential Lead Paint Disclosure Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyunhoe

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…

  1. Options to reduce environmental impacts of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for palm oil worldwide. In Thailand, oil palm is being promoted by the government but this expansion is associated with several environmental impacts. We identified 26 options for reducing the environmental impact of palm oil production in Thailand, and assessed their c

  2. Reducing the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt: a scenario approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankendaal, T.; Schuur, P.C.; Voordijk, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, measures are evaluated to reduce the environmental impact of concrete and asphalt. Several composition scenarios are designed for these materials and are evaluated based on their environmental performance using life-cycle assessment (LCA). The effect of low-energy production technique

  3. Measuring the Efficacy of an Energy and Environmental Awareness Campaign to Effectively Reduce Water Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura Little

    2010-01-01

    Increased energy costs and a move toward environmental stewardship are driving many organizations, including universities, to engage in awareness efforts to reduce both energy consumption and their carbon footprint. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether organizational programs aimed at energy and environmental awareness have a…

  4. Computational environmental ethnography: combining collective sensing and ethnographic inquiries to advance means for reducing environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Entwistle, Johanne Mose

    2013-01-01

    research experiments are attempting to motivate environmental improvements through feedback via, e.g., room displays, web pages or smart phones, based on (smart) metering of energy usage, or for saving energy by automatic control of, e.g., heating, lighting or appliances. However, existing evaluation...

  5. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  6. The Xerophyta viscosa aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) confers enhanced drought and salinity tolerance to transgenic tobacco plants by scavenging methylglyoxal and reducing the membrane damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Singh, Preeti; Yusuf, Mohd Aslam; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Hohn, Thomas; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2013-06-01

    We report the efficacy of an aldose reductase (ALDRXV4) enzyme from Xerophyta viscosa Baker in enhancing the prospects of plant's survival under abiotic stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing ALDRXV4 cDNA showed alleviation of NaCl and mannitol-induced abiotic stress. The transgenic plants survived longer periods of water deficiency and salinity stress and exhibited improved recovery after rehydration as compared to the wild type plants. The increased synthesis of aldose reductase in transgenic plants correlated with reduced methylglyoxal and malondialdehyde accumulation and an elevated level of sorbitol under stress conditions. In addition, the transgenic lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency, less electrolyte damage, greater water retention, higher proline accumulation, and favorable ionic balance under stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest the potential of engineering aldose reductase levels for better performance of crop plants growing under drought and salt stress conditions.

  7. Analytical studies on tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in tobacco and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1991-01-01

    Chemical-analytical studies have led to the identification of approximately 3000 compounds in tobacco and 4000 in tobacco smoke. These include carcinogens in processed tobacco as well as tumor initiators, tumor promoters, cocarcinogens, and organ-specific carcinogens in tobacco smoke. The latter group includes N-nitrosamines, in particular those that derive from nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, the TSNA. In vitro nitrosation of nicotine yields NNN, NNA, and NNK. Nitrosation of other tobacco alkaloids leads to the formation of NAT, and NAB. Our analytical studies using GC-TEA have led to the identification of seven TSNA in tobacco and tobacco smoke. In addition to NNN, NAT, NAB, and NNK, we also identified NNAL, iso-NNAL, and, most recently, iso-NNAC. Their levels range from 0.01 to 92 ppm in tobacco and from 6 to 530 ng/cigarette in tobacco smoke. The high levels observed in snuff are primarily due to fermentation and aging. Technological methods exist today to reduce the levels of TSNA in both tobacco and cigarette smoke.

  8. Risk-Based Pricing and Risk-Reducing Effort: Does the Private Insurance Market Reduce Environmental Accidents?

    OpenAIRE

    Haitao Yin; Howard Kunreuther; Matthew White

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines whether risk-based pricing promotes risk-reducing effort. Such mechanisms are common in private insurance markets, but are rarely incorporated in government assurance programs. We analyze accidental underground fuel tank leaks--a source of environmental damage to water supplies--over a fourteen-year period, using disaggregate (facility-level) data and policy variation in financing the cleanup of tank leaks over time. The data suggest that eliminating a state-level governme...

  9. Actions reducing tobacco smoking at the workplace--do larger and richer companies solve the problem better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    Workplaces are an important subject of state policy regarding smoking. They are obliged to comply with the prohibition of smoking in public places, except special smoking-rooms--if the employer decides to create such. This paper discusses the Polish enterprises activity in relation to smoking, according to new legal obligations and principles of health promotion programs. Furthermore, the article raises the question whether companies' size and economic situation differentiate their attitude to smoking. 1002 interviews (computer-assisted telephone interview - CATI) conducted in November/December 2010 (date of entry into force of the new law regarding smoking at the workplace) in a representative sample workplace employing above 50 employees. A total smoking prohibition applies in 23% of companies, smoking is allowed only in special smoking-rooms and outside the building in 54% of enterprises, in 23% of companies regulations are inconsistent with the state policy (for example smoking allowed in the corridors). Apart from smoking bans, companies introduce disciplinary punishments for breaking them and health education (in the absence of other activities promoting non-smoking). In one in three companies' the management does not enforce the compliance with the introduced regulations. Generally, the management does not see a connection between employees smoking and the functioning of the company. In every second company, employees to a greater or lesser extent break the smoking ban. Companies' economic situation does not differentiate their attitude to the problem, the size of employment only slightly. The results obtained can be used for future evaluation of the effectiveness of the state tobacco control policy and proper direction of the programs aimed at releasing companies from smoke as well as campaigns prepared for employers.

  10. How the redox state of tobacco 'Bel-W3' is modified in response to ozone and other environmental factors in a sub-tropical area?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ana P.L.; Dafre, Marcelle; Rinaldi, Mirian C.S. [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, Marisa, E-mail: mmingos@superig.com.b [Instituto de Botanica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This study intended to determine whether the redox state in plants of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' fluctuates in response to the environmental factors in a sub-tropical area contaminated by ozone (Sao Paulo, SE - Brazil) and which environmental factors are related to this fluctuation, discussing their biomonitoring efficiency. We comparatively evaluated the indicators of redox state (ascorbic acid, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and leaf injury in 17 field experiments performed in 2008. The redox state was explained by the combined effects of chronic levels of O{sub 3} and meteorological variables 4-6 days prior to the plant sampling. Moderate leaf injury was observed in most cases. The redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. - Research highlights: Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel-W3' is potentially a bioindicator of O{sub 3} in the sub-tropics. However, it is unknown if its redox state would affect its bioindicator performance under sub-tropical environmental conditions. This study revealed that the redox state of tobacco decreases few days after their placement in the sub-tropical environment, causing them to become susceptible to oxidative stress imposed by chronic doses of O{sub 3}. Therefore, its bioindicator efficiency would not be diminished in such levels of atmospheric contamination. However, the bioindicator efficiency N. tabacum 'Bel-W3' for biomonitoring O{sub 3} should be regionally modeled in the sub-tropics, based on both its redox state and on the flux of O{sub 3} through stomata, in response to the varying micro-meteorological conditions that govern both physiological processes. - The bioindicator efficiency of tobacco plants is not

  11. Efectos de la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en no fumadores EFFECTS IN PASSIVE SMOKERS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOBACCO SMOKE EXPOSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO BELLO S.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión de los estudios nacionales e internacionales sobre los efectos del humo de tabaco ambiental en la salud de los fumadores pasivos. El humo de tabaco ambiental está conformado por más de 4.000 sustancias químicas, las que difieren cuali y cuantitativamente al estar presentes en la corriente principal o en la lateral. Los no fumadores expuestos presentan un aumento de morbi-mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular, incluso con estudios con biomarcadores como cotinina. Además los fumadores pasivos tienen un riesgo aumentado de presentar cáncer de pulmón, de senos paranasales y mama. En niños existe un mayor número de síntomas respiratorios agudos y crónicos, infecciones respiratorias bajas, otitis media y síndrome de muerte súbita infantil. El humo de tabaco ambiental favorece la inducción y exacerbación de asma bronquial en niños y adultos. En la salud reproductiva, disminuye la edad de aparición de la menopausia y produce desórdenes menstruales. Los recién nacidos hijos de madres fumadoras pasivas tienen mayor probabilidad de nacer con bajo peso o de ser pequeños para la edad gestacional. La evidencia científica internacional debe contribuir a que los países tomen medidas para proteger la salud de los no fumadoresNational and international environmental tobacco smoke studies were reviewed regarding its effects on passive smokers' health. Environmental tobacco smoke is composed by more than 4,000 known substances, which are different if they are in the mainstream or sidestream. Studies with biomarkers like cotinine have concluded that exposed nonsmokers have an increased cardiovascular morbi-mortality. Passive smokers also have an increased risk of lung, nasal sinus and breast cancer. Children have more acute and chronic respiratory symptoms, low respiratory infections, otitis and sudden infant death syndrome. Environmental tobacco smoke induces asthma and causes exacerbations in both children and

  12. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure.

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke increases autophagic effects but decreases longevity associated with Sirt-1 protein expression in young C57BL mice hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wei-Jen; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Xiao, Zi-Jun; Lu, Xin-Ze; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Wen, Su-Ying; PadmaViswanadha, Vijaya; Jiang, Chong-He; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-28

    Recently, a survey by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that nearly 90% of U.S. adult smokers began smoking at the age of 18. This demonstrates that the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) of youngsters today is changing from passive smoking to active smoking (direct inhalation of tobacco). In the current study, an investigation of ETS exposure in young C57BL mice was conducted. After 6 weeks of ETS exposure, the Sirt-1 protein level was decreased and cardiac autophagy was increased in C57BL mice. Furthermore, the IGF2R cardiac hypertrophy signaling pathway was also triggered, although cardiac apoptosis and hypertrophy were not induced. Youngsters' desire to look more mature is one of the psychological factors that impacts smoking amongst young people. Our results suggest that though ETS exposure might cause cardiac autophagy amongst youngsters, the loss of the longevity Sirt-1 protein and the increase in IGF2R cardiac hypertrophy signaling could still promote heart diseases that are age-specific.

  14. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  15. Potato virus Y HC-Pro Reduces the ATPase Activity of NtMinD, Which Results in Enlarged Chloroplasts in HC-Pro Transgenic Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yayi; Zhang, Zhenqian; Li, Daofeng; Li, Heng; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important plant virus and causes great losses every year. Viral infection often leads to abnormal chloroplasts. The first step of chloroplast division is the formation of FtsZ ring (Z-ring), and the placement of Z-ring is coordinated by the Min system in both bacteria and plants. In our lab, the helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro) of PVY was previously found to interact with the chloroplast division protein NtMinD through a yeast two-hybrid screening assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in vivo. Here, we further investigated the biological significance of the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction. We purified the NtMinD and HC-Pro proteins using a prokaryotic protein purification system and tested the effect of HC-Pro on the ATPase activity of NtMinD in vitro. We found that the ATPase activity of NtMinD was reduced in the presence of HC-Pro. In addition, another important chloroplast division related protein, NtMinE, was cloned from the cDNA of Nicotiana tabacum. And the NtMinD/NtMinE interaction site was mapped to the C-terminus of NtMinD, which overlaps the NtMinD/HC-Pro interaction site. Yeast three-hybrid assay demonstrated that HC-Pro competes with NtMinE for binding to NtMinD. HC-Pro was previously reported to accumulate in the chloroplasts of PVY-infected tobacco and we confirmed this result in our present work. The NtMinD/NtMinE interaction is very important in the regulation of chloroplast division. To demonstrate the influence of HC-Pro on chloroplast division, we generated HC-Pro transgenic tobacco with a transit peptide to retarget HC-Pro to the chloroplasts. The HC-Pro transgenic plants showed enlarged chloroplasts. Our present study demonstrated that the interaction between HC-Pro and NtMinD interfered with the function of NtMinD in chloroplast division, which results in enlarged chloroplasts in HC-Pro transgenic tobacco. The HC-Pro/NtMinD interaction may cause the formation of abnormal chloroplasts in PVY

  16. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  17. Methylation of free-floating deoxyribonucleic acid fragments in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of dogs with chronic bronchitis exposed to environmental tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, Yoshiki; Sugiya, Hiroshi; Watari, Toshihiro

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of canine chronic bronchitis (CB) is not completely understood, although exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects the airway inflammatory responses in some dogs with CB. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We investigated the concentrations and methylation rates of free-floating DNA fragments in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from dogs with chronic bronchitis. Based on serum cotinine levels, dogs with CB were divided into 2 groups: dogs that either had or had not been exposed to ETS. Our results demonstrated that the total nucleated cell and macrophage numbers increased in BALF of ETS-exposed dogs with CB. There were no significant differences in DNA concentrations and methylation rates in BALF between the 2 groups. However, 3 out of 8 dogs exposed to ETS had high DNA methylation rates in their BALF samples. Our results suggest that ETS exposure leads to epigenetic modifications of cellular components in BALF in dogs diagnosed with CB.

  18. Socioeconomic, demographic and smoking-related correlates of the use of potentially reduced exposure to tobacco products in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Raees A; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, new non-traditional, potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs), claiming to contain fewer harmful chemicals than the traditional products, have been introduced in the market. Little is known about socioeconomic, demographic and smoking-related determinants of the likelihood of using these products among smokers. The aim of this study was to examine these determinants. Data from the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey was used. We limited the analysis to current smokers (n=40724). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the association between covariates and the probability of the use of PREPs. We found that younger age, lower education, higher nicotine addiction and having an intention to quit are associated with higher likelihood of the use of PREPs. The likelihood of using these products was found to be higher among respondents who are unemployed or have a service, production, sales or farming occupation than those with a professional occupation. Smokers living in the midwest, south or west, were found to have a greater likelihood of the use of PREPs than those living in the northeast. Because there is little evidence to suggest that PREPs are less harmful that other tobacco products, their marketing as harm-minimising products should be regulated. Smokers, in particular those who are younger, have a lower socioeconomic status, and are more nicotine-dependent, should be the target of educational programmes that reveal the actual harm of PREPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Further considerations on the evaluation of potential reduced-risk tobacco products. Part II: Re-assessment of a heuristic using the CPS-II database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrelle, Lenn; Coggins, Christopher R E; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard A; Lee, Peter N; Zedler, Barbara K; Heidbreder, Christian

    2010-06-01

    In a previous analysis (see Part I) we proposed a heuristic for assessing the efficacy of potential reduced-risk tobacco products (PRRPs) on lung cancer (LC) rates, using smoking cessation data published in a report from the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) as a basis for sample size estimates. In this study, an additional analysis was performed using cessation data from the much larger Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which also provides data on different durations of cessation. Statistical methods were used to assess whether smokers switching to a PRRP would reduce their risk of LC. Furthermore, non-inferiority tests compared the LC risk in switchers to that in smokers who had quit smoking. The present work shows that similar sample size estimates were obtained whether the analysis was based on the IWHS or the CPS-II data sets, suggesting that the heuristic may be generally applicable to prospective real-life studies to evaluate PRRPs. Non-inferiority testing of switchers compared with quitters required approximately 10-fold more subjects than did superiority testing of switchers compared with smokers. Altogether, these estimates indicate that it is feasible, in terms of study duration and sample size, to clinically assess the LC risk-reducing potential of a PRRP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of nicotine in tobacco products based on mussel-inspired reduced graphene oxide-supported gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yanqiu Jing; Xiuxiu Yuan; Qiu Yuan; Kuanxin He; Yingjie Liu; Ping Lu; Huaiqi Li; Bin Li; Hui Zhan; Guangliang Li

    2016-01-01

    Polydopamine functionalized reduced graphene oxide-gold nanoparticle (PDA-RGO/Au) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by a simple and mild procedure. The PDA-RGO/Au nanocomposite is successfully formed in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 8.5) without using any reducing agent. FTIR confirmed the successful coating of PDA and informed the reduction of the surface functional groups of GO. The formation of reduced GO and Au NPs was further evidenced by UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscop...

  1. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  2. Artificial neural network based model to calculate the environmental variables of the tobacco drying process; Modelo basado en redes neuronales artificiales para el cálculo de parámetros ambientales en el proceso de curado del tabaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Martínez-Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Artificial Neural Network (ANN based model for environmental variables related to the tobacco drying process. A fitting ANN was used to estimate and predict temperature and relative humidity inside the tobacco dryer: the estimation consists of calculating the value of these variables in different locations of the dryer and the prediction consists of forecasting the value of these variables with different time horizons. The proposed model has been validated with temperature and relative humidity data obtained from a real tobacco dryer using a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. On the one hand, an error under 2% was achieved, obtaining temperature as a function of temperature and relative humidity in other locations in the estimation task. Besides, an error around 1.5 times lower than the one obtained with an interpolation method was achieved in the prediction task when the temperature inside the tobacco mass was predicted with time horizons over 2.5 hours as a function of its present and past values. These results show that ANN-based models can be used to improve the tobacco drying process because with these types of models the value of environmental variables can be predicted in the near future and can be estimated in other locations with low errors.

  3. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    petroleum consumption; conserve water; reduce waste; support sustainable communities; and leverage Federal purchasing power to promote environmentally...environmentally-sound operation of DoD airports. Wetlands and aquatic life can be adversely affected by exposure to seemingly low toxicity chemicals...Mountain Home AFB 3,450 Misawa, Japan 81,996 Hill AFB, UT 56,013 Osan, S. Korea 12,000 Elmendorf AFB, AK 105,000 Kunsan, S. Korea 24,000 (a) Obtained

  4. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Erik Klonek; Amelie Verena Güntner; Nale eLehmann-Willenbrock; Simone eKauffeld

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  5. Trade in the US and Mexico helps reduce environmental costs of agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Melendez, Luz A.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing international crop trade has enlarged global shares of cropland, water and fertilizers used to grow crops for export. Crop trade can reduce the environmental burden on importing countries, which benefit from embedded environmental resources in imported crops, and from avoided environmental impacts of production in their territory. International trade can also reduce the universal environmental impact of food production if crops are grown where they are produced in the most environmentally efficient way. We compared production efficiencies for the same crops in the US and Mexico to determine whether current crop trade between these two countries provides an overall benefit to the environment. Our economic and environmental accounting for the key traded crops from 2010 to 2014 shows that exports to Mexico are just 3% (∼16 thousand Gg) of the total production of these crops in the US, and exports to US represent roughly 0.13% (∼46 Gg) of Mexican total production of the same crops. Yields were higher in US than Mexico for all crops except wheat. Use of nitrogen fertilizer was higher in US than in Mexico for all crops except corn. Current trade reduces some, but not all, environmental costs of agriculture. A counterfactual trade scenario showed that an overall annual reduction in cultivated land (∼371 thousand ha), water use (∼923 million m3), fertilizer use (∼122 Gg; ∼68 Gg nitrogen) and pollution (∼681 tonnes of N2O emissions to the atmosphere and ∼511 tonnes of leached nitrogen) can be achieved by changing the composition of food products traded. In this case, corn, soybeans and rice should be grown in the US, while wheat, sorghum and barley should be grown in Mexico. Assigning greater economic weight to the environmental costs of agriculture might improve the balance of trade to be more universally beneficial, environmentally.

  6. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  7. 不同减害材料对烟草薄片的减害效果研究%Various Materials for Reducing Harmful Components of Reconstituted Tobacco Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚元军; 何文; 王凤兰; 吴结缘; 刘志昌; 邹国林

    2012-01-01

    烟草薄片是一种新型的烟草制品,将之回用于卷烟生产过程,既实现了废烟料的综合利用,又提高了卷烟的内在品质.通过采用不同种类的减害材料处理薄片,经过检测分析主流烟气中有害成分含量的变化,筛选出柠檬酸钠、酒石酸钾钠、纳米TiO2-VK-TG01、纳米TiO2 -VK-TG02、沸石分子筛这5种合适的材料,作为今后薄片减害的有效添加物.%As a new type of tobacco product, reconstituted tobacco can be widely used in the process of cigarette production. This not only realizes the comprehensive utilization of tobacco residues, but improves the interior quality of cigarette. Various materials were used to treat the reconstituted tobacco and the harmful components in the mainstream smoke were detected. Several suitable materials, such as sodium citrate, potassium sodium tartrate, nano TiO2-VK-TG01, nano TiO2-VK-TG02 and zeolite molecular sieve were chosen as effective additives for reducing harmful components of the tobacco smoke.

  8. Modeling predicted that tobacco control policies targeted at lower educated will reduce the differences in life expectancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.E.; Lenthe, F. van; Hoogenveen, R.; Kunst, A.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objective: To estimate the effects of reducing the prevalence of smoking in lower educated groups on educational differences in life expectancy. Methods: A dynamic Markov-type multistate transition model estimated the effects on life expectancy of two scenarios. A "maximum scenario"

  9. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  10. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-01-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505

  11. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on self-reported reduced hearing in the old and oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Frederiksen, H; Hoffman, H J

    2001-01-01

    : The prevalence of self-reported reduced hearing corresponded to previous studies and showed the expected age and sex dependence. Concordance rates, odds ratios, and correlations were consistently higher for monozygotic twin pairs than for dizygotic twin pairs in all age and sex categories, indicating heritable......-reported reduced hearing in both men and women age 70 and older. Because self-reports of reduced hearing involve misclassification, this estimate of the genetic influence on hearing disabilities is probably conservative. Hence, genetic and environmental factors play a substantial role in reduced hearing among...... the old and oldest old. This suggests that clinical epidemiological studies of age-related hearing loss should include not only information on environmental exposures but also on family history of hearing loss and, if possible, biological samples for future studies of candidate genes for hearing loss....

  13. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toothpick-sized sticks. Some of these also contain sweeteners or flavoring and look a lot like candy. ... Still, tobacco companies often market these products as alternatives to smoking in places where smoking isn’t ...

