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Sample records for reducing antioxidant capacity

  1. Plasma antioxidant capacity is reduced in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Carmen; Mac-Dowell, Karina; Leza, Juan Carlos; Giraldez, Marisa; Bailón, Concepción; Castro, Carmen; Miranda-Azpiazu, Patricia; Fraguas, David; Arango, Celso

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that children with autism have impaired detoxification capacity and may suffer from chronic oxidative stress. To our knowledge, there has been no study focusing on oxidative metabolism specifically in Asperger syndrome (a milder form of autism) or comparing this metabolism with other psychiatric disorders. In this study, total antioxidant status (TAOS), non-enzymatic (glutathione and homocysteine) and enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation were measured in plasma or erythrocyte lysates in a group of adolescent patients with Asperger syndrome, a group of adolescents with a first episode of psychosis, and a group of healthy controls at baseline and at 8-12 weeks. TAOS was also analyzed at 1 year. TAOS was reduced in Asperger individuals compared with healthy controls and psychosis patients, after covarying by age and antipsychotic treatment. This reduced antioxidant capacity did not depend on any of the individual antioxidant variables measured. Psychosis patients had increased homocysteine levels in plasma and decreased copper and ceruloplasmin at baseline. In conclusion, Asperger patients seem to have chronic low detoxifying capacity. No impaired detoxifying capacity was found in the first-episode psychosis group in the first year of illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Capacity in Allergy and Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, René; van Lieshout, Bas; Folisi, Caterina

    2015-11-01

    In asthma, reactive oxygen species induce damage to biomolecules like proteins. This oxidative stress can promote inflammation, but its contribution to asthma pathology is controversial, not in the least because antioxidant interventions have proven rather unsuccessful. Recent studies indicate that the oxidative stress at baseline can be predictive of the fall in FEV1 upon an allergen challenge and of sensitization to an allergen. Interestingly, this baseline oxidative stress correlated with the capacity of antioxidant and cytoprotective responses to deal with reactive oxygen species, but not with inflammatory parameters. These findings have led to several considerations in relation to antioxidant trials that are discussed. Trials should be complemented by in-depth analyses of the failing antioxidant and cytoprotective responses and their consequences for cellular function in asthma.

  3. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for antioxidants in human serum and for hydroxyl radical scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Tests measuring the combined antioxidant effect of the nonenzymatic defenses in biological fluids may be useful in providing an index of the organism's capability to counteract reactive species known as pro-oxidants, resist oxidative damage, and combat oxidative stress-related diseases. The selected chromogenic redox reagent for the assay of human serum should be easily accessible, stable, selective, and respond to all types of biologically important antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, reduced glutathione (GSH), uric acid, and bilirubin, regardless of chemical type or hydrophilicity. Our recently developed cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) spectrophotometric method for a number of polyphenols and flavonoids using the copper(II)-neocuproine reagent in ammonium acetate buffer is now applied to a complete series of plasma antioxidants for the assay of total antioxidant capacity of serum, and the resulting absorbance at 450 nm is recorded either directly (e.g., for ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and glutathione) or after incubation at 50 degrees C for 20 min (e.g., for uric acid, bilirubin, and albumin), quantitation being made by means of a calibration curve. The lipophilic antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene, are assayed in dichloromethane. Lipophilic antioxidants of serum are extracted with n-hexane from an ethanolic solution of serum subjected to centrifugation. Hydrophilic antioxidants of serum are assayed in the centrifugate after perchloric acid precipitation of proteins. The CUPRAC molar absorptivities, linear ranges, and TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) coefficients of the serum antioxidants are established, and the results are evaluated in comparison with the findings of the ABTS/TEAC reference method. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs) are 0.7 and 1.5%, respectively, for serum. The CUPRAC assay proved to be efficient for glutathione and thiol-type antioxidants

  4. Cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay for food antioxidants: vitamins, polyphenolics, and flavonoids in food extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektas Oğlu, Burcu; Bener, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds through their combat with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and free radicals that may cause tissue damage leading to various diseases. This work reports the development of a simple and widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols, vitamins C and E, and plasma antioxidants utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. This novel method based on an electron-transfer mechanism was named by our research group as 'cupric reducing antioxidant capacity', abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. The method is comprised of mixing the antioxidant solution with aqueous copper(II) chloride, alcoholic neocuproine, and ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7, and subsequently measuring the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Since the color development is fast for compounds like ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds are assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min. The flavonoid glycosides are hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycones by refluxing in 1.2 M: HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power towards Cu(II)-Nc. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of synthetic mixtures are equal to the sum of individual capacities of antioxidant constituents, indicating lack of chemical deviations from Beer's law. Tests on antioxidant polyphenols demonstrate that the highest CUPRAC capacities are observed for epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, fisetin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and caffeic acid in this order, in accord with the number and position of the -OH groups as well the conjugation level of the molecule. The parallelism of the linear calibration curves of pure antioxidants in water and in a given complex matrix (plant extract) demonstrates that there are no chemical interactions of interferent nature among the solution constituents

  5. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF GREEN TEAS BY THE FERRIC REDUCING/ANTIOXIDANT POWER ASSAY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hajimahmoodi, M. Hanifeh, M. R. Oveisi, N. Sadeghi, B. Jannat

    2008-01-01

    Green tea is one of the important sources of bioactive compounds which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. This study aimed to compare in vitro antioxidant power of different types of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Antioxidant activity of methanolic (50%) extracts of five green tea samples was investigated according to Ferric reducing ability power method. Total phenolic contents were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on the Folin-ciocalteau reagent, and cal...

  6. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  7. DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF GREEN TEAS BY THE FERRIC REDUCING/ANTIOXIDANT POWER ASSAY

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    M. Hajimahmoodi, M. Hanifeh, M. R. Oveisi, N. Sadeghi, B. Jannat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is one of the important sources of bioactive compounds which have been used in folk medicine for many centuries. This study aimed to compare in vitro antioxidant power of different types of green tea (Camellia sinensis. Antioxidant activity of methanolic (50% extracts of five green tea samples was investigated according to Ferric reducing ability power method. Total phenolic contents were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on the Folin-ciocalteau reagent, and calculated as gallic acid equivalents per gram dry weight. Total flavonoid and antocyanidin were also investigated according to aluminum chloride and vanillin colorimetric assay respectively. Total antioxidant activity varied from 0.554±0.042 in Avicen green tea sample to 3.082±0.150 mmoL FeII/g in Chinas green tea and total phenolic content ranged from the 0.030±0.001 in Avicen green tea sample to 0.196±0.012 g gallic acid per gram dry weight in Ahmad green tea. A linear positive relationship existed between the antioxidant activity, total phenolic, flavonoid and antocyanidin content of the tested green tea samples. Green tea samples possess relatively high antioxidant activity due to contribution of phenolic compounds. The present study showed that green tea samples which are more frequently consumed in Iran are strong radical scavengers and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses.

  8. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Simultaneous total antioxidant capacity assay of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in the same acetone-water solution containing 2% methyl-beta-cyclodextrin using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Güçlü, Kubilay; Güngör, Nilay; Apak, Reşat

    2008-12-07

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This work reports the capacity assay of both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants simultaneously, by making use of their 'host-guest' complexes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD), a cyclic oligosaccharide, in acetonated aqueous medium using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Thus the order of antioxidant potency of various compounds irrespective of their lipophilicity could be established in the same solvent medium. M-beta-CD was introduced as the water solubility enhancer for lipophilic antioxidants. Two percent M-beta-CD (w/v) in an acetone-H(2)O (9:1, v/v) mixture was found to sufficiently solubilize beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamin E, vitamin C, synthetic antioxidants and other phenolic antioxidants. This assay was validated through linearity, additivity, precision, and recovery. The validation results demonstrate that the CUPRAC assay is reliable and robust. In acetonated aqueous solution of M-beta-CD, only CUPRAC and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays were capable of measuring carotenoids together with hydrophilic antioxidants. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of a wide range of polyphenolics and flavonoids were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in the CUPRAC assay, and compared to those found by reference methods, ABTS/horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-H(2)O(2) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.

  10. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity.

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    Luciene Akimoto-Gunther

    Full Text Available We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC, including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI. Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26% women: 23 (32.4% with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL, 22 (31% in an acute episode (VVC, and 26 (36.6% with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC.

  11. Highlights Regarding Host Predisposing Factors to Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Chronic Stress and Reduced Antioxidant Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; Takahachi, Gisele; Irie, Mary Mayumi T.; Miyamoto, Sônia; Consolaro, Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinsk, Terezinha I. Estivalet

    2016-01-01

    We studied host factors that could predispose women to develop recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), including glycemia, insulin resistance, chronic stress, antioxidant capacity, overall immune status, local inflammation and vaginal microbiota. The presence of yeasts in vaginal culture was screened in 277 women, with or without signs and symptoms of VVC and RVVC. The presence of an inflammatory process and microbiota were analyzed through vaginal bacterioscopy and cervical-vaginal cytology, respectively. Fasting-blood samples were collected by standard venipuncture for biochemical analyses. Flow cytometry was employed to obtain the T helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio, and insulin resistance was assessed by the HOMA index (HI). Yeasts were isolated from 71 (26%) women: 23 (32.4%) with a positive culture but without symptoms (COL), 22 (31%) in an acute episode (VVC), and 26 (36.6%) with RVVC. C. albicans was the main yeast isolated in all clinical profiles. The control group (negative culture) comprised 206 women. Diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance were more associated with the positive-culture groups (COL, VVC and RVVC) than with negative ones. The RVVC group showed lower mean levels of cortisol than the control group and lower antioxidant capacity than all other groups. The T Helper/T cytotoxic lymphocyte ratio was similar in all groups. The RVVC group showed a similar level of vaginal inflammation to the control group, and lower than in the COL and VVC groups. Only the CVV group showed a reduction in vaginal lactobacillus microbiota. Our data suggest that both chronic stress (decreased early-morning cortisol levels) and reduced antioxidant capacity can be host predisposing factors to RVVC. PMID:27415762

  12. Losartan reduces oxidative damage to renal DNA and conserves plasma antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats.

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    Lodovici, Maura; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Serio, Claudia; Raimondi, Laura

    2015-11-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels produced by hyperglycemia and angiotensin-II (AT-II) are considered among the pathogenic factors in the malignant transformation of diabetic renal cells. We aimed to investigate the potential role of AT-II in the increased cancer risk seen in diabetes; measuring oxidative damage to renal DNA and protective antioxidant defenses, including adiponectin (Adp) and plasma antioxidant capacity by the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. In the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (55 mg/kg) diabetic rats either treated or not treated for 3 weeks with losartan, an AT-II type 1 receptor antagonist (20 mg/kg/day); we measured 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) levels, as an index of oxidative DNA damage, circulating Adp and FRAP. Diabetic rats showed significantly higher 8-oxodGuo levels in renal DNA (8.48 ± 0.98 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM n = 11) than normoglycemic ones (1.18 ± 0.04 × 10(-6) dG, mean ± SEM, n=7) and lower plasma Adp and FRAP levels in comparison to normoglycemics. The treatment of diabetic rats with losartan significantly (P Losartan treatment preserves FRAP levels, reduces DNA oxidative injury and thus the carcinogenesis risk. Furthermore, our results indicate that Adp plasma levels are a further marker of oxidative injury to the kidney and confirm that it is an important part of the plasma antioxidant defense.

  13. Antioxidant capacity reduced in scallions grown under elevated CO 2 independent of assayed light intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Lanfang H.; Paré, Paul W.

    2009-10-01

    Long-duration manned space missions mandate the development of a sustainable life support system and effective countermeasures against damaging space radiation. To mitigate the risk of inevitable exposure to space radiation, cultivation of fresh fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is an attractive alternative to pharmacological agents. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties of crops can be preserved or enhanced in a space environment where environmental conditions differ from that which plants have acclimated to on earth. Scallion ( Allium fistulosum) rich in antioxidant vitamins C and A, and flavonoids was used as a model plant to study the impact of a range of CO 2 concentrations and light intensities that are likely encountered in a space habitat on food quality traits. Scallions were hydroponically grown in controlled environmental chambers under a combination of 3 CO 2 concentrations of 400, 1200 and 4000 μmol mol -1 and 3 light intensity levels of 150, 300, 450 μmol m -2 s -1. Total antioxidant activity (TAA) of scallion extracts was determined using a radical cation scavenging assay. Both elevated CO 2 and increasing light intensity enhanced biomass accumulation, but effects on TAA (based on dry weight) differed. TAA was reduced for plants grown under elevated CO 2, but remained unchanged with increases in light intensity. Elevated CO 2 stimulated greater biomass production than antioxidants, while an increase in photosynthetic photo flux promoted the synthesis of antioxidant compounds at a rate similar to that of biomass. Consequently light is a more effective stimulus than CO 2 for antioxidant production.

  14. Total antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing antioxidant power and 2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl methods and phenolic composition of fresh and dried drumstick (Moringa oleifera leaves

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    Vanisha S Nambiar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dietary and life-style transitions have instigated accumulation of free radicals in our body causing oxidative stress, which is etiological in Non Communicable Diseases. Antioxidants are the means to counter oxidative stress. Thus, comprehensive knowledge of potential sources of antioxidants is vital. Aim: To assess the total antioxidant capacity (TAC using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays and phenolic composition of fresh and dried drumstick leaves from Western India. Settings and Design: This was an experimental study conducted under laboratory settings. Samples were procured from three different parts of the city of Vadodara, Western India. Materials and Methods: Fresh, oven-dried, and air-dried form of leaves were quantified for total phenol content (TPC (Folin Ciocalteau assay, individual phenols (high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing property and free radical inhibiting property were quantified to understand the TAC using FRAP and DPPH assays respectively. Statistical Tests: Regression analyses were used for TPC and FRAP calculations. Results: The TPC ranged from 141.59 mgGAE/100 g to 185.32 mgGAE/100g; FRAP levels ranged from 0.49 mg/g to 0.7 mg/g, and DPPH ranged from 4.5% to 12.99% among raw and blanched Drumstick leaves sample in fresh, air-dried, and oven-dried form. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechingallate, chlorogenic acid. Conclusion: The underutilised drumstick leaves have strong antioxidant capacity attributable to its phenolic composition. Thus, they are cheap and accessible source of antioxidants for medicinal and commercial purposes.

  15. Consumption of reduced-fat products: Effects on parameters of anti-oxidative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis- Wierik, E.J.M. te; Berg, H. van den; Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Graaf, C. de

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Dietary fat intake is higher than recommended in most western countries and is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. The growing public concern about the adverse effects of a high fat intake has led to an increased availability of 'reduced-fat'

  16. Consumption of reduced-fat products: Effects on parameters of anti-oxidative capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis- Wierik, E.J.M. te; Berg, H. van den; Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Graaf, C. de

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Dietary fat intake is higher than recommended in most western countries and is associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. The growing public concern about the adverse effects of a high fat intake has led to an increased availability of 'reduced-fat' pro

  17. Antioxidant capacity and physical exercise

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    A Marciniak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a presentation of current knowledge regarding the changes of plasma antioxidant capacity observed in response to physical exercise. Human body created the enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, which play a protective role in the harmful impact of free radicals. Those two systems constitute what is known as the plasma total antioxidant capacity. The amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (NOS in combination with oxidation processes increases in some tissues during physiological response to physical exercise. These changes are observed after single bout of exercise as well as after regular training. The response of human body to physical exercise can be analysed using various models of exercise test. Application of repeated type of exhaustion allows for characterizing the ability of human body to adjust to the increased energy loss and increased oxygen consumption. This article presents the characteristics of components of plasma antioxidant capacity, the mechanisms of free radicals production and their role in human body. It discusses also the currently used methods of detecting changes in total antioxidant capacity and its individual elements in response to single bout of exercise and regular training. It presents the review of literature about research performed in groups of both regularly training and low exercise activity individuals as well as in group of healthy subjects and patients with circulation diseases.

  18. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantavos, A.; Ruiter, R.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Keyser, de C.E.; Hofman, A.; Stricker, B.H.C.; Franco, O.H.; Kiefte-de Jong, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake

  19. Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.

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    Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

    2012-08-01

    Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements.

  20. Fish Oil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants Reduces Antioxidant Capacity and Induces Oxidative Stress without Affecting Its Capacity to Lower Lipid Concentrations and Systemic Inflammation in Rats.

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    Hong, Mee Young; Lumibao, Jan; Mistry, Prashila; Saleh, Rhonda; Hoh, Eunha

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the benefits of fish, fish oil, and ω-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids against cardiovascular diseases. However, concern surrounding contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) prompts caution in the recommendation to consume fish and fish oil. The present study compared the effects of fish oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) on serum lipid profiles, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty eight-day-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) consumed diets of unmodified fish oil (FO) consisting of 15% fat by weight, persistent organic pollutant-contaminated fish oil (POP FO) (PCBs at 2.40 μg/g; OCs at 3.80 μg/g FO), or corn oil (control; CO) for 9 wk. Lipid profiles and C-reactive protein concentrations were assessed. Hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism was determined by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. After 9 wk of feeding, accumulation of PCBs and OCs in the fat tissue of the POP FO group compared with the other 2 groups was confirmed (P < 0.01). Both fish oil groups showed greater HDL cholesterol (FO 53 ± 5.3 and POP FO 55 ± 7.7 vs. CO 34 ± 2.3 mg/dL), but lower triglycerides (24 ± 2.8 and 22 ± 3.0 vs. 43 ± 5.6 mg/dL), LDL cholesterol (38 ± 14 and 34 ± 9.2 vs. 67 ± 4.4 mg/dL), and C-reactive protein (113 ± 20 and 120 ± 26 vs. 189 ± 22 μg/dL) compared with the CO group (P < 0.05). Gene expression of fatty acid synthase in both fish oil groups was also less than in the CO group (P < 0.05). However, the POP FO group showed greater lipid peroxidation (5.1 ± 0.7 vs. 2.9 ± 0.9 and 2.6 ± 0.6 μM) and less antioxidant capacity (0.08 ± 0.06 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1 and 0.4 ± 0.1 mM) than the CO and FO groups (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that, despite exhibiting benefits on serum lipid concentrations and inflammation, contamination with PCBs and OCs showed significant negative effects on oxidative stress and

  1. Alpha-ketoglutarate reduces ethanol toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster by enhancing alcohol dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant capacity.

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    Bayliak, Maria M; Shmihel, Halyna V; Lylyk, Maria P; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol at low concentrations (alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity as compared with those reared on control diet or diet with ethanol only. Native gel electrophoresis data suggested that this combination diet might promote post-translational modifications of ADH protein with the formation of a highly active ADH form. The ethanol-containing diet led to significantly higher levels of triacylglycerides stored in adult flies, and this parameter was not altered by AKG supplement. The influence of diet on antioxidant defenses was also assessed. In ethanol-fed flies, catalase activity was higher in males and the levels of low molecular mass thiols were unchanged in both sexes compared to control values. Feeding on a mixture of AKG and ethanol did not affect catalase activity but caused a higher level of low molecular mass thiols compared to ethanol-fed flies. It can be concluded that both a stimulation of some components of antioxidant defense and the increase in ADH activity may be responsible for the protective effects of AKG diet supplementation in combination with ethanol. The results suggest that AKG might be useful as a treatment option to neutralize toxic effects of excessive ethanol intake and to improve the physiological state of D. melanogaster and other animals, potentially including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochemical profile and ABTS cation radical scavenging, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity and anticholinesterase activities of endemic Ballota nigra L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis from Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulselam Erta; Mehmet Boa; Yeter Yeil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the chemical compositions and biological activities of an endemic Ballotanigra Methods: Essential oil and fatty acid composition were determined by GC/MS analysis. ABTS cation radical decolourisation and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays were carried out to indicate the antioxidant activity. The anticholinesterase potential of the extracts were determined by Ellman method. L. subsp. anatolica P.H. Davis. Results: The major compounds in the fatty acid composition of the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic (36.0%) and linoleic acids (14.3%). The major components of essential oil were 1-hexacosanol (26.7%), germacrene-D (9.3%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.3%). The water extract indicated higher ABTS cation radical scavenging activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, at 100 µg/mL. The acetone extract showed 71.58 and 44.71% inhibitory activity against butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The water and acetone extracts of Ballota nigra subsp. anatolica can be investigated in terms of both phytochemical and biological aspects to find natural active compounds.

  3. Evaluation on Antioxidant Effect of Xanthohumol by Different Antioxidant Capacity Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Li Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several assays have been frequently used to estimate antioxidant capacities including ABTS•+, DPPH, and FRAP assays. Xanthohumol (XN, the major prenylated flavonoid contained in beer, witnessed various reports on its antioxidant capacity. We systematically evaluated the antioxidant activity of XN using three systems, 2,2,-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+ scavenging assays, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical assays, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. The results are expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. The TEAC of XN was 0.32±0.09 μmol·l−1 by the ABTS assay and 0.27±0.04 μmol·l−1 by the FRAP. Meanwhile, the XN did not show obviously scavenging effect on DPPH radical reaction system. These results showed that different methods in the evaluation of compound antioxidant capicity, there may be a different conclusion.

  4. Zinc and propolis reduces cytotoxicity and proliferation in skin fibroblast cell culture: total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Małgorzata; Paśko, Paweł; Reczyński, Witold; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Bystrowska, Beata; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2014-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that zinc exerts its beneficial influence on skin fibroblasts. Propolis, a complex mixture of plant-derived and bees' products, was reported to stimulate cicatrization processes in skin and prevent infections. The aim of this study was to find out how zinc and propolis influence human skin fibroblasts in cell culture and to compare the effect of individual compounds to the effect of a mixture of zinc and propolis. In this study, zinc, as zinc aspartate, at a concentration of 16 μM, increased human fibroblasts proliferation in cell culture, whereas propolis at a concentration of 0.01% (w/v) revealed antiproliferative and cytotoxic action followed by mild cell necrosis. In culture, zinc was effectively transported into fibroblasts, and propolis inhibited the amount of zinc incorporated into the cells. An addition of propolis to the medium caused a decrease in the Zn(II) amount incorporated into fibroblasts. The obtained results also indicate an appreciable antioxidant property of propolis and revealed its potential as a supplement when applied at doses lower than 0.01% (w/v). In conclusion, the present study showed that zinc had a protective effect on human cultured fibroblasts' viability, although propolis revealed its antiproliferative action and caused mild necrosis.

  5. Modified Folin-Ciocalteu antioxidant capacity assay for measuring lipophilic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berker, Kadriye Isil; Ozdemir Olgun, F Ayca; Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2013-05-22

    The Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) method of performing a total phenolics assay, originally developed for protein determination, has recently evolved as a total antioxidant capacity assay but was found to be incapable of measuring lipophilic antioxidants due to the high affinity of the FC chromophore, that is, multivalent-charged phospho-tungsto-molybdate(V), toward water. Thus, the FC method was modified and standardized so as to enable simultaneous measurement of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in NaOH-added isobutanol-water medium. Optimal conditions were as follows: dilution ratio of aqueous FC reagent with iso-BuOH (1:2, v/v), final NaOH concentration of 3.5 × 10(-2) M, reaction time of 20 min, and maximum absorption wavelength of 665 nm. The modified procedure was successfully applied to the total antioxidant capacity assay of trolox, quercetin, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rosmarinic acid, glutathione, and cysteine, as well as of lipophilic antioxidants such as α-tocopherol (vitamin E), butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, lauryl gallate, and β-carotene. The modified FC method reliably quantified ascorbic acid, whereas the conventional method could not. The modified method was reproducible and additive in terms of total antioxidant capacity values of constituents of complex mixtures such as olive oil extract and herbal tea infusion. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidant compounds correlated well with those found by the Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity reference method.

  6. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe₂O₃/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Zheng, Delun; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei; Wang, Qingxiang

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe2O3 (fFe2O3), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS-fFe2O3-ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS-fFe2O3-ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0×10(-6)M to 1.0×10(-4)M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5×10(-7)M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Herbal and Tea Infusions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In order to supply new information on the antioxidant function of selected beverages for nutritionists and the general public, total phenolic contents of 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. A significant correlation between FRAP and TEAC values suggested that antioxidant components i...

  8. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of herbal and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; Xu, Bo-Tao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    In order to supply new information on the antioxidant function of selected beverages for nutritionists and the general public, total phenolic contents of 51 kinds of herbal and tea infusions made in China were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. A significant correlation between FRAP and TEAC values suggested that antioxidant components in these beverages were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. The high correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds could be one of the main components responsible for antioxidant activities of these beverages. Generally, these beverages had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, and could be important dietary sources of antioxidant phenolics for prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity of Rapeseed Extracts Obtained by Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solid–liquid extraction were applied to extract total antioxidants from two rapeseed varieties. The antioxidant capacities (AC) of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars were determined by four different analytical methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The average AC of the studied r...

  10. [Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity in beverages made with panela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, Jhoana; Guerra, Marisa; Guilarte, Doralys; Alvarado, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity in beverages made with panela (a natural sweetener obtained after drying the unrefined whole sugarcane juice) in order to assess their potential as sources of antioxidants. In beverages made with three panela brands (A, B and C) with lemon, tangerine and peach flavors, the total polyphenols content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu's reactive and antioxidant capacity was determined by three methods: antiradical efficiency DPPH, ferric reducing power (FRP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The total polyphenols content ranged from 0.76 to 1.26 EAG g/mL and 0.73 to 1.32 EAT g/mL. The lemon flavored beverage showed the highest total polyphenols content followed by tangerine and peach flavored beverages. The three beverages had a low antiradical efficiency (AE) and the antioxidant compounds present in the beverages showed a slow kinetic. The ferric reducing power ranged from 8.28 to 10.41 mmol Fe(+2)/L. The ORAC values ranged from 1,536 to 5,220 micromol ET/100 mL. The brand B showed the highest ORAC, followed by brands A and C. The brand-flavor interaction significantly affects the total polyphenols content and the EA, thermal processing also significantly affect the AE (p panela indicate that they are products potentially with antioxidant capacity.

  11. Effect of freezing and processing technologies on the antioxidant capacity of fruit pulp and jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristine Maso Jeusti Bof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of freezing and processing technology on the antioxidant capacity of grape (Vitis vinifera, apple (Malus domestica, strawberry (Fragaria x Anassa, pear (Pyrus communis L., guava (Psidium guajava L., and fig (Ficus carica L. was evaluated for 90 days. Under a storage temperature of -15 º C, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant capacity of grape and fig pulp, and a higher antioxidant capacity was found for guava pulp (27 µmol/g. While the technological processing did not affect the antioxidant capacity of pear and apple jellies, all other jellies studied showed a reduced antioxidant capacity. The processing reduced the antioxidant capacity of grapes in 45%. Among the fruit products, the highest antioxidant activities were found for guava pulp and jelly (27 and 25 µmol/g, respectively, followed by grape pulp (22 µmol/g.

  12. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  13. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g, flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g, and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78±1.2% and 85±2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550±123, when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729±172. Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant.

  14. Comparison of the Antioxidant Capacity of an Important Hepatoprotective Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify antioxidant compounds that are pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and the food industry. As plants produce significant amount of antioxidants to prevent the oxidative stress caused by photons and oxygen, they represent a potential source of new compounds with antioxidant activity. Commonly used medicinal plant extracts with standardized content of polyphenols were investigated for their antioxidant activity (AA. In the present paper ten plants (Picrorrhiza kurroa, Tephrosia purpurea, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Azadirachta indica, Apium graveolens, Swertia chirata, Phyllanthus amarus, and Aloe vera and their possible constituents responsible for its antioxidant property were compared by reducing power, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity method. The plants described contain antioxidant principles that can explain and justify their use in traditional medicine (Hepatoprotective in the past as well as the present. These results suggest that AA determination is of interest for a comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential, but it needs to be combined with in vivo data for adequate assessment of the antioxidant capacity of medicinal plant extracts.

  15. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    OpenAIRE

    Hua-Bin Li; Ren-You Gan; Xin-Sheng Qin; Li Fu; Bo-Tao Xu; Xiang-Rong Xu

    2010-01-01

    In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v) methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assa...

  16. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIHEMOLYTIC CAPACITIES OF PLANTS OF INDIAN ORIGIN USING MULTIPLE ANTIOXIDANT ASSAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepinderjeet Singh Joshan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is concerned with both in-vitro assessment of antioxidant activity and anti-hemolytic effects of Ficus bengalensis, Calendula officinalis and Juglans regia. Total flavonoids and phenolics also were determined by using aluminum nitrate and Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric methods respectively. The antioxidant capacity of sample was assessed through reducing power assay, DPPH-scavenging effect,metal chelation assay and superoxide scavenging assay. The extract of Calendula officinalis was found to be more efficient in as antioxidant and anti-hemolytic agents using the in vitro assays as compared to Ficus bengalensis and Juglans regia.

  17. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity Assays of Selected Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active compounds, especially fruit phenolics, are responsible for reduced risk of developing chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, etc., due to their antioxidant activities. Th is study summarized some chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays and the antioxidant capacity of selected fruit varieties (strawberry, sour cherry, cornelian cherry, blackthorn. We determined the contents of total phenolics (TPC, total flavonoids (TF, total non-flavonoids (TNF and total anthocyanins (TA in selected fruits. The content of TPC, TF and TNF in fruits was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, while the TA content of extracts was determined by bisulphite bleaching method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of selected fruits were analyzed using 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid radical cation (ABTS, 2,2-diphenil-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Cornelian cherry had the highest content of TPC, while sour cherry cv. Marasca had the highest content of TA. TAC was the highest in cornelian cherry fruits and decreased in other fruits as follow: sour cherry, blackthorn and strawberry. The fruit extracts had different TAC in relation to the method applied, and the different TAC of fruits can be ascribed to their TPC, TF, TNF or TA content. There was a direct correlation between the TAC determined using DPPH and ORAC methods and the TA content of fruit extracts. Using FRAP method correlation was weaker, but using ABTS method correlation was not observed. The ripping correlation between TF or TNF and TAC was observed using ABTS and ORAC methods.

  18. Developing SyrinOX total antioxidant capacity assay for measuring antioxidants in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Endry N; Knes, Otto; Nyanhongo, Gibson S; Guebitz, Georg M

    2013-02-01

    Accurate monitoring of the antioxidant status or of oxidative stress in patients is still a big challenge in clinical laboratories. This study investigates the possibility of applying a newly developed total antioxidant capacity assay method based on laccase or peroxidase oxidized syringaldazine [Tetramethoxy azobismethylene quinone (TMAMQ)] which is referred to here as SyrinOX, as a diagnostic tool for monitoring both oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients. Attempts to adapt the Randox total antioxidant procedure [simultaneous incubation of the radical generating system (metmyoglobin and H(2) O(2) ) and antioxidant sample] for SyrinOX were abandoned after it was discovered that the H(2) O(2) reacted with enzymatically generated TMAMQ and ABTS radicals at a rate of 6.4 × 10(-2) /μM/s and 5.7 × 10(-3) /μM/s respectively. Thus this study for the first time demonstrates the negative effects of H(2) O(2) in the Randox system. This leads to erroneous results because the total antioxidant values obtained are the sum of radicals reduced by antioxidants plus those reacting with the radical generating system. Therefore they should be avoided not only for this particular method but also when using other similar methods. Consequently, SyrinOX is best applied using a three-step approach involving, production of TMAMQ, recovery and purification (free from enzyme and other impurities) and then using TMAMQ for measuring the total antioxidant capacity of samples. Using this approach, the reaction conditions for application of SyrinOX when measuring the total antioxidant capacity of plasma sample were determined to be 50% (v/v) ethanol/50 mM sodium succinate buffer pH 5.5, between 20 and 25 °C for at least 1 h.

  19. Solvent effects on the antioxidant capacity of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants measured by CUPRAC, ABTS/persulphate and FRAP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Saliha Esin; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2010-06-15

    Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells and macromolecules (e.g., fats, lipids, proteins, and DNA) from the damage of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Solvent effect is a crucial parameter on the chemical behaviour of antioxidant compounds but there has been limited information regarding its role on antioxidant capacity and its assays. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of some certain lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants, measured in different solvent media such as ethanol (EtOH) (100%), methanol (MeOH) (100%), methanol/water (4:1, v/v), methanol/water (1:1, v/v), dichloromethane (DCM)/EtOH (9:1, v/v). The cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) values of selected antioxidants were experimentally reported in this work as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and compared to those found by reference TAC assays, i.e., 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)/persulphate (ABTS/persulphate) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The TAC values of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Possible synergistic (e.g., BHT and BHA in DCM/EtOH) or antagonistic behaviours of these synthetic mixtures were investigated in relation to solvent selection.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of some Thai culinary plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of red and green bird chili (Capsicum frutescens Linn., red and green chili spur pepper (Capsicum annuum Linn. var. acuminatum Fingerh., red and white holy basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn., garlic (Allium sativum Linn., and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Decne., which have been normally used in Thailand as food ingredients, was estimated by three different methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, and DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Additionally, their total phenolic contents were analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteau micro method. The result showed that red holy basil and red bird chili seemed to be better sources of antioxidant compounds, followed by green bird chili and red chili spur pepper, white holy basil, green chili spur pepper, garlic and pumpkin, respectively. For results of total phenolic content analysis, they were significantly related to those of FRAP (r = 0.825, ABTS (r = 0.973 and DPPH (r = 0.683.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, A M; Man, Y B Che; Nazimah, S A H; Amin, I

    2009-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oil produced through chilling and fermentation were investigated and compared with refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. Virgin coconut oil showed better antioxidant capacity than refined, bleached and deodorized coconut oil. The virgin coconut oil produced through the fermentation method had the strongest scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene-linoleate bleaching method. However, virgin coconut oil obtained through the chilling method had the highest reducing power. The major phenolic acids detected were ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid. Very high correlations were found between the total phenolic content and scavenging activity (r=0.91), and between the total phenolic content and reducing power (r=0.96). There was also a high correlation between total phenolic acids and beta-carotene bleaching activity. The study indicated that the contribution of antioxidant capacity in virgin coconut oil could be due to phenolic compounds.

  2. Dietary fiber and antioxidant capacity in Fucus vesiculosus products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-01-01

    Several nutraceutical products have been developed from Fucus vesiculosus, a brown edible seaweed, rich in dietary fiber and polyphenolic antioxidants (phlorotannins). The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant capacity and polysaccharide composition of raw Fucus with those of some common commercial nutraceuticals. All tested products contained a high percentage of dietary fiber (45-59%), raw Fucus powder being the sample with the highest content. Also, raw Fucus powder exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity (determined by FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays) than the commercial fucoidans and commercial antioxidant extracts. Polyphenols (phlorotannins) seem to be the main contributors to Fucus' antioxidant capacity in both raw powder and commercial fucoidans.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND AMINO ACID PROFILES OF EGG TOFU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizura Murad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tofu contains high quality protein source and antioxidant which could reduce risk of cancer. This research aims to determine the effect of soymilk and egg ratios on the antioxidant capacity, daidzein and genistein content and amino acid profiles of egg tofu. Egg tofu was prepared using soymilk and fresh egg in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Glucono-Delta-Lactone (GDL was added in the egg tofu to act as a coagulating agent. Increased of soymilk at all ratios had significantly (p<0.05 increased in Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP, daidzein and genistein content of egg tofu. Conversely, decreased in soymilk ratio had significantly (p<0.05 increased the radical scavenging activities of the 2,2-Azino-Bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid (ABTS and 2,2-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in egg tofu. Increased of soymilk ratio up to 3:1 caused decreased in amino acid methionine (met and cystein (cys significantly (p<0.05. A significant (p<0.01 and a positive correlation was observed between Total Phenolic Content (TPC and FRAP (r = 0.93. However, there was a negative (p<0.01 correlation between TPC and DPPH (r = -0.83. The antioxidant capacity of egg tofu in DPPH assay showed a positive and significant (p<0.01 correlation with cysteine, methionine and tryptophan with r value of 0.92, 0.93 and 0.96 respectively. Higher content of egg in egg tofu had contributed to the increased of antioxidant capacity as indicated in DPPH assay and ABTS assay as well as amino acid methionine and cysteine.

  4. Simple and Rapid Method for the Determination of Uric Acid-Independent Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Determination of the relative contribution of uric acid level increases to the total measured antioxidative activity could be very useful for testing antioxidative products and their effect on human health. The aim of this report is to present a simple spectrophotometric method that combines the measurement of total antioxidative capacity of a sample by ferric reducing/antioxidative power (FRAP) assay, with the uricase-reaction (specific elimination of uric acid), in order to establish and co...

  5. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant capacities of thiol-based antioxidants measured by different in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Nilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Cekiç, Sema Demirci; Apak, Reşat

    2011-02-15

    Thiol-type compounds are an important class of strong antioxidants and main determinants of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of cellular homogenates. The TAC of thiol mixtures and the corresponding TEAC (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) values of individual thiols were determined by the CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) method, and the results were compared with those found by reference assays for method validation. Synthetic mixtures of thiols were prepared, and the expected and found TAC values (in mM trolox (TR) equivalents) of these mixtures showed a good agreement. The technique of standard additions was performed for thiol mixtures and human serum, and the absorbance results confirmed that apparent chemical deviations from Beer's law were absent in the system. The CUPRAC results were compared with those of reference methods, namely 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)/persulphate and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP). As being a most important thiol (-SH) peptide at in vivo conditions, glutathione (GSH) showed a TEAC value of 0.57 in the CUPRAC method, as opposed to the corresponding value (1.51) in the ABTS/persulphate method. The ABTS/persulphate result was not in accordance with the reversible 1-e oxidation of GSH to the corresponding disulfide that is expected to occur under physiological conditions. FRAP did not give consistent results, and even at relatively high concentrations of GSH, the TEAC(FRAP) value was only 0.07. The thiol-type antioxidant-bearing pharmaceuticals of Brunac eye drop, Trom and Mentopin effervescent tablets containing N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) were assayed with HPLC for comparison, and the obtained results for NAC were in accordance with those found with CUPRAC.

  6. Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity of Biofortified Carrots (Daucus Carota, L.) of Various Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of seven colored carrots were determined. Five anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and four carotenoids, were quantified by HPLC. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidant capacities of the hydrophilic and hyd...

  7. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  8. Coffee component 3-caffeoylquinic acid increases antioxidant capacity but not polyphenol content in experimental cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Crespo, Silvia; Trejo-Gabriel-Galan, Jose M; Cavia-Saiz, Monica; Muñiz, Pilar

    2012-05-01

    Although coffee has antioxidant capacity, it is not known which of its bioactive compounds is responsible for it, nor has it been analyzed in experimental cerebral infarction. We studied the effect one of its compounds, 3-caffeoylquinic acid (3-CQA), at doses of 4, 25 and 100 μg on plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma polyphenol content, measuring the differences before and after inducing a cerebral infarction in an experimental rat model. We compared them with 3-caffeoylquinic-free controls. The increase in total antioxidant capacity was only higher than in controls in 3-CQA treated animals with the highest dose. This increase in antioxidant capacity was not due to an increase in polyphenols. No differences between the experimental and control group were found regarding polyphenol content and cerebral infarction volume. In conclusion, this increase in antioxidant capacity in the group that received the highest dose of 3-CQA was not able to reduce experimental cerebral infarction.

  9. Total dietary antioxidant capacity, individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavos, Athanasios; Ruiter, Rikje; Feskens, Edith F; de Keyser, Catherine E; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-05-01

    Some studies suggest a favorable role of antioxidants on breast cancer risk but this is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess whether overall dietary antioxidant capacity, as assessed by dietary ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and individual dietary antioxidant intake were associated with breast cancer risk. Data was used from women participating in the Rotterdam Study, a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 3,209). FRAP scores and antioxidant intake (i.e., vitamin A, C, E, selenium, flavonoids and carotenoids) was assessed at baseline by a food frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of breast cancer were confirmed through medical reports. During a median follow-up of 17 years, 199 cases with breast cancer were identified. High dietary FRAP score was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer [hazard ratio (HR): 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.49, 0.96]. No overall association between individual antioxidant intake and breast cancer risk was found. However, low intake of alpha carotene and beta carotene was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer among smokers (HR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.21, 5.12 and HR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.12, 4.76 for alpha and beta carotene, respectively) and low intake of flavonoids was associated with breast cancer risk in women over the age of 70 (HR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.99). These results suggest that high overall dietary antioxidant capacity is associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. Individual effects of dietary carotenoids and dietary flavonoids may be restricted to subgroups such as smokers and elderly.

  10. Lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of selected watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Mansfeld) cultivars grown in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagal, Shweta; Kaur, Charanjit; Choudhary, Harshawardhan; Singh, Jashbir; Bhushan Singh, Braj; Singh, K N

    2012-12-01

    The present investigation reports variability in lycopene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and colour attributes of 12 watermelon cultivars grown in India. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using four in vitro assays, namely ferric reducing antioxidant power, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl. Among watermelon cultivars, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found with respect to lycopene content and antioxidant capacity. Lycopene content ranged from 03.46 to 8.00 mg/100 g fresh weight. Colour of watermelon flesh was described by an optimized colour index (CI). Cultivars 'PWM25-4', 'Arun', 'Kiran' and 'Kareena' were found to be the most promising ones with highest lycopene content, antioxidant capacity and CI. Results indicate that watermelon is a good source of dietary lycopene and there exists significant variation that can be exploited to produce high-quality cultivars.

  11. The predictive value of the antioxidant capacity of structurally related flavonoids using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, R. van den; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Berg, H. van den; Vijgh, W. van der; Bast, A.

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of a series of structurally related flavonoids is quantified by the amount of ABTS [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radical anions (ABTS(.)-) that is able to react with the flavonoid and expressed as the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). To ev

  12. Exposure or release of ferulic acid from wheat aleurone: impact on its antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Natalia N; Dufour, Claire; Lullien-Pellerin, Valérie; Micard, Valérie

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between the aleurone cell integrity and the exposure or release of bioavailable ferulic acid (FA) with the antioxidant capacity of aleurone in in vitro and under simulated gastric conditions was explored. The antioxidant capacity of aleurone was increased by around 2-fold when its median particle size was reduced to under 50 μm. The opening of aleurone cells increased the physical exposure of FA bound to the insoluble polysaccharides, which seemed to be responsible of the increased antioxidant capacity. Synergistic combination of xylanase and feruloyl esterase was found to be the most efficient enzymatic treatment releasing up to 86% of total FA in bioaccessible forms. This enzymatic treatment significantly enhanced the radical scavenging activity of aleurone by up to 4-fold, which overlapped the overall antioxidant potential estimated from the total content of FA in aleurone. The improvement in the antioxidant capacity of aleurone was also observed in the simulated gastric digestion by inhibition of lipid oxidation.

  13. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on total antioxidant capacity of fasting and postprandial plasma samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Dragsted, L. O.; Pedersen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are known to protect against cancer and heart disease. This is often ascribed to their high content of antioxidants. We have therefore tested whether a daily intake of fruits and vegetables corresponding to the recommended 600 g had any effect on the antioxidant activity of ...... of fasting and postprandial plasma samples. Antioxidant activity was determined by the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and the Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay, which have been reported to be affected by the presence of dietary antioxidants....

  14. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    widely studied, the antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins has been rarely explored. The aim of this study was to determine the structure dependant antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus. The antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins...

  15. Effects of brewing conditions on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green tea varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Hua, Fang; Schuckers, Stephanie; Andreescu, Silvana; Bradley, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    A novel paper-based Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (NanoCerac) assay for antioxidant detection (Sharpe, Frasco, Andreescu, & Andreescu, 2012), has been adapted for the first time as a high-throughput method, in order to measure the effect of brewing conditions and re-infusion on the antioxidant capacity of twenty-four commercial green teas. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, frequently applied to complex foods and beverages, was used as a comparator measure of antioxidant capacity. A novel measure of sustained antioxidant capacity, the total inherent antioxidant capacity (TI-NanoCerac and TI-ORAC) was measured by infusing each tea six times. Effects of brewing conditions (temperature, brew time, etc.) were assessed using one popular tea as a standard. Both NanoCerac and ORAC assays correlated moderately (R(2) 0.80 ± 0.19). The average first-brew NanoCerac, TI-NanoCerac, first-brew ORAC and TI-ORAC were: 0.73 ± 0.1 GAE/g tea; 2.4 ± 0.70 mmolGAE/g tea; 1.0 ± 0.3 mmolTE/g tea and 2.1 ± 0.71 mmolTE/g tea respectively. Brewing conditions including water temperature and infusion time significantly affected antioxidant capacity. The high-throughput adaptation of the original NanoCerac assay tested here offered advantages over ORAC, including portability and rapid analysis.

  16. Heritability of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ALL

    the extracted cocoa beans on the fermenting platform covered with banana leaves. ..... Theobroma cacao hulls extracted with supercritical CO2. Food Res. .... Relationship between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of red, rose.

  17. Biocatalytic synthesis and antioxidant capacities of ascorbyl esters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biocatalytic synthesis and antioxidant capacities of ascorbyl esters by Novozym 435 in tert-butanol ... Novozym 435 was used to catalyze the synthesis of fatty acid (FA) ascorbyl esters in tert-butanol using methyl palmitate, ... Article Metrics.

  18. Comparison of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    Oct 9, 2012 ... GAE, gallic acid equivalent; TEAC, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. countries .... performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized ..... characterisation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from.

  19. Simple and Rapid Method for the Determination of Uric Acid-Independent Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Modun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relative contribution of uric acid level increases to the total measured antioxidative activity could be very useful for testing antioxidative products and their effect on human health. The aim of this report is to present a simple spectrophotometric method that combines the measurement of total antioxidative capacity of a sample by ferric reducing/antioxidative power (FRAP assay, with the uricase-reaction (specific elimination of uric acid, in order to establish and correct for the contribution of uric acid in FRAP values. We measured FRAP values, with (uric acid-independent antioxidant capacity, TAC-UA and without (total antioxidant capacity, TAC uricase treatment, and expressed it as μmol/L of uric acid equivalents. In such way, it was possible to determine both total and uric acid-independent antioxidant capacity, plasma uric acid (UA, as the difference between TAC and TAC-UA, and the ratio of the uric acid in total antioxidant capacity (UA/TAC.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of vegetables, spices and dressings relevant to nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Mea, Gloria; Giorgini, Samantha; Rocchi, Marco; Bacchiocca, Mara

    2005-02-01

    Vegetables are the most important sources of phenolics in the Mediterranean diet. Phenolics, especially flavonoids, are suggested as being essential bioactive compounds providing health benefits. In this study, twenty-seven vegetables, fifteen aromatic herbs and some spices consumed in Central Italy (the Marches region) were studied to reveal total phenolic, flavonoid and flavanol content as well as their antioxidant capacity measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity was made between different salads, as well as between salads to which aromatic herbs had been added. Lemon balm and marjoram at a concentration of 1.5 % w/w increased by 150 % and 200 % respectively the antioxidant capacity of a salad portion. A 200 g portion of a salad enriched with marjoram corresponded to an intake of 200 (SD 10) mg phenolics and 4000 (SD 300) ORAC units (micromol Trolox equivalents). Olive oils and wine or apple vinegars were the salad dressings that provided the highest increase in antioxidant capacity. Among the spices tested, cumin and fresh ginger made the most significant contribution to the antioxidant capacity. The results are useful in surveying the antioxidant parameters of vegetables, herbs and spices produced and consumed in our geographical area as well as in quantifying the daily intake of phenolics and ORAC units. The results can be used in public health campaigns to stimulate the consumption of vegetables able to provide significant health protection in order to prevent chronic diseases.

  1. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  2. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  3. An electrochemical sensor for gallic acid based on Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/electro-reduced graphene oxide composite: Estimation for the antioxidant capacity index of wines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng, E-mail: fgao1981@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zheng, Delun [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Tanaka, Hidekazu [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue, Shimane 690-8504 (Japan); Zhan, Fengping; Yuan, Xiaoning; Gao, Fei [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China); Wang, Qingxiang, E-mail: axiang236@126.com [College of Chemistry and Environment, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Morden Analytical Science and Separation Technology, Minnan Normal University, Zhangzhou 363000 (China)

    2015-12-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for gallic acid (GA), an important polyphenolic compound, was fabricated using the hybrid material of chitosan (CS), fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) as the sensing matrix. The electrochemical characterization experiments showed that the CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE) had large surface area, excellent electronic conductivity and high stability. The GA presented a superior electrochemical response on CS–fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}–ERGO/GCE in comparison with the single-component modified electrode. The electrochemical mechanism and optimal test conditions of GA on the electrode surface were carefully investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak currents in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments exhibited a good linear relationship with the logarithmic values of GA concentration over the range from 1.0 × 10{sup −6} M to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M. Based on signal-to-noise (S/N) characteristic of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 1.5 × 10{sup −7} M. The proposed sensor has also been applied for estimating the antioxidant capacity index of real samples of red and white wines. - Highlights: • Fishbone-shaped Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple template-free solvothermal method. • The nanocomposite of fFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, graphene and chitosan was used as the sensing platform for gallic acid. • The sensor shows a wide linear range and low detection limit for gallic acid. • The antioxidant capacity index of wines was successfully evaluated by the sensor.

  4. Impact of Thyroid Dysfunction on Antioxidant Capacity, Superoxide Dismutase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, disturbance of oxidant/antioxidant balance leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. The aim of this study is assaying total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in patients with hypo-and hyperthyroidism in order to control the progression of its pathology and health care. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 85 patients with hypothyroidism, 66 patients with hyperthyroidism and 74 normal individuals as control that referred to the clinic of the Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences of Shahid-Beheshti University in year 2010. Serum enzymatic activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity was measured in the fasting state. Data was described as mean±SD and data means of the two groups was compared by independent t-test. Data was analyzed by SPSS-18 application. Results: The total antioxidant capacity in individuals with hyperthyroidism decreased compared to healthy controls, but individuals with hypothyroidism compared to the healthy control group showed no significant difference. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in hypo-and hyperthyroidism were significantly increased compared with healthy controls (p=0.005. Conclusion: Decreasing of antioxidant capacity in hyperthyroid patients is probably because of increased production of free radicals. There was not observed significant difference in total antioxidant capacity in hypothyroid patients. Also in hypo-and hyperthyroidism patients, increasing of enzymes activity is probably due to increasing of the production of ROS.

  5. Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A

    2013-10-15

    The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (ppotentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples.

  6. Effects of ozonated autohemotherapy on the antioxidant capacity of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Endo, Yoshiro; Kikkawa, Lisa; Korosue, Kenji; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Kitauchi, Akira; Katamoto, Hiromu; Hidaka, Yuichi; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi; Torisu, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    The performance of horses undergoing regular intense exercise is adversely affected by oxidative stress. Thus, it is important to increase antioxidant production in horses in order to reduce oxidative stress. Ozonated autohemotherapy (OAHT) reportedly promotes antioxidant production. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of OAHT on antioxidant capacity. Ten Thoroughbred horses were used in this study. After the OAHT, we collected serum samples and measured biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We found that BAP began to increase after the OAHT and was significantly higher in the OAHT group than at 3 (Phorses.

