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Sample records for reduces venous gas

  1. Sonographic detection of portal venous gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wang Yul; Lee, S. K.; Cho, O. K.

    1989-01-01

    Portal venous gas suggests underlying bowel disease such as strangulating intestinal obstruction and its demonstration carries with it an important implications with respect to patient management. Radiography has been the gold standard for the detection of portal venous gas. We have experienced two cases of portal venous gas diagnosed by ultrasound. Sonographic findings were floating echoes in the main portal vein and highly echogenic linear or patchy echoes within the hepatic parenchyma. Simple abdominal films of those cases failed to demonstrate gas in the portal venous system

  2. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial.

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    Vincent Souday

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression.Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2 in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes. Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler.Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0-3.5] vs. 8 [4.5-10]; P < 0.001. Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217. Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively.EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing.ISRCTN 31681480.

  3. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

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    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  4. Resuscitation by hyperbaric exposure from a venous gas emboli following laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Hansen, Egon G; Holler, Nana G

    2012-01-01

    Venous gas embolism is common after laparoscopic surgery but is only rarely of clinical relevance. We present a 52 year old woman undergoing laparoscopic treatment for liver cysts, who also underwent cholecystectomy. She was successfully extubated. However, after a few minutes she developed cardiac......, could have contributed to the formation of the intravascular gas emboli. We conclude that persistent resuscitation followed by hyperbaric oxygen treatment after venous gas emboli contributed to the elimination of intravascular bubbles and the favourable outcome for the patient....... arrest due to a venous carbon dioxide (CO2) embolism as identified by transthoracic echocardiography and aspiration of approximately 7 ml of gas from a central venous catheter. She was resuscitated and subsequently treated with hyperbaric oxygen to reduce the size of remaining gas bubbles. Subsequently...

  5. Portal-venous gas unrelated to mesenteric ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, Walter; Mortele, Koenraad J.; Ji, Hoon; Ros, Pablo R.; Glickman, Jonathan N.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report on 8 patients with all different non-ischemic etiologies for portal-venous gas and to discuss this rare entity and its potentially misleading CT findings in context with a review of the literature. The CT examinations of eight patients who presented with intrahepatic portal-venous gas, unrelated to bowel ischemia or infarction, were reviewed and compared with their medical records with special emphasis on the pathogenesis and clinical impact of portal-venous gas caused by non-ischemic conditions. The etiologies for portal-venous gas included: abdominal trauma (n=1); large gastric cancer (n=1); prior gastroscopic biopsy (n=1); prior hemicolectomy (n=1); graft-vs-host reaction (n=1); large paracolic abscess (n=1); mesenteric recurrence of ovarian cancer superinfected with clostridium septicum (n=1); and sepsis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=1). The clinical outcome of all patients was determined by their underlying disease and not negatively influenced by the presence of portal-venous gas. Although the presence of portal-venous gas usually raises the suspicion of bowel ischemia and/or intestinal necrosis, this CT finding may be related to a variety of non-ischemic etiologies and pathogeneses as well. The knowledge about these conditions may help to avoid misinterpretation of CT findings, inappropriate clinical uncertainty and unnecessary surgery in certain cases. (orig.)

  6. Cardiovascular Pressures with Venous Gas Embolism and Decompression

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    Butler, B. D.; Robinson, R.; Sutton, T.; Kemper, G. B.

    1995-01-01

    Venous gas embolism (VGE) is reported with decompression to a decreased ambient pressure. With severe decompression, or in cases where an intracardiac septal defect (patent foramen ovale) exists, the venous bubbles can become arterialized and cause neurological decompression illness. Incidence rates of patent foramen ovale in the general population range from 25-34% and yet aviators, astronauts, and deepsea divers who have decompression-induced venous bubbles do not demonstrate neurological symptoms at these high rates. This apparent disparity may be attributable to the normal pressure gradient across the atria of the heart that must be reversed for there to be flow potency. We evaluated the effects of: venous gas embolism (0.025, 0.05 and 0.15 ml/ kg min for 180 min.) hyperbaric decompression; and hypobaric decompression on the pressure gradient across the left and right atria in anesthetized dogs with intact atrial septa. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was used as a measure of left atrial pressure. In a total of 92 experimental evaluations in 22 dogs, there were no reported reversals in the mean pressure gradient across the atria; a total of 3 transient reversals occurred during the peak pressure gradient changes. The reasons that decompression-induced venous bubbles do not consistently cause serious symptoms of decompression illness may be that the amount of venous gas does not always cause sufficient pressure reversal across a patent foramen ovale to cause arterialization of the venous bubbles.

  7. Gas6 Promotes Inflammatory (CCR2hiCX3CR1lo) Monocyte Recruitment in Venous Thrombosis.

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    Laurance, Sandrine; Bertin, François-René; Ebrahimian, Talin; Kassim, Yusra; Rys, Ryan N; Lehoux, Stéphanie; Lemarié, Catherine A; Blostein, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    Coagulation and inflammation are inter-related. Gas6 (growth arrest-specific 6) promotes venous thrombosis and participates to inflammation through endothelial-innate immune cell interactions. Innate immune cells can provide the initiating stimulus for venous thrombus development. We hypothesize that Gas6 promotes monocyte recruitment during venous thrombosis. Deep venous thrombosis was induced in wild-type and Gas6-deficient (-/-) mice using 5% FeCl 3 and flow reduction in the inferior vena cava. Total monocyte depletion was achieved by injection of clodronate before deep venous thrombosis. Inflammatory monocytes were depleted using an anti-C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) antibody. Similarly, injection of an anti-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) antibody induced CCL2 depletion. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence were used to characterize the monocytes recruited to the thrombus. In vivo, absence of Gas6 was associated with a reduction of monocyte recruitment in both deep venous thrombosis models. Global monocyte depletion by clodronate leads to smaller thrombi in wild-type mice. Compared with wild type, the thrombi from Gas6 -/- mice contain less inflammatory (CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo ) monocytes, consistent with a Gas6-dependent recruitment of this monocyte subset. Correspondingly, selective depletion of CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes reduced the formation of venous thrombi in wild-type mice demonstrating a predominant role of the inflammatory monocytes in thrombosis. In vitro, the expression of both CCR2 and CCL2 were Gas6 dependent in monocytes and endothelial cells, respectively, impacting monocyte migration. Moreover, Gas6-dependent CCL2 expression and monocyte migration were mediated via JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). This study demonstrates that Gas6 specifically promotes the recruitment of inflammatory CCR2 hi CX 3 CR1 lo monocytes through the regulation of both CCR2 and CCL2 during deep venous thrombosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Benign hepatic portal venous gas following caustic ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, Maite; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pocard, Marc; Caplin, Scott; Parc, Rolland; Blain, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Hepatic portal vein gas has been documented in numerous conditions and is traditionally regarded as a poor prognostic sign. There are, however, several reports of portal vein gas with a benign course. We report the first case of transient hepatic portal vein gas secondary to the ingestion of a caustic substance. The literature of hepatic portal vein gas in benign disease is reviewed. (orig.)

  9. Mandatory Risk Assessment Reduces Venous Thromboembolism in Bariatric Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimeri, Abdelrahman A; Bautista, Jejomar; Ibrahim, Maha; Philip, Ruby; Al Shaban, Talat; Maasher, Ahmed; Altinoz, Ajda

    2018-02-01

    Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and chemoprophylaxis is recommended. Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) member since 2009. We report the rates of VTE in bariatric surgery patients from 2010 to 2016 compared to ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs before and after switching from heparin to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), initiating mandatory risk assessment using Caprini scoring for VTE and adopting an aggressive strategy for high-risk patients regarding dosage of LMWH and chemoprophylaxis after discharge. During the study period, there were 1152 cases (laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) 625 and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 527) at Bariatric & Metabolic Institute (BMI) Abu Dhabi compared to 65,693 cases (LRYGB 32,130 and LSG 33,563) at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs. VTE rates remained stable at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs from 2010 to 2016 (0.45, 0.45, 0.45, 0.25, 0.35, 0.3, and 0.3%). In contrast, VTE rates at BMI Abu Dhabi decreased from 2.2% in 2011 to 0.35% after we adopted an aggressive strategy to VTE without an increase in bleeding complications. LRYGB patients with VTE had higher OR time, leak, collection, and mortality at ACS NSQIP hospitals compared to those at BMI Abu Dhabi. In contrast, rates were similar in LSG patients with VTE. Changing our approach to VTE management led our VTE rates to decrease and become like those of ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery patients in LSG and LRYGB.

  10. Posttraumatic venous gas in the liver - a case report and review of the current literature.

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    Fahrner, René; Rauchfuss, Falk; Scheuerlein, Hubert; Settmacher, Utz

    2018-03-02

    There are numerous causes of hepatic gas formation that range from serious pathologies to incidental findings, including mesenteric infarction, liver abscess, inflammatory bowel disease or minimally invasive hepatic interventions. We report a case of a 50-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency room after a car accident. The clinical examination and further diagnostics revealed a craniocerebral injury with a fracture of the skull, concomitant soft tissue lesions and subarachnoidal bleeding. Furthermore, a blunt thoracic trauma with hemopneumothorax due to rib fractures was treated with a chest tube. No obvious abdominal pathology was seen. While in the operating theatre for the surgical revision of the cranial soft tissue lesions, a femoral venous catheter was inserted without any complications. A routine ultrasound of the abdomen six hours after the trauma revealed unclear hepatic gas formation. A contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was performed, and the gas formation was found to be localized within the left hepatic vein. Afterwards, there was no specific treatment of the hepatic venous gas formation, as no alterations of liver function or liver enzymes were seen. The further course of the patient was uneventful regarding the gas formation in the liver, and another ultrasound two days later revealed no further gas in the liver. The placement of a femoral venous catheter is a risk factor for gas formation in liver veins. No further treatment is needed in cases with stable liver function. To rule out serious pathologies, diagnostic findings (e.g., ultrasound, CT), clinical history and underlying diseases need to be analyzed carefully after the detection of intrahepatic gas formation. With contrast-enhanced CT, the localization of the gas and its potential causes might be detectable.

  11. Benign hepatic portal venous gas following blunt abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dill-Mackay, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 71-year-old man presented to Royal Perth Hospital Emergency Department with back pain following a fall from the roof of his house. There was no history of loss of consciousness. Physical examination revealed epigastric tenderness and guarding and a suspicion of CSF otorrhoea. All other clinical parameters were normal. His past medical history included alcohol abuse, chronic obstructive airways disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebellar infarction and a right total hip replacement. Spinal radiographs demonstrated crush fractures involving the T12 and L1 vertebral bodies and a CT scan of the skull base was normal. An abdominal CT scan performed with intravenous contrast demonstrated gas within the portal veins of the anterior segments of the liver and a small fluid collection in the anterior pararenal space. During the ensuing 24 hours a repeat non-contrast abdominal Ct scan was performed and reveled complete resolution of the fluid. No other intra-abdominal abnormality was detected to warrant an invasive procedure

  12. Benign hepatic portal venous gas following blunt abdominal trauma

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    Dill-Mackay, M.J. [Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1997-05-01

    A 71-year-old man presented to Royal Perth Hospital Emergency Department with back pain following a fall from the roof of his house. There was no history of loss of consciousness. Physical examination revealed epigastric tenderness and guarding and a suspicion of CSF otorrhoea. All other clinical parameters were normal. His past medical history included alcohol abuse, chronic obstructive airways disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebellar infarction and a right total hip replacement. Spinal radiographs demonstrated crush fractures involving the T12 and L1 vertebral bodies and a CT scan of the skull base was normal. An abdominal CT scan performed with intravenous contrast demonstrated gas within the portal veins of the anterior segments of the liver and a small fluid collection in the anterior pararenal space. During the ensuing 24 hours a repeat non-contrast abdominal Ct scan was performed and reveled complete resolution of the fluid. No other intra-abdominal abnormality was detected to warrant an invasive procedure. 20 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  13. Imaging and clinical significance of hepatic portal venous gas seen in adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikawa, Hisayuki; Mori, Hiromu; Miyake, Hidetoshi

    1994-01-01

    In 10 adult patients with hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG), the clinical significance of HPVG and the efficacy of X-ray computed tomography (CT) were evaluated. HPVC was associated with ischemic bowel disease (n=3), trauma (n=4), liver abscess (n=1), sepsis (n=1) and unknown etiology (n=1). The diagnostic ability of CT for the detection of HPVG was far superior to that of plain abnormal radiograph. Of 9 patients who underwent CT, HPVG located in the left hepatic lobe in all patients, and also in right hepatic lobe in 7 patients. Gas could be recognized in the left lobe and the anterior segment of the right lobe more clearly than in the posterior segment of the right lobe because of its larger amount of intravenous collection. The mortality rate of our cases was 100%. Gas was demonstrated simultaneously in the portal vein radicles and hepatic veins on CT in 4 patients with no clinical evidence of sepsis, which suggested the possibility of intraparenchymal shift of gas from the portal vein into the hepatic vein. In a single case with sepsis, gas was noted in various vessels, including arteries, in addition to the portal venous system. The authors conclude that HPVG is still a grave sign in Japan and prompt appropriate treatment is required. CT may be of great value in the early detection of HPVG and may indicate its etiology. (author)

  14. Reducing the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Ryan, David; Anthony, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Shale gas is viewed by many as a global energy game-changer. However, serious concerns exist that shale gas generates more greenhouse gas emissions than does coal. In this work the related published data are reviewed and a reassessment is made. It is shown that the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas is less than that of coal over long term if the higher power generation efficiency of shale gas is taken into account. In short term, the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas can be lowered to the level of that of coal if methane emissions are kept low using existing technologies. Further reducing the greenhouse gas effect of shale gas by storing CO 2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs is also discussed, with the conclusion that more CO 2 than the equivalent CO 2 emitted by the extracted shale gas could be stored in the reservoirs at significantly reduced cost. - Highlights: ► The long-term greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is smaller than that of coal. ► Carbon capture and storage should be considered for fossil fuels including shale gas. ► Depleted shale gas fields could store more CO 2 than the equivalent emissions. ► Linking shale gas development with CO 2 storage could largely reduce the total cost.