  14. On Assessment of Atmospheric Environmental Quality of Zhaotong Tobacco Growing Areas%昭通市烟草种植区大气环境质量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志丹; 黄韡; 魏世强; 查洪波; 王强; 赵芳; 宋娇艳; 王法

    2015-01-01

    Through fixed atmospheric environment samples monitoring and analysis ,the atmospheric envi_ronment quality of tobacco growing representation regions in Zhaotong City ,Yunnan province has been studied .In accordance with the fist standard of the national standard GB3095 1996 and single factor pol_lution index ,Nemerow integrated pollution index method for atmospheric TSP ,sulfur dioxide ,nitrogen oxides and heavy metals have been analyzed and evaluated .The results show that the average single factor pollution index Pip of TSP ,SO2 ,NOX ,Cd ,Pb ,Hg six indicators is less than 1 ,which suggests that at_mospheric environmental quality of Zhaotong tobacco growing representation regions is generally good , and atmospheric environment is of no contamination .The pollution loads ratio on six indicators were sor_ted ,it showed that the order is cadmium> mercury>NOX >SO2 > TSP> Pb .The atmospheric Nemerow integrated pollution indexes of all sampling points were less than 1 ,which shows the atmospheric environ_mental quality is cleaner .Therefore ,on the whole ,the atmospheric environment quality of tobacco grow_ing representation regions in Zhaotong reach the fist standard of the national standard ,and these regions are suitable for green ,eco_tobacco cultivation .%通过对烤烟种植区大气环境定点采样监测分析,研究了云南省昭通市代表性植烟区的大气环境质量:按照国标GB30951996及其修改单的一级标准,采用单因子污染指数法、内梅罗综合污染指数法对大气中的 T S P、二氧化硫、氮氧化物和重金属含量进行了分析评价。结果表明:TSP ,SO2,NOX ,Cd ,Pb ,Hg 6项指标中单因子污染指数P ip平均值均小于1,昭通烟区大气环境质量总体良好,没有受到污染;对6项指标的污染负荷比进行排序,烟区大气污染物污染负荷比大小依次为Cd ,Hg ,NOX ,SO2,TSP ,Pb ;所有采样点大气综合污染指数均小于1,大气环境

  15. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  16. [3-nitrotyrosine determination as nitrosative stress marker and health attitudes of medical students considering exposure to environmental tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumska, Magdalena; Wielkoszyński, Tomasz; Tyrpień, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    Negative attitudes in health such as cigarette smoking and imbalanced diet play important role in pathogenesis of various diseases. Cigarette smoking constitutes one of the main sources of exposure to cancerogenic and procancerogenic xenobiotics among adults as well as among young people. Many studies have proven that cigarettes smokers more frequently follow less varied diet in comparison to non-smokers. Despite increasing knowledge of Poles regarding harmful effects of cigarettes smoking and numerous antinicotine campaigns, still high number of women and men smoke and the smoking percentage among young people remains high and has not decreased in the recent years. The ongoing research shows that free radicals -the man cause of exposure to oxidative stress- play the seminal role in pathogenesis of civilisation diseases and physiological cell aging processes. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species present in cigarette smoke due to induced toxic compounds formation, are closely connected with observed increased risk of cancer, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and arteriosclerosis incidents. Malondialdehyde is one of the most studied product of lipid peroxidation and biomarker of oxidative stress. However, 3-nitrotyrosine is one of the most promising biomarkers regarding changes caused by oxidative stress in living organisms. The presence of 3-nitrotyrosine was observed in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, cancer and diabetes. The aim of the study was the evaluation of free radical processes increase related to tobacco smoke exposure and chosen diet habits by determination of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma samples collected from the group of medicine students. In our investigation we used an author's questionnaire which served to estimate the exposure to tobacco smoke among medicine students. It took also into account the knowledge of the exposure to other xenobiotics and unhealthy habits/behaviours. The investigated group included 150 students of 1

  17. Cytokinin-dependent improvement in transgenic P(SARK)::IPT tobacco under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Wilhelmi, María Del Mar; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Eva; Rosales, Miguel Angel; Blasco, Begoña; Rios, Juan Jose; Romero, Luis; Blumwald, Eduardo; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2011-10-12

    Wild-type (WT) and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing isopentenyltransferase (IPT), a gene coding the rate-limiting step in cytokinin (CKs) synthesis, were grown under limited nitrogen (N) conditions to evaluate the role of CKs in NUE (N-use efficiency) and in different parameters that determine the quality of tobacco leaves. The results indicate that WT tobacco plants submitted to N deficiency show a decline in the leaf/root ratio, associated with a decrease in the NUE and in tobacco-leaf quality, defined by an increase in the quantity of nicotine. On the contrary, the transgenic plants submitted to N deficiency maintained the leaf/root ratio, presenting a higher NUE and greater quality of tobacco leaves than the WT plants, as the latter showed reduced nicotine and an increase in reducing sugars under severe N-deficiency conditions. Therefore, the overexpression of CKs under N deficiency could be a useful tool to improve tobacco cultivation, given that it could reduce N-fertilizer application and thereby provide economic savings and environmental benefits, maintaining yield and improving tobacco leaf quality.

  18. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  19. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  20. Strategies to reduce the environmental impact of an aluminium pressure die casting plant: A scenario analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, B.; Kroeze, C.; Hordijk, L.; Costa, C.; Pulles, M.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores a model (MIKADO) to analyse scenarios for the reduction of the environmental impact of an aluminium die casting plant. Our model calculates the potential to reduce emissions, and the costs associated with implementation of reduction options. In an earlier paper [Neto, B., Kroeze,

  1. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  2. Stability and Change of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Common Liability to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis DSM-IV Dependence Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. E.; Corley, R. P.; Hopfer, C. J.; Stallings, M. C.; Hewitt, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence across adolescence and young adulthood. DSM-IV symptom counts from 2,361 adolescents were obtained using a structured diagnostic interview. Several sex-limited longitudinal common pathway models were used to examine gender differences in the magnitude of additive genetic (A), shared environment, and non-shared environmental effects over time. Model fitting indicated limited gender differences. Among older adolescents (i.e., age >14), the heritability of the latent trait was estimated at 0.43 (0.05, 0.94) during the first wave and 0.63 (0.21, 0.83) during the second wave of assessment. A common genetic factor could account for genetic influences at both assessments, as well as the majority of the stability of SAV over time [rA = 1.00 (0.55, 1.00)]. These results suggest that early genetic factors continue to play a key role at later developmental stages. PMID:23760788

  3. Patterns of cognitive dissonance-reducing beliefs among smokers: a longitudinal analysis from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotuhi, Omid; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess whether smokers adjust their beliefs in a pattern that is consistent with Cognitive Dissonance Theory. This is accomplished by examining the longitudinal pattern of belief change among smokers as their smoking behaviours change. A telephone survey was conducted of nationally representative samples of adult smokers from Canada, the USA, the UK and Australia from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey. Smokers were followed across three waves (October 2002 to December 2004), during which they were asked to report on their smoking-related beliefs and their quitting behaviour. Smokers with no history of quitting across the three waves exhibited the highest levels of rationalisations for smoking. When smokers quit smoking, they reported having fewer rationalisations for smoking compared with when they had previously been smoking. However, among those who attempted to quit but then relapsed, there was once again a renewed tendency to rationalise their smoking. This rebound in the use of rationalisations was higher for functional beliefs than for risk-minimising beliefs, as predicted by social psychological theory. Smokers are motivated to rationalise their behaviour through the endorsement of more positive beliefs about smoking, and these beliefs change systematically with changes in smoking status. More work is needed to determine if this cognitive dissonance-reducing function has an inhibiting effect on any subsequent intentions to quit.

  4. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Čavlek, M.; Boić, M.; Kristina Gršić; V. Kozumplik

    2008-01-01

    Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11%) and, energy for bulk-curing (89%)....

  5. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  6. Objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics and tobacco use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Qiana L; Milam, Adam J; Smart, Mieka J; Johnson, Renee M; Linton, Sabriya L; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-01-01

    In the US, past month tobacco use is higher among young adults aged 18-25 years than among any other age group. Neighborhood disorder may be a malleable environmental determinant of tobacco use among young adults; its correlation with tobacco use is understudied. The purpose of this study is to examine whether perceived and objectively measured neighborhood factors are associated with tobacco use among young adults in Baltimore City. This cross-sectional study of predominately African American young adults (n=359) used logistic regression models via generalized estimating equations (GEE) to estimate the association of perceived and objective neighborhood disorder with past month tobacco use, adjusting for race, age, sex, income, and other substance use. Two measures of perceived neighborhood environment - neighborhood drug involvement, and neighborhood social cohesion - were derived from the Neighborhood Environment Scale (NES). Objective neighborhood disorder was measured via trained field raters using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy) instrument. Sex modified the relationship between perceived neighborhood drug involvement and past month tobacco use, and the association was significant among women only (aOR=1.49; 95% CI=1.19-1.88). Perceptions of neighborhood social cohesion (aOR=0.97; 95% CI=0.83-1.13), and objective neighborhood disorder (aOR=1.17; 95% CI=0.98-1.38) were not significantly associated with past month tobacco use. Understanding the correlation between perceived and objective neighborhood disorder, and their independent association with tobacco use can potentially lead to environmentally based interventions aimed at reducing tobacco use among young adults who live in urban environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Erik Klonek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT, threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT, threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI—an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation—can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group. We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions. As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk. Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  8. Status of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in children and research progress of intervention measures%儿童环境烟草烟雾暴露状况及干预措施研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2015-01-01

    儿童由于其生理特征,暴露于环境烟草烟雾的不良健康影响更大,除了会导致不良的生理作用,如肺功能异常、哮喘、耳部疾病和婴儿猝死综合征等,也会使儿童出现行为、态度及情感方面的障碍.作者主要从环境烟草烟雾对儿童的影响儿童烟草暴露情况及国内外家庭环境中对烟草烟雾的主要干预措施3个方面进行综述.%Because of children's physiological characteristics,the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke may cause more serious harm to children's health,and it will lead to not only the adverse physiological effects,such as abnormal lung function,asthma,ear diseases and sudden infant death syndrome,but also the behavior,attitude and emotional disorders.The author summarizes the influence of environmental tobacco smoke in children,status of exposure to tobacco in children,and main intervention measures against tobacco smoke in family at home and abroad.

  9. A longitudinal study of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: Parental self reports versus age dependent biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyer Jordi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness of the negative effects of smoking on children's health prompted a decrease in the self-reporting of parental tobacco use in periodic surveys from most industrialized countries. Our aim is to assess changes between ETS exposure at the end of pregnancy and at 4 years of age determined by the parents' self-report and measurement of cotinine in age related biological matrices. Methods The prospective birth cohort included 487 infants from Barcelona city (Spain. Mothers were asked about maternal and household smoking habit. Cord serum and children's urinary cotinine were analyzed in duplicate using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. Results At 4 years of age, the median urinary cotinine level in children increased 1.4 or 3.5 times when father or mother smoked, respectively. Cotinine levels in children's urine statistically differentiated children from smoking mothers (Geometric Mean (GM 19.7 ng/ml; 95% CI 16.83–23.01 and exposed homes (GM 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI 5.61–8.99 compared with non-exposed homes (GM 4.5 ng/ml; 95% CI 3.71–5.48. Maternal self-reported ETS exposure in homes declined in the four year span between the two time periods from 42.2% to 31.0% (p Conclusion We concluded that cotinine levels determined in cord blood and urine, respectively, were useful for categorizing the children exposed to smoking and showed that a certain increase in ETS exposure during the 4-year follow-up period occurred.

  10. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  11. Diet as a confounder of the association between air pollution and female lung cancer: Hong Kong studies on exposures to environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes as examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, L C; Ho, J H

    1996-03-01

    Chinese females in Hong Kong, where only about a third of the lung cancer cases can be attributed to a history of active smoking, have a world age-standardized lung cancer incidence rate of 32.6 per 100 000, which is among the highest in the world. Trends in Hong Kong's female lung cancer mortality also indicate a tripling in mortality rates from 1961 to 1990. The characteristically high Chinese female lung cancer incidence among nonsmokers is also found among overseas Chinese communities in Singapore and Hawaii. To help elucidate the role of ingested and inhaled substances in the etiology of lung cancer, four epidemiological studies have been conducted in Hong Kong over the last 15 years: (1) a retrospective study of 200 cases and 200 neighbourhood controls, (2) a cross-sectional study measuring personal exposures to nitrogen dioxide among 362 children and their mothers, (3) a site monitoring study of 33 homes measuring airborne carcinogens, and (4) a telephone survey of 500 women on their dietary habits and exposure to air pollutants. Selected data from each study were drawn to evaluate exposures to three major air pollutants (environmental tobacco smoke, incense, and cooking fumes), their relationship with lung cancer risk, and their association with dietary habits. Generally in this population, nutritionally poorer diets were characterized by higher consumption of alcohol and preserved/cured foods, whereas better diets were characterized by higher intakes of fresh fruits, vegetables, and fish. For environmental tobacco smoke, exposure was only moderately high in Hong Kong (36% have current smokers at home), lung cancer risk was equivocal with exposure, and it was associated with poorer diets among wives with smoking husbands. Incense was identified as a major source of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and airborne carcinogens, but it had no effect on lung cancer risk among nonsmokers and significantly reduced risk (trend, P-value = 0.01) among smokers, even after

  12. TB & Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available One third of the world population is infected with tuberculosis, and over 8 millions people were developing each year. On the other hand tobacco is responsible for 3 millions death in the world. For Indonesia, our country has the third biggest TB cases in the world. Whereas Indonesia is ranked as having the fourth largest number of smokers in the world. A relationship between smoking and TB has been suspected for a long time, even though the epidemiological evidence has not been convincing so far, as well as the pathophysiology and the biomolecullar changes. At present time there are more and more epidemiological data to suggest relationship between TB and tobacco. Further research should be done to get more indepth relationship as well as avoiding the confounder factor. To be able to perform TB control as well as tobacco control successfully there should be emphasize on synergistic public health approaches. Tuberculosis –which Indonesia got 3rd rank in the world- as well as smoking problem –which Indonesia got 4th rank in the world- are two important public health problem for the country. If there are relationship between tobacco and tuberculosis, health problem faced by Indonesian even become bigger. Knowledge about tuberculosis as well as tobacco among Indonesian population is very essential to improve the public health situation. Tuberculosis control programme as well as smoking control programme are essential tools for the well being of Indonesian people. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 48-52 Keywords: tobacco, tuberculosis, epidemiological data

  13. Extinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger B J; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Friedman, Matt

    2016-03-08

    Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosystems during the Cenomanian.

  14. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  15. Of Fish and Fishermen: Shifting Societal Baselines to Reduce Environmental Harm in Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi E. Lam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available If reasonable fishery harvests and environmental harms are specified in new regulations, policies, and laws governing the exploitation of fish for food and livelihoods, then societal baselines can shift to achieve sustainable fisheries and marine conservation. Fisheries regulations can limit the environmental and social costs or harms caused by fishing by requiring the fishing industry to pay for the privilege to fish, via access fees for the opportunity to catch fish and extraction fees for fish caught; both fees can be combined with a progressive environmental tax to discourage overcapitalization and overfishing. Fisheries policies can be sustainable if predicated on an instrumental and ethical harm principle to reduce fishing harm. To protect the public trust in fisheries, environmental laws can identify the unsustainable depletion of fishery resources as ecological damage and a public nuisance to bind private fishing enterprises to a harm principle. Collaborative governance can foster sustainable fisheries if decision-making rights and responsibilities of marine stewardship are shared among government, the fishing industry, and civil society. As global food security and human welfare are threatened by accelerating human population growth and environmental impacts, decisions of how to use and protect the environment will involve collective choices in which all citizens have a stake - and a right.

  16. The relationship among IL-13, GSTP1, and CYP1A1 polymorphisms and environmental tobacco smoke in a population of children with asthma in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Balam; Magaña, Jonathan J; Romero-Toledo, Israel; Juárez-Pérez, Evelyn; López-Moya, Andrea; Leyva-García, Norberto; López-Campos, Celsa; Dávila-Borja, Víctor M; Albores, Arnulfo

    2012-03-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during early childhood increases the risk of developing asthma. The intention of this study was to genotype a population of children from Coahuila state in Northern Mexico and to determine whether polymorphisms of the CYP1A1, GSTP1, and IL13 genes are associated with exposure to ETS and subsequently a higher risk for asthma. IL13 plays an important role in the development of allergic response, particularly those related with airway inflammation. CYP1A1 and GSTP1 are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes induced by repeated exposure to toxicants. Polymorphisms of these genes have been related with ETS exposure and increased risk for asthma. To assess the effect of IL13 (-1112 C>T and Arg110Gln), GSTP1 (Ile105Val), and CYP1A1 (Ile462Val) on asthma risk and ETS exposure, we recruited 201 unrelated children and classified them into four groups: (1) control without ETS exposure; (2) control with ETS exposure; (3) with asthma and with ETS exposure and (4) with asthma and without ETS exposure. No association among ETS exposure, asthma, and the studied polymorphisms was denoted by multivariate analysis of this population.

  17. Clinical Practice Policy to Protect Children From Tobacco, Nicotine, and Tobacco Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Harold J; Walley, Susan C; Groner, Judith A; Nelson, Kevin E

    2015-11-01

    Tobacco dependence starts in childhood. Tobacco exposure of children is common and causes illness and premature death in children and adults, with adverse effects starting in the womb. There is no safe level of tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians should screen for use of tobacco and other nicotine delivery devices and provide anticipatory guidance to prevent smoking initiation and reduce tobacco smoke exposure. Pediatricians need to be aware of the different nicotine delivery systems marketed and available.Parents and caregivers are important sources of children's tobacco smoke exposure. Because tobacco dependence is a severe addiction, to protect children's health, caregiver tobacco dependence treatment should be offered or referral for treatment should be provided (such as referral to the national smoker's quitline at 1-800-QUIT-NOW). If the source of tobacco exposure cannot be eliminated, counseling about reducing exposure to children should be provided.Health care delivery systems should facilitate the effective prevention, identification, and treatment of tobacco dependence in children and adolescents, their parents, and other caregivers. Health care facilities should protect children from tobacco smoke exposure and tobacco promotion. Tobacco dependence prevention and treatment should be part of medical education, with knowledge assessed as part of board certification examinations. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Reducing the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination by using brackish groundwater resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ivan; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to find out whether or not, and to what extent, the environmental impacts of reverse osmosis desalination are reduced when brackish groundwater is used instead of sea water. In order to answer this question, the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used, and two water production plants are compared. The brackish groundwater scenario is based on a plant located in Almería (southern Spain), while the sea water scenario is based on literature data. Four impact categories and two environmental indicators, one of them related to brine discharge, are included. The results show that the key life-cycle issue of brackish groundwater desalination is electricity consumption, and since this is substantially reduced with regard to using sea water, the life-cycle impacts are found to be almost 50% lower. An uncertainty analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation shows that these environmental savings are significant for all impact categories. Potential local impacts provoked by brine discharge are also found to be lower, due to a reduced content of salts. It is concluded that, when and wherever possible, exploitation of brackish groundwater resources should be assigned priority to sea water resources as an input for reverse osmosis desalination, although it must be taken into account that groundwater, as opposed to sea water, is a limited resource.

  19. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  20. Metric Properties of the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy): An Environmental Assessment Tool for Measuring Indicators of Violence, Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr-Holden, C. D. M.; Campbell, K. D. M.; Milam, A. J.; Smart, M. J.; Ialongo, N. A.; Leaf, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Establish metric properties of the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology (NIfETy). Method: A total of 919 residential block faces were assessed by paired raters using the NIfETy. Reliability was evaluated via interrater and internal consistency reliability; validity by comparing NIfETy data with youth self-reported…

  1. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.

  2. Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts?--a meta-analysis of European research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, H L; Hodge, I D; Riordan, P; Macdonald, D W

    2012-12-15

    Organic farming practices have been promoted as, inter alia, reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. This meta-analysis systematically analyses published studies that compare environmental impacts of organic and conventional farming in Europe. The results show that organic farming practices generally have positive impacts on the environment per unit of area, but not necessarily per product unit. Organic farms tend to have higher soil organic matter content and lower nutrient losses (nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions and ammonia emissions) per unit of field area. However, ammonia emissions, nitrogen leaching and nitrous oxide emissions per product unit were higher from organic systems. Organic systems had lower energy requirements, but higher land use, eutrophication potential and acidification potential per product unit. The variation within the results across different studies was wide due to differences in the systems compared and research methods used. The only impacts that were found to differ significantly between the systems were soil organic matter content, nitrogen leaching, nitrous oxide emissions per unit of field area, energy use and land use. Most of the studies that compared biodiversity in organic and conventional farming demonstrated lower environmental impacts from organic farming. The key challenges in conventional farming are to improve soil quality (by versatile crop rotations and additions of organic material), recycle nutrients and enhance and protect biodiversity. In organic farming, the main challenges are to improve the nutrient management and increase yields. In order to reduce the environmental impacts of farming in Europe, research efforts and policies should be targeted to developing farming systems that produce high yields with low negative environmental impacts drawing on techniques from both organic and conventional systems.

  3. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  4. Graphene oxide reduced and modified by environmentally friendly glycylglycine and its excellent catalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Mingxi; Xu, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Lei; Xia, Fengling; Li, Xichuan; Liu, Yu; Hu, Wenping; Gao, Jianping

    2014-04-01

    An environmentally friendly new approach to prepare reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was developed by using glycylglycine (gly-gly) as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Graphene oxide (GO) was transformed to RGO with the appropriate pH, temperature and reducing agent/GO ratio. The RGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy. The RGO aqueous suspension showed extraordinary stability in the absence of any external stabilizing reagents. The XPS analysis showed that this excellent stability is due to modifications of the RGO nanosheets by the gly-gly molecules. The modified RGO complex with copper shows good catalytic performance for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  5. Tobacco or health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Delivering better power: the role of simulation in reducing the environmental impact of aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Kevin

    2014-08-13

    The growth in simulation capability over the past 20 years has led to remarkable changes in the design process for gas turbines. The availability of relatively cheap computational power coupled to improvements in numerical methods and physical modelling in simulation codes have enabled the development of aircraft propulsion systems that are more powerful and yet more efficient than ever before. However, the design challenges are correspondingly greater, especially to reduce environmental impact. The simulation requirements to achieve a reduced environmental impact are described along with the implications of continued growth in available computational power. It is concluded that achieving the environmental goals will demand large-scale multi-disciplinary simulations requiring significantly increased computational power, to enable optimization of the airframe and propulsion system over the entire operational envelope. However even with massive parallelization, the limits imposed by communications latency will constrain the time required to achieve a solution, and therefore the position of such large-scale calculations in the industrial design process.

  7. Reducing Food Loss and Waste to Enhance Food Security and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, Majid; Cai, Ximing

    2016-08-16

    While food shortage remains a big concern in many regions around the world, almost one-third of the total food production is discarded as food loss and waste (FLW). This is associated with about one-quarter of land, water, and fertilizer used for crop production, even though resources and environmental constraints are expected to limit food production around the world. FLW reduction represents a potential opportunity to enhance both food security and environmental sustainability and therefore has received considerable attention recently. By reviewing the recent progress and new developments in the literature, this paper highlights the importance of FLW prevention as a complementary solution to address the Grand Challenge of global food security and environmental sustainability. However, raising awareness only is not enough to realize the expected FLW reduction. We identify the knowledge gaps and opportunities for research by synthesizing the strategies of FLW reduction and the barriers, including (1) filling the data gaps, (2) quantifying the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of FLW reduction strategies, (3) understanding the scale effects, and (4) exploring the impacts of global transitions. It is urgent to take more aggressive yet scientifically based actions to reduce FLW, which require everyone's involvement along the food supply chain, including policy makers, food producers and suppliers, and food consumers.

  8. The role of Life Cycle Assessment in identifying and reducing environmental impacts of CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathre, Roger; Masanet, Eric; Cain, Jennifer; Chester, Mikhail

    2011-04-20

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) should be used to assist carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) planners to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and avoid unintended environmental trade-offs. LCA is an analytical framework for determining environmental impacts resulting from processes, products, and services. All life cycle stages are evaluated including raw material sourcing, processing, operation, maintenance, and component end-of-life, as well as intermediate stages such as transportation. In recent years a growing number of LCA studies have analyzed CCS systems. We reviewed 50+ LCA studies, and selected 11 studies that compared the environmental performance of 23 electric power plants with and without CCS. Here we summarize and interpret the findings of these studies. Regarding overall climatemitigation effectiveness of CCS, we distinguish between the capture percentage of carbon in the fuels, the net carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction, and the net GHG emission reduction. We also identify trade-offs between the climate benefits and the potential increased non-climate impacts of CCS. Emissions of non-CO2 flue gases such as NOx may increase due to the greater throughput of fuel, and toxicity issues may arise due to the use of monoethanolamine (MEA) capture solvent, resulting in ecological and human health impacts. We discuss areas where improvements in LCA data or methods are needed. The decision to implement CCS should be based on knowledge of the overall environmental impacts of the technologies, not just their carbon capture effectiveness. LCA will be an important tool in providing that knowledge.