  7. Effect of drying method to antioxidants capacity of Limnophila aromatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Tran Thi Ngoc; Vu, Nguyen Hoang

    2017-09-01

    Limnophila aromatica is widely used in South East Asian countries to make spices in food and medicine in traditional medicine. The use value of vegetables is known because some of the lesser constituents in plants are called antioxidants. These active ingredients have not been fully researched and their pharmacological effects are underestimated. In this study, the drying temperature at 40 °C was showed that the antioxidant activity decreased the most. The drying temperature of 50 °C is suitable for convection drying method and drying temperature of 60 °C suitable for vacuum drying, as it retains the most antioxidant properties. Regarding the drying method, freeze drying proved to be effective when retaining high antioxidant capacity. Using The convection drying at 50 °C and the vacuum drying at 60 °C, the antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica was not different. Over 6 weeks of preservation, the dried product has deterioration in antioxidant properties.

  8. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufi, O.; Romero, C.; Motilva, M.J.; Borras Gaya, X.; Louaileche, H.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P<0.05). It caused a decrease in total flavonoids with a loss rate of 55%. The HPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of four flavonoids: rutin, luteolin-7-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside. Among the studied cultivars, Azeradj was characterized by high levels of flavonoids. Concerning the antioxidant activity, diverging results were obtained using different antioxidant assays. Overall, the dry salting induced a reduction in the antioxidant activity with variable values depending on the cultivar. Among the used methods, high correlations were found between flavonoid contents and the FRAP assay. (Author)

  9. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Plum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Voća

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antioxidants capacity of three plum cultivars, namely ‘Top’, ‘Elena’ and ‘Bistrica’. Fruits were harvested and following parameters were determined: dry matter, total acids (TA, total soluble solids (TSS, pH, vitamin C, total phenols, nonflavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Differences between cultivars for most of the chemical parameters were observed. The cultivar ‘Bistrica’ showed higher values of dry matter, TSS, vitamin C and pH value, while ‘Top’ had higher total acids value and lowest TSS, dry matter, vitamin C and pH. Total phenolics content varied from 157.70 mg in ‘Elena’ to 344.10 mg in ‘Bistrica’, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE, on fresh weight basis. ‘Top’ contains the highest amount of non-flavonoids among cultivars studied. Therefore, ‘Bistrica’ and ‘Top’ show the highest antioxidant capacity, as well. There were significant differences between total phenolics and non-flavonoids content between ‘Elena’ and other two cultivars, while antioxidant capacity showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05. Total antioxidant capacity of fruits ranged from 3.10 mmol/kg in ‘Elena’ to 3.17 mmol/kg in ‘Top’ and ‘Bistrica’.

  10. IPNs from Cyclodextrin:Chitosan Antioxidants: Bonding, Bio-Adhesion, Antioxidant Capacity and Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tamara Perchyonok

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IPNs are unique “alloys” of cross-linked polymers in which at least one network is synthesized and/or cross-linked in the presence of the other. IPNs are also known as entanglements of polymer networks that are ideally held together only by permanent topological interactions. The objectives of this study are to evaluate novel chitosan-based functional drug delivery systems that can be successfully incorporated into “dual action bioactive tooth restorative materials”. These materials should be capable of inducing an improved wound healing prototype. The novel hydrogels will be investigated with respect to the antioxidant capacity of conventional antioxidants, such as resveratrol, b-carotene and propolis, as a designer drug delivery system, with the use of SEM imaging for the characterization of the surfaces, bio-adhesive property, antioxidant capacity, free radical defence, antioxidant, active ingredient stability and reactive features of novel materials. The additional benefit of the site-specific “functional restorative material” for use in dressings to deliver antibiotics to wound sites can provide tissue compatibility and reduced interference with wound healing. The materials were tested using an effective in vitro free radical generation model as functional additive prototypes for further development of “dual function restorative wound healing materials”. We quantified the effects of functional designer biomaterials on the dentin bond strength of a composite and evaluated the bio-adhesive capacity of the materials in the two separate “in vitro” systems. The added benefits of the chitosan/vitamin C/cyclodextrin (CD host:guest complex-treated hydrogels involved a positive influence on the tetracycline release, increased dentin bond strength, as well as a demonstrated in vitro “built-in” free radical defence mechanism and, therefore, acting as a “proof of concept” for functional multi-dimensional restorative wound

  11. Chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of phytococktail extracts from trans-Himalayan cold desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Priyanka; Bajpai, Prabodh Kumar; Tayade, Amol Bapurao; Chaurasia, Om Prakash; Srivastava, Ravi Bihari; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2013-10-07

    Himalayan plants are widely used in traditional system of medicine both as prophylactics and therapeutics for high altitude maladies. Our aim was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities and bioactive compounds of methanol and n-hexane extracts of the phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides), apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and roseroot (Rhodiola imbricata) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and lipid peroxidation inhibition (LPI) property of the extracts were determined. Total antioxidant power was determined by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol, proanthocyanidin and carotenoid were also estimated for both extracts. We have identified and quantified the phyto-chemotypes present in the methanol and n-hexane extracts by hyphenated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. Antioxidant capacity assays using DPPH, ABTS, NO, LPI and FRAP exhibited analogous results where the phytococktail showed high antioxidant action. The phytococktail was also found to possess high quantity of total polyphenol, flavonoid, flavonol and carotenoid. A significant and linear correlation was found between the antioxidant capacities and bioactive principles. A total of 32 phyto-chemotypes were identified from these extracts by GC/MS chemometric fingerprinting. Major phyto-chemotypes identified by GC/MS were glycosides, phenylpropanoids and derivatives, terpenoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, fatty acids and esters, alkaloids and derivatives, organic acid esters and aromatic ethers with positive biological and pharmacological actions. The phytococktail extracts were found to contain considerable amount of diverse bioactive compounds with high antioxidant capacities. The presence of hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants in the phytococktail could have

  12. Total antioxidant capacity in Eales’ disease, uveitis & cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Selvi, Radhakrishnan; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Ramakrishnan, Sivaramakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The human system possesses antioxidants that act harmoniously to neutralize the harmful oxidants. This study was aimed to evaluate the serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as a single parameter in Eales’ disease (ED) and in an acute inflammatory condition such as uveitis and in cataract which is chronic, compared to healthy controls. Methods: The TAC assay was done spectrophotometrically in the serum of Eales’ disease cases (n=20) as well as in other ocular patholog...

  13. Oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in handball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise training increases oxygen consumption, which was associated with the high generation of reactive oxygen species and markers of lipid peroxidation in the blood. The aim of this study was to assess the responses of total antioxidant capacity (TAC, biomarker of oxidative stress and erythrocyte, leukocyte and hematocrit (Hct levels in plasma in athlete girls (handball players and non-athlete girls. Materials and Methods: We evaluated two groups, which known as athlete and non-athlete women and they were similar in anthropometric characteristics. The athletic women engaged in the regular handball training 3 times a week for at least 6 months. However, non-athletic women didn′t have any regular activity over the last 6 months. Each subject referred to the lab and after 12 h fasting, the blood samples were taken for measuring all variables. Independent sample t-tests were used to identify the differences. Result: Significant differences were observed in malondehyde (P = 0.00, red blood (P = 0.00 cell and hemoglobin (P = 0.00. However, other evaluated factors such as of TAC, white blood cell, Hct and the mean corpuscular volume were higher in athletes than in non-athletes, but statistical significant differences weren′t seen in these variables between two groups. Conclusion: Regular exercise training for handball players may increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and blood cells and reduces oxidant production.

  14. Antioxidant capacity of teas and herbal infusions: polarographic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorjanović, Stanislava; Komes, Draženka; Pastor, Ferenc T; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Hečimović, Ivana; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2012-09-26

    Hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS) activity of unfermented (green, yellow, and white), partially fermented (oolong), and completely fermented (black) tea ( Camellia sinensis ), maté ( Ilex paraguariensis ), and various herbal infusions, as well as individual compounds (flavan-3-ols, flavonols, cinnamic and benzoic acids, and methylxanthines), was assessed by recently developed direct current (DC) polarographic assay. Correlations of tea and herbal infusion HPS activity with total phenolic content determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay (FC-GAE) (0.81 and 0.93), ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) (0.97 and 0.92), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (0.77 and 0.80), and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging (0.86 and 0.86) were statistically significant. Correlations between relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI), calculated by assigning all applied assays equal weight, and HPS (0.98), FRAP (0.97), ABTS (0.89), and DPPH (0.89) confirmed DC polarographic assay reliability when applied individually. Correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Levene and Tukey's HSD tests unequivocally confirmed this reliable, rapid, and low-cost assay validity, clearly demonstrating its advantages over spectrophotometric assays applied.

  15. Antioxidant Capacities, Phenolic Profile and Cytotoxic Effects of Saxicolous Lichens from Trans-Himalayan Cold Desert of Ladakh

    OpenAIRE

    Jatinder Kumar; Priyanka Dhar; Tayade, Amol B.; Damodar Gupta; Chaurasia, Om P.; Upreti, Dalip K.; Rajesh Arora; Ravi B Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbe...

  16. CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF GUAPEVA

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    ANA PAULA SILVA SIQUEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruits of the Brazilian cerrado usually have typical flavor and high levels of nutrients; however, many of these fruits are little known and marketed. The aim of this study was to chemically and bioactively characterize guapeva fruit, according to standard methodologies. Guapeva has high moisture (65 % and minerals (1% content and significant content of phenolic compounds (220 GAE/100g and consequent antioxidant activity (329.29 µmol/ Trolox eq. This fruit has desirable features to compose a healthy diet and should be further explored in research and economically.

  17. Strawberry consumption is associated with increased antioxidant capacity in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Seeram, Navindra P; Zhang, Yanjun; Li, Luyi; Gao, Kun; Lee, Ru-Po; Wang, David C; Zerlin, Alona; Karp, Hannah; Thames, Gail; Kotlerman, Jenny; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2010-02-01

    Strawberries are known to contain antioxidants, but the significance of ingesting antioxidant-rich fruits remains to be established. In order to determine whether the consumption of strawberries impacted measures of in vivo antioxidant capacity, frozen strawberries (250 g) were administered daily for 3 weeks to 21 healthy female volunteers. Compliance was confirmed by quantitating pelargonidin-glucuronide, urolithin A-glucuronide, and 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3-[(2)H]furanone-glucuronide in plasma and urine by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and antioxidant capacity in serum measured by the increase in lag phase of low-density lipoprotein after copper sulfate exposure, DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes, and activity of phase II enzymes. Among these measures lipid peroxidation lag time increased by 20% (P < .01), whereas other measures did not change significantly. The potent antioxidant defenses in humans make determination of changes due to dietary ingestion in healthy individuals difficult. In summary, daily consumption of strawberries resulted in a modest but significant increase in antioxidant capacity in a healthy population.

  18. Antioxidant Capacity of a Turkish Traditional Alcoholic Drink, Raki

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    Yalcin Gorkem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Raki is an aniseed flavoured traditional Turkish alcoholic drink. Antioxidant capacity of raki samples from different commercial brands were evaluated by CUPRAC, DPPH, TEAC and ORAC assays and correlations between these assays and total phenolic content were also investigated. Additionally, the one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were performed to compare differences between values of the samples. Results indicated that different raki samples exhibited different antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. The mean antioxidant capacity values of samples were in the order of: ORAC>TEAC>CUPRAC>DPPH. The correlations of total phenolic content of samples with their CUPRAC, TEAC and ORAC results were found statistically significant, while DPPH assay showed no significant correlation.

  19. Antioxidant and Anticlastogenic Capacity of Prickly Pear Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Melo, Fernando; Morales-González, José A.; Vázquez-Alvarado, Patricia; Muñoz-Juárez, Sergio; Zuñiga-Pérez, Clara; Sumaya-Martínez, Maria Teresa; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Hernández-Ceruelos, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Opuntia spp. are the most abundant of the Cactaceae family, grown throughout America and the Mediterranean central area. Its fruit, known as cactus pear or prickly pear, is an oval berry grouped in different colors. Some studies have shown its antioxidant activities which may help in preventing chronic pathologies such as diabetes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of three varieties of prickly pear juice (red-purple, white-green and yellow-orange) in five different concentrations (100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 mg/mL) by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) colorimetric method, selecting the best variety to determine its anticlastogenic potential against methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). The results indicate that the highest antioxidant was found in the juice of the prickly pear red-purple variety (PPRP), in all concentrations. Its anticlastogenic potential was therefore evaluated with a micronucleus assay. The experiment was run over two weeks. A negative control was included along with a positive control with MMS (40 mg/kg), a group of mice treated with PPRP (25 mL/kg), and three groups with PPRP (in doses of 25, 16.5 and 8.3 mL/kg) plus the mutagen. The PPRP was administered daily by oral gavage and the MMS was injected intraperitoneally five days prior to the end of the experiment. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in order to determine the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE). The results indicated that PPRP is not a genotoxic agent, on the contrary, it may reduce the number of MNPE. In this regard, the PPRP showed an anticlastogenic effect directly proportional to its concentrations. Thus, the highest protection was obtained with a concentration of 25 mL/kg after 48 h of treatment. PMID:24145870

  20. Contribution of Anthocyanin Composition to Total Antioxidant Capacity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Gil; Vance, Terrence M; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the contribution of anthocyanin composition to the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of berries having different anthocyanin composition; blackberry, black currant, and blueberry. Blackberry demonstrated the highest TAC, while it had the lowest total anthocyanin content among the three berries in both of the phenolic extract and anthocyanin fractions. On the other hand, black currant had the highest total anthocyanin content, but the lowest TAC. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (cya-3-glc) accounted for 94% of blackberry anthocyanins, and as one of the strongest antioxidants present in these three berries, it substantially contributed to the TAC of blackberry anthocyanin fraction (96.0%). Delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside in black currant had lower antioxidant capacities compared with delphinin-3-O-glucoside and cya-3-glc, resulting in its lowest TAC among berry anthocyanin fractions examined. Malvidin derivatives, major anthocyanins of blueberry, had considerably lower antioxidant capacity than other anthocyanidin derivatives, such as cyanidin or delphinidin, resulting in lower TAC of blueberry compared with blackberry. Our findings indicate that anthocyanin composition as well as the antioxidant capacity of individual anthocyanins contributes to the TAC of berries rich in distinct anthocyanins.

  1. Content of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits of Apricot Genotypes

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    Helena Skutkova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health. In this study, we were interested in the evaluation of nutritional value expressed as content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of new apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. genotypes resistant against Plum pox virus (PPV cultivated on Department of Fruit Growing of Mendel University in Brno. Fruits of twenty one apricot genotypes were collected at the onset of consumption ripeness. Antioxidant capacities of the genotypes were determined spectrometrically using DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radicals scavenging test, TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Powermethods. The highest antioxidant capacities were determined in the genotypes LE-3228 and LE-2527, the lowest ones in the LE-985 and LE-994 genotypes. Moreover, close correlation (r = 0.964 was determined between the TEAC and DPPH assays. Based on the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenols content, a clump analysis dendrogram of the monitored apricot genotypes was constructed. In addition, we optimized high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem electrochemical and spectrometric detection and determined phenolic profile consisting of the following fifteen phenolic compounds: gallic acid, 4-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, procatechin, salicylic acid, p-coumaric acid, the flavonols quercetin and quercitrin, the flavonol glycoside rutin, resveratrol, vanillin, and the isomers epicatechin, (–- and (+- catechin.

  2. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Extraction on the Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Blackthorn Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Vanja; Putnik, Predrag; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Jukić, Marijana; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2017-06-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the influence of extraction parameters during microwave-assisted extraction on total phenolic content, total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols of blackthorn flowers as well as to evaluate the antioxidant capacity by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays). The investigated extraction parameters were: solvent type and volume fraction of alcohol in solvent (50 and 70% aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol), extraction time (5, 15 and 25 min) and extraction temperature (40, 50 and 60 °C) controlled by microwave power of 100, 200 and 300 W. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences at a 95% confidence level (p≤0.05). The obtained results show that aqueous solution of ethanol was more appropriate solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds (total flavonoids, total hydroxycinnamic acids and total flavonols) than aqueous solution of methanol. The amount of phenolic compounds was higher in 70% aqueous solution of ethanol or methanol, while higher antioxidant capacity was observed in 50% aqueous solution of methanol. Higher temperature of extraction improved the amount of phenolic compounds and also antioxidant capacity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging capacity assay. Extensive duration of extraction (15- to 25-minute interval) has a significant effect only on the increase of total phenolic content, while specific phenolic compound content and antioxidant capacity were the highest when microwave extraction time of 5 min was applied.

  3. Riboflavin Phototransformation on the Changes of Antioxidant Capacities in Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juhee; Seol, Nam Gyu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2016-08-01

    Eight phenolic compounds including: p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, trolox, quercetin, curcumin, and resveratrol were treated with riboflavin (RF) photosensitization and in vitro antioxidant capacities of the mixtures were determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2' azino bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Mixtures containing p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid under RF photosensitization showed increases in ferric ion reducing ability and radical scavenging activity of DPPH, whereas mixtures of other compounds had decreases in both radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Hydroxycoumaric acid and conjugated hydroxycoumaric and coumaric acids were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized p-coumaric acid, whereas dimmers of vanillic acid were tentatively identified from RF photosensitized vanillic acid. RF photosensitization may be a useful method to enhance antioxidant properties like ferric ion reducing abilities of some selected phenolic compounds.

  4. The antioxidative power AP—A new quantitative time dependent (2D) parameter for the determination of the antioxidant capacity and reactivity of different plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Katinka; Richter, J.; Kabrodt, K.; Lücke, I. M.; Schellenberg, I.; Herrling, Th.

    2006-03-01

    In the last decade, naturally occurring antioxidants continue to play an important role in the food-supplement industry. The content of antioxidants in a plant depends on the species, temperature, humidity, period of growth, harvest month, part of the plant used and many other variables. Herein, we present a new method able to determine the all over antioxidative power (AP) of plant extracts or lyophilised plant parts based on the reducing activity against a stable test radical. The method is performed by ESR spectroscopy and is based on the well-known 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) method with the major difference that both the antioxidative capacity and the antioxidative activity are used to characterise an antioxidant. The resulting antioxidative power is expressed in antioxidative units (AU), where 1 AU corresponds to the activity of a 1 ppm solution of Vitamin C as a benchmark. This method allows a rapid, unexpensive and general applicable technique for the measurement of the antioxidative power of very different kinds of substances. The inclusion of the kinetic behaviour of the reducing process of the antioxidant for the determination of the AP allows the identification of the main antioxidant present in a sample. Herein, we present the application example of seeds, sprouts and adult parts of dandelion, amaranth, quinoa, fenugreek, broccoli, red clover and mugwort, where the AP method permits to characterise the plants with the highest antioxidant capacity and reaction velocity. The method permits to select active plant extracts for the food and nutrition industry.

  5. Antioxidant Capacity of Plasma after Pomegranate Intake in Human Volunteers

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    Hajimahmoodi Mannan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary antioxidants including phenolic compounds are believed to be effective nutrients in the prevention of oxidative stress related disease. Pomegranate has been used for centuries in ancient cultures for its medicinal purpose and is widely acknowledged for antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to assess the effect of pomegranate fresh fruit consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity. Thirty healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. Volunteers were randomly divided into three groups (pomegranate, vitamin E and water consumption. Blood samples were collected, after at least 12 hours overnight fast, the day before beginning supplementation period and the day after supplementation had finished. Total antioxidant capacity measurement by FRAP method and clinical laboratory test were performed for all volunteers in two selected times. The obtained data revealed that consumption of 100 grams pomegranate and vitamin E per day for ten days resulted in a significant rise (14.05%, 8.28% plasma antioxidant capacity respectively, but this difference was not significant for water group.

  6. Antioxidant capacities of phenolic compounds and tocopherols from Tunisian pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfalleh, Walid; Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Yahia, Yassine; Hannachi, Hédia; Chaira, Nizar; Ying, Ma; Ferchichi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to determine the phenolic, tocopherol contents, and antioxidant capacities from fruits (juices, peels, and seed oils) of 6 Tunisian pomegranate ecotypes. Total anthocyanins were determined by a differential pH method. Hydrolyzable tannins were determined with potassium iodate. The tocopherol (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) contents were, respectively, 165.77, 107.38, and 27.29 mg/100 g from dry seed. Four phenolic compounds were identified and quantified in pomegranate peel and pulp using the high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method: 2 hydroxybenzoic acids (gallic and ellagic acids) and 2 hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and p-coumaric acids). Juice, peel, and seed oil antioxidants were confirmed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The highest values were recorded in peels with 25.63 mmol trolox equivalent/100 g and 22.08 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP and ORAC assay, respectively. Results showed that the antioxidant potency of pomegranate extracts was correlated with their phenolic compound content. In particular, the highest correlation was reported in peels. High correlations were also found between peel hydroxybenzoic acids and FRAP ORAC antioxidant capacities. Identified tocopherols seem to contribute in major part to the antioxidant activity of seed oil. The results implied that bioactive compounds from the peel might be potential resources for the development of antioxidant function dietary food.

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and phenol content in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Umesh B; Panaskar, Shrimant N; Bapat, V A

    2010-06-01

    The antioxidant capacity of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. Fam. Moracae) fruit pulp (JFP) obtained from Western Ghats India was determined by evaluating the scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing power assays and N, N-dimethyl-p-phenylendiamine (DMPD) radical cation decolorization assay. JFP was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC). The ethanol and water are the best solvents for the extracting phenols and flavonoids from the JFP. The antioxidant activities of JFP extracts were correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoids content. The results indicated that the jackfruit pulp is one natural source of antioxidant compounds.

  8. Antioxidant capacity of plasma after red wine intake in Human

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    M. Gianmmanco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Antioxidant effects after consumption of red wine have been investigated in several studies but results are contradictory and the difference in the plasma antioxidant capacity (AC after intake of red wine between women and men has never been studies. This work purpose is manifold: to ascertain whether red wine intake modifies the human plasma AC; to study the behaviour of plasma AC of women in comparison with men and finally to investigate on the plasma uric acid concentration and its relationships with the plasma AC after red wine intake.

  9. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Teucrium arduini L. (Lamiaceae) flower and leaf infusions (Teucrium arduini L. antioxidant capacity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samec, D; Gruz, J; Strnad, M; Kremer, D; Kosalec, I; Grubesić, R Jurisić; Karlović, K; Lucic, A; Piljac-Zegarac, J

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, as well as total phenol (TP, Folin-Ciocalteu method) and phenolic acid (UPLC-MS/MS) contents of leaf and flower infusions of Teucrium arduini L. from six different mountainous localities in Croatia (Ucka, Vosac, Sveti Jure, Snjeznica, Vaganac, Susanj) were analysed in this study. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The antioxidant potency composite index (ACI), giving equal weight to all three methods used to quantify antioxidant capacity, was the highest for the sample from Vosac (96.7) among flower infusions, while maximum ACI (100) was determined for the infusion from Ucka among leaf infusions. Strong positive correlation was found between the total phenols and ACI for leaf (r=0.953) and flower (r=0.977) infusions. Our results point to significantly (p<0.05) different TP content between leaf and flower infusions, as well as across localities. Leaf infusions of T. arduini from Susanj exhibited marked antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, while none of the tested infusions exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-negative bacterial species, or the tested fungal species.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity of Cultured Mammalian Cells Estimated by ESR Method

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    Tamar Kartvelishvili

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the antioxidant capacity against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, one of the stress-inducing agents, was investigated in two distinct cell lines: L-41 (human epithelial-like cells and HLF (human diploid lung fibroblasts, which differ in tissue origin, life span in culture, proliferate activity, and special enzyme system activity. The cell antioxidant capacity against H2O2 was estimated by the electron spin resonance (ESR spin-trapping technique in the Fenton reaction system via Fe+2 ion action with H2O2 resulting in hydroxyl radical generation. The effects of catalase inhibitors, such as sodium azide and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, on the antioxidant capacity of cells were tested. Based on our observation, it can be concluded that the defensive capacity of cells against H2O2 depends on the ratio between catalase/GPx/SOD and H2O2, especially at high-stress situations, and the intracellular balance of these enzymes are more important than the influence of the single component.

  11. Hydrophilic carbon clusters as therapeutic, high capacity antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Errol L. G.; Duong, MyLinh T.; Bitner, Brittany R.; Marcano, Daniela C.; Tour, James M.; Kent, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is a hallmark of several acute and chronic human pathologies. While many antioxidants have been investigated, the majority have demonstrated poor efficacy in clinical trials. Here, we discuss limitations of current antioxidants and describe a new class of nanoparticle antioxidants, poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG-HCCs). PEG-HCCs show high capacity to annihilate ROS such as superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, show no reactivity toward nitric oxide, and can be functionalized with targeting moieties without loss of activity. Given these properties, we propose that PEG-HCCs offer an exciting new area of study for treatment of numerous ROS-induced human pathologies. PMID:25175886

  12. Antioxidant capacity changes of 3 cultivar Chinese pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and corresponding wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Huiting; Du, Jinhua; Wang, Yongmei

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant capacities that included Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine (DPPH), ·OH and O(2·)(-)-scavenging abilities, total polyphenols (TP) and total anthocyanins (TA) in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice (PJ) and pomegranate wine (PW). The correlations among them were also analyzed. Both PJ and PW showed significantly high TP and antioxidant capacities, but some differences existed among these cultivars. There was 1596.67 mg/L TP found in sweet PJ, while sour PJ showed the highest titratable acidity of 35.90 g/L and lowest pH value at 2.56. Red PJ was found to have the highest TA (82.26 mg/L) in the 3 cultivars. Sweet PJ showed higher DPPH-scavenging ability and higher FRAP than others. Both PJ and PW exhibited high and relatively stable ·OH-scavenging abilities, in which sour PJ and sour PW had higher O(2·)(-) scavenging capacity than others. Significant positive correlations were observed among TP, DPPH, and FRAP in both PJ and PW. A high correlation between antioxidant capacities and TP indicated that phenolic compounds were major contributors to the high antioxidant activity of PJ and PW.

  13. Total phenolic, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of selected elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L. accessions

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    Mustafa Ozgen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen purple-black American elderberry accessions (Sambucus canadensis L. obtained from various sites in midwestern USA and then grown at a single Ohio production site in USA were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP and total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA contents and for their antioxidant capacity by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging assays. Total phenolic and anthocyanin contents were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the pH differential methods, respectively. Overall, the phytonutrient contents and antioxidant capacity of our elderberry accessions were similar to those typically reported for black raspberries, blackberries and other dark-fleshed small fruits. Variability among accessions was greatest for TMA content (CV 37.5%; individuals ranged nearly threefold from 1308 to 4004 μg cy3-GE/g on a fresh weight basis. Variation among accessions was also evident for TP, FRAP and DPPH values (CV 14.4, 21.7 and 26.8%, respectively. TP and TMA values were very highly correlated (r = 0.93, although individuals differed in the estimated proportion of total phenolics attributable to anthocyanins. Both TP and TMA also highly correlated to antioxidant capacity values (r = 0.70-0.85. Within this limited study of 14 accessions, variability for phytonutrient content and antioxidant capacity suggested the employment of wild germplasm within an elderberry improvement program to incorporate an array of superior horticultural, post-harvest or processing traits into new or existing cultivars with superior phytonutrient profiles.

  14. Changes in composition, antioxidant content, and antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp during the ensiling process

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    Teodulo Salinas Rios

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritive value, the presence of antioxidant compounds, and the antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp ensiled or non-ensiled. Dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and lignin, as well as the antioxidant compounds present in coffee pulp and their antioxidant capacity, were determined. A completely randomized design was used. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Ensiling of coffee pulp increased the CP content from 98.6 to 111.6 g kg−1 DM, NDF from 414.6 to 519.5 g kg−1 DM, ADF from 383.9 to 439.3 g kg−1 DM, and lignin from 122.9 to 133.6 g kg−1 DM. Caffeine decreased from 5.72 to 5.02 mg g−1 DM. Three antioxidant compounds were detected. Caffeic acid decreased due to ensiling (16.49 vs 14.69 mg g−1 DM. Gallic acid (2.88 vs 2.58 mg g−1 DM and chlorogenic acid (62.12 vs 56.00 mg g−1 DM did not differ, and there was similar antioxidant capacity of non-ensiled (215.66 µmol trolox g−1 DM and ensiled coffee pulp (206.59 µmol trolox g−1 DM. Despite the decrease in the caffeic acid content due to the ensiling process, it is possible to use either ensiled or non-ensiled coffee pulp for animal feeding because of its high antioxidant capacity.

  15. Antioxidant Capacity of Rapeseed Extracts Obtained by Conventional and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Tułodziecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional solid-liquid extraction were applied to extract total antioxidants from two rapeseed varieties. The antioxidant capacities (AC) of winter and spring rapeseed cultivars were determined by four different analytical methods: ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The average AC of the studied rapeseed cultivars ranged between 4.21-10.03 mmol Trolox (TE)/100 g, 7.82-10.61 mmol TE/100 g, 8.11-51.59 mmol TE/100 g, 22.48-43.13 mmol TE/100 g for FRAP, CUPRAC, DPPH and ABTS methods, respectively. There are positive correlations between total phenolics (TPC = 804-1625 mg sinapic acid (SA)/100 g) and AC of the studied rapeseed extracts (r = 0.2650-0.9931). Results of the principal component analysis (PCA) indicate that there are differences between the total amounts of antioxidants in rapeseed samples extracted by different extraction techniques. Rapeseed extracts obtained after 18 min of ultrasonication revealed the highest content of total antioxidants. The UAE is a very useful, efficient and rapid technique of oilseed samples preparation for determination of AC by different analytical methods.

  16. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of polish apple ciders

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    A Kowalczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.

  17. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Polish Apple Ciders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, A; Ruszkiewicz, M; Biskup, I

    2015-01-01

    The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of three apple ciders produced in Poland were examined. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and results were expressed in gallic acid equivalents with range from 0.21±0.003 to 0.30±0.004 mg/ml and Trolox equivalents ranging 0.88±0.012 to 1.24±0.015 mg/ml. The antioxidant activity was estimated by two methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay with results expressed as EC50(ml/assay) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid method with results expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant properties of tested ciders were correlated with total phenolic content. Additionally, the correlation between 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods was estimated.

  18. Hormonal regulation of total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Festa, Roberto; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Di Donna, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is associated with oxidative stress, normally counterbalanced by different antioxidant systems. In order to explore the hormonal control of seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) we evaluated TAC and hormone patterns in a group of unselected infertile patients and control subjects. One hundred and ten infertile patients (divided into 3 groups: inflammation, varicocele, and other etiologies) and 31 fertile men were examined, evaluating blood serum gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyrotropin, prolactin (PRL), seminal parameters, and TAC. TAC was measured using the H(2)O(2)-metmyoglobin system, which generates the spectroscopically detectable radical cation of the chromogenous compound 2,2(I)-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). The "lag time" of its appearance is proportional to the antioxidant activity. Lag phase was significantly higher in varicocele vs controls, whereas it was lower in patients with inflammation vs varicocele or other kinds of infertility. The correlation analysis between hormones and seminal parameters showed an inverse correlation between PRL and sperm motility, and a direct correlation of TAC with PRL and FT4, but not with gonadotropins or gonadal steroids. Our data suggest that systemic hormones may play a role in regulating seminal antioxidant capacity. This is interesting also because some hormones, such as thyroid and pituitary hormones, are not usually tested in the first-level evaluation of male patients with fertility problems.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piljac-Zegarac, J; Belscak, A; Piljac, A

    2009-06-01

    Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of leaf infusions prepared from six highbush blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), one wild lowbush blueberry cultivar (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), and one commercially available mix of genotypes were determined. In order to simulate household tea preparation conditions, infusions were prepared in water heated to 95 degrees C. The dynamics of extraction of polyphenolic antioxidants were monitored over the course of 30 minutes. Extraction efficiency, quantified in terms of the total phenol (TP) content, and antioxidant capacity of infusions, evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays, were compared with cultivar type and extraction time. The 30-minute infusions exhibited the highest TP content and antioxidant capacity according to all three assays. Wild blueberry infusion had the highest TP content (1,879 mg/L gallic acid equivalents [GAE]) and FRAP values (20,050 microM). The range of TP values for 30-minute infusions was 394-1,879 mg/L GAE with a mean of 986 mg/L GAE across cultivars; FRAP values fell between 3,015 and 20,050 microM with a mean of 11,234 microM across cultivars. All 30-minute infusions exhibited significant scavenging capacity for DPPH(*) and ABTS(*+) radicals, comparable to different concentrations of catechin, gallic acid, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid. Overall, tested infusions showed significant reducing capacity as well as radical scavenging potential, which places blueberry leaf tea high on the list of dietary sources of antioxidants.

  20. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yolmar; Colina, Jhoana; Ineichen, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected. It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.

  1. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

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    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  2. Effect of hydrothermally ‘Hass” avocado about antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and coloration

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    Maria Augusta Tremocoldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds and color in avocado ‘Hass’ hydrothermally treated. The fruits were hydrothermally treated at 45oC for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. After treatment, fruit were stored at room temperature (21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity and cold (10°C±1 and 90±5% relative humidity. The fruits were analyzed for their antioxidant capacity by DPPH method and phenolic compounds at 0, 3, 9 and 12 days. The fruits color was measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days. The control fruits had higher antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds during the storage period, compared to the fruits hydrothermally treated. The hydrothermally treatment altered the behavior as for the maintenance of the antioxidant activity in relation to the fruits control. In spite of superior values of antioxidant activity for the fruits maintained at 21±1ºC and 70±5% relative humidity, those refrigerated presented better aspect for commercialization. The refrigerated fruits presented better aspect for commercialization in relation to the maintained under room temperature. The brightness, color a * and b * values decreased with the storage days. Values color superiors were observed for the fruits control and those maintained under refrigeration. As it increased the irradiation dose reduced the fruits antioxidant activity and coloration.

  3. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart), Brazil's Native Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Fernanda R; Arruda, Andréa F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2016-02-23

    This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa) peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD). Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  4. Green tea supplementation increases glutathione and plasma antioxidant capacity in adults with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Arpita; Betts, Nancy M; Mulugeta, Afework; Tong, Capella; Newman, Emily; Lyons, Timothy J

    2013-03-01

    Green tea, a popular polyphenol-containing beverage, has been shown to alleviate clinical features of the metabolic syndrome. However, its effects in endogenous antioxidant biomarkers are not clearly understood. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that green tea supplementation will upregulate antioxidant parameters (enzymatic and nonenzymatic) in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Thirty-five obese participants with the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to receive one of the following for 8 weeks: green tea (4 cups per day), control (4 cups water per day), or green tea extract (2 capsules and 4 cups water per day). Blood samples and dietary information were collected at baseline (0 week) and 8 weeks of the study. Circulating carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene) and tocopherols (α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol) and trace elements were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, respectively. Serum antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, catalase) and plasma antioxidant capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. Green tea beverage and green tea extract significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 to 2.3 μmol/L and 1.2 to 2.5 μmol/L, respectively; P glutathione (1783 to 2395 μg/g hemoglobin and 1905 to 2751 μg/g hemoglobin, respectively; P glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Green tea extract significantly reduced plasma iron vs baseline (128 to 92 μg/dL, P green tea may provide antioxidant protection in the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacities and Cytotoxic Effects of Ten Parmeliaceae Lichen Species

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    C. Fernández-Moriano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parmeliaceae represents the largest and widespread family of lichens and includes species that attract much interest regarding pharmacological activities, due to their production of unique secondary metabolites. The current work aimed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extracts of ten Parmeliaceae species, collected in different continents. Methanol extraction afforded high phenolic content in the extracts. The antioxidant activity displayed by lichens was evaluated through chemical assays, such as the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activities and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. A moderately positive correlation was found between the phenolic content and the antioxidant properties for all the species: R: 0.7430 versus ORAC values, R: 0.7457 versus DPPH scavenging capacity, and R: 0.7056 versus FRAP reducing power. The methanol extract of Flavoparmelia euplecta exhibited the highest ORAC value, the extract of Myelochroa irrugans showed the maximum DPPH scavenging capacity, and Hypotrachyna cirrhata methanol extract demonstrated the highest reducing power. Further, the cytotoxic activity of the ten species was investigated on the human cancer cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7; Myelochroa irrugans exhibited the highest anticancer potential. The pharmacological activities shown here could be attributed to their phytochemical constituents.

  6. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

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    Armelle D. Tchamgoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, and DPPH radical scavenging activity. All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL, respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed. All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer.

  7. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  8. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

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    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  9. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B Ganga Rao; Y Venkateswara Rao; T Mallikarjuna Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate hepato protective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia (M. corchorifolia) aerial part extracts. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using three free radicals (Superoxide, Hydroxyl and DPPH) and hepatoprotective activity was assessed against CCl4 induced liver intoxication in rats. Results: The extracts produced concentration dependent percentage protection in decrease of serum enzymes and percentage inhibition on free radicals. Among all extracts methanol extract showed better activity with percentage protection of SGOT (78.98%), SGPT (79.65%), ALP (82.48%) and total bilirubin (80.0%) levels against CCl4 liver intoxication and also methanolic extract showed better activity with IC50 values on superoxide, hydroxyl and DPPH radicals were 127 μg, 240 μg and 179 μg. Conclusions: From the results obtained during the study it could be concluded that M. corchorifolia aerial part extracts have antioxidant and hepatoprotective components. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules which are responsible for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity.

  10. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY FROM FIVE TYPES OF SEEDLINGS

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    Florina Maria Copaciu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After germination process, the green seedlings accumulate important quantities of bioactive compounds such as: enzymes, vitamins, minerals, chlorophylls and nutrients. The current study presents a comparison between different bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity, after the seedling germination and growth of five seeds (arugula, lentil, wheat, beans and mustard both on soil, in a pot (natural system, and directly on cotton wool soaked, in water (artificial system. In this study the carotenoids content and the antioxidant capacity were analysed. The data of the present study showed that the highest amount of zeaxanthin and β - carotene was found in cultivars of wheat grown in natural system, while the highest antioxidant activity was found in cultivars of wheat, lentils and beans, though in this case with no statistical differences between the systems. The results show statistical differences between the values of bioactive compounds in the five types of seedlings but also in the values obtained for the same seedlings in different systems. The best cultivars for improving the nutritional quality for human consumption are wheat seedlings followed by lentil ones.

  11. [Antioxidant capacity of byproducts from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mejía, Ofelia Araceli; López-Malo, Aurelio; Palou, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity (CA) of byproducts from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds from two harvest parcels as a function of three extraction methods and two solvents was evaluated. On a first stage the effect of extraction method (homogenization, low frequency ultrasound, or the combination homogenization-ultrasound) and extraction solvent (methanol or ethanol, 100%) were evaluated; on a second stage, the effect of extraction solvent concentration (100%, 70%, or 50%) was evaluated. CA was determined by DPPH• inhibition, which was expressed as mg Equivalents of Trolox (ET)/g dry matter (DM). Total Phenolic compounds (FT) were determined by means of the FolinCiocalteu assay and expressed as Equivalents of Gallic Acid (EGA)/g DM. Antioxidant compounds were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For CA, there was not significant difference (p>0,05) among extraction methods, but there was significant difference (p0,05) between solvents when they were diluted, but a significant difference (pextracts exhibited the presence of squalene and 2,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol as the major compounds with antioxidant capacity.

  12. Antioxidant Capacity of Flavonoids in Hepatic Microsomes Is not Reflected by Antioxidant Effects In Vivo

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    Garry Duthie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with potential antioxidant activity via multiple reduction capacities. Oxidation of cellular lipids has been implicated in many diseases. Consequently, this study has assessed the ability of several dietary flavonoid aglycones to suppress lipid peroxidation of hepatic microsomes derived from rats deficient in the major lipid soluble antioxidant, dα-tocopherol. Antioxidant effectiveness was galangin > quercetin > kaempferol > fisetin > myricetin > morin > catechin > apigenin. However, none of the flavonoids were as effective as dα-tocopherol, particularly at the lowest concentrations used. In addition, there appears to be an important distinction between the in vitro antioxidant effectiveness of flavonoids and their ability to suppress indices of oxidation in vivo. Compared with dα-tocopherol, repletion of vitamin E deficient rats with quercetin, kaempferol, or myricetin did not significantly affect indices of lipid peroxidation and tissue damage. Direct antioxidant effect of flavonoids in vivo was not apparent probably due to low bioavailability although indirect redox effects through stimulation of the antioxidant response element cannot be excluded.

  13. Effects of ethanol on antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien-Sing Yang; Chi-Chang Huang; Jiun-Rong Chen; Che-Lin Chiu; Ming-Jer Shieh; Su-Jiun Lin; Suh-Ching Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate dose-response and time-course of the effects of ethanol on the cell viability and antioxidant capacity in isolated rat hepatocytes.METHODS: Hepatocytes were isolated from male adult Wistar rats and seeded into 100-mm dishes. Hepatocytes were treated with ethanol at concentrations between 0 (C), 10 (E10), 50 (E50), and 100 (E100) mmol/L (dose response) for 12, 24, and 36 h (time course). Then,lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione (GSH) level, and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were measured.RESULTS: Our data revealed that LDH leakage was significantly increased by about 30% in group E100 over those in groups C and E10 at 24 and 36 h, The MDA concentration in groups C, E10 and E50 were significantly lower than that in group E100 at 36 h. Furthermore,the concentration of MDA in group E100 at 36 h was significantly higher by 4.5- and 1.7-fold, respectively,than that at 12 and 24 h. On the other hand, the GSH level in group E100 at 24 and 36 h was significantly decreased, by 32% and 28%, respectively, compared to that at 12 h. The activities of GRD and CAT in group E100 at 36 h were significantly less than those in groups C and E10. However, The GPX and SOD activities showed no significant change in each group.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that longtime incubation with higher concentration of ethanol (100 mmol/L) decreased the cell viability by means of reducing GRD and CAT activities and increasing lipid peroxidation.

  14. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of Cordia dichotoma seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shuge; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Xuejia; Upur, Halmuart

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of air-dried Cordia dichotoma seeds. Total polyphenolic content was analyzed via the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total triterpenoid content and amino acids was analyzed colorimetrically. The rosmarinic acid content was examined using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The ethanolic extracts contained polyphenolic compounds (1.0%), triterpenoids (0.075%), amino acids (1.39%), and rosmarinic acid (0.0028%). The results from this study indicate that C. dichotoma seeds are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds and amino acids, which can be used for quality assessment. The ethanolic extract of C. dichotoma seeds has good antioxidant capacity.

  15. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.

  16. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

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    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  17. [Change of blood antioxidant capacity of experimental animals during nutritional correction under oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basov, A A; Bykov, I M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of nutritional correction (a diet high in foods with antioxidant content) on blood parameters in laboratory animals with metabolic disorders associated with oxidative stress has been studied. In experimental models of laboratory animals (male rabbits weighing 3.5-4.0 kg, n = 40) with purulent septic diseases it has been demonstrated that the use of nutritive correction (replacement of 100 g of the cereal mixture through day on a mixture of cabbage 50 g, carrots 50 g, beet 25 g, apple 25 g, kiwi 10 g and garnet 10 g per 1 rabbit) is not inferior to its efficiency of glutathione use (2 g per day). The use of these antioxidants in laboratory animals significantly reduced the phenomenon of oxidative stress on the 5th day: blood antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 14.9 and 26.6%, and the area of the flash of luminol-dependent H2O2-induced chemiluminescence of blood plasma reduced by 44.2 and 48.6% in the experimental groups receiving respectively nutritive correction and glutathione. The low-molecula level of blood antioxidant capacity was restored and the balance of the activity of superoxide dismutase (decrease) and catalase (increase) was achieved on the 10th day of the experiment. These figures significantly (p < 0.05) differed from than in the group of animals receiving no antioxidant correction. The latter studied parameters of prooxidant-antioxidant system reached values comparable with those in intact animals (n = 10) only on the 30th day, confirming the advisability of appointing a complex antioxidant therapy.

  18. Antioxidant and Nitrite-Scavenging Capacities of Phenolic Compounds from Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. Tops

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    Jian Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc, and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  19. A silver nanoparticle-based method for determination of antioxidant capacity of rapeseed and its products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowska-Czerniak, Aleksandra; Tułodziecka, Agnieszka; Szłyk, Edward

    2012-08-21

    A novel silver nanoparticle-based (AgNP) method and two modified procedures, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), were used for determination of antioxidant capacities of the ethanolic, methanolic, methanolic-aqueous (1 : 1 v/v) and aqueous extracts of rapeseed and its products. The AgNP method based on the electron-transfer reaction between silver ions and antioxidants in an optimized ammonium buffer medium (pH = 8.4) and determination of silver nanoparticle formation has been elaborated. The novel AgNP method was validated using sinapic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, ascorbic acid and quercetin as standard antioxidant solutions in concentration ranges of 0.03-0.21 µmol mL(-1), 0.02-0.20 µmol mL(-1), 0.01-0.18 µmol mL(-1), 0.03-0.30 µmol mL(-1) and 0.001-0.009 µmol mL(-1). The calculated detection (DL = 0.01, 0.02, 0.009, 0.02 and 0.0004 µmol mL(-1) for sinapic, gallic, caffeic, ascorbic acids and quercetin, respectively) and quantification limits (QL = 0.04, 0.06, 0.03, 0.08 and 0.001 µmol mL(-1) for sinapic, gallic, caffeic, ascorbic acids and quercetin, respectively) confirm linearity concentration ranges for determination of antioxidant capacity by AgNP assay. The average antioxidant capacities of the studied rapeseed samples ranged between 14.7 and 126.2 µmol sinapic acid per gram for the proposed AgNP method, 7.4-112.7 µmol sinapic acid per gram for the FRAP method and 39.1-339.8 µmol sinapic acid per gram for DPPH assay. The methanol-water mixture (1:1 v/v) was the most efficient solvent for extraction of antioxidants from the studied rapeseed samples. There are significant, positive correlations between the novel AgNP and the modified FRAP, DPPH and FC methods for all extracts of the studied rapeseed samples (r = 0.7564-0.8516, p extracts) demonstrate the benefit of the proposed AgNP method for analysis of the antioxidant capacity of rapeseed samples. Results of the principal component analysis

  20. Comparison of microwaves and conventional thermal treatment on enzymes activity and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit puree

    OpenAIRE

    Benlloch Tinoco, María; Igual Ramo, Marta; Rodrigo Aliaga, María Dolores; Martínez Navarrete, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes are naturally present in food and can cause product deterioration. For this reason,most food-processing steps try to reduce the enzymatic activity. The aimof thisworkwas to compare, in terms of both the inactivation of kiwifruit puree peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase and pectinmethylesterase and also themaintenance of the antioxidant capacity of the product, the effect of a microwave treatment with a conventional thermal treatment designed to cause the same level of peroxidas...

  1. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  2. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Brazilian Passiflora Seed Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santana, Fernanda Carvalho; Shinagawa, Fernanda Branco; Araujo, Elias da Silva; Costa, Ana Maria; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-12-01

    The seed oils of different varieties of 4 Passiflora species cultivated in Brazil were analyzed and compared regarding their physicochemical parameters, fatty acid composition and the presence of minor components, such as phytosterols, tocopherols, total carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. The antioxidant capacities of the oil extracts were determined using the 2,2'azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] and oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods. The results revealed that all studied Passiflora seed oils possessed similar physicochemical characteristics, except for color, and predominantly contained polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of linolenic acid (68.75% to 71.54%). Other than the total phytosterol content, the extracted oil from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seeds had higher quantities (% times higher than the average of all samples), of carotenoids (44%), phenolic compounds (282%) and vitamin E (215%, 56%, 398%, and 100% for the α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol isomers, respectively). The methanolic extracts from Passiflora setacea BRS Pérola do Cerrado seed oil also showed higher antioxidant activity, which was positively correlated with the total phenolic, δ-tocopherol, and vitamin E contents. For the first time, these results indicate that Passiflora species have strong potential regarding the use of their seeds for oil extraction. Due to their interesting composition, the seed oils may be used as a raw material in manufacturing industries in addition to other widely used vegetable oils.

  3. Dietary Antioxidant Capacity and Its Association with Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mahdiyeh

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is one of the major disorders in pregnancy leading to many adverse maternal outcomes. Although the etiology of PE is not fully understood, resent studies suggest that an imbalance between free radicals production and the antioxidant defense system might have key role. Our aim of the current study was to evaluate the association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC), serum TAC and risk of PE in women with preeclampsia and normal pregnancy. This case-control study conducted on 55 women with preeclampsia and 93 with normal pregnancy. Dietary intakes were obtained by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) with 168 itmes. Dietary TAC was assessed according to United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Database for oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Release 2. Serum TAC was measured by a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). After adjusting for energy, pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) and history of PE, no relationship was found between intake of hydrophilic-ORAC (H-ORAC), lipophilic-ORAC (L-ORAC), total phenolics (TP), total-ORAC (T-ORAC), and PE risk. However, serum TAC had a significant positive relationship with the risk of PE after adjusting for energy (odds ratio [OR], 0.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16–0.35), BMI and history of PE (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.01–0.32). Findings of this study indicate that serum TAC is positively associated with the risk of PE but no association was found between intake of antioxidant indices and PE risk. PMID:28168181

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  5. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of Blueberry and Cranberry Juice Consumption on the Plasma Antioxidant Capacity of Healthy Female Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen(Vægter), Christian Bjerggaard; Kyle, J; Jenkinson, AM

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml...... of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also...... obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60...

  7. Total antioxidant capacity in the black mussel ( Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Black Sea coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncheva, S.; Trakhtenberg, S.; Katrich, E.; Zemser, M.; Goshev, I.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Doncheva, V.; Gorinstein, S.