  15. In-Line Filtration Reduces Postoperative Venous Peripheral Phlebitis Associated With Cannulation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Villa, Gianluca; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Giua, Rosa; Tofani, Lorenzo; Zagli, Giovanni; Boninsegni, Paolo; Pinelli, Fulvio; De Gaudio, A Raffaele; Romagnoli, Stefano

    2018-04-23

    Peripheral venous cannulation is an everyday practice of care for patients undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Particles infused with intravenous fluids (eg, plastic/glass/drugs particulate) contribute to the pathogenesis of peripheral phlebitis. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of in-line filtration in reducing the incidence of postoperative phlebitis associated with peripheral short-term vascular access. In this controlled trial, 268 surgical patients were randomly assigned to in-line filtration and standard care (NCT03193827). The incidence of phlebitis (defined as visual infusion phlebitis [VIP] score, ≥2) within 48 hours was compared between the 2 groups, as well as the onset and severity of phlebitis and the reasons for removal of the cannula. The lifespan of venous cannulae was compared for the in-line filter and no-filter groups through a Kaplan-Meier curve. The incidence of phlebitis within 48 hours postoperatively was 2.2% and 26.9% (difference, 25% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 12%-36%]; odds ratio, 0.05 [0.01-0.15]), respectively, for the in-line filter and no-filter groups (P phlebitis (hazard ratio, 0.05 [95% CI, 0.014-0.15]; P phlebitis and prolongs cannula lifespan during peripheral venous cannulation in surgical patients.

  16. Correlation between arterial and venous blood gas analysis parameters in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Novović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Arterial blood gas (ABG analyses have an important role in the assessment and monitoring of the metabolic and oxygen status of patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Arterial puncture could have a lot of adverse effects, while sampling of venous blood is simpler and is not so invasive. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether venous blood gas (VBG values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2, partial oxygen pressure (PO2, bicarbonate (HCO3, and venous and arterial blood oxygen saturation (SO2 can reliably predict ABG levels in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. Methods. Forty-seven patients with a prior diagnosis of COPD were included in this prospective study. The patients with acute exacerbation of this disease were examined at the General Hospital EMS Department in Prijepolje. ABG samples were taken immediately after venous sampling, and both were analyzed. Results. The Pearson correlation coefficients between arterial and venous parameters were 0.828, 0.877, 0.599, 0.896 and 0.312 for pH, PCO2, PO2, HCO3 and SO2, respectively. The statistically significant correlation between arterial and venous pH, PCO2 and HCO3, values was found in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (p<0.001. Conclusion. When we cannot provide arterial blood for analysis, venous values of the pH, Pv,CO2 and HCO3 parameters can be an alternative to their arterial equivalents in the interpretation of the metabolic status in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD, while the values of venous Pv,O2 and Sv,O2 cannot be used as predictors in the assessment of oxygen status of such patients.

  17. A novel pump-driven veno-venous gas exchange system during extracorporeal CO2-removal.

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    Hermann, Alexander; Riss, Katharina; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Wohlfarth, Philipp; Robak, Oliver; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Staudinger, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal CO2-removal (ECCO2-R) increasingly takes root in hypercapnic lung failure to minimize ventilation invasiveness or to avoid intubation. A recently developed device (iLA activve(®), Novalung, Germany) allows effective decarboxylation via a 22 French double lumen cannula. To assess determinants of gas exchange, we prospectively evaluated the performance of ECCO2-R in ten patients receiving iLA activve(®) due to hypercapnic respiratory failure. Sweep gas flow was increased in steps from 1 to 14 L/min at constant blood flow (phase 1). Similarly, blood flow was gradually increased at constant sweep gas flow (phase 2). At each step gas transfer via the membrane as well as arterial blood gas samples were analyzed. During phase 1, we observed a significant increase in CO2 transfer together with a decrease in PaCO2 levels from a median of 66 mmHg (range 46-85) to 49 (31-65) mmHg from 1 to 14 L/min sweep gas flow (p gas flow rates. During phase 2, oxygen transfer significantly increased leading to an increase in PaO2 from 67 (49-87) at 0.5 L/min to 117 (66-305) mmHg at 2.0 L/min (p gas flow results in effective CO2-removal, which can be further reinforced by raising blood flow. The clinically relevant oxygenation effect in this setting could broaden the range of indications of the system and help to set up an individually tailored configuration.

  18. The effect of CPAP treatment on venous lactate and arterial blood gas among obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients.

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    Lin, Ting; Huang, Jie-Feng; Lin, Qi-Chang; Chen, Gong-Ping; Wang, Bi-Ying; Zhao, Jian-Ming; Qi, Jia-Chao

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this observational study was to investigate the influence of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on arterial blood gas and venous lactate, markers of tissue hypoxia, among obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients, and determine the risk factor of serum lactate and hydrogen ion concentration (PH) in OSAS patients. One-hundred and nine patients with newly diagnosed OSAS were enrolled in the study. All individuals were treated with CPAP for one night. Venous lactate and arterial blood gas were gathered from all subjects in the morning at the end of polysomnography and the next morning after CPAP treatment. Of the 109 selected subjects, the average lactate level was 2.23 ± 0.59 mmol/L, and the mean PH, PaO 2 , and PaCO 2 were 7.380 ± 0.23, 88.14 ± 17.83 mmHg, and 38.70 ± 4.28 mmHg, respectively. Compared to baseline, lactic acid significantly decreased (2.10 ± 0.50 mmol/L, p = 0.03), while PH increased (7.388 ± 0.27, p treatment. In addition, neck circumference and the polysomnographic parameters, including apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index (ODI), mean oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ), and the percentage of sleep time with SpO 2 treatment could reduce serum lactate and increase PH in OSAS patients and might alleviate acid-base balance disorders in OSAS. Furthermore, TS90 % was a risk factor for elevated lactate, and age was independently associated with PH.

  19. Pneumatosis intestinalis and portal venous gas secondary to Gefitinib therapy for lung adenocarcinoma

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    Lee Joo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI, defined as the presence of gas in the bowel wall, and portal venous gas (PVG are relatively rare radiological findings. Although several chemotherapeutic agents and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are reported to be associated with PI and PVG, an association with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR agents has not been described previously. Case presentation The present report describes a case of PI and PVG secondary to treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. A 66-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma presented with nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension after commencing gefitinib. A computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen revealed PI extending from the ascending colon to the rectum, hepatic PVG, and infarction of the liver. Gefitinib therapy was discontinued immediately and the patient was managed conservatively. A follow-up CT scan 2 weeks later revealed that the PI and hepatic PVG had completely resolved. Conclusion This is the first report of PI and PVG caused by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although these complications are extremely rare, clinicians should be aware of the risk of PI and PVG in patients undergoing targeted molecular therapy.

  20. Pneumatosis intestinalis and portal venous gas secondary to Gefitinib therapy for lung adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo Young; Han, Hye-Suk; Lim, Sung-Nam; Shim, Young Kwang; Choi, Yong Hyeok; Lee, Ok-Jun; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Kim, Seung Taik

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI), defined as the presence of gas in the bowel wall, and portal venous gas (PVG) are relatively rare radiological findings. Although several chemotherapeutic agents and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents are reported to be associated with PI and PVG, an association with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents has not been described previously. The present report describes a case of PI and PVG secondary to treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. A 66-year-old woman who had been diagnosed with metastatic lung adenocarcinoma presented with nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension after commencing gefitinib. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen revealed PI extending from the ascending colon to the rectum, hepatic PVG, and infarction of the liver. Gefitinib therapy was discontinued immediately and the patient was managed conservatively. A follow-up CT scan 2 weeks later revealed that the PI and hepatic PVG had completely resolved. This is the first report of PI and PVG caused by EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Although these complications are extremely rare, clinicians should be aware of the risk of PI and PVG in patients undergoing targeted molecular therapy

  1. Effect of venous (gut) CO2 loading on intrapulmonary gas fractions and ventilation in the tegu lizard.

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    Ballam, G O; Donaldson, L A

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine regional pulmonary gas concentrations in the tegu lizard lung. Additionally, changes in pulmonary gas concentrations and ventilatory patterns caused by elevating venous levels of CO2 by gut infusion were measured. It was found that significant stratification of lung gases was present in the tegu and that dynamic fluctuations of CO2 concentration varied throughout the length of the lung. Mean FCO2 was greater and FO2 less in the posterior regions of the lung. In the posterior regions gas concentrations remained nearly constant, whereas in the anterior regions large swings were observed with each breath. In the most anterior sections of the lung near the bronchi, CO2 and O2 concentrations approached atmospheric levels during inspiration and posterior lung levels during expiration. During gut loading of CO2, the rate of rise of CO2 during the breathing pause increased. The mean level of CO2 also increased. Breathing rate and tidal volume increased to produce a doubling of VE. These results indicate that the method of introduction of CO2 into the tegu respiratory system determines the ventilatory response. If the CO2 is introduced into the venous blood a dramatic increase in ventilation is observed. If the CO2 is introduced into the inspired air a significant decrease in ventilation is produced. The changes in pulmonary CO2 environment caused by inspiratory CO2 loading are different from those caused by venous CO2 loading. We hypothesize that the differences in pulmonary CO2 environment caused by either inspiratory CO2 loading or fluctuations in venous CO2 concentration act differently on the IPC. The differing response of the IPC to the two methods of CO2 loading is the cause of the opposite ventilatory response seen during either venous or inspiratory loading.

  2. Portal venous gas detected on computed tomography in emergency situations: surgery is still necessary.

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    Monneuse, Olivier; Pilleul, Frank; Barth, Xavier; Gruner, Laurent; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Valette, Pierre-Jean; Tissot, E

    2007-05-01

    Portal venous gas (PVG) has been reported to be associated with lethal surgical diagnosis. Recent studies tend to confirm the clinical significance of gas in the portal vein; however, some patients are managed without surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to assess both the diagnoses and the treatment of patients with PVG in an emergency surgical setting. We performed a retrospective chart review of 15 patients with PVG in the emergency setting detected by computed tomography (CT) between July 1999 and July 2004. Characteristics assessed included age, sex, clinical presentation, first CT diagnosis of both PVG and the underlying pathology, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, surgical findings, final clinical diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and evolution of the illness/mortality. All patients were examined one month after operation. This series of 5 women and 10 men ranged in age from 38 to 90 years at the time they underwent emergency surgical treatment. The mean preoperative ASA score was 4.20. Computed tomography diagnosed the underlying pathology in all cases: bowel obstruction (4 cases), bowel necrosis (9 cases), and diffuse peritonitis (2 cases). The mean length of hospital stay was 12.4 days. The mortality rate was 46.6%; (7 patients). A wide range of pathologies can generate PVG. Computed tomography can detect both the presence of gas and the underlying pathology. In emergency situations, all the diagnosed causal pathologies required a surgical procedure without delay. We report that the prognosis was related to the pathology itself and was not influenced by the presence of PVG.

  3. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  4. Central nervous system decompression sickness and venous gas emboli in hypobaric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balldin, Ulf I; Pilmanis, Andrew A; Webb, James T

    2004-11-01

    Altitude decompression sickness (DCS) that involves the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare but potentially serious condition. Identification of early symptoms and signs of this condition might improve treatment. We studied data from 26 protocols carried out in our laboratory over the period 1983-2003; all were designed to provoke DCS in a substantial proportion of subjects. The data set included 2843 cases. We classified subject-exposures that resulted in DCS as: 1) neurological DCS of peripheral and/or central origin (NEURO); 2) a subset of those that involved only the CNS (CNS); and 3) all other cases, i.e., DCS cases that did not have a neurological component (OTHER). For each case, echo imaging data were used to document whether venous gas emboli (VGE) were present, and their level was classified as: 1) any level, i.e., Grade 1 or higher (VGE-1); and 2) high level, Grade 4 (VGE-4). There were 1108 cases of altitude DCS in the database; 218 were classified as NEURO and 49 of those as CNS. VGE-1 were recorded in 83.8% of OTHER compared with 58.7% of NEURO and 55.1% of CNS (both p Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) was used to treat about half of the CNS cases, while all other cases were treated with 2 h breathing 100% oxygen at ground level. Since only about half of the rare cases of hypobaric CNS DCS cases were accompanied by any level of VGE, echo imaging for bubbles may have limited application for use as a predictor of such cases.