  9. Effects of Amino Acid Fertilizer on Flue-cured Tobacco Fertilizer Reducing and Efficiency Increasing%氨基酸肥对烤烟减肥增效的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪霞; 罗勇; 张燕; 金必志; 王云; 高松; 陶永萍; 查宏波; 游堂贵; 陆文林; 陈旭; 肖家繁; 陈淮

    2016-01-01

    [目的]探究氨基酸肥对烤烟生长发育和烟叶品质的影响。[方法]以云烟87为供试烤烟品种,采用同田对比的方式,设化学肥料(对照)、化学肥料+固态氨基酸肥、化学肥料+液态氨基酸肥3个处理,研究氨基酸肥对烤烟减肥增效的作用。[结果]施用固态氨基酸肥烤烟的农艺性状整体表现最好,液态氨基酸肥有利于烟株顶部叶片的开片;固态氨基酸肥处理的产量最高,而液态氨基酸肥处理的原烟外观质量最好,能提高均价和中上等烟比例,获得较好的经济效益。液态氨基酸肥处理的各部位烟叶糖碱比、双糖差均最适宜,化学成分协调性最好。与对照相比,氨基酸肥料处理的刺激性更小,余味更舒适,其中液态氨基酸肥处理的杂气较轻,感官质量整体表现最好。[结论]综合比较,施用化学肥料+液态氨基酸肥有助于促进烤烟生长发育和提高烟叶品质。%Objective] The aim was to explore effects of amino acid fertilizer on flue-cured tobacco growth, development and quality.[Meth-od] With Yunyan87 as tested flue-cured tobacco varieties, by means of the same field contrast, setting up three treatments:chemical fertilizer (control), chemical fertilizer+solid amino acid, chemical fertilizer+liquid amino acid, effects of amino acid fertilizer on flue-cured tobacco fertilizer reducing and efficiency increasing were studied.[ Result] Applying solid amino acid fertilizer, agronomic traits, yield had best per-formance; while applying liquid amino acid fertilizer, top leaf opening, raw tobacco appearance quality, mean price, proportion of middle and high quality tobacco, economic benefits, ratio of sugar and nicotine in tobacco leaves, disaccharide difference, coordination of chemical com-position had good performance.Compared with the control, tobacco treated by amino acid fertilizer had less irritating and more comfortable taste; tobacco treated

  10. Potential role of reduced environmental UV exposure as a driver of the current epidemic of atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Zirwas, Matthew J; Elias, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    disorders in general), including breast-feeding, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and exposure to domesticated furry pets. Notably, the key role of a compromised barrier of neonatal skin as a predisposing factor in the development of childhood AD has recently been demonstrated. In this article we......The basis for the sudden and dramatic increase in atopic dermatitis (AD) and related atopic diseases in the second half of the 20th century is unclear. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the transition from rural to urban living leads to reduced childhood exposure to pathogenic microorganisms...

  11. The necessity of using nanotechnology to reduce environmental risks in the new city of Parand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Asadpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of Parand formation and the pace of construction on it, in order to respond to increasing population growth, has caused the city environment against the great floodof human population and meeting the needs of urban residents, has entered additional pressure on the urban environment and has created numerous problems including traffic, noise pollution, air pollution, lack of proper facilities and infrastructure to accommodate the citizens. This is despite the fact that the use of facilities and potential and existing power of Parand city, pave the path to use some new technologies such as nanotechnology in order to reduce environmental risks.Hence, in this paper, by documentary and field survey studies have tried to evaluate the environmental and climatic potential of Parand, the current approach of building on it was pushed in the direction of peaceful coexistence between humans and nature with the use of nanotechnology and increases the quality of the urban environment.

  12. Redistributing environmental tax revenue to reduce poverty in South Africa: The cases of energy and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Van Heerden

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, as an upper middle-income, resource-intensive developing country with an open economy, has to find innovative ways to combat poverty, promote economic growth and reduce the intensity of resource use, simultaneously.  One option is to explore the plausibility of achieving a double dividend by levying a tax on water and energy and recycling the revenue back to the economy by allowing for a reduction in other forms of taxation.  According to the double dividend theory it is possible, under some conditions, to achieve both environmental and economic objectives.  We investigated such a possibility in the South African economy using an integrated economy/environment CGE model and found that it is indeed possible to achieve such double dividend benefits.  Given the prevailing economic and environmental contexts, government should actively search for ways to achieve such dividends.

  13. Communicating tobacco health risks: How effective are the warning labels on tobacco products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Chopra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health hazards of tobacco are well known but only small numbers of tobacco users are fully aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioural changes like quitting and reducing the tobacco consumption. So the present study was conducted to investigate the awareness and effectiveness of warning labels on tobacco products among health and non-healthcare professional of Barwala, Panchkula. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 408 subjects who were randomly selected from different professional colleges of Barwala, Panchkula. Data obtained were anlysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS 20.0. Results: Most of study participants has noticed the warnings on tobacco products and most of them believe that they could understand warning labels. More that 70% believe that warnings create awareness about health hazards of tobacco and help in reducing or quitting tobacco. Pictorial warning was found to be better as compared to text warning. Health professionals were able to assess pictorial warnings more correctly as compared to non-healthcare professionals. Conclusion: Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about adverse health effects of tobacco but the mandated warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood.

  14. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei, E-mail: weiwu@nwsuaf.edu.cn [College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada); Ma, Baoluo, E-mail: Baoluo.Ma@AGR.GC.CA [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8–150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. - Highlights: • The increasing pressure to meet global cereal demand poses great challenge. • A changing environment further threatens cereal production. • Literature summary shows 8–150% yield advantage from use of INM method. • INM contributions to mitigation of environmental costs are remarkable. • High crop productivity and less environmental impact can be

  15. Use of Biostratigraphy to Increase Production, Reduce Operating Costs and Risks and Reduce Environmental Concerns in Oil Well Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Marks

    2005-09-09

    out at the top of the late Miocene, early Mohnian: Bolivina aff hughesi, Rotalia becki, Suggrunda californica, Virgulina grandis, Virgulina ticensis, Bulimina ecuadorana, Denticula lauta and Nonion medio-costatum. Please see Appendix B, Fig. 1, Neogene Zones, p. 91 and Appendix C, chart 5, p. 99 By the use of Stratigraphy, employing both Paleontology and Lithology, we can increase hydrocarbon production, reduce operating costs and risks by the identification of the productive sections, and reduce environmental concerns by drilling less dry holes needlessly.

  16. Humus-reducing microorganisms and their valuable contribution in environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Claudia M; Alvarez, Luis H; Celis, Lourdes B; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    Humus constitutes a very abundant class of organic compounds that are chemically heterogeneous and widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Evidence accumulated during the last decades indicating that humic substances play relevant roles on the transport, fate, and redox conversion of organic and inorganic compounds both in chemically and microbially driven reactions. The present review underlines the contribution of humus-reducing microorganisms in relevant environmental processes such as biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of greenhouse gases emission in anoxic ecosystems, redox conversion of industrial contaminants in anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, and on the microbial production of nanocatalysts and alternative energy sources.

  17. Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care: Results of the 2002 Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol McPhillips-Tangum

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In the United States, tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death and disease. The health and cost consequences of tobacco dependence have made treatment and prevention of tobacco use a key priority among multiple stakeholders, including health plans, insurers, providers, employers, and policymakers. In 2002, the third survey of tobacco control practices and policies in health plans was conducted by America’s Health Insurance Plans’ technical assistance office as part of the Addressing Tobacco in Managed Care (ATMC program. Methods The ATMC survey was conducted in the spring of 2002 via mail, e-mail, and fax. A 19-item survey instrument was developed and pilot-tested. Of the 19 items, 12 were the same as in previous years, four were modified to collect more detailed data on areas of key interest, and three were added to gain information about strategies to promote smoking cessation. The sample for the survey was drawn from the 687 plans listed in the national directory of member and nonmember health plans in America's Health Insurance Plans. Results Of the 246 plans in the sample, 152 plans (62% representing more than 43.5 million health maintenance organization members completed the survey. Results show that health plans are using evidence-based programs and clinical guidelines to address tobacco use. Compared to ATMC survey data collected in 1997 and 2000, the 2002 ATMC survey results indicate that more health plans are providing full coverage for first-line pharmacotherapies and telephone counseling for smoking cessation. Plans have also shown improvement in their ability to identify at least some members who smoke. Similarly, a greater percentage of plans are employing strategies to address smoking cessation during the postpartum period to prevent smoking relapse and during pediatric visits to reduce or eliminate children’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Conclusion The results of the 2002 ATMC survey

  18. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  19. Effect of smokeless tobacco product marketing and use on population harm from tobacco use policy perspective for tobacco-risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2007-12-01

    This article presents policy perspectives on the marketing of smokeless tobacco products to reduce population harm from tobacco use. Despite consensus that smokeless tobacco products as sold in the United States are less dangerous than cigarettes, there is no consensus on how to proceed. Diverse factions have different policy concerns. While the tobacco industry is exempted from U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversight, the pharmaceutical industry whose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medicines compete with smokeless tobacco as noncombustible nicotine-delivery systems are regulated by the FDA. Some public health experts support smokeless tobacco use to reduce population harm from tobacco; other public health experts oppose promoting smokeless tobacco for harm reduction. Adult consumers can freely purchase currently-marketed smokeless tobacco products and even more-deadly cigarettes. Concerns with and advantages of smokeless tobacco products are discussed. In that noncombustible medicinal nicotine-delivery systems have been proven to be effective smoking-cessation aids, smokeless tobacco, as another source of psychoactive doses of nicotine, could be used similarly, in a dose-response fashion as a smoking-cessation aid (consistent with FDA principles for evaluating generic versions of drugs). Price measures should be used on tobacco products to make costs to consumers proportional to product health risks (which would make smokeless tobacco much cheaper than cigarettes), and smokeless tobacco should be encouraged as an option for smoking cessation in adult smokers, particularly for those who have failed to stop smoking using NRT or other methods.

  20. Trends in Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Exposure and Preterm Birth: Use of Smoking Bans and Direct ETS Exposure Assessments in Study Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Elana R; O'Neill, Marie S

    2017-07-17

    For decades, many studies have linked maternal smoking to an increased risk of preterm birth. As a result, the scientific community has long hypothesized that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly referred to as second-hand smoke, is also associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Multiple studies have examined this proposed association through different strategies and approaches. Recently, a small number of epidemiology studies have examined preterm birth trends before and after the implementation of antismoking legislation in various jurisdictions. We found that these studies have largely revealed a significant trend of decreasing population-level preterm birth rates after the implementation of smoking bans. However, most of the studies reviewed did not distinguish the impact of maternal smoking from ETS in their analyses, making it difficult to specifically evaluate the effects of smoking bans on ETS exposure. Other studies have taken the approach of directly measuring maternal ETS exposure and associations with preterm birth within particular study populations. In contrast to smoking ban studies, the latter group of studies had more inconclusive results. The use of a variety of exposure assessment methods ranging from different self-reporting techniques to biomarker measurements posed a challenge to compare studies. We evaluate current scientific literature for evidence of an association between maternal ETS exposure and risk of preterm birth. We also discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches to study this association as well as methods used for ETS exposure assessment. We propose that more studies, specifically, evaluating rates of preterm birth among nonsmoking women before and after smoking bans, are needed as well as using better ETS exposure assessments methods in studies measuring maternal ETS exposure.

  1. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  2. Characterization of microbially Fe(III)-reduced nontronite: Environmental cell-transmission electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.-W.; Furukawa, Y.; Daulton, T.L.; Lavoie, D.; Newell, S.W.

    2003-01-01

    Microstructural changes induced by the microbial reduction of Fe(III) in nontronite by Shewanella oneidensis were studied using environmental cell (EC)-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), conventional TEM, and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Direct observations of clays by EC-TEM in their hydrated state allowed for the first time an accurate and unambiguous TEM measurement of basal layer spacings and the contraction of layer spacing caused by microbial effects, most likely those of Fe(III) reduction. Non-reduced and Fe(III)-reduced nontronite, observed by EC-TEM, exhibited fringes with mean d001 spacings of 1.50 nm (standard deviation, ?? = 0.08 nm) and 1.26 nm (?? = 0.10 nm), respectively. In comparison, the same samples embedded with Nanoplast resin, sectioned by microtome, and observed using conventional TEM, displayed layer spacings of 1.0-1.1 nm (non-reduced) and 1.0 nm (reduced). The results from Nanoplast-embedded samples are typical of conventional TEM studies, which have measured nearly identical layer spacings regardless of Fe oxidation state. Following Fe(III) reduction, both EC- and conventional TEM showed an increase in the order of nontronite selected area electron diffraction patterns while the images exhibited fewer wavy fringes and fewer layer terminations. An increase in stacking order in reduced nontronite was also suggested by XRD measurements. In particular, the ratio of the valley to peak intensity (v/p) of the 1.7 nm basal 001 peak of ethylene glycolated nontronite was measured at 0.65 (non-reduced) and 0.85 (microbially reduced).

  3. Cradle-to-grave analysis on batik cabut product to reduce environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djunaidi, Much.; Nursanti, Ida; Suryadarmawan, Viditwo Ashari

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, the development of batik industry is growing rapidly. Efforts to protect the environment are increasing fast as well. This makes both of them go in line. In one of batik producers residing in Kampung Batik Laweyan, the process of making batik needs raw and supporting materials, both of which contain chemicals potentially dangerous to the environment. Assessment methods, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC), to determine the value of the environmental impact are, therefore, needed. LCA and LCC are used to assess the level of product eco-efficiency. The eco-efficiency combines concepts of economic efficiency and efficiency of environmental resources. Based on assessment of 3,120 pieces of batik cabut product, it is found that scores of life cycle assessment (SLCA) and of life cycle cost (SLCC) are 4,049.15 points and IDR 146,437,138.29, respectively. Improvements proposed in this research are by replacing synthetic dyes with natural ones and by substituting wood with LPG. The proposal can reduce the environmental impact as much as 6.65%.

  4. Does financial development reduce environmental degradation? Evidence from a panel study of 129 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulali, Usama; Tang, Chor Foon; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of financial development on CO2 emission in 129 countries classified by the income level. A panel CO2 emission model using urbanisation, GDP growth, trade openness, petroleum consumption and financial development variables that are major determinants of CO2 emission was constructed for the 1980-2011 period. The results revealed that the variables are cointegrated based on the Pedroni cointegration test. The dynamic ordinary least squares (OLS) and the Granger causality test results also show that financial development can improve environmental quality in the short run and long run due to its negative effect on CO2 emission. The rest of the determinants, especially petroleum consumption, are determined to be the major source of environmental damage in most of the income group countries. Based on the results obtained, the investigated countries should provide banking loans to projects and investments that can promote energy savings, energy efficiency and renewable energy to help these countries reduce environmental damage in both the short and long run.

  5. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  6. Changes in retail tobacco promotions in a cohort of stores before, during, and after a tobacco product display ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn; Lavack, Anne; Robinson, Daniel; O'Connor, Shawn; DiNardo, Joanne

    2011-10-01

    We used a longitudinal design to investigate the impact of a government policy banning the display of tobacco products at the point of sale. The extent of tobacco promotions in 481 randomly selected stores was documented at 4 points in time (2005-2009). Tobacco promotions were greatly reduced after implementation of the display ban. A ban on the display of tobacco products and other signage and promotions at retail is a critical tobacco-control policy to reduce people's exposure to tobacco marketing.

  7. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Dietary Choice: Perspectives from a Behavioural and Social Change Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is recognised as a significant public health issue that will impact on food security. One of the major contributors to global warming is the livestock industry, and, relative to plant-based agriculture, meat production has a much higher environmental impact in relation to freshwater use, amount of land required, and waste products generated. Promoting increased consumption of plant-based foods is a recommended strategy to reduce human impact on the environment and is also now recognised as a potential strategy to reduce the high rates of some chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Currently there is a scant evidence base for policies and programs aiming to increase consumption of plant-based diets and little research on the necessary conditions for that change to occur and the processes involved in such a change. This paper reviews some of the environmental and health consequences of current dietary practices, reviews literature on the determinants of consuming a plant-based diet, and provides recommendations for further research in this area.

  8. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  9. Evidence of gene-environment interaction for two genes on chromosome 4 and environmental tobacco smoke in controlling the risk of nonsyndromic cleft palate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic cleft palate (CP is one of the most common human birth defects and both genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to its etiology. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using 550 CP case-parent trios ascertained in an international consortium. Stratified analysis among trios with different ancestries was performed to test for GxE interactions with common maternal exposures using conditional logistic regression models. While no single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP achieved genome-wide significance when considered alone, markers in SLC2A9 and the neighboring WDR1 on chromosome 4p16.1 gave suggestive evidence of gene-environment interaction with environmental tobacco smoke (ETS among 259 Asian trios when the models included a term for GxE interaction. Multiple SNPs in these two genes were associated with increased risk of nonsyndromic CP if the mother was exposed to ETS during the peri-conceptual period (3 months prior to conception through the first trimester. When maternal ETS was considered, fifteen of 135 SNPs mapping to SLC2A9 and 9 of 59 SNPs in WDR1 gave P values approaching genome-wide significance (10(-6

  10. Antisense and sense expression of cDNA coding for CYP73A15, a class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, leads to a delayed and reduced production of lignin in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blee, K.; Choi, J. W.; O'Connell, A. P.; Jupe, S. C.; Schuch, W.; Lewis, N. G.; Bolwell, G. P.

    2001-01-01

    A number of plant species contain the class II of genes encoding the cytochrome P450, CYP73, the cognate protein of which cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, is the second enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. In order to begin to determine possible functionality, tobacco has been transformed with a truncated French bean class II cinnamate hydroxylase (CYP73A15) in the sense and antisense orientations. Signals for C4H protein could be detected in vascular tissue from wild-type plants using heterologous probes. The transformed plants showed a normal phenotype, even though detectable C4H protein was much reduced in tissue prints. Young propagated transformants displayed a range of reduced C4H activities, as well as either reduced or no phloroglucinol-stainable lignin. However, all mature tobacco plants showed the accumulation of lignin, even though its deposition was apparently delayed. This was not due to induction of tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity, which was not detected, but instead it is presumed due to sufficient C4H residual activity. Analysis of the lignin content of the plants showed reductions of up to 30% with a slightly reduced syringyl to guaiacyl ratio as compared to wild type. This reduction level was favourable in comparison with some other targets in the lignification pathway that have been manipulated including that of class I cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. It is proposed that the class II cinnamate 4-hydroxylase might also function in lignification in a number of species including French bean and tobacco, based on these data.

  11. [The effect of increasing tobacco tax on tobacco sales in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakamura, Masakazu

    2013-09-01

    Since the special tobacco tax was established in 1998, the tobacco tax and price of tobacco have increased thrice, in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. We evaluated the effect of increases in tax on the consumption and sales of tobacco in Japan using the annual data on the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales from Japan Tobacco, Inc. We applied the number of tobacco products sold and the total sales per year to a joinpoint regression model to examine the trends in the data. This model could help identify the year in which a decrease or increase was apparent from the data. In addition, we examined the effect of each tax increase while also considering other factors that may have caused a decrease in the levels of tobacco consumption using the method proposed by Hirano et al. According to the joinpoint regression analysis, the number of tobacco products sold started decreasing in 1998, and the trends of decrease accelerated to 5% per year, from 2005. Owing to the tax increase, tobacco sales reduced by -2.4%, -2.9%, and -10.1% (corrected for the effect of the Tohoku Great Earthquake), and price elasticity was estimated as -0.30, -0.27, and -0.28 (corrected) in 2003, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The effect of tobacco tax increase on the decrease in tobacco sales was greatest in 2010, while the price elasticity remained almost the same as it was during the previous tax increase. The sharp hike in tobacco tax in 2010 decreased the number of tobacco products sold, while the price elasticity in 2010 was similar to that in 2003 and 2006. Our findings suggest that further increase in tobacco tax is needed to reduce the damage caused by smoking in the people of Japan.

  12. Experiences of High School Students about the Predictors of Tobacco Use: a Directed Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tobacco use is one of the most important risk factors that increases the burden of diseases worldwide. Based on the increasing speed of tobacco use, the aim of the present study was to explain the experiences of high school students about the determiners of use and non-use of tobacco (cigarettes and hookah based on the theory of protection motivation. Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative study based on content analysis that has been carried out for five months from 22, November of 2014 to 20, April of 2015 on male high schools in Noshahr. Data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from 21 male high school students of whom 7 smoked cigarettes, 7 used hookah and 7 of them did not use any type of tobacco. Data analysis was carried out through the use of directed qualitative content analysis. Results: Data analysis led to the extraction of 99 primary codes that were categorized into 9 predetermined levels of protection motivation theory including perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity, fear, perceived self-efficacy, response expense, efficiency of the perceived answer, external perceived reward, internal perceived reward, protection motivation. The findings of the study showed that the most important predictors for the use of tobacco were the structures of response expense and high perceived rewards and the most important predictors for non-use of tobacco were perceived sensitivity, perceived intensity and high self-efficacy of students. Conclusions: the findings of the present study showed that the pressure from peers, being present in a group using tobacco and the absence of alternative recreational activities are among the most important factors of using tobacco. So, it is suggested that planners of the health department take the comprehensive interventions to improve effective individual and environmental factors of using tobacco so that they could reduce smoking cigarettes

  13. 77 FR 42487 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement To Reduce Avian Predation on Juvenile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement To Reduce.... ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (Corps), intends..., habitat alterations and lethal removal. Also, per the National Environmental Policy Act regulations...

  14. Understanding tourists’ perceptions of distance: a key to reducing the environmental impacts of tourism mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber; Guiver, Jo W

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to understand how tourists might reduce their travel distances by better understanding their perception and “performance” of distances to destinations. Travel accounts for 75% of tourism's GHG emissions, the majority from flying. Tourist travel distances are growing rapidly, as a...... the distances travelled and changing the modes used, and so reducing environmental impacts, including changing leave allowances, better marketing of nearby destinations with cultural differences, and promoting slow travel.......This paper seeks to understand how tourists might reduce their travel distances by better understanding their perception and “performance” of distances to destinations. Travel accounts for 75% of tourism's GHG emissions, the majority from flying. Tourist travel distances are growing rapidly...... to scales including cost, time and cultural difference to express relative distances. Some distances were seen as “zonal”, (e.g. “away from home” or “sun and sea” or winter sports destinations), others “ordinal”, having degrees of difference, time or costs to cross. The desire for distance also resulted...