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the total antioxidant radical scavenging capacity (TARSC) in tissue extracts for understanding biochemical adaptations involving the antioxidant defense system of a bivalve mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled in polluted (Pol) and non-polluted (Npol) sites from Black Sea coasts. Antioxidant-rich polyphenol fractions were extracted from whole dry mussel tissue with methanol and water in different proportions. The extracts were screened for polyphenol content and their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH rad ), β-carotene-linoleate (β-carotene) and nitric oxide (NO rad ). The total polyphenol extract of the whole mussel tissue from polluted site (TPMEPol) showed the highest antioxidant capacity among all of the extracts with the tested methods and was comparable with the antioxidant capacity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The antioxidant capacities of this extract determined by DPPH rad , β-carotene and NO rad methods and polyphenol content showed the highest correlation coefficients ( R2) such as 0.9985, 0.9915 and 0.9895, respectively. The free polyphenol extracts (FPMEPol and FPMENPol) had lower antioxidant capacity than the two others of total polyphenols (TPMEPol and TPMENPol) with three scavenging methods. Responses were linear in all tested methods and the antioxidant capacity values of soluble antioxidants showed the following relative order: Trolox>BHA>TPMEPol>TPMENPol>FPMEPol>FPMENPol. Nutritional antioxidants, such as polyphenols, were probably the main antioxidant contribution to mussel antioxidants. The mussel extracts from the polluted site exhibited higher antioxidant capacity than from the non-polluted one. The results presented in this report indicate that the antioxidant capacity of the whole tissue of the mussel extract could possibly be a useful biomarker for aquatic environments.

  8. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  9. Chemical composition, carbohydrate digestibility, and antioxidant capacity of cooked black bean, chickpea, and lentil Mexican varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva-Cristobal, L; Osorio-Díaz, P; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L. A

    2010-01-01

    .... The cooked seeds of three Mexican pulses (black bean, chickpea, and lentil) were evaluated regarding their chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity...

  10. Extraction of antioxidants from plants using ultrasonic methods and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Dobiás, Petr; Eisner, Ales; Ventura, Karel

    2009-01-01

    The analytical method based on the HPLC coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of selected antioxidants (i.e. esculetin, scopoletin, 7-hydroxycoumarine, rutin, xanthotoxin, 5-methoxypsoralen and quercetin) in plant material was developed. Two ultrasonic extraction methods for the isolation of these compounds from the plants such as Mentha longifolia L., Mentha spicata L., Ruta graveolens L., Achyllea millefolium L., Plantago lanceolata L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were used. Both of these methods, i.e. ultrasonic probe and ultrasonic bath, were optimised and compared to each other. For the proposed HPLC-UV method LOQ values in the range from 22.7 (xanthotoxin) up to 97.2 ng/mL (rutin) were obtained. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical was also determined. Obtained results ranged from 10.11 up to 73.50% of DPPH radical inhibition.

  11. Effect of fruit and vegetable antioxidants on total antioxidant capacity of blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasym, Joanna; Oledzki, Remigiusz

    2014-05-01

    For a long time, the increased consumption of fruits and vegetables was considered critical in protecting humans against a number of diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and heart and brain vascular diseases. Presently, it is thought that the protective properties of these foods result from the presence of low-molecular antioxidants that protect the cells and their structures against oxidative damage. The alleged effect of reducing the risk for many diseases is not only due to the effect of individual antioxidants, such as α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, or β-carotene, but also may be the result of antioxidant compounds not yet known or synergy of several different antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables. Studies on macromolecules (DNA, nucleotides, proteins) free-radical-related damage showed that diets enriched with extra servings of fruits and vegetables rich in β-carotene, tocopherols, and ascorbic acid had only limited effect on the inhibition of oxidation processes. A number of studies have shown, however, that consuming less common fruits and vegetables contribute much more to the reduction of free-radical processes, most likely because they contain a large amount of non-vitamin antioxidants, such as polyphenols and anthocyanins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jatinder; Dhar, Priyanka; Tayade, Amol B; Gupta, Damodar; Chaurasia, Om P; Upreti, Dalip K; Arora, Rajesh; Srivastava, Ravi B

    2014-01-01

    Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as

  13. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  14. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde in Depressive Rotational Shift Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Khajehnasiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shift work is associated with sleep deprivation, occupational stress, and increased risk of depression. Depressed patients show increased oxidative stress. During excessive oxidative stress, Malondialdehyde (MDA increases and total antioxidant capacity (TAC decreases in body. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the serum level of TAC and MDA among depressed rotational shift workers in Shahid Tondooyan Tehran Oil Refinery. 21-item Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure depression level. The level of TAC and MDA was measured by 8 mL fasting blood sample. MDA was determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Serum total antioxidants were measured using the ABTS. Results of this study showed that TAC mean and standard deviation concentration was 2.451 (±0.536 mg/dL and MDA was 3.725 (±1.098 mic·mol/L, and mean and standard deviation of depression score and BMI were 14.07 (±3.84 and 24.92 (±3.65 kg/m2, respectively. Depression score had a positive correlation with rotational shift work experience and work experience (r=0.218 and r=0.212, respectively, (P<0.05.

  15. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Algal Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Machu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to investigate total phenolic content using Folin-Ciocalteu’s method, to assess nine phenols by HPLC, to determine antioxidant capacity of the water soluble compounds (ACW by a photochemiluminescence method, and to calculate the correlation coefficients in commercial algal food products from brown (Laminaria japonica, Eisenia bicyclis, Hizikia fusiformis, Undaria pinnatifida and red (Porphyra tenera, Palmaria palmata seaweed, green freshwater algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and cyanobacteria (Spirulina platensis. HPLC analysis showed that the most abundant phenolic compound was epicatechin. From spectrophotometry and ACW determination it was evident that brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis was the sample with the highest phenolic and ACW values (193 mg·g−1 GAE; 7.53 µmol AA·g−1, respectively. A linear relationship existed between ACW and phenolic contents (r = 0.99. Some algal products seem to be promising functional foods rich in polyphenols.

  16. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  17. Antioxidant Capacity and Lipophilic Constitution of Alternanthera bettzickiana flower extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.A. Petrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel Nicolson is an erect herb and an ornamental pot plant, which is recorded to be useful in purifying and nourishing blood. It is also claimed to be a soft laxative, a galactagogue and an antipyretic in addition to its wound healing property. The leaves are reported to be used like spinach and in soups. The lipophilic acetone extract of the fresh flowers exhibited in vitro antioxidant/radical scavenging (ABTS•+ and FRAP assays and metal (Ferrous ion chelating capacities. The extract has been analysed to contain eighteen saturated and four unsaturated hydrocarbons, ten saturated, three monounsaturated and one polyunsaturated esters of fatty acid, in addition to a saturated and an unsaturated higher alcohol and a fatty aldehyde, together with a monoterpene and nine acyclic diterpenes and a steroid. γ-Tocopherol and α-tocopherol-β-D-mannoside are the principal vitamin E identified in combination with pairs of cyclohexenones and benzofuranones as well as five phthalates.

  18. Antioxidant capacity total in non-melanoma skin cancer and its relationship with food consumption of antioxidant nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Betânia e Silva de Almendra; de Castro, Laís Lima; Aguiar, Jordana Rayane Sousa; de Araújo, Camila Guedes Borges; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Tuan, Bruna Taliani; Pincinato, Eder de Carvalho; Moriel, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common cancer and accounts for more than half of the diagnoses of cancer, and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most frequent cutaneous neoplasm, corresponding to 70-80% of cutaneous tumors. Oxidative stress is an important trigger for skin carcinogenesis. Thus, it is important to evaluate oxidative stress, in order to discern effective therapeutic strategies able to stop it or attenuate it, thereby prevent the installation of non-melanoma skin cancer. Cross-sectional study with controls, involving 84 individuals of both sexes aged between 38-84 years, divided into two groups: control group of healthy people(n = 24) and the case group included individuals who presented non-melanoma skin and they have undergoing surgery (n = 60). The blood samples of the individuals were obtained for evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane, nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and total antioxidant capacity). The usual dietary intake and nutritional status of the subjects were evaluated. The significance level for this study was 5%. Patients in the case group had higher serum concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress, F2-isoprostane concentrations were significantly higher compared to controls. The results showed high rates of overweight and obesity in the case and control groups. The dietary concentrations of antioxidant minerals zinc, copper and selenium in the case group were significantly lower compared to controls. The correlation between markers of oxidative stress and dietary concentrations of antioxidant nutrients showed the influence of food intake of vitamins A and E in reducing oxidative stress, since these nutrients behave as important antioxidants, acting as sweepers of RL, by removing of the body the negative effects on the redox balance of the skin. We emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits that optimize the consumption of antioxidant nutrients as a strategy to

  19. Phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacities of Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) callus extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahorun, Theeshan; Aumjaud, Esha; Ramphul, Hemlata; Rycha, Maheshwaree; Luximon-Ramma, Amitabye; Trotin, Francis; Aruoma, Okezie I

    2003-06-01

    Crataegus (Hawthorn) has long been used as a folk medicine and is widely utilized in pharmaceutical preparations mainly because of its neuro- and cardiosedative actions and its low toxicity. The pharmacological effects of Crataegus have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. In this study, the production of polyphenols by ten-year-old Crataegus monogyna calli was studied in relation to growth variation and antioxidant capacity within a subculture period. Assays based on the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and stability in oil-in-water emulsion were used to characterize the antioxidant actions of the callus cultures. High TEAC (3.66 micromol/g dry weight) and FRAP (208.19 micromol Fe2+/g dry weight) values were observed when maximal growth was reached(days 30-35), and this seemed to be influenced by optimum total phenol (47.40 mg/g dry weight), proanthocyanidin (20.81 mg/g dry weight), flavonoid (7.01 mg/g dry weight), anthocyanin (6.18 mg/g dry weight), (-)-epicatechin (1.77 mgl/g dry weight), procyanidin B2 (3.97 mg/g dry weight), and chlorogenic acid (1.11 mg/g dry weight) production during that period. The TEAC values were strongly associated with total flavonoids and to a lesser extent with total phenols, anthocyanins and total proanthocyanidins. The FRAP antioxidant values correlated to total phenols, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids, respectively. The polyphenolic rich calli were as effective as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventing hydroperoxide and conjugated diene formation in a 30% oil-in-water emulsion prepared with stripped sunflower oil, during 7days storage at 30 degrees C. Crataegus monogyna cell culture represents an important alternative source for natural antioxidants.

  20. Analysis method and characterization of the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E-interactive polysulfone hemodialyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Alessandro; Piroddi, Marta; Pilolli, Francesca; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Aritomi, Masaharu; Galli, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    The lipophilic antioxidant vitamin E was used as a surface modifier (or coating agent) of hollow-fiber hemodialyzer membranes with the aim of increasing their biocompatibility and preventing oxidative stress, which are the main clinical drawbacks in hemodialysis (HD) therapy. At present, the redox chemistry of vitamin E-modified dialyzers is not well characterized and there is no standard method to assess the antioxidant capacity of these biomembranes under conditions that simulate those observed during HD therapy. With this study, we developed an original online method to determine the antioxidant capacity of vitamin E-modified dialyzer membranes during circulation experiments. This method is based on a spectrophotometric assay known as the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The principle of FRAP and its application to the qualitative and quantitative assessment of miniaturized polysulfone (PS)-based vitamin E-modified dialyzers (PS-VE) were verified by the accurate in vitro analysis of the iron-catalyzed oxidation of vitamin E. The antioxidant capacity of miniaturized PS-VE samples assessed in this study was of 14.5 microM Fe(2+), which corresponded to the transformation of nearly one-third of the vitamin E bound to the hollow-fiber membrane to its oxidation end product alpha-tocopherol quinone. This method shows good reproducibility and intra- and inter-assay precision, and can be easily adapted to determine the redox activity of every type of vitamin E-modified dialyzers during technological investigation, manufacturing control and clinical research.

  1. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  2. Improved peroxyl radical scavenging TOSC assay to quantify antioxidant capacity using SIFT-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilmohan, Senti T; Davis, Brett M; Wilson, Paul F; McEwan, Murray J

    2009-01-01

    We report a new, fast, sensitive variation of the total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay for measuring the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds, plant extracts and biological fluids using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). The TOSC assay examines the partial inhibition of ethene formation in the presence of antioxidants that compete with alpha-keto-gamma-methiolbutyric acid (KMBA) for reactive oxygen species. The SIFT-MS-TOSC assay takes 15 s for each ethene analysis and the time interval between consecutive analyses is 20 s. We demonstrate the method by monitoring the antioxidant capacity of several standard radical scavengers of peroxyl radicals. For peroxyl radicals the measured SIFT-MS-TOSC concentrations necessary to produce 50% inhibition of radical reaction with KMBA are 6.1 +/- 0.3 microM for Trolox, 5.7 +/- 0.3 microM for ascorbic acid, 8.4 +/- 0.4 microM for uric acid and 38 +/- 2 microM for reduced glutathione.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carillon, Julie; Del Rio, Daniele; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacan, Dominique; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant capacity and angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of a melon concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase (SOD-MC) were investigated in vitro. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC), the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The ability of the extract to scavenge three specific reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), hydroxyl radical (HO()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))) was also investigated in order to better evaluate its antioxidant properties. Even if the measures of TAC were relatively low, results clearly established an antioxidant potential of SOD-MC that exhibited the highest radical-scavenging activity towards O(2)(-), with a IC(50) 12-fold lower than that of H(2)O(2) or HO(). This lets hypothesis that the antioxidant potential of SOD-MC could be mainly due to its high level of SOD. Moreover, for the first time, an ACE inhibitory activity of SOD-MC (IC(50)=2.4±0.1mg/mL) was demonstrated, showing that its use as a functional food ingredient with potential preventive benefits in the context of hypertension may have important public health implications and should be carefully considered.

  4. Applicability of the DPPH assay for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of food additives - inter-laboratory evaluation study -.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Tomoko; Sumikura, Yoshihiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tada, Atsuko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Matsui, Toshiro; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    An inter-laboratory evaluation study was conducted in order to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives by using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Four antioxidants used as existing food additives (i.e., tea extract, grape seed extract, enju extract, and d-α-tocopherol) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) were used as analytical samples, and 14 laboratories participated in this study. The repeatability relative standard deviation (RSD(r)) of the IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were 1.8-2.2%, 2.2-2.9%, and 2.1-2.5%, respectively. Thus, the proposed DPPH assay showed good performance within the same laboratory. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) of IC50 of Trolox, four antioxidants, and TEAC were 4.0-7.9%, 6.0-11%, and 3.7-9.3%, respectively. The RSD(R)/RSD(r) values of TEAC were lower than, or nearly equal to, those of IC50 of the four antioxidants, suggesting that the use of TEAC was effective for reducing the variance among the laboratories. These results showed that the proposed DPPH assay could be used as a standard method to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of food additives.

  5. Do leaf total antioxidant capacities (TAC) reflect specific antioxidant potentials? - A comparison of TAC and reactive oxygen scavenging in tobacco leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, Petra; Stoyanova, Silviya; Hideg, Eva

    2010-07-02

    Two traditional methods of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assessment, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were applied to water extracts from tobacco leaves at various stages of senescence. Physiological status of the leaves was characterized by the effective photochemical quantum yield of photosynthesis (Y(II)). TAC values were compared to amounts of total phenolics, carotenoid contents and also to reactive oxygen scavenging capacities of the leaf extracts. To this end a new, simple fluorimetric assay was introduced for testing hydroxyl radical neutralizing capacity in leaf extracts. We found that while both TAC values increased with declining photosynthesis and decreasing pigment content, they were not characteristic to specific superoxide or hydroxyl radical scavenging and had limited connection to leaf antioxidant content. Good linear correlations were only found between the following pairs of parameters: Y(II) - total carotenoid, TEAC - total carotenoid, FRAP - total phenolics. Our data show that TEAC and FRAP are not interchangeable in leaf studies and do not represent antioxidant action on ROS.

  6. Evolution of antioxidant capacity of blend juice made from beetroot, carrot and celery during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina G. PROFIR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable juice is a valuable source of antioxidants because it contains a significant amount of bioactive compounds and it can be a convenient way of consumption. The antioxidant capacity of vegetables depends on a wide range of compounds like flavonoids, phenolic acids, aminoacids, ascorbic acid, tocopherols and pigments. The levels of individual antioxidants in food do not reflect their total antioxidant capacity, which could also depend on their synergism. The aim of this study is to compare the changes occurred on antioxidant capacity of vegetables juice during refrigerated storage after two different preservation processes: pasteurization and fermentation. A blend of juice obtained from beetroot, carrot and celery has been stored at temperature of 4ºC for two weeks. During this period of time antioxidant activity, total flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds have been quantified. Our results have shown that fermented juice is an important source of antioxidant compounds with a good stability during storage.

  7. Approaches to understanding the contribution of anthocyanins to the antioxidant capacity of pasteurized pomegranate juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegara, Salud; Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    Influence of processing and storage conditions on anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of clarified and cloudy juices from arils of the 'Mollar' pomegranate variety was studied. Clarification process reduced the content of total monomeric and individual anthocyanins, and increased the antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice. Thermal treatments (65 and 90 °C for 30 or 5 s) decreased the percentage of polymeric anthocyanin form, increasing on the contrary the monomeric one. In any case, storage temperature was the main factor affecting all the parameters tested. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (Cy3G) was more instable than delphinidin 3,5-di (Dp3,5dG) and cyaniding 3,5-diglucosides (Cy3,5dG). A linear relationship was observed between oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and total monomeric anthocyanins, suggesting that they contributed strongly to the antioxidant capacity. Results presented in this study show that hurdle technology (heating plus refrigeration) may help to reduce anthocyanin degradation in pasteurized pomegranate juice, avoiding a dramatic impact on its colour and preserving the beneficial effects of this specific bioactive compounds on human health.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity as a Marker for Assessing the In Vitro Performance of the Endangered Cistus heterophyllus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio López-Orenes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cistus heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis is an endemic and endangered species from the SE Mediterranean coastal region of Spain. Within the framework of the efforts aiming to species conservation, in vitro culture techniques could be of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of C. heterophyllus shoot cultures as a possible marker of in vitro performance. The effects of five different basal salt formulations and cytokinin levels on in vitro performance and antioxidant capacity were examined. K+/Na+ and Ca2+/Na+ ratios initially present in culture media greatly affected the antioxidant capacity (the lower the ratios the higher the antioxidant capacity. Increasing concentrations of BA resulted in higher antioxidant capacity. The results obtained point to antioxidant capacity as being a marker of incidence of stress conditions in in vitro cultured C. heterophyllus. A good correlation was found between antioxidant capacity and total soluble phenolics present in Cistus extracts. Catechin was identified in all the extracts and its levels were found to change parallel to the antioxidant capacity, pointing to a prominent role played by this flavonoid in C. heterophyllus defence against oxidative stress, which in turn affects the in vitro performance of this species.

  9. Antioxidant capacity as a marker for assessing the in vitro performance of the endangered Cistus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Orenes, Antonio; Ros-Marín, Antonio F; Ferrer, María A; Calderón, Antonio A

    2013-01-01

    Cistus heterophyllus subsp. carthaginensis is an endemic and endangered species from the SE Mediterranean coastal region of Spain. Within the framework of the efforts aiming to species conservation, in vitro culture techniques could be of interest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of C. heterophyllus shoot cultures as a possible marker of in vitro performance. The effects of five different basal salt formulations and cytokinin levels on in vitro performance and antioxidant capacity were examined. K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratios initially present in culture media greatly affected the antioxidant capacity (the lower the ratios the higher the antioxidant capacity). Increasing concentrations of BA resulted in higher antioxidant capacity. The results obtained point to antioxidant capacity as being a marker of incidence of stress conditions in in vitro cultured C. heterophyllus. A good correlation was found between antioxidant capacity and total soluble phenolics present in Cistus extracts. Catechin was identified in all the extracts and its levels were found to change parallel to the antioxidant capacity, pointing to a prominent role played by this flavonoid in C. heterophyllus defence against oxidative stress, which in turn affects the in vitro performance of this species.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species’ influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as th...

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and aroma quality of anthograin liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wende; Beta, Trust

    2011-08-01

    Moderate consumption of wine, beer, whisky or liqueur is known to be beneficial for improving health because of the radical scavenging action of antioxidants present in them. Thus, antioxidant and aroma properties of anthograin liqueur made from purple wheat grain were evaluated for the added-value processing purpose of that grain. Anthograin liqueur showed the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) in comparison with three control samples Canadian iceberg vodka (CIV), Hiram walker special old rye whisky (HWSORW) and Wiser's De Luxe Canadian whisky (WDLCW). Only anthograin liqueur contained anthocyanins and its total anthocyanin content (TAC) was 81mg/l. In lipid-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 241.1 and 998.6mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 40.0 and 93.6mg/ld for WDLCW, 23.1 and 63.6mg/l for HWSORW, and 1.1 and 12.4mg/l for CIV, respectively. In water-soluble phase, TPC and ORAC were 685.5 and 1467.7mg/l for anthograin liqueur, 29.0 and 96.0mg/l for WDLCW, 36.4 and 99.2mg/l for HWSORW, and 2.0 and 42.8mg/l for CIV, respectively. Eight types of phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, four types of phenolic acids in WDLCW and three types of phenolic acids in HWSORW were found and no phenolic acid was detectable in CIV. Total phenolic acids in anthograin liqueur, WDLCW and HWSORW were 28.8, 10.3 and 5.7mg/l, respectively. Similarity in aroma quality was found between anthograin liqueur and CIV by using the electronic nose. Purple wheat grain may have potential as a novel material for liqueur brewing.

  12. EFFECT OF PREGNANCY STRESS ON THE ANTIOXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Mahmoud Faleh Hayajneh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In present study attempts were made to measure the effect of pregnancy stress on the antioxidative capacity in the blood of dairy cattle. Results of the present study revealed that antioxidative capacity screens the health status of the animals. Animals far away from delivery time have higher levels of (ACW water soluble antioxidants in their blood which reflects healthier bodies while during this level decrease and it will adversely affect the health of cattle.

  13. Stability of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of regular and decaffeinated coffees

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the regular and decaffeinated coffees in relation to antioxidant capacity, levels of some antioxidant molecules and stability of these parameters over a six-month period under different storage conditions. The regular coffee samples analyzed right after the industrial production showed higher antioxidant capacity (ORAC and DPPH), the same levels of phenolic compounds and higher levels of phenolic acids than decaffeinated coffee. After six months, the closed packs of both t...

  14. Relationship between vitamin intake and total antioxidant capacity in elderly adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Lucia Ojeda Arredondo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of foods high in natural antioxidants, like fruits and vegetables, is associated with a lower risk of oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the plasma antioxidant capacity in adults over fifty and their intake of vitamin A, C, and E. We evaluated 118 24-hour recalls of intake of foods. The intake of vitamin A, C, and E was quantified using food composition tables. We quantified plasma phenols using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was determined using the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity (ORAC methods. Correlation analyses were performed between the studied variables and a positive correlation was found in most cases. However, none of the correlations was statistically significant. In all cases p-value was >0.05. The quantification of nutrient intake is not an adequate predictor of plasma antioxidant capacity in individuals over fifty

  15. INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC EXERCISE ON RED CELL ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE, PLASMA MALONDIALDEHYDE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alipour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge on the antiatherogenic effects of exercise, the mechanism by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic exercise-induced oxidative stress may increase plasma total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant defense in the red cells. For 8 weeks, 60 male Dutch rabbits were fed rabbit chow with or without the addition of 2% cholesterol. The animals were further divided into rest and exercise groups (n = 15 for each group. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill at 15 m/min for 10 to 60 minutes gradually for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in red blood cells. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (T-SH levels were measured in plasma. Thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were isolated for histological examination to evaluate atherosclerosis. Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied, along with positive changes in cholesterol profile, especially increase of serum HDL-C level. Plasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups. Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly increased by chronic exercise (p < 0.05, whereas total SOD activity rose with exercise only in the control group. Surprisingly, GPX activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group. Exercise is a useful tool for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis which is evident by our findings of the enhancement of plasma TAC and positive change in serum cholesterol profile. However, the effect of exercise on red cell antioxidant activities is limited in the

  16. Antioxidant Capacity of Various Extracts of Matricaria Chamomilla L. Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbs are used in many domains, including medicine, nutrition, and flavonoides. Matricaria chamomilla have been recognized to have pharmaceutical properties, e.g. antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic effects. It has Polyphenols compounds with antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was antioxidant properties of various extract (ethanolic, metanoli and hydroalcholic) and parts (stems & leavs and flower) of Matricaria chamomilla. Methods: ...

  17. Effect of pomegranate supplementation and aerobic training on total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Rahimifardin

    2014-11-01

    Results: It was found that MDA index decreased in the pomegranate supplementation group compared to placebo group (P=0.016. But, total antioxidant capacity (TAC index in neither of the groups was significant (P=0.72. Conclusion: Results of the study indicate that pomegranate supplementation can reduce MDA derived from lipid peroxidation after 8 week running training in the obese. .

  18. Antioxidant capacity of Typha angustifolia extracts and two active flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peidong; Cao, Yudan; Bao, Beihua; Zhang, Li; Ding, Anwei

    2017-12-01

    The pollen of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae) has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for improving the microcirculation and promoting wound healing. Flavonoids are the main constituent in the plant, but little is known about the antioxidant activity of the principal constituent of the pollen in detail. To assess the antioxidant activities of ethanol and water extracts and two constituents of the pollen. Plant material (1 g) was extracted by 95% ethanol and water (10 mL × 2, 1 h each), respectively. The extracted activities (0.8-2.6 mg/mL) were measured by DPPH and the reducing activity of ferric chloride (1.7-2.6 mg/mL). Typhaneoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside (I3ON) (2.8-70 μmol/L) were investigated on the relationship between NO, MDA and SOD in HUVECs treated with 100 μg/mL of LPS for 24 h. Nine compounds were identified by UPLC-MS. Ethanol extract showed IC50 values in DPPH (39.51 ± 0.72) and Fe(3+) reducing activity (82.76 ± 13.38), higher than the water extract (50.85 ± 0.74) and (106.33 ± 6.35), respectively. Typhaneoside and I3ON promoted cell proliferation at the respective concentration range of 2.8 to 70 μmol/L (p Typha angustifolia could be a novel therapeutic strategy for LPS-induced inflammation.

  19. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of whole wheat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Kamil, Alison; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2015-02-01

    Whole wheat contains an array of phytochemicals. We quantified alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols in six whole wheat products and characterized their antioxidant capacity and ability to induce quinone reductase activity (QR). Total AR content ranged from 136.8 to 233.9 µg/g and was correlated with whole wheat content (r = 0.9248; p = 0.0083). Ferulic acid (FerA) was the dominant phenolic at 99.9-316.0 µg/g and mostly bound tightly to the wheat matrix. AR-C21 and total FerA predicted the whole wheat content in each product (R(2 )= 0.9933). Total phytosterol content ranged from 562.6 to 1035.5 µg/g. Total tocol content ranged from 19.3 to 292.7 µg/g. Phytosterol and tocol contents were independent of whole wheat content. Whole wheat biscuits and pasta were the most potent products to induce QR in Hepa1c1c7 cells. This study provides a platform to characterize the relationship between the phytochemical composition of whole wheat and products formulated with this whole grain.

  20. Structure dependent antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic Fucus vesiculosus by UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermund, Ditte B; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Jónsdóttir, Rosa; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae are rich in polyphenolic compounds, phlorotannins, which have been found to possess high in vitro antioxidant capacity, especially DPPH radical scavenging activity, due to the high number of hydroxyl groups. Whereas, the overall antioxidant capacity of brown algae extracts has been widely studied, the antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins has been rarely explored. The aim of this study was to determine the structure dependant antioxidant capacity of phlorotannins from Icelandic brown algae, Fucus vesiculosus. The antioxidant capacity of individual phlorotannins was determined by an on-line method using liquid chromatography and an electrochemical detector followed by quadrupole Time of Flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-ECD-QTOFMS). Tentative structural elucidation of 13 phlorotannin isomers from EAF was obtained by LC-DAD-QTOFMS, ranging from 374 to 870Da. On-line determination of antioxidant capacity of the individual phlorotannins generally showed that low molecular phlorotannins exhibited higher antioxidant capacity and that the capacity decreased with polymerisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of tai chi training on antioxidant capacity in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasuwan, Attakorn; Suksom, Daroonwan; Margaritis, Irène; Soogarun, Suphan; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie

    2011-04-11

    The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC) training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session) would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n = 8) and postmenopausal (n = 7) sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1) increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity-an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme-and plasma total antioxidant status and (2) decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  2. Effects of Tai Chi Training on Antioxidant Capacity in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attakorn Palasuwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of oxidative stress-related metabolic diseases increases with menopause and physical inactivity. We hypothesized that an 8-week Tai Chi (TC training program (2 sessions in class; 2 sessions at home; 1-1:15/session would improve antioxidant capacity and reduce cardiovascular risks in both pre- (n=8 and postmenopausal (n=7 sedentary women. Selected measures of physical fitness and blood parameters were analyzed before and after the program. Besides the well-known effects of TC on balance, flexibility, and maximum leg extensor strength, TC (1 increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity—an aerobic training-responsive antioxidant enzyme—and plasma total antioxidant status and (2 decreased plasma total homocysteine, a cardiovascular risk marker. In addition to being a low-velocity, low-impact, and relatively safe, TC is a suitable physical activity design for pre- and postmenopausal women to increase antioxidant defenses. Investigating breathing effects during TC movements would be an interesting area for further research in diseases prevention.

  3. Antioxidant capacity of leaf extracts from two Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni varieties adapted to cultivation in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; Moguel Ordoñez, Yolanda Beatriz; Matus Basto, Ángel; Segura Campos, Maira Rubi

    2014-09-12

    The recent introduction of the cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni in Mexico has gained interest for its potential use as a non-caloric sweetener, but some other properties of this plant require studies. Extracts from two varieties of S. rebaudiana Bertoni adapted to cultivation in Mexico were screened for their content of some phytochemicals and antioxidant properties. Total pigments, total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts ranged between 17.7-24.3 mg/g, 28.7-28.4 mg/g, and 39.3-36.7 mg/g, respectively. The variety "Criolla" exhibited higher contents of pigments and flavonoids. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity ranged between 618.5-623.7 mM/mg and DPPH decolorization assay ranged between 86.4-84.3%, no significant differences were observed between varieties. Inhibition of β-carotene bleaching ranged between 62.3-77.9%, with higher activity in the variety "Criolla". Reducing power ranged between 85.2-86% and the chelating activity ranged between 57.3-59.4% for Cu²⁺ and between 52.2-54.4% for Fe²⁺, no significant differences were observed between varieties. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that polar compounds obtained during the extraction like chlorophylls, carotenoids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids contribute to the antioxidative activity measured. The leaves of S. rebaudiana Bertoni could be used not only as a source of non-caloric sweeteners but also naturally occurring antioxidants.

  4. Antioxidant capacity index based on gold nanoparticles formation. Application to extra virgin olive oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Pelle, Flavio; Vilela, Diana; González, María Cristina; Lo Sterzo, Claudio; Compagnone, Darío; Del Carlo, Michele; Escarpa, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    A simple gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) based colorimetric assay for the antioxidant activity determination has been developed. The AuNP formation is mediated by extra virgin olive oil (EVOO's) endogenous polyphenols; the reaction is described by a sigmoidal curve. The ratio KAuNPs/Xc(50) (slope of the linear part of the sigmoid/concentration at half value of the absorbance) was found to be the optimal parameter to report the antioxidant capacity with respect to the single KAuNPs or Xc(50) values. The obtained data demonstrated that the compounds with ortho-diphenols functionality are most active in reducing gold (III) to gold (0). Thus, intermediate activity was found for gallic acid, while tyrosol (mono-phenols) had a significant lower activity than the others antioxidant compounds (at least one order of magnitude). In the analysis of olive oil samples, a significant correlation among classical methods used to determine antioxidant activity and the proposed parameter was found with R values in the 0.96-0.97 range.

  5. Influence of Drying Temperature on Total Phenolic Content And Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Konuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seed, which is an organic waste arise from production of wine, juice and molasses, is considered as a functional food ingredient in food formulations because of its rich content of bioactive compounds. This study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of air-drying temperature on the bioactive compounds of grape seeds. In the study, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of grape seeds that are dehydrated at different drying temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C were determined. When comparing the fresh grape seeds with the corresponding dehydrated samples, it was shown that the drying operation led to reduction of total phenolic contents and the total phenolic contents decreased with an increase of the drying temperature. According to ABTS radical scavenging method, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC was found to be highest for fresh grape seeds and presented lower values for grape seeds dried at three different temperatures. As a result of the study, it was demonstrated that grape seed is a powerful antioxidant source and it has still high antioxidant activity after drying process. However, drying at low temperatures was put forward to be advantageous in order to reduce the losses of phenolic components.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and chemical profiles of Satureja montana L. Honey: hotrienol and syringyl derivatives as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kranjac, Marina; Malenica-Staver, M

    2015-07-01

    The present study is focused on the antioxidant capacity and chemical profiling of eight Croatian Satureja montana L. honey samples. Among the 20 compounds obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, hotrienol was predominant (75.9-81.7%). The honey matrix volatile/semivolatile profile was investigated by ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The major compounds identified by this latter method were the sinapic-acid derivatives methyl syringate (36.2-72.8%) and syringaldehyde (2.2-43.1%). Direct, targeted HPLC-DAD analyses of the native honey samples revealed the presence of methyl syringate (7.10-39.60 mg/kg) and syringic acid (0.10-1.70 mg/kg). In addition, the total phenolic content of the samples was determined by the FolinCiocalteu assay (311.0-465.9 mg GAE/kg), and the antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the DPPH radical-scavenging activity (0.5-1.0 mmol TEAC/kg) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (2.5-5.1 mmol Fe(2+) /kg).

  7. Antioxidant capacity of amaranth products: effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pazinatto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different process -defatting, protein concentration, thermal treatment, hydrolysis with Alcalase and in vitro digestion- on the antioxidant capacity of amaranth seeds was studied. The antioxidant capacity of the products was determined in methanolic and aqueous extracts and varied from 1.00 to 21.22 and 4.97 to 369.18 µ mol TE/g sample for DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. The combination of protein concentration and hydrolysis with Alcalase led to products with higher antioxidant activity. However, after in vitro digestion, protein concentrate and its hydrolysate showed similar antioxidant capacity. A high correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content for methanolic extracts, with r² values ranging from 0.6133 to 0.9352.

  8. A novel, micro, rapid and direct assay to assess total antioxidant capacity of solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condezo-Hoyos, Luis; Abderrahim, Fatima; Arriba, Silvia M; Carmen González, M

    2015-06-01

    A novel, micro, rapid and direct procedure to measure the total antioxidant capacity of solid foods using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (mR-QUENCHER-DPPH) was developed and validated. The mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay was performed in semi-aqueous medium (methanol-Tris buffer) using very small sample amounts (below 3.6 µg), as estimated by a Bradford reagent-based chemical predictor, and it was completed in 10 min at room temperature. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of solid foods was expressed as scavenging capacity index (SCI, mmol DPPH scavenged per kg sample), a theoretical and stoichiometric parameter deduced in this study. SCI values measured by mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay for cereals cous-cous (7.20±0.35), amaranth (7.99±0.35) and buckwheat (194.2±6.72); Goji fruit (91.27±3.98); lotus root (2402±168); and spices turmeric (3767±355), ginger (2493±283), and cinnamon (10461±2133) were further validated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Bland-Altman analysis showed that there were not statistically significant differences in TAC values as measured by both assays. In the same way, TAC values measured by mR-QUENCHER-DPPH were correlated with free (r=0.8088, P=0.0151), bound (r=0.9668, P<0.0001) and total (r=0.9067, P=0.0019) reducing capacity of extracts from solid foods as assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The mR-QUENCHER-DPPH assay allows to measure TAC values using micro-gram amounts in solid food samples with a wide content range of antioxidants (low, high and very high), and omitting the time-consuming dilution cellulose-step commonly employed in the traditional QUENCHER procedures.

  9. An apple plus a Brazil nut a day keeps the doctors away: antioxidant capacity of foods and their health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Carlos Kusano Bucalen; Percário, Sandro; Silva, José Carlos Costa Baptista; da Silva Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich foods scavenge free radicals and other reactive species, decreasing the risk of different non-communicable chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to review the content of total antioxidant capacity of commonly foods comparing with experimental data and to explore the health benefits due to foods with moderate to high TAC. The TAC was analytically measured using the "Total Antioxidant Capacity" (NX2332) test from Randox® (UK) by spectrometry at 600 nm. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), "guaraná" (Paullinia cupana Kunth) powder, ready to drink boiled coffee (Coffea arabica L.), and milk chocolate (made from seeds of Theobroma cacao) had the highest TAC values, followed by collard greens (Brassica oleracea L.), beets (Beta vulgaris L.), apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), bananas (Musa paradisiaca), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), onions (Allium cepa L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Other foods also showed antioxidant capacity. The binomial antioxidant capacity of foods and health was extensively discussed according to science literature. Based on the high TAC content of Brazil nuts, guaraná, coffee, chocolate, collard greens, apples, beets, beans, oranges, onions and other foods, their regular dietary intake is strongly recommended to reduce the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases.

  10. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and close dietetic supervision increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma antioxidant capacity in subjects with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomvotsou, Anastasia I; Rallidis, Loukianos S; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Lekakis, John; Koutelidakis, Antonis; Efstathiou, Stamatis; Nana-Anastasiou, Maria; Zampelas, Antonis

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effect of Mediterranean-type diet and close dietetic supervision on dietary antioxidant intake and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with abdominal obesity. Ninety subjects with abdominal obesity, 46 in intervention group, 44 in control group, participated in a 2-month, randomized, parallel dietary intervention. All participants were counseled on Greek Mediterranean diet. The intervention group was under close dietetic supervision, followed a specific relevant daily and weekly food plan consuming antioxidant-rich foods and food products. Total dietary antioxidant intake was calculated from the volunteers' food diaries, and plasma TAC using plasma ORAC assay and plasma ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, both at baseline and at 2 months. Following the 2-month period, total dietary antioxidant intake was increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P = 0.000). In addition, increased intake of total fat, due to higher consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids, as well as increased intakes of dietary fiber, vitamin C and alcohol was also observed in the intervention group compared to the control group (P dietetic supervision, can increase total dietary antioxidant intake and plasma TAC in patients with abdominal obesity.

  11. Matching in Vitro Bioaccessibility of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of Soluble Coffee by Boosted Regression Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podio, Natalia S; López-Froilán, Rebeca; Ramirez-Moreno, Esther; Bertrand, Lidwina; Baroni, María V; Pérez-Rodríguez, María L; Sánchez-Mata, María-Cortes; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in polyphenol profile and antioxidant capacity of five soluble coffees throughout a simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, including absorption through a dialysis membrane. Our results demonstrate that both polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity were characteristic for each type of studied coffee, showing a drop after dialysis. Twenty-seven compounds were identified in coffee by HPLC-MS, while only 14 of them were found after dialysis. Green+roasted coffee blend and chicory+coffee blend showed the highest and lowest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity before in vitro digestion and after dialysis, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis showed significant correlation between the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenol profile before digestion and after dialysis. Furthermore, boosted regression trees analysis (BRT) showed that only four polyphenol compounds (5-p-coumaroylquinic acid, quinic acid, coumaroyl tryptophan conjugated, and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid) appear to be the most relevant to explain the antioxidant capacity after dialysis, these compounds being the most bioaccessible after dialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report matching the antioxidant capacity of foods with the polyphenol profile by BRT, which opens an interesting method of analysis for future reports on the antioxidant capacity of foods.

  12. Comparison of total antioxidant capacity of saliva in type2 diabetic patients and healthy persons referring to zahedan Ali Asghar hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryeh Honarmand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the human body, there are some special systems to interact with pathogens of free radicals that are called antioxidant immune system in some human diseases. Diabetes is one of the most important common chronic diseases with changing in antioxidant capacity. Therefore, this research was done with the purpose of determination and comparison of antioxidant capacity of diabetic patients, saliva with control Grope. Material and Methods: This study was a case control study. 50 people with type II diabetes referring to Zahedan diabetic center assigned as case group, they were compared with 50 participants from control group. Both groups had similar age, sex and all other criteria. Total antioxidant capacity of saliva evaluated with FRAP (Ferric reducing ability of plasma method. The data was analyzed by T-test and ANOVA. Results: Mean and standard deviation (Mean ± SD of antioxidant capacity of saliva in case group was 0.442±0.251 µmol/liter and in control group was 0.667±0.421 µmol/liter. Reduction of antioxidant capacity of saliva of case group was statistically significant using T-test and ANOVA analysis (p=0.002. Conclusion: In this study reduction of antioxidant capacity of diabetic patients, saliva was significantly lower than control group. Therefore, it is recommended that these people use more natural antioxidants.

  13. HPLC Analysis of Phenolics Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Leaves of Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel Moldenke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Alexandre Antunes Soares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel Moldenke belongs to the Verbenaceae family and is popularly known as “tarumã”. The antioxidant capacity of fractions and crude extract from the leaves of V. megapotamica were determined in this study through the capacity to remove reactive species and phenolic compounds were quantified in the various fractions. The IC50 (DPPH ranged from 14.17 ± 0.76 to 37.63 ± 0.98 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction might contain the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds with an IC50 of 16.36 ± 5.09 µg/mL, being also the one with the highest content of polyphenols (522.4 ± 1.12 mg/g, flavonoids (220.48 ± 0.30 mg/g and condensed tannins (3.86 ± 0.53 mg/g. Compounds quantified by HPLC/DAD in the crude extract and fractions were chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Higher dosages of the extracts were more effective in reducing levels of plasma protein carbonyls and were also shown to be able to remove reactive species by a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, reducing oxidative stress in all tested fractions. Results obtained indicated that V. megapotamica exhibits good potential to prevent diseases caused by the overproduction of free radicals and it might also be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant agents.

  14. HPLC analysis of phenolics compounds and antioxidant capacity of leaves of Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel) Moldenke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Zadra, Marina; Piana, Mariana; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Fröhlich, Janaina Kieling; de Freitas, Robson Borba; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Froeder, Amanda Luana Forbrig; Belke, Bianca Vargas; Nunes, Letícia Teixeira; da Silva Jesus, Roberta; Machado, Michel Mansur; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2013-07-16

    Vitex megapotamica (Sprengel) Moldenke belongs to the Verbenaceae family and is popularly known as "tarumã". The antioxidant capacity of fractions and crude extract from the leaves of V. megapotamica were determined in this study through the capacity to remove reactive species and phenolic compounds were quantified in the various fractions. The IC50 (DPPH) ranged from 14.17 ± 0.76 to 37.63 ± 0.98 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction might contain the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds with an IC50 of 16.36 ± 5.09 µg/mL, being also the one with the highest content of polyphenols (522.4 ± 1.12 mg/g), flavonoids (220.48 ± 0.30 mg/g) and condensed tannins (3.86 ± 0.53 mg/g). Compounds quantified by HPLC/DAD in the crude extract and fractions were chlorogenic and rosmarinic acids. Higher dosages of the extracts were more effective in reducing levels of plasma protein carbonyls and were also shown to be able to remove reactive species by a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay, reducing oxidative stress in all tested fractions. Results obtained indicated that V. megapotamica exhibits good potential to prevent diseases caused by the overproduction of free radicals and it might also be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant agents.

  15. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.

  16. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants.

  17. Phytochemical Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Tucum-Do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart, Brazil’s Native Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identified major phenolic compounds of the tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa peel, as well as antioxidant activity and total phytochemical compound concentration of different extracts of the peel and pulp of this fruit. Phenolic compounds of the different extracts of tucum-do-cerrado peel were identified and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a diode array detector (DAD. Total phytochemical compound content was determined by spectrophotometric assays and the antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene/linoleic assays. Total phenolic, flavanols, total anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids concentration of tucum-do-cerrado were 122-, 14-, 264- and 61-fold higher in the peel than in the pulp, respectively. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tucum-do-cerrado peel exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to its pulp. Flavanols, anthocyanins, flavones, phenolic acids and stilbenes were the main phenolic classes identified in the tucum-do-cerrado peel extracts. Results suggest that the antioxidant capacity and the phytochemical compound content of the tucum-do-cerrado are mainly associated with the peel. Although flavonoids are the main compounds identified in tucum-do-cerrado peel, other phenolics identified in minor amounts, such as phenolic acids and stilbenes, may be responsible for the high antioxidant capacity of the fruit.

  18. Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papillo, V.A.; Vitaglione, P.; Graziani, G.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both

  19. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  20. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  1. Release of Antioxidant Capacity from Five Plant Foods during a Multistep Enzymatic Digestion Protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papillo, V.A.; Vitaglione, P.; Graziani, G.; Gokmen, V.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both

  2. Dietary green tea polyphenols do not affect vitamin E status, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, K; Blank, R; Boesch-Saadatmandi, C; Frank, J; Wolffram, S; Rimbach, G

    2008-12-01

    Supplementation of pigs with vitamin E, the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant, has been shown to improve meat quality and animal health. Previous studies in cultured cells and laboratory animals indicate synergistic effects between polyphenols and vitamin E. The present feeding trial was undertaken to investigate the effects of dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) on vitamin E status, antioxidative capacity and parameters of meat quality in growing pigs. Eighteen castrated, crossbred, male pigs received a flavonoid-poor diet based on corn starch, caseinate and rapeseed oil with a total vitamin E content of 17 IU/kg diet over a period of 5 weeks. This basal diet was supplemented with green tea extract to provide daily doses of 0 (control), 10 and 100 mg GTP/kg body weight. Dietary supplementation of growing pigs with GTP did not affect serum, liver, lung and muscle vitamin E (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) concentrations, plasma antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) or parameters of meat quality including meat temperature, pH, conductivity, colour and drip loss. In conclusion, supplementation of pig diets with green tea catechins is not associated with improved antioxidant status and meat quality under practice-oriented conditions.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP. The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxseed varieties, ranging between 531.44 mg g-1 of lipids in brown perilla, 539.07 mg g-1 of lipids in white perilla, and 544.85 mg g-1 of lipis in chia seed. The antioxidant capacity of the seeds, evaluated with ABTS•+, DPPH• , and FRAP methods, showed that brown perilla had greater antioxidant capacity when compared with white perilla, flax, and chia seeds.

  4. Attenuation of antioxidative capacity enhances reperfusion injury in aged rat myocardium after MI/R

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peitan Liu; Baohuan Xu; Thomas A. Cavalieri; Carl E. Hock

    2004-01-01

    .... We hypothesized that increased vulnerability of aged myocardium to reperfusion injury could be caused by decreased antioxidative capacity, rather than increased oxidant production, after MI/R. Aged (20-mo-old) and young (4-mo-old...

  5. Salivary Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shirzad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group, referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student’s ttest. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43±183.95 μM; P < 0.0001, and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA (0.49 ± 0.30 μM was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM (P < 0.0001. TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P < 0.0001, r = −0.48. Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  6. Salivary total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in patients with erosive oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Atena; Pouramir, Mahdi; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Jenabian, Niloofar; Bijani, Ali; Motallebnejad, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with malignant potential, pathogenesis of which is not still well known. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species can play an important role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary oxidative stress and antioxidant systems in patients with oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. In this case-control study, 30 patients with oral lichen planus (case group) and 30 age-and gender-matched healthy subjects (control group), referring to Dental School of Babol University of Medical Sciences, were selected using simple sampling method. Unstimulated saliva of the two groups was collected. Salivary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation products were investigated and compared, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) methods, respectively. Data were analyzed using Student' t-test. Results. The mean and standard deviation of salivary TAC in patients with oral lichen planus (297.23 ± 149.72 μM) was significantly lower than that in the controls (791.43 ± 183.95 μM; P & 0.0001), and mean and standard deviation of salivary malondialdehyde (MDA) (0.49 ± 0.30 μM) was remarkably higher in oral lichen planus patients compared to the control group (0.15 ± 0.11 μM) (P & 0.0001). TAC was also reduced in both groups in line with an increase in the level of MDA (P & 0.0001, r = -0.48). Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that an increase in oxidative stress and an imbalance in antioxidant defense system in the saliva of oral lichen planus patients may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

  7. Effect of dry salting on flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of Algerian olive cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soufi, O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the changes in the flavonoid profile and antioxidant capacity of five olive cultivars after dry salting. The antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, and β-carotene bleaching assays. The results showed that the effects of dry salting on the analyzed parameters were significant (P En este estudio se investigó los cambios en el perfil de flavonoides y la capacidad antioxidante de cinco cultivares de olivo después de una salazón en seco. La actividad antioxidante se determinó mediante los métodos FRAP (Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power, ORAC (capacidad de absorción de radicales de oxígeno y ensayos de blanqueo de β-caroteno. Los resultados mostraron que los efectos de la salazón en seco en los parámetros analizados fueron significativos (P < 0,05. Esto causó una disminución en los flavonoides totales con una tasa de pérdida del 55%. El análisis por HPLC de los extractos reveló la presencia de cuatro flavonoides: rutina, luteolina-7-glucósido, cianidina-3-glucósido y cianidina-3-rutinósido. Entre los cultivares estudiados, Azeradj se caracteriza por altos niveles de flavonoides. En cuanto a la actividad antioxidante, se obtuvieron resultados divergentes utilizando diferentes ensayos antioxidantes. En general, la salazón en seco indujo una reducción en la actividad.

  8. The correlation between total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... Oxidative stress increases sperm DNA damages. Antioxidants ... The role of sperm DNA quality in male fertility is well .... 70 were obtained from semen donors with a normal semen analysis .... The effect of sperm DNA damage.

  9. Polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity of traditional juices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-03-31

    Mar 31, 2015 ... from plants involved in this study must be considered for their polyphenolic ..... lemon is rich in vitamin C, which also acts as antioxidant (Wang et al.,. 2007). .... stability of fortified yellow passion fruit. (Passiflora edulis). J. Agric.

  10. Total Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The aqueous extract of Nigerian beverages namely: fortified cocoa powder (Samples; ... TA, TB) were assayed for total phenols, flavonoids, Vitamin C and radical scavenging ... Plant foods rich in antioxidants have received a.

  11. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... components that can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In this study, the total ... Medicinal plants containing active chemical constituents with high antioxidant property play an important role in the prevention of various ...

  12. Antioxidant capacity and chemical composition in seeds rich in omega-3: chia, flax, and perilla

    OpenAIRE

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi; Beatriz Costa Silva; Hevelyse Munise Celestino Santos; Paula Fernandes Montanher; Joana Schuelter Boeing; Oscar Oliveira Santos Júnior; Nilson Evelázio de Souza; Jesuí Vergílio Visentainer

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant capacity of five seeds, chia, golden flax, brown flax, white perilla, and brown perilla, were determined. The chemical properties analyzed included moisture, ash, crude protein, carbohydrates, total lipids, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS•+, DPPH•, and FRAP). The results showed the highest amounts of protein and total lipids in brown and white perilla. Perilla and chia showed higher amounts of alpha-linolenic fatty acid than those of flaxse...