  5. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad libitum and maintained at 24

  6. Cosmic anisotropy with reduced relativistic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castardelli dos Reis, Simpliciano [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Shapiro, Ilya L. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2018-02-15

    The dynamics of cosmological anisotropies is investigated for Bianchi type I universe filled by a relativistic matter represented by the reduced relativistic gas model (RRG), with equation of state interpolating between radiation and matter. Previously it was shown that the interpolation is observed in the background cosmological solutions for homogeneous and isotropic universe and also for the linear cosmological perturbations. We extend the application of RRG to the Bianchi type I anisotropic model and find that the solutions evolve to the isotropic universe with the pressureless matter contents. (orig.)

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  8. Hydrogen peroxide ingestion associated with portal venous gas and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Loren Keith; Horowitz, B Zane; McKeown, Nathanael J

    2010-07-01

    Ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) has been associated with venous and arterial gas embolic events, hemorrhagic gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, shock, and death. Although H(2)O(2) is generally considered a benign ingestion in low concentrations, case reports have described serious toxicity following high concentration exposures. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used with success in managing patients suffering from gas embolism with and without manifestations of ischemia. Poison center records were searched from July 1999 to January 2010 for patients with H(2)O(2) exposure and HBO treatment. Cases were reviewed for the concentration of H(2)O(2), symptoms, CT scan findings of portal gas embolism, HBO treatment, and outcome. RESULTS; Eleven cases of portal gas embolism were found. Ages ranged from 4 to 89 years. All but one ingestion was accidental in nature. In 10 cases 35% H(2)O(2) was ingested and in 1 case 12% H(2)O(2) was ingested. All abdominal CT scans demonstrated portal venous gas embolism in all cases. Hyperbaric treatment was successful in completely resolving all portal venous gas bubbles in nine patients (80%) and nearly resolving them in two others. Ten patients were able to be discharged home within 1 day, and one patient had a 3.5-day length of stay. HBO was successful in resolving portal venous gas embolism from accidental concentrated H(2)O(2) ingestions.

  9. Use if a soecuak sokubt ub reverse syrak artery flap to reduce venous congestion and flap necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, T.; Ahmed, R.; Obaidullah, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Distally based sural fascio-cutaneous flap is a commonly performed plastic surgery procedure for the coverage of distal third of leg, ankle and foot defects. However congestion is the main complication of this flap which results into partial or complete loss of the flap. We devised a special splint to reduce this complication and retrospectively reviewed its effect on this complication between two groups. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at Northwest General hospital between 1995 and 2012. Group-A included 30 patients who were managed without the splint between 1995 and 2005 and group B comprised of 35 patients were treated with the splint between 2006 and 2012. Complications like venous congestion, epidermolysis, and partial and complete flap failure were documented. Data were analyzed by SPSS.16.5 software. Chi- square test was used for data analysis. P value less than 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: Total 65 patients were operated. Age of the patients ranged from 7 to 60 years. Road traffic accident and spoke wheel injury was the main cause of soft tissue loss in our patients. In group A 12 patients suffered from venous congestion. Out of 12, three patients had epidermolysis while partial flap necrosis occurred in 9 patients. Only 3 patients had venous congestion in group B. Two patients suffered from epidermolysis and one had partial flap necrosis. None of patient suffered from complete flap loss in both groups. Conclusion: Reverse sural artery flap continues to be a versatile flap for distal lower extremity reconstruction. By using a special splint to reduce pressure on the pedicle site as a modification, flap complication rate can be decreased significantly. (author)

  10. Implementation of an acute venous thromboembolism clinical pathway reduces healthcare utilization and mitigates health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misky, Gregory J; Carlson, Todd; Thompson, Elaina; Trujillo, Toby; Nordenholz, Kristen

    2014-07-01

    Acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is prevalent, expensive, and deadly. Published data at our institution identified significant VTE care variation based on payer source. We developed a VTE clinical pathway to standardize care, decrease hospital utilization, provide education, and mitigate disparities. Target population for our interdisciplinary pathway was acute medical VTE patients. The intervention included order sets, system-wide education, follow-up phone calls, and coordinated posthospital care. Study data (n = 241) were compared to historical data (n = 234), evaluating outcomes of hospital admission, length of stay (LOS), and reutilization, stratified by payer source. A total of 241 patients entered the VTE clinical care pathway: 107 with deep venous thrombosis (44.4%) and 134 with a pulmonary embolism (55.6%). Within the pathway, uninsured VTE patients were admitted at a lower rate than insured patients (65.9 vs 79.1%; P = 0.032). LOS decreased from 4.4 to 3.1 days (P historical patients (9.4%, P = 0.254). Individual cost of care decreased from $7610 to $5295 (P cost, particularly among uninsured patients. Results of this novel study demonstrate a model for improving transitional care coordination with local community health clinics and delivering care to vulnerable populations. Other disease populations may benefit from the development of a similar model. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. The effects of hypotension on differences between the results of simultaneous venous and arterial blood gas analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Shirani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Analysis of venous blood gas (VBG can represent arterial blood gas (ABG analysis in patients with various diseases. The effects of hypotension on differences between the results of simultaneous venous and arterial blood gas analyses were reviewed. Methods: This observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to October 2010 in emergency depart-ments of two university hospitals in Tehran (Iran on consecutive adult patients for whom ABG had been indicated for diagnosis/treatment. Arterial and peripheral venous bloods were simultaneously sampled with blood pressure measure-ment. The VBG-ABG amount of difference regarding pH, HCO 3 , PCO 2 , PO 2 , SO 2 , and Base Excess (BE was com-pared between those with and without hypotension. Results: During the study, 192 patients (51.6 ± 23.6 years, 67.7% males were entered into the hypotension (n = 78 and normotensive groups (n = 114. The average VBG-ABG amount of difference (95% limits of agreement in the hypotension versus normotensive group were -0.030 (-0.09 to 0.03 vs. -0.016 (-0.1 to 0.068 for pH (p = 0.01, 1.79 (-1.91 to 5.49 vs. 1.32 (-1.94 to 4.58 mEq/L for HCO 3 (p = 0.032, 2.69 (-20.43 to 25.81 vs. 2.03 (-7.75 to 11.81 mmHg for PCO 2 (p = 0.295, -35.97 (-130.17 to 58.23 vs. -32.65 (-104.79 to 39.49 mmHg for PO 2 (p = 0.293, -18.58 (-14.66 to 51.82 vs. -9.06 (-31.28 to 13.16 percent (p < 0.001 for SO 2 , and 0.25 (-3.73 to 4.23 vs. 0.79 (-2.51 to 4.09 for BE (p = 0.036. Conclusions: Hypotensive status is associated with an increase in the amount of difference between VBG and ABG analysis regarding pH, HCO 3 , and BE, though the amount of increase does not seem to be clinically important. Studying the precise effects of replacing ABG with VBG on the clinical decision-making and the following outcomes is worth-while.

  12. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  13. The association of statin use with reduced incidence of venous thromboembolism: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Riitta; Jula, Antti; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Haukka, Jari

    2014-11-05

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) continues to be a frequent medical emergency requiring rapid recognition so as to reach diagnosis and initiate anticoagulation therapy. The use of statins in addition to reducing the incidence of arterial thrombosis for decreasing the incidence and reoccurrence of VTE is reported. The aim of our study was to explore the association between statin usage and the incidence of new VTE at the population level during a 10-year follow-up. Population-based historic cohort. The Health 2000 Survey was based on a nationally representative sample. 8028 individuals aged 30 years or over in Finland. The primary end point event was the first ever hospitalisation due to one of the following causes: pulmonary embolism (International Classification of Diseases-10 I26), cerebral venous non-pyogenic thrombosis (I63.6), or venous thrombosis (I80.9-189). The preselected explanatory variables applied to the Poisson regression model were statin usage (no/yes) during follow-up (2000-2011) and several baseline data (age, sex; usage of blood glucose lowering drugs, vitamin K antagonists and antiplatelet agents). We observed 136 VTE events, the incidence of 1.72 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.04) per 1000 person-years. Current statin usage did not associate with the incidence of VTE according to the univariate model (rate ratio (RR) 0.93, 0.56 to 1.52), but when adjusted with baseline variables (age, sex, medications) the RR declined to 0.60 (0.36 to 1.00, p=0.04). Statin use offers protection against first ever VTE events and appears as a primary prevention tool in patients without anticoagulation or antiplatelet medication. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  15. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  16. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  17. Adventitial delivery of lentivirus-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 reduces venous stenosis formation in arteriovenous fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves Torres, Evelyn C; Yang, Binxia; Roy, Bhaskar; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Brahmbhatt, Akshaar; Leof, Ed; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access can develop venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) causing stenosis. Recent clinical and experimental data has demonstrated that there is increased expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin motifs-1 (ADAMTS-1) at site of VNH. The experiments outlined in the present paper were designed to test the hypothesis that targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein of murine arteriovenous fistula (AVF) using a small hairpin RNA that inhibits ADAMTS-1 expression (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1) at the time of fistula creation will decrease VNH. At early time points, ADAMTS-1 expression was significantly decreased associated with a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels vs. controls). These changes in gene and protein expression resulted in favorable vascular remodeling with a significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decrease in media/adventitia area, with a significant increase in TUNEL staining accompanied with a decrease in cellular proliferation accompanied with a reduction in CD68 staining. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels of the outflow vein of AVF have positive vascular remodeling.

  18. Adventitial transduction of lentivirus-shRNA-VEGF-A in arteriovenous fistula reduces venous stenosis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Binxia; Janardhanan, Rajiv; Vohra, Pawan; Greene, Eddie L; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Withers, Sarah; Roy, Bhaskar; Nieves Torres, Evelyn C; Mandrekar, Jaywant; Leof, Edward B; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Misra, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH) causes hemodialysis vascular access failure. Here we tested whether VNH formation occurs in part due to local vessel hypoxia caused by surgical trauma to the vasa vasorum of the outflow vein at the time of arteriovenous fistula placement. Selective targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein at the time of fistula creation was performed using a lentivirus-delivered small-hairpin RNA that inhibits VEGF-A expression. This resulted in significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decreased media/adventitia area, and decreased constrictive remodeling with a significant increase in apoptosis (increase in caspase 3 activity and TUNEL staining) accompanied with decreased cellular proliferation and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α at the outflow vein. There was significant decrease in cells staining positive for α-smooth muscle actin (a myofibroblast marker) and VEGFR-1 expression with a decrease in MMP-2 and MMP-9. These results were confirmed in animals that were treated with humanized monoclonal antibody to VEGF-A with similar results. Since hypoxia can cause fibroblast to differentiate into myofibroblasts, we silenced VEGF-A gene expression in fibroblasts and subjected them to hypoxia. This decreased myofibroblast production, cellular proliferation, cell invasion, MMP-2 activity, and increased caspase 3. Thus, VEGF-A reduction at the time of arteriovenous fistula placement results in increased positive vascular remodeling.

  19. Adventitial delivery of lentivirus-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 reduces venous stenosis formation in arteriovenous fistula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn C Nieves Torres

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis vascular access can develop venous neointimal hyperplasia (VNH causing stenosis. Recent clinical and experimental data has demonstrated that there is increased expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin motifs-1 (ADAMTS-1 at site of VNH. The experiments outlined in the present paper were designed to test the hypothesis that targeting of the adventitia of the outflow vein of murine arteriovenous fistula (AVF using a small hairpin RNA that inhibits ADAMTS-1 expression (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 at the time of fistula creation will decrease VNH. At early time points, ADAMTS-1 expression was significantly decreased associated with a reduction in vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 (LV-shRNA-ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels vs. controls. These changes in gene and protein expression resulted in favorable vascular remodeling with a significant increase in mean lumen vessel area, decrease in media/adventitia area, with a significant increase in TUNEL staining accompanied with a decrease in cellular proliferation accompanied with a reduction in CD68 staining. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ADAMTS-1 transduced vessels of the outflow vein of AVF have positive vascular remodeling.