  15. Estimating the health benefit of reducing indoor air pollution in a randomized environmental intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Roger D.; Butz, Arlene M.; Hackstadt, Amber J.; Williams, D'Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent intervention studies targeted at reducing indoor air pollution have demonstrated both the ability to improve respiratory health outcomes and to reduce particulate matter (PM) levels in the home. However, these studies generally do not address whether it is the reduction of PM levels specifically that improves respiratory health. In this paper we apply the method of principal stratification to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention designed to reduce indoor PM in homes of children with asthma. We estimate the health benefit of the intervention amongst study subjects who would experience a substantial reduction in PM in response to the intervention. For those subjects we find an increase in symptom-free days that is almost three times as large as the overall intention-to-treat effect. We also explore the presence of treatment effects amongst those subjects whose PM levels would not respond to the air cleaner. This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of principal stratification for environmental intervention trials and its potential for much broader application in this area. PMID:27695203

  16. Tobacco packaging design for preventing tobacco uptake

    OpenAIRE

    McNeill, Ann; Bauld, Linda; Birken, Mary; Hammond, David; Moodie, Crawford; Stead, Martine; Hitchman, Sara; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effectiveness of standardised tobacco packaging in preventing initiation into, or regular use of, tobacco.

  17. Alternate propellants for the space shuttle solid rocket booster motors. [for reducing environmental impact of launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    As part of the Shuttle Exhaust Effects Panel (SEEP) program for fiscal year 1973, a limited study was performed to determine the feasibility of minimizing the environmental impact associated with the operation of the solid rocket booster motors (SRBMs) in projected space shuttle launches. Eleven hypothetical and two existing limited-experience propellants were evaluated as possible alternates to a well-proven state-of-the-art reference propellant with respect to reducing emissions of primary concern: namely, hydrogen chloride (HCl) and aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The study showed that it would be possible to develop a new propellant to effect a considerable reduction of HCl or Al2O3 emissions. At the one extreme, a 23% reduction of HCl is possible along with a ll% reduction in Al2O3, whereas, at the other extreme, a 75% reduction of Al2O3 is possible, but with a resultant 5% increase in HCl.

  18. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions:Taking cement industry as a case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU¨ Yong-Long; GENG Jing; HE Gui-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP) is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies:1) policy integration for promoting green industry, 2) system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3) collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4) managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  19. Industrial transformation and green production to reduce environmental emissions: Taking cement industry as a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Long Lü

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Industrial transformation and green production (ITGP is a new 10-year international research initiative proposed by the Chinese National Committee for Future Earth. It is also an important theme for adapting and responding to global environmental change. Aiming at a thorough examination of the implementation of ITGP in China, this paper presents its objectives, its three major areas, and their progress so far. It also identifies the key elements of its management and proposes new perspectives on managing green transformation. For instance, we introduce a case study on cement industry that shows the positive policy effects of reducing backward production capacity on PCDD/Fs emissions. Finally, to develop different transformation scenarios for a green future, we propose four strategies: 1 policy integration for promoting green industry, 2 system innovation and a multidisciplinary approach, 3 collaborative governance with all potential stakeholders, and 4 managing uncertainty, risks, and long-time horizons.

  20. Environmental fate of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and its reduced products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawari, J; Monteil-Rivera, F; Perreault, N N; Halasz, A; Paquet, L; Radovic-Hrapovic, Z; Deschamps, S; Thiboutot, S; Ampleman, G

    2015-01-01

    Several defense departments intend to replace 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in munitions formulations by the less sensitive 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). To help understand environmental behavior and ecological risk associated with DNAN we investigated its key initial abiotic and biotic reaction routes and determined relevant physicochemical parameters (pKa, logKow, aqueous solubility (Sw), partition coefficient (Kd)) for the chemical and its products. Reduction of DNAN with either zero valent iron or bacteria regioselectively produced 2-amino-4-nitroanisole (2-ANAN) which, under strict anaerobic conditions, gave 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN). Hydrolysis under environmental conditions was insignificant whereas photolysis gave photodegradable intermediates 2-hydroxy-4-nitroanisole and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Physicochemical properties of DNAN and its amino products drastically depended on the type and position of substituent(s) on the aromatic ring. Sw followed the order (TNTreduced bioavailability under oxic conditions. Although DNAN is more soluble than TNT, its lower hydrophobicity and its tendency to form aminoderivatives that sorb irreversibly to soil contribute to make it less toxic than the traditional explosive TNT.

  1. Adjusting export tax rebates to reduce the environmental impacts of trade: Lessons from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peng; Mao, Xianqiang; Corsetti, Gabriel

    2015-09-15

    Export tax rebates are an important policy instrument for stimulating exports, which many developing countries make use of. However, excessive export tax rebates and inappropriate structural arrangements can lead to over-production in highly polluting industries and cause the environment to deteriorate. This paper, taking China as the study case, tests and verifies the statistical significance of the causal relationship between export tax rebates and pollution emissions. With a computable general equilibrium modeling, the current study further analyzes the effectiveness of export tax rebate adjustments aimed at alleviating environmental pressure for different time periods. It is found that before 2003, export tax rebates primarily promoted exports and boosted foreign exchange reserves, and highly polluting sectors enjoyed above-average export tax rebates, which led to increased pollution emissions. Between 2003 and 2010, the export tax rebate system was reformed to reduce support for the highly polluting export sectors, which led to decreases in emissions. Canceling export tax rebates for highly polluting sectors is shown to be the most favorable policy choice for improving the environmental performance of China's international trade. This study can serve as reference for other developing countries which similarly rely on export tax rebates, so that they can adjust their policies so as to combine economic growth with pollution control.

  2. Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Carmen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition(N = 520,000. We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher. Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented

  3. Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Hoek, Gerard; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Veglia, Fabrizio; Airoldi, Luisa; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Linseisen, Jacob; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H; Lund E, Eiliv; Agudo, Antonio; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Cirera, Lluis; Quiros, J Ramon; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Forsberg, Bertil; Day, Nicholas E; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Saracci, Rodolfo; Riboli, Elio

    2007-01-01

    Background Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. Methods We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. Results The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5–7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. Discussion We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10–20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher). Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5

  4. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  5. Coexistence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles: enhancing or reducing environmental risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Shi, Junpeng; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-09-01

    Due to their bactericidal and photocatalytic characteristics, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely used in the fields of environment and physiology. Once these untreated nanoparticles are released into an aquatic environment and encounter one another, there is more uncertainty about their fate and ecotoxicological risks compared with the single nanoparticles. To expand our knowledge of the health and environmental impacts of nanoparticles, we investigated the possible risk of the co-existence of TiO2 NPs and Ag NPs in an aquatic environment using ciliated protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) as an aquatic animal model. In this study, silver ion (Ag(+)) release and physicochemical properties, as well as their effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, were monitored. Continuous illumination (12,000 lx) led to the 20.0% decrease in Ag(+) release in comparison with dark conditions, while TiO2 NPs and continuous illumination resulted in decreasing the Ag(+) concentration to 64.3% in contrast with Ag NPs-only suspensions. Toxicity tests indicated that different illumination modes exerted distinct effects of TiO2 NPs on the toxicity of Ag NPs: no effects, antagonism and synergism in dark, natural light and continuous light, respectively. In the presence of 1.5mg/L (18.8 μM) TiO2 NPs, the toxicity of 1.5 mg/L (13.9 μM) Ag NPs was reduced by 28.7% and increased by 6.93% in natural light and 12,000 lx of continuous light, respectively. After culturing in 12,000 lx continuous light for 24h, SOD activity of the light control surged to 1.96 times compared to the dark control (PTiO2-Ag NPs complexes in continuous light. The existence of TiO2 NPs in various illumination modes changed the surface chemistry of Ag NPs and then led to different toxicity effects. TiO2 NPs reduce the environmental risks of Ag NPs in natural light, but in continuous light, TiO2 NPs enhance the environmental risks of Ag NPs.

  6. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in children and its impact on urinary levels of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; Einfluss einer Passivrauchbelastung auf die Konzentration von PAK-Metaboliten im Urin von Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heudorf, U. [Abt. Umweltmedizin und Hygiene, Stadtgesundheitsamt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Letzel, S. [Inst. fuer Arbeits- Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Johannes Gutenberg Univ. Main, Mainz (Germany); Angerer, J.; Drexler, H. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Friedrich-Alexander-Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We tested whether there is an association between environmental tobacco smoke and 1-hydroxyyrene and monohydroxylated phenanthrenes in children under 6 years of age. Participants and methods: Spot urine specimen of 101 children under 6 years of age (3.6 {+-} 3.7 years) were tested for 1-hydroxypyrene and for four different monohydroxylated phenanthrenes (HPLC/FD) and cotinine (capillary gas chromatography/nitrogen specific detector). Data on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home were obtained by questionnaire (never, only on balcony, seldom, regularly). Results: A - non-significant-tendency for higher levels of urinary PAH-metabolites with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (exposure to environmental tobacco smoke regularly vs. never - median values: sum of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes 1194 vs. 1037 ng/g creatinine, 1-hydroxypyrene 151 vs. 125 ng/g creatinine). With regard to levels of urinary cotinine as an objective indicator for exposure to tobacco smoke, however, significant associations to the level of 1-hydroxypyrene (Spearman rank correlation r = 0.197, p = 0.049) were obtained, but not to the levels of hydroxylated phenanthrenes. Conclusion: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (i.e. level of urinary cotinine) in young children is associated to a significant increase in the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, but not to the levels of monohydroxylated phenanthrenes. (orig.) [German] Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung war es, einen moeglichen Einfluss einer Passivrauchbelastung auf die Konzentration der PAK-Metaboliten im Urin als Marker der inneren PAK-Exposition festzustellen. Es wurden ausschliesslich Kinder unter 6 Jahren in dieser Untersuchung einbezogen, weil in diesem Alter Aktivrauchen weitestgehend ausgeschlossen werden kann. Methoden: Urine von 101 Kindern unter 6 Jahren (3,6 {+-} 3,7 Jahre) wurden auf die PAK-Metaboliten 1 Hydroxypyren und die monohydroxylierten Phenanthrene (HPLC und Fluoreszenzdetektion) sowie Cotinin (Kapillar

  7. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  8. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT STRENGTHENS CORTICOCORTICAL INTERACTIONS AND REDUCES AMYLOID-β OLIGOMERS IN AGED MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eMainardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE, a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes.

  10. Environmental enrichment strengthens corticocortical interactions and reduces amyloid-β oligomers in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Marco; Di Garbo, Angelo; Caleo, Matteo; Berardi, Nicoletta; Sale, Alessandro; Maffei, Lamberto

    2014-01-01

    Brain aging is characterized by global changes which are thought to underlie age-related cognitive decline. These include variations in brain activity and the progressive increase in the concentration of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, directly impairing synaptic function and plasticity even in the absence of any neurodegenerative disorder. Considering the high social impact of the decline in brain performance associated to aging, there is an urgent need to better understand how it can be prevented or contrasted. Lifestyle components, such as social interaction, motor exercise and cognitive activity, are thought to modulate brain physiology and its susceptibility to age-related pathologies. However, the precise functional and molecular factors that respond to environmental stimuli and might mediate their protective action again pathological aging still need to be clearly identified. To address this issue, we exploited environmental enrichment (EE), a reliable model for studying the effect of experience on the brain based on the enhancement of cognitive, social and motor experience, in aged wild-type mice. We analyzed the functional consequences of EE on aged brain physiology by performing in vivo local field potential (LFP) recordings with chronic implants. In addition, we also investigated changes induced by EE on molecular markers of neural plasticity and on the levels of soluble Aβ oligomers. We report that EE induced profound changes in the activity of the primary visual and auditory cortices and in their functional interaction. At the molecular level, EE enhanced plasticity by an upward shift of the cortical excitation/inhibition balance. In addition, EE reduced brain Aβ oligomers and increased synthesis of the Aβ-degrading enzyme neprilysin. Our findings strengthen the potential of EE procedures as a non-invasive paradigm for counteracting brain aging processes.

  11. Tobacco industry marketing, population-based tobacco control, and smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P

    2007-12-01

    Two of the major influences of cigarette smoking behavior are tobacco industry marketing and public health tobacco-control activities. These vie with each other to influence the proportion of each generation who initiate smoking, the intensity level reached by smokers, and the time before smokers are able to quit successfully. This article provides a brief summary of the evidence associating tobacco marketing practices (organized under the four "Ps" of marketing), with smoking behavior. The evidence for causality in this association is considered convincing. Publicly funded, comprehensive, statewide tobacco-control programs were introduced into the United States in the late 1980s, with money either from tobacco taxes or from legal settlements of states with the tobacco industry. These programs use organized statewide approaches to implement current recommendations on "best practices" to discourage tobacco use, recommendations that have changed over time. During the 1990s, "best practices" evolved to include protection against secondhand smoke, sale of cigarettes to minors, and restrictions on tobacco advertising. Evaluations have been published on four statewide tobacco-control programs (Sydney/Melbourne, California, Massachusetts, and Florida) and a national program aimed at youth (American Legacy Program). For each program, there was a positive association with reduced smoking. The evidence supporting the conclusion that tobacco-control programs reduce smoking behavior is evaluated as strong.

  12. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 7: Systems toxicological assessment of a mentholated version revealed reduced cellular and molecular exposure effects compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, Ulrike; Titz, Bjoern; Schlage, Walter K; Nury, Catherine; Martin, Florian; Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-11-30

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed with the aim of reducing smoking-related health risks. The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) is a candidate MRTP that uses the heat-not-burn principle. Here, systems toxicology approaches were engaged to assess the respiratory effects of mentholated THS2.2 (THS2.2M) in a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413). The standard endpoints were complemented by transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses of respiratory nasal epithelium and lung tissue and by lipidomics analysis of lung tissue. The adaptive response of the respiratory nasal epithelium to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) included squamous cell metaplasia and an inflammatory response, with high correspondence between the molecular and histopathological results. In contrast to CS exposure, the adaptive tissue and molecular changes to THS2.2M aerosol exposure were much weaker and were limited mostly to the highest THS2.2M concentration in female rats. In the lung, CS exposure induced an inflammatory response, triggered cellular stress responses, and affected sphingolipid metabolism. These responses were not observed or were much lower after THS2.2M aerosol exposure. Overall, this system toxicology analysis complements and reconfirms the results from classical toxicological endpoints and further suggests potentially reduced health risks of THS2.2M. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, social attractiveness of smoking, accessibility of tobacco products and associated behaviors. The article presents a review of international research on the demarketing of tobacco and its effects for the formation and change of health behavior.

  14. Policy and Investment Priorities to Reduce Environmental Degradation of the lake Nicaragua Watershed (Cocibolca) : Addressing Key Environmental Challenges - Study 2

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Globally, an estimated 24 percent of the disease burden (healthy life years lost) and an estimated 23 percent of all deaths (premature mortality) are attributable to environmental risks (World Health Organization, or WHO 2006). The burden of disease is unequally shared, with the children and the poor being particularly affected. Among children between the ages 0 and 14, the proportion of deaths ...

  15. El control del tabaco, estrategia esencial para reducir las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles Tobacco control, a strategy to reduce non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de dos terceras partes del total de muertes a nivel global son causadas por las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles. Se han recomendando cinco intervenciones prioritarias para disminuir esta tendencia: 1. Control del tabaco (la más urgente e inmediata, 2. Reducción del consumo de sal, 3. Mejoría en la dieta y actividad física, 4. Reducción del consumo peligroso de alcohol y 5. Acceso a los medicamentos esenciales y la tecnología. En relación con los padecimientos derivados del consumo del tabaco, la OMS reconoce el conflicto fundamental de intereses entre las tabacaleras y la salud pública y sugiere la implementación del Convenio Marco para el Control del Tabaco de la OMS y las estrategias MPOWER, ya que su completa implementación podría evitar cerca de 5.5 millones de muertes en los siguientes 10 años. Todas estas recomendaciones son viables y factibles de implementar si se consideran la voluntad política de los gobiernos, la infraestructura disponible, la capacidad técnica existente, la participación coordinada de todos los sectores y grupos de interés, la sociedad civil organizada y la colectividad en su conjunto.Nearly two-thirds of all deaths globally are caused by noncommunicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes. The UN General Assembly approved Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of non communicable diseases and recommending five priority interventions: 1. Tobacco control (the most urgent and immediate, 2. Salt reduction, 3. Improved diet and physical activity, 4 Reduction of hazardous alcohol intake, 5. Access to essential drugs and technologies. The Assembly recognizes the fundamental conflict of interest between tobacco industry and public health and recommends the implementation of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and MPOWER strategies. The full implementation of FCTC could prevent 5.5 Million of death in

  16. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  17. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  18. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  19. Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

    2012-04-01

    Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. Environmental assessment of a program to reduce oil and gas consumption by electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    An environmental assessment is presented of a program aimed at reducing oil and gas consumption in electric utility power plants by the equivalent of approximately 10/sup 6/ barrels per day by 1990. The program would mandate the conversion of 45 power plants (approximately 21 GW) to coal and would provide financial incentives for the accelerated replacement of other existing oil- and gas-fired plants (estimated to be 30 GW) by new coal-fired plants or other acceptable alternatives. The report analyzes the air quality impacts of potential increases in sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter emissions associated with the program. The assessment also considers potential solid waste, coal production and transportation, and public health and welfare impacts. The Coal and Electric Utilities Model (CEUM) of ICF, Incorporated, was used to generate the numerical data on which the assessment is based. Impacts are presented at the national and regional levels, with some discussion of possible local air quality effects of conversion of specific plants.

  1. Strategies for reducing the environmental impact of gaseous detector operation at the CERN LHC experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeans, M.; Guida, R.; Mandelli, B.

    2017-02-01

    A wide range of gas mixtures is used for the operation of different gaseous detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments. Nowadays some of these gases, as C2H2F4, CF4 and SF6, are indicated as greenhouse gases (GHG) and dominate the overall GHG emission from particle detectors at the LHC experiments. The release of GHG is an important subject for the design of future particle detectors as well as for the operation of the current experiments. Different strategies have been adopted at CERN for reducing the GHG emissions. The standard approach is the recirculation of the gas mixture with complex gas systems where system stability and the possible accumulation of impurities need to be attentively evaluated for the good operation and safety of the detectors. A second approach is based on the recuperation of the gas mixture exiting the detectors and the separation of its gas components for re-use. At long-term, the use of less invasive gases is being investigated, especially for the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) systems. Operation of RPC with environmentally friendly gas mixtures is demonstrated for streamer mode while avalanche mode operation needs more complex gas mixtures.

  2. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP.

  3. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant. RESULTS: The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  4. 毕节烟区烤烟糖碱比的区域分布特点及与感官品质的关系%Regional Distribution Characteristics of Reducing Sugar/Nicotine Ratio of Flue-cured Tobacco in Bijie Tobacco Growing Areas and Relationship Thereof with Sensory Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻奇伟; 符云鹏; 李炜; 杨双剑; 施守杰; 杨欣玲; 郑登峰

    2015-01-01

    To reveal the distribution characteristics of reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of flue-cured tobacco in Bijie tobacco growing areas and relationship thereof with sensory quality, the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 342 samples of C3F from Bijie was analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis and cluster analysis. Regression analysis was conducted between reducing sugar/nicotine ratio and sensory quality. The results showed that the mean value of reducing sugar/nicotine ratio was 9.64 ± 3.80 with the coefficient of variation of 39.36%, and the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 96.4% of the samples fell in the range of 4.00 to 20.00. With the ascent of altitude, the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of tobacco increased. Reducing sugar/nicotine ratio significantly differed between tobaccos from different areas and altitudes. Eight tobacco growing counties in Bijie were clustered into three categories on the basis of reducing sugar/nicotine ratio, Zhijin, Qianxi, Nayong and Qixingguan counties belonged to Category Ⅰwith the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 8.39 ± 2.48, Dafang and Jinsha counties were in CategoryⅡwith the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 9.82 ± 4.62, Hezhang and Weining counties in Category Ⅲ with the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio of 11.59±3.74. In the range of 4.00 to 28.00, the reducing sugar/nicotine ratio posed an extremely significant regression relationship with sensory quality indicators (except for combustibility). Tobacco offered better sensory quality when its reducing sugar/nicotine ratio was in the range of 8.00-22.00.%为阐明毕节烤烟糖碱比的地域分布特点及其与感官品质的关系,对毕节烟区的342份C3F初烤烟叶样品糖碱比进行了描述性统计分析和聚类分析,并对烟叶糖碱比与感官品质指标进行了回归分析。结果表明:毕节烟区烤烟中部叶糖碱比平均值为9.64±3.80,变异系数39.36%,其中96.4%的样品烟叶糖碱比在4.00~20.00之间;随海拔高度

  5. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  6. Reducing soil phosphorus fertility brings potential long-term environmental gains: A UK analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J. A.; Hodgkinson, Robin A.; Rollett, Alison; Dyer, Chris; Dils, Rachael; Collins, Adrian L.; Bilsborrow, Paul E.; Bailey, Geoff; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger

    2017-05-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) fertility arising from historic P inputs is a major driver of P mobilisation in agricultural runoff and increases the risk of aquatic eutrophication. To determine the environmental benefit of lowering soil P fertility, a meta-analysis of the relationship between soil test P (measured as Olsen-P) and P concentrations in agricultural drainflow and surface runoff in mostly UK soils was undertaken in relation to current eutrophication control targets (30-35 µg P L-1). At agronomic-optimum Olsen P (16-25 mg kg-1), concentrations of soluble reactive P (SRP), total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP) and sediment-P (SS-P) in runoff were predicted by linear regression analysis to vary between 24 and 183 µg L-1, 38 and 315 µg L-1, 0.2 and 9.6 mg L-1, and 0.31 and 3.2 g kg-1, respectively. Concentrations of SRP and TDP in runoff were much more sensitive to changes in Olsen-P than were TP and SS-P concentrations, which confirms that separate strategies are required for mitigating the mobilisation of dissolved and particulate P forms. As the main driver of eutrophication, SRP concentrations in runoff were reduced on average by 60 µg L-1 (71%) by lowering soil Olsen-P from optimum (25 mg kg-1) to 10 mg kg-1. At Olsen-P concentrations below 12 mg kg-1, dissolved hydrolysable P (largely organic) became the dominant form of soluble P transported. We concluded that maintaining agronomic-optimum Olsen-P could still pose a eutrophication risk, and that a greater research focus on reducing critical soil test P through innovative agro-engineering of soils, crops and fertilisers would give long-term benefits in reducing the endemic eutrophication risk arising from legacy soil P. Soil P testing should become compulsory in priority catchments suffering, or sensitive to, eutrophication to ensure soil P reserves are fully accounted for as part of good fertiliser and manure management.