  13. The effect of omega-3 supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hajianfar; Zamzam Paknahad; Ahmad Bahonar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in which antioxidant capacity changes. Omega-3 fatty acids have extensive biological effects including their advantage on lipoprotein metabolism, platelet function, cytokine production, clotting, fibrinolysis, and inflammatory factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplements on antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: This clinical trial enrolled 71 women with type 2...

  14. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage.

  15. Antioxidant Effect and Water-Holding Capacity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Seed Protein Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatoumata Tounkara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of in-vitro pepsin and pancreatin digestion of proteins extracted from Roselle seed on the production of bioactive peptides. Defatted Roselle seed flour was used to extract different protein fractions namely globulin, albumin and glutelin. The proteins were digested using pepsin (1 h followed by pancreatin (1 h in order to produce hydrolysates with good antioxidant activity. The prepared hydrolysates were as effective as antioxidants in model systems, in scavenging of free radicals and acting as reducing agents. This effect was concentration-dependent and was also influenced by the type of protein fraction. The albumin fraction hydrolysates prepared showed the highest antioxidant activity followed by Glutelin and Globulin hydrolysates respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. All of the prepared hydrolysates were also found to be effective in enhancing water-holding capacity and cooking yield in a meat model system. Albumin hydrolysates showed the highest improved meat cooking ability followed by Glutelin and Globulin respectively (Albumin hydrolysates>Glutelin hydrolysates>Globulin hydrolysates. The molecular weight distribution analysis of the hydrolysates was determined and most of the peptides were found between 1000 Da and below. The study findings suggest that Roselle seed protein hydrolysates can be applied as functional food ingredients and that their composition determines their functional properties thus their potential application in the food and feed industries.

  16. The galloyl catechins contributing to main antioxidant capacity of tea made from Camellia sinensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunjian; Li, Chunying; Liu, Shuaihua; Yang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82-32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34-24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R (2) = 0.67-0.87). The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG), epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin) were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG).

  17. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging test. Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacity decreased in the following order: green > oolong > black > dark tea. A positive correlation existed between the antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content or catechins content (R2=0.67–0.87. The antioxidant capacities of five major catechins (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and catechin were determined by online HPLC DPPH radical-scavenging; the antioxidant activity of tea was mainly attributed to the esterified catechins (EGCG or ECG.

  18. Dietary Antioxidant and Flavonoid Intakes Are Reduced in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Elżbieta Zujko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine sources and patterns of antioxidant and flavonoid intakes in the elderly (61–74 yrs in comparison with young (20–40 yrs and middle age (41–60 yrs groups in a cross-sectional study. More than 6000 subjects of both genders, aged 20–74 years, participants of the National Multicenter Health Survey (WOBASZ took part in this study. Daily food consumption was estimated by the single 24-hour dietary recall. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC and flavonoid content (FC were calculated according to the amount of food consumed by the participants combined with antioxidant capacity and flavonoid contents in foods. Food consumption, dietary TAC, and FC were significantly lower in the elderly, especially elderly women in comparison to the young and middle age groups. The consumption of tea, coffee, and apples was associated with the largest contribution to dietary TAC and FC in all participants. Despite high nutrient density of the energy-adjusted diet of ageing people, the elderly consumed the lowest amounts of antioxidants and flavonoids due to the lowest food intake.

  19. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  20. Chemical partitioning and antioxidant capacity of green coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora) of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babova, Oxana; Occhipinti, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

    2016-03-01

    Green coffee beans of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora accessions from different geographical origin (Brazil, Colombia, Ethiopia, Honduras, Kenya, Mexico, Peru, Uganda and Vietnam) were extracted and the extracts analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of chlorogenic acids and caffeine content. Principal component and cluster analyses were used to identify chemical patterns separating the different species and accessions based on their geographical origin. C. canephora showed always a higher caffeine content with respect to C. arabica, whereas the C. arabica accessions from Kenya showed a higher chlorogenic acids and a lower caffeine content. The antioxidant capacity of green coffee extracts was assayed by the reducing power and DPPH assays. The antioxidant capacity correlated with the chlorogenic acids content. The results show that the C. arabica from Kenya possesses the highest chlorogenic acids/caffeine ratio and, among the C. arabica accessions, the highest antioxidant capacity. Therefore, the C. arabica from Kenya is the most suitable green coffee source for nutraceutical applications because of its high antioxidant capacity and low caffeine content.

  1. In vitro antioxidant capacities of two benzonaphthoxanthenones: ohioensins F and G, isolated from the Antarctic moss Polytrichastrum alpinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Hari Datta; Paudel, Babita; Lee, Hong Kum; Oh, Hyuncheol; Yim, Joung Han

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidant agents against reactive oxygen species can be used for several cosmetic and medicinal applications. This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Polytrichastrum alpinum (Hedw.) G. L. Sm. (Polytrichaceae), an Antarctic moss species collected from King George Island (Antarctica). The identification of the moss species was performed on the basis of morphological characteristics and molecular sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Two benzonaphthoxanthenones: ohioensins F and G, were isolated from the extract after several chromatographic procedures. The various in vitro antioxidant capacities of a methanolic extract of P. alpinum and the isolated compounds were evaluated by analyzing the scavenging capacities of free radicals of 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), the total phenol assay with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, the ferric ion (Fe3+) reducing power and the nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity and compared to those of commercial standards for each assay. The experimental data showed that even the crude extract of P. alpinum exhibited potent antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was increased two- to seven-fold for the purified compounds. The antioxidant activities of both purified compounds were found to be more or less the same in all experiments. However, the obtained data showed that the Fe3+ reducing power of the purified compounds and crude methanolic extract was almost the same suggesting the presence of other stronger reducing agents in the methanolic extract which could not be isolated in the present experiment. Therefore, further work on the isolation of these stronger antioxidant agents from this moss specimen of the extreme environment is warranted. Developments of laboratory mass culture techniques are anticipated to achieve bulk production of the active constituents for commercial application.

  2. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Kumar

    Full Text Available Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and nitric oxide (NO radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and

  3. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  4. Antioxidant-capacity-based models for the prediction of acrylamide reduction by flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Chen, Xinyu; Zhao, Sheng; Zhang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models for the estimation of acrylamide reduction by flavonoids, using multiple antioxidant capacities of Maillard reaction products as variables via a microwave food processing workstation. The addition of selected flavonoids could effectively reduce acrylamide formation, which may be closely related to the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups of flavonoids (R: 0.735-0.951, Pacrylamide formation correlated well with the change of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (ΔTEAC) measured by DPPH (R(2)=0.833), ABTS (R(2)=0.860) or FRAP (R(2)=0.824) assay. Both ANN and MLR models could effectively serve as predictive tools for estimating the reduction of acrylamide affected by flavonoids. The current predictive model study provides a low-cost and easy-to-use approach to the estimation of rates at which acrylamide is degraded, while avoiding tedious sample pretreatment procedures and advanced instrumental analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen İZLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Date slices were dried with the three drying methods convective (60, 70 and 80 °C, microwave (120 W and freeze drying to determine drying characteristics and to compare the dried fruit quality. All colour parameters changed depending on the drying method and colours closest to the fresh sample were obtained with freeze drying. It is interesting to note that the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in each sample rose when looked at in relation to the fresh sample. In particular, microwave-dried samples were recorded as having the highest total phenolic content and the highest antioxidant capacity. To explain the drying kinetics of the date slices, nine thin-layer drying models were also attempted. Based on statistical tests, the model developed by Midilli et al. model was found to be the best model for convective and microwave drying, but the Two Term model was the best for freeze drying. This study shows that microwave drying can produce high quality date slices with the additional advantage of reduced drying times compared to convective and freeze drying.

  6. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......:Consumption of phenolic-containing alcoholic beverages transiently raises total phenol concentration and enhances theantioxidant capacity of plasma. This is compatible with suggestions that moderate alcohol usage and increasedantioxidant intake decrease the risk of coronary heart disease....

  7. Vegetable and fruit juice enhances antioxidant capacity and regulates antioxidant gene expression in rat liver, brain and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Zhen, Jie; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas Van; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the effect of fruit and vegetable (FV) juice on biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant gene expression in rats, 36 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, low FV juice dosage or high FV juice dosage treatment groups. The rats were given freshly extracted FV juice or the same volume of saline water daily for five weeks. After intervention, serum and tissues specimens were collected for biomarker and gene expression measurement. FV juice intervention increased total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, vitamin C, β-carotene, total polyphenols, flavonoids levels andglutathione peroxidaseenzyme activity in rat serum or tissues (p juice intervention caused reduction of malondialdehyde levels in rat liver (p juice to improve the antioxidant capacity and to prevent the oxidative damage in liver, brain and colon.

  8. Synthesis and antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants catalyzed by acidic nanocatalyst based on reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanzadeh, Mohsen; Naeimi, Hossein; Zahraie, Zohreh

    2017-02-01

    Phenolic antioxidants play important role in prevention of oxidation in different industrials. The research objective in the current study was synthesis and evaluate of antioxidant activity of star-shape phenolic antioxidants. The synthetic compounds were prepared in the presence of sulfonated reduced graphene oxide. The antioxidant activity of synthesized compounds was investigated by spectrophotometrically method according to the DPPH assay. Overall, these compounds are potentially important antioxidant and also to limit activity of reactive oxygen species.

  9. The relationship between antibrowning, anti-radical and reducing capacity of Brassica and Allium extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela C Bustos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous vegetable extracts from Allium and Brassica families were assayed for antibrowning capacity and related to their anti-radical and reducing power activities. The treatment  of mushrooms and avocado slices, with white cabbage, cauliflower, garlic and scallion extracts, reduced color changes during storage at 4 °C and -18 °C. Storage temperature and the type of extract employed influenced change of color variables. The contribution of polyphenols on measured antioxidant activity of extracts was also discussed. Allium antibrowning properties were closely related to antioxidant capacity, while the Brassica extracts were less effective. Treatment with Allium extracts extended the storage time of frozen and refrigerated mushrooms and avocado slices, in comparison with untreated samples.

  10. Medium light and medium roast paper-filtered coffee increased antioxidant capacity in healthy volunteers: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Telma Angelina Faraldo; Monteiro, Marcela Piedade; Mendes, Thaíse Maria Nogueira; Oliveira, Daniela Moura de; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Benites, Cibelem Iribarrem; Vinagre, Carmen Guilherme Christiano de Matos; Mioto, Bruno Mahler; Tarasoutchi, Daniela; Tuda, Vera Lúcia; César, Luiz Antonio Machado; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2012-09-01

    We compared the effects of medium light roast (MLR) and medium roast (MR) paper-filtered coffee on antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in healthy volunteers. In a randomized crossover study, 20 volunteers consumed 482 ± 61 ml/day of MLR or MR for four weeks. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), oxidized LDL and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activity were measured at baseline and after the interventions. MLR had higher chlorogenic acids-(CGA; 334 mg/150 mL) and less caffeine (231 mg/150 ml) than MR had (210 and 244 mg/150 ml, respectively). MLR also had fewer Maillard reaction products (MRP) than MR had. Compared with baseline, subjects had an increase of 21 and 26 % in TAS, 13 and 13 % in CAT, 52 and 75 % in SOD, and 62 and 49 % in GPx after MLR and MR consumption (P < 0.001), respectively. ORAC increased after MLR (P = 0.004). No significant alteration in lipid peroxidation biomarkers was observed. Both coffees had antioxidant effects. Although MLR contained more CGA, there were similar antioxidant effects between the treatments. MRP may have contributed as an antioxidant. These effects may be important in protecting biological systems and reducing the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress.

  11. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Essential Oil Obtained from Sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa by Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species and free radicals play a major role in food deterioration. Current research is directed towards finding naturally occurring antioxidants of plant origin. In the present study, the chemical composition analysis of the essential oil obtained from sawdust of Chamaecyparis obtusa (COEO was conducted by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Further, the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the COEO were investigated using different radical scavenging assays. The COEO obtained from the dried sawdust material using a microwave-assisted hydrodistillation technique resulted in the determination of 46 different compounds by GC-MS analysis, representing 98.94 % of total oil content. The COEO was characterised by the presence of mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated mono- and sesquiterpenes, steroids, diterpenes and indole derivatives. At the highest tested concentration range, the COEO showed antioxidant capacity, i.e. the inhibition of DPPH, nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals of 80.16, 82.93, 72.99 and 71.62 %, respectively. Moreover, the COEO displayed concentration-dependent reducing power ability and remarkable inhibitory effect on ferric ion-induced lipid peroxidation in bovine brain extract. In addition, the COEO yielded (6.13±0.05 mg of gallic acid per g of dry mass. The present study confirms that the C. obtusa essential oil has potent antioxidant, lipid peroxidation inhibition and radical scavenging abilities; therefore, it might be used as a natural antioxidant to prevent food deterioration.

  12. Identification and assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals from kiwi fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Antonio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Pacifico, Severina; Mastellone, Claudio; Scognamiglio, Monica; Monaco, Pietro

    2009-05-27

    The kiwi fruit is the edible berry of a cultivar group of the woody vine of several Actinidia species. The most common commercially available, green-fleshed kiwi fruit is the cultivar 'Hayward', which belongs to the Actinidia deliciosa species. An antioxidative screening of kiwi fruit components (peel and pulp) crude extracts was carried out using specific assay media characterized for the presence of highly reactive species such as 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(•-). The Mo(VI) reducing power of the samples was also determined. The phenol and flavonoid contents were quantified. Phytochemical analysis of kiwi peel crude extracts led to the isolation of vitamin E, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, as well as α- and δ-tocopherol, 7 sterols, the triterpene ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 11 flavonoids. Chemical fractionation of pulp crude extracts led to the isolation of two caffeic acid glucosyl derivatives and two coumarin glucosydes, besides the three vitamin E, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and its Δ(7) isomer, campesterol, chlorogenic acid, and some flavone and flavanol molecules. All of the compounds were tested for their radical scavenging and antioxidant capabilities by measuring their capacity to scavenge DPPH and anion superoxide radical and to reduce a Mo(VI) salt.

  13. The Galloyl Catechins Contributing to Main Antioxidant Capacity of Tea Made from Camellia sinensis in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chunjian Zhao; Chunying Li; Shuaihua Liu; Lei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Total polyphenol content, catechins content, and antioxidant capacities of green, dark, oolong, and black teas made from Camellia sinensis in China were evaluated. The total polyphenol content of 20 samples of tea was in the range of 7.82–32.36%. Total catechins content was in the range of 4.34–24.27%. The antioxidant capacity of tea extract was determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) test and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging test. Total polyphen...

  14. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  15. Influence of extraction solvent on antioxidant capacity value of oleaster measured by ORAC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Gorkem; Sogut, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a widely used hydrogen atom transfer-based method which measures the antioxidant capacity of natural products. ORAC values of oleaster (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), which was extracted with ethanol/acetone (7:3, v/v), ethanol/water (1:1, v/v) and methanol/water (1:1, v/v) in order to evaluate the effects of solvent type on antioxidant capacity, were examined. In general, results revealed that ethanol/water extracts exhibited better antioxidant capacity values. Furthermore, results obtained by using ORAC-eosin y (ORAC-EY), one of the widely used derivative of fluorescein (FL), as a fluorescent probe were compared with those obtained by using ORAC-FL. According to the results, ORAC-EY values were found to be compatible with ORAC-FL values.

  16. Determination of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity and Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Aromatic Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been acknowledged that many spices not only have properties that make food more pleasant and tastier but they also have important preservative and antioxidant properties. The antioxidant properties of many spices are well known, while their prooxidant properties less so. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative evaluation of three selected spice (garlic, black pepper and red pepper, commercially available in Cluj-Napoca’s market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant aspects were evaluated by determination of the total phenolic content by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and by the antioxidant activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl reagent (DPPH.The total phenolic content was between 3,38 and 0,925 mg GAE/1g, while the antioxidant capacity ranged between 18,41% and 10,9% from dry spice. .Results  showed that garlic extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while black pepper and red pepper were less active. In the present study piperine was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhumurium. Spices showed antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria with zone of inhibition ranged from 8-15,5 mm.

  17. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

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    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  18. Protosemiosis: agency with reduced representation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A; Vehkavaara, Tommi

    2015-04-01

    Life has semiotic nature; and as life forms differ in their complexity, functionality, and adaptability, we assume that forms of semiosis also vary accordingly. Here we propose a criterion to distinguish between the primitive kind of semiosis, which we call "protosemiosis" (following Prodi) from the advanced kind of semiosis, or "eusemiosis". In protosemiosis, agents associate signs directly with actions without considering objects, whereas in eusemiosis, agents associate signs with objects and only then possibly with actions. Protosemiosis started from the origin of life, and eusemiosis started when evolving agents acquired the ability to track and classify objects. Eusemiosis is qualitatively different from protosemiosis because it can not be reduced to a small number of specific signaling pathways. Proto-signs can be classified into proto-icons that signal via single specific interaction, proto-indexes that combine several functions, and proto-symbols that are processed by a universal subagent equipped with a set of heritable adapters. Prefix "proto" is used here to characterize signs at the protosemiotic level. Although objects are not recognized by protosemiotic agents, they can be reliably reconstructed by human observers. In summary, protosemiosis is a primitive kind of semiosis that supports "know-how" without "know-what". Without studying protosemiosis, the biosemiotics theory would be incomplete.

  19. Protosemiosis: agency with reduced representation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Vehkavaara, Tommi

    2014-01-01

    Life has semiotic nature; and as life forms differ in their complexity, functionality, and adaptability, we assume that forms of semiosis also vary accordingly. Here we propose a criterion to distinguish between the primitive kind of semiosis, which we call “protosemiosis” (following Prodi) from the advanced kind of semiosis, or “eusemiosis”. In protosemiosis, agents associate signs directly with actions without considering objects, whereas in eusemiosis, agents associate signs with objects and only then possibly with actions. Protosemiosis started from the origin of life, and eusemiosis started when evolving agents acquired the ability to track and classify objects. Eusemiosis is qualitatively different from protosemiosis because it can not be reduced to a small number of specific signaling pathways. Proto-signs can be classified into proto-icons that signal via single specific interaction, proto-indexes that combine several functions, and proto-symbols that are processed by a universal subagent equipped with a set of heritable adapters. Prefix “proto” is used here to characterize signs at the protosemiotic level. Although objects are not recognized by protosemiotic agents, they can be reliably reconstructed by human observers. In summary, protosemiosis is a primitive kind of semiosis that supports “know-how” without “know-what”. Without studying protosemiosis, the biosemiotics theory would be incomplete. PMID:25937852

  20. Antioxidant Capacity Determination in Plants and Plant-Derived Products: A Review

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    Aurelia Magdalena Pisoschi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at reviewing and commenting on the analytical methods applied to antioxidant and antioxidant capacity assessment in plant-derived products. Aspects related to oxidative stress, reactive oxidative species’ influence on key biomolecules, and antioxidant benefits and modalities of action are discussed. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant balance is critically discussed. The conventional and nonconventional extraction procedures applied prior to analysis are also presented, as the extraction step is of pivotal importance for isolation and concentration of the compound(s of interest before analysis. Then, the chromatographic, spectrometric, and electrochemical methods for antioxidant and antioxidant capacity determination in plant-derived products are detailed with respect to their principles, characteristics, and specific applications. Peculiarities related to the matrix characteristics and other factors influencing the method’s performances are discussed. Health benefits of plants and derived products are described, as indicated in the original source. Finally, critical and conclusive aspects are given when it comes to the choice of a particular extraction procedure and detection method, which should consider the nature of the sample, prevalent antioxidant/antioxidant class, and the mechanism underlying each technique. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for each method.

  1. Comparative evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea

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    Silviya S. Georgieva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare total phenolics and total flavonoides, and antioxidant capacity of propolis and Echinacea purpurea ethanol extracts. Methods: Propolis and dried Echinacea purpurea extracts were obtained by extraction methods. The extracts were tested for total phenol and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. Results: The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids of propolis were found to be higher than Echinacea. The E.purpurea extract exhibited nearly 10 times lower antioxidant content in comparison with the propolis extracts. The 70% ethanol extract of propolis presented maximum antioxidant content, and the IC50 concentration was found to be higher in the 96% ethanol extract. However, both of the propolis extracts exhibited similar antioxidant activities. Conclusions: In the present study, the extracts of Echinacea purpurea and propolis were studied as sources of natural antioxidants. The results from the antioxidant assays show that all extracts can act as radical scavengers to a certain extent. They exhibit potent antioxidant activity in different solvent concentrations. Further studies in this area are in progress. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 51-56

  2. Antioxidant Capacity and Metal Content of Physalis Peruviana L. Fruit Sold in Markets

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    Ayse Eken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The dietary intake of medicinal food with antioxidant activity and required amounts of trace elements is important to pursue good healthy life. In our study, we aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity and metal content of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruit sold in markets in Kayseri. Material and Method: The antioxidant capacity of P. peruviana fruit was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The DPPH radical scavenger capacity of the methanol extract of fruit was compared with known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as references. The metal content of P. peruviana fruit was measured by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results: The fruit of P. peruviana was found to possess DPPH free radical scavenging activity but the antioxidant capacity was lower than the standard substances. Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 values of P. peruviana, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT were determined as 32 mg/ml, 3.8 mg/ml, 3.51 mg/ml, and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively. As a result of the analysis by AAS, it was observed that P. peruviana fruit contented plentiful trace elements and the content of heavy metal was small amount or not detected. Discussion: These observations suggest that the fruit of P. peruviana has a potential source of antioxidant and trace elements of natural origin.

  3. Simple and fast PO-CL method for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargoosh, Kiomars; Ghayeb, Yousef; Azmoon, Behnaz; Qandalee, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    A simple and fast procedure is described for evaluating the antioxidant activity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds by using the peroxyoxalate-chemiluminescence (PO-CL) reaction of Bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate (TCPO) with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of di(tert-butyl)2-(tert-butylamino)-5-[(E)-2-phenyl-1-ethenyl]3,4-furandicarboxylate as a highly fluorescent fluorophore. The IC50 values of the well-known antioxidants were calculated and the results were expressed as gallic equivalent antioxidant capacity (GEAC). It was found that the proposed method is free of physical quenching and oxidant interference, for this reason, proposed method is able to determine the accurate scavenging activity of the antioxidants to the free radicals. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the evaluation of antioxidant activity of complex real samples such as soybean oil and sunflower oil (as hydrophobic samples) and honey (as hydrophilic sample). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that total antioxidant activity can be determined directly in soybean oil, sunflower oil and honey (not in their extracts) using PO-CL reactions.

  4. Evaluation of oxidant-antioxidant balance and total antioxidant capacity of serum in children with urinary tract infection

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    Gholamreza Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common bacterial infections in children. This studyaimed to investigate the oxidative and antioxidate status of plasma in patients with UTI and to compare them with those of the controls. Methods: This case–control study of 50–75 children in the given order was performed in 2013 at the Pediatric Clinic of infections in Zahedan Hospital of Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The antioxidative status of plasma were evaluated by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC The oxidative status of samples was assessed by measuring the total peroxide and the oxidative stress index (OSI levels. The means of the parameters were compared and the relationship among them was determined. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (IBM Corp. Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Student's t-test and Mann–Whitney U-test were applied in various situations of our questions; 95% confidence interval was considered for the level of significance. Results: The results showed that total oxidant serum status in UTI patients was higher compared to controls when total antioxidant serum was lower. The balance of oxidant-antioxidant serum was in favor of oxidant serum and this term was confirmed by OSI. Conclusion: Our results showed that the plasma levels of TAC in patients with UTI were decreased compared to controls, and oxidant-antioxidant balance and OSI caused increased OS in patients.

  5. Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pouzolzia zeylanica

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    PEIYUAN LI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pouzolzia zeylanica was extracted with different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether, using different protocols (cold-extraction and Soxhlet extraction. To evaluate the antiradical and antioxidant abilities of the extracts, four in vitro test systems were employed, i.e., DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and a reducing power assay. All extracts exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities that were superior to that of butylated hydroxytoluene. The ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, and cold-extraction under stirring seemed to be the more efficacious method for acquiring the predominant antioxidants. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic (TP content of different extracts followed the same order, i.e., there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP content. The results showed that these extracts, especially the ethyl acetate extracts, could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  6. Influence of extrahent on antioxidant capacity of Aesculus hippocastanum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Kędzierski, Bartosz; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optimisation of horse chestnut seed extraction was performed to determine the best extraction solvent in the recovery of pharmacologically active escin from raw material. All extracts were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and were analysed for their antioxidant potential (DPPH test), phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay) and escin content (ESI-TOF-MS extracts profiling). Methanol was found to recover the highest amount of escin from the plant matrix as well as to produce the most active antiradical solutions rich in polyphenols. Radical scavenging properties of methanol extracts were calculated as 2 GAE in DPPH test and 23 GAE (mg/g) in FC assay. Quantitative analysis of extracts performed by ESI-TOF-MS measurements in ion-positive mode confirmed the presence of four major escin isomers in the extracts and showed that the high antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts went hand in hand with the highest content of escin (8.92%).

  7. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity and Cytotoxicity of Selected Malaysian Plants

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    Lai Teng Ling

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen Malaysian plants; Artocarpus champeden, Azadirachta indica, Fragaria x ananassa, Garcinia mangostana, Lawsonia inermis, Mangifera indica, Nephelium lappaceum, Nephelium mutobile, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aqueum, selected for their use in traditional medicine, were subjected to a variety of assays. Antioxidant capability, total phenolic content, elemental composition, as well as it cytotoxity to several cell lines of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from different parts of these selected Malaysian plants were determined. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the aqueous extracts and some of the tested extracts were even more potent than a commercial grape seed preparation. Similar results were seen in the lipid peroxidation inhibition studies. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. These extracts when tested for its heavy metals content, were found to be below permissible value for nutraceutical application. In addition, most of the extracts were found not cytotoxic to 3T3 and 4T1 cells at concentrations as high as 100 μg/mL. We conclude that although traditionally these plants are used in the aqueous form, its commercial preparation could be achieved using ethanol since a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity is associated with this method of preparation.

  8. Assessment of antioxidant capacity and cytotoxicity of selected Malaysian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Lai Teng; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty; Subramaniam, Thavamanithevi; Cheng, Hwee Ming; Palanisamy, Uma D

    2010-03-25

    Thirteen Malaysian plants; Artocarpus champeden, Azadirachta indica, Fragaria x ananassa, Garcinia mangostana, Lawsonia inermis, Mangifera indica, Nephelium lappaceum, Nephelium mutobile, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aqueum, selected for their use in traditional medicine, were subjected to a variety of assays. Antioxidant capability, total phenolic content, elemental composition, as well as it cytotoxity to several cell lines of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from different parts of these selected Malaysian plants were determined. In general, the ethanolic extracts were better free radical scavengers than the aqueous extracts and some of the tested extracts were even more potent than a commercial grape seed preparation. Similar results were seen in the lipid peroxidation inhibition studies. Our findings also showed a strong correlation of antioxidant activity with the total phenolic content. These extracts when tested for its heavy metals content, were found to be below permissible value for nutraceutical application. In addition, most of the extracts were found not cytotoxic to 3T3 and 4T1 cells at concentrations as high as 100 microg/mL. We conclude that although traditionally these plants are used in the aqueous form, its commercial preparation could be achieved using ethanol since a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity is associated with this method of preparation.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content in Olive Leaf Tisane as Affected by Boiling Treatment

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    Fathia AOUIDI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of preparation method on the quality of olive leaf tisane. Secondly, it aimed at evaluating and understanding the effect of boiling treatment on phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of an aqueous extract of olive leaves. The Phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by ABTS+ method. The Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity depended on extraction procedure of olive leaf tisane. It was found that boiling leads to a decrease in the phenolic content and a rise of antioxidant capacity of aqueous extract from olive leaves. The mass molecular distribution of the polymeric aromatic fraction was analyzed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G50. Results suggested the hydrolysis of phenolic polymers following boiling. Moreover, HPLC analyses showed an increase in rutin, oleuropein and caffeic acid levels in treated sample. As a conclusion, thermal processing could be useful for enhancing the antioxidant capacity and the extractability of phenolic compounds in olive leaf tisane.

  10. Effects of a Rubus coreanus Miquel supplement on plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy Korean men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Jung eun; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Jaehwi; Cho, SooMuk

    2011-01-01

    Korean raspberry, Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCM), contains high concentrations of phenolic compounds, which prevent oxidative stress. To determine the effect of RCM on antioxidant capacity in humans, we assessed in vivo lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities from plasma in 15 healthy men. The subjects ingested 30 g of freeze-dried RCM daily for 4 weeks. Blood was taken at baseline and at the end of the study to determine blood lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, liver function, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant enzyme activities. RCM supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or fasting plasma glucose concentrations but decreased alkaline phosphatase activity. RCM supplementation increased glutathione peroxidase activities (P < 0.05) but had no effect on lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that short-term RCM supplementation may offer health benefits by enhancing antioxidant capacity in a healthy population. PMID:22125680

  11. Rapid antioxidant capacity screening in herbal extracts using a simple flow injection-spectrophotometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Nookrai; Watla-iad, Kanchana; Deachathai, Suwanna; Suteerapataranon, Siripat

    2012-05-01

    A simple flow injection (FI)-spectrophotometric system for the screening of antioxidant capacity in herbal extracts was developed. The analysis was based on the color disappearance due to the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by antioxidant compounds. DPPH and ascorbic acid were used as reagent and antioxidant standard, respectively. Effects of the DPPH concentration, DPPH flow rate, and reaction coil length on sensitivity were studied. The optimized condition provided the linear range of 0.010-0.300mM ascorbic acid with less than 5%RSD(n=10). Detection limit and quantitation limit were 0.004 and 0.013mM, respectively. Comparison of antioxidant capacity in some herbal extracts determined by the FI system and a standard method was carried out and no significant difference was obtained.

  12. Comparing antioxidant capacity of purine alkaloids: a new, efficient trio for screening and discovering potential antioxidants in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Bun; Yi, Ruo-Nan; Cao, Ling-Fang; Li, Shan-Bing; Tan, Rui-Rong; Chen, Min; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chen; Li, Yi-Fang; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong

    2015-06-01

    The most commonly applied strategies for the evaluation of antioxidant capacity are the chemical- or cell-based approaches. However, the results obtained from these methods might not reflect the antioxidant ability of test samples within organisms. In this study, we propose a combination of experiments, including oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), cellular antioxidant activity assay (CAA), and the chick embryo model, as an efficient trio to evaluate antioxidant capacity of food components. Taking purine alkaloids as example, results demonstrate that chemical and cellular method might misinterpret their true ability on antioxidation. In chick embryo model, caffeine and theacrine can significantly improve vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane and myocardial apoptosis. The mechanism can be involving multiple targets within the organism. We believe that the trio proposed can be widely utilized in screening massive number of antioxidant in a cost-effective way. It will also help discovering new antioxidants that are easily being omitted due to their relatively poor in vitro activities.

  13. Dietary total antioxidant capacity: a novel indicator of diet quality in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Puchau, B. (Blanca); M.A. Zulet; Gonzalez-de-Echavarri, A. (Amaia); Hermsdorff, H.H. (H. H.); Martinez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Overall diet quality measurements have been suggested as a useful tool to assess diet-disease relationships. Oxidative stress has been related to the development of obesity and other chronic diseases. Furthermore, antioxidant intake is being considered as protective against cell oxidative damage and related metabolic complications. Objective: To evaluate potential associations between the dietary total antioxidant capacity of foods (TAC), the energy density of the diet, and ot...

  14. Catechin and caffeine content of green tea dietary supplements and correlation with antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeram, Navindra P; Henning, Susanne M; Niu, Yantao; Lee, Rupo; Scheuller, H Samuel; Heber, David

    2006-03-08

    The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Tea contains polyphenols such as catechins or flavan-3-ols including epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as well as the alkaloid, caffeine. Polyphenols are antioxidants, and EGCG, due to its high levels, is widely accepted as the major antioxidant in green tea. Therefore, commercial green tea dietary supplements (GTDS) may be chemically standardized to EGCG levels and/or biologically standardized to antioxidant capacity. However, label claims on GTDS may not correlate with actual phytochemical content or antioxidant capacity nor provide information about the presence and levels of caffeine. In the current study, 19 commonly available GTDS were evaluated for catechin and caffeine content (using high-performance liquid chromatography) and for antioxidative activity [using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays]. Product labels varied in the information provided and were inconsistent with actual phytochemical contents. Only seven of the GTDS studied made label claims of caffeine content, 11 made claims of EGCG content, and five specified total polyphenol content. Caffeine, EGCG, and total polyphenol contents in the GTDS varied from 28 to 183, 12-143, and 14-36% tablet or capsule weight, respectively. TEAC and ORAC values for GTDS ranged from 187 to 15340 and from 166 to 13690 mumol Trolox/g for tablet or capsule, respectively. The antioxidant activities for GTDS determined by TEAC and ORAC were well-correlated with each other and with the total polyphenol content. Reliable labeling information and standardized manufacturing practices, based on both chemical standardization and biological assays, are recommended for the quality

  15. Metabolic engineering of the phenylpropanoid pathway enhances the antioxidant capacity of Saussurea involucrata.

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    Jian Qiu

    Full Text Available The rare wild species of snow lotus Saussurea involucrata is a commonly used medicinal herb with great pharmacological value for human health, resulting from its uniquely high level of phenylpropanoid compound production. To gain information on the phenylpropanid biosynthetic pathway genes in this critically important medicinal plant, global transcriptome sequencing was performed. It revealed that the phenylpropanoid pathway genes were well represented in S. involucrata. In addition, we introduced two key phenylpropanoid pathway inducing transcription factors (PAP1 and Lc into this medicinal plant. Transgenic S. involucrata co-expressing PAP1 and Lc exhibited purple pigments due to a massive accumulation of anthocyanins. The over-expression of PAP1 and Lc largely activated most of the phenylpropanoid pathway genes, and increased accumulation of several phenylpropanoid compounds significantly, including chlorogenic acid, syringin, cyanrine and rutin. Both ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzotiazo-line-6-sulfonic acid and FRAP (ferric reducing anti-oxidant power assays revealed that the antioxidant capacity of transgenic S. involucrata lines was greatly enhanced over controls. In addition to providing a deeper understanding of the molecular basis of phenylpropanoid metabolism, our results potentially enable an alternation of bioactive compound production in S. involucrata through metabolic engineering.

  16. Effects of Genetic, Pre- and Post-Harvest Factors on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of White Asparagus Spears

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    Evangelos Kazakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.

  17. Effects of genetic, pre- and post-harvest factors on phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Eleftherios; Siomos, Anastasios S; Koukounaras, Athanasios; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Kazakis, Evangelos

    2009-12-16

    The effects of genetic, pre-harvest (season of harvest, spear diameter, spear portion and spear tip color) and post-harvest factors (storage and domestic preparation practices, e.g., peeling and cooking) on total phenolic, flavonoid and ascorbic acid content of white asparagus spears and their correlation with antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP) were studied. Results showed that genetic material was important for the total phenolic content but not season of harvest, spear diameter or storage. Violet spear tips and apical spear portions showed the largest amount of total phenolics. Peeling did not affect total phenolics in fresh asparagus, whereas it reduced their content in stored asparagus, while cooking resulted in an increase in both fresh and stored asparagus. However, the soluble extract of total phenolics and flavonoids were minor and the missing significance of phenolics and flavonoids in antioxidant capacity of white asparagus spears depends on these small amounts.

  18. Effects of lead exposure on histological structure and antioxidant capacity in the cerebellum of 30-day-old mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang

    2011-01-01

    The current study sought to observe the effects of lead on histological structure and antioxidant capacity in 30-day-old mice. Spectrophotometry was used to detect the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and the malondialdehyde content. The results revealed that Purkinje cells in the lead-exposed group exhibited obvious pyknosis, atrophy and a decrease in overall number. Granular cells exhibited a disorderly arrangement, and were reduced in number. Administration of lead decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while malondialdehyde content increased. Two-way analysis of variance indicated that dose contributed more to lead-induced cerebellum damage than treatment time. The present study demonstrated that lead exerted strong effects on histological structure and inhibited antioxidant capacity of the cerebellum in 30-day-old mice.

  19. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Blueberry Cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Grown in the Northwest Croatia

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    Verica Dragović-Uzelac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total phenols (TPC, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA, flavan-3-ols (TF3ols, as well as total antioxidant capacity (TAC and reducing power (RP in four blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. introduced in the Northwest Croatian climate conditions. Phenolic compounds were measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH and ABTS assays and RP by FRAP assay. All cultivars contained high mass fraction of TPC, TF, TA and lower mass fraction of TF3ols. Among the researched fruits, Sierra cultivar contained the highest amounts of all groups of phenolics, followed by Elliott>Bluecrop≥Duke. Significant differences were observed in phenolic mass fraction among different cultivars and growing seasons (p<0.05, and phenolic compounds were significantly higher in growing season 2006. Examined cultivars possess high antioxidant capacity and reducing power, and all phenolics were highly correlated with TAC and RP (R=0.46 to 0.99. The study indicated that growing and climate conditions in Northwest Croatia are convenient for introducing blueberry cultivars. Generally, blueberry fruits are a rich source of phenolics, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  20. Total Phenolic, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants

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    Melinda Nagy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the induced oxidative stress damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals that. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals as a natural by-product of normal cell processes. In the present study,were evaluated  the phenolic and flavonoids contents as well as the antioxidant capacity of seeds from  the Lamiaceae and Apiaceae family: fennel  (Foeniculum vulgare, dill (Anethum graveolens and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis . (Sreemoyee Ch. et. al., 2012 The main objective of the study was the comparative assessment of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds from dill, rosemary and fennel methanolic extracts correlated with their  antioxidant activity. Both total phenolic content and flavonoids content of the seeds samples were measured spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH, respectively.. Antioxidant capacity was determined by 2,2-DPPH method. Results strongly showed that Rosmarinus officinalis extract has the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Foeniculum vulgare and Anethum graveolens were less active. The total phenolic content was within 773,14 and 3367,24mg GAE/ 100g while the concentration in flavonoids was between 231,84 and 1325,53 QEg/100g dry seeds.  

  1. Functional beverage of Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) enhances plasma antioxidant capacity in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhuohong; Sintara, Marsha; Chang, Tony; Ou, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the absorption and antioxidant effect of a mangosteen-based functional beverage in humans. The beverage contained mangosteen, aloe vera, green tea, and multivitamins. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted with generally healthy male and female subjects between 18 and 60 years of age. Ten men and 10 women participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups, treatment and placebo group. Participants received either a daily single dose (245 mL) of the beverage or a placebo. Blood samples were collected from each participant at time points 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h. The plasma samples were analyzed by LC/MS for α-mangostin and vitamins B2 and B5. Results indicated that the three analytes were bioavailable, with observed C max at around 1 h. The antioxidant capacity measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay was increased with a maximum effect of 60% after 1 h, and the elevated antioxidant level lasted at least 6 h. This study demonstrated the bioavailability of α-mangostin and B vitamins from a xanthone-rich beverage and the mechanisms of the increase in plasma antioxidant may be direct effects from antioxidants, enhancement of endogenous antioxidant activity through activation of Nrf2 pathway, and synergism of the antioxidants.

  2. Decreased total and corrected antioxidant capacity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroubakis, Ioannis E; Malliaraki, Niki; Dimoulios, Philippos D; Karmiris, Konstantinos; Castanas, Elias; Kouroumalis, Elias A

    2004-09-01

    Oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants may play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related intestinal damage. A new automated assay for the determination of blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC), based on the crocin bleaching method, has been used for the measurement of TAC and corrected TAC (cTAC) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in comparison to healthy controls (HC). Ninety-four patients with UC, 97 patients with CD, and 72 HC were included in this study. Serum TAC was measured in all patients and controls on an Olympus AU-600 chemistry analyzer using a TAC kit. cTAC was calculated from TAC after subtraction of the interactions due to endogenous uric acid, bilirubin and albumin. Mean serum TAC as well as cTAC levels were significantly lower in both UC and CD patients compared with HC (P < 0.0001). Patients with active UC had no different TAC and cTAC compared to those with inactive disease. Patients with active CD had significantly lower mean TAC compared to those with inactive disease but cTAC was not different between the two phases of disease activity. Patients with proctitis had significantly higher TAC and cTAC compared to patients with left-sided colitis and total colitis. In CD patients no association between disease localization and these markers was found. TAC and cTAC are significantly reduced in IBD patients compared with controls irrespective of disease activity. The decreased antioxidant defenses may be a primary phenomenon severely compromising the mucosa and therefore increase susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage.

  3. Identification of antioxidant capacity -related QTLs in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Tamara; Cartea, María Elena; Velasco, Pablo; Soengas, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Brassica vegetables possess high levels of antioxidant metabolites associated with beneficial health effects including vitamins, carotenoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars and phenolics. Until now, no reports have been documented on the genetic basis of the antioxidant activity (AA) in Brassicas and the content of metabolites with AA like phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. For this reason, this study aimed to: (1) study the relationship among different electron transfer (ET) methods for measuring AA, (2) study the relationship between these methods and phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin content, and (3) find QTLs of AA measured with ET assays and for phenolic, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents in leaves and flower buds in a DH population of B. oleracea as an early step in order to identify genes related to these traits. Low correlation coefficients among different methods for measuring AA suggest that it is necessary to employ more than one method at the same time. A total of 19 QTLs were detected for all traits. For AA methods, seven QTLs were found in leaves and six QTLs were found in flower buds. Meanwhile, for the content of metabolites with AA, two QTLs were found in leaves and four QTLs were found in flower buds. AA of the mapping population is related to phenolic compounds but also to carotenoid content. Three genomic regions determined variation for more than one ET method measuring AA. After the syntenic analysis with A. thaliana, several candidate genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis are proposed for the QTLs found.

  4. Tunisian table olive phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Othman, N; Roblain, D; Thonart, P; Hamdi, M

    2008-05-01

    For the 1st time, 4 olive cultivars, the Meski, Chemlali, Besbessi, and Tounsi, from the Tunisian market were investigated to evaluate the phenolic compounds' contribution in nutritional value of table olives. From the Meski cultivar, we have chosen 4 different samples to evaluate differences within the same cultivar. Basic characteristics and total phenolic content were evaluated in flesh and kernel. The highest value of flesh phenolic content was observed in sample M4 of the Meski cultivar; however, the lowest value was observed in the Besbessi cultivar and they were 1801 and 339 mg GA/100 g dry weight, respectively. The main simple phenolic compounds identified in flesh extracts are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and vanillic acid. Oleuropein was not detected in any samples. The antioxidant activity of Tunisian olive flesh varies between 212 and 462 muM TEAC/g of dry weight. Antioxidant activity of olives was related to their phenolic content but we found a low correlation between phenolic content and TEAC.

  5. Physicochemical characterization and antioxidant capacity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L.

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    Milena Bagetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain more information about the physicochemical properties, composition, and antioxidant activity of pitanga fruits (Eugenia uniflora L., particularly fruits from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Pitanga with different flesh colors (purple, red, and orange from tree selections cultivated at Embrapa Clima Temperado (RS-Brazil were analyzed. Only slight differences were observed in the quality parameters and in the proximate and fatty acid compositions among the fruits studied. The extracts from purple-fleshed pitanga had the highest total phenolic and anthocyanin contents along with the highest antioxidant capacity. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays of methanolic pitanga extracts was highly correlated with the total phenolic content, but in ethanolic extracts, the anthocyanin content was correlated only with the FRAP antioxidant capacity. Orange fleshed pitanga had higher β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene levels than those of the red fruit, which had higher lycopene content. The results indicate that the purple-fleshed pitanga, cultivated in Rio Grande do Sul, is a rich source of phenolic compounds and has high antioxidant capacity. The red and orange-fleshed pitanga, on the other hand, are rich sources of carotenoids.

  6. Influence of osmotic dehydration on bioactive compounds, antioxidant capacity, color and texture of fruits and vegetables: a review

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    Ana Paula Miguel Landim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Osmotic dehydration (OD is a conservation technique applied to foodstuffs, which promotes partial reduction of water, extends their shelf life and reduces both post-harvest losses and changes in product characteristics. Currently, it has been given emphasis on trying to understand how the process affects the quality of processed vegetables, because process variables can interfere in their antioxidant capacity, color and texture. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity can be affected by chemical changes, leaching losses, reduced moisture and solid gain as well as the present bioactive in the profile of the performed analysis method. In color, the overall changes are caused by temperature increase, which can cause enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic browning, decomposition or entrainment of pigments present in the tissue. Conversely, the osmotic agent has a greater impact on texture, which causes changes in the sensory attributes such as gumminess, even crispness and flavor of the product. Although there is a large number of studies on the OD, the current scenario in terms of effect on the quality of osmodehydrated products are still incipient, especially in relation to antioxidant capacity. Despite the fact that there is a large number of studies on the OD, current efforts are focused on understanding the process effect on the product quality, notably in relation to antioxidant capacity. Thus, further studies on the internal changes in osmodehydrated foods are needed, since there is a variation of process factors, which may have an impact on the different tissues of the fruit and vegetable crops submitted to OD.

  7. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of two Algerian Mentha species M. rotundifolia (L.) Huds, M. pulegium L., extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Fatiha; Dahmoune, Farid; Kadri, Nabil; Chibane, Mohmed; Dairi, Soufiane; Remini, Hocine; Oukmanou-Bensidhoum, Sonia; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2017-07-08

    Background It is important to consider the optimum conditions and processing factors (like solvent type) influencing activity of plant antioxidants for utilization in food and biological systems. Methods The antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of two Mentha species, namely, Mentha pulegium L. (MP) and Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds (MR), were studied and six solvent systems were used. The total antioxidant capacity of the mint species extracts was evaluated using phosphomolybdenum method and the free radical-scavenging capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging assay. Results The efficiency of the used solvents to extract phenols from the two species varied considerably. The highest total phenolic content was obtained from methanol extract of MP (25.3±1.3 mg GAE/gdw) and total flavonoid content from methanol extract of MR (10.1±0.1 mg QE/gdw). High phenol content was significantly correlated with high antioxidant capacity. The methanol extracts showed the highest radical scavenging activity. All the extracts showed variable antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex. Acetone extract of MP and methanol extract of MR exhibited marked reducing power in this method. Conclusions Our findings identified the appropriate solvent for extracting MP and MR phenolics which might provide a rich source of natural antioxidants.

  8. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon

    2013-01-01

    electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death...... in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 µmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct...

  9. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant capacity of the aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta L.

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    Nesrine Ouda Amari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess antioxidant activities of different aerial parts of Thymelaea hirsuta (T. hirsuta from west Algeria, and to search for new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants. Methods: Samples of leaves, stems and flowers from T. hirsuta were tested for total phenolic content, flavonoids content, and evaluation its total antioxidant activity, were done using the spectrophotometric analyses. Results: Results of preliminary phytochemical screening of leaf, flower and stem of T. hirsuta revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, saponins, coumarins, reducteurs compound and anthraquinones. The total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated. The aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of T. hirsuta showed potent in vitro antioxydant activities using various models viz, DPPH scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Conclusions: On the basis of the results obtained, T. hirsuta extracts are rich sources of natural antioxidants appears to be an alternative to synthetic antioxidants and this justifies its therapeutic usage.

  10. Cationic liposomes containing antioxidants reduces pulmonary injury in experimental model of sepsis: Liposomes antioxidants reduces pulmonary damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Andre Martins; Galvão, Júlia Siqueira; Pereira, Marcela Araújo; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Magalhães, Nereide Stella Santos; Fink, James B; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas; Castro, Celia Maria Machado Barbosa de; de Sousa Maia, Maria Bernadete

    2016-09-01

    The intracellular redox state of alveolar cells is a determining factor for tolerance to oxidative and pro-inflammatory stresses. This study investigated the effects of intratracheal co-administration of antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes on the lungs of rats subjected to sepsis. For this, male rats subjected to sepsis induced by lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli or placebo operation were treated (intratracheally) with antibiotic, 0.9% saline and antioxidants encapsulated or non-encapsulated in liposomes. Experimental model of sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was performed in order to expose the cecum. The cecum was then gently squeezed to extrude a small amount of feces from the perforation site. As an index of oxidative damage, superoxide anions, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, catalase activity, nitrates/nitrites, cell viability and mortality rate were measured. Infected animals treated with antibiotic plus antioxidants encapsulated in liposomes showed reduced levels of superoxide anion (54% or 7.650±1.263 nmol/min/mg protein), lipid peroxidation (33% or 0.117±0.041 nmol/mg protein), protein carbonyl (57% or 0.039 ± 0.022 nmol/mg protein) and mortality rate (3.3%), p value <0.001. This treatment also reduced the level of nitrite/nitrate and increased cell viability (90.7%) of alveolar macrophages. Taken togheter, theses results support that cationic liposomes containing antioxidants should be explored as coadjuvants in the treatment of pulmonary oxidative damage.

  11. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  12. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L.

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    Fathi H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional and modern medicine, active ingredients of medicinal plants have many applications in food, pharmaceutical, medical and industry. Antioxidants are compounds that prevent the oxidation process in the cell. Echium amoenum L. is a plant which grows in the mountainous regions of Mazandaran. This plant has different biological effects such as sedation, anti-inflammation, antidepressant and cancer preventive properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of E.amoenum plant. Methods:In this experimental laboratory study the content of total phenolic Using the folin-siokalatio reactive at 760 nm wavelength and flavonoid With the use of aluminum chloride reagent at 420nm of E.amoenum extract were measured and antioxidant capacities of different concentrations of the extract were evaluated. Results: The results showed that total phenolic content of the extract was 429±2μg gallic acid equivalent/ml and flavonoid content was 148.56±1.52μg quercetin equivalent/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH,inhibitory concentration of 50%(IC50,was determined 178.11 μg/ml. Assessment of the reducing ability of extract showed that the extract had more activity than vitamin C. The percent nitric oxide trap inhibition of the extract was 57.89% and power iron chelating properties was 51.74%,that showed statistically significant difference in comparison with vitamin C and Quercetin (P=0.0473 and (P=0.0096 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, E.amoenum extract had remarkable antioxidant capacity and can be proposed as an antioxidant compound used in the manufacture of food and pharmaceutical products.