  20. Reduced deep regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Chao; Liu, Saifeng; Fan, Linlin; Liu, Lei; Li, Jinping; Zuo, Chao; Qian, Tianyi; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) is an important indicator of brain function. There was debate about lower cerebral oxygen metabolism in hemodialysis patients and there were no reports about the changes of deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aim to explore the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 from straight sinus using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the correlation with clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing . 52 hemodialysis patients and 54 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. QSM reconstructed from original phase data of 3.0 T susceptibility-weighted imaging was used to measure the susceptibility of straight sinus. The susceptibility was used to calculate the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 and compare with healthy individuals. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between deep regional cerebral SvO 2 , clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. The deep regional cerebral SvO 2 of hemodialysis patients (72.5 ± 3.7%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (76.0 ± 2.1%) (P deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of hemodialysis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (P deep regional cerebral SvO 2 did not correlate with MMSE scores (P = 0.630). In summary, the decreased deep regional cerebral SvO 2 occurred in hemodialysis patients and dialysis duration, parathyroid hormone, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell may be clinical risk factors.

  1. Postmortem computed tomographic (PMCT) demonstration of the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Kohno, Mototsugu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Ko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Our subjects were 190 PMCT obtained within two hours of non-traumatic death [175 patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 15 patients did not undergo CPR]. We evaluated the incidence and location of GI distension (0=no distension, 1=stomach and duodenum, 2=more distal than 1) and HPVG (0=no gas, 1=left lobe, 2=1+right anterior lobe, 3=2+right posterior lobe). GI distension (grade 0/1/2=58/55/62 patients) and HPVG (grade 0/1/2/3=114/10/28/23 patients) were observed in 175 patients who underwent CPR. The grade of HPVG increased significantly in accordance with the advancement of GI distension. Fifteen patients without undergoing CPR showed no GI distension but one patient showed grade 1 HPVG. PMCT indicates the presence of a relation between GI distension and HPVG. (author)

  2. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H A; Aamer, A A

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10), at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10) and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10) for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0), there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (ppO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (preference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  3. Treatment of portal venous gas embolism with hyperbaric oxygen after accidental ingestion of hydrogen peroxide: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafragkou, Sotirios; Gasparyan, Anna; Batista, Richard; Scott, Paul

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that hydrogen peroxide ingestion can cause gas embolism. To report a case illustrating that the definitive, most effective treatment for gas embolism is hyperbaric oxygen therapy. We present a case of a woman who presented to the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain after an accidental ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide. Complete recovery from her symptoms occurred quickly with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. This is a case report of the successful use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to treat portal venous gas embolism caused by hydrogen peroxide ingestion. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be considered for the treatment of symptomatic hydrogen peroxide ingestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  5. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  7. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  8. [Peripheral venous catheter use in the emergency department: reducing adverse events in patients and biosafety problems for staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás Vecina, Santiago; Mozota Duarte, Julián; Ortega Marcos, Miguel; Gracia Ruiz Navarro, María; Borillo, Vicente; San Juan Gago, Leticia; Roqueta Egea, Fermin; Chanovas Borrás, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To test a strategy to reduce the rate of adverse events in patients and safety problems for emergency department staff who insert peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). The strategy consisted of training, implementing a protocol, and introducing safety-engineered PVCs. Prospective, multicenter, observational, preauthorization study in patients requiring PVC placement in an emergency department. The study had 2 phases. The first consisted of training, implementing a protocol for using conventional PVCs, and monitoring practice. The second phase introduced safety-engineered PVC sets. The number of adverse events in patients and threats to safety for staff were compared between the 2 phases. A total of 520 patients were included, 180 in the first phase and 340 in the second. We detected breaches in aseptic technique, failure to maintain a sterile field, and improper management of safety equipment and devices. Some practices improved significantly during the second phase. Eighty-six adverse events occurred in the first phase and 52 (15.4%) in the second; the between-phase difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of postinfusion phlebitis was 50% lower in the second phase. Seven splash injuries and 1 accidental puncture occurred with conventional PVCs in the first phase; 2 splash injuries occurred with the safety-engineered PVCs in the second phase (36% decrease, P = .04). Differences were particularly noticeable for short-term PVC placements (P = .02). Combining training, a protocol, and the use of safety-engineered PVC sets offers an effective strategy for improving patient and staff safety.

  9. Reduced proliferation of endothelial colony-forming cells in unprovoked venous thromboembolic disease as a consequence of endothelial dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Rubicel; Chavez-Gonzalez, Antonieta; Torres-Barrera, Patricia; Moreno-Lorenzana, Dafne; Lopez-DiazGuerrero, Norma; Santiago-German, David; Isordia-Salas, Irma; Smadja, David; C. Yoder, Mervin; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Background Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) is a public health problem. We recently reported that endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) derived from endothelial cells (EC) (ECFC-ECs) from patients with VTD have a dysfunctional state. For this study, we proposed that a dysfunctional status of these cells generates a reduction of its proliferative ability, which is also associated with senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods and results Human mononuclear cells (MNCs) were obtained from peripheral blood from 40 healthy human volunteers (controls) and 50 patients with VTD matched by age (20−50 years) and sex to obtain ECFCs. We assayed their proliferative ability with plasma of patients and controls and supernatants of cultures from ECFC-ECs, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal), ROS, and expression of ephrin-B2/Eph-B4 receptor. Compared with cells from controls, cells from VTD patients showed an 8-fold increase of ECFCs that emerged 1 week earlier, reduced proliferation at long term (39%) and, in passages 4 and 10, a highly senescent rate (30±1.05% vs. 91.3±15.07%, respectively) with an increase of ROS and impaired expression of ephrin-B2/Eph-4 genes. Proliferation potential of cells from VTD patients was reduced in endothelial medium [1.4±0.22 doubling population (DP)], control plasma (1.18±0.31 DP), or plasma from VTD patients (1.65±0.27 DP). Conclusions As compared with controls, ECFC-ECs from individuals with VTD have higher oxidative stress, proliferation stress, cellular senescence, and low proliferative potential. These findings suggest that patients with a history of VTD are ECFC-ECs dysfunctional that could be associated to permanent risk for new thrombotic events. PMID:28910333

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  11. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  12. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  14. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT?1 analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, T. P.; Arango, J.; Wolc, A.; Brady, J. V.; Fulton, J. E.; Rubinoff, I.; Ehr, I. J.; Persia, M. E.; O'Sullivan, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT?1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iC...

  15. Some Spinel Oxide Compounds as Reducing Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Rezlescu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Four spinel ferrites, MFe2O4 (M = Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni, having various grain sizes (100 – 700 nm were prepared by sol-gel-selfcombustion and their sensing properties to reducing gases were investigated. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensitivity as a function of various controlling factors, like operating temperature, composition and concentration of the gas, and finally the response time. The sensitivity of four ferrites to reducing gases like acetone, ethanol and LPG was been compared. It was revealed that CuFe2O4 is the most sensitive to LPG and ZnFe2O4 can be used as a sensor to selectively detect ethanol vapors in air. The strong interaction between ethanol and porous ZnFe2O4 can explain the selective sensitivity to ethanol and negligible sensitivity to the other reducing gases.

  16. Use of landfill gas will save money and reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The City of Glendale, California has commenced on a project to transport landfill gas (LFG) from the Scholl Canyon Landfill to the Grayson Power Plant. At the plant the LFG will be used to produce electricity in existing steam electric generating units and combustion turbines. The LFG will reduce the natural gas consumed at the plant resulting in a substantial cost savings for the City. This project also offers significant environmental improvements. First, the elimination of flaring at the landfill will reduce emissions. Second, the LFG will reduce NO x emissions from the power plant. This paper will describe the existing collection system at the landfill as well as the design of the compression and piping system to transport the LFG to the power plant. It will also outline the in-plant modifications to the fuel delivery system and examine some of the emission implications of how the fuel is utilized

  17. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  18. Gas-Dynamic Methods to Reduce Gas Flow Nonuniformity from the Annular Frames of Gas Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmakova, D.; Popov, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gas flow nonuniformity is one of the main sources of rotor blade vibrations in the gas turbine engines. Usually, the flow circumferential nonuniformity occurs near the annular frames, located in the flow channel of the engine. This leads to the increased dynamic stresses in blades and consequently to the blade damage. The goal of the research was to find an acceptable method of reducing the level of gas flow nonuniformity. Two different methods were investigated during this research. Thus, this study gives the ideas about methods of improving the flow structure in gas turbine engine. Based on existing conditions (under development or existing engine) it allows the selection of the most suitable method for reducing gas flow nonuniformity.

  19. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  20. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH tubes.

  1. Venous Ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprini, J.A.; Partsch, H.; Simman, R.

    2013-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers are the most frequent form of wounds seen in patients. This article presents an overview on some practical aspects concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment. Duplex ultrasound investigations are essential to ascertain the diagnosis of the underlying venous pathology and to treat venous refluxes. Differential diagnosis includes mainly other vascular lesions (arterial, microcirculatory causes), hematologic and metabolic diseases, trauma, infection, malignancies. Patients with superficial venous incompetence may benefit from endovenous or surgical reflux abolition diagnosed by Duplex ultrasound. The most important basic component of the management is compression therapy, for which we prefer materials with low elasticity applied with high initial pressure (short-stretch bandages and Velcro-strap devices). Local treatment should be simple, absorbing and not sticky dressings keeping adequate moisture balance after debridement of necrotic tissue and biofilms are preferred. After the ulcer is healed compression therapy should be continued in order to prevent recurrence. PMID:26236636

  2. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  3. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  4. Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cassandra L; Woods, Noe C; Bilec, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    To determine the carbon footprint of various sustainability interventions used for laparoscopic hysterectomy. We designed interventions for laparoscopic hysterectomy from approaches that sustainable health care organizations advocate. We used a hybrid environmental life cycle assessment framework to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the proposed interventions. We conducted the study from September 2015 to December 2016 at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The largest carbon footprint savings came from selecting specific anesthetic gases and minimizing the materials used in surgery. Energy-related interventions resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon footprint per case but would result in larger savings for the whole facility. Commonly implemented approaches, such as recycling surgical waste, resulted in less than a 5% reduction in greenhouse gases. To reduce the environmental emissions of surgeries, health care providers need to implement a combination of approaches, including minimizing materials, moving away from certain heat-trapping anesthetic gases, maximizing instrument reuse or single-use device reprocessing, and reducing off-hour energy use in the operating room. These strategies can reduce the carbon footprint of an average laparoscopic hysterectomy by up to 80%. Recycling alone does very little to reduce environmental footprint. Public Health Implications. Health care services are a major source of environmental emissions and reducing their carbon footprint would improve environmental and human health. Facilities seeking to reduce environmental footprint should take a comprehensive systems approach to find safe and effective interventions and should identify and address policy barriers to implementing more sustainable practices.

  5. Use of natural gas as a contribution to reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrovski, Dame [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Dimeski, Goran [Toplifikacija Inzhenering AD, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Air quality is one of the conditions that affect both humans health also extend to natural ecosystems, stratospheric ozone, biosphere, changing weather conditions and climate. Imbalance in the atmosphere, the appearance of the greenhouse effect, as well as damage the ozone layer is due to the release of large amounts of polluting substances, which give the effect of acidification and ruin the biosphere, soil and affect others. Pollutants emitted into the air from various sources, mix it, and transported on greater distances and affect on air quality. The polluting substances emitted and remain part of the troposphere that is one part of the air that people breathe, with negative effect on human health, especially respiratory. Given the rapid growth of the industry and the growing need for energy, it is necessary to consider the possibilities for the application of alternative fuels as a proposal to reduce emissions. This paper is considered part of the urban area and thus created a comparative analysis of the work of one plant (which is mainly supplying the area with heat energy), in terms of the type of fuel and related emissions. Also consider the possibility and benefits of the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel to meet the needs of households. Prepared analysis is presented also with the benefits of replacing the electrical and thermal energy (taken from the district heating system) with the use of natural gas as energy terms, and the financial and environmental. (Author)

  6. Characteristics of the positive ion source at reduced gas feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S. K., E-mail: sksharma@ipr.res.in; Bharathi, P.; Prahlad, V.; Patel, P. J.; Choksi, B.; Jana, M. R.; Bansal, L. K.; Qureshi, K.; Sumod, C. B.; Vadher, V.; Thakkar, D.; Gupta, L. N.; Rambabu, S.; Parmar, S.; Contractor, N.; Sahu, A. K.; Pandya, B.; Sridhar, B.; Pandya, S.; Baruah, U. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-11-15

    The neutral beam injector of steady state superconducting tokamak (SST1-NBI) at IPR is designed for injecting upto 1.7 MW of neutral beam (Hº, 30–55 keV) power to the tokamak plasma for heating and current drive. Operations of the positive ion source (PINI or Plug-In-Neutral-Injector) of SST1-NBI were carried out on the NBI test stand. The PINI was operated at reduced gas feed rate of 2–3 Torr l/s, without using the high speed cryo pumps. Experiments were conducted to achieve a stable beam extraction by optimizing operational parameters namely, the arc current (120–300 A), acceleration voltage (16–40 kV), and a suitable control sequence. The beam divergence, power density profiles, and species fractions (H{sup +}:H{sub 2}{sup +}:H{sub 3}{sup +}) were measured by using the diagnostics such as thermal calorimetry, infrared thermography, and Doppler shift spectroscopy. The maximum extracted beam current was about 18 A. A further increase of beam current was found to be limited by the amount of gas feed rate to the ion source.