  7. How inhibiting nitrification affects nitrogen cycle and reduces environmental impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chunlian; Liu, Lingli; Hu, Shuijin; Compton, Jana E; Greaver, Tara L; Li, Quanlin

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, and in particular the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer, have doubled global annual reactive N inputs in the past 50-100 years, causing deleterious effects on the environment through increased N leaching and nitrous oxide (N2 O) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions. Leaching and gaseous losses of N are greatly controlled by the net rate of microbial nitrification. Extensive experiments have been conducted to develop ways to inhibit this process through use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) in combination with fertilizers. Yet, no study has comprehensively assessed how inhibiting nitrification affects both hydrologic and gaseous losses of N and plant nitrogen use efficiency. We synthesized the results of 62 NI field studies and evaluated how NI application altered N cycle and ecosystem services in N-enriched systems. Our results showed that inhibiting nitrification by NI application increased NH3 emission (mean: 20%, 95% confidential interval: 33-67%), but reduced dissolved inorganic N leaching (-48%, -56% to -38%), N2 O emission (-44%, -48% to -39%) and NO emission (-24%, -38% to -8%). This amounted to a net reduction of 16.5% in the total N release to the environment. Inhibiting nitrification also increased plant N recovery (58%, 34-93%) and productivity of grain (9%, 6-13%), straw (15%, 12-18%), vegetable (5%, 0-10%) and pasture hay (14%, 8-20%). The cost and benefit analysis showed that the economic benefit of reducing N's environmental impacts offsets the cost of NI application. Applying NI along with N fertilizer could bring additional revenues of $163 ha(-1)  yr(-1) for a maize farm, equivalent to 8.95% increase in revenues. Our findings showed that NIs could create a win-win scenario that reduces the negative impact of N leaching and greenhouse gas production, while increases the agricultural output. However, NI's potential negative impacts, such as increase in NH3 emission and the risk of NI contamination, should be fully

  8. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  9. Reducing uncertainty in regulatory decision-making for transgenic crops: more ecological research or clearer environmental risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Ecological research and environmental risk assessment are similar in that they address interesting problems by formulating and testing hypotheses. They differ in the types of problems that are interesting, the characteristics of good hypotheses to solve those problems, and the methods for rigorous testing of hypotheses. It is important to recognize the differences between environmental risk assessment and basic ecological research because confusing them can lead to ineffective risk assessment and missed opportunities to advance ecological theory. Uncertainty in regulatory decision-making about transgenic crops may be reduced more effectively by clarifying the purpose and structure of environmental risk assessments than by further research on the ecology of the crops.

  10. Sociocultural Determinants of Tobacco Smoking Initiation among University Students in Bucaramanga, Colombia, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura del Pilar Cadena Afanador

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: University efforts for tobacco-free policies should focus on preventive advertisement, promoting physical activity and awareness among young students of social environmental factors that could influence their decision to start smoking tobacco.

  11. Quantification of the Reduced Environmental Impacts with Use of Co-Processing in Cement Kilns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Tiwary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupled with resource conservation and reduced carbon emissions, co-processing technology is a preferable alternative for sound and environmental friendly waste disposal over incinerators & non-scientific methods. It is not only solution to the waste disposal menace, but also reduces burden on secured landfills & TSDFs. Apart from using energy and material value of wastes, co-processing not only fixes the inorganic content of the wastes within the clinker, but also, it destroys the wastes completely due to high temperature and long residence time, avoiding need of further processing as in case of incineration. Trial run identifies wastes suitable for co-processing, source emission monitoring assesses environmental impacts and the quantification of reduced environmental impacts gives a clear picture of actual benefits of co-processing. The results show that the suggested process is efficient, economized and environmental friendly, particularly for a populated country, such as India, as there was no adverse effect on quality of cement, stack emission and air quality of environment due to co-processing of variety of identified wastes in cement kiln. Also, the quantified data of coal saved, CO2 emissions reduced & landfill volume avoided by the waste utilization will help in convincing all the stakeholders that co-processing of waste is the best environmentally sound technology for waste disposal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.69.3.6736

  12. The Complexity of Tobacco and Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti TA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco and tobacco smoke are both complex mixtures. We previously reported 8430 unique chemical components identified in these complex mixtures but two years later our updated number was 8889. Addition of unlisted isomers raised these numbers to 8622 and 9081, respectively. Our previous number of 4994 identified tobacco components is now 5229; our previous number of 5315 identified tobacco smoke components is now 5685. An operational definition of a complex mixture is as follows: A complex mixture is a characterizable substance containing many chemical components (perhaps thousands in inexact proportions.

  13. 实验性吸烟对胎鼠及幼鼠血清IGF-I的影响%Effects of Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Utero and Postnatally on Serum IGF-I of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟药; 吴圣楣; 沈永年; 钱龙华

    2001-01-01

    目的用被动吸烟法建立宫内被动吸烟胎鼠及宫内至断乳前持续被动吸烟幼鼠动物模型,比较不同浓度香烟暴露对胎鼠及幼鼠血清IGF-I的影响。方法SD雌鼠于交配后第2d,入低、中、高三种香烟浓度的被动吸烟箱中,每日5h,孕21d剖宫取胎,收集胎鼠血清;或待孕鼠自然分娩,幼鼠置于与宫内相同香烟浓度的被动吸烟箱中,每日5h,至21d断乳,取幼鼠血清。结果不同浓度香烟暴露对胎鼠血清IGF-I的影响无显著差异,随香烟浓度增高幼鼠血清IGF-I呈下降趋势,高浓度组与对照组间差异显著。结论宫内至断乳前持续被动吸烟降低幼鼠血清IGF-I水平,随香烟浓度增高,差异显著。%Objective To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke exposure in utero or/ and postnatally affects serum IGF-I of rats. Methods Pregnant SD rats were exposed to air or to passive smoke for 5h/d, from day 2 to day 21 of pregnancy, then the fetal serum were collected. Or from day 2 of pregnancy until delivery, then their pups were exposed to the same environment till weaning. After completion of the exposures, the pups' serua were collected. Results Utero passive smoke had no effect on fetus's serum IGF-I Conclusion Utero till postnatum passive smoke reduced serum IGF-I of pups, in particular decreased significantly in the highest concentration group.

  14. Reshaping the Built Environment to Reduce Environmental and Public Health Impacts of Summertime Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. E.; Bakewell, K.

    2005-12-01

    Many American cities are experiencing two types of warming trends in their local climate that due to global environmental change, and that due to local environmental change. Over the next five decades, urban areas within temperate regions may warm disproportionately compared to tropical and subtropical zones according to the IPCC Special Report on The Regional Impacts of Climate Change, and the frequency of very hot days in these climates is expected to approximately double for an increase of 2-3°C in the average summer temperature. As well, due to urbanized land-cover, air temperatures in cities can register 2 to 10 degrees F higher than in surrounding rural areas, resulting in a hotter environment, higher energy demand, and accelerated smog formation due to the urban heat island effect. Our previous research analyzed the temperature differences over time between NY Central Park (NYCP) station and 23 metropolitan regional weather stations classified according to distance and level of urbanization, and showed a heat island effect existing in NYC, with mean temperatures in the NYCP Station generally higher than the surrounding stations, ranging from 1.20 C to 3.02 C. A difference of at least 1 C already existed at the beginning of the 20th century between the mean temperature in NYC and its surrounding rural areas, and this difference increased over the twentieth century. Summertime heat can create heat stress and other health consequences for urban residents. In cities around the world, summer heat can lead to elevated mortality and morbidity rates, especially during extreme events. The epidemiological literature has identified factors in the built environment and demographic characteristics that can increase the risk of heat-related mortality. The elderly and people with pre-existing illnesses are especially vulnerable; also, being bedridden, living alone, and having poor access to public transportation or air-conditioned places. During the Chicago 1995 heat wave

  15. Evidence supporting product standards for carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Stepanov, Irina; Severson, Herb; Jensen, Joni A; Lindgren, Bruce R; Horn, Kimberly; Khariwala, Samir S; Martin, Julia; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States vary significantly in yields of nicotine and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA). With the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the Food and Drug Administration now has the authority to establish product standards. However, limited data exist determining the relative roles of pattern of smokeless tobacco use versus constituent levels in the smokeless tobacco product in exposure of users to carcinogens. In this study, smokeless tobacco users of brands varying in nicotine and TSNA content were recruited from three different regions in the U.S. Participants underwent two assessment sessions. During these sessions, demographic and smokeless tobacco use history information along with urine samples to assess biomarkers of exposure and effect were collected. During the time between data collection, smokeless tobacco users recorded the amount and duration of smokeless tobacco use on a daily basis using their diary cards. Results showed that independent of pattern of smokeless tobacco use and nicotine yields, levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products played a significant role in carcinogen exposure levels. Product standards for reducing levels of TSNA in smokeless tobacco products are necessary to decrease exposure to these toxicants and potentially to reduce risk for cancer.

  16. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T

    2002-09-01

    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  17. International food trade reduces environmental effects of nitrogen pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yaxing; Wu, Shaohua; Zhou, Shenglu; Wang, Chunhui; Chen, Hao

    2016-09-01

    The globalization of agricultural trade has dramatically altered global nitrogen flows by changing the spatial pattern of nitrogen utilization and emissions at a global scale. As a major trading country, China uses a large amount of nitrogen, which has a profound impact on global nitrogen flows. Using data on food production and trade between China and 26 other countries and regions, we calculated nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production ecosystem in each country. We estimated nitrogen flows in international food trade and analyzed their impact on nitrogen pollution in China. We divided nitrogen flows into embodied and virtual nitrogen flows. Embodied nitrogen is taken up by the plant and incorporated into the final food product, whereas virtual nitrogen is lost to the environment throughout the food production process and is not contained in the final food product. Our results show that China mainly imports food products from America and Asia, accounting for 95 % of all imported food. Asia (mainly Japan) and Europe are the main exporters of food from China, with Japan and the EU accounting for 17 and 10 % of all exported food, respectively. Total nitrogen inputs and outputs in food production in China were 55,400 and 61,000 Gg respectively, which were much higher than in other countries. About 1440 and 950 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow into China through the food trade, mainly from food-exporting countries such as the USA, Argentina, and Brazil. Meanwhile, 177 and 160 Gg of embodied and virtual nitrogen respectively flow out of China from the export of food products, mainly to Japan. China's net food imports have reduced 720 and 458 Gg for nitrogen utilization and outputs, respectively, which accounted for 1.3 and 0.78 % of total nitrogen inputs and outputs in China. These results suggest that food trade in China has a profound effect on nitrogen flows and has greatly reduced environmental impacts on nitrogen pollution in China.

  18. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  19. Smokeless tobacco reduction: preliminary study of tobacco-free snuff versus no snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Edmonds, Amanda; Li, Casey; Lin, Haiying; Le, Chap; Hecht, Stephen S

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effects of tobacco-free snuff (intervention, n = 52) compared with no snuff (control, n = 54) for reducing tobacco use among smokeless tobacco (ST) users not interested in quitting. Both groups received behavioral instructions, and intervention subjects received tobacco-free snuff for 8 weeks. Participants were required to reduce their intake by 50% during the first 4 weeks and by 75% during the subsequent 4 weeks. Follow-up occurred at 12 weeks. Significant reductions were observed from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) for both treatment groups in the amount of ST use (tins/week and dips/day, psnuff could potentially reduce risk for ST-related disease beyond that achieved with no snuff by increasing the number of patients who achieve significant reductions in carcinogen exposure and, more important, by facilitating tobacco abstinence by increasing quit attempts and abstinence duration.

  20. Similar exposure to a tobacco-specific carcinogen in smokeless tobacco users and cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Carmella, Steven G; Murphy, Sharon E; Riley, William T; Le, Chap; Luo, Xianghua; Mooney, Marc; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2007-08-01

    Smokeless tobacco has been proposed as a reduced risk substitute for smoking, but no large studies have investigated exposure to the powerful carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) in smokeless tobacco users versus smokers. The purpose of this study was to carry out such a comparison. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides (total NNAL), a biomarker of NNK exposure, and cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, were quantified in the urine of 420 smokers and 182 smokeless tobacco users who were participants in studies designed to reduce their use of these products. The measurements were taken at baseline, before intervention. Levels of total NNAL per milliliter of urine were significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco users than in smokers (P tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK in smokeless tobacco users and smokers. These findings do not support the use of smokeless tobacco as a safe substitute for smoking.

  1. Environmental Management: A Comprehensive Strategy for Reducing Alcohol and Other Drug Use on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Vince-Whitman, Cheryl; Colthurst, Tom; Cretella, Maggie; Gilbreath, Michael; Rosati, Michael; Zweig, Karen

    This guide presents a comprehensive strategy, called "environmental management," for alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention in institutions of higher education. The environmental management approach utilizes, in addition to educational programs, changes in the physical, social, economic, and legal environment accomplished through a…

  2. Environmental resources reduce income inequality and the prevalence, depth and severity of poverty in rural Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Bir Bahadur Khanal; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic importance of environmental income to rural households in Nepal and how environmental income influences poverty and inequality measures. Qualitative contextual information was collected from two village development committees in middle Gorkha District followed...... by a structured survey of 303 randomly selected households; income data were collected quarterly throughout 2008. Average environmental income was 15.7 % of total household income, ranging from 11.0 to 29.5 %. Environmental reliance decreased with rising income while absolute environmental income increased....... Ordinary least square regression analysis indicated that households having large areas of crop and other lands, many livestock, larger amount of bank saving and having at least one migrating household member generate significantly larger amount of total household income. Households having a larger...

  3. Quantification of the Reduced Environmental Impacts with Use of Co-Processing in Cement Kilns in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Tiwary; Garima Sharma; Gupta, P K

    2014-01-01

    Coupled with resource conservation and reduced carbon emissions, co-processing technology is a preferable alternative for sound and environmental friendly waste disposal over incinerators & non-scientific methods. It is not only solution to the waste disposal menace, but also reduces burden on secured landfills & TSDFs. Apart from using energy and material value of wastes, co-processing not only fixes the inorganic content of the wastes within the clinker, but also, it destroys the wa...

  4. A Convenient and Environmentally Benign Method of Reducing Aryl Ketones or Aldehydes by Zinc Powder in an Aqueous Alkaline Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Chao-Zhi; YANG,Hui; WU,De-Lin; LU,Guo-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    A convenient and environmentally benign method for reducing the carbonyl group in hydroxy- and amino-9,10-anthracenediones, ortho (or para) acyl phenols and acyl anilines to a methylene group by zinc powder in an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution was reported. Based on theoretical calculations using the density functional theory (DFT), the mechanism of these reduction reactions was postulated. This mechanism can be applied to help predicting the reduced products of aryl ketones (or aldehydes) in an alkaline solution.

  5. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  6. The politics of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1998-12-01

    Smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable mortality will increase substantially in the Asia- Pacific region well into the next century, due to population expansion, ageing populations, and the fact that more women are smoking. The economic costs of tobacco, already substantial, will rise. Of particular concern is the penetration of the region by the transnational tobacco companies, which deny the health evidence of the harm from tobacco, use sophisticated promotions, and lobby to oppose tobacco control measures. There is an urgent need for robust tobacco control action to be taken by every country, but many governments have little experience in combatting this new epidemic or in countering the tobacco companies. They are needlessly concerned that tobacco control action will harm their economy, leading to loss of tax revenue and jobs. Arguments to convince governments must be shaped to address economic issues and illustrate that such action is not only good for a nation's health, but also good for its economy.

  7. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. Menu ... tobacco URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002032.htm Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features ...

  8. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  9. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with emails, text messages, RSS Feeds, content syndication, social media and more to learn about the latest federal tobacco regulations. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults: A Report of the Surgeon ...

  10. Reevaluation of the effectiveness of environmental designs to reduce robbery risk in Florida convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amandus, H E; Hunter, R D; James, E; Hendricks, S

    1995-06-01

    Prevention of intentional injuries to convenience store workers has focused on prevention of robbery. Data from a cross-sectional study of the effectiveness of environmental designs to deter robbery in Florida convenience stores were reanalyzed in order to determine the effect of confounding from local crime risk factors and other environmental designs on robbery rate. Results of this reanalysis were applied to a review of the literature. Of 14 store design factors and 5 local crime risk factors considered, concealed access/escape routes, cash register located at the back or the side of the store, high county crime rate, and high county population size were significantly associated with increased robbery rate. Poor cash handling policy was significantly related to a decreased robbery rate. Results also indicated that local crime factors and some environmental designs confound the relationship between other environmental designs and robbery rate. Conclusions from this reanalysis indicated that studies of the effectiveness of environmental designs to deter robbery must adjust for confounding. Although environmental design tends to be an effective robbery deterrent strategy, results from studies have been inconsistent as to the effectiveness of specific design factors. This inconsistency is partially explained by lack of adjustment for confounding from local crime risk factors and multiple environmental design factors. Areas for further research are discussed.

  11. Environmentally friendly synthesis of p-doped reduced graphene oxide with high dispersion stability by using red table wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Joon; Lee, Jang Mi; Kumer, Roy Arup; Park, Sung Young; Kim, Sang Chun; In, Insik

    2015-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with high dispersion stability and p-type semiconducting property was synthesized by using environmentally friendly mussel-inspired chemistry with red table wine. (+)-Catechin and tannic acid, polyphenolic model compounds present in wine, were selected and successfully utilized for the synthesis of soluble polycatechol-functionalized rGO.

  12. Long-term manure incorporation with chemical fertilizers reduced environmental nitrogen loss in rain-fed cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving soil fertility/productivity and reducing environmental impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization in intensive farming systems are essential for sustainable agriculture and food security around the world. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of various fertilization...

  13. Evaluation of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program for Reducing Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nagano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Ryo; Jacobson, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Co-existing with wildlife and maintaining rural livelihoods are common challenges in remote villages in Japan. The authors assess the effects of the Monkey-Persimmon Environmental Education Program developed to reduce wildlife conflicts and to revitalize a community in Nagano Prefecture. Development of a logic model helped guide interviews with…

  14. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to 1,973.…

  15. Application and Research of Gravity Technology based on Tobacco Factory Environmental Protection%超重力技术在烟厂环保中的应用与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜晓华

    2014-01-01

    Gravity technology was the new technology of strengthening multiphase flow reaction process. Gravity machine was to has broad applicability, small size, light weight, low energy consumption, easy operation, easy maintenance, safe, reliable, flexible and adapt to the environment and so on. The applications of tobacco different odor treatment, nitrogen oxide treatment, acid gas treatment, dust treatment based on gravity technology in tobacco factory environmental protection were detailed analyzed.%超重力技术是强化多相流传递及反应过程的新技术,超重力机具有广泛适用性及传统设备不具有的体积小、重量轻、能耗低、易运转、易维修、安全、可靠、灵活以及更能适应环境等优点。文章详细分析了超重力技术在烟厂环保中的烟草异臭味处理、氮氧化物处理、醋酸尾气处理、除尘处理等应用。

  16. 'Four Seasons' in an animal rescue centre; classical music reduces environmental stress in kennelled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, A; Scottish Spca; Dowell, F J; Evans, N P

    2015-05-01

    On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7 days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7 day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7 days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30 h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as μRR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in μHR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and

  17. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC-recommended levels. www.cdc.gov/tobacco/stateandcommunity/best_practices Make tobacco cessation treatments more available to people ... what cancer screening tests are needed and are best for them. Make sure their ... their practice. Everyone can Quit using tobacco or never start. ...

  18. The Role of PharmEcovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants ...

  19. Reduced Cortical Thickness as an Outcome of Differential Sensitivity to Environmental Risks in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Petra; Marcelis, Machteld; Gronenschild, Ed; Drukker, Marian; van Os, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Background: The etiology of schizophrenia is thought to involve differential likely genetically mediated sensitivity to environmental exposures. However, examination of differential sensitivity in models of psychopathologic constructs is subject to bias because psychopathology itself may distort exp

  20. The Role of PharmEcovigilance in Reducing the Environmental Footprint of Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prescribing and usage of medications have ramifications extending far beyond conventional medical care. The pharmaceutical and healthcare industries have an environmental footprint because the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can enter the environment as contaminants ...

  1. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  2. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  3. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) AC4 suppresses post-transcriptional gene silencing and an AC4 hairpin RNA gene reduces MYMV DNA accumulation in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, Sukumaran; Shanmugapriya, Gnanasekaran; Balamani, Veluthambi; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2013-06-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is a legume-infecting geminivirus that causes yellow mosaic disease in blackgram, mungbean, soybean, Frenchbean and mothbean. AC4/C4, which is nested completely within the Rep gene, is less conserved among geminiviruses. Much less is known about its role in viral pathogenesis other than its known role in the suppression of host-mediated gene silencing. Transient expression of MYMV AC4 by agroinfiltration suppressed post-transcriptional gene silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana 16c expressing green fluorescence protein, at a level comparable to MYMV TrAP expression. AC4 full-length gene and an inverted repeat of AC4 (comprising the full-length AC4 sequence in sense and antisense orientations with an intervening intron) which makes a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) upon transcription were introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. Leaf discs of the transgenic plants were agroinoculated with partial dimers of MYMV and used to study the effect of the AC4-sense and AC4 hpRNA genes on MYMV DNA accumulation. Leaf discs of two transgenic plants that express the AC4-sense gene displayed an increase in MYMV DNA accumulation. Leaf discs of six transgenic plants containing the AC4 hpRNA gene accumulated small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific to AC4, and upon agroinoculation with MYMV they exhibited a severe reduction in the accumulation of MYMV DNA. Thus, the MYMV AC4 hpRNA gene has emerged as a good candidate to engineer resistance against MYMV in susceptible plants.

  4. Over-expression of a subgroup 4 R2R3 type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala reduces lignin content in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Sumita; Kumar, Santosh; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : LlMYB1 , a subgroup 4 R2R3-type MYB transcription factor gene from Leucaena leucocephala appears to be a repressor of lignin biosynthesis pathway by regulating the transcription of general phenylpropanoid pathway genes. R2R3MYB transcription factors are known to play a wide role in regulating the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. In this study, we report isolation, cloning and characterization of an R2R3MYB transcription factor gene (LlMYB1) from an economically important tree species, Leucaena leucocephala. LlMYB1 consists of 705 bp coding sequence corresponding to 235 amino acids. Sequence alignment revealed that the N-terminal (MYB) domain of the gene shares up to 95 % similarity with subgroup 4 (Sg4) members of R2R3Myb gene family functionally known to be lignin repressors. Highly divergent C-terminal region of the gene carried an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, another characteristic of the Sg4. The gene was phylogenetically grouped closest with AmMYB308, a known repressor of monolignol biosynthetic pathway genes. Spatio-temporal expression studies at different ages of seedlings using quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) showed highest transcript level of the gene in 10 day old stem tissues. Over-expression of the gene in transgenic tobacco showed statistically significant decline in the transcript levels of the general phenylpropanoid pathway genes and reduction in lignin content. Our study suggests that LlMYB1 might be playing the role of a repressor of lignin biosynthesis in L. leucocephala.