  13. Investigation of Antioxidant Capacity and Some Bioactive Compounds of Iranian Pistachio (Pistachio vera L. Cultivars

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    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Edible nuts have an increasing role in human diet. Pistachio is a popular but less known kind of edible nut nevertheless it is rich in health benefiting nutrients, minerals, antioxidants and vitamins. Therefore, this study attempts to determine the antioxidants capacity, total phenolics and amount of some major elements (nitrogen, potassium, calcium and phosphorus, present in the most important Iranian pistachio nut, to enhance the health benefits, and use in breeding programs. For this reason eleven pistachio cultivars (‘Akbary’, ‘Ahmad Aghaii’, ‘Daneshmandi’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 1’, ‘Kalle Ghoochi 2’, ‘Garmeh’, ‘Ohadi 1’, ‘Ohadi 2’, ‘Sefid’, ‘Momtaz’, and chance seedling tree ("None-grafted" as control which are grown in commercial orchards of Fayzabad (Khorasan-e-Razavi were analyzed for determination of some major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents. The results showed that the amounts of the nutrients in 100 g kernel were within the following ranges: N 2.5-4.1 g, P 355.9-546.6 mg, K 573.6-994.9 mg and Ca 61.5-134.5 mg. Total phenolics content varied from 5.3-9.9 mg gallic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. The results also showed that the capacity of antioxidant ranged from 1.6-3.7 (mg ascorbic acid equivalents in g fresh weight. Weak correlation was observed between total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity (r2=0.3824. The result demonstrates that there is adequate variation in major elements, antioxidants capacity and total phenolics contents within pistachio cultivars and hence there is potential for improvement towards enhancing these health-promoting photochemical in this nuts.

  14. Wound healing and antioxidant capacity of Musa paradisiaca Linn. peel extracts

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    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Musa paradisiaca has several biological activities within them wound healing, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, among others. However, these properties in peel have been poorly explored. Aims: Evaluate the wound healing activity induced by an incision wound model using methanolic, hexanoic and chloroformic extracts from M. paradisiaca peel. Methods: Dehydrated M. paradisíaca peel was mixed with methanol, hexane, and chloroform. The presence of bioactive substances of the M. paradisiaca peel extracts was carried out by the Trease and Evans methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Acute toxicity was realized according to up and down OECD procedure in BALB/c mice. Wound healing activity was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses of tissues were made by microscopy using staining methods of hematoxylin and eosin and Masson-trichrome. Results: Treated groups with methanolic and hexanoic extracts of M. paradisiaca peel showed better wound healing activity in comparison with the group treated with chloroformic extract, with an inhibition of DPPH radical bleaching of 89-90%. It may be due to the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and phenols as principal constituents by conferring antioxidant capacity. The extract did not induce any toxicity. Conclusions: The findings showed the wound healing and antioxidant capacity of M. paradisiaca peel extract. It was observed that depending on the extraction solvent; there is a variation in the antioxidant capacity that also affects the effectiveness of the restoration of tissue, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity could play a major role in the process of wound healing.

  15. How does roasting affect the antioxidants of a coffee brew? Exploring the antioxidant capacity of coffee via on-line antioxidant assays coupled with size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Vovk, Irena; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2013-07-01

    During coffee roasting major changes occur in coffee bean composition. Among others dark coloured melanoidins are formed, which are high molecular weight Maillard reaction products. A new approach is presented here to monitor the influence of roasting conditions on the antioxidant capacity of melanoidins and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in a coffee brew. Validated Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) and ABTS assays were used as on-line antioxidant assays coupled (post-column) with high performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). HPSEC enabled the separation of melanoidins from CGAs and the determination of the antioxidant capacity of each fraction, within a total elution time of 25 min. Besides the on-line assay measurements, both assays were also applied off-line with flow injection analysis (FIA). The maximum antioxidant capacity was determined to be at a light-to-medium roast degree, measured with both ABTS-FIA and FC-FIA assays as well as on-line ABTS assay. With FC on-line assay the maximum was found to be at a very light roast degree. Based on the peak areas obtained with the new coupled technique the roasting effects on the variability of melanoidin and CGA contents in coffee brews were studied. The majority of melanoidins are already formed in the early stage of the roasting process and the relative contribution of melanoidins to the total antioxidant capacity increases towards darker roasts, mainly because CGAs degrade during roasting. A new parameter, the ratio of melanoidin to CGA peak area, was introduced as a possible predictor of the roast degree.

  16. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of crocus sativus petal extracts.

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    Termentzi, Aikaterini; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2008-04-01

    In this study, various fractions isolated from the petals of Crocus sativus were assessed at first for their phenolic content both qualitatively and quantitatively and secondly for their antioxidant activity. The phytochemical analysis was carried out by LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) whereas the antioxidant potential was evaluated by applying two methodologies, the DPPH. radical scavenging activity test and the Co(II)-induced luminol chemiluminescence procedure. According to data obtained from these antioxidant tests, the diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions demonstrated the strongest antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, the major constituents identified in these fractions correspond to kaempferol, quercetin, naringenin and some flavanone and flavanol derivatives glycosylated and esterified with phenylpropanoic acids. In addition, the presence of some nitrogen-containing substances, as well as other phenolics and phenylpropanoic derivatives was also traced. The identification and structural elucidation of all substances isolated in this study was achieved by both comparing available literature data and by proposed fragmentation mechanisms based on evaluating the LC-DAD-MS (ESI (+)) experimental data. The quantitative analysis data obtained thus far have shown that Crocus sativus petals are a rich source of flavonoids. Such a fact suggests that the good antioxidant capacity detected in the various fractions of Crocus sativus petals could be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, since it is already known that these molecules exert antioxidant capability. The latter, along with the use of Crocus sativus in food and pharmaceutical industry is discussed.

  17. Effect of vitamin E on diabetes-induced changes in small intestine and plasma antioxidant capacity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, A; Ilkhanizadeh, B; Saadatian, R; Darvari, B S; Behtaj, F; Karimipour, M; Ghaderi-Pakdel, F; Saboori, E

    2006-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Vitamin E (Vit. E) on diabetes-induced changes in small intestine, lipid peroxidation and plasma antioxidant capacity in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups (n=8), namely control, non-treated diabetic (NTD) and Vit. E-treated diabetic (VETD) groups. The VETD group received 300 mg of Vit. E daily in drinking water. After 6 weeks, the length and weight of small intestine, villus height, crypt depth and muscular layer thickness showed a significant increase in the NTD group compared to the control group. In the VETD group, these parameters did not show any significant difference compared to the control group. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the red blood cells showed a significant increase in the NTD group, but not in the VETD group, compared to the control group. The plasma antioxidant capacity showed a significant increase in VETD compared to the NTD group. These findings indicate that Vit. E significantly improved small intestinal changes in diabetic rats and that these effects could be mediated at least in part by enhanced plasma antioxidant capacity and reduced lipid peroxidation.

  18. Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungcharoenkul, Kanit; Thongnopnua, Phensri

    2011-11-01

    The impact of consuming curcuminoids containing curcumin at 500 mg/day and 6 g/day for 7 days on plasma antioxidant capacity and serum cholesterol level were determined by using vitamin E 200 IU/day consumption as a comparison. Group A and group B subjects consumed 500 mg and 6 g curcumin, respectively, but group C subjects consumed vitamin E 200 IU. By using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that plasma antioxidant capacity of group A rose from a baseline of 13% to 24% on day 1 and day 7, as against a 19-20% increase for group B. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased after curcumin treatment at 500 mg/day. By consuming vitamin E, both ORAC values and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly increased, but only very slight responses on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed. It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid composition of different parts of Adenocarpus complicatus (Fabaceae from Turkey

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    Adnan Berber

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenocarpus complicatus is distributed throughout the Anatolian peninsula and is widely used for human and animal nutrition. The purpose of this work was to study the antioxidant properties and fatty acid composition of different parts of this plant (fruits and mixed materials. The species was collected from Golyuzu village of the Seydisehir district near Konya province, Turkey. Fruit and mixed parts obtained from this species were ground and a 15g sample was used to prepare methanolic extracts. Powdered plant samples were extracted with 100mL methanol in a mechanical shaker. The obtained extracts were filtered and concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and were subsequently stored at -20°C. Antioxidant components, namely total phenolic and flavonoid content, were detected for each extract using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated by various assays including phosphomolybdenum, DPPH free radical scavenging capacity, metal chelating activity, and ferric and cupric ion reducing power. The fatty acid profiles of plant parts were also determined by using gas chromatography. The total phenolic content of fruit (36.21mgGAE/g was higher than that of mixed materials (13.79mgGAE/g. The methanolic extract of mixed material had higher amounts of flavonoid than fruit extract. The free radical scavenging activity of extracts was expressed as IC50 value (μg/mL (amount required to inhibit DPPH radical formation by 50%. The lower IC50 value reflects better free radical scavenging action. The radical scavenging activity of the samples was compared with BHT, it showed the mixed material to be almost two times more potent than the fruit extract. However, BHT is an excellent free radical scavenger with an IC50 of 34.061μg/mL. The ferric and cupric reducing power potentials of the extracts were expressed as EC50 value (the effective concentration at which the absorbance was 0.5. Fruit extract exhibited strong ferric reducing

  20. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of three malian medicinal plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, François; Koné, Donatien; Dicko, Amadou; Soulimani, Rachid; Younos, Chafique

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP-HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic)] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g(-1) dry weight (dw), expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g(-1) dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g(-1) dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml(-1)) required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC(50)) and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC(50) values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml(-1) of a solution of 50% (v/v) methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity.

  1. Development of a rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine total antioxidative capacity of edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulaboski, Rubin; Mirčeski, Valentin; Mitrev, Saša

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on a new, rapid and simple voltammetric method to determine the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the edible oils. The method explores the ABTS radical (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay as a redox probe and it relays on measuring catalytic voltammetric currents. The electrocatalysis comprises redox regeneration of the electrochemically created ABTS(+) radical either by Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethychroman-2-carboxylic acid) or by antioxidants present in studied oils. The detection limit of the method is determined to be 0.5 mg/L of Trolox equivalent, being a slightly lower than the corresponding UV-VIS spectrophotometric method. Applying the proposed voltammetric method the total antioxidant capacity of three types of commercially available cold-pressed edible oils are determined, and the results are found to be in a very good agreement with those obtained by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The reported voltammetric method is cheap, rapid and simple, and it can be used as a sustainable alternative to the UV-VIS methods for the determination of total antioxidant capacitance of oils and other liquid lipophilic nutrients. Potent antioxidant capacity of studied oils was also confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of superoxide anion produced by macrophages.

  2. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Malian Medicinal Plant Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Muanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP–HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g−1 dry weight (dw, expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g−1 dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g−1 dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml−1 required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC50 and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml−1 of a solution of 50% (v/v methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity.

  3. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-yang; Zhang, Hong-cheng; Liu, Wen-xu; Li, Chun-yang

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated. Blueberry, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW), exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC, 9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW), total flavonoid content (TFC, 36.08 mg rutin/g DW), and total anthocyanidin content (TAC, 24.38 mg catechin/g DW). A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, ellagic acid, and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone: luteolin; flavonols: rutin, myricetin, quercetrin, and quercetin; flavanols: gallocatechin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins: malvidin-3-galactoside, malvidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin). In particular, the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins, which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical. PMID:22302422

  4. Polyphenol content, in vitro bioaccesibility and antioxidant capacity of widely consumed beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Gema; Sarriá, Beatriz; Bravo, Laura; Mateos, Raquel

    2017-08-03

    Beverages prepared from antioxidant rich plants are sources of polyphenols, which bioactivity depends on bioaccesibility in the gastrointestinal tract. This work evaluated the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of widely consumed beverages such as chamomile tea, yerba mate, a coffee blend (65% roasted:35% green), and coffee-like substitutes such as chicory, malt and a soluble cereal mixture. Additionally, the bioaccesibility of the two beverages with the highest antioxidant capacity was evaluated using an in vitro digestion model. Total phenolic contents ranged from 11.15 mg/200 mL in chamomile tea up to 154.53 mg/200 mL in mate or 215.05 mg/200 mL in the blend. These results correlated with the antioxidant capacity analysed by FRAP, ORAC and ABTS methods. Yerba mate and the coffee blend showed an average polyphenol recovery after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of 57% and 78%, respectively. Although both beverages showed similar phenolic composition, polyphenols in coffee were more stable than in yerba mate. Alkaline pH in the intestinal digestion stage was responsible for the observed reduction in polyphenol stability. Regular consumption of the studied beverages provides considerable amounts of antioxidants which are relatively stable after simulated digestion, and thus have the potential to prevent oxidative stress-related disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.;

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), serum lipoprotein oxidation lag time, plasma Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. ENL concentrations in serum (P

  6. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI levels were most strongly associated with increasing age (standardized β = 0.40, p levels, multivitamin use, and alcohol intake were not associated with TAC. Our data indicate that endogenous oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities are associated with lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  7. Liposome as a delivery system for carotenoids: comparative antioxidant activity of carotenoids as measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power, DPPH assay and lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chen; Xue, Jin; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Shuqin

    2014-07-16

    This study was conducted to understand how carotenoids exerted antioxidant activity after encapsulation in a liposome delivery system, for food application. Three assays were selected to achieve a wide range of technical principles, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant powder (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity (LPIC) during liposome preparation, auto-oxidation, or when induced by ferric iron/ascorbate. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids was measured either after they were mixed with preformed liposomes or after their incorporation into the liposomal system. Whatever the antioxidant model was, carotenoids displayed different antioxidant activities in suspension and in liposomes. The encapsulation could enhance the DPPH scavenging and FRAP activities of carotenoids. The strongest antioxidant activity was observed with lutein, followed by β-carotene, lycopene, and canthaxanthin. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation assay revealed a mutually protective relationship: the incorporation of either lutein or β-carotene not only exerts strong LPIC, but also protects them against pro-oxidation elements; however, the LPIC of lycopene and canthaxanthin on liposomes was weak or a pro-oxidation effect even appeared, concomitantly leading to the considerable depletion of these encapsulated carotenoids. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids after liposome encapsulation was not only related to their chemical reactivity, but also to their incorporation efficiencies into liposomal membrane and modulating effects on the membrane properties.

  8. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tannins and extracts of fruit byproducts: antibacterial activity against foodborne bacteria and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widsten, Petri; Cruz, Cristina D; Fletcher, Graham C; Pajak, Marta A; McGhie, Tony K

    2014-11-19

    The shelf life of fresh fish and meat transported over long distances could be extended by using plant-based extracts to control spoilage bacteria. The goals of the present study were to identify plant-based extracts that effectively suppress the main spoilage bacteria of chilled fish and lamb and to assess their antioxidant capacity. The phenolic compounds in wood-based tannins and extracts isolated from byproducts of the fruit processing industry were identified and/or quantified. The total phenol content, but not the flavonoid to total phenol ratio, was strongly associated with higher antibacterial activity against several fish and lamb spoilage bacteria in zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration assays as well as greater antioxidant capacity in the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical assay. The most promising compounds in both cases, and thus good candidates for antibacterial packaging or antioxidant dietary supplements, were mango seed extract and tannic acid containing mostly polygalloyl glucose type phenols.

  10. Changes in oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and phytochemical composition of Pistacia terebinthus oil with roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Gökhan; Gökmen, Vural

    2011-09-15

    The effect of roasting on oxidative stability, antioxidant capacity and the content of antioxidant phytochemicals in Pistacia terebinthus oil was investigated. Oils were extracted from P. terebinthus fruits roasted at 180°C for 0-40min. Roasting was found to cause an increase in the passage of phenolic compounds to the oil whereas the level of tocopherols, lutein and β-carotene was decreased. Antioxidant capacity and oxidative stability of P. terebinthus oil increased with roasting. As an indicator of the presence of Maillard reaction products in oil, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) level and colour intensity was measured and found to increase with increasing roasting time. Fatty acid composition was not affected significantly by roasting.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and lipophilic content of seaweeds collected from the Qingdao coastline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hai-Lan; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2004-08-11

    Lipophilic extracts from 16 species of seaweeds collected along the Qingdao coastline were screened and evaluated for their antioxidant activities (AA) using the beta-carotene-linoleate assay system. The diethyl ether soluble extracts of all selected seaweeds exhibited various degrees of antioxidative efficacy in each screen. The highest antioxidant capacities among the tested samples were observed for Rhodomela confervoides and Symphyocladia latiuscula and were comparable with that of the well-known antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene and greater than that of propyl gallate. The lipophilic content of all 16 samples and the chemical composition of 4 selected seaweeds, R. confervoidesand S. latiuscula, which had higher AA, Laminaria japonica, which had intermediate AA, and Plocamium telfairiae, which had lower AA, were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Fatty acids and alkanes were found. The present data indicated an increase in antioxidative property with increasing content of unsaturated fatty acid. The result of this study suggests that seaweeds can be considered as a potential source for the extraction of lipophilic antioxidants, which might be used as dietary supplements or in production in the food industry. This is the first report on the antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts from seaweeds.

  12. Roast effects on the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of almonds, cashews, hazelnuts and peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds generally have excellent nutritional properties, which on a macro-nutritional level are attributed to favorable fatty acid, protein, and fiber profiles, among others. More recently, some oilseed antioxidant capacities have been measured as these properties are important for both nutritiona...

  13. Phytochemical evaluation and in vitro antioxidant and photo-protective capacity of Calendula officinalis L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C.K.N. DEUSCHLE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The plant Calendula officinalis L. is widely applied due to its medicinal properties, which are mainly dermatological and ornamental. The goal of this study is to assess the phytochemical components in a hydroethanolic extract (HECO from the leaves of Calendula officinalis L. using UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thin layer chromatography (TLC, as well as to identify and quantify the components related to its antioxidant capacity employing high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC. The antioxidant capacity evaluation was performed using the DPPH method for superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The photo-protective capacity was evaluated by UVspectrophotometry in order to determine the in vitro Sun Protection Factor(SPF. The results show the plant’s strong antioxidant activity (DPPH and hydroxyl methods, which we believe to be related to the presence of flavonoids (24.67 mg/g, polyphenols (33.90 mg/g, condensed tannins (27.30 mg/g, and the amount of rutin (37.25 mg/g, and quercetin (6.09 mg/g found during the study. The HECO presented a good antioxidant capacity, most likely due to the polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins in its contents. However, the obtained SPF of 1.89 ± 0.05 does not allow the plant to be classified as a stand-alone sunscreen, and more studies are needed in order to test its ability to enhance sunscreens in existing cosmetic formulations.

  14. Preparation and antioxidant capacity of element selenium nanoparticles sol-gel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yan; Qin, Biyin; Zhou, Yanhui; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wenjie

    2011-06-01

    This paper reported the preparation and antioxidant capacities of element selenium nanoparticles (nanoSe(0))-ascorbic acid (Vc) sol and nanSe(0)/Vc/selenocystine (SeCys) sol-gel compounds. NanoSe(0)-Vc sol was prepared by reduction of selenious dioxide (SeO2) with Vc. In the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol, highly concentrated Vc was also used as a modifier to modulate the diameter of Se(0) nanoparticles in the liquid phase. Then excellent nanoSe(0) sol-gel compounds were obtained by adding SeCys into the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol. The structure of the nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds was defined, which was constructed via C-Se, Se-H and O=C-Se valences and by interaction between SeCys and Vc via peptide bonds, esterification and dehydration. The antioxidant capacities of the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds were estimated by oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assay. The nanoSe(0)/Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds possessed a strong antioxidant capacity due to forming the perfect three-dimensional (3D) frameworks structure. The results suggested that the nanoSe(0)-Vc sol and the nanoSe(0)Vc/SeCys sol-gel compounds might be potential medicine, especially antioxidant.

  15. Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant Capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Patricia; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold

    2007-01-01

    Folin-Ciocalteu and TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay together with the spectrophotometric determination of betalains were applied to investigate the correlation between phenolics and their contribution to the antioxidant capacity of five different Costa Rican genotypes of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) and of H. polyrhizus fruits. Maximum antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and betalain contents were observed in the genotype 'Lisa'. While non-betalainic phenolic compounds contributed only to a minor extent, betalains were responsible for the major antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya juices evaluated. The phenolic pattern of each genotype was also thoroughly investigated using liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. In addition to the well known betalains previously reported in Hylocereus fruits, several biosynthetic precursors were detected. Notably, decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betalains were identified as genuine compounds of the juices. Some of these compounds were previously described as artifacts upon heat exposure. Moreover, gallic acid was identified for the first time in pitaya fruits. While the phenolic profiles generally differed between genotypes, phenolic compound composition of 'Rosa' resembled that of H. polyrhizus with respect to total contents of betacyanins, betalainic precursors, phyllocactin and cyclo-Dopa malonyl-glucosides.

  16. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  17. Comparison of lymphocyte DNA damage levels and total antioxidant capacity in Korean and American diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Hyun A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE This study aims to measure the in vitro antioxidant capacity of Korean diet (KD) with American diet (AD) as a control group and to examine the ex vivo DNA damage reduction effect on human lymphocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The KD applied in this study is the standard one-week meals for Koreans (2,000 kcal/day) suggested by 2010 Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. The AD, which is the control group, is a one-week menu (2,000 kcal/day) that consists of foods that Americans would commonly take in according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The antioxidant capacity of each menu was measured by means of the total phenolic assay and 3 in vitro antioxidant activity assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACROO·)), while the extent of ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage was measured by means of the comet assay. RESULTS When measured by means of TEAC assay, the in vitro antioxidant capacity of the KD of the day was higher than that of the AD (P < 0.05) while there was no significant difference in total phenolic contents and DPPH and ORAC assays. The ex vivo lymphocyte DNA damage protective effect of the KD was significantly higher than that of the AD (P < 0.01). As for the one-week menu combining the menus for 7 days, the total phenolic assay (P < 0.05) and in vitro antioxidant capacity (P < 0.001, DPPH; P < 0.01, TEAC) of the KD menu were significantly higher than those of the AD menu. Likewise, the ex vivo DNA damage reduction rate of the Korean seven-day menu was significantly higher than that of the American menu (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that the high antioxidant capacity and DNA damage protective effect of KD, which consists generally of various plant foods, are higher than those of typical AD.

  18. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant and DNA protection capacities of Anadenanthera colubrina, Libidibia ferrea and Pityrocarpa moniliformis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Carlos Alberto; de Souza, Renata Maria; José Macedo, Alexandre; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the antioxidant and DNA protection abilities of hydroalcoholic extracts from fruits of Anadenanthera colubrina (ACHE), Libidibia ferrea (LFHE) and Pityrocarpa moniliformis (PMHE). These extracts were tested by five antioxidant methods (phosphomolibdenium and reducing power assays; superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide scavenging) and DNA protection capacity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. ACHE exhibited the highest phenolic content (578 mg/g GAE), followed by LFHE (460 mg/g GAE) and PMHE (448 mg/g GAE). In phosphomolibdenium assay, ACHE showed 24.81% of activity in relation to ascorbic acid, whereas LFHE and PMHE had 21.08% and 18.05%, respectively. These plants showed high ability to inhibit reactive species tested with IC50 values ranged from 10.66 to 14.37 μg/mL for superoxide radical; 26.05 to 45.43 μg/mL for hydrogen peroxide; 178.42 to 182.98 μg/mL for reducing power; and 199.2 to 283 μg/mL for nitric oxide. Furthermore, these extracts had capacity to break the DNA damage induced by hydroxyl radicals. The antioxidant activity of these plants is related with their higher phenolic content and show that they may be used as source of bioactive compounds, relevant to the maintenance of oxidative stability of the food matrix, cosmetics and/or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dietary flavonoid, lignan and antioxidant capacity and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Fedirko, Veronika; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Limited epidemiological evidence suggests a protective role for plant foods rich in flavonoids and antioxidants in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) etiology. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between dietary intake of flavonoids, lignans and nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC......) and HCC risk. Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort including 477,206 subjects (29.8% male) recruited from ten Western European countries, was analyzed. Flavonoid, lignan and NEAC intakes were calculated using a compilation of existing food composition...... databases linked to dietary information from validated dietary questionnaires. Dietary NEAC was based on ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Hepatitis B/C status was measured in a nested case-control subset. During a mean follow-up of 11-years...

  20. Is the Oxidative DNA Damage Level of Human Lymphocyte Correlated with the Antioxidant Capacity of Serum or the Base Excision Repair Activity of Lymphocyte?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chih Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A random screening of human blood samples from 24 individuals of nonsmoker was conducted to examine the correlation between the oxidative DNA damage level of lymphocytes and the antioxidant capacity of serum or the base excision repair (BER activity of lymphocytes. The oxidative DNA damage level was measured with comet assay containing Fpg/Endo III cleavage, and the BER activity was estimated with a modified comet assay including nuclear extract of lymphocytes for enzymatic cleavage. Antioxidant capacity was determined with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. We found that though the endogenous DNA oxidation levels varied among the individuals, each individual level appeared to be steady for at least 1 month. Our results indicate that the oxidative DNA damage level is insignificantly or weakly correlated with antioxidant capacity or BER activity, respectively. However, lymphocytes from carriers of Helicobacter pylori (HP or Hepatitis B virus (HBV tend to give higher levels of oxidative DNA damage (P<0.05. Though sera of this group of individuals show no particular tendency with reduced antioxidant capacity, the respective BER activities of lymphocytes are lower in average (P<0.05. Thus, reduction of repair activity may be associated with the genotoxic effect of HP or HBV infection.

  1. Effects of Maceration Duration on the Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of ‘Teran’ (Vitis vinifera L. Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Damijanić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of maceration duration on the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity in red grapevine variety ‘Teran’ (Vitis vinifera L. was investigated in this study. Total phenolics, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, individual and total anthocyanins, vanillin index and antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, ABST and FRAP methods were determined in ‘Teran’ wines during five different skin maceration periods (3, 7, 12, 17 and 21 days. Th e highest increase in the concentration of the most phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity was obtained between the 3rd and 7th day of maceration. Prolonging the maceration from 7 to 21 days did not lead to significantly higher concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity measured with ABTS and FRAP methods. It is concluded that maceration duration of seven days is the most appropriate in order to obtain high concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and high antioxidant capacity of ‘Teran’ wines.

  2. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Quan V; Goldsmith, Chloe D; Dang, Trung Thanh; Nguyen, Van Tang; Bhuyan, Deep Jyoti; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Scarlett, Christopher J; Bowyer, Michael C

    2014-09-17

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  3. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan V. Vuong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrasonic power had the strongest influence on TPC; whereas ultrasonic temperature had the greatest impact on antioxidant capacity. Ultrasonic time had the least impact on both TPC and antioxidant capacity. The optimum UAE conditions were determined to be 50 °C, 90 min. and 200 W. Under these conditions, the E. tirucalli leaf extract yielded 2.93 mg GAE/g FW of TPC and exhibited potent antioxidant capacity. These conditions can be utilised for further isolation and purification of phenolic compounds from E. tirucalli leaf.

  4. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  5. Development and Validation of a Kit to Measure Drink Antioxidant Capacity Using a Novel Colorimeter

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    Alexandros Priftis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the antioxidant capacity of foods is essential, as a means of quality control to ensure that the final product reaching the consumer will be of high standards. Despite the already existing assays with which the antioxidant activity is estimated, new, faster and low cost methods are always sought. Therefore, we have developed a novel colorimeter and combined it with a slightly modified DPPH assay, thus creating a kit that can assess the antioxidant capacity of liquids (e.g., different types of coffee, beer, wine, juices in a quite fast and low cost manner. The accuracy of the colorimeter was ensured by comparing it to a fully validated Hitachi U-1900 spectrophotometer, and a coefficient was calculated to eliminate the observed differences. In addition, a new, user friendly software was developed, in order to render the procedure as easy as possible, while allowing a central monitoring of the obtained results. Overall, a novel kit was developed, with which the antioxidant activity of liquids can be measured, firstly to ensure their quality and secondly to assess the amount of antioxidants consumed with the respective food.

  6. Evaluation of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Fruits and Vegetables Using a Modified Enzymatic Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are considered a good source of polyphenols and antioxidant capacities which are beneficial in protecting the human body against damage induced by reactive species. The objective of this work is to conduct an assessment of the polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of diff erent fruit (kiwi, pear, green apple, raspberry, blackberry, strawberry and blueberry and vegetable (pumpkin, green and red pepper extracts using both chemical extraction and a modified in vitro digestive enzymatic extraction in order to compare results. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different fruits, vegetables and fruit juices were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP methods, respectively. It was observed that polyphenol content expressed as gallic acid equivalents of extracts obtained with the two extraction methods was signifi cantly (p<0.05 different (on average 310.3 and 231.8 mg per 100 g of fresh sample in enzymatic and methanolic extracts, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was also significantly (p<0.05 different in the extracts obtained by the two methods, with higher values in enzymatic extracts (1.91 mmol of Fe2+ per 100 g of fresh sample. Analyses of apple samples with and without skin also revealed important differences related to methodology and composition. Additionally, the original enzymatic extraction method was improved to avoid interferences caused by the presence of protein residues in the extract.

  7. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality.

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity of Solanum sessiliflorum (Cubiu Extract: An In Vitro Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rocha de Lucena Herrera Mascato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubiu is a vegetable of Solanaceae family, native to the Amazon, which is widely distributed through Brazil, Peru, and Colombia. It is used in food, medicine, and cosmetics by native populations. Research has shown that cubiu extracts have antioxidant activities with great biological relevance. We performed a phytochemical screening to identify the main chemical groups that could confer antioxidant activity to this extract. Several tests and qualitative precipitation specific staining for major classes of secondary metabolites were used. Antioxidant capacity in vitro tests (DPPH and ABTS were also used to assess the extract’s ability to sequester free radicals of 70% hydroethanolic and aqueous extracts of cubiu flour. Alkaloids, organic acids, phenols, flavonoid glycosides, and coumarins were found in the hydroethanolic extract while the aqueous extract presented anthocyanins, gums, tannins and mucilage, amino groups, and volatile and fixed acids. For in vitro tests, the IC50 value obtained in the DPPH assay was 606.3 ± 3.5 μg/mL while that for the ABTS assay was 290.3 ± 10.7 µg/mL. Although cubiu extracts present chemical compounds directly related to antioxidant activity, our results show that it has a low antioxidant activity. Additional studies will be needed to isolate and characterize specific compounds to further assess antioxidant activity.

  9. Effect of drying methods on total antioxidant capacity of bitter gourd (momordica charantia) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Shian; Abdullah, Aminah; Maskat, Mohammad Yusof

    2013-11-01

    The effect of thermal and non-thermal drying methods on hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant capacities of bitter gourd fruit was investigated in this study. The bitter gourd fruits were dried by following methods: (i) oven drying 40°C, (ii) oven drying 50°C, (iii) oven drying 60°C, (iv) microwave drying (medium low power), (v) microwave drying (medium power) and (vi) freeze drying. Pure acetone and hexane were used to extract the hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidant compounds from dried bitter gourd fruits. Freeze dried extracts reported to have highest values in DPPH scavenging activity (hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions), FRAP (lipophilic fraction) and TPC (hydrophilic and lipophilic fraction). Thermal drying slightly increased the values of DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for hydrophilic extracts. Results concluded bitter gourd fruit is a good source of natural antioxidants and its total antioxidant quality was most preserved by freeze drying. Additionally, the higher value reported in DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP and TPC assays for lipophilic extracts than the hydrophilic extracts suggested that the lipophilic antioxidant compounds of bitter gourd fruit might possess stronger antioxidant power than its counterpart.

  10. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of four Myrtaceae plants of the south of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Marcos José; de Lourenço, Caroline C; Andreazza, Nathalia Luiza; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Stefanello, Maria Elida Alves

    2011-07-01

    Antioxidant compounds can be useful to prevent several degenerative diseases or as preservative in food and toiletries. Species of the Myrtaceae family are able to accumulate phenolic substances and those are closely related to the antioxidant activity due to their capacity to scavenge free radicals, protect against lipid peroxidation and quench reactive oxygen species. These facts prompted us to investigate the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves of four Myrtaceae plants collected of the south of Brazil: Eugenia chlorophylla O. Berg., Eugenia pyriformis Cambess, Myrcia laruotteana Cambess and Myrcia obtecta (Berg) Kiacrsk. The antioxidant potential was performed using the DPPH (a single electron transfer reaction based assay) and ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity, a hydrogen atom transfer reaction based assay) assays. Moreover, the total soluble phenolic content was also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. A preliminary evaluation of the ethanolic extracts of these Myrtaceae plants revealed high levels of phenolic compounds (343.7-429.3 mg GAE) as well as high antioxidant activity according to both methods (1338 a 3785 micromol of TE/g of extract in ORAC and SC50 in the range of 1.70 and 33.7 microg/mL in the DPPH). The highest antioxidant activity obtained by DPPH assay was exhibited by ethanol extract of the leaves of E. pyriformis (1.70 microg/mL), followed by extracts of M. laruotteana (3.38 microg/mL) and M. obtecta (6.66 microg/mL). In comparison with controls, in the DPPH assay, the extract of E. pyriformis was more active than trolox (SC50 = 2.55 microg/mL), while the extracts of M. laruotteana and M. obtecta were more actives than quercetin (SC50 = 7.80 microg/mL). In the ORAC assay, all species also show good antioxidant capacity (>1000 micromol of TE/g). Initial HPLC-UV/DAD and ESI-MS confirmed the presence of phenolic acids constituents in the ethanol extracts. The results indicate the presence of compounds

  11. Kaolin exogenous application boosts antioxidant capacity and phenolic content in berries and leaves of grapevine under summer stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, L-T; Bernardo, S; Conde, A; Pimentel, D; Ferreira, H; Félix, L; Gerós, H; Correia, C M; Moutinho-Pereira, J

    2016-02-01

    Heat waves, high light intensities and water deficit are becoming important threats in many important viticultural areas worldwide, so the implementation of efficient and cost-effective mitigation strategies is crucial for the production of premium wines while maintaining productivity. In this context, the foliar application of kaolin, a chemically inert mineral with excellent reflective properties, is being developed and experimented as a strategy to reduce the impact of heat and drought in Douro vineyards (Northern Portugal), already revealing promising results. In the present study we investigated if an improved antioxidant capacity is part of the beneficial effects of kaolin, by studying changes in the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant system in leaves and berries (cv Touriga Nacional). Results showed that mature grape berries contained higher amounts of total phenols (40%), flavonoids (24%), anthocyanins (32%) and vitamin C (12%) than fruits from control vines, and important changes were also measured in leaves. In parallel, kaolin application improved the antioxidant capacity in berries, which was correlated with the observed increased content in secondary metabolites. Kaolin application also regulated secondary metabolism at the transcriptional level through the increase in the transcript abundance of genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenols and the antioxidant capacity of Mediterranean vegetables prepared with extra virgin olive oil using different domestic cooking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Anaya, Jessica Del Pilar; Samaniego-Sánchez, Cristina; Castañeda-Saucedo, Ma Claudia; Villalón-Mir, Marina; de la Serrana, Herminia López-García

    2015-12-01

    Potato, tomato, eggplant and pumpkin were deep fried, sautéed and boiled in Mediterranean extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), water, and a water/oil mixture (W/O). We determined the contents of fat, moisture, total phenols (TPC) and eighteen phenolic compounds, as well as antioxidant capacity in the raw vegetables and compared these with contents measured after cooking. Deep frying and sautéing led to increased fat contents and TPC, whereas both types of boiling (in water and W/O) reduced the same. The presence of EVOO in cooking increased the phenolics identified in the raw foods as oleuropein, pinoresinol, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and the contents of vegetable phenolics such as chlorogenic acid and rutin. All the cooking methods conserved or increased the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS. Multivariate analyses showed that each cooked vegetable developed specific phenolic and antioxidant activity profiles resulting from the characteristics of the raw vegetables and the cooking techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant Capacity and Proanthocyanidin Composition of the Bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Zhang, Lin; Zong, Shuling; Xu, Shifang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ye, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only living species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae), which is well known as a "living fossil" species. In the Chinese folk medicine, the leaves and bark of M. glyptostroboides are used as antimicrobic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases. This study is the first to report the free radical scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity, and proanthocyanidin composition of the bark of M. glyptostroboides. We observed total of six extracts and fractions, which were easily obtained by water-ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatography, had significant DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, and metal ions chelating capacity. The fraction MGEB, which was obtained by 60% ethanol extraction and followed by a further separation with D101 resin column chromatograph, possessed the highest proanthocyanidin content and the highest free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Furthermore, MGEB could significantly protect against CCl4 induced acute liver injury through inhibition of oxidative stress in mice. In addition, ten proanthocyanidins were isolated from MGEB, and six of them were firstly reported from this plant.

  14. Protein precipitating capacity and antioxidant activity of Turkish Tombul hazelnut phenolic extract and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvan Pelitli, Ebru; Janiak, Michał Adam; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2017-03-01

    Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, antioxidant activities, and PPC among the crude extract and fractions, albeit to different extends. BSA and gelatin was effectively precipitated by HMW fraction. HMW fraction had the highest total phenolics, condensed tannins, and antioxidant activities, followed by crude extract, LWM-FP, and LMW, respectively. The present study suggests that HMW fraction could be utilised as a source of polyphenols for the food industry.

  15. Antimicrobial Capacity and Oxidant-Antioxidant Properties of Methanolic Extracts from Tricholoma Caligatum Wild Edible Mushroom

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    K. GEZER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of mushroom has increased remarkably due to their desirable aroma, taste and high nutritional content. This study was undertaken to measure and compare the total phenolic content, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, lipid hydroperoxides and total free sulfhydryl levels of methanol extract of Tricholoma caligatum. The antimicrobial effect of methanol extract of T. caligatum was tested against three species of Gram-positive bacteria (Micrococcus luteus NCIBM, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, three species of Gram-negative bacteria (Proteus vulgaris RSKK 96026, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 and Yersinia enterecolitica RSKK 1501 and one species of yeast (Candida albicans ATCC 10231 by agar disc diffusion method.The results of this study shows that T. caligatum demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that the mushroom can potentially be used as a source of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various diseases.

  16. In vitro catabolism of rutin by human fecal bacteria and the antioxidant capacity of its catabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Indu B; Mullen, William; Lean, Michael E J; Edwards, Christine A; Crozier, Alan

    2009-10-15

    The role of colonic microflora in the breakdown of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) was investigated. An in vitro fermentation model was used and (i) 28 micromol of rutin and (ii) 55 micromol of quercetin plus 18 x 10(6) dpm of [4-(14)C]quercetin (60 nmol) were incubated with fresh fecal samples from three human volunteers, in the presence and absence of glucose. The accumulation of quercetin during in vitro fermentation demonstrated that deglycosylation is the initial step in the breakdown of rutin. The subsequent degradation of quercetin was dependent upon the interindividual composition of the bacterial microflora and was directed predominantly toward the production of either hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives or hydroxybenzoic acids. Possible catabolic pathways for these conversions are proposed. The presence of glucose as a carbon source stimulated the growth and production of bacterial microflora responsible for both the deglycosylation of rutin and the catabolism of quercetin. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid accumulated in large amounts in the fecal samples and was found to possess significant reducing power and free radical scavenging activity. This catabolite may play a key role in the overall antioxidant capacity of the colonic lumen after the ingestion of quercetin-rich foods.

  17. Excess of dietary montmorillonite impairs growth performance, liver function, and antioxidant capacity in starter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H Y; Mao, X B; Yu, B; He, J; Zheng, P; Yu, J; Luo, J Q; Wang, Q Y; Chen, D W

    2017-07-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) is widely used as a mycotoxin adsorbent in animal feeds, but its safety remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the safety of MMT supplementation in diets fed to starter pigs. A total of 120 32-d-old piglets (initial weight, 8.0 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted into dietary treatments with graded MMT levels (0 [FS 0], 0.5% [FS 0.5], 1.0% [FS 1.0], 2.5% [FS 2.5], and 5.0% [FS 5.0]) with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. All diets were fed for 28 d. As the MMT level increased, ADG and G:F changed in a linear and quadratic manner, while ADFI was linearly decreased ( > 0.05). Compared with FS 0, ADG, ADFI, and G:F of pigs in FS 1.0 increased ( quadratic manner ( quadratic manner ( quadratic manner ( quadratic manner ( < 0.05). Piglets in FS 1.0 showed a higher SOD activity when compared with the control ( < 0.05). These results indicate that supplementation of MMT higher than 1.0% can negatively affect liver structure and serum mineral content, and 5.0% MMT supplementation would also decrease feed intake, aggravate liver damage, and reduce the antioxidant capacity of starter pigs. Therefore, excess supplementation of MMT is not safe in starter pigs.

  18. Reduced visual processing capacity in sleep deprived persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Danyang; Soon, Chun Siong; Chee, Michael W L

    2011-03-15

    Multiple experiments have found sleep deprivation to lower task-related parietal and extrastriate visual activation, suggesting a reduction of visual processing capacity in this state. The perceptual load theory of attention (Lavie, 1995) predicts that our capacity to process unattended distractors will be reduced by increasing perceptual difficulty of task-relevant stimuli. Here, we evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation and perceptual load on visual processing capacity by measuring neural repetition-suppression to unattended scenes while healthy volunteers attended to faces embedded in face-scene pictures. Perceptual load did not affect repetition suppression after a normal night of sleep. Sleep deprivation reduced repetition suppression in the parahippocampal place area (PPA) in the high but not low perceptual load condition. Additionally, the extent to which task-related fusiform face area (FFA) activation was reduced after sleep deprivation correlated with behavioral performance and lowered repetition suppression in the PPA. The findings concerning correct responses indicate that a portion of stimulus related activation following a normal night of sleep contributes to potentially useful visual processing capacity that is attenuated following sleep deprivation. Finally, when unattended stimuli are not highly intrusive, sleep deprivation does not appear to increase distractibility.

  19. UHPLC-PDA-ESI-TOF/MS metabolic profiling and antioxidant capacity of arabica and robusta coffee silverskin: Antioxidants vs phytotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panusa, Alessia; Petrucci, Rita; Lavecchia, Roberto; Zuorro, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    A deeper knowledge of the chemical composition of coffee silverskin (CS) is needed due to the growing interest in its use as a food additive or an ingredient of dietary supplements. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to investigate the metabolic profile of aqueous extracts of two varieties of CS, Coffee arabica (CS-A), Coffee canephora var. robusta (CS-R) and of a blend of the two (CS-b) and to compare it to the profile of Coffee arabica green coffee (GC). Chlorogenic acids, caffeine, furokauranes, and atractyligenins, phytotoxins not previously detected in CS, were either identified or tentatively assigned. An unknown compound, presumably a carboxyatractyligenin glycoside was detected only in GC. Caffeine and chlorogenic acids were quantified while the content of furokauranes and atractyligens was estimated. GC and CS were also characterized in terms of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Differences in the metabolites distribution, polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in GC and CS were detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (pphytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans.

  1. GC×GC-TOF/MS Chromatographic Analysis, Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Rosa Canina L. at Different Maturities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Ozyurt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between food and health has become increasingly significant as consumers now demand healthy, tasty and natural foods which perform a useful function in the body. In Turkey, rose hip (Rosa canina L. is in popular use in foodstuffs such as marmalade, pestil (a traditional Turkish sweet and syrup or in traditional medicine, mainly as herbal tea. The composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total phenolic content (TPC of volatiles of rose hip samples were compared in relation to their stage of maturity and collection location. Rose hip fruit and seed were analyzed using a direct thermal desorption technique coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOF/MS. The major components found in the volatile fraction released on extraction were free fatty acids. The various stages of maturity of rose hips (green, light yellow, yellow, orange and red coloured and the place of collection (Istanbul, Mersin, York resulted in some changes in volatile compound speciation, in TAC and TPC levels. Various extraction methods were compared; methanol extraction, traditional hot water infusion and boiling in water. Boiling in water for ten minutes was the method which demonstrated the highest extraction efficiency. TAC and TPC were determined using different electron transfer−based assays; the Cerium (IV ions reducing antioxidant capacity, Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity and Folin-Ciocalteu methods. The highest TAC and TPC were found in the red coloured (fully ripe rose hip fruit, suggesting that colour is a suitable indicator for optimal harvesting time.

  2. Survey of antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of blueberry, blackberry, and strawberry in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-yang HUANG; Hong-cheng ZHANG; Wen-xu LIU; Chun-yang LI

    2012-01-01

    Berries are a good source of natural antioxidants.In the present study,the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic composition of three berry fruits (blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry) cultivated in Nanjing were investigated.Blueberry,with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 14.98 mmol Trolox/100 g dry weight (DW),exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods.Blueberry also had the highest total phenolic content (TPC,9.44 mg gallic acid/g DW),total flavonoid content (TFC,36.08 mg rutin/g DW),and total anthocyanidin content (TAC,24.38 mg catechin/g DW).A preliminary analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the blueberry,blackberry,and strawberry samples tested contained a range of phenolic acids (including gallic acid,protocatechuic acid,p-hydroxybenzoic acid,vanillic acid,caffeic acid,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid,ellagic acid,and cinnamic acid) and various types of flavonoids (flavone:luteolin; flavonols:rutin,myricetin,quercetrin,and quercetin; flavanols:gallocatechin,epigallocatechin,catechin,and catechin gallate; anthocyanidins:malvidin-3-galactoside,malvidin-3-glucoside,and cyanidin).In particular,the blueberries had high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins,which might be responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.These results indicate a potential market role for berries (especially blueberries) as a functional food ingredient or nutraceutical.

  3. PHENOLIC COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF BLACKBERRIES

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    VIVIANE MARCELA CELANT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and flavonoids extracted with 80% ethanol and water, and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS of five blackberry cultivars produced in Western Paraná, Brazil. Brazos, Tupy, Arapaho, Choctaw and Guarani blackberries were studied. Soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid of fruits were also characterized. Total phenolic compounds ranged from 8.23 to 14.98 mg GAE g-1 (f.w. and Arapaho cultivar exhibited the highest contents in both solvents. Anthocyanins ranged from 2.57 to 9.42 mg ECy3glu g-1 (f.w., being the solvent ethanol 80% more efficient than the water, and Choctaw cultivar showing the highest content. Flavonoids ranged from 0.46 to 1.14 mg EQ g-1 (f.w. and Guarani cultivar showed the highest content. High linear correlations were found between total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in both extraction solvents. However, linear correlations between anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity were observed only for the aqueous solvent. Ascorbic acid ranged from 87.87 to 134.09 mg 100 g-1, with emphasis on Brazos cultivar. The aqueous extract showed greater ability to scavenge ABTS radical, but the ethanolic extract was more efficient for the DPPH radical. Blackberries produced under Western Paraná conditions showed high levels of antioxidants with emphasis on Arapaho cultivar. This study showed that water and ethanol solvents influence different results on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of blackberries.

  4. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, pwine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively).

  5. Seasonal Difference in Antioxidant Capacity and Active Compounds Contents of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf

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    Jingfang Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaf of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (EU is a Traditional Chinese Medicine and a functional food in China. Antioxidant contents of EU leaves, which were collected monthly during the period of May–October in three years, were determined. Samples’ antioxidant capacity was characterized by DPPH radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, ferrous chelating ability, and antioxidant capacity in linoleic acid emulsion and in rapeseed oil assays. The results showed that contents of some active compounds and antioxidant activity were related to a certain time of the year. Samples collected in August showed high content of phenolics, and the samples collected in May contained higher amount of flavonoids than other samples. Leaves collected in May or June exhibited high contents of rutin, quercetin, geniposidic acid and aucubin. The August leaves showed stable and high DPPH radical scavenging activity, and ferrous chelating ability. May samples showed strong inhibitory effects on oxidation of rapeseed oil and linoleic acid. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was related to the total phenolics content. Flavonoids played an important role in the inhibitory effects on rapeseed oil and linoleic acid oxidation. Therefore, August and May were indicated as the best months to harvest EU leaves for industry.

  6. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of two seagrass species according to the extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kethia L. González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: There is a wide variety of methods for obtaining of plant extracts that enable a good yield of bioactive metabolites. For several years, extractive techniques have been perfected for obtaining natural extracts with powerful pharmacological properties. Aims: To determine the influence of various extraction methods (infusion, decoction, microwave, maceration with heat and agitation, and constant heat and agitation on the content of solids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of marine angiosperms Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König (Hyrocharitacea and Syringodium filiforme kützing (Cymodoceaceae. Methods: The soluble solids content was determined by the gravimetric method; total phenolic content, using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. Results: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as the extraction solvent. In the case those that use the hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species. Conclusions: Results showed the effectiveness of extraction by decoction for T. testudinum and by microwave for S. filiforme, among the methods that use water as extraction solvent. In the case those that use hydroalcoholic mixture as solvent extraction, maceration with agitation and heat extraction showed the higher yields of soluble solids and total polyphenols, as well as a higher antioxidant activity for both species.

  7. Phytoconstituents and in vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacities of Cotula Cinerea (Morocco Methanol Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Khallouki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available T he purpose of this study was to determine the phytochemical content of Cotula cinerea to establish principal components which may consolidate its use as a medicinal plant in the southeast of Morocco. The amount of total phenolic compounds as determined by analytical HPLC in methanol extracts was 79.23 ± 2.5 mg/g dry matter. The major phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-ESI-MS were neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid and luteolin-4´-O-glucoside. All compounds displayed very strong antioxidant capacities in the DPPH, FRAP and ORAC assays . The data indicates that methanol extracts of C. cinerea via their antioxidant capacities, may be effective disease prevention potions in traditional African medicine which is probably related to the significant content of echinoids and flavonoids.

  8. Influence of heat treatment on antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juániz, Isabel; Ludwig, Iziar A; Huarte, Estibaliz; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Moreno-Rojas, Jose Manuel; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2016-04-15

    The impact of cooking heat treatments (frying in olive oil, frying in sunflower oil and griddled) on the antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of onion, green pepper and cardoon, was evaluated. The main compounds were quercetin and isorhamnetin derivates in onion, quercetin and luteolin derivates in green pepper samples, and chlorogenic acids in cardoon. All heat treatments tended to increase the concentration of phenolic compounds in vegetables suggesting a thermal destruction of cell walls and sub cellular compartments during the cooking process that favor the release of these compounds. This increase, specially that observed for chlorogenic acids, was significantly correlated with an increase in the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH (r=0.70). Griddled vegetables, because of the higher temperature applied during treatment in comparison with frying processes, showed the highest amounts of phenolic compounds with increments of 57.35%, 25.55% and 203.06% compared to raw onion, pepper and cardoon, respectively.

  9. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  10. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (pcacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics and Antioxidant Capacity of Proanthocyanidins Encapsulated in Zein Electrospun Fibers by Cyclic Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hualin; Hao, Lilan; Niu, Baicheng; Jiang, Suwei; Cheng, Junfeng; Jiang, Shaotong

    2016-04-20

    The proanthocyanidins encapsulated in zein (zein-PA) fibers was via electrospinning technique. The kinetics and antioxidant capacity of PA from zein fibers was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Circular dichroism was used to investigate the secondary structure change of zein and its influence on the shape of fibers. The addition of PA caused a significant increase in viscosity and made fibers wider. These hydrogen bonds between zein and PA molecules would favor the α-helix change and decrease the β-folds of zein in electrospinning solutions, leading to a round-shaped tendency of fibers and enhancing the thermal properties slightly. Zein-PA fibers showed high encapsulation efficiency close to 100%, and the encapsulated PA retained its antioxidant capacity in fibers. Zein-PA fibers showed a good controlled release toward PA, and the predominant release of PA from fibers was Fickian diffusion, which could be well described by first-order model and Hixson-Crowell model.