  7. Commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullet and laying hen venous blood gas and chemistry profiles utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, T P; Arango, J; Wolc, A; Brady, J V; Fulton, J E; Rubinoff, I; Ehr, I J; Persia, M E; O'Sullivan, N P

    2016-02-01

    Venous blood gas and chemistry reference ranges were determined for commercial Hy-Line W-36 pullets and laying hens utilizing the portable i-STAT®1 analyzer and CG8+ cartridges. A total of 632 samples were analyzed from birds between 4 and 110 wk of age. Reference ranges were established for pullets (4 to 15 wk), first cycle laying hens (20 to 68 wk), and second cycle (post molt) laying hens (70 to 110 wk) for the following traits: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dl), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dl). Data were analyzed using ANOVA to investigate the effect of production status as categorized by bird age. Trait relationships were evaluated by linear correlation and their spectral decomposition. All traits differed significantly among pullets and mature laying hens in both first and second lay cycles. Levels for K, iCa, Hct, pH, TCO2, HCO3, BE, sO2, and Hb differed significantly between first cycle and second cycle laying hens. Many venous blood gas and chemistry parameters were significantly correlated. The first 3 eigenvalues explained ∼2/3 of total variation. The first 2 principal components (PC) explained 51% of the total variation and indicated acid-balance and relationship between blood O2 and CO2. The third PC explained 16% of variation and seems to be related to blood iCa. Establishing reference ranges for pullet and laying hen blood gas and chemistry with the i-STAT®1 handheld unit provides a mechanism to further investigate pullet and layer physiology, evaluate metabolic disturbances, and may potentially serve as a means to select breeder candidates with optimal blood gas or chemistry levels on-farm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University

  8. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  9. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  10. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  12. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  13. Reduced viscosity interpreted for fluid/gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Analysis predicts decrease in fluid viscosity by comparing pressure profile of fluid/gas mixture with that of power-law fluid. Fluid is taken to be viscous, non-Newtonian, and incompressible; the gas to be ideal; the flow to be inertia-free, isothermal, and one dimensional. Analysis assists in design of flow systems for petroleum, coal, polymers, and other materials.

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  15. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  16. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Rivers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth. That’s because many of those same analyses show that in order to reach emissions targets, the price on carbon would have to be so punitive as to be politically unbearable, raising the price of gasoline, for example, by about a dollar a litre. That leads politicians to mix in other policies that are less visible to the consumer but also less efficient, less effective and more expensive in abating carbon dioxide. The recently negotiated Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change intends to follow that model, relying on a blend of different policies to help reach Canada’s Paris climate targets. But while the government seems therefore determined to rule out the possibility of a nothing-but-a-carbon-tax plan, it is possible, through the careful application of just the right sort of emission-reduction approaches, to reduce the costs of abatement in a key policy target — namely, road transportation — to a level that at least approaches the lower cost of a carbon tax. The government will likely consider several options in trying to reduce emissions from road transportation. Typical tools include requiring manufacturers to meet standards for new vehicles that mandate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions; gasoline taxes; taxes on emissions-intensive vehicles; subsidies for low-emission or zero-emission vehicles; and subsidies for public transit. Indications are that a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS will play a significant role in the Pan

  17. [Emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Min Yeong; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Ik Hyun; Seo, Jae Hyun; Kim, Il Kyu; Cheung, Dae Young

    2015-02-01

    Emphysematous gastritis is a rare form of gastritis caused by infection of the stomach wall by gas forming bacteria. It is a very rare condition that carries a high mortality rate. Portal venous gas shadow represents elevation of intestinal luminal pressure which manifests as emphysematous gastritis or gastric emphysema. Literature reviews show that the mortality rate is especially high when portal venous gas shadow is present on CT scan. Until recently, the treatment of emphysematous gastritis has been immediate surgical intervention. However, there is a recent trend of avoiding surgery because of the frequent occurrence of post-operative complications such as anastomosis leakage. In addition, aggressive surgical treatment has failed to show significant improvement in prognosis. Recently, the authors experienced a case of emphysematous gastritis accompanied by portal venous gas which was treated successfully by conservative treatment without immediate surgical intervention. Herein, we present a case of emphysematous gastritis with concomitant portal venous air along with literature review.

  18. Optimal placement of biomass fuelled gas turbines for reduced losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Francisco; Cano, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the optimal location and sizing of biomass fuelled gas turbine power plants. Both profitability in using biomass and power loss are considered in the cost function. The first step is to assess the plant size that maximizes the profitability of the project. The second step is to determine the optimal location of the gas turbines in the electric system to minimize the power loss of the system

  19. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The current Danish energy plan stipulates a production of 5 PI from energy crops in 2010. This may be attained through growing of either annual (e.g., cereal) or perennial energy crops (e.g., willow or Miscanthus). Existing Danish data and the IPCC methodology was used to calculate nitrous oxide emissions from and carbon sequestration in soils cropped with an annual energy crop (triticale) or a perennial energy crop (Miscanthus). The calculations for Miscanthus were performed separately for harvest in November or April, since the harvest time affects both yields and emissions. The estimates for Miscanthus were based on a 20-year duration of the cultivation period. The energy use for growing the crops was included in the energy budgets, as was the reduction in CO 2 emission that will result from substitution of fossil fuel (natural gas). The calculations were performed for both a coarse sandy soil and a loamy sand. The results were compared with current (reference) practice for growing cereals. There were only minor differences in production data and emissions between the two soil types. The area required to produce 5 PI was smallest for Miscanthus harvested in November (c. 25,000 ha), and about equal for triticale and Miscanthus harvested in April (c. 32,000 ha). The reduction in nitrous oxide emissions compared with cereal production was smallest for triticale (20 kt CO 2 equivalents /eq] yr -1 ) and about equal for Miscanthus at the two harvest times (30-36 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ). Growing Miscanthus resulted in a carbon sequestration, with the highest rates (100 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ) for Miscanthus harvested in April. The energy use for production of triticale was slightly lower than for normal cereal growing, whereas growing Miscanthus for harvest in April resulted in a smaller energy use which corresponded to an emission reduction of 20 kt CO 2 yr -1 . The substitution of fossil fuel corresponded to 285 kt CO 2 yr -1 . Summing all items, growing 5 PI worth of

  20. Novel microspheres reduce the formation of deep venous thrombosis and repair the vascular wall in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bingyang; Li, Lan; Li, Qiangqiang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Yan, Wenjin; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Fang; Xu, Zhihong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-07-01

    : L-Arginine (L-arg), widely known as a substrate for endogenous nitric oxide synthesis, can improve endothelial function associated with the vasculature, inhibit platelet aggregation, and alter the activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. P-selectin is a membrane component of the platelet alpha-granule and the endothelial cell-specific Wiebel-Palade body that plays a central role in mediating interactions between platelets and both leukocytes and the endothelium. The experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of novel microspheres with L-arg targeting P-selectin on the formation of deep vein thrombosis and repair of vascular wall in a rat model. Thrombosis of the inferior vena cava was induced by applying a piece of filter paper (5 mm × 10 mm) saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution for 5 min. Targeted microspheres with L-arg, targeted microspheres with water, and saline were injected into the tail veins of the rats after 30 min of applying the filter paper saturated with 10% FeCl3 solution. The dry weight and length of the thrombus isolated from the inferior vena cava were significantly decreased in the group with L-arg in microsphere after 24 h. No significant differences in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen among the groups were indicated. Images revealed that apoptosis in the vascular wall was less in the group injected with targeted microspheres with L-arg than in the other two groups at 1 and 8 d postsurgery. Meanwhile, cell proliferation was considerably excessive in the group injected with L-arg wrapped in targeted microspheres. Therefore, these novel microspheres could decrease the formation of thrombus in the early stages and in the subsequent periods of thrombosis. The microspheres can also enhance the vitality of impaired endothelial cells and reduce cell apoptosis.

  1. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  2. Geochemistry of reduced gas related to serpentinization of the Zambales ophiolite, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrajano, T.A.; Sturchio, N.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Lyon, G.L.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Böhlke, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Methane-hydrogen gas seeps with mantle-like C and noble gas isotopic characteristics issue from partially serpentinized ultramafic rocks in the Zambales ophiolite, Philippines. New measurements of noble gas and 14C isotope abundances, rock/mixed-volatile equilibrium calculations, and previous chemical and isotopic data suggest that these reduced gases are products of periodotite hydration. The gas seeps are produced in rock-dominated zones of serpentinization, and similar gases may be ubiquitous in ultramafic terranes undergoing serpentinization.

  3. Easing the natural gas crisis: Reducing natural gas prices through increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; St. Clair, Matt

    2004-12-21

    Heightened natural gas prices have emerged as a key energy-policy challenge for at least the early part of the 21st century. With the recent run-up in gas prices and the expected continuation of volatile and high prices in the near future, a growing number of voices are calling for increased diversification of energy supplies. Proponents of renewable energy and energy efficiency identify these clean energy sources as an important part of the solution. Increased deployment of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) can hedge natural gas price risk in more than one way, but this paper touches on just one potential benefit: displacement of gas-fired electricity generation, which reduces natural gas demand and thus puts downward pressure on gas prices. Many recent modeling studies of increased RE and EE deployment have demonstrated that this ''secondary'' effect of lowering natural gas prices could be significant; as a result, this effect is increasingly cited as justification for policies promoting RE and EE. This paper summarizes recent studies that have evaluated the gas-price-reduction effect of RE and EE deployment, analyzes the results of these studies in light of economic theory and other research, reviews the reasonableness of the effect as portrayed in modeling studies, and develops a simple tool that can be used to evaluate the impact of RE and EE on gas prices without relying on a complex national energy model. Key findings are summarized.

  4. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE Venous thromboembolism associated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... Venous thromboembolism associated with protein S deficiency due to ... 2 Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland ... It has been long recognized that reduced PS activity is a risk factor for venous ... 1988). Sequencing of PROS1 gene intensified studies of genotype-.

  6. Clinical quality indicators of venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Monica L; Mainz, Jan; Soernsen, Lars T

    2005-01-01

    In the clinical setting, diagnosis and treatment of venous leg ulcers can vary considerably from patient to patient. The first step to reducing this variation is to document venous leg ulcer care through use of quantitative scientific documentation principles. This requires the development of val...

  7. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-01-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The authors have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions

  8. The injection of ultrahigh rates of reducing gas into a modern blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergler, T.; Skoeld, B.E. [Voestalpine, Linz (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The pilot plant for gas injection consists of a screw compressor unit to supply two blast furnaces with reduction gas. Almost all of the reducing gas will react in the raceway; only a small part will combust inside the tuyere. Comparing different injection systems in the case with two lances, the gas will react faster than for the one lance system where the gas is more trapped inside a beam. During the project the melting rate of the furnace was increased by more than 30 %. Injecting reducing gas compensates increased raceway adiabatic flame temperature, RAFT by higher oxygen enrichment rates. The operation results showed that a lower RAFT and low-quality raw material result in increased consumption of reducing agents. 1 kg coke oven gas, COG substitutes 0.81 kg oil and 1.03 kg coke. Sulfur input was reduced by 40 % in comparison with heavy fuel oil operation. The top-gas calorific value is increased up to 30 %. This reduces the consumption of natural gas used to control a constant calorific value in the gas network. A high hydrogen content up to 12 % is no problem for the gas consumers. Tests with simultaneous COG/BOF gas injection have shown that a decrease in the oil rate can be compensated. The replacement of a carbon-rich resultant such as coke and oil in the BF process with a carbon-lean resultant such as COG leads to an absolute reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of the BF process and the power plant of approximately 184.000 t/a for both BFs or 102 kg/tHM. 3 refs., 98 figs., 16 tabs., 1 annex.

  9. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  10. Evaluation of reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms used for modeling mild combustion for natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and parametric study was performed to evaluate the potential of reduced chemistry mechanisms to model natural gas chemistry including NOx chemistry under mild combustion mode. Two reduced mechanisms, 5-step and 9-step, were tested against the GRI-Mech3.0 by comparing key species, such as NOx, CO2 and CO, and gas temperature predictions in idealized reactors codes under mild combustion conditions. It is thus concluded that the 9-step mechanism appears to be a promising reduced mechanism that can be used in multi-dimensional codes for modeling mild combustion of natural gas.