  5. An Official American Thoracic Society Research Statement: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs in Tobacco Control and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank T; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Folan, Patricia; Latzka, Karen; Munzer, Alfred; Neptune, Enid; Pakhale, Smita; Sachs, David P L; Samet, Jonathan; Upson, Dona; White, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Since the mid-20th century, the scientific community has substantially improved its understanding of the worldwide tobacco epidemic. Although significant progress has been made, the sheer enormity and scope of the global problem put it on track to take a billion lives this century. Curbing the epidemic will require maximizing the impact of proven tools as well as the development of new, breakthrough methods to help interrupt the spread of nicotine addiction and reduce the downstream morbidity. Members of the Tobacco Action Committee of the American Thoracic Society queried bibliographic databases, including Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Collaborative, to identify primary sources and reviews relevant to the epidemic. Exploded search terms were used to identify evidence, including tobacco, addiction, smoking, cigarettes, nicotine, and smoking cessation. Evidence was consolidated into three thematic areas: (1) determinants of risk, (2) maternal-fetal exposure, and (3) current tobacco users. Expert panel consensus regarding current gaps in understanding and recommendations for future research priorities was generated through iterative discussion. Although much has been accomplished, significant gaps in understanding remain. Implementation often lags well behind insight. This report identifies a number of investigative opportunities for significantly reducing the toll of tobacco use, including: (1) the need for novel, nonlinear models of population-based disease control; (2) refinement of "real-world" models of clinical intervention in trial design; and (3) understanding of mechanisms by which intrauterine smoke exposure may lead to persistent, tobacco-related chronic disease. In the coming era of tobacco research, pooled talent from multiple disciplines will be required to further illuminate the complex social, environmental and biological codeterminants of tobacco dependence.

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Common Plastic Packaging for Reducing Environmental Impact and Material Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaldas Varžinskas

    2009-12-01

    the Faculty of Design and Technologies, Kaunas University of Technology, together with packaging and environmental protection specialists of the University, and in cooperation with the Department of Printed Publications and Packaging of the Ukrainian Print Academy. The present paper analyses certain basic findings of the study on the possibilities of improving the ecological level of packaging within the framework of the project. It is stated that appropriate investigation of packaging, its production and application has to be performed in order to prove that the packaging was produced in compliance with preventive and other principles; this investigation is related to a wide variety of package testing, some of which has not yet got methodology acknowledged at a sufficient level (the EU or groups of countries. Therefore, one of the research directions in the above mentioned project, discussed in the present paper, is related to developing a single system, recognized throughout the EU, which would enable researchers to perform the required tests confirming the packaging quality compliance with the environmental requirements. The paper analyzes the EU prevention regulations for reducing the amount of raw material and the system of checking the realization of the requirements based on identification of critical areas, aimed at reaching the lowest possible package weight and/or volume, consequently, the minimum waste amount, without increasing the amount of faulty products and product waste. The paper presents the findings of the research obtained in assessing the life cycle, when applying the Ecoindicator'99 qualitative analysis, concerning the impact of common plastic packages and processes on the environment during manufacturing, usage and disposal. Compression test results of common type plastic packaging construction are presented, which allow us to assess the impact of the package shape and construction upon the packaging reliability and minimization of its mass.

  7. Tobacco control in the Russian Federation--a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Migliorini, Luigi

    2013-01-23

    The Russian Federation (Russia) has one of the highest smoking rates in the world. The purpose of this study is to analyze past and current trends of the tobacco epidemic in the Russian Federation, review current tobacco control policy responses, and identify areas of opportunity for policy priorities. We used a policy triangle as analytical framework to examine content, context, and processes of Russian tobacco control policy. The analysis was based on secondary data on supply and demand sides of the Russian tobacco epidemic, tobacco-related economic and health effects during Russia's economic transition, and compliance of Russian tobacco policy with international standards and regulations. Tobacco-promoting strategies have specifically targeted women and youth. Russia's approval of a "National Tobacco Control Concept" and draft for a comprehensive tobacco control bill increasingly align national legislature with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). However, several structural and cultural factors represent substantial barriers to the policy process. The influence of transnational tobacco companies on policy processes in Russia has so far impeded a full implementation of the FCTC mandates. Several strategies have been identified as having the potential to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use in Russia and decrease tobacco-related national health and economic burden: adjusting national tobacco policy by raising tobacco tax from the current lowest level in Europe to at least 70%; consequent enforcement of a complete smoking ban in public places; marketing restrictions; and smoking cessation interventions integrated into primary care. Russia's tobacco control efforts need to target women and youths specifically to efficiently counter industry efforts.

  8. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  9. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  10. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  11. Comparison of tobacco-containing and tobacco-free waterpipe products: effects on human alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas; Rammah, Mayassa; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user" has become widely available for waterpipe (hookah, narghile, or shisha) smoking. Their adoption may be in part driven by regulations banning tobacco smoking in public places and by an increasing awareness of the hazards of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Although these products are presented in advertising as a "healthier" choice, very little is known about their health effects. In this study, we compared the effects of smoke generated with tobacco-free and conventional tobacco-derived products on human alveolar cells. Smoke was generated with a smoking machine that precisely mimicked the puffing behavior of 15 experienced waterpipe smokers when they used conventional waterpipe tobacco products of their choice and flavor-matched tobacco-free products. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with particulate matter sampled from the smoke, and the effects on cell cycle, proliferation, and doubling time were measured during the subsequent 72hr. We found that smoke from both types of waterpipe products markedly reduced cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, and increased cell doubling time. There were no significant differences across product in any measure. Tobacco-free and tobacco-based waterpipe products exert substantial and similar deleterious effects on human lung cells. This study adds to the nascent evidence base indicating that except for exposure to nicotine and its derivatives, use of tobacco-free waterpipe products does not present a reduced health risk relative to the use of conventional tobacco-based products.

  12. Urban agricultural typologies and the need to quantify their potential to reduce a city's environmental 'foodprint'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the supply chain supporting urban food consumption is placing stress on the environment at the planetary, regional and local scales. Despite the urban origin of global food demands, cities supply little of their own food, and are susceptible to disruptions across the global supply chain...... remains inconclusive. A comprehensive analysis of the environmental performance of dominant UA forms is therefore needed. However, the review also found paucity in meaningful systematics that described UA systemsbased on attributes important to environmental performance. We addressed this by developing...

  13. Waterpipe product packaging and labelling at the 3rd international Hookah Fair; does it comply with Article 11 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Darzi, Andrea; Lotfi, Tamara; Nakkash, Rima; Hawkins, Ben; Akl, Elie A

    2017-08-01

    We assessed compliance of waterpipe product packaging and labelling with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's Article 11. We evaluated samples collected at a trade fair against ten domains: health warning location, size, use of pictorials, use of colour, and packaging information on constituents and emissions. We also evaluated waterpipe accessories (e.g., charcoal) for misleading claims. Ten of 15 tobacco products had health warnings on their principal display areas, covering a median of 22.4 per cent (interquartile range 19.4-27.4 per cent) of those areas. Three had pictorial, in-colour health warnings. We judged all packaging information on constituents and emissions to be misleading. Eight of 13 charcoal products displayed environmentally friendly descriptors and/or claims of reduced harm that we judged to be misleading. Increased compliance with waterpipe tobacco regulation is warranted. An improved policy framework for waterpipe tobacco should also consider regulation of accessories such as charcoal products.

  14. Childhood Asthma Management and Environmental Triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Jessica P; Cloutier, Michelle M

    2015-10-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. It cannot be prevented but can be controlled. Industrialized countries experience high lifetime asthma prevalence that has increased over recent decades. Asthma has a complex interplay of genetic and environmental triggers. Studies have revealed complex interactions of lung structure and function genes with environmental exposures such as environmental tobacco smoke and vitamin D. Home environmental strategies can reduce asthma morbidity in children but should be tailored to specific allergens. Coupled with education and severity-specific asthma therapy, tailored interventions may be the most effective strategy to manage childhood asthma.

  15. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate

  16. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Should Tobacco Researchers Be Selected as Academicians?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Deccmber 8,2011,the Chinese cademy of Engineering (CAE)lected 54 academicians.Xic Jianping,whose research focuses on adding Chinese herbal medicine to cigarettes to reduce tar content,was on the list.Xie,52,is widely known for his research on low-tar cigarettes and serves as the deputy head of a tobacco research institute under China National Tobacco Corp.,China's tobacco monopoly and the world's largest cigarette company.Xie's election has ignited great controversy.Supporters say people shouldn't discriminate against researchers in controversial fields.Xie does not encourage smoking but has done his best to reduce its harm.The tobacco industry is a big one and China cannot eliminate it now.

  18. Exposición al humo de tabaco en hogares de la Ciudad de México: análisis de nicotina ambiental y en cabello de niños y mujeres Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes of Mexico City: analysis of environmental samples and children and women hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: En México no se han efectuado evaluaciones de la exposición al humo de tabaco ambiental en los hogares ni en sus habitantes. El objetivo de este estudio es cuantificar los niveles de nicotina ambiental en hogares de la Ciudad de México, evaluando simultáneamente los niveles de nicotina en el cabello de niños y mujeres. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En julio de 2005 se seleccionaron 41 hogares de la Ciudad de México a conveniencia, 20% sin fumadores y 80% con fumadores. Se colocaron monitores pasivos de nicotina en los hogares por una semana y se obtuvieron muestras de cabello de mujeres no fumadoras y niños para cuantificar nicotina. Las muestras fueron enviadas a la Universidad Johns Hopkins, donde la nicotina se extrajo y analizó con cromatografía de gases. De manera adicional, se aplicaron encuestas de opinión y conductas relacionadas con el humo de tabaco ambiental. RESULTADOS: Las concentraciones de nicotina ambiental tuvieron una mediana de 0.08 µg/m³ (RIC 0.01-0.64, en el cabello de los niños 0.05 ng/mg (RIC 0.05-0.29 y en el cabello de las mujeres 0.05 ng/mg (RIC 0.05-0.19. Las concentraciones de nicotina ambiental y en el cabello de los niños mostraron una correlación alta (rS=0.49, y se incrementó con el número de fumadores en el hogar. La mayoría de los encuestados apoya las medidas de control del humo de tabaco ambiental. CONCLUSIONES: Se observaron grados particularmente altos de exposición en niños atribuibles a la presencia de nicotina ambiental en el hogar. Deben implementarse acciones preventivas integrales para eliminar el tabaquismo activo y evitar el consumo de tabaco en el hogar.OBJECTIVE: In Mexico no evaluation of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in homes or habitants has been conducted. The objective of this study is to quantify environmental nicotine in Mexico City homes, simultaneously evaluating nicotine levels in children and women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In July 2005 a convenience sample of 41

  19. Analysis on Environmental Effects and Harm in the Whole Course of Tobacco Production and Smoking%烟草加工与燃吸全过程的环境影响与危害分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月红

    2013-01-01

      大量数据表明,烟草在生产加工过程中会产生和排放煤尘、烟草尘、恶臭气体、生产废水、烟草废弃物等各类污染和工业噪声,不仅对生产现场和周边环境造成污染,还会对作业工人造成呼吸道和听力损害及其他疾病危害。卷烟烟气中含有很多危及身体的毒性成分,吸烟场所空气中的尼古丁、颗粒物和有机物浓度均明显高于无烟和禁烟场所。吸烟是导致肺癌的首要危险因素,也是导致慢性阻塞性肺病的主要原因,更是多种癌症、心脑血管疾病等的重要诱因,被动吸烟的危害更为严重,全社会应正确引导烟草的生产和消费,最大可能地减轻烟草对人类造成的危害。%Lots of data indicates that the production of tobacco usually produces and discharges coal dust , tobacco dust, odor gas, wastewater, tobacco waste and noise not only polluting the working fields but also harming the workers 'respiratory system and hearing and e-ven suffering from other diseases.There are lots of toxic components harming to health in cigarette smoke .The concentration of nicotine, particulate matter and organics in the air of smoking places are higher than those in smoke -free places and non-smoke places.Smoking is the principal risk factors leading to lung cancer , the main reason leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the important induce -ment of many kinds of cancers, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and so on .Harm to passive smokers is more serious.The whole society should guide the production and consume of tobacco correctly so as to reduce its harm to man as much as possible .

  20. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. In these studies we investigated use of food waste to produce butanol by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initia...

  1. Reduced antimicrobial potencies of Oxytetracycline, tylosin, sulfadiazine, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin and olaquindox due to environmental processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Sengeløv, G.; Ingerslev, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The stability of oxytetracycline (OTC), tylosin (TYL), sulfadiazin (SDZ), streptomycin (ST), ciprofloxacin (CF) and olaquindox (O) was examined in environmentally relevant matrices, such as soil interstitial water and sewage sludge water. Compounds were assessed in both aerobic (OTC, TYL, SDZ, ST...

  2. Treatment with Tyrosine a Neurotransmitter Precursor Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    brain norepinephrine and dopamine. catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. In animals, administration of tyrosine, a food constituent and precursor of the...Profile of Mood States. Stanford Sleepiness Scale) ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS that have been employed to evaluate a variety of psychoactive drugs foods ... tyramine . However. Plasma tyrosine levels were significantly elevated during behav- this amine is not detectable in the plasma of animals after they

  3. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water.

  4. Position Statement on Tobacco on College and University Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of American College Health, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American College Health Association (ACHA) acknowledges and supports the findings of the Surgeon General that tobacco use in any form, active and/or passive, is a significant health hazard. ACHA further recognizes that environmental tobacco smoke has been classified as a Class-A carcinogen and that there is no safe level of exposure to…

  5. Tobacco Advertising and Promotional Expenditures in Sports and Sporting Events - United States, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2016-08-19

    on brand sponsorship, smokeless tobacco products continue to be marketed in sports in the United States, potentially through other indirect channels such as corporate-name sponsorship. Enhanced measures are warranted to restrict youth-oriented tobacco marketing and promotional activities that could lead to tobacco initiation and use among children and adolescents (2). Reducing tobacco industry promotion through sponsorship of public and private events is an evidence-based strategy for preventing youth initiation of tobacco use (3). In addition, other proven interventions (e.g., tobacco price increases, anti-tobacco mass media campaigns, tobacco-free policies inclusive of smokeless tobacco, and barrier-free access to cessation services), could help reduce smokeless tobacco use in the United States (1).

  6. Comparative effectiveness of the nicotine lozenge and tobacco-free snuff for smokeless tobacco reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Jon O; Severson, Herbert H; Croghan, Ivana T; Danaher, Brian G; Schroeder, Darrell R

    2013-05-01

    Long-term smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, but not all ST users want to quit. Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of nicotine lozenges and tobacco-free snuff for reducing ST use among ST users not ready to quit, but no comparative effectiveness trials of these two products have been conducted. We conducted a multicenter, randomized clinical pilot study evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the 4-mg nicotine lozenge and tobacco-free snuff for reducing ST use and increasing tobacco abstinence among ST users with no intention of quitting in the next 30 days. Participants received 8 weeks of treatment and behavioral counseling on tobacco reduction strategies with follow-up to 26 weeks. We randomized 81 participants (40 nicotine lozenges, 41 tobacco-free snuff). No significant differences in reduction were observed between the two groups at weeks 8, 12, and 26. No significant differences were observed between groups in nicotine withdrawal or tobacco craving. However, both groups significantly reduced (psnuff both appear to be effective and comparable for reducing ST use among ST users not ready to quit in the next 30 days.

  7. Price elasticity estimates for tobacco products in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M

    2008-05-01

    The tax base of tobacco in India is heavily dependent on about 14% of tobacco users, who smoke cigarettes. Non-cigarette tobacco products accounting for 85% of the tobacco consumption contributes only 15% of the total tobacco taxes. Though taxation is an important tool to regulate consumption of tobacco, there have been no estimates of price elasticities for different tobacco products in India to date, which can guide tax policy on tobacco. This paper, for the first time in India, examines the price elasticity of demand for bidis, cigarettes and leaf tobacco at the national level using a representative cross-section of households. This study found that own-price elasticity estimates of different tobacco products in India ranged between -0.4 to -0.9, with bidis (an indigenous hand-rolled smoked tobacco preparation in India) and leaf tobacco having elasticities close to unity. Cigarettes were the least price elastic of all. With some assumptions, it is shown that the tax on bidis can be increased to Rs. 100 per 1000 sticks compared with the current Rs. 14 and the tax on an average cigarette can be increased to Rs. 3.5 per stick without any fear of losing revenue. The paper argues that the current system of taxing cigarettes in India based on the presence of filters and the length of cigarettes has no justification on health grounds, and should be abolished, if reducing tobacco consumption and the consequent disease burden is one of the objectives of tobacco taxation policy. It also argues that attempts to regulate tobacco use without effecting significant tax increases on bidis may not produce desired results.

  8. Using Community Advisory Boards to Reduce Environmental Barriers to Health in American Indian Communities, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Alexandra K.; Scott, Jamie R.; Prince, Ron; Williamson, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Background American Indian communities have a high prevalence of chronic diseases including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Innovative community-based approaches are needed to identify, prioritize, and create sustainable interventions to reduce environmental barriers to healthy lifestyles and ultimately improve health. Community Context Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based and community-based intervention to increase healthy lifestyles on Wisconsin Ameri...

  9. Studies Regarding the Set of Actions Needed for Fitosanitary Treatment in Order to Reduce the Environmental Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLNAR A.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In general the main objective of phytosanitary treatment is to be at high qualitative level, in high securityconditions and with low environmental impact. From this point of view there are some conditions, which must beaccomplished by the employees and by the agricultural sprayer machineries. This paper studies the order of actionsneeded for phytosanitary treatment of agricultural crops in order to reduce the environment pollution, to assure the foodsecurity and employees’ security.

  10. Analysis of gyrA and parC mutations in enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A.; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2004-01-01

    The quinolone resistance determining regions of gyrA and parC in four species of enterococci from environmental samples with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin were sequenced. The nucleotide sequence variations of parC could be related to the different enterococcal species. Mutations...... in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium related to reduced susceptibility were identical to mutations detected in E jaecalis and E. faecium of clinical origin. A minimal inhibitory concentration of 8 mug ml(-1) to ciprofloxacin was not associated with any mutations in the gyrA and parC gene...... of Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum. These two species may be intrinsically less susceptible to ciprofloxacin....

  11. Tobacco control in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Judith; Ritthiphakdee, Bungon; Reddy, K Srinath

    2013-05-04

    For the purpose of this article, Asia refers to WHO's combined South-East Asia and Western Pacific regions and thus includes Australia and New Zealand. Asia has the highest number of tobacco users and is the prime target of transnational tobacco companies. The future of global tobacco control rests in this region and the challenges are clear. China, India, and Indonesia are key markets and Asia is a frontrunner in tobacco control measures, such as plain packaging of cigarettes. Some countries in Asia have a long history of tobacco control activities beginning in the 1970s, and WHO's Western Pacific Region is still the only region where all countries have ratified WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. We reviewed the history, research, epidemiology, tobacco control action, obstacles, and potential responses and solutions to the tobacco epidemic in this region. Levels of development, systems of government, and population size are very different between countries, with population size ranging from 1500 to 1·3 billion, but similarities exist in aspects of the tobacco epidemic, harms caused, obstacles faced, and tobacco control actions needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wetlands as a means to reduce the environmental impact of mine drainage waters

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Åsa

    2003-01-01

    In many mining regions of the world, pollution of surface water and groundwater by drainage water originating from mines aiming waste poses either a serious threat to the environment, or a severe environmental problem. During the last two and a half decades, treatment of mine drainage water in constructed and natural wetlands has emerged as an alternative to more conventional methods to handle the problem. In this thesis, the major biogeochemical processes behind metal immobilization in wetla...

  13. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact reduction, Behaviour Change has not traditionally been regarded as an easy route to achieving substantial results. Arguably this is driven by perceptions that it is (i) difficult to influence large numbers of people, and (ii) difficult to quantify the potentially nebulous results generated. This paper proposes that by use of innovative and engaging IT systems and good programme design, both of these challenges can be addressed. By so doing, Behaviour C...

  14. Acute partial sleep deprivation due to environmental noise increases weight gain by reducing energy expenditure in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Jennifer B; Teske, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic partial sleep deprivation (SD) by environmental noise exposure increases weight gain and feeding in rodents, which contrasts weight loss after acute SD by physical methods. This study tested whether acute environmental noise exposure reduced sleep and its effect on weight gain, food intake, physical activity, and energy expenditure (EE). It was hypothesized that acute exposure would (1) increase weight gain and feeding and (2) reduce sleep, physical activity, and EE (total and individual components); and (3) behavioral changes would persist throughout recovery from SD. Three-month old male Sprague-Dawley rats slept ad libitum, were noise exposed (12-h light cycle), and allowed to recover (36 h). Weight gain, food intake, sleep/wake, physical activity, and EE were measured. Acute environmental noise exposure had no effect on feeding, increased weight gain (P sleep (P sleep, rest, and physical activity reduce total EE and contribute to weight gain during acute SD and recovery from SD. These data emphasize the importance of increasing physical activity after SD to prevent obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. The compatible solute ectoine reduces the exacerbating effect of environmental model particles on the immune response of the airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfried, Klaus; Kroker, Matthias; Autengruber, Andrea; Gotić, Marijan; Sydlik, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution.

  16. The Compatible Solute Ectoine Reduces the Exacerbating Effect of Environmental Model Particles on the Immune Response of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Unfried

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of humans to particulate air pollution has been correlated with the incidence and aggravation of allergic airway diseases. In predisposed individuals, inhalation of environmental particles can lead to an exacerbation of immune responses. Previous studies demonstrated a beneficial effect of the compatible solute ectoine on lung inflammation in rats exposed to carbon nanoparticles (CNP as a model of environmental particle exposure. In the current study we investigated the effect of such a treatment on airway inflammation in a mouse allergy model. Ectoine in nonsensitized animals significantly reduced the neutrophilic lung inflammation after CNP exposure. This effect was accompanied by a reduction of inflammatory factors in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Reduced IL-6 levels in the serum also indicate the effects of ectoine on systemic inflammation. In sensitized animals, an aggravation of the immune response was observed when animals were exposed to CNP prior to antigen provocation. The coadministration of ectoine together with the particles significantly reduced this exacerbation. The data indicate the role of neutrophilic lung inflammation in the exacerbation of allergic airway responses. Moreover, the data suggest to use ectoine as a preventive treatment to avoid the exacerbation of allergic airway responses induced by environmental air pollution.

  17. 工作环境烟草暴露与肺癌发生危险的系统评价%Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新卓; 秦玉坤; 谷俊东; 王凤玮; 贾培杰; 王辉; 姚嫱; 朱思伟

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace.The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects.Methods By searching Medline,CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials), EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et at, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk.Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated as well.Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI:1.13-1.39, P<0.001).For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011).For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (O R= 1.54, 95% CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247).Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects.Especially for non-smoking women who exp ose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.%背景与目的 已有的研究表明:工作环境烟草暴露与非吸烟人群肺癌发生有密切关系并不十分明确,本研究旨在探讨工作环境烟草暴露与非吸烟人群肺癌发生危险的关系.方法 通过计算机检索Medline(1954年-2010年8月)、CENTRAL(the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials)(2010 issue3)、EMBASE(1970年-2010年8月)中国生物医学文献数据库系统(CBM)(1978年-201.年8月)、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)(1979年-2010年8月)、中文科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)(1989年-2010年8月)等

  18. Retailers' knowledge of tobacco harm reduction following the introduction of a new brand of smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Karyn K; Rosenberg, Zale; Tenorio, Francis; Phillips, Carl V

    2010-07-29

    Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicotine, for cigarettes. The introduction of a Swedish-style ST product, du Maurier snus (dMS) (Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited), which was marketed as a THR product, provided a unique opportunity to assess retailers' knowledge. This study examined retailers' knowledge of THR and compliance with recommendations regarding tobacco sales to young adults. Male researchers, who may have looked younger than 18 years old, visited 60 stores in Edmonton that sold dMS. The researchers asked the retailers questions about dMS and its health risks relative to those from other tobacco products. They also attempted to purchase dMS to ascertain whether retailers would ask for identification to verify that they were at least 18 years old. Overall, the retailers were only moderately knowledgeable about THR and the differences between dMS and other tobacco products. About half of the retailers correctly indicated that snus is safer than cigarettes; half of whom knew it is safer because it is smoke-free. Fifty percent incorrectly believed that snus causes oral cancer. Less than fifty percent indicated that dMS differs from chewing tobacco because it is in pouches and is used without spitting or chewing (making it more promising for THR). Most (90%) of the retailers asked the researchers for identification when selling dMS. Tobacco retailers are potentially important sources of information about THR, particularly since there are restrictions on the promotion of all tobacco products (regardless of the actual health risks) in Canada. This study found that many retailers in Edmonton do not know the relative health risks of different tobacco products and are therefore unable to pass on accurate information to smokers.