  12. Electrochemical approaches employed for sensing the antioxidant capacity exhibited by vegetal extracts: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgemann, Maurício; Bassetto, Victor Costa; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2013-02-01

    Vegetal extracts are among the most important source of polyphenols in the diet, highlighting the importance of their characterization and determination. For this reason, analytical methods have gained increasing interest, with many publications devoted to this subject. Among the wide possibilities of analytical methods, electroanalytical techniques can provide valuable information, since the antioxidant activity of polyphenols is related to their electrochemical properties. This review analyzes and highlights the role of electroanalytical approaches for sensing the antioxidant capacity exhibited by vegetal extracts, as well as focuses on their importance for human health. The analytical capacity of the electrochemistry is comprehensively stated with the selected results found in the literature, mainly from 2000 up to the present date.

  13. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids and caffeine contents of some commercial coffees available on the Romanian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Ion; Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena

    2013-03-01

    In the present study a simple and highly sensitive RP-HPLC method has been established for simultaneous determination of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and caffeine in coffee samples. The method has been applied to eight different coffees available on the Romanian market which were previously analysed concerning the total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity. Reduction of the DPPH radical was used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the coffee extracts while the total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (Folin Ciocalteu's method). The total polyphenols content ranged from 1.98 g GAE/100 g to 4.19 g GAE/100 g while the caffeine content ranged from 1.89 g/100 g to 3.05 g/100 g. A large variability was observed in chlorogenic acid content of the investigated coffee samples which ranged between 0.6 and 2.32 g/100 g.

  14. Effect of Flavourzyme on proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Qiao, Yan; Zou, Yufeng; Huang, Ming; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhou, Guanghong

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Flavourzyme, at levels of 0 (control) 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 LAPU/kg raw meat, on the proteolysis, antioxidant capacity and sensory attributes of Chinese sausage made at 50 °C for 48 h. Results showed that Flavourzyme addition in Chinese sausage accelerated protein degradation, which was reflected by the increase of non-protein nitrogen and appearance of new protein bands in both water-soluble and salt-soluble proteins. By adding Flavourzyme, texture profile analysis (TPA) parameters decreased significantly, and aroma, taste and texture scores were enhanced, respectively. The best sensory attributes were obtained at 8 and 12 LAPU/kg Flavourzyme dose. Besides, Flavourzyme addition enhanced antioxidant capacity, lowered water activity and TBARS values of Chinese sausage. Therefore, moderate Flavourzyme addition is a novel method with great potential to improve eating properties and storage stability of Chinese sausage.

  15. Bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in new kiwi fruit cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Seo; Namiesnik, Jacek; Vearasilp, Kann; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Trakhtenberg, Simon; Gorinstein, Shela

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this investigation was to find the best among seven different kiwi fruit cultivars ('Hayward', 'Daheung', 'Haenam', 'Bidan', 'Hort16A', 'Hwamei' and 'SKK12') for human consumption and to classify them as groups. Therefore, the contents of bioactive compounds and the level of antioxidant capacities of these cultivars were determined in four different extracts and compared. It was found that the contents of the bioactive compounds and the level of antioxidant capacities in different extracts differ significantly (Pkiwi fruit cultivars can be classified for three groups: 'Hayward' (including 'Daheung', 'Haenam', Hwamei' and 'SKK12'), 'Bidan' and 'Hort 16A'. In MS - profiles some differences in the peaks were found between the cultivar groups. All studied fruits could be a valuable addition to known disease preventing diets.

  16. Hydrocolloids Decrease the Digestibility of Corn Starch, Soy Protein, and Skim Milk and the Antioxidant Capacity of Grape Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yue; Jeon, Hyeong-Ju; Yoon, Sun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocolloids have many applications in foods including their use in dysphagia diets. We aimed to evaluate whether hydrocolloids in foods affect the digestibility of starch and protein, and their effects on antioxidant capacity. The thickening hydrocolloids: locust bean gum and carboxymethyl cellulose, and the gel-forming agents: agar agar, konjac-glucomannan, and Hot & Soft Plus were blended with corn starch and soy protein, skim milk, or grape juice and were examined for their in vitro-digestability by comparing the reducing sugar and trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, for antioxidant capacity by total polyphenol contents and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The hydrocolloids resulted in a decrease in starch digestibility with the gel-forming agents. Hydrocolloids diminished TCA-soluble peptides in skim milk compared to soy protein with the exception of locust bean gum and decreased free radical scavenging capacities and total phenolic contents in grape juice. Our findings may provide evidence for the use of hydro-colloids for people at risk of nutritional deficiencies such as dysphagia patients.

  17. Increased serum advanced glycation end products are associated with impairment in HDL antioxidative capacity in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huali; Tan, Kathryn C B; Shiu, Sammy W M; Wong, Ying

    2008-03-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Recent data suggest that AGEs may also interfere with the function of HDL and the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. We have investigated whether serum AGE level is associated with impairment in the antioxidative capacity of HDL and in the ability of serum to induce cholesterol efflux in type 2 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. A total of 167 controls and 264 diabetic patients was recruited. The ability of serum to induce cellular cholesterol efflux and the capacity of HDL to inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo was determined. Serum AGEs were assayed by competitive ELISA using a polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against AGE-RNase. Diabetic subjects were subdivided into three groups (normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and proteinuria). Serum AGEs were significantly increased in diabetic patients with microalbuminuria or proteinuria (P diabetic patients compared to controls (P HDL was significantly impaired in patients with microalbuminuria or proteinuria (P HDL and this was partly due to the adverse effect of AGEs on paraoxonase-1 activity. In type 2 diabetic patients with incipient or overt nephropathy, increased serum concentration of AGEs was associated with impairment in the antioxidative capacity of HDL. Cholesterol efflux to serum was also reduced but was not related to serum AGEs.

  18. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  19. Use of Pyrogallol Red and Pyranine as Probes to Evaluate Antioxidant Capacities towards Hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pérez-Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypochlorite is a strong oxidant able to induce deleterious effects in biological systems. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of PGR and PYR as probes in assays aimed at evaluating antioxidant activities towards hypochorite and apply it to plant extracts employed in Chilean folk medicine. The consumption of PGR and PYR was evaluated from the decrease in the visible absorbance and fluorescence intensity, respectively. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin Ciocalteau assay. PGR and PYR react with hypochlorite with different kinetics, being considerably faster the consumption of PGR. Different stoichiometric values were also determined: 0.7 molecules of PGR and 0.33 molecules of PYR were bleached per each molecule of added hypochlorite. Both probes were protected by antioxidants, but the rate of PGR bleaching was too fast to perform a kinetic analysis. For PYR, the protection took place without changes in its initial consumption rate, suggesting a competition between the dye and the antioxidant for hypochlorite. Plant extracts protected PYR giving a PYR-HOCl index that follows the order: Fuchsia magellanica » Marrubium vulgare » Tagetes minuta > Chenopodium ambrosoides » Satureja montana > Thymus praecox. Based on both the kinetic data and the protection afforded by pure antioxidants, we selected PYR as the best probe. The proposed methodology allows evaluating an antioxidant capacity index of plant extracts related to the reactivity of the samples towards hypochlorite.

  20. Protective capacity of Artemisia annua as a potent antioxidant remedy against free radical damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter Nkachukwu Chukwurah; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe; Aniefiok Ndubuisi Osuagwu; Tebekeme Okoko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant capacity of four leaf-derived solvent extracts of Artemisiaannua Methods: A. annua leaves were extracted with four solvents (absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, 70% ethanol and 70% methanol), and extracts obtained studied by five complementaryin vitro antioxidant test systems using ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and rutin as standard references. Results: The extracts remarkably inhibited lipid peroxidation (79.81%-86.70%), and erythrocyte haemolysis (40.02%-49.91%). Their IC50 values for hydroxyl, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activities ranged from 2.39-3.81 mg/mL (superior to the standards), 107.24-144.49 µg/mL and 28.53-53.20 µg/mL, respectively. 70% alcohol extracts generally showed better antioxidant activity than absolute alcohol extracts. (A. annua), a medicinal plant widely touted for its vast phyto-therapeutic potential. Conclusions: The results indicate that A. annua leaf extracts have potent antioxidant activities that would have beneficial effect on human health, and aqueous organic solvents are superior to the absolute counterparts in yielding extracts with better antioxidant potential.

  1. In vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of seven common oats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Wise, Mitchell L; Gulvady, Apeksha A; Chang, Tony; Kendra, David F; Jan-Willem van Klinken, B; Shi, Yuhui; O'Shea, Marianne

    2013-08-15

    Oats are gaining increasing scientific and public interest for their purported antioxidant-associated health benefits. Most reported studies focused on specific oat extracts or particular oat components, such as β-glucans, tocols (vitamin E), or avenanthramides. Studies on whole oats with respect to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities are still lacking. Here the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from whole oat groats of seven common varieties were evaluated. All oat varieties had very similar oxygen radical absorption capacity compared with other whole grains. In an anti-inflammatory assay, oat variety CDC Dancer inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α induced nuclear factor-kappa B activation by 27.5% at 2 mg/ml, whereas variety Deiter showed 13.7% inhibition at a comparable dose. Avenanthramide levels did not correlate with the observed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Further investigations are needed to pinpoint the specific antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, and potential synergistic and/or matrix effects that may help explain the mechanisms of oat's anti-inflammatory actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Mobile Phone Usage Time on Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme Arbabi-Kalati; Saeedeh Salimi; Ali Vaziry-Rabiee; Mohammad Noraeei

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Nowadays mobile phone is very popular, causing concern about the effect it has on people’s health. Parotid salivary glands are in close contact to cell phone while talking with the phone and the possibility of being affected by them. Limited studies have evaluated the effect of cell phone use on the secretions of these glands; so this study was designed to investigate the effects of duration of mobile phone use on the total antioxidant capacity of saliva. Methods Unstimula...

  3. Antioxidative capacity and enzyme activity in Haematococcus pluvialis cells exposed to superoxide free radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建国; 张晓丽; 孙延红; 林伟

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative capacity of astaxanthin and enzyme activity of reactive oxygen eliminating enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were studied in three cell types of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to high concentrations of a superoxide anion radical (O2ˉ).The results show that defensive enzymes and astaxanthin-related mechanisms were both active in H.pluvialis during exposure to reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as Oˉ2.Astaxanthin reacte...

  4. Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Fruits and Vegetables Common in the Croatian Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verica Dragović-uzelac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the polyphenol content (total phenols, flavonoids, nonflavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in selected fruits (apple, ‘Idared’; apricot, ‘Madjarska najbolja’; blueberry, ‘Bluecrop’; mandarin, ‘Kuno’; orange, unknown; sour cherry, ‘Marasca’; strawberry, ‘Maya’ and peach, ‘Redhaven’ and vegetables (broccoli, ‘Belstar’ -flower and steam; cauliflower, ‘Favola’; kale, ‘Melissa’ and leek-leaf and root -unknown commonly consumed in the Croatian diet. Total phenols, flavonoids and nonflavonoids were measured calorimetrically by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as the standard; anthocyanins were determined using bisulphite bleaching method using cyanidin-3-diglucoside as standard, whereas antioxidant capacity was measured using DPPH method. The highest total polyphenols were observed in sour cherry as 2560 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW, followed by blueberry, orange, mandarin, strawberry, apple, apricot, and peach. Among vegetables the highest concentration of total polyphenols was determined in kale (1039 mg GAE/kg FW followed by broccoli flower, broccoli steam, leek leaf, leek root and cauliflower. In all investigated fruits, as well as vegetables, total flavonoids were predominant polyphenols. Total nonflavonoids were present in low concentration especially in leek leaf, broccoli flower and leek root. The highest antioxidant capacity in fruit and vegetables was determined in samples with higher concentration of flavonoids. In selected fruits, there was a distinct correlation between total phenols or flavonoids and antioxidant capacity, while in vegetable the correlation was not observed.

  5. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyedemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM. The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC and flavonoid content (TFC in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO and Ceiba pentandra (CP recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  6. Alpha-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidative Capacity of Some Antidiabetic Plants Used by the Traditional Healers in Southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedemi, Blessing O.; Ijeh, Ifeoma I.; Ohanyerem, Princemartins E.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome including diabetes mellitus (DM). The inhibition of alpha-amylase is an important therapeutic target in the regulation of postprandial increase of blood glucose in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the alpha-amylase inhibitory and antioxidant potential of selected herbal drugs used in the treatment of DM by the traditional healers in Isiala Mbano and Ikwuano regions of southeastern Nigeria. Antioxidant activity was evaluated in terms of free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in consonance with the TLC profiling. The results showed that methanol crude extracts from Anacardium occidentale (AO) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) recorded higher TPC and TFC, potent free radical scavenging, and efficient reducing power (RP) as compared with other plant samples. All the plant extracts exhibited a relative alpha-amylase inhibition apart from Strophanthus hispidus (SH) extract with a negative effect. We discovered a mild to weak correlation between alpha-amylase inhibition or antioxidative capacity and the total phenol or flavonoid content. At least in part, the results obtained in this work support the traditional use of certain plant species in the treatment of patients with DM.

  7. Effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haifeng; Dong, Jianjun; Lu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Li, Yin; Shan, Lianju; Lin, Yan; Fan, Wei; Gu, Guoxian

    2006-09-20

    Four kinds of solvent extracts from three Chinese barley varieties (Ken-3, KA4B, and Gan-3) were used to examine the effects of extraction solvent mixtures on antioxidant activity evaluation and their extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley through free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and metal chelating activity, and individual and total phenolic contents. Results showed that extraction solvent mixtures had significant impacts on antioxidant activity estimation, as well as different extraction capacity and selectivity for free phenolic compounds in barley. The highest DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities and reducing power were found in 80% acetone extracts, whereas the strongest *OH scavenging activity, O2*- scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity were found in 80% ethanol, 80% methanol, and water extracts, respectively. Additionally, 80% acetone showed the highest extraction capacity for (+)-catechin and ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, and p-coumaric acids, 80% methanol for (-)-epicatechin and syringic acid, and water for protocatechuic and gallic acids. Furthermore, correlations analysis revealed that TPC, reducing power, DPPH* and ABTS*+ scavenging activities were well positively correlated with each other (p antioxidant activity, 80% acetone was recommended to extract free phenolic compounds from barley. DPPH* scavenging activity and ABTS*+ scavenging activity or reducing power could be used to assess barley antioxidant activity.

  8. Flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity: comparison between commercial green tea preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Harumi Kodama

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential health benefits attributed to green tea and its catechins such as antioxidant effects, cancer chemoprevention, and weight loss have led to a huge increase of green tea products in the food market. The objectives of this work were to analyze and compare these products in terms of phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity including tea bags, dehydrated leaves, and ready-to-drink preparations after standardization of the infusion preparation procedure. Total phenolics content in 1 cup of the different teas varied from 90 to 341 mg of catechin equivalents, and the highest and the lowest values were both those of the ready-to-drink products. Infusions prepared from tea bags had contents varying from 96 to 201 mg.200 mL-1, and there were no significant differences among batches. The DPPH radical scavenging and the Oxygen Radical Absorbing Capacities (ORAC varied largely among the different tea preparations, from 23 to 131 mmoles of Trolox Equivalents (TE.200 mL-1 (DPPH, and from 1.2 to 5.1 mmoles of TE.200 mL-1 (ORAC, but again there were no differences among infusions or ready-to-drink commercial preparations. However, the antioxidant capacity of ready-to-drink products was partially due to the presence of other non-phenolic compounds such as ascorbic acid

  9. The effects of ketogenic diet on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers of Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhyu, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Su-Youn; Roh, Hee-Tae

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ketogenic diet through 3 weeks on oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers in Taekwondo athletes. The participants selected for this research were 18 high school taekwondo contestants aged 15-18 who had at least 5 yr of career as contestant. The subjects were randomly assigned to the ketogenic diet (KD) group and the Non ketogenic diet (NDK) group. Body composition and oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity markers (LDH, MDA, ROS, HDL, and SOD) were analysed before and after 3 weeks of ketogenic diet. No significant difference was found between the groups in body composition, ROS and SOD level. The KD group showed an elevated HDL level and NKD group showed an elevated LDH and MDA level after ketogenic diet by 3 weeks. This result suggests that weight loss by 3 weeks of calorie restriction and exercise can cause oxidative stress, and that ketogenic diet can be effective for preventing it. It could also be inferred that ketogenic diet can be effective for increasing blood antioxidative capacity.

  10. Phytochemical Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Two Aloe greatheadii var. davyana Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Toit Loots

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae is used among rural South African communities to treat arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure and diabetes, despite very little supporting scientific evidence. Due to increased interest by both the scientific community and industry regarding the medicinal uses of this plant species, we identified, quantified and compared the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two extracts of A. greatheadii; a leaf gel extract (LGE and a 95 % aqueous ethanol leaf gel extract (ELGE, using various modified extraction procedures, GC-MS and spectrophotometry. Apart from extensively characterizing this medicinal plant with regards to its organic acid, polyphenols/phenolic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, alkane, pyrimidine, indole, alkaloid, phytosterol, fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid contents and antioxidant capacities, we describe a modified extraction procedure for the purpose of general phytochemical characterization, and compare this to a 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction technique. From the results it is clear that A. greatheadii contains a variety of compounds with confirmed antioxidant capacity and other putative health benefits (such as blood glucose, cholesterol and cortisol lowering properties relating to the prevention or treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypertension. The results also indicate that separate ethyl acetate/diethyl ether and hexane extractions of the LGE, better serve for general phytochemical characterization purposes, and 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction for concentrating selective groups of health related compounds, hence justifying its use for biological in vivo efficacy studies.

  11. Extraction, antioxidant capacity and identification of Semen Astragali Complanati (Astragalus complanatus R. Br.) phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-An; Fan, Xue-Hui; Zhang, Zhi-Qi; Li, Tao; Zhu, Cai-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rui; Song, Wei

    2013-11-15

    A study about the ultrasonic extraction, antioxidant capacity and identification of phenolics from Semen Astragali Complanati was undertaken. The optimised extraction condition with an orthogonal experiment design of L9(3(4)) was 50°C, 30min and 15:1 (methanol solution:sample, mL:g). An extraction yield of 40.12±1.10mg gallic acid/g dry seed and the antioxidant capacity of 0.85±0.13mg dry extract/mg DPPH were obtained with the optimum condition, respectively. For each extraction set, the antioxidant capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical assay highly correlated to its total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Twelve phenolic components obtained with the optimised extraction procedure were tentatively identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Q-TOF Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Q-TOF) according to their mass spectrometry, UV/vis spectrometry, and related literature reports. Furthermore, the ultrasonic effect on the particles' microstructure of Semen Astragali Complanati was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis.

  12. Soluble free phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of bread and durum wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žilić Slađana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine phenolic compounds and the total antioxidant capacity in the grain of ten bread (T. aestivum L. and ten durum (T. durum Desf. wheat genotypes. Soluble free forms of total phenolics, flavonoids, PVPP (polyvinylpolypyrrolidone bound phenolics, proanthocyanidins and phenolic acids were investigated. In addition, the correlation coefficients between total antioxidant capacities and the concentration of different soluble free phenolic compounds, as well as between soluble free total phenolics and phenolic acids, flavonoids and PVPP bound phenolics were determined. Significant differences in the content of aceton/water extractable total phenolics, PVPP bound phenolics and phenolic acids between and within two wheat species were found. On the average, durum wheat samples had about 1.19-fold higher total phenolic compounds and about 1.5-fold higher PVPP bound phenolics than bread wheat samples. Three phenolic acids, ferulic, caffeic and chlorogenic, were detected in wholemeal bread wheat. Caffeic acid was not found in durum wheat samples whilst ferulic acid was the most abundant. Proanthocyanidins in bread and durum wheat genotypes were not detected. The antioxidant capacity measured as the DPPH radical scavenging activity was similar in wholemeal of bread and durum wheat, however, significant differences were observed among genotypes within species. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31069

  13. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two Aloe greatheadii var. davyana extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botes, Lisa; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Loots, Du Toit

    2008-09-12

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae) is used among rural South African communities to treat arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure and diabetes, despite very little supporting scientific evidence. Due to increased interest by both the scientific community and industry regarding the medicinal uses of this plant species, we identified, quantified and compared the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two extracts of A. greatheadii; a leaf gel extract (LGE) and a 95 % aqueous ethanol leaf gel extract (ELGE), using various modified extraction procedures, GC-MS and spectrophotometry. Apart from extensively characterizing this medicinal plant with regards to its organic acid, polyphenols/phenolic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, alkane, pyrimidine, indole, alkaloid, phytosterol, fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid contents and antioxidant capacities, we describe a modified extraction procedure for the purpose of general phytochemical characterization, and compare this to a 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction technique. From the results it is clear that A. greatheadii contains a variety of compounds with confirmed antioxidant capacity and other putative health benefits (such as blood glucose, cholesterol and cortisol lowering properties) relating to the prevention or treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypertension. The results also indicate that separate ethyl acetate/diethyl ether and hexane extractions of the LGE, better serve for general phytochemical characterization purposes, and 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction for concentrating selective groups of health related compounds, hence justifying its use for biological in vivo efficacy studies.

  14. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of food mixtures is not correlated with their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan; Meckling, Kelly A; Marcone, Massimo F

    2013-12-01

    Combining different foods may produce additive, synergistic, or antagonistic interactions that may modify certain physiological effects (i.e., anticancer properties). For investigating these interactions and potential synergetic combinations, thirteen foods from three categories, including fruits (raspberries, blackberries, apples, grapes), vegetables (broccoli, tomatoes, mushrooms, purple cauliflowers, onions), and legumes (soy beans, adzuki beans, red kidney beans, black beans), were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Grape, onion, and adzuki bean showed maximal growth inhibition of MCF-7 from the fruit, vegetable, and legume groups, respectively. When these three foods were combined in pairs, unique interactions were observed that were not seen when individual extracts were used. Combining onion and grape resulted in a synergistic antiproliferative effect (APE) against MCF-7 compared with either onion or grape treatment alone. In contrast, combining grape and adzuki bean resulted in an antagonistic interaction. Additionally, four antioxidant assays (total phenolic contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity) were further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities (AC) of individual foods and their combinations. Combining raspberry and adzuki bean extracts demonstrated synergistic AC in all four assays, but they did not show synergistic APE against the MCF-7 cells. Combining broccoli and soy produced antioxidant antagonism, but did not have an antagonistic APE against MCF-7. The synergistic or antagonistic AC of food mixtures did not correlate with the synergistic or antagonistic APE against MCF-7. Further investigation is to determine the mechanisms of these interactions and to predict and enhance the therapeutic benefits of foods and food components through strategic food combinations.

  16. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Marcelo P; Ganini, Douglas; Lorenço-Lima, Leandro; Soares, Chrislaine O; Pereira, Benedito; Bechara, Etelvino Jh; Silveira, Leonardo R; Curi, Rui; Souza-Junior, Tacito P

    2012-06-12

    Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old) immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %), but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP), leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent) and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  17. Food additives reducing volatility of antioxidants at frying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    At frying temperature, antioxidants are lost not only by reaction with radicals formed by oil oxidation, but also by decomposition and evaporation before they are able to exert antioxidant activity. In this study it was hypothesized that an additive that can bind or interact with an antioxidant coul...

  18. The effect of copper deficiency on fetal growth and liver anti-oxidant capacity in the Cohen diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaz, Zivanit, E-mail: zivanit@hadassah.org.il [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Shoshani-Dror, Dana [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Guillemin, Claire [Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Neeman-azulay, Meytal; Fudim, Liza [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel); Weksler-Zangen, Sarah [Diabetes Research Unit, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School and Hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Stodgell, Christopher J.; Miller, Richard K. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Rochester, Rochester, MN (United States); Ornoy, Asher [Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)

    2012-12-01

    High sucrose low copper diet induces fetal growth restriction in the three strains of the Cohen diabetic rats: an inbred copper deficient resistant (CDr), an inbred copper deficient sensitive (CDs that become diabetic on high sucrose low copper diet -HSD) and an outbred Wistar derived Sabra rats. Although those growth restricted fetuses also exhibit increased oxidative stress, antioxidants do not restore normal growth. In the present study, we evaluated the role of copper deficiency in the HSD induced fetal growth restriction by adding to the drinking water of the rats 1 ppm or 2 ppm of copper throughout their pregnancy. Fetal and placental growth in correlation with fetal liver copper content and anti-oxidant capacity was evaluated on day 21 of pregnancy. HSD compared to regular chow induced fetal growth restriction, which was most significant in the Cohen diabetic sensitive animals. The addition of 1 ppm and 2 ppm copper to the drinking water normalized fetal growth in a dose dependent manner and reduced the degree of hyperglycemia in the diabetes sensitive rats. The CDs fetuses responded to the HSD with lower catalase like activity, and less reduced superoxide dismutase levels compared to the Sabra strain, and had high malondialdehyde levels even when fed regular chow. Immunostaining was higher for nitrotyrosine among the CDr and higher for hypoxia factor 1 α among the CDs. We conclude that in our model of dietary-induced fetal growth restriction, copper deficiency plays a major etiologic role in the decrease of fetal growth and anti-oxidant capacity. -- Highlights: ► High sucrose low copper diet restricted fetal growth in the Cohen diabetic rat model ► Maternal copper blood levels directly correlated with fetal liver copper content ► Copper supplementation decreased embryonic resorption in the inbred strains ► Copper supplementation reduced hyperglycemia in the sucrose sensitive inbred strain ► Copper supplementation alleviated growth restriction and

  19. The aqueous humour antioxidative capacity in different types and color of the age-related cataract

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    Žorić Lepša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxidative stress results from increased oxidative processes, decreased antioxidative protection, or both processes simultaneously. Photooxidative stress, as a form of oxidative stress, induced by the energy of solar radiation, today is considered as crucial in the age-related cataractogenesis. Other known and unknown, endogenous and egsogenous factors that contribute to the oxidative stress intensity, can influence the cataract type and brunescence. Thus the oxidative stress intensity and its form might determine the cataract type and brunescence, and also make the efforts in cataract prevention more complex. Hence, the objective of the present paper was to investigate the current amount of antioxidative capacity in aqueous humour during the cataract genesis of different types and pigmentation of cataract. Methods. Transversal review of 80 samples of humour aqueous obtained during extracapsular cataract extraction. Aqueouses were analyzed by tiobarbituric acid (TBA method for the total antioxidant activity estimation, expressed as %iMDA, and by using 0.1 ml of aqueous. Results. The mixed type of cataract showed the statistically significantly lower values of the intensities of antioxidative protection in aqueous humour compared to cortical and nuclear cataracts (p < 0.001, respectively. Between pure nuclear and cortical cataracts we found the small differences of the investigated parameter, but they pointed to the decreased level of antioxidative protection, i.e. the increased intensity of the aqueous humour oxidative stress in the cortical cataract type. A significant correlation between the cortical cataract maturation and the %iMDA (p < 0.05 was found. Conclusions. The role of the oxidative stress, here expressed as the antioxidative capacity of aqueous humour, could not be the same for all the cataract types. The lower level of antioxidative protection of aqueous in brunescent and mixed cataracts may point to the higher

  20. Research of antioxidant capacity of araza (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh during the ripening

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    Fabio A. Cuellar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The araza is a fruit native of the Amazon region, like other fruits of this region has some antioxidant components. This work was carried out the classification of the fruits of araza in four different states using as the index of maturity, then phenolic compounds were extracted using mixtures of solvents (methanol, acetone, water and your content was determined by the spectrophotometric method Folin-Ciocalteu in the epicarp and mesocarp. Additionally, partially identified phenolic compounds by reversed phase HPLC with diode array, finding the phenolic acids such as chlorogenic, gallic and caffeic, such as phenols responsible for the majority of araza antioxidant activity. It was noted that araza mesocarp polyphenol content was higher in the green (1200 mg/1000g fruto BH state followed by mature (1200 mg/1000g fruto BH, pinton (905 mg/1000g fruto BH and over mature (550 mg/1000g fruto BH while the epicarp was greater in states mature (170 mg/1000g fruto BH and green (295 mg/1000g fruto BH followed of the over-mature (50 mg/1000g fruto BH and pinton (100 mg/1000g fruto BH states. The antioxidant capacity was determined by three hydrophilic methods (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP in the mesocarp found that the antioxidant capacity was higher in the green state followed by mature, pinton  and over mature while the epicarp was higher in mature, green, pinton and over-mature state. We also determined the antioxidant capacity by a lipophilic method (b-carotene bleaching found that in the mesocarp was higher in states followed by mature (110 mg/1000g fruto BH, pinton (90 mg/1000g fruto BH and  green (26 mg/1000g fruto BH while in the epicarp was higher in the over mature stage (50 mg/1000g fruto BHfollowed by greeen states (45 mg/1000g fruto BH, mature (55 mg/1000g fruto BHand  sobre mature  (25 mg/1000g fruto BH. Finally we conclude that the mature and green had the highest antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds being present in the epicarp and mesocarp

  1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Pretreatment of Whey Protein Isolates Improves Their Digestibility and Antioxidant Capacity

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    Michèle M. Iskandar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Whey proteins have well-established antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. High hydrostatic pressure processing of whey protein isolates increases their in vitro digestibility resulting in enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. This study compared the effects of different digestion protocols on the digestibility of pressurized (pWPI and native (nWPI whey protein isolates and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the hydrolysates. The pepsin-pancreatin digestion protocol was modified to better simulate human digestion by adjusting temperature and pH conditions, incubation times, enzymes utilized, enzyme-to-substrate ratio and ultrafiltration membrane molecular weight cut-off. pWPI showed a significantly greater proteolysis rate and rate of peptide appearance regardless of digestion protocol. Both digestion methods generated a greater relative abundance of eluting peptides and the appearance of new peptide peaks in association with pWPI digestion in comparison to nWPI hydrolysates. Hydrolysates of pWPI from both digestion conditions showed enhanced ferric-reducing antioxidant power relative to nWPI hydrolysates. Likewise, pWPI hydrolysates from both digestion protocols showed similar enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in a respiratory epithelial cell line as compared to nWPI hydrolysates. These findings indicate that regardless of considerable variations of in vitro digestion protocols, pressurization of WPI leads to more efficient digestion that improves its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of Lonicerae macranthoides by HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Chen, Lin; Shi, Shuyun; Cai, Ping; Liang, Xuejuan; Zhang, Shuihan

    2016-05-30

    Lonicerae macranthoides with strong antioxidant activity is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and folk tea/beverage. However, detailed information about its antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds is limited. Then at first, we comparatively evaluated total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activities of water extract, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of L. macranthoides. Ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest level of TPC (207.38 mg GAE/g DW), TFC (53.06 mg RE/g DW) and the best DPPH scavenge activity and reducing power. n-Butanol fraction showed the best ABTS(+) and O2(-) scavenging activities. Interestingly, water extract, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed stronger antioxidant activities than positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). After that, thirty-one antioxidant phenolic compounds, including twenty-two phenolic acids and nine flavonoids, were screened by DPPH-HPLC experiment and then identified using HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS. It is noted that twenty-one compounds (1, 3-4, 6-17, 19, 23, 26, 28-29, and 31), as far as was known, were discovered from L. macranthoide for the first time, and eleven of them (3-4, 10-17, and 23) were reported in Lonicera species for the first time. Results indicated that L. macranthoides could serve as promising source of rich antioxidants in foods, beverages and medicines for health promotion.

  3. Antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds on human cell lines as affected by grape-tyrosinase and Botrytis-laccase oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Matthias; Sabel, Andrea; Claus, Harald; Xia, Ning; Li, Huige; König, Helmut; Decker, Heinz; Fronk, Petra

    2017-08-15

    Phenolic components (PCs) are well-known for their positive impact on human health. In addition to their action as radical scavengers, they act as activators for the intrinsic cellular antioxidant system. Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) such as tyrosinase and laccase catalyze the enzymatic oxidation of PCs and thus, can alter their scavenging and antioxidative capacity. In this study, oxidation by tryosinase was shown to increase the antioxidant capacity of many PCs, especially those that lack adjacent aromatic hydroxyl groups. In contrast, oxidation by laccase tended to decrease the antioxidant capacity of red wine and distinct PCs. This was clearly demonstrated for p-coumaric acid and resveratrol, which is associated with many health benefits. While oxidation by tyrosinase increased their antioxidant activity laccase treatment resulted in a decreased activity and also of that for red wines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary total antioxidant capacity from different assays in relation to serum C-reactive protein among young Japanese women

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    Kobayashi Satomi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC from different assays and serum C-reactive protein (CRP has not been assessed in non-Western populations. We examined the association between dietary TAC and serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women using different four TAC assays. Methods The subjects were 443 young Japanese women aged 18–22 years. Dietary TAC was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire and the TAC value of each food using the following four assays: ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP; oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC; Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC; and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP. Serum CRP concentrations were measured by highly sensitive nephelometry. Results The major contributor to dietary TAC was green, barley, and oolong tea (FRAP: 53%, ORAC: 45%, TEAC: 36%, and TRAP: 44%. The prevalence of elevated CRP concentrations (≥ 1 mg/L was 5.6%. TAC from FRAP was inversely associated with serum CRP concentrations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for elevated CRP concentration in high [compared with low] dietary TAC group: 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16-0.98]; P = 0.04. TAC from ORAC was inversely associated with CRP, although the association was not significant (OR: 0.48 [95% CI: 0.20-1.14]; P = 0.10. TAC from TEAC was inversely associated with CRP (OR: 0.32 [95% CI: 0.12-0.82]; P = 0.02, as was TAC from TRAP (OR: 0.31 [95% CI: 0.12-0.81]; P = 0.02. Conclusions Dietary TAC was inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in young Japanese women regardless of assay. Further studies are needed in other populations to confirm these results.

  5. Study of Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Myrianthus Arboreus (Cecropiaceae Root Bark Extracts

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    Pierre Betu Kasangana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc and hexane (Hex. The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6 was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62. Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  6. Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organically and conventionally grown vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kevser Unal; Deny Susanti; Muhammad Taher

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of ethanol extracts of some organically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables. Methods:The ethanol extracts of kailan (Brassica alboglabra), bayam (Amaranthus spp.) and sawi (Brassica parachinensis) were tested for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total anthocyanin content (TAC) and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts measured using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results:In TPC test, sawi extract showed the highest phenolic content while bayam contained the least phenolic content for both organically and conventionally grown types. In TFC test, organically grown sawi extract showed the highest flavonoid content, while organically grown kailan extract showed the least flavonoid content among all types of vegetables. The flavonoid content of the conventionally grown types of vegetable extracts was the highest in kalian and the least in sawi. For 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, the activity increased with the increasing concentration of each extract. All conventionally grown vegetable extracts showed higher antioxidant activity compared to their organically grown counterparts. Extracts of conventionally grown sawi showed the highest percentage inhibition followed by conventionally grown kailan and organically grown sawi. There were no correlation between TPC, TFC, TAC and IC25 of both organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, there was a correlation between TAC and IC25 of conventionally grown vegetable extracts. The results showed relatively similar polyphenol content between organically and conventionally grown vegetable extracts. However, the conventionally grown vegetables extracts generally have higher antioxidant activity compared to the organically grown extracts. Conclusions:These results suggested that the different types of agricultural practice had a significant contribution to the polyphenol

  7. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  8. Design of two electrode system for detection of antioxidant capacity with photoelectrochemical platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongxue; Ma, Weiguang; Wang, Lingnan; Ni, Shuang; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Wei; Dong, Xiandui; Niu, Li

    2016-01-15

    Recently, a flow photoelectrochemical cell has been first developed and applied to assay global antioxidant capacity in our group. Yet, shortcomings of liquid reference electrode such as sample contaminations from the leaking of the reference solution, mechanically fragile, temperature and light sensitivity, etc. are significant restrictions for integration and miniaturization of photoelectrochemical sensing instruments, which have greatly limited their practical applications. Bearing these problems, in this work a novel two electrode flow photoelectron-chemical system (two-EPCS) has been developed for detection of antioxidant capacity. It is noteworthy that the electrochemical modulation-free mode (detection at the potential of 0.0V) is performed, which has greatly simplified the analysis process and will result in significant simplifications of the instrument integrations. During the sample analysis, both standard antioxidants and commercial beverages were detected. Results evaluated from the two-EPCS are well agreed with those of the traditional three-EPCS at low potentials. By unloading of the reference electrode, it is of great convenience to design a novel photoelectrochemical microfluidic chip based on the two-EPCS, which has also been successfully applied for antioxidant capacity assay. It is satisfactory that comparable detection concentration range and sensitivity were accomplished by applying the microfluidic chip technique. Moreover, the two-EPCS is verified to be a universal platform which does not depend on selected optoelectronic materials but pervasive for general photocatalysts. Such a two-EPCS should be considered as a feasible alternative to the three-EPCS, which will become a promising candidate for industrial and commercial photoelectrochemical sensing instrument integrations in the future.

  9. Elicitation and treatment with precursors of phenolics synthesis improve low-molecular antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of buckwheat sprouts

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    Michał Świeca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, an increase of interest in the modification of food products on each step of production (breeding, production technology, storage condition is observed. Nutritional properties as well as level and activity of bioactive compounds in plant-origin food may be modified using a range of technological and biotechnological practices and elicitation should be mentioned between them. Material and methods. Elicitation with willow bark infusion supported by feeding with the phenylpropa- noid pathway precursors were used for improving the quality of buckwheat sprouts. Special emphasis has been placed on the metabolomic and biochemical changes and the mechanism of overproduction of low-molecular antioxidants. Results. The accumulation of phenolics is caused by stimulation of two main enzymes the phenylpropanoid pathway (tyrosine ammonia-lyase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities were effectively induced by feeding with tyrosine (about four times that of the control, whereas phenylala- nine ammonia-lyase activity was the highest in the elicited control sprouts and those fed with shikimic acid (an increase by 60% compared to the control. Shikimic acid feeding (both elicited and non-elicited sprouts effectively improved the total phenolics (by about 10% and 20%, respectively, condensed tannins (by about 30% and 28%, respectively, and flavonoids (by about 46% and 70%, respectively. Significant increase of vitexin, rutin, chlorogenic acid and isoorientin contents was also observed. The treatments increased the ascorbic acid content, too. Total antioxidant capacity of sprouts was most effectively increased by feeding with shikimic acid and further elicitation. Conclusion. The studies transfer biotechnology commonly used for the induction of overproduction of sec- ondary metabolites in plant cell line systems to low-processed food production. The obtained results could be used for better understanding of

  10. Antioxidant capacities of phlorotannins extracted from the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Liwei; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Raghavan, Sivakumar; Olafsdóttir, Gudrún

    2012-06-13

    A process for the effective extraction and fractionation of phlorotannins from Fucus vesiculosus with high antioxidant potentials was investigated. The antioxidant activity of F. vesiculosus extract/fractions was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating assays. Among the crude extract and different polarity fractions, the phlorotannin-enriched ethyl acetate fraction possessed the highest DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power. This fraction was further fractionated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography or ultrafiltration. The antioxidant properties were evaluated by both the above chemical antioxidant tests and a mononuclear cell-based bioassay. Sephadex subfractions LH-2 and LH-3 with high total phlorotannin content exhibited strong DPPH quenching activity, comparable to those of ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene and significantly higher than that of α-tocopherol. Polyphenols in F. vesiculosus were found to consist mainly of high molecular weight phlorotannin polymers. There were no clear relationships between the degree of polymerization, molecular size, and antioxidant activity. All the subfractions separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and ultrafiltration showed a high ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species generated by mononuclear cells. Further characterization of the phlorotannin compounds was performed on six Sephadex subfractions. Several phlorotannin oligomers were tentatively identified on the basis of HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses.

  11. Isoflavone composition and antioxidant capacity of modified-lipoxygenase soybeans grown in Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whent, Monica; Lv, Junli; Luthria, Devanand L; Kenworthy, William; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2011-12-28

    Maryland-grown soybean lines modified for low lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) content and a traditional nonmodified cultivar were analyzed for fatty acid composition, total phenolic content (TPC), isoflavone composition, relative DPPH• scavenging capacity (RDSC), and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity (HOSC). Soybean lines included black, brown, and yellow soybeans. TPC of all soybean lines ranged from 2.84 to 4.74 mg gallic acid equiv (GAE)/g flour. Total isoflavones were between 2.78 and 8.66 μmol/g flour. RDSC of all lines was between 0.48 and 14.62 μmol Trolox equiv (TE)/g flour, and HOSC ranged from 53.57 to 135.52 μmol TE/g flour. Some modified-LOX genotypes demonstrated antioxidant capacity and/or isoflavone content similar to or higher than those of the nonmodified cultivar (P soybeans demonstrated higher TPC and RDSC than most yellow soybean lines, although they did not have higher isoflavone content. The results demonstrate that modification of the LOX trait did not necessarily alter the antioxidant capacity or chemical composition of the experimental soybean lines when compared with a nonmodified cultivar. These soybean lines may be studied further for nutraceutical properties and use in functional foods.

  12. Changes in Ascorbic Acid Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Sensory Quality of Fresh-cut Mangosteens During Storage

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    Supranee MANURAKCHINAKORN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut mangosteens, stored in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 5% O2 + 9% CO2, in vacuum packaging (VAC and in air (AIR were examined for ascorbic acid content, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality during 14 days of storage at 4oC. After 4 days-storage, fresh-cut fruits with MAP resulted in better retention of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity than those stored in AIR throughout the storage. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in ascorbic acid contents between fruits stored in MAP and VAC, as well as antioxidant capacities, during the remaining period of storage. Fresh-cut fruits with MAP treatment obtained the highest sensory scores, compared with other treatments, throughout the entire period of storage. Fresh-cut mangosteens stored in MAP resulted in the best overall retention of ascorbic acid, antioxidant capacity and sensory quality.

  13. Nutrient compositions and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit (Actinidia) and their relationship with flesh color and commercial value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Zhao, Jinmei; You, Yilin; Lei, Yushan; Gao, Guitian; Zhan, Jicheng

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of China domestic kiwifruit and imported kiwifruit with different prices and the relationships of retail price among cultivars, nutritional qualities and flesh color were investigated. Results showed that cultivar was the main factor influencing nutritional quality, though the product region could also affect the cultivar characteristics to some extent. Additionally, nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity of kiwifruit had no relationship to the product region. What's more, there was no correlation among the nutrient compositions, antioxidant capacity and retail price of kiwifruit. At the same time, the flesh color was associated with greater commercial value but was not higher nutritional quality or antioxidant capacity. Thus indicates to consumers that imported kiwifruit were not all superior to local versions, and the priciest kiwifruit did not equal to the most nutritious kiwifruit, also the color kiwifruit. There still need more research to help consumers to choose kiwifruit.

  14. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide regulates lung tissue-oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity in hypoxic pulmonary hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-ling WEI; Chun-yu ZHANG; Hong-fang JIN; Chao-shu TANG; Jun-bao DU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the modulatory effect of sudium hydrosulfide on lung tissue-oxidized glutathione and total antioxidant capacity in the development of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Methods: After 21 d of hypoxia, the mean pulmo-nary artery pressure was measured by cardiac catheterization. The plasma H2S level and production of H2S in the lung tissues were determined by using a spectrophotometer. The lung homogenates were assayed for total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), re-duced glutathione and malonaldehyde by colorimetry. The mRNA level of SOD was analyzed by real-time PCR, and the SOD expression was detected by Western blotting. Results: In the hypoxia group, the plasma H2S concentration and H2S production in the lung was significantly decreased compared with the control P<0.01). The administration of sodium hydrosulfide could reduce the mean pul-monary artery pressure by 31.2% compared with the hypoxia group (P<0.01). Treat-ment with sodium hydrosulfide decreased GSSG, and the T-AOC level of the lung tissues was enhanced compared with the hypoxia group (P<0.05). There were no significant changes in the lung tissue SOD mRNA level, protein level, and its activity among the 3 groups. Conclusion: Oxidative stress occurred in the development of HPH and was accompanied by a decrease in the endogenous production of H2S in the lung tissues. H2S acted as an antioxidant during the oxidative stress of HPH partly as a result of the attenuated GSSG content.

  16. The effects of unilateral varicose ovarian vein on antioxidant capacity and oocyte quality in rat ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Adebayo Kehinde

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study show that reduced gene expression of Bmp-15, Gdf-9 and Hsp-27, increased gene expression of bax and an imbalance between pro-oxidant/ antioxidant ratio are few of the several mechanisms by which varicocele may lead to infertility in female.

  17. Influence of conventional and ultrasonic-assisted extraction on phenolic contents, betacyanin contents, and antioxidant capacity of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nurul Shazini; Ismail, Patimah; Rahmat, Asmah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC) was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC) was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE) technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  18. Influence of Conventional and Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction on Phenolic Contents, Betacyanin Contents, and Antioxidant Capacity of Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Shazini Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant capacities of red dragon fruit peel and flesh. Antioxidant capacities were measured using ethylenebenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent while quantitative determination of total flavonoid content (TFC was conducted using aluminium trichloride colorimetric method. Betacyanin content (BC was measured by spectrophotometer. Red dragon fruit was extracted using conventional (CV and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UE technique to determine the most efficient way of extracting its antioxidant components. Results indicated that UE increased TFC, reduced the extraction yield, BC, and TPC, but exhibited the strongest scavenging activity for the peel of red dragon fruit. In contrast, UE reduced BC, TFC, and scavenging activity but increased the yield for the flesh. Nonetheless, UE slightly increases TPC in flesh. Scavenging activity and reducing power were highly correlated with phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Conversely, the scavenging activity and reducing power were weakly correlated with betacyanin content. This work gives scientific evidences for the consideration of the type of extraction techniques for the peel and flesh of red dragon fruit in applied research and food industry.

  19. Optimisation of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity from Euphorbia tirucalli Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Euphorbia tirucalli (E. tirucalli) is now widely distributed around the world and is well known as a source of traditional medicine in many countries. This study aimed to utilise response surface methodology (RSM) to optimise ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity from E. tirucalli leaf. The results showed that ultrasonic temperature, time and power effected TPC and antioxidant capacity; however, the effects varied. Ultrason...

  20. Structural elucidation, in vitro antioxidant and photoprotective capacities of a purified polyphenolic-enriched fraction from a saltmarsh plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surget, Gwladys; Stiger-Pouvreau, Valérie; Le Lann, Klervi; Kervarec, Nelly; Couteau, Céline; Coiffard, Laurence J M; Gaillard, Fanny; Cahier, Karine; Guérard, Fabienne; Poupart, Nathalie

    2015-02-01

    In temperate saltmarshes, halophytic plants have to daily protect their internal tissues against sunlight and UV rays. Consequently, they develop adaptive responses such as the synthesis of secondary metabolites, including polyphenols. The present study focused on the biological activities of fractions enriched in polyphenols from Salicornia ramosissima. Three different extracts were obtained by purification processes to concentrate polyphenols: a crude hydroalcoholic extract, and two purified fractions: an ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and an aqueous fraction. Phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant (DPPH radical-scavenging activity, reducing activity, β-carotene linoleic acid system and the ORAC method) and sunscreen properties (Sun Protection Factor and UVA-Protection Factor) were assessed by in vitro tests. The purification process was effective in increasing phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant and sunscreen capacities of the EAF. The EAF appeared to be a broad spectrum UV absorber. The chemical structure of 10 EAF polyphenols was elucidated using 2D NMR and mass spectrometry spectra. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between phenolic composition and biological activity. These findings are encouraging for the future use of S. ramosissima as a potential source of antioxidant and photoprotectant molecules for industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacillus casei in Combination with Prebiotic Inulin on the Antioxidant Capacity of Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleniewska, Paulina; Hoffmann, Arkadiusz; Pniewska, Ewa; Pawliczak, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) influences the antioxidant properties of human plasma when combined with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg). Experiments were carried out on healthy volunteers (n = 32). Volunteers were divided according to sex (16 male and 16 female) and randomly assigned to synbiotic and control groups. Blood samples were collected before synbiotic supplementation and after 7 weeks, at the end of the study. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) in human plasma were examined. The administration of synbiotics containing L. casei plus Inulin resulted in a significant increase in FRAP values (p = 0.00008) and CAT activity (p = 0.02) and an insignificant increase in SOD and GPx activity compared to controls. Synbiotics containing L. casei (4 × 10(8) CFU) with prebiotic Inulin (400 mg) may have a positive influence on human plasma antioxidant capacity and the activity of selected antioxidant enzymes.

  2. In Vitro Cytoprotective Effects and Antioxidant Capacity of Phenolic Compounds from the Leaves of Swietenia macrophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Sônia; Sá, Paulo; Lopes, Dielly; Costa, Edmar; Yamada, Elizabeth; e Silva, Consuelo; Arruda, Mara; Souza, Jesus; da Silva, Milton

    2015-10-16

    Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany) is a highly valued timber species, whereas the leaves are considered to be waste product. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in aqueous extracts from mahogany leaves by comparing retention times and mass spectra data with those of authentic standards using LC-ESI-MS/MS. Polyphenols play an important role in plants as defense mechanisms against pests and pathogens and have potent antioxidant properties. In terms of health applications, interest has increased considerably in naturally occurring antioxidant sources, since they can retard the progress of many important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The antioxidant capacities of two aqueous extracts, M1 (decoction) and M2 (infusion), were measured using TEAC and Folin-Ciocalteau methods. Additionally, M1 was used in order to investigate its potential cytoprotective effects on an in vitro model of neurodegeneration, by using primary cerebellar cultures exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg). Under experimental sub-chronic conditions (72 h), concomitant exposure of the same cultures to MeHg and M1 extract resulted in a statistically significant increase in cell viability in all three concentrations tested (10, 50 and 100 μg/mL), strongly suggesting that due to its high content of antioxidant compounds, the M1 extract provides significant cytoprotection against the MeHg-induced in vitro neurotoxicity.