  11. Reducing gas content of coal deposits by means of bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska-Lipowa, A A; Kozlowski, B

    1981-07-01

    This paper discusses the results of experiments carried out in Poland under laboratory conditions on efficiency of methane control using bacteria from Methanosarcina and Methanomonas groups. Malashenko and Whittenburry culture mediums were used. Bacteria growth in an atmosphere of air and methane (48.2%, 8.6% and 5.21%) was observed. Temperature ranged from 19 to 20 C. Investigations show that the bacteria are characterized by high oxidation activity. Depending on methane concentration in the air the bacteria consume from 75% to 100% of methane during biosynthesis. The bacteria reduce methane and oxygen content and increase carbon dioxide content in the air. Using bacteria methane concentration in the air was reduced from 48.2% to 12.3%, from 8.6% to 0.0% and from 5.21% to 0.01%. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  12. Reduced one-body density matrix of Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiao-Chen; Hao Ya-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    With thermal Bose–Fermi mapping method, we investigate the Tonks–Girardeau gas at finite temperature. It is shown that at low temperature, the Tonks gas displays the Fermi-like density profiles, and with the increase in temperature, the Tonks gas distributes in wider region. The reduced one-body density matrix is diagonal dominant in the whole temperature region, and the off-diagonal elements shall vanish rapidly with the deviation from the diagonal part at high temperature. (paper)

  13. Venous Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attention of stakeholders and the public on the importance of saving lives and reducing the burden of ... recently diagnosed with DVT? This study will investigate physical activity habits among children recovering from a deep vein ...

  14. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  15. The effect of medical clowning on reducing pain, crying, and anxiety in children aged 2-10 years old undergoing venous blood drawing--a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, N; Ankri, A; Hamad-Saied, M; Konopnicki, M; Pillar, G

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the utilization of medical clowns to reduce anxiety, stress, and even pain associated with hospitalization has become popular. However, the scientific basis of this benefit and outcome is scant. Venipuncture and IV cannulation are very common sources of pain in ill children. To reduce pain, one common approach is to apply a local anesthetic prior to the procedure. In the current study, we sought to compare the utilization of medical clowning in this process with two control groups: (1) local anesthetic cream (EMLA®, Astrazeneca, London, UK) applied prior to the procedure (active control) and (2) the procedure performed with neither clown nor EMLA (control group). We hypothesized that a medical clown will reduce pain, crying, and anxiety in children undergoing this procedure.Children aged 2-10 years who required either venous blood sampling or intravenous cannulation were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups. Outcome measures consisted of the duration of the whole procedure (measured objectively by an independent observer), the duration of crying (measured objectively by an independent observer), subjective assessment of pain level (a commonly used validated scale), and anxiety level regarding future blood exams (by questionnaire). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare between the groups. p children participated. Mean age was 5.3 ± 2.5 years (range 2-10 years). The duration of crying was significantly lower with clown than in the control group (1.3 ± 2.0 vs 3.8 ± 5.4 min, p = 0.01). With EMLA, this duration was 2.4 ± 2.9 min. The pain magnitude as assessed by the child was significantly lower with EMLA than in the control group (2.9 ± 3.3 vs 5.3 ± 3.8, p = 0.04), while with clown it was 4.1 ± 3.5, not significant when compared with the other two modalities. Hence, duration of crying was shortest with clown while pain assessment was lowest with EMLA. Furthermore, with clown

  16. Reducing pollution at five critical points of shale gas production: Strategies and institutional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, Terence J.

    2016-01-01

    While the public and governments debate the advisability of engaging in shale gas production, the United States has proceeded to develop its resources with an accompanying remarkable increase in natural gas production. The development of shale gas has not been without problems, and some countries have decided that shale gas production should not proceed until more is known about the accompanying health issues and environmental damages. From experiences in the United States, careful consideration of five critical points relating to shale gas production can form the basis for developing strategies for reducing discharges of pollutants: (1) casing and cementing, (2) handling wastewater, (3) venting and flaring, (4) equipment with air emissions, and (5) seismic events. For each strategy, institutional responses to markedly reduce the risks of harm to people and the environment are identified. These responses offer state and local governments ideas for enabling shale gas resources to be developed without sacrificing public health and environmental quality. - Highlights: •Shale gas development involves releases of unnecessary pollutants. •Major sources of unnecessary pollutants can be identified. •For major pollutant sources, strategies can be developed to reduce releases of contaminants. •Alternative strategies can offer firms and governments ways to reduce pollutant releases.

  17. Chemo-radiotherapy for localized pancreatic cancer: increased dose intensity and reduced acute toxicity with concomitant radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poen, Joseph C.; Collins, Helen L.; Niederhuber, John E.; Oberhelman, Harry A.; Vierra, Mark A.; Bastidas, Augusto J.; Young, Harvey S.; Slosberg, Edward A.; Jeffrey, Brooke R.; Longacre, Teri A.; Goffinet, Don R.

    1996-01-01

    intensity was significantly greater for the PVI treatment group. Cumulative 5-FU dose (mean = 7.1 gm/m 2 vs. 2.5 gm/m 2 , p 2 /wk vs. 0.5 gm/m2/wk, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Following pancreaticoduodenectomy, 93% of those receiving PVI 5-FU were able to maintain a radiotherapy dose intensity of ≥ 900 cGy/wk throughout treatment, compared with 63% of those receiving bolus 5-FU (p = 0.03). No difference was seen for patients with locally advanced disease (67% vs. 76%, p = ns). Hematologic toxicity was reduced for patients receiving PVI 5-FU. Grade II-III neutropenia was less common for patients treated with PVI (10% vs. 34%, p = 0.04) compared with patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Thrombocytopenia was limited to Grade I in both treatment groups. Gastrointestinal toxicity as assessed by percent body weight loss during treatment was similar in the two treatment groups and was independent of disease stage. Mean percent weight loss for PVI and bolus 5-FU regimens were 4.7% and 4.1%, respectively (p = ns). Weight loss ≥ 5% body weight (32% vs. 31%) and ≥ 10% (10% vs. 7.7%, p = ns) were also similar between treatment groups. RT treatment interruptions for hematologic, gastrointestinal or other acute toxicities were less common for patients receiving PVI 5-FU (5% vs. 20%, p = 0.11) compared with patients receiving bolus 5-FU. Conclusion: Concurrent radiotherapy and protracted venous infusion 5-FU was well tolerated treatment for patients with localized pancreatic cancer and allowed for a 2.6 fold increase in 5-FU dose intensity for all patients, significantly greater radiotherapy dose intensity for resected patients and equivalent or reduced acute hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity. Longer follow-up will be needed to assess late effects and the impact on overall survival

  18. Venous leg ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids, pentoxifylline, rutosides, stanozolol, sulodexide, thromboxane alpha2 antagonists, zinc), peri

  19. Surgical management of venous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, D A

    2007-01-01

    Among vascular malformations, the predominantly venous malformations represent the majority of cases. They form a clinical entity and therefore need clear concepts concerning diagnosis and treatment. This paper presents an overview of contemporary classification as well as tactics and techniques of treatment. According to the Hamburg Classification, predominantly venous malformations are categorized into truncular and extratruncular forms, with truncular forms distinguished as obstructions and dilations, and extratruncular forms as limited or infiltrating. The tactics of treatment represent surgical and non-surgical methods or combined techniques. Surgical approaches utilize different tactics and techniques that are adopted based on the pathologic form and type of the malformation: (I) operation to reduce the haemodynamic activity of the malformation; (II) operation to eliminate the malformation; and (III) reconstructive operation. As for (I), a type of a tactic is the operation to derive the venous flow. In (II), the total or partial removal of the venous malformation is demonstrated subdivided into three different techniques. In this way, the infiltrating as well as the limited forms can be treated. An additional technique is dedicated to the treatment of a marginal vein. Approach (III) involves the treatment of venous aneurysms, where a variety of techniques have been successful. Long-term follow-up demonstrates positive results in 91% of the cases. Congenital predominantly venous malformations should be treated according to the principles developed during the past decades in vascular surgery, interventional treatment and multidisciplinary treatment. The days of predominantly conservative treatment should be relegated to the past. Special skills and experiences are necessary to carry out appropriate surgical strategy, and the required operative techniques should be dictated by the location and type of malformation and associated findings.

  20. Reduced gas seepages in ophiolitic complexes: Evidences for multiple origins of the H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquand, Christèle; Deville, Eric; Beaumont, Valérie; Guyot, François; Sissmann, Olivier; Pillot, Daniel; Arcilla, Carlo; Prinzhofer, Alain

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a comparative study of reduced gas seepages occurring in ultrabasic to basic rocks outcropping in ophiolitic complexes based on the study of seepages from Oman, the Philippines, Turkey and New Caledonia. This study is based on analyses of the gas chemical composition, noble gases contents, stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. These seepages are mostly made of mixtures of three main components which are H2, CH4 and N2 in various proportions. The relative contents of the three main gas components show 4 distinct types of gas mixtures (H2-rich, N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4). These types are interpreted as reflecting different zones of gas generation within or below the ophiolitic complexes. In the H2-rich type, associated noble gases display signatures close to the value of air. In addition to the atmospheric component, mantle and crustal contributions are present in the N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4 types. H2-bearing gases are either associated with ultra-basic (pH 10-12) spring waters or they seep directly in fracture systems from the ophiolitic rocks. In ophiolitic contexts, ultrabasic rocks provide an adequate environment with available Fe2+ and alkaline conditions that favor H2 production. CH4 is produced either directly by reaction of dissolved CO2 with basic-ultrabasic rocks during the serpentinization process or in a second step by H2-CO2 interaction. H2 is present in the gas when no more carbon is available in the system to generate CH4. The N2-rich type is notably associated with relatively high contents of crustal 4He and in this gas type N2 is interpreted as issued mainly from sediments located below the ophiolitic units.

  1. Diagnosis of venous disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, E.

    1993-01-01

    Limited accuracy in the clinic diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (VT) makes such diagnostic tests such as duplex sonography or venography necessary. Exact information on the age and extent of the thrombus are necessary for the clinician to optimize the therapeutric management. The correct diagnosis of calf vein thrombosis and of recurrent VT in patients with postphlebitis changes also has implications for treatment. After exclusion of thrombosis, the radiologist should evaluate the leg for other possible causes of symptoms besides VT. Investigation of the venous sytem also has a role in the diagnosis in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. In patients with chronic venous insuffficiency the deep venous system should assessed for patency and venous valve function. The superficial veins should be differentiated in segments with sufficient or insufficient venous valves, and it is also necessary to look for insufficiency of the perforrating veins. In patients with superficial phlebitis there is risk of propagation into the deep venous system. (orig.) [de

  2. Cerebral venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Hildebrandt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and radiological signs in 15 patients with cerebral venous malformations are presented and the diagnostic problems discussed. The circulation time in combination with cerebral malformations and angiomas of the scalp are described. CT findings in cases of venous malformations of the brain stem are evaluated. Spot-like enhancement, as well as sharply demarcated round shaped enhancement are characteristic for venous angiomas. Cavernous angiomas usually present as homogenous or inhomogenous round shaped enhanced areas. (Author)

  3. Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Materials Program. Reducing helium impurity depletion in HTGR materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, D.H.

    1984-08-01

    Moisture depletion in HTGR materials testing rigs has been empirically studied in the GE High Temperature Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory (HTRMTL). Tests have shown that increased helium flow rates and reduction in reactive (oxidizable) surface area are effective means of reducing depletion. Further, a portion of the depletion has been shown to be due to the presence of free C released by the dissociation of CH 4 . This depletion component can be reduced by reducing the helium residence time (increasing the helium flow rate) or by reducing the CH 4 concentration in the test gas. Equipment modifications to reduce depletion have been developed, tested, and in most cases implemented in the HTRMTL to date. These include increasing the Helium Loop No. 1 pumping capacity, conversion of metallic retorts and radiation shields to alumina, isolation of thermocouple probes from the test gas by alumina thermowells, and substitution of non-reactive Mo-TZM for reactive metallic structural components

  4. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1988-12-01

    Reviews the technology applied in the Zittau process for flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators have a capacity of 6.5 or 10 t/h, low grade fuel with 8.2 MJ/kg calorific value is combusted. Technology has been developed on an experimental 10 t/h steam generator since 1986; an industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is now in operation achieving 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), the second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat by reducing heat exchangers to 20% of the size of the first variant. Flue gas suspension scrubbing utilizes power plant ash, which is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of SO{sub 2}, additional 25% SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by providing either 40% ash from another power plant or limestone for suspensions. Various technological details are included. 5 refs.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelaar, van C.E.; Dijkstra, J.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the

  6. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2011-06-15

    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  7. Automatic Control of Veno-Venous Extracorporeal Lung Assist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Ruedger; Bensberg, Ralf; Stollenwerk, Andre; Arens, Jutta; Grottke, Oliver; Walter, Marian; Rossaint, Rolf