  19. Current Situations and Countermeasures of Organic Tobacco Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current situations of organic tobacco development at both home and abroad,indicating that organic tobacco is one of the innovation directions for sustainable,healthy,environmental protection and low carbon development of modern tobacco industry.On the basis of foreign cultivation technical system for organic agriculture,the cultivation technical system for organic tobacco is summed up as follows:first,keep the diversity and continuity of space and time;second,ensure closeness of nutrient cycle;third,improve self-regulatory system and protection ability of crops.Then,the development trend of organic tobacco is analyzed and corresponding measures are put forward:establish production base and assessment system for organic tobacco;establish technical system for production of organic tobacco;establish and perfect evaluation system for management,production and supervision of organic tobacco;strengthen popularization of production and concept of organic tobacco;improve management of organic tobacco purchase,industry commerce handover,and redrying.

  20. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Minimize or Mask Cigarette Smoke: Opportunities for Tobacco Product Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The tobacco industry has developed technologies to reduce the aversive qualities of cigarette smoke, including secondhand smoke (SHS). While these product design changes may lessen concerns about SHS, they may not reduce health risks associated with SHS exposure. Tobacco industry patents were reviewed to understand recent industry strategies to mask or minimize cigarette smoke from traditional cigarettes. Methods: Patent records published between 1997 and 2008 that related to cigarette smoke were conducted using key word searches. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office web site was used to obtain patent awards, and the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Patentscope and Free Patents Online web sites were used to search international patents. Results: The search identified 106 relevant patents published by Japan Tobacco Incorporated, British America Tobacco, Philip Morris International, and other tobacco manufacturers or suppliers. The patents were classified by their intended purpose, including reduced smoke constituents or quantity of smoke emitted by cigarettes (58%, n = 62), improved smoke odor (25%, n = 26), and reduced visibility of smoke (16%, n = 18). Innovations used a variety of strategies including trapping or filtering smoke constituents, chemically converting gases, adding perfumes, or altering paper to improve combustion. Conclusions: The tobacco industry continues to research and develop strategies to reduce perceptions of cigarette smoke, including the use of additives to improve smoke odor. Surveillance and regulatory response to industry strategies to reduce perceptions of SHS should be implemented to ensure that the public health is adequately protected. PMID:22949571

  1. The Master of Science in Environmental Architecture—An Appropriate Response to Reducing Greenhouse Gasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Garry; Parker, Ian

    2007-10-01

    For the past decade, politicians have applied different shades of "green-wash" to global environmental issues in order to help juggle their positions in the political spectrum. This has created the illusion that effective measures are being pursued in the public interest for both this and future generation(s). The reality is, however, that nearly of all these initiatives are "input focused" and the various States of the Environment reports confirm that, despite decades of endeavour and large financial investment, there is little return on investment and that the rate of environmental degradation, particularly of the global atmosphere, continues to increase. Despite fierce posturing from the global warming sceptics, it seems that finally, the long-term data indices of global warming are being accepted seriously and politicians around the world are responding by investing public funds in the quest for options. This paper contends that with global warming the major trends will be inexorable but the manifestations complex so humans will need to embrace uncertainty and manage change. Innovation and cooperation across all disciplines and the cooperation of the entire political and social spectrum will be required to solve the ecological disasters that have already begun to unfold and accelerate in frequency. It looks from a strategic viewpoint at how specialist education can catalyse change and play an important role in managing the change. The case study used in this analysis is the RISE Master of Science Course in Environmental Architecture. It explores the implications of linking to converging interests from other emerging course streams for Engineering and other Built Environment disciplines such as Planning, Project Management and Interior design as well as socio-economic disciplines and the integrative discipline of Systems Dynamics.

  2. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Background Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Results In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE wit...

  3. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-10-01

    A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1 month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250 ng/ml, Pcigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant). In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... range of risks, including nicotine addiction, from smokeless tobacco products may vary extensively because of differing levels of nicotine, carcinogens, and other toxins in different products” ( 6 ). Should ...

  5. Tobacco Diversity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.

  6. Long term follow-up of a tobacco prevention and cessation program in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; Perales, Joseph E; Cárceles-Álvarez, Alberto; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel Felipe; Villalona, Seiichi; Mondejar-López, Pedro; Pastor-Vivero, María Dolores; Mira Escolano, Pilar; James-Vega, Diana Carolina; Sánchez-Solís, Manuel

    2016-03-02

    This study evaluates the impact over time of a telephone-based intervention in tobacco cessation and prevention targeting patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the Mediterranean region of Murcia, Spain. We conducted an experimental prospective study with a cohort of CF patients using an integrative smoking cessation programme, between 2008 and 2013. The target population included family members and patients from the Regional CF unit. The study included an initial tobacco exposure questionnaire, measurement of lung function, urinary cotinine levels, anthropomorphic measures and the administered intervention at specific time intervals. Of the 88 patients tracked through follow-up, active smoking rates were reduced from 10.23% to 4.55% (p = 0.06). Environmental tobacco exposure was reduced in non-smoker patients from 62.03% to 36.90% (p < 0.01) during the five year follow-up. Significant reductions in the gradient of household tobacco smoke exposure were also observed with a decrease of 12.60%, from 31.65% (n = 25/79) to 19.05% (n = 16/84) in 2013 (p = <0.01). Cotinine was significantly correlated with both active and passive exposure (p<0.01) with a significant reduction of cotinine levels from 63.13 (28.58-97.69) to 20.56 (0.86-40.27) ng/ml (p<0.01). The intervention to significantly increase the likelihood of family quitting (smoke-free home) was 1.26 (1.05-1.54). Telephone based interventions for tobacco cessation and prevention is a useful tool when applied over time. Trained intervention professionals in this area are needed in the environmental health approach for the treatment of CF.

  7. Decreasing Reducing Sugar Content in Reconstituted Tobacco by Maillard Reaction%利用美拉德反应降低再造烟叶中的还原糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高徐梅; 李新生; 严新龙; 王军

    2014-01-01

    In order to decrease the content of reducing sugar in reconstituted tobacco (RT), Maillard reaction was brought about by adding amino acids in tobacco extract and FeCl3 as catalyst, going through extract concentration under reduced pressure, applying and drying steps analogous to real RT production. The content of reducing sugar was determined with HPLC, and the effects of different amino acids, addition rates of amino acids and catalyst, pH of extract, and conditions of extract concentrating, applying and drying on the reducing sugar content were investigated. The results showed that: 1) When reducing sugar/amino acid ratio in extract was 1∶0.5 (mole ratio), Fe3+ concentration 0.01 mmol/L, pH adjusted to about 6.2 by 2.5 mol/L K2CO3, the content of reducing sugar in RT could be decreased subject to simulated concentrating, applying and drying. Comparing with the control, the reducing sugar content in RT treated with lysine, glycine and proline decreased by 10.6%, 9.1% and 6.0%, respectively. 2) Comparing with the control, the irritancy of the RT treated with amino acids decreased to a certain extent, the aftertaste was improved; and the glycine-treated RT offered the best smoking quality.%为降低再造烟叶中还原糖含量,模拟生产中烟草萃取液减压浓缩、涂布烘烤等步骤,在萃取液中添加适量氨基酸,以氯化铁(FeCl3)为催化剂进行美拉德反应;采用高效液相色谱法测定还原糖含量变化,研究了不同种类氨基酸及其用量、催化剂用量、萃取液pH以及浓缩与涂布烘烤条件对降低还原糖含量的影响。结果表明:①当萃取液中还原糖∶氨基酸(摩尔比)=1∶0.5时,反应体系中Fe3+含量为0.01 mmol/L ,用2.5 mol/L K2CO3调节pH至6.2左右,模拟生产条件进行减压浓缩和涂布烘烤,可降低再造烟叶中还原糖含量。其中赖氨酸反应效果最好,相对于空白,再造烟叶中还原糖含量降低10.6%;甘

  8. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.J.; Hert-Picciotto, I.; Dostal, M.; Keller, J.A.; Nozicka, J.; Kotesovec, F.; Dejmek, J.; Loomis, D.; Sram, R.J. [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Public Health Science

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. Lower respiratory illness (LRI) diagnoses occurred more frequently in children from homes heated by coal (vs. other energy sources or distant furnaces; rate ratio (RR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.97). Maternal prenatal smoking and other adult smokers also increased LRI rates (respectively: RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; and RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65). Cooking fuels (primarily electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associated with LRI incidence. For children never breast-fed, coal home heating and mother's smoking conferred substantially greater risks: RR = 2.77 (95% CI, 1.45-5.27) and RR = 2.52 (95% CI, 1.31-4.85), respectively. This maternal smoking and coal home heating increased risk for LRI in the first 3 years of life, particularly in children not breast-fed.

  9. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  10. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-09-01

    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  11. Reducing bumblefoot lesions in a group of captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus with the use of environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reisfeld

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Captive penguins are prone to pododermatitis (bumblefoot lesions due to sedentary habits, changes in normal activity patterns, prolonged time on hard and abrasive surfaces, and less time swimming in the water. Environmental enrichment allows the use of creative and ingenious techniques that aim to keep the captive animals occupied by increasing the range and the diversity of behavioral opportunities always respecting the ethological needs of the species. The main goal of this work was to use environmental enrichment techniques to reduce pododermatitis in a group of captive penguins. Five captive Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus that were showing bumblefoot lesions were followed during this project. To monitor the lesions, all animals were physically restraint 3 times a week over a period of 12 weeks. Environmental enrichment was introduced daily in the water with the goal of enhancing their time in the water for one extra hour daily. The results demonstrate that in a twelve weeks period, four animals showed significant reduction of the lesions in both feet and in two animals the lesions were completely healed. With these results we can conclude that aquatic environmental enrichment allowed this group of penguins to spend more time in the water, favoring the reduction of the bumblefoot lesions.

  12. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  13. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helen Hansen; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian;

    2015-01-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space......) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the national...... of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of phenotypic...

  14. The Community Environmental Monitoring Program: Reducing Public Perception of Risk through Stakeholder Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William T. Hartwell

    2007-05-21

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) has promoted stakeholder involvement, awareness, and understanding of radiological surveillance in communities surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1981. It involves stakeholders in the operation, data collection, and dissemination of information obtained from a network of 29 stations across a wide area of Nevada, Utah and California. It is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and administered by the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the Nevada System of Higher Education. Integration of a near real-time communications system, a public web site, training workshops for involved stakeholders, and educational programs all help to alleviate public perception of risk of health effects from past activities conducted at the NTS.

  15. Reduced carbon intensity in highly developed countries: environmental kuznets curves for carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, Kai; Rybski, Diego; Costa, Luis; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC) postulates that pollution increases with the income per capita up to a maximum, above which it decreases with the further increase in income per capita, i.e. following an inverse U-shape in the pollution vs. income per capita. It is commonly believed that EKC occurs for "local" pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide, but does not hold for CO2 emissions. This is attributed to the fact that while "local" pollutants cause a visible environmental damage on the local/regional scale (which authorities/governments seek to avoid), the consequences of CO2 emission have no immediate attributable local/regional consequences. We review EKC for CO2 exploring its relation between CO2 per capita and the Human Development Index (HDI) between 1990 and 2010 obtained from the World Bank database. We find evidence for a reduction in CO2 emissions per capita in highly developed countries. We propose a model according to which the emissions per capita of a country are composed of a component related to the actual state of development and a component related to the change of development. The model leads to four distinct cases of which two have EKC shape and two imply saturation. This outcome is in line with previously suggested qualitative relations. Our analysis indicates that the EKC shaped cases better describes the empirical values. We explore the less extreme version corresponding to the so-called conventional EKC and study the maximum of the fitted curve, providing a threshold-value for the HDI and a typical maximum value for the emissions per capita. We find that approx. 5 countries have crossed the CO2-HDI maximum, corresponding to approx. 1.5% of the world population.

  16. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, Nyo Nyo; Islam, Md Ashadul; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Rinchen, Sonam

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to minors. Socio

  17. Social, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco and its control in South-East Asia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyo Nyo Kyaing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the social, cultural, economic and legal dimensions of tobacco control in the South-East Asia Region in a holistic view through the review of findings from various studies on prevalence, tobacco economics, poverty alleviation, women and tobacco and tobacco control laws and regulations. Methods were Literature review of peer reviewed publications, country reports, WHO publications, and reports of national and international meetings on tobacco and findings from national level surveys and studies. Tobacco use has been a social and cultural part of the people of South-East Asia Region. Survey findings show that 30% to 60% of men and 1.8% to 15.6% of women in the Region use one or the other forms of tobacco products. The complex nature of tobacco use with both smoking and smokeless forms is a major challenge for implementing tobacco control measures. Prevalence of tobacco use is high among the poor and the illiterate. It is higher among males than females but studies show a rising trend among girls and women due to intensive marketing of tobacco products by the tobacco industry. Tobacco users spend a huge percent of their income on tobacco which deprives them and their families of proper nutrition, good education and health care. Some studies of the Region show that cost of treatment of diseases attributable to tobacco use was more than double the revenue that governments received from tobacco taxation. Another challenge the Region faces is the application of uniform tax to all forms of tobacco, which will reduce not only the availability of tobacco products in the market but also control people switching over to cheaper tobacco products. Ten out of eleven countries are Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and nine countries have tobacco control legislation. Enforcement of control measures is weak, particularly in areas such as smoke-free environments, advertisement at the point of sale and sale of tobacco to

  18. POLICIES TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM AIRCRAFT IN THE FRAMEWORK OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology of calculation and trade of pollutants to form a united market of free allowances is being developed in the framework of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from aircraft. The competences of the European Union in trading emissions trading quota have been determined. The ways of creating the system of greenhouse gases accounting offered by foreign countries were considered. The date of creating our own methodology of collating the data of pollutants from aircraft has been set.

  19. Political economy of tobacco control policy on public health in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desapriya, E B R; Iwase, Nobutada; Shimizu, Shinji

    2003-02-01

    Tobacco use, particularly smoking, remains the number one cause of preventable disease and mortality in Japan. This review of the tobacco control policy and public health is the first to offer a composite review of the subject within Japan. This review attempts to evaluate the most important aspects of the current political economy of the tobacco control policy, and concludes that more effective control policies must be employed to minimize the impact of smoking on the public's health in Japan. Further the article attempts to place the approaches in the larger context of tobacco control, providing a vision for the future of tobacco prevention and control based on current knowledge. Tobacco use will remain the leading cause of preventable illness and death in Japan, until tobacco prevention and control efforts are commensurate with the harm caused by tobacco. Taken together, the results of various studies have clearly shown that control measures can influence tobacco smoking patterns, and in turn, the rate of tobacco-related problems. Government tobacco taxes have not kept pace with inflation for years. Availability of tobacco is virtually unlimited with easy access and the prices being very low due to the strong currency of Japan. Thus Japan must be one of the most tobacco accessible countries. It is important to ensure that people are not conditioned to smoke tobacco by an unduly favourable economic and commercial environment. For that reason, prevention advocates have called for substantial regulation of tobacco products and appeal for both tobacco tax increases and tobacco taxes to be indexed to inflation. In this review, present tobacco related public health policies in Japan are discussed with implication for prevention of tobacco related problems. Continued research in this area will be necessary to determine the most effective policies of reducing tobacco related problems in Japan.

  20. Carcinogenic Tobacco-Specific N-Nitrosamines in U.S. Cigarettes -Three Decades of Remarkable Neglect by the Tobacco Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Irina; Knezevich, Aleksandar; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    Modification of tobacco curing methods and other changes in cigarette manufacturing techniques could substantially reduce the levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), a group of potent carcinogens, in cigarette smoke. In 1999, two major U.S. cigarette manufacturers stated their intent to move towards using tobaccos low in TSNA. Since there is no information available on current TSNA levels in tobacco of various cigarettes available in the U.S., we examined the levels of these carcinoge...

  1. Effect of household environmental tobacco smoke exposure on children's asthma control%家庭环境香烟烟雾暴露对哮喘患儿疾病控制状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莹; 吴群; 苏雯; 邵洁

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解家庭环境香烟烟雾暴露(ETS)与哮喘患儿疾病控制情况的关系.方法 通过病例对照研究方法,对83名ETS和80名非ETS的哮喘儿童进行为期1年的随访,比较两组患儿的儿童哮喘控制测试(childhood asthma control test,C-ACT)评分良好(>19分)的例次,哮喘控制用药增加天数、急救用药使用天数,以及尿cotinine含量.结果 ETS患儿C-ACT>19分802例次,占总C-ACT评分例次的80.5%;非ETS患儿 C-ACT>9分921例次,占95.9%,两组患儿的哮喘控制状况差异无统计学意义(P<0.05);ETS患儿的尿cotinine含量、支气管扩张剂使用天数、吸入激素增加天数、全身激素使用天数也均明显多于非ETS患儿(P均<0.05).ETS患儿以尿cotinine含量分为重度(>4 ng/ml)和轻度(≤4 ng/ml),其中重度ETS患儿的C-ACT>19分例次低于轻度ETS患儿,而支气管扩张剂使用天数、吸入激素增加天数、全身激素使用天数也均明显多于轻度ETS患儿,差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 ETS是儿童哮喘控制不良的重要危险因素之一.%Objective To study relationship between household environmental tobacco smoke exposure and asthma control in children. Methods Eighty-three bronchial asthma children exposed to household tobacco smoke (ETS) and 80 bronchial asthma children not exposed to household tobacco smoke (non-ETS) were selected. During one year follow-up, the frequency of children asthma control test (C-ACT) with great score (>19), the days of medication in controlling asthma, the days of first aid medication and the concentration of urine cotinine were compared and analyzed between the two groups of children. Results The frequency of C-ACT with scores above than 19 was 802 and 921 in ETS group and non-ETS group, respectively, which was 80.5% and 95.6% of the total scores of C-ACT. The status between the two groups of children were significantly different (P 4 ng/ml) and mild cases (urine cotinine ≤ 4 ng

  2. Differences by sex in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing -Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    The majority of the world's 1.3 billion tobacco users are men, but female use is increasing. To examine differences in tobacco use and awareness of tobacco marketing by sex, CDC and health officials in Bangladesh, Thailand, and Uruguay (among the first countries to report results) analyzed 2009 data from a newly instituted survey, the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation among the three countries in tobacco use, product types used, and marketing awareness among males and females. In Bangladesh and Thailand, use of smoked tobacco products was far greater among males (44.7% and 45.6%, respectively) than females (1.5% and 3.1%, respectively). In Uruguay, the difference was smaller (30.7% versus 19.8%). Use of smokeless tobacco products in Bangladesh was approximately the same among males (26.4%) and females (27.9%), but females were significantly more likely to use smokeless tobacco in Thailand (6.3% versus 1.3%), and use in Uruguay by either sex was nearly nonexistent. Males in Bangladesh were twice as likely as females to notice cigarette advertising (68.0% versus 29.3%), but the difference between males and females was smaller in Thailand (17.4% versus 14.5%) and Uruguay (49.0% versus 40.0%). In all three countries, awareness of tobacco marketing was more prevalent among females aged 15--24 years than older women. Comprehensive bans on advertising, sponsorship, and promotion of tobacco products, recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), can reduce per capita cigarette consumption if enforced.

  3. Livestock waste treatment systems for reducing environmental exposure to hazardous enteric pathogens: some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, E; Scott, A; Lapen, D R; Lyautey, E; Duriez, P

    2009-11-01

    Intensive livestock production systems produce significant quantities of excreted material that must be managed to protect water, air, and crop quality. Many jurisdictions mandate how livestock wastes are managed to protect adjacent water quality from microbial and chemical contaminants that pose an environmental and human health challenge. Here, we consider innovative livestock waste treatment systems in the context of multi-barrier strategies for protecting water quality from agricultural contamination. Specifically, we consider some aspects of how enteric bacterial populations can evolve during manure storage, how their fate following land application of manure can vary according to manure composition, and finally the challenge of distinguishing enteric pathogens of agricultural provenance from those of other sources of fecal pollution at a policy-relevant watershed scale. The beneficial impacts of livestock waste treatment on risk to humans via exposure to manured land are illustrated using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) scenarios. Overall, innovative livestock treatment systems offer a crucially important strategy for making livestock wastes more benign before they are released into the broader environment.

  4. Coping with persistent environmental problems: systemic delays in reducing eutrophication of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Varjopuro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we focus on systemic delays in the Baltic Sea that cause the problem of eutrophication to persist. These problems are demonstrated in our study by addressing three types of delays: (1 decision delay: the time it takes for an idea or perceived need to be launched as a policy; (2 implementation delay: the time from the launch of a policy to the actual implementation; (3 ecosystem delay: the time difference between the implementation and an actual measurable effects. A policy process is one characterized by delays. It may take years from problem identification to a decision to taking action and several years further for actual implementation. Ecosystem responses to measures illustrate that feedback can keep the ecosystem in a certain state and cause a delay in ecosystem response. These delays can operate on decadal scales. Our aim in this paper is to analyze these systemic delays and especially to discuss how the critical delays can be better addressed in marine protection policies by strengthening the adaptive capacity of marine protection. We conclude that the development of monitoring systems and reflexive, participatory analysis of dynamics involved in the implementation are keys to improve understanding of the systemic delays. The improved understanding is necessary for the adaptive management of a persistent environmental problem. In addition to the state of the environment, the monitoring and analysis should be targeted also at the implementation of policies to ensure that the societies are investing in the right measures.

  5. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 8 Lower socioeconomic status, including lower income or education Lack of skills to resist influences to tobacco use Lack of support or involvement from parents Accessibility, availability, and price of tobacco products Low levels of academic achievement Low self-image or ...