  3. Evaluation of free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative capacity of polydatin-nanostructured lipid carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Shi, Fan; Li, Hai-Jie; Yin, Li-De; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2016-10-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical (ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, polydatin loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Pol-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Pol-NLC on free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative capacity is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Pol-NLC were 113.9 +/- 1.1 nm and -16.3 1 +/- 0.27 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Pol-NLC were 28.71, 9.83 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.143 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Pol-NLC with FRAP assay. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Pol-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic anti-oxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  4. Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Trivic, Svetlana

    2011-08-30

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  5. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Velde, Franco; Tarola, Anna M.; Güemes, Daniel; Pirovani, María E.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  6. Composition and antioxidant capacity of low-salt meat emulsion model systems containing edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Bastida, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Bravo, L; Larrea, M T; Sánchez-Muniz, F; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-11-01

    The study was designed to determine the influence of the addition of edible seaweeds, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida), and Nori (Porphyra umbilicalis), on fatty acid composition, amino acid profile, protein score, mineral content and antioxidant capacity in low-salt meat emulsion model systems. The addition of seaweeds caused an increase (P<0.05) in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a decrease (P<0.05) in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. The thrombogenic index significantly decreased (P<0.05) in Nori and Wakame meat samples. Meat systems made with added seaweeds had lower (P<0.05) sodium contents than control samples. In general, addition of seaweeds to products increased (P<0.05) the concentrations of K, Ca, Mg and Mn. The presence of Nori caused an increase (P<0.05) in levels of serine, glycine, alanine, valine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and arginine, whereas Wakame and Sea Spaghetti produced no significant changes in amino acid profiles in the model systems. The inclusion of Sea Spaghetti increased the sulphur amino acid score by 20%. The added seaweeds supplied the meat samples with soluble polyphenolic compounds, which increased the antioxidant capacity of the systems. The polyphenol supply and antioxidant increase were greatest (P<0.05) in the samples containing Sea Spaghetti.

  7. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Van De Velde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR, covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  8. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Velde, Franco; Tarola, Anna M; Güemes, Daniel; Pirovani, María E

    2013-03-25

    Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer's health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina's strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  9. COMPARISON OF THE COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITIES OF GREEN TEAS PRODUCED FROM THE ASSAM AND THE CHINESE VARIETIES CULTIVATED IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerapong Theppakorn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis L. has attracted much attention due to the antioxidant capacities of bioactive compounds present in it, which are considered beneficial to consumer health. In Thailand, commercially cultivated teas are the Assam and the Chinese cultivars which both are processed as green teas. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these teas. Samples were collected from tea factories and analyzed for caffeine content (CF, total polyphenol content (TPC, total catechin content (TCC, (--gallocatechin (GC, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (+-catechin (C, (--epicatechin (EC, (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, (--gallocatechin gallate (GCG, (--epicatechin gallate (ECG, (--catechin gallate (CG, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging activity (DPPH-assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP-assay. The results showed that green tea produced from the Assam cultivar was significantly higher in CF and TPC than the Chinese cultivar. There was no significant difference in the TCC. Both cultivars had the same level of radical scavenging capacity (DPPH. As opposed to the radical scavenging capacity, there was a significant difference in the reducing power capacity (FRAP. The FRAP of the Assam was significantly higher than that of the Chinese tea. There was a significant difference in the individual catechins; the Assam cultivar mainly contained ECG, EGCG, and EC, whereas the major catechins in the Chinese cultivar were EGCG and EGC. Results from this study suggest that the profiles of catechins in green teas manufactured in Thailand might contribute to the cultivars.

  10. Can antioxidant's reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity contribute to aged seed recovery? Contrasting effect of melatonin, ascorbate and glutathione on germination ability of aged maize seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Benliang; Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Zuotong

    2017-09-03

    It is well known that antioxidants such as AA (reduced ascorbate), glutathione (GSH) (reduced glutathione) and melatonin can delay seed ageing. Can they recover aged seed? Artificial aged maize seeds were obtained and their reduced germination rate (GR) and high lipid peroxidation were recorded. Exogenous melatonin was applied on these aged seeds and enhanced GR was observed. However, treatment with other antioxidants such as AA, GSH or DMTU (dimethyl thiourea) did not significantly improve or even reduce the GR of aged seeds. In addition, melatonin improved germination ability of theses aged seeds can be significantly impaired by DDC (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, a specific inhibitor of superoxide dismutase or superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and ATZ (aminotriazol, a specific inhibitor of catalase or CAT). In a further study, we found that melatonin but not other antioxidants (AA, GSH and DMTU) significantly induced CAT and SOD activities of aged seeds after imbibition. Accordingly, melatonin significantly reduced lipid peroxidation in aged seeds than that of other antioxidants. Taken together, these data suggest that melatonin induced antioxidant enzyme but not its direct reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity contributing to recovery of aged maize seeds.

  11. Mineral elements, lipoxygenase activity, and antioxidant capacity of okara as a byproduct in hydrothermal processing of soy milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sladjana P; Barac, Miroljub B; Pesic, Mirjana B; Zilic, Sladjana M; Kresovic, Mirjana M; Vucelic-Radovic, Biljana V

    2014-09-10

    Minerals and antioxidative capacity of raw okara that was obtained as a byproduct from six soybean varieties during hydrothermal cooking (HTC) of soy milk were assessed. Lipoxygenase (Lox), an enzyme deteriorating the sensory characteristics of okara, was also investigated. All genotypes had very similar concentrations of Lox (4.32-5.62%). Compared to raw soybeans, the applied HTC significantly reduced Lox content in okara (0.54-0.19%) and lowered its activity to 0.004-0.007 μmol g(-1) min (-1). Correlation between the content of Lox in soybeans and that in okara (r = 0.21;p process than on soybean genotype. Very strong correlation (r = 0.99; p minerals in raw okara were potassium (1.04-1.21 g/100g), phosphorus (0.45-0.50 g/100 g), calcium (0.26-0.39 g/100 g), and iron (5.45-10.95 mg/100 g). A very high antioxidant capacity (19.06-29.36 mmol Trolox kg(-1)) contributes to the nutritional value of raw okara.

  12. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail: markovic57@info-net.co.yu

    2008-01-15

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, {beta}-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  13. An evaluation of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Irfan; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyacı, Ahmet; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Yıldız, Hamit; Turkbeyler, Ibrahim; Sarıcicek, Edibe; Taysi, Seyithan; Onat, Ahmet Mesut

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) values in patients with myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The study comprised 38 patients diagnosed with MPS and 30 healthy volunteers. The age, body mass index (BMI) and pain scores (evaluation by visual analogue scales) of all the participants were recorded. The TAC, TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels were compared between the MPS and control groups. There was no significant difference between the MPS and control groups in respect of demographic characteristics. The TAC levels were determined to be significantly lower and TOS levels and OSI values, significantly higher in the MPS patients than in the control group. The results of this study determined that the oxidant/antioxidant balance was impaired in MPS patients and thus MPS can be considered to be related to an increase in oxidative stress.

  14. Release of antioxidant capacity from five plant foods during a multistep enzymatic digestion protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papillo, Valentina Azzurra; Vitaglione, Paola; Graziani, Giulia; Gokmen, Vural; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-05-07

    This study aimed at elucidating the influence of food matrix on the release of antioxidant activity from five plant foods (apple, spinach, walnut, red bean, and whole wheat). To this purpose a protocol based on sequential enzymatic digestion was adopted. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of both solubilized and insoluble materials was measured at each step. Results showed that the overall TAC obtained by enzyme treatments was usually higher than that obtained by chemical extraction-based methods. In apple most of the TAC was released upon water washing and after pepsin treatment, whereas in spinach, beans, and whole wheat the TAC released by treatments with bacterial enzymes was prominent. Walnut had the highest TAC value, which was mainly released after pancreatin treatment. Therefore, the enzyme treatment is fundamental to estimate the overall potential TAC of foods having a high amount of polyphenols bound to dietary fiber or entrapped in the food matrix.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of several Iranian, wild and cultivated strains of the button mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tajalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, is the most commonly grown mushroom in Iran; however, there is a significant shortage of research on its antioxidant activity and other medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extracts from four cultivated strains and four Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-identified, Iranian wild isolates of A. bisporus. Evaluations were made for total phenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins, and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity. Overall, results showed that all the wild isolates exhibited significantly lower DPPH-derived EC50, compared to the cultivated strains (p 2 > 0.60. However, these constituents could not statistically differentiate the group of wild samples from the cultivated ones, and there was low correlation with the DPPH-derived EC50s (r2

  16. Estimation of scavenging capacity of melatonin and other antioxidants: contribution and evaluation in germinated seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Herrera, Teresa; Benítez, Vanesa; Arribas, Silvia M; López de Pablo, Angel L; Esteban, Rosa M; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2015-03-01

    Seven edible seeds for the levels of melatonin, phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity were evaluated during germination process. Radical scavenging parameters were also studied in standard antioxidants to understand their antiradical actions. Germination brought about significant increases of total phenol compounds in all edible seeds, showing red cabbage, radish and broccoli the highest contents (21.6, 20.4 and 16.4 mg GAE/g DW, respectively). The concentration of melatonin is greatly variable in edible seeds, exhibiting significant increases during germination. The highest levels were found in red cabbage (857 pg/g DW) radish (536 pg/g DW) and broccoli (439 pg/g DW). The germinated seeds which had the highest levels of polyphenols and melatonin were those that showed the most relevant antiradical activities (>97%). This information is valuable for the incorporation of red cabbage, radish and broccoli germinated seeds into the diet to promote potential health benefits.

  17. UV-induced changes in antioxidant capacities of selected carotenoids toward lecithin in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Dragan; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Antioxidant action of four selected carotenoids (two carotenes, β-carotene and lycopene, and two xanthophylls, lutein and neoxanthin) on UV-induced lecithin lipid peroxidation in aqueous solution has been studied by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. TBA test is based on absorbance measurements of complex formed between malondialdehyde, secondary product of lipid peroxidation and thiobarbituric acid, at 532 nm. The antioxidant capacities of investigated carotenoids appeared to be strongly affected by UV-action. High energy input of the involved UV-photons plays major governing role, though a certain impact of the carotenoid structures cannot be neglected. The results suggest a minor remained contribution of selected carotenoids to prevention of lecithin peroxidation in the studied system as a result of UV-irradiation.

  18. Aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae): assessment of antioxidant capacity and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portmann, Erika; Nigro, Marcela M López; Reides, Claudia G; Llesuy, Susana; Ricco, Rafael A; Wagner, Marcelo L; Gurni, Alberto A; Carballo, Marta A

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to make a contribution to the knowledge of aqueous extracts of Lippia turbinata and Aloysia citriodora (Verbenaceae; infusion and decoction) in relation with the establishment of its antioxidant activity and lack of DNA damage, for its potential use in therapeutics. The cytogenotoxic profile was evaluated through genotoxic biomarkers such as mitotic index, cellular proliferation kinetics, sister chromatid exchanges, single-cell gel electrophoresis assay, and micronucleus test in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. No statistical differences were found (P > .05) between control and exposed cultures, even between both aqueous extracts. The total antioxidant capacity was shown to be higher in the decoction than in the infusion and both aqueous extracts protected against protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, the decoction being more efficient than the infusion (P < .005). These results suggest the safe use of these medicinal plants as chemoecologic agents in therapeutics.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of dried wild edible mushrooms from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzki, Wojciech; Sławińska, Aneta; Jabłońska-Ryś, Ewa; Gustaw, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    In this study 6 species of wild edible mushrooms were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic content and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay methods. The mushrooms, namely Armillaria mellea, Cantharellus cibarius, Lactarius deliciosus, Leccinum aurantiacum, Suillus luteus, and Boletus badius, were dried using both freeze drying and convection drying at 50°C. The amounts of phenolic compounds varied from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 12.8 ± 0.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for water extracts) and from 2.4 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.5 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight (for ethanolic extracts). The species that presented the highest antioxidant potential were B. badius and S. luteus. The impact of hot-air drying on the antioxidant activity of water and ethanolic extracts was evaluated. We demonstrated that hot-air drying may have either a negative or positive influence on phenolics and antioxidant activity, depending on the mushroom species. However, a negative effect was more frequent.

  20. Antioxidant capacity of phytic acid purified from rice bran - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.16358

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    Cristiane Canan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is a by-product of rice processing industry, with high levels of phytic acid or phytate. Considering phytic acid antioxidant activity, its various applications and its high concentration in rice bran, this study had the objective of evaluating the antioxidant capacity of purified phytic acid from rice bran using three different methods. Using of 2,4,6-tripyridil-s-triazine or method of FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power, reducing Fe2+ activity was not detected for standard or purified phytic acid. With BPS (bathophenanthroline method, the Fe2+ chelator activity of standard phytic acid and rice bran phytic acid were dependent on the concentration and contact time and were observed IC50 values of 4.39 mg mL-1 and IC50 of 7.54 mg mL-1, respectively. By the deoxyribose method, the standard phytic acid inhibited the hydroxyl radical with an IC50 of 0.70 mg mL-1 while the rice bran phytic acid showed a maximum inhibitory activity of 40% associated to its chelating capacity and confirm this important antioxidant capacity.

  1. Wound repair and anti-oxidative capacity is regulated by ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi; Liu, Hui-jun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu-rong; Zhu, Xiao-lin; Qin, Xiao-qun

    2010-08-01

    Integrin beta 4 (ITGB4) is a structural adhesion molecule which engages in maintaining the integrity of airway epithelial cells. Its specific cytomembrane structural feature strongly indicates that ITGB4 may engage in many signaling pathways and physiologic processes. However, in addition to adhesion, the specific biologic significance of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells is almost unknown. In this article, we investigated the expression and functional properties of ITGB4 in airway epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14O-cells) and primary rat tracheal epithelial cells (RTE cells) were used to determine ITGB4 expression under ozone tress or mechanical damage, respectively. An ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged asthma model was used to investigate ITGB4 expression after antigen exposure in vivo. In addition, an ITGB4 overexpression vector and ITGB4 silence virus vector were constructed and transfected into RTE cells. Then, wound repair ability and anti-oxidation capacity was evaluated. Our results demonstrated that, on the edge of mechanically wounded cell areas, ITGB4 expression was increased after mechanical injury. After ozone stress, upregulation expression of ITGB4 was also detected. In the OVA-challenged asthma model, ITGB4 expression was decreased on airway epithelial cells accompanying with structural disruption and damage of anti-oxidation capacity. Besides, our study revealed that upregulation of ITGB4 promotes wound repair ability and anti-oxidative ability, while such abilities were blocked when ITGB4 was silenced. Taken together, these results showed that ITGB4 was a new interesting molecule involved in the regulation of wound repair and anti-oxidation processes for airway epithelial cells.

  2. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of anthocyanin and carotenoid extracts from nixtamalized pigmented Creole maize races (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Díaz, Sandra; Ortiz-Valerio, Ma del Carmen; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Figueroa-Cárdenas, Juan de Dios; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Campos-Vega, Rocio; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2012-12-01

    Nixtamalization process is the first step to obtain maize based products, like tortillas; however, in both the traditional and commercial processes, white grain is generally preferred. Creole maize races, mainly pigmented varieties, have increasingly attention since these are rich in anthocyanins and carotenoids. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimutagenic activity of rich anthocyanins and carotenoids extracts from creole maize races before (grain) and after (masa and tortilla) the nixtamalization process. Most anthocyanins and carotenoids were lost during nixtamalization. Before nixtamalization, blue and red genotypes contained either higher antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin contents (963 ± 10.0 and 212.36 ± 0.36 mg of cyanidin-3-glucoside eq/100 g, respectively) than the white and yellow genotypes. However, the highest carotenoid levels were displayed by red grains (1.01 ± 0.07 to 1.14 ± 0.08 μg of β-carotene eq/g extract). Anthocyanins losses were observed when the blue grains were processed into masa (83 %) and tortillas (64 %). Anthocyanins content correlated with antiradical activity (r = 0.57) and with 2-aminoanthracene -induced mutagenicity inhibition on TA98 and TA100 (r = -0.62 and r = -0.44, respectively). For white grains, nixtamalization also reduced carotenoids (53 to 56 %), but not antioxidant activity and 2-Aa-induced mutagenicity. Throughout the nixtamalization process steps, all the extracts showed antimutagenic activity against 2-aminoanthracene-induced mutagenicity (23 to 90 %), displaying higher potential to inhibit base changes mutations than frameshift mutations in the genome of the tasted microorganism (TA100 and TA98, respectively). The results suggest that even though there were pigment losses, creole maize pigments show antioxidant and antimutagenic activities after nixtamalization process.

  3. Antioxidant Capacities and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Three Endemic Nolana Species by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS

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    Mario J. Simirgiotis

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant features, polyphenolic composition and chromatographic fingerprints of the aerial parts from three Chilean endemic plants from the Paposo Valley located on the cost of the Atacama Desert were investigated for the first time using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization mass analysis (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and spectroscopic methods. The phenolic fingerprints obtained for the plants were compared and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and quantification of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty phenolics were identified for the first time for these species, mostly phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, together with three saturated fatty acids (stearic, palmitic and arachidic acids. Nolana ramosissima showed the highest antioxidant activity (26.35 ± 1.02 μg/mL, 116.07 ± 3.42 μM Trolox equivalents/g dry weight and 81.23% ± 3.77% of inhibition in the DPPH, FRAP and scavenging activity (SA assays, respectively, followed by  N. aplocaryoides (85.19 ± 1.64 μg/mL, 65.87 ± 2.33 μM TE/g DW and 53.27% ± 3.07% and N. leptophylla (124.71 ± 3.01, 44.23 ± 5.18 μM TE/g DW and 38.63% ± 1.85%.

  4. The effect of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadir, Fatemeh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Joorsaraee, Seyyed Gholamali; Feizi, Farideh; Sorkhi, Hadi; Yousefi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a potent immunosuppressant drug with therapeutic and toxic actions. The use of CsA is limited by its toxicity. Several researchers had proposed that oxidative stress could play an important role in CsA-induced toxicity. Arbutin has recently been shown to possess antioxidative and free radical scavenging abilities. The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of arbutin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in the serum of cyclosporine treated rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n=8/group): (I) control (no CsA and arbutin administration), (II and III) were treated subcutaneously (Sc) with arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw), respectively, (IV) administered CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) intraperitoneally (IP), (V and VI) received the combination of CsA (25 mg/kg/bw) i.p and arbutin (50,100 mg/kg/bw) Sc daily, respectively. At the end of the treatment (after3 weeks), serum lipid peroxidation was measured by thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and serum total antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) was assayed based on spectrophotometric method. Results: TBARS had been significantly increased by CsA administration compared with control rats. Arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) completely prevented this effect, but arbutin (100 mg/kg/bw) alone or in combination with CsA significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with controls. Conclusion: Our data indicate that arbutin (50mg/kg/bw) had protective effect in the CsA-induced toxicity but high concentration of arbutin (100mg/kg/bw) showed meaningful oxidative and lipoperoxidative effects. PMID:26644892

  5. Antioxidant capacity of polyphenolic extracts from leaves of Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (Hawthorn) subjected to drought and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, Elisabeth; Kaufman, Peter B; Warber, Sara; Bolling, Steven; Chang, Soo Chul

    2003-07-02

    Crataegus laevigata and Crataegus monogyna (hawthorn) were subjected to drought and cold stress treatments, and polyphenolic extracts from control and stress-treated plants were assayed for antioxidant capacities using a modified version of the Total Antioxidant Status Assay (Randox, San Francisco, CA). In addition, these plants were analyzed for levels of flavanol-type substance [(-)-epicatechin] and flavonoid (vitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, acetylvitexin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, and hyperoside) constituents that are important metabolites in hawthorn herbal preparations used to treat patients with heart disease. Drought and cold stress treatments caused increases in levels of (-)-epicatechin and hyperoside in both Crataegus species. Such treatments also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The results from this study thus indicate that these kinds of stress treatments can enhance the levels of important secondary metabolites and their total antioxidant capacities in leaves of Crataegus.

  6. Evaluation of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleusine coracana (L.

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    Jignasu P. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolics: total seven phenolic acids and one flavonoid were separated from the species of Eleusine coracana (L.. The separated phenolics were characterized by various spectral techniques. The antioxidant capacity of all phenolics was determined by rancimat study of sunflower oil using control and standard drugs like Glipizide and Metformin. The stability period of sunflower oil was found to increase from 0.89 hr to 1.04 hr in presence of eight extracted ingredients of Eleusine coracana (L., which was compared with result of neat sunflower oil.

  7. Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene and Modified Atmosphere Packaging on the Antioxidant Capacity in Pepper “Kulai” during Low-Temperature Storage

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    Chung Keat Tan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to simultaneously evaluate the effect of a postharvest treatment on the pepper's antioxidant content and its ability to retain its economical value during the postharvest period. The fruits were pretreated by modified atmosphere packaging (MAP with or without treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP before cold storage at 10°C. Changes in the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, including the total phenolic, ascorbic acid levels and the total glutathione level, as well as enzymatic antioxidants, including ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR, and catalase (CAT, were determined. Both treatments successfully extended the shelf life of the fruit for up to 25 days, and a high level of antioxidant capacity was maintained throughout the storage period. However, 1-MCP treatment maintained the high antioxidant capacity for a longer period of time. The 1-MCP-treated peppers maintained high levels of phenolic content, a high reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio, decreased levels of ascorbic acid and CAT activity, and increased levels of APX and GR compared with the peppers that were not treated with 1-MCP. The overall results suggested that a combination of 1-MCP and MAP was the most effective treatment for extending shelf life while retaining the nutritional benefits.

  8. Diffusion Profiles of Health Beneficial Components from Goji Berry (Lyceum barbarum Marinated in Alcohol and Their Antioxidant Capacities as Affected by Alcohol Concentration and Steeping Time

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    Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit (goji berry of Lycium barbarum, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in health diets due to its potential role in the prevention of chronic diseases. One of the most popular applications of goji berry is to make goji wine in China by steeping goji berry in grain liquor. However, how the steeping process affects antioxidant capacities and phytochemicals of goji berry is not yet fully understood. Therefore, to provide scientific data for the utilization of goji berry in the nutraceutical industry, the diffusion rate of betaine, β-carotene, phenolic compounds in goji berry and their antioxidant capacities affected by alcohol concentration and steeping time were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The results showed that low alcohol concentration (15% or 25% would promote the diffusion of betaine and increase antioxidant activity, while high concentration (55% or 65% would generally increase the diffusion of flavonoids and reduce antioxidant activity. The steeping time had no significant effect on the diffusion of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities. However, all goji berry wine steeped for 14 days with different alcohol concentrations exhibited the highest betaine concentration. Current findings provide useful information for the nutraceutical industries to choose proper steeping time and alcohol concentration to yield desired health promotion components from goji.

  9. Phytochemical analysis with the antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibitory capacities of Tephrosia humilis aerial parts' extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plioukas, Michael; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Lazari, Diamanto; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    The aerial parts of Tephrosia humilis were tested about their antioxidant potential, their ability to inhibit the aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes and their phenolic content. The plant material was exhaustively extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol, consecutively. The concentrated methanol extract was re-extracted, successively, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All extracts showed significant antioxidant capacity, but the most effective was the ethyl acetate extract. As about the aldose reductase inhibition, all fractions, except the aqueous, were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, with the n-butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions to inhibit the enzyme above 75%. These findings provide support to the ethnopharmacological usage of the plant as antioxidant and validate its potential to act against the long-term diabetic complications. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 1,4-dihydroxy-3,4-(epoxyethano)-5-cyclohexene(1), cleroindicin E(2), lupeol(3), methyl p-coumarate(4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate(5), prunin(6), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone 7-rutinoside(7), protocatechuic acid(8), luteolin 7-glucoside(9), apigenin(10), naringin(11), rhoifolin(12) and luteolin 7-glucuronate(13).

  10. Frailty of Obese Children: Evaluation of Plasma Antioxidant Capacity in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, F; Rossodivita, A N; Segni, C D; Raimondo, S; Canichella, S; Silvestrini, A; Miggiano, G A D; Meucci, E; Mancini, A

    2016-09-01

    Background: Obese children are subject to the same chronic oxidative and inflammatory stress, responsible for the onset of all the complications typical of adult age, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Objectives: Since few studies are reported in prepubertal obese children, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress, body composition and metabolic pattern in childhood obesity in comparison with adult obese patients. Methods: We enrolled 25 prepubertal children (12 males and 13 females) aged 5-12 years with a mean value of standard deviation of BMI (SDS-BMI)±SEM of 1.96±0.09. We performed oral glucose tolerance test, hormonal and metabolic evaluation, bioimpedentiometry, evaluation of total antioxidant capacity using spectroscopical method using a radical cation, 2,2(I)- azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulphonate) (ABTS), as indicator of radical formation, with a latency time (LAG) proportional to antioxidant in the sample. Results: LAG values significantly correlate with % fat mass, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio. However mean LAG values were significantly lower than in obese adults. Conclusions: We suggest that children are more susceptible to oxidative stress than adults, possibly to incomplete development of antioxidant system. Prognostic and therapeutical implications need to be further investigated.

  11. Total antioxidant capacity and the severity of the pain in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Ozlem; Celik, Hakim

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the oxidative and antioxidative status of plasma in patients with fibromyalgia. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of plasma was significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia (n = 20) than in healthy controls (n = 20) [1.5 (SD 0.3) and 1.9 (SD 0.3) mmol Trolox equiv./l, P = 0.001]. In contrast, the total peroxide level of plasma was significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls [37.4 (SD 6.7) and 33.0 (SD 2.7) micromol H2O2/l; P = 0.01]. The oxidative stress index (OSI) level was significantly higher in patients with fibromyalgia than in healthy controls [2.5 (SD 1.0) and 1.8 (SD 0.4); P = 0.007]. A significant negative correlation between visual analogue scale (VAS) and TAC level was determined (r = -0.79, P fibromyalgia are exposed to oxidative stress and this increased oxidative stress may play a role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Supplementation of antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E to the therapy may be indicated.

  12. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners.

  13. Total polyphenolic (flavonoids content and antioxidant capacity of different Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts

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    Shuge Tian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the total polyphenolic and flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant activity of Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam. extracts of different polarity. Materials and Methods: The total polyphenolic content was analysed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Total flavonoid content analysis was performed using the colorimetric method. Results: The total polyphenolic content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (19.27%, chloroform (4.99% and n-butanol extracts (3.94% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The petroleum ether (0.23% and ethanol extracts (1.64% contain almost no polyphenolic content. The total flavonoid content of Z. clinopodioides is concentrated in parts of ethyl acetate (65.61%, chloroform (14.36% and n-butanol extracts (10.76% containing a small amount of the total polyphenolic content. The Z. clinopodioides Lam. ethyl acetate extract exhibits a good antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate extracts contain a large number of polyphenolic compounds (19.27% and flavonoids (65.61% owing to good antioxidant capacity.

  14. Effects of drying on caffeoylquinic acid derivative content and antioxidant capacity of sweet potato leaves

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    Toong Long Jeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Caffeoylquinic acid (CQA derivatives are known to possess antioxidative potential and have many beneficial effects on human health. The present study compared the CQA contents and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of sweet potato plants. The effects of drying methods (freeze drying, and drying at 30°C, 70°C, and 100°C on these two parameters of the first fully expanded leaves were also assessed. The results indicated that the CQA derivatives were detectable in leaves, stem, and flowers of sweet potato plants (varied from 39.34 mg/g dry weight to 154.05 mg/g dry weight, with the leaves (particularly expanding and first fully expanded leaves containing more CQA derivatives than other aerial plant parts. The expanding and first fully expanded leaves also exhibited greater antioxidant activities than other aerial plant parts, possibly due to their higher contents of CQA derivatives. Drying method significantly affected the content of CQA derivatives in dried sweet potato leaf tissues. Drying treatments at both 70°C and 100°C significantly reduced the CQA derivative content and antioxidant activity in the first fully expanded leaves. Among the tested drying methods, the freeze-drying method demonstrated the preservation of the highest amount of CQA derivatives (147.84 mg/g and antioxidant property. However, 30°C cool air drying was also a desirable choice (total CQA derivative content was reduced to only 129.52 mg/g, compared to 70°C and 100°C hot air drying, for commercial-scale processing of sweet potato leaves, if the higher operation cost of freeze drying was a major concern.

  15. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of humic acids using CUPRAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, noble metal nanoparticle- and solid-liquid extraction-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadirek, Şeyda; Kanmaz, Nergis; Balta, Zeynep; Demirçivi, Pelin; Üzer, Ayşem; Hızal, Jülide; Apak, Reşat

    2016-06-01

    Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of humic acid (HA) samples was determined using CUPRAC (CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity), FC (Folin-Ciocalteu), QUENCHER-CUPRAC, QUENCHER-FC, Ag-NP (Silver nanoparticle)‒ and Au-NP (Gold nanoparticle)‒based methods. Conventional FC and modified FC (MFC) methods were applied to solid samples. Because of decreased solubility of Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent in organic solvents, solvent effect on TAC measurement was investigated using QUENCHER-CUPRAC assay by using ethanol:distilled water and dimethyl sulfoxide:distilled water with varying ratios. To see the combined effect of solubilization (leaching) and TAC measurement of humic acids simultaneously, QUENCHER experiments were performed at 25°C and 50°C; QUENCHER-CUPRAC and QUENCHER-FC methods agreed well and had similar precision in F-statistics. Although the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) of the oxidation of HA dihydroxy phenols with the test reagents were negative, the ΔG° was positive only for the reaction of CUPRAC reagent with isolated monohydric phenols, showing CUPRAC selectivity toward polyphenolic antioxidants. This is the first work on the antioxidant capacity measurement of HA having a sparingly soluble matrix where enhanced solubilization of bound phenolics is achieved with coupled oxidation by TAC reagents.

  16. Effect of three cooking methods on nutrient components and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shootPhyllostachys praecox C.D.Chu et C.S.Chao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-jie ZHANG; Rong JI; Ya-qin HU; Jian-chu CHEN; Xing-qian YE

    2011-01-01

    Three cooking methods,namely boiling,steaming,and stir-frying for 5 to 10 min,were used to evaluate the effect on nutrient components,free amino acids,L-ascorbic acid,total phenolic contents,and antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).Results showed that boiling and stir-frying had a great effect on the nutrient components and they decreased the contents of protein,soluble sugar,and ash,and caused a great loss in the total free amino acids (decreased by 38.35% and 34.86%,respectively).Significant differences (P<0.05) in free amino acids were observed in the samples cooked by different methods.Stir-fried bamboo shoots had a high fat content which increased by 528.57% because of the addition of edible oil.After boiling,the L-ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents were significantly reduced,while steaming increased total phenolic content by 3.98% and stir-frying well-preserved L-ascorbic acid (78.87% of its previous content).Results of the antioxidative property study showed that stir-frying could increase antioxidant capacities of bamboo shoots.It is concluded that stir-frying is more suitable for bamboo shoots because it could obtain the maximum retention of antioxidant capacities.

  17. Characterization of alkyl phenols in cashew (Anacardium occidentale) products and assay of their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, M T S; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2006-02-01

    In this study the content of anacardic acids, cardanols and cardols in cashew apple, nut (raw and roasted) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) were analysed. The higher amounts (353.6 g/kg) of the major alkyl phenols, anacardic acids were detected in CNSL followed by cashew fibre 6.1 g/kg) while the lowest (0.65 g/kg) amounts were detected in roasted cashew nut. Cashew apple and fibre contained anacardic acids exclusively, whereas CNSL also contained an abundance of cardanols and cardols. Cashew nut (raw and roasted) also contained low amounts of hydroxy alkyl phenols. Cashew nut shell liquid was used for a basic fractionation of the alkyl phenol classes and the individual anacardic acids, major cardanols and cardols were purified to homogeneity from these fractions by semi-preparative HPLC and definitively identified by nano-ESI-MS-MS, GC-MS and NMR analyses. The hexane extracts (10 mg/ml) of all cashew products tested plus CNSL, displayed significant antioxidant capacity. Cashew nut shell liquid was the more efficient (inhibition=100%) followed by the hexane extract of cashew fibre (94%) and apple (53%). The antioxidant capacity correlated significantly (P4.0 mM). The data shows that of these substances, anacardic-1 was by far the more potent antioxidant (IC50=0.27 mM) compared to cardol-1 (IC50=1.71 mM) and cardanol-1 (IC50>4.0 mM). The antioxidant capacity of anacardic acid-1 is more related to inhibition of superoxide generation (IC50=0.04 mM) and xanthine oxidase (IC50=0.30 mM) than to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals. At present a substantial amount of cashew fibre is mostly used in formulations of animal or poultry feeds. The data presented in this study, indicates that this waste product along with CNSL, both of which contain high contents of anacardic acids, could be better utilized in functional food formulations and may represent a cheap source of cancer chemopreventive agents.

  18. Melatonin Pharmacological Blood Levels Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mistraletti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the aim was to test the biochemical effects of melatonin supplementation in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, since their blood levels are decreased. Sixty-four patients were enrolled in the study. From the evening of the 3rd ICU day, patients were randomized to receive oral melatonin (3 mg, group M or placebo (group P twice daily, at 20:00 and 24:00, until discharged. Blood was taken (at 00:00 and 14:00, on the 3rd ICU day to assess basal nocturnal melatonin values, and then during the treatment period on the 4th and 8th ICU days. Melatonin, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress were evaluated in serum. Melatonin circadian rhythm before treatment was similar in the two groups, with a partial preservation of the cycle. Four hours from the 1st administration (4th ICU day, 00:00, melatonin levels increased to 2514 (982.3; 7148 pg·mL−1 in group M vs. 20.3 (14.7; 62.3 pg·mL−1 in group P (p < 0.001. After five treatment days (8th ICU day, melatonin absorption showed a repetitive trend in group M, while in group P nocturnal secretion (00:00 was impaired: 20 (11.5; 34.5 pg·mL−1 vs. 33.8 (25.0; 62.2 on the 3rd day (p = 0.029. Immediately from the beginning of treatment, the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in melatonin treated subjects at 00:00; a significant correlation was found between total antioxidant capacity and blood melatonin values (ρ = 0.328; p < 0.001. The proposed enteral administration protocol was adequate, even in the early phase, to enhance melatonin blood levels and to protect the patients from oxidative stress. The antioxidant effect of melatonin could play a meaningful role in the care and well-being of these patients.

  19. Antimicrobial property, antioxidant capacity, and cytotoxicity of essential oil from cumin produced in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahghadri, Tolou; Rasooli, Iraj; Owlia, Parviz; Nadooshan, Mohammadreza Jalali; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Taghizadeh, Massoud; Astaneh, Shakiba Darvish Alipoor

    2010-03-01

    Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is one of the commonly used spices in food preparations. It is also used in traditional medicine as a stimulant, a carminative, and an astringent. In this study, we characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of cumin. E. coli, S. aureus, and S. faecalis were sensitive to various oil dilutions. The total phenol content of the essential oil was estimated to be 33.43 microg GAE/mg of the oil. The oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with that of BHT and BHA. The cumin essential oil exhibited a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH radicals and 5.4 microg of the oil was sufficient to scavenge 50% of DPPH radicals/mL. At a concentration of 0.1 microL/mL, oil destructed Hela cells by 79%. The antioxidant activity of cumin essential oil might contribute to its cytotoxic activity. Acute and subchronic toxicity was studied in a 30-d oral toxicity study by administration to Wistar rats of the essential oil. A 17.38% decrease in WBCs count, and 25.77%, 14.24%, and 108.81% increase in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and platelet count, respectively, were noted. LDL/HDL ratio was reduced to half, which adds to the nutritional effects of cumin. Thus, cumin with a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity can be supplemented for both nutritional purposes and preservation of foods.

  20. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juices: chemical composition, micronutrient cations, and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kar, Chiraz; Ferchichi, Ali; Attia, Faouzi; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2011-08-01

    Phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins of pomegranate juices, obtained from 9 Tunisian ecotypes were quantified. Phenolics and flavonoids in the variety Tounsi (TN) (3299 mg gallic acid equivalents [GAE]/L and 636 mg quercetin equivalents [QE]/L of juice, respectively) were higher than in the variety Gabsi (GB) (1570 mg GAE/L and 135 mg QE/L of juice, respectively). The highest anthocyanins quantity was found in GB 2 with 156 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents (CGE)/L. TN 3 ecotype showed the highest tannins quantity with 2550 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/L of juice. TN 1 presented the highest radical-scavenging activity (2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS], IC₅₀ [50% inhibition concentration] = 525 mg/L), as well as the highest concentration of micronutrient cations (potassium and sodium). A high correlation (R² = 0.80) between antioxidant capacity and proanthocyanin contents was found, this suggests that proanthocyanins are the principal contributor in the antioxidant capacity of pomegranate. Our data suggest also that the high concentrations of K⁺ and Na⁺ may play a role in the adaptation of pomegranate to arid environments.

  1. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens Fruit

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    Elsa Uribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE, ultrasound (UE, agitation (AE, and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respectively. The combined-extractions: HHPE-UE and HHPE-AE, were carried out for 5 min and 15 min, respectively. The highest values found were total phenolic 129.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, antioxidant capacity by DPPH 20.6 mM TE/100 g FW, and voltammetry 141.0 mM TE/100 g FW for HHPE-UE method in free compound extraction. Regarding vitamin C content, its highest value was found by HHPE-UE (74 mg/100 g FW a combined extraction method. The phenolic compounds rutin and p-coumaric acid were found in all the extracts, both in free and bound forms, respectively. Besides, the combined techniques improved the extraction of bioactive compounds.

  2. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum

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    Sofia Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv ‘Ceasar’ grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be useful tools in improving commercial production.

  3. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D; Schwieterman, Michael L; Abrahan, Carolina E; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Folta, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv "Ceasar") grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production.

  4. Effect of water cooking on antioxidant capacity of carotenoid-rich vegetables in Taiwan

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    Fuh-Juin Kao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid-rich green leafy vegetables including cilantro, Thai basil leaves, sweet potato leaves, and choy sum were selected to evaluate the effects of water cooking or boiling on their total carotenoid content (TCC, total phenolic content (TPC, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC. The percentage inhibition of peroxidation (%IP, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and metal-chelating effect were used to evaluate TAC. The results indicated that TCC reached the maximum after boiling cilantro, Thai basil leaves, and sweet potato leaves for 10 minutes, 5 minutes, and 5 minutes, respectively, and choy sum remained almost unchanged after 30 minutes of boiling. Boiling cilantro and choy sum had a negative effect on their TPC, whereas there was a significant increase in TPC of Thai basil leaf and sweet potato leaf at 1 minute and 5 minutes of boiling, respectively. During water cooking, TAC of the vegetables did not demonstrate a consistent trend. However, TCC was a vital contributor to %IP, whereas TPC showed a strong association with TEAC. Our findings suggest that a boiling time of ≤5 minutes would be better for preserving or enhancing TCC and TPC as well as revealing a higher %IP, TEAC, or metal-chelating effect for the four vegetables investigated in this study.

  5. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity ofTabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. Fruits and branches

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    MARIANA PIANA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the crude extract and fractions ofTabernaemontana catharinensis fruits and branches, was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and condensed tannins were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits and the n-butanol fraction of the branches showed IC50 of 181.82 µg/mL and 78.19 µg/mL, respectively. All fractions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, in the branches were quantified chlorogenic acid in the chloroform (8.96 mg/g, ethyl acetate (4.31 mg/g and n-butanol (3.33 mg/g fractions; caffeic acid in the ethyl acetate (5.24 mg/g and n-butanol (1.81 mg/g; gallic acid (0.52 mg/g in the n-butanol. In the fruits, chlorogenic acid in the chloroform (1.67 mg/g; rutin in the ethyl acetate (3.45 mg/g and n-butanol (8.98 mg/g fractions. The present study showed that these quantified compounds can contribute to antioxidant capacity which was higher in the branches than in the fruits.

  6. Light Quality Dependent Changes in Morphology, Antioxidant Capacity, and Volatile Production in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sofia D.; Schwieterman, Michael L.; Abrahan, Carolina E.; Colquhoun, Thomas A.; Folta, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandwidth light treatments may be used to manipulate plant growth, development and metabolism. In this report LED-based light treatments were used to affect yield and metabolic content of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. cv “Ceasar”) grown in controlled environments. This culinary herb produces an aroma highly appreciated by consumers, primarily composed of terpenes/terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty-acid- derived volatile molecules. Basil plants were grown under narrow-bandwidth light conditions, and leaf area, height, mass, antioxidant capacity and volatile emissions were measured at various time points. The results indicate reproducible significant differences in specific volatiles, and in biochemical classes of volatiles, compared to greenhouse grown plants. For example, basil plants grown under blue/red/yellow or blue/red/green wavelengths emit higher levels of a subset of monoterpenoid volatiles, while a blue/red/far-red treatment leads to higher levels of most sesquiterpenoid volatile molecules. Specific light treatments increase volatile content, mass, and antioxidant capacity. The results show that narrow-bandwidth illumination can induce discrete suites of volatile classes that affect sensory quality in commercial herbs, and may be a useful tool in improving commercial production. PMID:27635127

  7. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. Fruits and branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Mariana; Boligon, Aline A; Brum, Thiele F DE; Zadra, Marina; Belke, Bianca V; Froeder, Amanda L F; Frohlich, Janaína K; Nunes, Letícia T; Pappis, Lauren; Boligon, Alexandra A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2014-04-29

    The antioxidant capacity of the crude extract and fractions of Tabernaemontana catharinensis fruits and branches, was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids and condensed tannins were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The ethyl acetate fraction of the fruits and the n-butanol fraction of the branches showed IC50 of 181.82 µg/mL and 78.19 µg/mL, respectively. All fractions were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in the branches were quantified chlorogenic acid in the chloroform (8.96 mg/g), ethyl acetate (4.31 mg/g) and n-butanol (3.33 mg/g) fractions; caffeic acid in the ethyl acetate (5.24 mg/g) and n-butanol (1.81 mg/g); gallic acid (0.52 mg/g) in the n-butanol. In the fruits, chlorogenic acid in the chloroform (1.67 mg/g); rutin in the ethyl acetate (3.45 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.98 mg/g) fractions. The present study showed that these quantified compounds can contribute to antioxidant capacity which was higher in the branches than in the fruits.

  8. Determination of fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacity of Mespilus germanica L. fruit

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    Hale Seçilmiş Canbay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine fruit characteristics, fatty acid profile and total antioxidant capacitiy of first cultured Mespilus germanica L. Methods: A total of 15 fruits were taken randomly from four directions of adult trees. Then the physical and chemical properties of first cultured medlar fruit (Istanbul/Turkey were measured by using refractometer, colorimeter, spectrophotometer and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer, respectivly. Results: In the fruit studied, the results showed that palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, arachidic acid and behenic acid were the most abundant fatty acids (FAs, and the main FA was palmitic acid [(35.35 ± 1.20%]. The percentage of linoleic acid and stearic acid in this fruit oil were (29.10 ± 1.70% and (8.53 ± 0.25%, respectively. As a result of the analysis, the total antioxidant capacity of medlar fruit was (1.1 ± 0.2 mmol trolox equivalents/L. Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the concentrations of FAs and the antioxidantive capacity of first cultured Istanbul medlar fruits by using many tested methods. It is proved that in our daily life, medlar fruit plays a significant role with its nutrition and health effect.

  9. Comparative carotenoid compositions during maturation and their antioxidative capacities of three citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Kyung-Mi; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated total carotenoid content, comparative carotenoid composition, vitamin C content, and total antioxidant capacity of three citrus varieties which are Yuza (Citrus junos Sieb ex Tabaka), Kjool (Citrus unshiu Marcow), and Dangyooja (Citrus grandis Osbeck). Seven carotenoids were identified, with β-cryptoxanthin, astaxanthin, and zeaxanthin being predominant in citrus varieties. Ripening increased the total carotenoid in three citrus varieties. Individual carotenoid of canthaxanthin, astaxanthin, and α-carotene in citrus varieties decreased with maturation, whereas the others increased with ripening. Yuza exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity in 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, with VCEAC values of 582.9 mg/100 g and 451.5 mg/100g, respectively. The relative VCEAC values were vitamin C (1.00)>lycopene (0.375), α-carotene (0.304), β-carotene (0.289), β-cryptoxanthin (0.242), and zeaxanthin (0.099). These results indicate that Yuza contains higher amounts of total carotenoids, individual carotenoids, and vitamin C than other Korean citrus varieties.

  10. Effect of sodium selenite on isoflavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Félix, Daniela; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    Isoflavonoid compositions, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated after soaking with different sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) concentrations (0, 1 and 2mg/100g seeds). Chickpea seeds were germinated during four days at 24°C and the isoflavonoid profiles and concentrations evaluated by HPLC-UV daily during four days of germination. Eleven isoflavones and two pterocarpan phytoalexins forms were identified in sprouts, being malonylated formononetin glycoside, formononetin, isoformononetin glycoside and malonylated biochanin A glycoside the major compounds. Compared to untreated sprouts, total isoflavonoid, PAL activity and antioxidant capacity showed a remarkable increase of 83%, 56%, and 33%, respectively in chickpea sprouts that were treated with a high sodium selenite content (2mg/100g seeds). Results suggest that Se-enriched chickpea sprouts could represent a good source of dietary Se and as an upgraded source of isoflavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Food Ingredient Extracts of Cyclopia subternata (Honeybush: Variation in Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Capacity

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    Maria A. Stander

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopia subternata plants are traditionally used for the production of the South African herbal tea, honeybush, and recently as aqueous extracts for the food industry. A C. subternata aqueous extract and mangiferin (a major constituent are known to have anti-diabetic properties. Variation in phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity is expected due to cultivation largely from seedlings, having implications for extract standardization and quality control. Aqueous extracts from 64 seedlings of the same age, cultivated under the same environmental conditions, were analyzed for individual compound content, total polyphenol (TP content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in a number of assays. An HPLC method was developed and validated to allow quantification of xanthones (mangiferin, isomangiferin, flavanones (hesperidin, eriocitrin, a flavone (scolymoside, a benzophenone (iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside and dihydrochalcones (phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-glucoside, 3-hydroxyphloretin-3',5'-di-C-hexoside. Additional compounds were tentatively identified using mass spectrometric detection, with the presence of the 3-hydroxyphloretin-glycoside, an iriflophenone-di-O,C-hexoside, an eriodictyol-di-C-hexoside and vicenin-2 being demonstrated for the first time. Variability of the individual phenolic compound contents was generally higher than that of the TP content and TAC values. Among the phenolic compounds, scolymoside, hesperidin and iriflophenone-3-C-β-glucoside contents were the most variable. A combination of the measured parameters could be useful in product standardization by providing a basis for specifying minimum levels.

  12. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  13. Physical Activity and Adherence to Mediterranean Diet Increase Total Antioxidant Capacity: The ATTICA Study

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    Stavros A. Kavouras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the association of physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in total antioxidant capacity (TAC. A random sample of 1514 men and 1528 women was selected from Attica region. Physical activity was assessed with a translated version of the validated “International Physical Activity Questionnaire” (iPAQ, and dietary intake through a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was assessed by the MedDietScore that incorporated the inherent characteristics of this diet. TAC was positively correlated with the degree of physical activity (P<.05. TAC was also positively correlated with MedDietScore (r=0.24, P<.001. Stratified analysis by diet status revealed that the most beneficial results were observed to highly active people as compared to inactive, who also followed the Mediterranean diet (288  ±  70 μmol/L, 230  ±  50 μmol/L, resp., after adjusting for various confounders. Increased physical activity and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were associated with increased total antioxidant capacity.

  14. A study on the effects of pica and iron-deficiency anemia on oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, A; Dogan, M; Bulan, K; Kaba, S; Demir, N; Öner, A F

    2013-09-01

    Pica is defined as developmentally inappropriate consumption of nonnutritive substances for at least 1 month. There are a few studies on serum trace element levels of patients with pica. The literature contains contracting data on the levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant levels in patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). The effect of pica on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity has not been investigated yet. The present study evaluated the effects of pica and IDA on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity as well as on the levels of trace elements including serum zinc and selenium in 47 children with IDA plus pica, 22 children with IDA only and 21 nonanemic children as controls. The results demonstrated significantly lower levels of serum selenium and zinc in pica and IDA groups compared to the control group. Total oxidant levels were highest in the pica group and consistently, the lowest total antioxidant capacity was observed again in the pica group. Comparison of pica and IDA groups yielded significantly lower levels of total antioxidant levels and significantly higher oxidative stress index in the pica group. Consequently, it is thought that the detrimental effects of pica within the organism were mediated by adverse impacts on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress. These effects should be kept in mind while managing patients with pica.

  15. Quantification of individual phenolic compounds' contribution to antioxidant capacity in apple: a novel analytical tool based on liquid chromatography with diode array, electrochemical, and charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Merichel; Kariuki, James; Turner, Charlotta

    2014-01-15

    Phenolics, particularly from apples, hold great interest because of their antioxidant properties. In the present study, the total antioxidant capacity of different apple extracts obtained by pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) was determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), which was compared with the conventional antioxidant assays. To measure the antioxidant capacity of individual antioxidants present in apple extracts, a novel method was developed based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (DAD), electrochemical (ECD), and charged aerosol (CAD) detection. HPLC-DAD-ECD-CAD enabled rapid, qualitative, and quantitative determination of antioxidants in the apple extracts. The main advantage of using CAD was that this detector enabled quantification of a large number of phenolics using only a few standards. The results showed that phenolic acids and flavonols were mainly responsible for the total antioxidant capacity of apple extracts. In addition, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, an unidentified phenolic acid, and a quercetin derivative presented the highest antioxidant capacities.

  16. Evaluation of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage effect of resveratrol-nanostructured lipid carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ju; Shi, Fan; Li, Qiu-wen; Li, Pei-shan; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2016-03-01

    Cellular damage induced by free-radicals like reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases. 2, 2-azobis(2-amidino-propane) dihydrochloride(AAPH) generates two potent ROS capable of inducing lipid peroxidation: alkoxy radical(RO-) and peroxy radical(ROO-). These radicals are similar to those that are physiologically active and thus might initiate a cascade of intracellular toxic events leading to oxidation, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and subsequent cell death. Hence naturally anti-oxidant play a vital role in combating these conditions. In this study, resveratrol loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (Res-NLC) was prepared by hot melting and then high pressure homogenization technique. The effects of Res-NLC on free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidative damage is investigated. The particle size and zeta potential of Res-NLC were 139.3 ± 1.7 nm and -11.21 ± 0.41 mV, respectively. By free radical scavenging assays, the IC50 value of Res-NLC were 19.25, 5.29 μg/mL with DPPH, ABTS assay respectively, and 0.161 mg ferrous sulfate/1 mg Res-NLC with FRAP assay; and by AAPH-induced oxidative injury cell model assay, Res-NLC showed the strong protective effect against the human liver tumor HepG2 cell oxidative stress damage. These results indicated that the antioxidant properties of Res-NLC hold great potential used as an alternative to more toxic synthetic antioxidants as an additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations for the oxidative diseases treatment.