    2016-10-01

    Veno-venous extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) can provide sufficient gas exchange even in most severe cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Commercially available systems are manually controlled, although an automatically controlled ECLA could allow individualized and continuous adaption to clinical requirements. Therefore, we developed a demonstrator with an integrated control algorithm to keep continuously measured peripheral oxygen saturation and partial pressure of carbon dioxide constant by automatically adjusting extracorporeal blood and gas flow. The "SmartECLA" system was tested in six animal experiments with increasing pulmonary hypoventilation and hypoxic inspiratory gas mixture to simulate progressive acute respiratory failure. During a cumulative evaluation time of 32 h for all experiments, automatic ECLA control resulted in a peripheral oxygen saturation ≥90% for 98% of the time with the lowest value of 82% for 15 s. Partial pressure of venous carbon dioxide was between 40 and 49 mm Hg for 97% of the time with no value 49 mm Hg. With decreasing inspiratory oxygen concentration, extracorporeal oxygen uptake increased from 68 ± 25 to 154 ± 34 mL/min (P < 0.05), and reducing respiratory rate resulted in increasing extracorporeal carbon dioxide elimination from 71 ± 37 to 92 ± 37 mL/min (P < 0.05). The "SmartECLA" demonstrator allowed reliable automatic control of the extracorporeal circuit. Proof of concept could be demonstrated for this novel automatically controlled veno-venous ECLA circuit. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Sulfate reducing bacteria detection in gas pipelines; Deteccao de bacterias redutoras de sulfato em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutterbach, Marcia Teresa S.; Oliveira, Ana Lucia C. de; Cavalcanti, Eduardo H. de S. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Corrosao e Degradacao]. E-mails: marciasl@int.gov.br; analucia@int.gov.br; eduardoh@int.gov.br

    2004-07-01

    Microbiology induced corrosion (MIC) process associated with sulfate reducing bacteria (BRS) are one of the most important matter of concern for the oil and gas industry as 77% of failures have been attributed this sort of degradation. Corrosion products found present in gas transportation pipelines, the so-called 'black-powder' problem, are also a nuisance and source of economic losses for the gas industry. According to the literature, the incidence of black-powder can be ascribed to the metabolism of BRS that can be found in the gas environment. Integrity monitoring programs of gas pipelines adopt pigging as an important tool for internal corrosion monitoring. Solid residue such as the black-powder, collected by pigging, as well as the condensed, can be seen as a very valuable samples for microbiological analyses that can be used to detect and quantify bacteria related to the incidence of MIC processes. In the present work results concerning samples collected by pigging and condensed are presented. Small populations of viable BRS have been found in the pipeline. It can be seen that the inclusion of microbiological analyses of solid and liquid residues as a complementary action in the integrity monitoring programs adopted by gas transportation industry can be very helpful on the decision making concerning preventive and corrective actions to be taken in order to maintain the CIM processes under control. (author)

  10. Hydrogen gas alleviates oxygen toxicity by reducing hydroxyl radical levels in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Yu

    Full Text Available Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy through breathing oxygen at the pressure of above 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA is useful for varieties of clinical conditions, especially hypoxic-ischemic diseases. Because of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, breathing oxygen gas at high pressures can cause oxygen toxicity in the central nervous system, leading to multiple neurological dysfunction, which limits the use of HBO therapy. Studies have shown that Hydrogen gas (H2 can diminish oxidative stress and effectively reduce active ROS associated with diseases. However, the effect of H2 on ROS generated from HBO therapy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 on ROS during HBO therapy using PC12 cells. PC12 cells cultured in medium were exposed to oxygen gas or mixed oxygen gas and H2 at 1 ATA or 5 ATA. Cells viability and oxidation products and ROS were determined. The data showed that H2 promoted the cell viability and inhibited the damage in the cell and mitochondria membrane, reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation, and selectively decreased the levels of •OH but not disturbing the levels of O2•-, H2O2, or NO• in PC12 cells during HBO therapy. These results indicated that H2 effectively reduced •OH, protected cells against oxygen toxicity resulting from HBO therapy, and had no effect on other ROS. Our data supported that H2 could be potentially used as an antioxidant during HBO therapy.

  11. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krusen, III, L C [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States). Research Div.

    1997-06-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author).

  12. Reducing capital and operating costs in gas processing, liquefaction, and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusen, L.C. III

    1997-01-01

    The LNG industry is unanimous that capital costs must be reduced throughout the chain, and especially at the liquefaction facility including associated gas processing and LNG storage. The Ken ai LNG plant provides an example of how both reduced capital and operating costs were attained. This paper will cover cost production strategies that can be applied to liquefaction processes in general, and will than focus on their realization in the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG process. The paper concludes that reduced LNG plant costs are attainable. (Author)

  13. Multiroller traction drive speed reducer: Evaluation for automotive gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, D. A.; Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a nominal 14:1 fixed-ratio Nasvytis multiroller traction drive retrofitted as the speed reducer in an automotive gas turbine engine. Power turbine speeds of 45,000 rpm and a drive output power of 102 kW (137 hp) were reached. The drive operated under both variable roller loading (proportional to torque) and fixed roller loading (automatic loading mechanism locked). The drive operated smoothly and efficiently as the engine speed reducer. Engine specific fuel consumption with the traction speed reducer was comparable to that with the original helical gearset.

  14. Current concepts in repair of extremity venous injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy K; Clouse, W Darrin

    2016-04-01

    Extremity venous injury management remains controversial. The purpose of this communication is to offer perspective as well as experiential and technical insight into extremity venous injury repair. Available literature is reviewed and discussed. Historical context is provided. Indication, the decision process for repair, including technical conduct, is delineated. In particular, the authors' experiences in both civilian and wartime injury are used for perspective. Extremity venous injury repair was championed within data from the Vietnam Vascular Registry. However, patterns of extremity venous injury differ between combat and civilian settings. Since Vietnam, civilian descriptive series opine the benefits and potential complications associated with both venous injury repair and ligation. These surround extremity edema, chronic venous insufficiency, thromboembolism, and limb loss. Whereas no clear superiority in either approach has been identified to date, there appears to be no increased risk of pulmonary embolism or chronic venous changes with repair. Newer data from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and meta-analysis have reinforced this and also have suggested limb salvage benefit for extremity venous repair in combined arterial and venous injuries in modern settings. The patient's physiologic state and associated injury drive five triage categories suggesting vein injury management. Vein repair thrombosis occurs in a significant proportion, yet many recanalize and possibly have a positive impact on limb venous return. Further, early decompression favors reduced blood loss, acute edema, and inflammation, supporting collateral development. Large soft tissue injury minimizing collateral capacity increases the importance of repair. Constructs of repair are varied with modest differences in patency. Venous shunting is feasible, but specific roles remain nebulous. An aggressive posture toward extremity venous injury repair seems justified today because of the likely

  15. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving air quality: Two global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Larry E

    2017-07-01

    There are many good reasons to promote sustainable development and reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other combustion emissions. The air quality in many urban environments is causing many premature deaths because of asthma, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and dementia associated with combustion emissions. The global social cost of air pollution is at least $3 trillion/year; particulates, nitrogen oxides and ozone associated with combustion emissions are very costly pollutants. Better air quality in urban environments is one of the reasons for countries to work together to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. There are many potential benefits associated with limiting climate change. In the recent past, the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and the number of weather and climate disasters with costs over $1 billion has been increasing. The average global temperature set new record highs in 2014, 2015, and 2016. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the transition to electric vehicles and electricity generation using renewable energy must take place in accord with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. This work reviews progress and identifies some of the health benefits associated with reducing combustion emissions. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 982-988, 2017.

  16. Integrity management of Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline to reduce risks due third party damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Carlos Renato Aragonez de; Monte, Oswaldo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Colen, Eustaquio; Cunha, Roberto de Souza; Oliveira, Hudson Regis de [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil, S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Rogerio de Souza [RSL Consultoria Geoprojetos (Brazil); Schultz Neto, Walter [Milton Braga Assessoria Tecnica (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The Bolivia-Brazil Natural Gas Pipeline has 2.600 kilometers from Rio Grande City in Bolivia to Canoas City, in the south of Brazil. The right-of-way crosses a lot of types of topography and areas subjected to various kinds of anthropological actions, like areas in class locations 3, locals under agricultural activities, forests and minerals explorations, and near constructions of highway and railway, industrial constructions, new pipelines in the same right-of -way, channels, dams, that requires special projects to avoid that the gas pipeline could be subject to strengths that were not consider in the original design. The aim of this paper is to present the jobs developed by TBG during seven years of gas pipeline operations, as public awareness program, procedures to design, construct and inspect specials constructions along and near the right-of -way, control of mineral and forest explorations, monitoring and controlling of excavations on the right-of-way to install new pipelines and optical cables, to reduce risks of gas pipeline damage due third party, as a component of TBG' Managing Integrity Gas Pipeline Program. (author)

  17. Possibility study of gasifier with axial circulating flue gas for reducing Tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poowadin, T.; Polsongkram, M.; Khantikomol, P.

    2018-01-01

    This present research article aims to study the possibility of gasification by axial core flue gas circulating kiln and find the efficiency of syngas production. An axial core flue gas circulating tube was installed in the center of the updraft gasifier in purposing of tar reducing. In the present study, the eucalyptus wood chip 4, 8, and 10 kg with the moisture content 16% were examined. Several type-K thermocouples were employed to measure the temperatures at preheat, combustion, reduction, pyrolysis, drying, and gas outlet zone. The results showed that the temperatures in the combustion and the reduction zone of the kiln with the axial core flue gas recirculating were lower than the kiln without the core owing to installing the core would reduce the combustion zone area in biomass burning. Obviously, the temperature in the pyrolysis and drying zone were nearly the same as both with and without the core. In consideration of syngas components, it was found that CO production from the gasifier with the core was higher than the gasifier without the core about 25%. Other gases, however, were almost same. The syngas production efficiency obtained from the gasifier with the core decreased with increasing the mass of biomass. It showed that the highest efficiency was 30% at 4 kg supplying biomass. In comparison, the efficiencies of both the kilns with and without the core were not different. For liquid product, the amount of liquid decreased about 47.23% comparing with the gasifier without the core.

  18. Reduced-order modellin for high-pressure transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaie, Baba G.; Khan, Ilyas; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh; Alqahtani, Aisha M.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the transient flow of hydrogen compressed-natural gas (HCNG) mixture which is also referred to as hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a pipeline is numerically computed using the reduced-order modelling technique. The study on transient conditions is important because the pipeline flows are normally in the unsteady state due to the sudden opening and closure of control valves, but most of the existing studies only analyse the flow in the steady-state conditions. The mathematical model consists in a set of non-linear conservation forms of partial differential equations. The objective of this paper is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of the HCNG transient flow parameters using the Reduced-Order Modelling (ROM). The ROM technique has been successfully used in single-gas and aerodynamic flow problems, the gas mixture has not been done using the ROM. The study is based on the velocity change created by the operation of the valves upstream and downstream the pipeline. Results on the flow characteristics, namely the pressure, density, celerity and mass flux are based on variations of the mixing ratio and valve reaction and actuation time; the ROM computational time cost advantage are also presented.

  19. Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tomohiro; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Shigemura, Norihisa; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Masutani, Kosuke; Tanaka, Yugo; Noda, Kentaro; Peng, Ximei; Takahashi, Toru; Billiar, Timothy R.; Okumura, Meinoshin; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperoxic lung injury is a major concern in critically ill patients who receive high concentrations of oxygen to treat lung diseases. Successful abrogation of hyperoxic lung injury would have a huge impact on respiratory and critical care medicine. Hydrogen can be administered as a therapeutic medical gas. We recently demonstrated that inhaled hydrogen reduced transplant-induced lung injury and induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1. To determine whether hydrogen could reduce hyperoxic lung injury and investigate the underlying mechanisms, we randomly assigned rats to four experimental groups and administered the following gas mixtures for 60 h: 98% oxygen (hyperoxia), 2% nitrogen; 98% oxygen (hyperoxia), 2% hydrogen; 98% balanced air (normoxia), 2% nitrogen; and 98% balanced air (normoxia), 2% hydrogen. We examined lung function by blood gas analysis, extent of lung injury, and expression of HO-1. We also investigated the role of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2, which regulates HO-1 expression, by examining the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and the ability of hydrogen to reduce hyperoxic lung injury in Nrf2-deficient mice. Hydrogen treatment during exposure to hyperoxia significantly improved blood oxygenation, reduced inflammatory events, and induced HO-1 expression. Hydrogen did not mitigate hyperoxic lung injury or induce HO-1 in Nrf2-deficient mice. These findings indicate that hydrogen gas can ameliorate hyperoxic lung injury through induction of Nrf2-dependent genes, such as HO-1. The findings suggest a potentially novel and applicable solution to hyperoxic lung injury and provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms and actions of hydrogen. PMID:23475767

  20. Chronic venous disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The San Valentino Vascular Screening Project conducted in Italy found a ... developed healthcare systems, the cost of treating advanced venous disease ..... tissue inflammation and necrosis. Sclerosing ... and for its tributaries as an alternative.