  6. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes: "not medicine but less harmful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiyin; Glantz, Stanton; Tong, Elisa

    2007-04-01

    To describe the development and health claims of Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes. Analysis of international news sources, company websites, and the transnational tobacco companies' (TTC) documents. PubMed searches of herbs and brands. Twenty-three brands were identified, mainly from China. Many products claimed to relieve respiratory symptoms and reduce toxins, with four herb-only products advertised for smoking cessation. No literature was found to verify the health claims, except one Korean trial of an herb-only product. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes were initially produced by China by the 1970s and introduced to Japan in the 1980s. Despite initial news about research demonstrating a safer cigarette, the TTC analyses of these cigarettes suggest that these early products were not palatable and had potentially toxic cardiovascular effects. By the late 1990s, China began producing more herbal-tobacco cigarettes in a renewed effort to reduce harmful constituents in cigarettes. After 2000, tobacco companies from Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand began producing similar products. Tobacco control groups in Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand voiced concern over the health claims of herbal-tobacco products. In 2005, China designated two herbal-tobacco brands as key for development. Asian herbal-tobacco cigarettes claim to reduce harm, but no published literature is available to verify these claims or investigate unidentified toxicities. The increase in Asian herbal-tobacco cigarette production by 2000 coincides with the Asian tobacco companies' regular scientific meetings with TTCs and their interest in harm reduction. Asia faces additional challenges in tobacco control with these culturally concordant products that may discourage smokers from quitting.

  7. Reduced grazing pressure delivers production and environmental benefits for the typical steppe of north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Badgery, Warwick B; Kemp, David R; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Nan

    2015-11-10

    Degradation by overgrazing is common in many areas of the world and optimising grassland functions depends upon finding suitable grazing tactics. This four-year study on the northern China steppe investigated combinations of rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure early in the summer growing season, then moderate or heavy grazing in the mid and late season. Results showed that moderate grazing pressure (~550 sheep equivalent (SE) grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) gave the optimal balance between maintaining a productive and diverse grassland, a profitable livestock system, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Further analyses identified that more conservative stocking (~400 SE grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) maintained a desirable Leymus chinensis composition and achieved a higher live weight gain of sheep. Early summer rest best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced incomes. These findings demonstrate that reducing grazing pressure to half the current district stocking rates can deliver improved ecosystem services (lower greenhouse gases and improved grassland composition) while sustaining herder incomes.

  8. Quid pro quo: tobacco companies and the black press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Phyra M; Yerger, Valerie B; Malone, Ruth E

    2012-04-01

    We explored the relationship between tobacco companies and the Black press, which plays an important role in conveying information and opinions to Black communities. In this archival case study, we analyzed data from internal tobacco industry documents and archives of the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA), the trade association of the Black press. In exchange for advertising dollars and other support, the tobacco industry expected and received support from Black newspapers for tobacco industry policy positions. Beginning in the 1990s, resistance from within the Black community and reduced advertising budgets created counterpressures. The tobacco industry, however, continued to sustain NNPA support. The quid pro quo between tobacco companies and the Black press violated journalistic standards and represented an unequal trade. Although numerous factors explain today's tobacco-related health disparities, the Black press's service to tobacco companies is problematic because of the trust that the community placed in such media. Understanding the relationship between the tobacco industry and the NNPA provides insight into strategies that the tobacco industry may use in other communities and countries.

  9. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  10. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  11. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2015-09-01

    Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1(+/+) and Ogg1(-/-) cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1(-/-) cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage-and Ogg1 deficiency-exacerbates this phenomenon. The observed cell death resistance under a chronic scenario of genotoxic and oxidative stress may in turn contribute to the carcinogenic effects of i-As.

  12. Increasing the production efficiency and reducing the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource profoundly impacting US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydraulic fracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. In this study, we developed and prototyped the microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments required to reveal the fundamental dynamics of fracture-fluid interactions. The goal is transformation of hydraulic fracturing from present ad hoc approaches to science-based strategies while safely enhancing production. Specifically, we have demonstrated an integrated experimental/modeling approach that allows for a comprehensive characterization of fluid-solid interactions and develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  13. A reverse logistics as a tool for effectiveness of principle polluters-pay in reducing environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Carvalho Miranda Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal is to analyze the reverse logistics from the possibilities of their contribution to reducing the environmental impact. The methodology took into account the global demand for electronics as a stimulus for the introduction of new market entrants. The authors conducted an analysis and an interpretation of organizational business models and court decisions on environmental litigation. This was a descriptive and comparative study by the polluter-pays principle, making use of data from non-governmental organizations and texts on the websites of companies in the electronics sector, the type computers, which make reference to Environmental policy, reverse logistics and collection mechanisms. The result obtained indicates that there are deficiencies in the internal management of companies in relation to electronic waste. I also noticed that the judiciary operates effectively in solving solid waste litigation. We also conclude that the shared management of solid waste shall ensure state control over business activity on the waste to avoid a transfer of charge to the consumer.

  14. Ending versus controlling versus employing addiction in the tobacco-caused disease endgame: moral psychological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2013-01-01

    Even though interest in reducing or eliminating tobacco-caused diseases is a common goal in tobacco control, many experts hold different views on addiction as a target of intervention. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a tobacco-caused disease to be eliminated alongside the other diseases. Some consider tobacco-caused addiction as a much lower priority disease to be eliminated, and a subset of this group is prepared to employ addiction to tobacco (nicotine) as a tool to reduce other tobacco-caused disease. These varying attitudes towards ending, controlling or employing tobacco addiction to reduce damage from tobacco use constitute quite different approaches to tobacco control and cause conflict among those in tobacco control. Moral psychological analyses argue that there is more than scientific evidence involved in supporting this continuum of approaches. Divergent values also influence positions in tobacco control. Attention to these values as well as the scientific evidence should be included in policy and practice in tobacco control. It is not that one constellation of values is necessarily superior, but debates need to be informed by and engage discussions of these values as well as the scientific evidence. PMID:23591503

  15. Butanol production from food waste: a novel process for producing sustainable energy and reducing environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibo; Singh, Vijay; Qureshi, Nasib

    2015-01-01

    Waste is currently a major problem in the world, both in the developing and the developed countries. Efficient utilization of food waste for fuel and chemical production can positively influence both the energy and environmental sustainability. This study investigated using food waste to produce acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium beijerinckii P260. In control fermentation, 40.5 g/L of glucose (initial glucose 56.7 g/L) was used to produce 14.2 g/L of ABE with a fermentation productivity and a yield of 0.22 g/L/h and 0.35 g/g, respectively. In a similar fermentation 81 g/L of food waste (containing equivalent glucose of 60.1 g/L) was used as substrate, and the culture produced 18.9 g/L ABE with a high ABE productivity of 0.46 g/L/h and a yield of 0.38 g/g. Fermentation of food waste at higher concentrations (129, 181 and 228 g/L) did not remarkably increase ABE production but resulted in high residual glucose due to the culture butanol inhibition. An integrated vacuum stripping system was designed and applied to recover butanol from the fermentation broth simultaneously to relieve the culture butanol inhibition, thereby allowing the fermentation of food waste at high concentrations. ABE fermentation integrated with vacuum stripping successfully recovered the ABE from the fermentation broth and controlled the ABE concentrations below 10 g/L during fermentation when 129 g/L food waste was used. The ABE productivity with vacuum fermentation was 0.49 g/L/h, which was 109 % higher than the control fermentation (glucose based). More importantly, ABE vacuum recovery and fermentation allowed near-complete utilization of the sugars (~98 %) in the broth. In these studies it was demonstrated that food waste is a superior feedstock for producing butanol using Clostridium beijerinckii. Compared to costly glucose, ABE fermentation of food waste has several advantages including lower feedstock cost, higher productivity, and less residual sugars.

  16. Reduced cellular DNA repair capacity after environmentally relevant arsenic exposure. Influence of Ogg1 deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, Jordi; Peremartí, Jana; Annangi, Balasubramnayam [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, Ricard, E-mail: ricard.marcos@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Alba, E-mail: alba.hernandez@uab.es [Grup de Mutagènesi, Departament de Genètica i de Microbiologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, ISCIII, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Repair ability under long-term exposure to arsenic was tested using the comet assay. • Effects were measured under Ogg1 wild-type and deficient backgrounds. • Exposed cells repair less efficiency the DNA damage induced by SA, KBrO{sub 3}, MMA{sup III} or UVC radiation. • Oxidative damage and Ogg1 deficient background exacerbate repair deficiencies. • Overexpression of the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt acts as adaptive mechanism. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (i-As) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic environmental contaminant known to affect millions of people worldwide. Our previous work demonstrated that chronic sub-toxic i-As concentrations were able to induce biologically significant levels of genotoxic and oxidative DNA damage that were strongly influenced by the Ogg1 genotype. In order to study the nature of the observed levels of damage and the observed differences between MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} genetic backgrounds, the genotoxic and oxidative DNA repair kinetics of 18-weeks exposed MEF cells were evaluated by the comet assay. Results indicate that MEF Ogg1{sup +/+} and Ogg1{sup −/−} cells chronically exposed to i-As repair the DNA damage induced by arsenite, potassium bromide and UVC radiation less efficiently than control cells, being that observation clearly more pronounced in MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells. Consequently, exposed cells accumulate a higher percentage of unrepaired DNA damage at the end of the repair period. As an attempt to eliminate i-As associated toxicity, chronically exposed MEF Ogg1{sup −/−} cells overexpress the arsenic metabolizing enzyme As3mt. This adaptive response confers cells a significant resistance to i-As-induced cell death, but at expenses of accumulating high levels of DNA damage due to their repair impairment. Overall, the work presented here evidences that i-As chronic exposure disrupts the normal cellular repair function, and that oxidative DNA damage—and Ogg1 deficiency

  17. Tobacco marketing in California and implications for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, Ellen C; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco marketing influences tobacco use initiation, maintenance of use, and it undermines comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Policies to ban the impact of tobacco marketing are most likely to be more effective if they are comprehensive, as partial bans shift marketing to non-banned forms of media. A comprehensive approach to reducing tobacco marketing includes documentation through monitoring, media and policy interventions and aggressive enforcement of existing laws. Methods This paper summarises California tobacco industry monitoring of events and retail outlets, and findings about exposure to and beliefs about tobacco industry marketing among youths and adults conducted during the period 2000 through 2008. Results There was no overall change in the average number of cigarette materials per store, and an increase in the percentage of stores with advertisements promoting price discounts for cigarettes. Stores with cigarette advertisements near candy displays declined from 12.5% (95% CI 9.8% to 15.2%) to 1% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.9%) of stores, and advertisements at or below the eye-level of children declined from 78.6% (95% CI 75.2% to 82.0%) to 31% (95% CI 27.1% to 34.9%) of stores. Overall, the number of public events with tobacco sponsorship declined from 77.3% to 48.1%. This trend was consistent with a significant decline noted among high school students and adults who reported seeing tobacco advertisements at events or attending a tobacco company-sponsored event. Conclusions Tobacco industry monitoring, media, policy and enforcement interventions may have contributed to observed changes in tobacco marketing and to declines in reported exposure to tobacco marketing. PMID:20382646

  18. Tobacco marketing in California and implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeseler, April; Feighery, Ellen C; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2010-04-01

    Tobacco marketing influences tobacco use initiation, maintenance of use, and it undermines comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Policies to ban the impact of tobacco marketing are most likely to be more effective if they are comprehensive, as partial bans shift marketing to non-banned forms of media. A comprehensive approach to reducing tobacco marketing includes documentation through monitoring, media and policy interventions and aggressive enforcement of existing laws. This paper summarises California tobacco industry monitoring of events and retail outlets, and findings about exposure to and beliefs about tobacco industry marketing among youths and adults conducted during the period 2000 through 2008. There was no overall change in the average number of cigarette materials per store, and an increase in the percentage of stores with advertisements promoting price discounts for cigarettes. Stores with cigarette advertisements near candy displays declined from 12.5% (95% CI 9.8% to 15.2%) to 1% (95% CI 0.2% to 1.9%) of stores, and advertisements at or below the eye-level of children declined from 78.6% (95% CI 75.2% to 82.0%) to 31% (95% CI 27.1% to 34.9%) of stores. Overall, the number of public events with tobacco sponsorship declined from 77.3% to 48.1%. This trend was consistent with a significant decline noted among high school students and adults who reported seeing tobacco advertisements at events or attending a tobacco company-sponsored event. Tobacco industry monitoring, media, policy and enforcement interventions may have contributed to observed changes in tobacco marketing and to declines in reported exposure to tobacco marketing.

  19. Understanding the Tobacco Control Act: efforts by the US Food and Drug Administration to make tobacco-related morbidity and mortality part of the USA's past, not its future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husten, Corinne G; Deyton, Lawrence R

    2013-05-04

    The USA has a rich history of public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality from tobacco use. Comprehensive tobacco-prevention programmes, when robustly implemented, reduce the prevalence of youth and adult smoking, decrease cigarette consumption, accelerate declines in tobacco-related deaths, and diminish health-care costs from tobacco-related diseases. Effective public health interventions include raising the price of tobacco products, smoke-free policies, counter-marketing campaigns, advertising restrictions, augmenting access to treatment for tobacco use through insurance coverage and telephone help lines, and comprehensive approaches to prevent children and adolescents from accessing tobacco products. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has six major areas of regulatory authority: regulation of tobacco products; regulation of the advertising, marketing, and promotion of tobacco products; regulation of the distribution and sales of tobacco products; enforcement of the provisions of the Tobacco Control Act and tobacco regulations; regulatory science to support FDA authorities and activities; and public education about the harms of tobacco products and to support FDA regulatory actions. With passing of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) in June, 2009, important new regulatory approaches were added to the tobacco prevention and control arsenal.

  20. A STUDY ON TOBACCO USE AMONG RURAL ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco is one of the leading causes of morbidity and premature death though ironically it is preventable. Recently tobacco use has increased in India where about 3/4ths of population lives in rural areas in whom , level of knowledge and awareness about the deleterious effects of tobacco is very low. A clear understanding of reasons leading to increased tobacco use is very important. In view of this, the present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence, atti tudes towards tobacco use, prevalence of certain tobacco related oral health problems and their association with tobacco use. MATERIALS & METHODS: This study was as a cross sectional study conducted in 14 villages in Tamilnadu among adults (>=19, both mal es and females and sample size was 654. Simple Random Sampling Technique was employed. A structured questionnaire was developed and house - to - house survey was conducted. Informed consent from the participants and approval of Institutional Ethics Committee o f Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai were obtained. RESULTS: In this study, 69.6% of the respondents were in the age group of 31 - 60 years and 57.0% belonged to middle socio - economic status. The overall prevalence of tobacco use (both smoking and smokeless form of tobacco was 46% (95% CI 42.2% - 49.8% and the highest prevalence of tobacco use was found in the age group of 31 - 60 years accounting to 48.6% (95% CI 44.0 - 53.2. 18.6% of current users of tobacco and 2.5% of non users of tobacco had oral ulcers w ith odds ratio of 8.7(p<0.001.It was found that only 58.4% of the total study subjects and 56.5% of current users of tobacco were aware of tobacco control Act and 53.5% of the total study subjects and 48.2% of current users of tobacco felt the need to mak e the Act more strict and stringent. CONCLUSION: To reduce the tobacco use in the society, the approach includes increasing the awareness about ill effects, tobacco control policies and treating the

  1. Impact of environmental stress on biochemical parameters of bacteria reducing chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rida Batool

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromium pollution is produced in connection with industrial processes like in tanneries. It has been suggested that bioremediation could be a good option for clean up. The stress effect of variable chromate levels, pHs and growth temperatures on biochemical parameters of two Cr(VI reducing bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa Rb-1 and Ochrobactrum intermedium Rb-2 was investigated. Transmission electrone microscopy (TEM was performed to study the intracellular distribution of Cr(VI. It was observed that initial stress of 1000 µgmL-1 caused significant enhancement of all studied biochemical parameters at pH 7.0 and growth temperature of 37 °C showing great bioremediation potential of the strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the distribution of chromium precipitates was not uniform as they were distributed in the cytoplasm as well as found associated with the periplasm and outer membrane. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the possible involvement of carboxyl, amino, sulpohonate and hydroxyl groups present on the bacterial cell surface for the binding of Cr(VI ions. Cr(VI stress brought about changes in the distridution of these functional groups. It can be concluded that the investigated bacterial strains adjust well to Cr(VI stress in terms of biochemical parameters and along that exhibited alteration in morphology.

  2. Ni and Cr addition to alloy waste forms to reduce radionuclide environmental releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-10-11

    Reference alloy waste forms (RAW) were fabricated and underwent hybrid corrosion/immersion testing to parameterize the ANL analytical oxidative-dissolution model to enable the calculation of fractional release rates and to determine the effectiveness of Ni and Cr trim additions in reducing release rates of radionuclide surrogates. Figure 1 shows the prototypical multiphase microstructure of the alloys with each phase type contributing about equally to the exposed surface area. The waste forms tested at SRNL were variations of the RAW-6 formulation that uses HT9 as the main alloy component, and are meant to enable evaluation of the impact of Ni and Cr trim additions on the release rates of actinides and Tc-99. The test solutions were deaerated alkaline and acidic brines, ranging in pH 3 to pH 10, representing potential repositories with those conditions. The testing approach consisted of 4 major steps; 1) bare surface corrosion measurements at pH values of 3, 5, 8, and 10, 2) hybrid potentiostatic hold/exposure measurements at pH 3, 3) measurement of radionuclide concentrations and relations to anodic current from potentiostatic holds, and 4) identification of corroding phases using SEM/EDS of electrodes.

  3. A Comparison of Three Policy Approaches for Tobacco Retailer Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Allison E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Isgett, Lisa F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1,000 feet of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 feet the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. Methods This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another “gold standard” three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 feet of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). Conclusions The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:25689540

  4. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    ground" to reduce consumption and social acceptability. To do this, we need to take back social spaces that the tobacco industry has laid claim to through advertising. Active monitoring and surveillance of tobacco advertising strategies is necessary and legislation and enforcement to curb the industry should be put in place.

  5. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  6. Jasmonate mediates salt-induced nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA, as an important signal, plays a key role in multiple processes of plant growth, development and stress response. Nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. are essential secondary metabolites. Whether environmental factors control nicotine biosynthesis and the underlying mechanism remains previously unreported. Here, we applied physiological and biochemical approaches to investigate how salt stress affects nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. We found that salt stress induced the biosynthesis of JA, which subsequently triggered the activation of JA-responsive gene expression and, ultimately, nicotine synthesis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of many NtMYC2a-recognized G-box motifs in the promoter regions of NtLOX, NtAOS, NtAOC and NtOPR genes. Applying exogenous JA increased nicotine content, while suppressing JA biosynthesis reduced nicotine biosynthesis. Salt treatment could not efficiently induce nicotine biosynthesis in transgenic anti-COI1 tobacco plants. These results demonstrate that JA acts as the essential signal which triggers nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco after salt stress.

  7. [Effect of silicon on translocation and morphology distribution of lead in soil-tobacco system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi-Hua; Zheng, Zi-Cheng; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Taking tobacco as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of silicon on translocation of lead (Pb) form soil to tobacco in order to explore effective measures for reducing Pb concentration in tobacco leaf. The results showed that silicon application promoted the transformation of exchangeable Pb into Fe-Mn oxide-bound Pb in non-rhizospheric soil, and into Fe-Mn oxide-bound Pb and residual Pb in rhizospheric soil, which decreased the availability and mobility of Pb in the soil. Silicon application significantly reduced the Pb uptake of tobacco, with the content of Pb being decreased by 6.5% to 44.0% in tobacco, and 3.1% to 60.4% in leaf. Silicon application promoted the transformation of ethanol-extractable, H2O-extractable Pb and NaCl-extractable Pb into HCl-extractable Pb and residual Pb in root, stem and leaf of tobacco, which reduced the toxicity and mobility of Pb in tobacco. Silicon restricted the transportation of Pb from soil to tobacco leaf by reducing the mobility index of Pb from soil to root and the mobility index of Pb from root to stem in soil-tobacco system. Meanwhile, the mobility index of Pb from stem to leaf in soil-tobacco system showed a rising-and-falling trend with the increase of Pb application. Silicon inhibited the Pb migration from soil to tobacco leaf by reducing availability of Pb, mitigating toxicity of Pb to tobacco, and changing the distribution of Pb forms in tobacco, consequently reducing Pb concentration of tobacco leaf. These results demonstrated silicon application could be effective in reducing translocation of Pb from soil to tobacco.

  8. Noncigarette forms of tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carlos Alberto de Assis

    2008-12-01

    There are many preparations for tobacco use, which can be classified as smoking or smokeless tobacco. Among the noncigarette preparations that produce smoke, we cite cigars, pipes and narghiles. Smokeless tobacco can be found in preparations for chewing or for being absorbed by nasal and oral mucosae (snuff). However, all tobacco products deliver nicotine to the central nervous system and there is a confirmed risk of dependence. In addition, there is no safe form of tobacco use, and tobacco users have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and premature mortality due to tobacco-related diseases.

  9. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  10. Assess the Impact of an Online Tobacco Prevention Training Program on Teachers and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Weng, Chung-Bang

    2013-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have been proven effective in reducing tobacco use. This evaluation aimed to assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention teacher training program on teachers and their students in Florida schools. A total of 344 teachers, including 72 K-3 grade teachers, 44 4th-5th grade teachers, and 228 6th-12th…

  11. Recent trends in tobacco sales, excise revenues, and affordability in the former USSR countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette sales in the region decreased in 2008-2015 and the key factor for the decline was the reduction of tobacco affordability. Only the substantial increase in excise rates can guarantee both revenue growth and the reduction of tobacco consumption. To reduce tobacco consumption, excise rates should be increased annually taking into account inflation and income growth.

  12. Tobacco control policies and perinatal and child health: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.V. Been (Jasper V.); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); C. Millett (Christopher); S. Basu (Sanjay); A. Sheikh (Aziz)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Children experience considerable morbidity and mortality due to tobacco smoke exposure. Tobacco control policies may benefit child health by reducing this exposure. We aim to comprehensively assess the effects of the range of tobacco control policies advocated by the WHO on

  13. Non-inferiority of pulsed xenon UV light versus bleach for reducing environmental Clostridium difficile contamination on high-touch surfaces in Clostridium difficile infection isolation rooms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghantoji, Shashank S; Stibich, Mark; Stachowiak, Julie; Cantu, Sherry; Adachi, Javier A; Raad, Issam I; Chemaly, Roy F

    2015-01-01

    ... % of sodium hypochlorite. Pulsed xenon UV light (PX-UV) is a means of quickly producing germicidal UV that has been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination by C. difficile spores...

  14. 暴露于环境烟气中的大鼠尿样代谢物分析%Analysis of 4- (methylnitrosamino) -1- (3-pyridyl) -1 -butanol in the rat urine exposed to environmental tobacco smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练文柳; 任凤莲; 何智慧; 罗嘉; 刘锋

    2011-01-01

    4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶基)-1-丁醇(NNAL)是烟草特有亚硝胺4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶)-1-丁酮(NNK)在生物体内的一种代谢标记物,分析暴露于烟气中的生物体内NNAL的含量是研究卷烟烟气对生物体健康影响的有效手段.基于人体的个体差异性很大,本文以饲养的大鼠为研究对象,采用LC-MS/MS测定暴露于环境烟气中的大鼠尿样4-(甲基亚硝胺基)-1-(3-吡啶基)-1-丁醇(NNAL)代谢标记物的含量.2mL大鼠尿样通过分子印迹柱(MIP)分离富集,电喷雾离子化质谱检测.分析了暴露于环境烟气中1个月和2个月后大鼠尿样中总NNAL.方