  17. Traditional Small-Size Citrus from Taiwan: Essential Oils, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity

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    Min-Hung Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calamondin (Citrus microcarpa Bunge and the kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia Swingle are two small-size citrus fruits that have traditionally been consumed in Taiwan; however, there has been a lack of scientific research regarding the active compounds and functionalities of these fruits. Methods: Analysis of volatile composition of essential oil and phytosterol was carried out using Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Flavonoid and limonoid were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Moreover, antioxidant capacity from their essential oils and extracts were assessed in vitro. Results: The compositions of the essential oils of both fruits were identified, with the results showing that the calamondin and kumquat contain identified 43 and 44 volatile compounds, respectively. In addition, oxygenated compounds of volatiles accounted for 4.25% and 2.04%, respectively, consistent with the fact that oxygenated compounds are generally found in high content in citrus fruits. In terms of flavonoids, the calamondin exhibited higher content than the kumquat, with disomin-based flavonoids being predominant; on the other hand, phytosterol content of kumquat was higher than that of calamondin, with amyrin being the dominant phytosterol. Both of them contain high amounts of limonoids. The ethanol extracts and essential oils of small-sized citrus fruits have been shown to have antioxidant effects, with those effects being closely related to the flavonoid content of the fruit in question. Conclusions: The present study also reviewed antioxidant activity in terms of specific bioactive compounds in order to find the underlying biological activity of both fruits. The calamondin and kumquat have antioxidant effects, which are in turn very important for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  18. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and in vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Fruit Wines

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    Ana Ljevar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit wines contain a wide range of phenolic compounds with biological effects, but their composition and potential benefits to human health have been studied to the much lesser extent compared to grape wines. The aim of this research is to study the phenolic profile of different types of fruit wines and to evaluate their antioxidant and biological potential. Commercially available fruit wines from blackberry, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant, strawberry and apple produced in Croatia were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive screening of Croatian fruit wines. The phenolic characterization was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-PDA/MS analysis. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ABTS and FRAP assays, while in vitro biological activity was analyzed by the cytotoxicity assay on human breast (MCF-7, colon (CaCo-2 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Among the studied fruit wines, blackberry, cherry and blackcurrant wines contained the highest amount of total phenolics, while the last two also contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds showed distinctive phenolic composition of each type of fruit wine, notably as regards anthocyanins. Blackberry, followed by cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines also had a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry and apple wines. Fruit wines inhibited the growth of human cancer cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner with differing susceptibility among tested cancer cells. Blackberry, cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines in the volume ratio of 10 and 20 % showed to be the most effective anti-proliferative agents, with higher susceptibility in HeLa and MCF-7 cells than CaCo-2 cells.

  19. Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and in vitro Cytotoxicity Assessment of Fruit Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljevar, Ana; Ćurko, Natka; Tomašević, Marina; Radošević, Kristina; Srček, Višnja Gaurina; Ganić, Karin Kovačević

    2016-06-01

    Fruit wines contain a wide range of phenolic compounds with biological effects, but their composition and potential benefits to human health have been studied to the much lesser extent compared to grape wines. The aim of this research is to study the phenolic profile of different types of fruit wines and to evaluate their antioxidant and biological potential. Commercially available fruit wines from blackberry, cherry, raspberry, blackcurrant, strawberry and apple produced in Croatia were analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first comprehensive screening of Croatian fruit wines. The phenolic characterization was performed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-PDA/MS analysis. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ABTS and FRAP assays, while in vitro biological activity was analyzed by the cytotoxicity assay on human breast (MCF-7), colon (CaCo-2) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Among the studied fruit wines, blackberry, cherry and blackcurrant wines contained the highest amount of total phenolics, while the last two also contained the highest amount of total anthocyanins. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds showed distinctive phenolic composition of each type of fruit wine, notably as regards anthocyanins. Blackberry, followed by cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines also had a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than strawberry and apple wines. Fruit wines inhibited the growth of human cancer cells in vitro in a dose--dependent manner with differing susceptibility among tested cancer cells. Blackberry, cherry, raspberry and blackcurrant wines in the volume ratio of 10 and 20% showed to be the most effective anti-proliferative agents, with higher susceptibility in HeLa and MCF-7 cells than CaCo-2 cells.

  20. Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction temperature influences the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC of medicinal plant extracts to a great extend. TPC and TFC are the principle activity constituents present in the plant. The effects of extraction temperature on TPC, TFC and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts are worth to study. Materials and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay were used to determine the TPC and TFC of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures. The antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and phosphomolybdenum methods. Results: TPC and TFC were significantly elevated with increasing extraction temperature (from 40°C to 100°C. However, TPC and TFC were not significantly different (P > 0.05 at the extraction temperatures 90°C and 100°C. Also, the extracts obtained at a higher temperature exhibited a significant free radical-scavenging activity compared with extraction at lower temperatures (P < 0.05. The TPCs (13.95-36.68 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry material were highly correlated with DPPH (R2 = 0.9229, ABTS (R2 = 0.9951 free radical-scavenging capacity, and total antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9872 evaluated by phosphomolybdenum method. Conclusion: The TPC and TFC of G. divaricata leaf was significantly influenced by the extraction temperatures, which were the main antioxidant constituents present in the G. divaricata plant.

  1. Determination of antioxidant capacity of diverse fruits by electron spin resonance (ESR) and UV-vis spectrometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Shuang; Tian, Sizhu; Jiang, Jia; Han, Dandan; Yu, Xinyu; Wang, Kun; Li, Dan; Lu, Dayong; Yu, Aimin; Zhang, Ziwei

    2017-04-15

    Twenty-one kinds of fruits including strawberry, mulberry, lemon, banana, etc. were measured for antioxidant capacity based on their ability to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) was used to quantify antioxidant capacity of the studied fruits. The results were expressed as mg of ascorbic acid equivalent per 100g fruit. Each fruit was divided into two parts: harvest part (fresh fruit analyzed immediately), and liquid nitrogen frozen part (fruit frozen and pulverized in liquid nitrogen). Antioxidant capacities of both fresh and frozen fruits were determined, and VCEAC values were proved to have no significant difference. For the frozen fruits, the antioxidant capacities were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) and UV-vis spectrometry. VCEAC values obtained with UV-vis and ESR range from 11.48 to 345.75mg/100g and 7.01 to 366.26mg/100g. Experimental results indicated that VCEAC values obtained by two methods were highly correlated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effect of Colostrum along with Aerobic and Anaerobic Exercise on Lipid Peroxidation and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Male Wistar Rats

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    M Mogharnasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The consumption of food supplements in order to eliminate oxidative damages induced by exercise are common among athletes. Previous studies have shown that bovine colostrum has antioxidant properties, but no study has ever been done to evaluate its effectiveness on Oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of bovine colostrum along with aerobic and anaerobic exercise on Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in male Wistar rats.   Methods: In the present experimental study, 48 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups (control, colostrum supplement, aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and aerobic exercise, colostrum supplements and anaerobic exercise. Colostrum group received daily for ten weeks dosing 300 mg /kg bovine colostrum powder orally. Exercising groups worked out three times a week for a period of 10 weeks on a custom-made treadmill for rodents. Blood samples were taken before and 24 hours after the last exercise session on an empty stomach. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, One Way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey at α<0.05.   Results: The plasma levels of oxidative stress index (MDA in all groups except colostrum supplement and anaerobic exercise compared with the control group was significantly reduced (p<0.05. The antioxidant capacity in all groups except anaerobic exercise group compared with the control group was significant increased (p<0.05.   Conclusions: The results indicated that colostrum supplementation with ten weeks of aerobic exercise had better effect on the control of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity compared to anaerobic exercise.    

  3. [THE POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF COLORIMETRY TECHNIQUE OF DETECTION OF LEVELS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapojnikova, M A; Strakhova, L A; Blinova, T V; Makarov, I A; Rakhmanov, R S; Umniagina, I A

    2015-11-01

    The analysis was implemented concerning indicators of oxidative status and antioxidant capacity of serum. The indicators were received by colorimetry technique based on detection of peroxides in blood serum in examined patients of different categories: healthy persons aged from 17 to 20 years and from 30 to 60 years and patients with bronchopulmonary pathology. The low level of oxidative stress and high antioxidant capacity of serum were established in individuals ofyounger age. With increasing of age, degree of expression of oxidative stress augmented and level of antioxidant defense lowered. Almost all patients with bronchopulmonary pathology had high level of oxidative stress and low level of antioxidant defense. The analysis of quantitative data of examined indicators their conformity with health condition was established

  4. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT OF HYPTIS SPP., P. HEPTAPHYLLUM, T. PANAMENSIS, T. RHOIFOLIA, AND OCOTEA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Tafurt García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the possible correlation between the antioxidant activities and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC and chemical composition of Lamiaceae (H. conferta, H. dilatata, H. mutabilis, H. suaveolens, Burseraceae (P. heptaphyllum, T. rhoifoila, T. panamensis, and Lauraceae (Ocotea sp. were evaluated. The Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity or the Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA was determined by using a colorimetric assay with the ABTS radical cation, Effective Concentration (EC50 was evaluated with the DPPH radical, and the TPC was established by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, for ethanolic extracts obtained by cold maceration and evaporation to dryness. Both the TAA and the EC50 were highly correlated with the TPC. The barks of T. rhoifolia and T. panamensis demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacities. The Burseraceae spp. exhibited the highest TPC, and the Lamiaceae (Hyptis spp. demonstrated the lowest TPC.

  5. A comparison of antioxidative capacities of fruit juices, drinks and nectars, as determined by EPR and UV-vis spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszek, Mariola; Polak, Justyna

    2016-01-15

    The differences in the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) values at the same incubation time obtained by two different techniques: electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, which use the same antioxidant-free radical reaction mechanism, were determined for fruit juices, nectars and drinks. For this study, the stable free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH(•)) was used. The antioxidant capacity was presented in Trolox Equivalents, e.g., μM trolox per 100 ml of sample. All of the studied fruit juices, drinks and nectars showed antioxidative properties. Dependencies between TEAC values and the percent fruit content and sample color were observed for the studied beverages. It was found that EPR spectroscopy is the more adequate method for determining TEAC values for these kinds of samples.

  6. Reduced Pressure Alone Does Not Affect the Overall Sensory and Antioxidant Values of Radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, L. H.; Bisbee, P.; Yorio, N. C.; Stutte, G. W.; Richards, J. T.; Birmele, M.; Prior, R. L.; Perchonok, M.; Wheeler, R. M.; Dixon, M.

    Use of reduced atmospheric pressures e g 101 kPa for space exploration can offer several advantages during long duration space missions including reduced launch mass for containment vessels reduced gas leakage reduced resupply costs and increased potential for using transparent materials in greenhouses for a bioregenerative life support system on Mars and on the Moon Limited testing with crop plants at reduced atmospheres has been conducted with results focused on whole plant growth and gas exchange but there are no studies regarding the quality of resulting products This question is of importance not only from the standpoint of food palatability but of potential nutritional and health benefits to the crew To study this we grew radish Raphanus sativus L cv Cherry Bomb Hybrid II plants at three atmospheric pressures 33 kPa 66 kPa and 96 kPa nominal ambient while maintaining oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures constant at 21 kPa and 0 12 kPa respectively After 21 days growth chambers were repressurized and ten plants were harvested within the same time frame of the photoperiod for all three pressure treatments The experiment was repeated three times Arial shoots and storage roots were separated immediately upon removal from growth chambers frozen with liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 r C until analysis Six of the ten plants were lyophilized ground to pass a 40 mesh screen and used for determination of the total antioxidant capacity and glucosinolate composition while the remaining four plants were used

  7. Ferric reducing antioxidant power of essential oils extracted from Eucalyptus and Curcuma species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Durre Shahwar; Muhammad Asam Raza; Sana Bukhari; Gulshan Bukhari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Eucalyptus and Curcuma species are well reputed for their traditional medicinal uses in south east Asia, therefore, the present study was designed to determine reducing potential of their essential oils. Method: Essential oils of the selected medicinal species Eucalyptussideroxylon, E. teriticornis, E. citriodora, Curcuma longa and C. aromatic were extracted using hydro distillation method, separated with diethyl ether and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. Column chromatography of Curcuma aromatica was carried out and six fractions were collected using gradient solvent system of n-hexane-ethyl acetate. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of oils were evaluated using standard protocol and results were expressed in μM equivalent to FeSO4.7H2O. Results: The essential oil of Eucalyptus sideroxylon was found to possess highest reducing potential among the Eucalyptus species. Curcuma longa essential oil showed most significant reducing potential with 138.4±1.1 FRAP equivalents. Conclusions:It was concluded that the all essential oil and the column fractions of C. aromatica possess significant reducing capacity ranged from 95.8±1.0 to 152.4±1.4 μM in a dose dependent manner.

  8. In vitro capacity and in vivo antioxidant potency of sedimental extract of Tinospora cordifolia in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetes

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    Ramachandran Kannadhasan

    2012-12-01

    Results: Chemical analysis with SETc in vitro for its IC50 proves a key evident for its total antioxidant capacity of around 2046 times, in 1000 mg/kg of fixed dose per oral for in vivo analysis. In contrast to the above, the lipid peroxide levels and in vivo enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant levels were found to possess most significant difference (p

  9. Effect of an edible crosslinked coating and two types of packaging on antioxidant capacity of castilla blackberries

    OpenAIRE

    Leidy Carolina Ayala Sánchez; Claudia Patricia Valenzuela Real; Yanneth Bohórquez Perez

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the shelf life and maintain the quality and stability of the biological compounds with antioxidant activity present in Castilla blackberry fruits, a sodium alginate-based edible crosslinked coating was applied, and the fruits were packed in two different plastic containers and stored under refrigeration (3 ± 1 °C). Total antioxidant capacity and its relationship to physicochemical variables such as pH, Brix, and acidity were evaluated in six treatments: uncoated blackberr...

  10. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenka Pestorić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice fl our at the level of 10, 20 and 30 % to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat fl our contributed to the signifi cantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05. Gluten-free cookies made with rice fl our and buckwheat fl our exhibited signifi cantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•, antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05. Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20 % of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30 % buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples.

  11. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alter the antioxidant capacity but do not impact tuber ionome in Raphanus sativus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Diaz, Baltazar; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Rodrigo-García, Joaquin; Morales, Maria Isabel; Osuna-Avila, Pedro; Niu, Genhua; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-11-01

    The effects of nCeO2 on food quality are not well known yet. This research was performed to determine the impact of nCeO2 on radish (Raphanus sativus L.). Plants were cultivated to full maturity in potting soil treated with nCeO2 at concentrations of 0, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Germination, growth, photosynthesis, ionome, and antioxidants were evaluated at different growth stages. Results showed that at 500 mg/kg, nCeO2 significantly retarded seed germination but did not reduce the number of germinated seeds. None of the treatments affected gas exchange, photosynthesis, growth, phenols, flavonoids, and nutrients' accumulation in tubers and leaves of adult plants. However, tubers' antioxidant capacity, expressed as FRAP, ABTS(•-) and DPPH, increased by 30%, 32%, and 85%, respectively, in plants treated with 250 mg nCeO2kg(-1) soil. In addition, cerium accumulation in tubers of plants treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg reached 72 and 142 mg/kg d wt, respectively. This suggests that nCeO2 could improve the radical scavenging potency of radish but it might introduce nCeO2 into the food chain with unknown consequences.

  12. Reverse-phase HPLC separation of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with enhanced antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Udenigwe, Chibuike C; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2013-03-01

    Hemp seed protein hydrolysate (HPH) was produced through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) digestion of hemp seed protein isolate followed by partial purification and separation into eight peptide fractions by reverse-phase (RP)-HPLC. The peptide fractions exhibited higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity as well as scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals when compared to HPH. Radical scavenging activities of the fractionated peptides increased as content of hydrophobic amino acids or elution time was increased, with the exception of hydroxyl radical scavenging that showed decreased trend. Glutathione (GSH), HPH and the RP-HPLC peptide fractions possessed low ferric ion reducing ability but all had strong (>60 %) metal chelating activities. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by some of the HPH peptide fractions was higher at 1 mg/ml when compared to that observed at 0.1 mg/ml peptide concentration. Peptide separation resulted in higher concentration of some hydrophobic amino acids (especially proline, leucine and isoleucine) in the fractions (mainly F5 and F8) when compared to HPH. The elution time-dependent increased concentrations of the hydrophobic amino acids coupled with decreased levels of positively charged amino acids may have been responsible for the significantly higher (p < 0.05) antioxidant properties observed for some of the peptide fractions when compared to the unfractionated HPH. In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of HPH after simulated GIT digestion is mainly influenced by the amino acid composition of some of its peptides.

  13. Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anu; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar; Mahdi, Farzana; Chander, Ramesh

    2008-09-01

    In the present investigation we report the protective potential of some herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant status and levels of metal ions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity of the herbs was also evaluated. Induction of diabetes mellitus in rats caused an increase in blood lipid peroxide levels that was associated with the reduced activity of red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant enzymes--namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase--along with depletion of plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) and copper, zinc, iron, magnesium, and selenium levels. Oral treatment of diabetic rats with Allium sativum, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia, and Ocimum sanctum extracts (500 mg/kg of body weight) not only lowered the blood glucose level but also inhibited the formation of lipid peroxides, reactivated the antioxidant enzymes, and restored levels of GSH and metals in the above-mentioned model. The herbal extracts (50-500 microg) inhibited the generation of superoxide anions (O(2)(-.)) in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic in vitro systems. These preparations also inhibited the ferrous-sodium ascorbate-induced formation of lipid peroxides in RBCs. The in vivo and in vitro protective effects of the above-mentioned herbal drugs were also compared with that of glibenclamide. On the basis of our results, we conclude that the above-mentioned herbal plants not only possess hypoglycemic properties, but they also decrease oxidative load in diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we propose that long-term use of such agents might help in the prevention of diabetes-associated complications. However, the extrapolation of these results to humans needs further in-depth study.

  14. Effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during processing of muffins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Soto, Maria U; Powers, Joseph R; Alldredge, J Richard

    2012-05-01

    Consumption of baked products constitutes an important part of a daily breakfast considering that people are continually grabbing meals on the go. Among baked products, muffins rank third in breakfast products and attract a broad range of consumers. Incorporation of red raspberry juice into muffins can add value to the product while preserving health benefits to the consumer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mixing time, freeze-drying and baking on the phenolic and anthocyanin contents and antioxidant capacity of raspberry juice during the preparation of muffins. Freeze-drying of raspberry batters reduced their phenolic content and antioxidant capacity regardless of mixing time. Non-freeze-dried raspberry batter mixed for 5 min had the highest phenolic content (0.88 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry matter (DM)). Non-freeze-dried raspberry muffins had the highest antioxidant capacity (0.041 µmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) DM). Freeze-dried raspberry batters mixed for 5 and 10 min had the highest anthocyanin content (0.065 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside g(-1) DM). Baking reduced the anthocyanin content of both non-freeze-dried and freeze-dried raspberry muffins. Despite the reduction in valuable compounds, muffin is a vehicle for the delivery of these compounds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Role of catechins in the antioxidant capacity of an active film containing green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, M; Nerin, C

    2012-10-03

    The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method was used to characterize the antioxidant capacity of natural extracts of green tea, green coffee, and grapefruit. These natural extracts were incorporated into a plastic film layer, which was subsequently subjected to a free radical gas stream in order to determine the antioxidant capacity directly in the active film. The green tea extract (GTE) afforded the strongest antioxidant activity. To identify the active compounds in the extract, concentration of the diverse catechins in samples were determined by HPLC-UV analysis. The results showed that the content of catechins in the GTE is around 77% (w/w), the major components being (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-epicatechin. A variation in the concentration profile of catechins was detected during the oxidation process. The chromatographic study demonstrated that (-)-gallocatechin, (-)- epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, and (-)-catechin gallate exhibited the most radical scavenging.

  16. Changes in the color, chemical stability and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solution over storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaonan; Bary, Solène; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-02-01

    Many anthocyanin-containing foods are thermally processed to ensure their safety, and stored for some time before being consumed. However, the combination of thermal processing and subsequent storage has a significant impact on anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the color, chemical stability, and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solutions during storage at 4, 25, 45, and 65 °C, respectively. Anthocyanin aqueous solutions were thermally treated before storage. Results showed that the degradation rate of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions was much faster than those in real food. The color of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions changed dramatically during storage. The anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at 4 °C showed the best chemical stability. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at lower temperatures remained the same; however, the antioxidant capacity of those thermally treated at 120 or 140 °C and stored at 45 or 65 °C significantly decreased.

  17. Influence of Butyrate Loaded Clinoptilolite Dietary Supplementation on Growth Performance, Development of Intestine and Antioxidant Capacity in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanan; Zhou, Yanmin; Lu, Changhui; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; He, Jintian; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate loaded clinoptilolite (CLI-B) on growth performance, pancreatic digestive enzymes, intestinal development and histomorphology, as well as antioxidant capacity of serum and intestinal mucosal in chickens. Two hundred forty 1-day-old commercial Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups: CON group (fed basal diets), SB group (fed basal diet with 0.05% sodium butyrate), CLI group (fed basal diet with 1% clinoptilolite), and CLI-B group (fed basal diet with 1% CLI-B). The results showed that supplementation of CLI-B significantly decreased (P < 0.05) feed conservation ratio at both 21 and 42 days of age, improved the pancreatic digestive enzymes activities (P < 0.05), increased the villus length and villus/crypt ratio (P < 0.05), and decreased the crypt depth of intestine (P < 0.05) as compared to the other experimental groups. Furthermore, the CLI-B environment improved the antioxidant capacity by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activities (P < 0.05) in intestine mucosal, and decreasing the NO content and iNOS activity (P < 0.05) in serum. In addition, CLI-B supplementation had improved the development of intestine and antioxidant capacity of broilers than supplementation with either clinoptilolite or butyrate sodium alone. In conclusion, 1% CLI-B supplementation improved the health status, intestine development and antioxidant capacity in broiler chickens, thus appearing as an important feed additive for the poultry industry.

  18. Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. METHODS: 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5 mg kg-1 propofol, 1 mg kg-1 lidocaine and 0.6 mg kg-1 rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4 L min-1, 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4 L min-1 6 mg kg h-1 propofol and 1 µg kg h-1 fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. RESULTS: It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. CONCLUSION: According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system.

  19. Effect of Plasma Uric Acid on Antioxidant Capacity, Oxidative Stress, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Serafini, Mauro; Colic Baric, Irena; Hazen, Stanley L.; Klein, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is purported to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated insulin resistance. We evaluated whether alterations in levels of circulating uric acid (UA), a systemic antioxidant, affects the following: 1) systemic (plasma and saliva) nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC); 2) markers of systemic (urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α) and muscle (carbonylated protein content) oxidative stress; and 3) whole-body insulin sensitivity (percentage increase in glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedure). Thirty-one obese subjects (BMI 37.1 ± 0.7 kg/m2) with either high serum UA (HUA; 7.1 ± 0.4 mg/dL; n = 15) or normal serum UA (NUA; 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dL; n = 16) levels were studied; 13 subjects with HUA levels were studied again after reduction of serum UA levels to 0 by infusing a recombinant urate oxidase. HUA subjects had 20–90% greater NEAC, but lower insulin sensitivity (40%) and levels of markers of oxidative stress (30%) than subjects in the NUA group (all P < 0.05). Acute UA reduction caused a 45–95% decrease in NEAC and a 25–40% increase in levels of systemic and muscle markers of oxidative stress (all P < 0.05), but did not affect insulin sensitivity (from 168 ± 25% to 156 ± 17%, P = NS). These results demonstrate that circulating UA is a major antioxidant and might help protect against free-radical oxidative damage. However, oxidative stress is not a major determinant of insulin action in vivo. PMID:24353177

  20. [Effects of various anesthesia maintenance on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron and antioxidant capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Mehmet; Ayoglu, Hilal; Okyay, Dilek; Ayoglu, Ferruh; Gür, Abdullah; Can, Murat; Yurtlu, Serhan; Hancı, Volkan; Küçükosman, Gamze; Turan, Işıl

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol maintenances on serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde, and glutathion peroxidase measurements, and antioxidant capacity. 60 patients scheduled for unilateral lower extremity surgery which would be performed with tourniquet under general anesthesia were divided into three groups. Blood samples were collected to determine the baseline serum levels of selenium, copper, zinc, iron, malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase. Anesthesia was induced using 2-2.5mgkg(-1) propofol, 1mgkg(-1) lidocaine and 0.6mgkg(-1) rocuronium. In the maintenance of anesthesia, under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:N2O 4Lmin(-1), 1 MAC sevoflorane was administered to Group S and 1 MAC desflurane to Group D; and under carrier gas of 50:50% O2:air 4Lmin(-1) 6mgkgh(-1) propofol and 1μgkgh(-1) fentanyl infusion were administered to Group P. At postoperative blood specimens were collected again. It was observed that only in Group S and P, levels of MDA decreased at postoperative 48th hour; levels of glutathion peroxidase increased in comparison to the baseline values. Selenium levels decreased in Group S and Group P, zinc levels decreased in Group P, and iron levels decreased in all three groups, and copper levels did not change in any groups in the postoperative period. According to the markers of malondialdehyde and glutathion peroxidase, it was concluded that maintenance of general anesthesia using propofol and sevoflurane activated the antioxidant system against oxidative stress and using desflurane had no effects on oxidative stress and antioxidant system. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary melatonin and total antioxidant capacity in reproductive and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitha Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal inflammation causes an increased production of reactive oxidative stress leading to the production of reactive oxidative species, which causes tissue damage. Various studies have shown that Melatonin hormone is a potent antioxidant. Aim: To assess and compare the total antioxidant capacity and melatonin hormone level in saliva of healthy women, women with chronic periodontitis in reproductive and postmenopausal age groups, so as to render a comprehensive treatment in future. Materials and Methods: Total of 80 women were selected and divided into 4 groups. 20 aged 24-35 yr as group A with GI <1, 20 as group B aged 24-35 yr with GI ≥1 and CAL ≥3 mm. 20 aged 47-55 yrs as group C with GI <1 and 20 aged 47-55 yrs as group D with GI ≥1 and CAL ≥3 mm. Saliva samples were collected from all the groups and estimated for Total Antioxidant Levels and Melatonin hormone. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis: The data obtained was subjected to student t test. Results: In the present study, there was significant reduction in both parameters in women with periodontitis when compared to healthy groups in both age groups with statistical significance P < 0.005 in reproductive age group. Conclusion: Salivary Melatonin could be used not only as one of the markers of the periodontal disease progression but also could be employed as an adjunct to traditional periodontal therapy in the therapeutic front owing to its protective nature.

  2. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Some Commercial Fruit Juices: Electrochemical and Spectrophotometrical Approaches

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    Aurelia Magdalena Pisoschi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the total antioxidant capacity of some commercial fruit juices (namely citrus, spectrophotometrically and by the biamperometric method, using the redox couple DPPH· (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl/DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine. Trolox® was chosen as a standard antioxidant. In the case of the spectrophometric method, the absorbance decrease of the DPPH· solution was followed. For the biamperometric method, the influence of some parameters like the potential diference, ΔE, DPPH· concentration, and Trolox® concentration was investigated. The calibration graph obtained for Trolox® presents linearity between 5 and 30 µM, (y = 0.059 x + 0.0564, where y represents the value of current intensity, expressed as μA and x the value of Trolox® concentration, expressed as μM; r2 = 0.9944. The R.S.D. value for the biamperometric method was 1.29% (n = 10, c = 15 μM Trolox®. In the case of the spectrophotometric method, the calibration graph obtained for Trolox® presents linearity between 0.01 and 0.125 mM (y = -9.5789 x+1.4533, where y represents the value of absorbance and x, the value of Trolox® concentration, expressed as mM; r2 = 0.9963. The R.S.D. value for the spectrophotometric method was 2.05%. Both methods were applied to total antioxidant activity determination in real samples (natural juices and soft drinks and the results were in good agreement.

  3. Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-Ageing Biomarkers after Diet Micronutrient Supplementation

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    Aneta Balcerczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35–55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day, ubiquinone (300 mg/day, astaxanthin (15 mg/day, lycopene (45 mg/day, lutein palmitate (30 mg/day, zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day, L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day, cholecalciferol (30 µg/day and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day. We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex.

  4. Improved FIA-ABTS method for antioxidant capacity determination in different biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompadre, Stefano; Leone, Luciana; Politi, Alessia; Battino, Maurizio

    2004-08-01

    In order to evaluate the actual antioxidant features of foods, beverages and also plasma from patients, a number of assays have been developed in the last few years to determine the so called total antioxidant activity (TAA), intended as the cumulative capacity of a biological sample to scavenge free radicals. Most of the assays partially failed in obtaining a good reproducibility when using plasma because it is composed of a large number of substances, some of which are present at very high concentrations and possess masking features. For these reasons we have improved the widely known ABTS method by means of a FIA system where both temperature and dispersion of sample and reagent were strictly controlled. We found that temperature may be a critical aspect in the measurement of plasma TAA whilst its influence may be less important in the assay of non-complex biological samples. We demonstrated that also the reaction time may be critical, depending on the nature of the substance employed. Data confirmed the high TAA of a methylsalicylate-containing mouthrinse as well as the negligible TAA offered by the chlorhexidine containing one. White wines (Verdicchio) also displayed interesting TAA values. The improved method was useful to screen rapidly, without dilution, with very limited handling of the sample and with high repeatability the TAA of plasma in addition to chemical products, beverages and non-complex biological mixtures.

  5. Genotoxic evaluation, secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity of leaves and roots of Urera baccifera Gaudich (Urticaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindri, A L; de Souza, L B; Cruz, R C; Boligon, A A; Machado, M M; Athayde, M L

    2014-01-01

    In addition to phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols, alkaloids and condensed tannins, our tests identified the antioxidant and genotoxic properties in the crude extract (CE) and fractions of Urera baccifera (Urticaceae) roots and leaves. Oxalic acid (OA) content was determined by HPLC-DAD, which presented high values in the roots (1.82 ± 0.21, 1.79 ± 0.22 and 1.38 ± 0.15 mg/g in butanolic, CE and ethyl acetate fraction, respectively). OA caused a 30.7% reduction in the leucocyte proliferation, followed by butanolic fractions of roots (24.15%) and leaves (23.28%). The mitotic index was lower in butanolic fractions of leaves (8.7%) and roots (8.3%), similar to the OA index, which was 6.0%. The DNA damage index in cultured leukocytes was observed for OA (19.33) and butanol fraction treatments (22.67 and 16, respectively, for leaves and roots). Antioxidant capacity (DPPH and TBARS) was moderated, which was confirmed by the low phenolic, flavonol and flavonoid contents in both parts of the plant.

  6. Phytonutrients, Minerals and in vitro Antioxidant Capacity of Leaf and Stem Bark Powders of Senna spectabilis

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    Geoffrey Muriira Karau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Senna spectabilis is a small, rounded deciduous tree commonly found in the lower parts of Eastern province of Kenya. The plant is known to treat dysentery, menstrual cramps, whooping coughs and diabetes mellitus among the natives of Mbeere in Kenya. The present study investigated the amounts of phytonutrients, phytochemicals, mineral elements and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the leaf and stem bark powders of S. spectabilis. HPLC-UV/VIS,standard phytochemical methods, energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence system, and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazylmethods were used. Significant levels of retinol, α-tocopherol, thiamine, nicotinamide, β-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin were found in both leaf and stem bark powders. The antioxidant activity was 63.36, and 28.12%, for the leaf and stem bark powders, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity for the stem bark and leaf powders was 90.95%, and 88.98%. Also important mineral elements were found. The study findings support the claimed efficacy in the management of various diseases among the natives.

  7. Effect of domestic cooking methods on the total antioxidant capacity of vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Miglio, Cristiana; Del Rio, Daniele; Salvatore, Sara; Serafini, Mauro; Brighenti, Furio

    2009-01-01

    As well as tables of food composition, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) databases--developed in past years for investigating health effects of antioxidant-rich foods in epidemiological and nutritional studies--have been created on the basis of analytical data from raw plant material. However, most vegetables are commonly cooked before consumption. With the aim of completing a previously developed TAC database, the effect of the major domestic practices (i.e. boiling, pan-frying and deep-frying) on the TAC of commonly consumed cooked vegetables was evaluated. Based on dry weight, boiling generally resulted in positive TAC changes whereas a general negative effect on the TAC was observed in pan-fried vegetables. Deep-frying produced a TAC increase of potato, artichoke and aubergine but a TAC reduction of mushroom and onion. The present study clearly indicates that cooking is not always a detrimental process when the TAC is used as an index to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of vegetables.

  8. An Optimised Aqueous Extract of Phenolic Compounds from Bitter Melon with High Antioxidant Capacity

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    Sing Pei Tan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L. is a tropical fruit claimed to have medicinal properties associated with its content of phenolic compounds (TPC. The aim of the study was to compare water with several organic solvents (acetone, butanol, methanol and 80% ethanol for its efficiency at extracting the TPC from freeze-dried bitter melon powder. The TPC of the extracts was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and their antioxidant capacity (AC was evaluated using three assays. Before optimisation, the TPC and AC of the aqueous extract were 63% and 20% lower, respectively, than for the best organic solvent, 80% ethanol. However, after optimising for temperature (80 °C, time (5 min, water-to-powder ratio (40:1 mL/g, particle size (1 mm and the number of extractions of the same sample (1×, the TPC and the AC of the aqueous extract were equal or higher than for 80% ethanol. Furthermore, less solvent (40 mL water/g and less time (5 min were needed than was used for the 80% ethanol extract (100 mL/g for 1 h. Therefore, this study provides evidence to recommend the use of water as the solvent of choice for the extraction of the phenolic compounds and their associated antioxidant activities from bitter melon.

  9. Decreased antioxidant capacity and increased oxidative stress in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    Turkan GUNEY

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA is a common rheumatic disease in children which has three types. Systemic type goes with fever oligoarticular type involving joints are less than five and the polyarticular type more than five joints involved. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in its pathogenesis. The ROS generated damage proteins, lipids and serve to amplify the signaling pathways sustaining the synovitis. Enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase protect cellular systems from ROS. Our hypothesis is; patients with JIA could have defective defense mechanisms against ROS, which can vary from one type to other. Patients and Methods: We investigated antioxidant status including plasma SOD, catalase and serum ceruloplasmin levels in 25 JIA patients. Also, malondialdehyde (MDA, a product generated by the oxygenation of arachidonic acid, levels were measured. Results: Three patients had systemic; 10 with oligoarticular and 12 with polyarticular JİA and control subject number is 20. Plasma SOD and catalase levels were lower, ceruloplasmin and MDA levels were higher were higher in the study group than in controls. There were a negative correlation between catalase, MDA and SOD levels in patients. In between JIA types; the lowest catalase and ceruloplasmin levels were found in oligoarticular type. Conclusively, present study suggested that patients with JIA have decreased antioxidant capacity and defective defense mechanism against ROS and this could be more evident in patients with oligoarticular JIA. In addition, elevated ceruloplasmin levels do not seem to protect against ROS in JIA.

  10. Subclinical mastitis causes alterations in nitric oxide, total oxidant and antioxidant capacity in cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakisi, Onur; Oral, Hasan; Atakisi, Emine; Merhan, Oguz; Metin Pancarci, S; Ozcan, Ayla; Marasli, Saban; Polat, Bulent; Colak, Armagan; Kaya, Semra

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate total antioxidant (TAC), and oxidant capacity (TOC) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. Brown Swiss and Holstein breed cows were screened with California Mastitis Test (CMT) to determine mammary glands with subclinical mastitis. Moreover, somatic cell counts (SCC) were determined electronically in all milk samples. Mammary quarters were classified as healthy (n=25) or subclinical mastitis (n=35) based on CMT scores and somatic cell count (SCC: 200,000/ml) in milk. Nitric oxide, TOC and SCC levels were significantly higher (pmastitis compared to those from healthy mammary quarters. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis results in higher NO concentrations, TOC and SCC, and NO and TOC were positively correlated with SCC. Moreover, alterations in NO levels and TOC in milk could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to screen for subclinical mastitis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of cosmic radiationon lymphocyte micronucleus,serum lipid peroxide and antioxidation capacity inaircrew members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study looks into the influence of cosmic radiation at high altitudes on human bodies. Results reveal that the cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) and conventional cultured micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, serum levels of lipid peroxide, superoxide dismutase, and the total antioxidation capacity by chemical colorimetry all increased significantly in aircrew members. There exists a linear relationship between the CBMN and the average annual effective doses of radiation received or the average annual flying hours. With both of them, a trend shows that the serum lipid peroxide levels increase as well. Either the lipid peroxide or CBMN can sensitively reflect the recent changes in flight load. These findings indicate that cosmic radiation impairs the stability of chromosomes and genome, and induces lipid oxidative damage in aircrews; Lymphocyte CBMN and serum lipid peroxide can be used as monitoring indicators in the cosmic radiation protection for aircrew members.

  12. Profiling of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity of microalgae from subtropical coastal and brackish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Faruq; Fanning, Kent; Netzel, Michael; Turner, Warwick; Li, Yan; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-12-15

    Carotenoids are associated with various health benefits, such as prevention of age-related macular degeneration, cataract, certain cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cardiovascular problems. As microalgae contain considerable amounts of carotenoids, there is a need to find species with high carotenoid content. Out of hundreds of Australian isolates, 12 microalgal species were screened for carotenoid profiles, carotenoid productivity, and in vitro antioxidant capacity (total phenolic content (TPC) and ORAC). The top four carotenoid producers at 4.68-6.88 mg/g dry weight (DW) were Dunaliella salina, Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, and Pavlova salina. TPC was low, with D. salina possessing the highest TPC (1.54 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/g DW) and ORAC (577 μmol Trolox Equivalents/g DW). Results indicate that T. suecica, D. salina, P. salina and I. galbana could be further developed for commercial carotenoid production.

  13. Peroxidase, phenolics, and antioxidative capacity of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. grown in a zinc excess

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    Morina Filis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L. is the dominant plant species at a disposal site polluted with metal from the hydrometallurgical jarosite zinc production process. Seeds collected at the site were germinated and plants were grown hydroponically under controlled conditions in a excess of Zn. Induction of total soluble POD activity in the root occurred at 1, 5, and 10 mM Zn, indicating Zn accumulation within the root. Accumulation of Zn in leaves was not accompanied by changes in POD activity, but resulted in gradual increase of total antioxidative capacity, which could be partly attributed to accumulation of soluble phenolics. The role of the phenolics/POD system in defense of V. thapsus against zinc is discussed.

  14. Effect of Chromium on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting GUO; Yuanyuan MA; Peng TIAN; Yan LIU; Lunqiang YUAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of chromium on ox- idative damage and antioxidant capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp). [Method] The grass carps were treated with hexavalent chromium (Cr^6+) solution at concentrations of 0, 7.23, 14.47, 28.94 mg/L, and then the content of malondialde- hyde (MDA), the level of total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and the activity of gtu- tathione-S-transferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas of grass carp were determined after 96 hours in different treatment groups. [Result] The content of MDA presented increasing trend with the increase of exposure Cr^6+ concentrations. The activity of T-AOC increased firstly, then decreased with the increasing Cr^6+ exposure concentra- tions, showing that the level of T-AOC was induced in tow and medium concentrat ions (7.23 and 14.47 mg/L), but inhibited in high concentrations (28.94 mg/L). Among the exposure groups, the level of T-AOC in medium concentration group (14.47 mg/L) was significantly higher than the control (P〈0.05). Except the low concentration groups (7.23 mg/L) of which the GST activity was slightly induced, the GST activities of the other groups all showed downward trend with increasing Cr^6+ levels, and the activity of GST in 28.94 mg/L group was significantly lower than the control group (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Cr^6+ could cause large oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas of grass carp, thus poisoning it, and Cr^6+ may further damage the organizational structure and physiological function of grass carp.

  15. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Material and Methods Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2’-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p<.05 level of significance. Results Composite samples showed significantly higher TAC and lower Ca ion levels compared to amalgam and caries-free samples (p<.05). The TAC values showed only significant difference between groups (p<.05), while the Ca ion results showed significant differences within and between groups (p<.05). Conclusions Dental composite restorations increased TAC and decreased Ca ion levels more than amalgam restorations in saliva. Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Statement of Clinical Relevance Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words:Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity. PMID:28149467

  16. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effect of steam explosion treatment on barley bran phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lingxiao; Huang, Luolian; Zhang, Ying

    2012-07-25

    A steam explosion pretreatment process followed by methanol extraction has been applied for releasing and extracting phenolic compounds, as well as other effective components, from barley bran. The steam explosion treatment was performed at different temperatures ranging from 210 to 250 °C, with a residence time of 30 s. The effect of residence time was also studied in the range 10 s to 120 s at 220 °C. The extracts were evaluated for their total soluble phenolic content (TSPC) including total free phenolic acids (TFPC) and total soluble conjugates (TSC), identified phenolic acids, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and total methanol extracts (TME). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a photodiode array detector (PDA) was used in this study for the analysis of p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid in barley bran before and after steam explosion. Our results indicate that TSPC and TAC increased with residence time. They also increased dramatically with temperature up to 220 °C. After steam explosion at 220 °C for 120 s, the TSPC reached 1686.4 gallic acid equivalents mg/100 g dry weight, which was about 9-fold higher than that of the untreated sample. The TSPC and TAC obtained were highly positively correlated (r = 0.918-0.993), which meant that the increase of TAC for the steam explosion pretreated barley bran extracts was due, at least in part, to the increase of TSPC in the methanol soluble fraction. Also, under optimum conditions, the WSC in aqueous solution was 5 times as much as that of the untreated sample, which demonstrated that steam explosion also hydrolyzes carbohydrates into water-soluble sugars. It can be concluded that a proper and reasonable steam explosion pretreatment could be applied to release the bound phenolic compounds and enhance the antioxidant capacity of barley bran extracts.

  18. Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Capacity in Edible Flowers: Characterisation of Phenolic Compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn

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    Inmaculada Navarro-González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible flowers are commonly used in human nutrition and their consumption has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nutritional composition and the content and profile of phenolic compounds of three edible flowers, monks cress (Tropaeolum majus, marigold (Tagetes erecta and paracress (Spilanthes oleracea, and to determine the relationship between the presence of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. Proximate composition, total dietary fibre (TDF and minerals were analysed according to official methods: total phenolic compounds (TPC were determined with Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent, whereas antioxidant capacity was evaluated using Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC assays. In addition, phenolic compounds were characterised by HPLC-DAD-MSn. In relation to the nutritional value, the edible flowers had a composition similar to that of other plant foods, with a high water and TDF content, low protein content and very low proportion of total fat—showing significant differences among samples. The levels of TPC compounds and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in T. erecta, followed by S. oleracea and T. majus. Thirty-nine different phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, with flavonols being the major compounds detected in all samples, followed by anthocyanins and hydroxycynnamic acid derivatives. In T. erecta small proportions of gallotannin and ellagic acid were also identified.

  19. Nutritional composition and antioxidant capacity in edible flowers: characterisation of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Inmaculada; González-Barrio, Rocío; García-Valverde, Verónica; Bautista-Ortín, Ana Belén; Periago, María Jesús

    2014-12-31

    Edible flowers are commonly used in human nutrition and their consumption has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to ascertain the nutritional composition and the content and profile of phenolic compounds of three edible flowers, monks cress (Tropaeolum majus), marigold (Tagetes erecta) and paracress (Spilanthes oleracea), and to determine the relationship between the presence of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity. Proximate composition, total dietary fibre (TDF) and minerals were analysed according to official methods: total phenolic compounds (TPC) were determined with Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent, whereas antioxidant capacity was evaluated using Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. In addition, phenolic compounds were characterised by HPLC-DAD-MSn. In relation to the nutritional value, the edible flowers had a composition similar to that of other plant foods, with a high water and TDF content, low protein content and very low proportion of total fat-showing significant differences among samples. The levels of TPC compounds and the antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in T. erecta, followed by S. oleracea and T. majus. Thirty-nine different phenolic compounds were tentatively identified, with flavonols being the major compounds detected in all samples, followed by anthocyanins and hydroxycynnamic acid derivatives. In T. erecta small proportions of gallotannin and ellagic acid were also identified.

  20. Effect of supplementation of cows diet with linseed and fish oil and different variants of β-lactoglobulin on fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puppel, Kamila; Kuczyńska, Beata; Nałęcz-Tarwacka, Teresa; Gołębiewski, Marcin; Sakowski, Tomasz; Kapusta, Aleksandra; Budziński, Arkadiusz; Balcerak, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of polymorphic variants of β-lactoglobulin in cows supplemented with linseed and fish oil on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk. From the herd of 320 Polish Holstein Friesian cows three groups of cows were selected according to the variants of β-LG (β-LGAA, β-LGBB, β-LGAB). During the first 7 days (the initial period) all the cows were fed the same total mixed ration (TMR) diet. From day 8 to 28,150 g fish oil and 250 g linseed (FOL) was added to the TMR diet of each cow. The results showed that the diet supplemented with FOL was effective in reducing atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Introducing supplementation improved the antioxidant capacity: higher concentration of C18:2cis-9 trans-11, C20:5 n-3, C22:6 n-3, bioactive whey proteins and vitamin soluble in fat has been recorded. The results showed that β-LGAA was associated with lower levels of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices and higher concentration of C22:5 n-6, phospholipids and β-carotene. β-LGBB favours a higher content of C18:1trans-11, C18:2cis-9 trans-11 and lactoferrin. β-LGAB was associated with higher concentrations of C20:5 n-3, Lysozyme, α-retinol, α-tocopherol and total antioxidant status. Modification of the diet of cows with fish oil and linseed significantly influenced fatty acid composition and antioxidant properties of milk. The effect of β-LG phenotype on the fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity of milk is variable, which could partly be the result of a β-LG phenotype × diet interaction. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL. hull and shell from different genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  2. Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Non-Obese and Clinically Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Vásquez, Cecília M Passos; Santana, Gleiciane de Jesus; Silva, Natanael de Jesus; Braz, Juciene de Matos; Jesus, Amélia M Ribeiro de; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Cunha, Luana Celina Seraphim; Barbosa, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira

    2017-07-10

    The oxidative biomarkers play an important role in the genesis of cardiometabolic risk-related processes. To investigate the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and its association with cardiometabolic risk in non-obese and clinically healthy young adults. University students of the state of Sergipe, Brazil, aged between 18 and 25 years, were recruited for this study from May of 2013 and October of 2014. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed using protocols which were previously standardized and described in the literature. The measurement of plasma total antioxidant capacity was based on the ability that all the antioxidants present in the sample (plasma) have to inhibit the oxidation of the oxidizable substrate ABTS (2,2`- Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS•+ by metmyoglobin. Approximately 25% of the sample presented more than one component of cardiometabolic risk. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component. Compared to absence of components, the subjects with at least one component presented greater body weight and waist circumference, higher levels of diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose, greater total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, and lower levels of HDL-c (p literatura. A medida da capacidade antioxidante total do plasma baseou-se na capacidade de todos os antioxidantes presentes na amostra (plasma) em inibir a oxidação do substrato oxidável ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato) a ABTS•+ pela metamioglobina. Aproximadamente 25% da amostra apresentaram mais de um componente do risco cardiometabólico. Valores baixos de HDL foram o componente mais prevalente. Em comparação à ausência de componentes, os indivíduos com pelo menos um componente apresentou valores mais altos de peso corporal, circunferência da cintura, pressão sanguínea diastólica, glicemia de jejum e razão colesterol total/HDL-c, e valores mais baixos de HDL-c (p < 0,05). A glicemia de jejum

  3. Influence of Steep Time on Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Black, Green, Rooibos, and Herbal Teas

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    Michael D. McAlpine

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potential health benefits of tea consumption are often attributed to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols. Whether steep time, often variable in a real-life situation, makes a biological difference in terms of polyphenol content and antioxidant activity is uncertain. The study objective was to characterize eight popular and commercially available teas for total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity in relation to steep time. Dragonwell (DW, Sencha (S, English Breakfast (EB, Golden Monkey (GM, Green Rooibos (GR, Red Rooibos (RR, Chamomile (C, and Peppermint (P loose leaf teas were individually steeped in water for 1–10 min at 1 min intervals. TPC increased with longer durations of steep time; however, the majority of polyphenols observed after 10 minutes were extracted in the first 5 min regardless of tea type. After 5 min of steeping, differences (p < 0.05 in TPC were observed across teas (JS~EB~P > DW > GM~GR~RR > C. Different teas also varied in their ability to inhibit the free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH when normalized for polyphenol concentration (1 µg/mL and there was no effect due to steep time. Predicted antioxidant capacity of teas also demonstrated significant differences among teas after 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, steep time modulates TPC but not the antioxidative capacity of tea polyphenols.

  4. Capacidade antioxidante de hortaliças usualmente consumidas Antioxidant capacity of vegetables commonly consumed

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    Enayde de Almeida Melo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Como objetivo de avaliar a capacidade antioxidante de 15 hortaliças comercializadas na Cidade do Recife, extratos metanólicos foram testados quanto a atividade antioxidante em sistema modelo beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico e a habilidade de seqüestrar o radical estável 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH. Todas as hortaliças investigadas exibiram propriedade antioxidante, entretanto a ação foi diferenciada entre os vegetais. Os extratos metanólicos da couve folha, tomate, batata, couve-flor, repolho verde, espinafre e alface crespa, com percentual de inibição superior a 70%, foram os mais eficazes em seqüestrar o radical livre. Os extratos metanólicos da alface lisa, cebola branca e vagem apresentaram ação moderada (60-70% de inibição, enquanto que a cebola roxa, chuchu, pepino e cenoura exibiram a mais fraca capacidade de seqüestrar o radical DPPH. No sistema modelo beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico, os extratos metanólicos do espinafre e couve-folha exibiram a mais elevada atividade antioxidante (superior a 70%. Ação antioxidante moderada (60-70% foi exibida pelos extratos da alface lisa, cebola branca e couve-flor, enquanto que os do chuchu, cenoura, pepino, tomate e vagem, com atividade inferior a 60%, foram considerados com fraca ação antioxidante. As hortaliças testadas podem ser vistas como fontes dietéticas de antioxidantes que podem trazer benefícios à saúde, portanto o seu consumo deve ser estimulado.This study was carried out to determine the antioxidant capacity of 15 vegetables commonly consumed in Recife - PE, Brazil. Methanol extracts were screened for their antioxidant activity using two tests: DPPH free radical scavenging and beta-carotene/linoléico acid assay. All vegetables showed antioxidant properties however the action was differentiated among the kinds of vegetables. The methanol extracts of collard greens, tomatoes, potatoes, cauliflowers, green cabbage, spinach and lettuce "crespa" had the

  5. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after acute coffee intake is not associated with endogenous non-enzymatic antio