  1. Evaluation of calcium superphosphate as an additive to reduce gas emissions from rabbit manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Estellés Barber

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques to reduce the emission of air pollutants from livestock production are demanded. In this study, the effect of an additive (calcium superphosphate on gas emissions from rabbit manure was investigated and compared with a control where no additive was used. Calcium superphosphate was applied at a rate of 100 g/m2 per week in a manure pit during 2 cycles of growing rabbits. Manure samples were collected weekly and then chemically and microbiologically analysed. Gas emissions (ammonia, carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were determined in 2 open flux chambers. No differences were observed in gas emissions between the treated and control samples except for ammonia emissions, which were reduced by 33% when the additive was applied (P<0.05. No statistical differences were obtained in the microbial content between control and treatment, as results showed a high variability. Dry matter content and pH were the most influential parameters on the emission of gases from manure. According to these results, the application of calcium superphosphate may be considered as an effective technique to reduce ammonia emission from rabbit manure. The additive may also be potentially effective in other species, but additional research is necessary to investigate its performance.

  2. Prophylaxis of Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

    2001-06-01

    Mechanical measures such as graduated compression stockings and intermittent compression boots are available for venous thrombosis prophylaxis, but compliance may be limited. Plantar venous pneumatic compression devices have attained widespread acceptance by both patients and nurses because of their comfort and compact size, but their track record for efficacy is poor. Inferior vena cava filters prevent pulmonary embolism, but do not halt the thrombotic process or prevent venous thrombosis. Pharmacologic prophylaxis traditionally has relied upon minidose unfractionated heparin; however, re-examination is warranted in the face of increasingly ill and complex patients. My opinion is that small, fixed doses of once-daily low molecular weight heparin will eventually replace minidose unfractionated heparin as the standard pharmacologic prophylaxis regimen for most surgical and medical patients. Prolongation of prophylaxis after hospital discharge should receive increased emphasis. Most patients being transferred to a skilled nursing facility should receive venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. Similarly, most patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement should receive prolonged preventive regimens, with at least 1 month of anticoagulation. Despite advances, certain aspects of venous thrombosis prophylaxis remain problematic. First, a surprisingly high number of hospitalized patients develop venous thrombosis because of failed (rather than omitted) prophylaxis. Second, many patients in intensive care have a combination of peripheral vascular disease and active bleeding (usually gastrointestinal) that precludes mechanical or pharmacologic prophylaxis. Third, neurosurgical patients undergoing craniotomy for brain tumors suffer a high rate of venous thrombosis and major pulmonary embolism despite the routine use of combined mechanical and pharmacologic prophylaxis. My opinion is that these three areas, in addition to the hospital culture of prophylaxis, should receive

  3. Reduced Order Modeling of Combustion Instability in a Gas Turbine Model Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold-Medabalimi, Nicholas; Huang, Cheng; Duraisamy, Karthik

    2017-11-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel based propulsion systems are expected to remain relevant in aerospace vehicles for the foreseeable future. Design of these devices is complicated by combustion instabilities. The capability to model and predict these effects at reduced computational cost is a requirement for both design and control of these devices. This work focuses on computational studies on a dual swirl model gas turbine combustor in the context of reduced order model development. Full fidelity simulations are performed utilizing URANS and Hybrid RANS-LES with finite rate chemistry. Following this, data decomposition techniques are used to extract a reduced basis representation of the unsteady flow field. These bases are first used to identify sensor locations to guide experimental interrogations and controller feedback. Following this, initial results on developing a control-oriented reduced order model (ROM) will be presented. The capability of the ROM will be further assessed based on different operating conditions and geometric configurations.

  4. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO 2 , while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m 3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO 2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  5. Energy and exergy analysis of electricity generation from natural gas pressure reducing stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neseli, Mehmet Alparslan; Ozgener, Onder; Ozgener, Leyla

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Forecasting the recoverable energy from natural gas pressure reduction stations. • Electricity generation through pressure reduction stations via turboexpanders. • A thermodynamics analysis of PRS. - Abstract: Electricity generation or power recovery through pressure reduction stations (PRS) for general use has not been realized in Izmir. The main objective of the present study was to do a case study for calculating electricity to be recovered in one natural gas pressure reduction stations in Izmir. It is the first forecasting study to obtain energy from natural gas pressure-reducing stations in Izmir. Energy can be obtained from natural gas PRS with turbo-expanders instead of using throttle valves or regulators from the PRS. The exergy performance of PRS with TE is evaluated in this study. Exergetic efficiencies of the system and components are determined to assess their individual performances. Based upon pressure change and volumetric flow rate, it can be obtained by recovering average estimated installed capacity and annual energy 494.24 kW, 4113.03 MW h, respectively. In terms of estimated installed capacity power and annual energy, the highest level is 764.88 kW, approximately 6365.34 MW h, in Aliaga PRS. Also it can be seen that CO 2 emission factor average value is 295.45 kg/MW h

  6. Treatment of reduced sulphur compounds and SO2 by Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meusinger, Carl; Bluhme, Anders Brostrøm; Ingemar, Jonas L.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) emitted from pig farms are a major problem for agriculture, due to their health and environmental impacts and foul odour. This study investigates the removal of RSCs, including H2S, and their oxidation product SO2 using Gas Phase Advanced Oxidation (GPAO). GPAO...... is a novel air cleaning technique which utilises accelerated atmospheric chemistry to oxidise pollutants before removing their oxidation products as particles. Removal efficiencies of 24.5% and 3.9% were found for 461 ppb of H2S and 714 ppb of SO2 in a laboratory system (volumetric flow Q = 75 m3/h......). A numerical model of the reactor system was developed to explore the basic features of the system; its output was in fair agreement with the experiment. The model verified the role of OH radicals in initiating the oxidation chemistry. All sulphur removed from the gas phase was detected as particulate matter...

  7. Reducing the fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of the US vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandivadekar, Anup; Cheah, Lynette; Evans, Christopher; Groode, Tiffany; Heywood, John; Kasseris, Emmanuel; Kromer, Matthew; Weiss, Malcolm

    2008-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the consumption of oil in the US light-duty vehicle fleet (cars and light trucks) presents an extremely challenging energy and environmental problem. A variety of propulsion technologies and fuels have the promise to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles. Even so, achieving a noticeable reduction on both fronts in the near term will require rapid penetration of these technologies into the vehicle fleet, and not all alternatives can meet both objectives simultaneously. Placing a much greater emphasis on reducing fuel consumption rather than improving vehicle performance can greatly reduce the required market penetration rates. Addressing the vehicle performance-size-fuel consumption trade-off should be the priority for policymakers rather than promoting specific vehicle technologies and fuels

  8. Developing Automatic Water Table Control System for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, C.; Fauzan, M. I.; Satyanto, K. S.; Budi, I. S.; Masaru, M.

    2018-05-01

    Water table in rice fields play important role to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Continuous flooding by maintenance water table 2-5 cm above soil surface is not effective and release more GHG emissions. System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as alternative rice farming apply intermittent irrigation by maintaining lower water table is proven can reduce GHG emissions reducing productivity significantly. The objectives of this study were to develop automatic water table control system for SRI application and then evaluate the performances. The control system was developed based on fuzzy logic algorithms using the mini PC of Raspberry Pi. Based on laboratory and field tests, the developed system was working well as indicated by lower MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) values. MAPE values for simulation and field tests were 16.88% and 15.80%, respectively. This system can save irrigation water up to 42.54% without reducing productivity significantly when compared to manual irrigation systems.

  9. Brain venous pathologies: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatico, Rosana; Gonzalez, Alejandro; Yanez, Paulina; Romero, Carlos; Trejo, Mariano; Lambre, Hector

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe MRI findings of the different brain venous pathologies. Material and Methods: Between January 2002 and March 2004, 18 patients were studied 10 males and 8 females between 6 and 63 years old; with different brain venous pathologies. In all cases brain MRI were performed including morphological sequences with and without gadolinium injection and angiographic venous sequences. Results: 10 venous occlusions were found, 6 venous angiomas, and 2 presented varices secondary to arteriovenous dural fistula. Conclusion: Brain venous pathologies can appear in many different clinical contexts, with different prognosis and treatment. In all the cases brain MRI was the best imaging study to disclose typical morphologic abnormalities. (author) [es

  10. Organic Rankine cycle saves energy and reduces gas emissions for cement production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huarong; Xu, Jinliang; Yang, Xufei; Miao, Zheng; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    We investigated ORCs (organic Rankine cycles) integrated with typical China cement production line. The dry air at the kiln cooler outlet with the temperature of 220 °C was the waste heat. The fluids of hexane, isohexane, R601, R123 and R245fa were selected for ORCs based on the critical temperature criterion. The developed ORC verified the thermodynamics analysis. The NPV (net present value) and PBP (payback period) methods were applied to evaluate the economic performance. The LCA (life cycle assessment) was applied to evaluate the environment impacts. ORCs could generate 67,85,540–81,21,650 kWh electricity per year, equivalent to save 2035–2436 tons standard coal and reduce 7743–9268 tons CO 2 emission, for a 4000 t/d cement production line. ORCs reduced gas emissions of CO 2 by 0.62–0.74%, SO 2 by 3.83–4.59% and NO x by 1.36–1.63%. The PBP (payback period) was 2.74–3.42 years. The ORCs had the reduction ratios of EIL (environment impact load) by 1.49–1.83%, GWP (global warming potential) by 0.74–0.92%, AP (acidification potential) by 2.34–2.84%, EP (eutrophication potential) by 0.96–1.22% and HTP (human toxicity potential) by 2.38–2.89%. The ORC with R601 as the fluid had the best economic performance and significant gas emission reductions. ORCs had good economic performance and reduce the gas emissions. - Highlights: • Organic Rankine Cycles were integrated with the cement production line. • Five organic fluids were used as the working fluids for ORCs. • Thermal, economic and gas emission performances were analyzed. • R601 was the best fluid for ORC with the heat source temperature of 220 °C. • ORCs had good economic and gas emission reduction performances

  11. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: low-carbon electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Hales, Simon; Chiabai, Aline; Criqui, Patrick; Mima, Silvana; Tonne, Cathryn; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-12

    In this report, the third in this Series on health and climate change, we assess the changes in particle air pollution emissions and consequent effects on health that are likely to result from greenhouse-gas mitigation measures in the electricity generation sector in the European Union (EU), China, and India. We model the effect in 2030 of policies that aim to reduce total carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions by 50% by 2050 globally compared with the effect of emissions in 1990. We use three models: the POLES model, which identifies the distribution of production modes that give the desired CO(2) reductions and associated costs; the GAINS model, which estimates fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 2.5 microm or less (PM(2.5)) concentrations; and a model to estimate the effect of PM(2.5) on mortality on the basis of the WHO's Comparative Risk Assessment methods. Changes in modes of production of electricity to reduce CO(2) emissions would, in all regions, reduce PM(2.5) and deaths caused by it, with the greatest effect in India and the smallest in the EU. Health benefits greatly offset costs of greenhouse-gas mitigation, especially in India where pollution is high and costs of mitigation are low. Our estimates are approximations but suggest clear health gains (co-benefits) through decarbonising electricity production, and provide additional information about the extent of such gains.

  12. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  13. Drops of energy: conserving urban water to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuanchun; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Haikun; Bi, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Water and energy are two essential resources of modern civilization and are inherently linked. Indeed, the optimization of the water supply system would reduce energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal water sector. This research measured the climatic cobenefit of water conservation based on a water flow analysis. The results showed that the estimated energy consumption of the total water system in Changzhou, China, reached approximately 10% of the city's total energy consumption, whereas the industrial sector was found to be more energy intensive than other sectors within the entire water system, accounting for nearly 70% of the total energy use of the water system. In addition, four sustainable water management scenarios would bring the cobenefit of reducing the total energy use of the water system by 13.9%, and 77% of the energy savings through water conservation was indirect. To promote sustainable water management and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China would require its water price system, both for freshwater and recycled water, to be reformed.

  14. Development of AIM for analysing policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, M.; Morita, T.; Matsuoka, Y.

    1999-01-01

    AIM (Asian-Pacific Integrated Model) has been developed for predicting greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating policy measures to reduce them. Two socio-economic scenarios were assumed and CO 2 emissions were predicted based on these scenarios and policy intervention assumptions. It is found that mitigating CO 2 emissions without scaling back productive activities or standards of living in Japan is possible. However, if one relies on the market mechanism alone, it cannot be done. The analysis has shown that it is essential to introduce new policies and measures such as carbon tax and subsidies. (author)

  15. Cerebral venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soralova, T.; Sevcikova, H.; Petersky, D.

    2014-01-01

    We decided to process this theme due to its nonspecific clinical features as they often cause diagnostic problems not only to clinicians but also to diagnostic. It is important to think of this disease mainly in young women who administer hormonal contraception. Imaging methods play the crucial role in diagnostic of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The gold standard is a native CT of brain which shows the venous sinus thrombosis as a hyperdense lesion in the locus of the sinus (dense triangle sign), CT venography shows the sinus thrombosis as a defect in a contrast filling of the venous sinus (empty delta sign). Other investigative methods are magnetic resonance imaging or MRA. In short we also mention quite a rare but more serious thrombosis of profound cerebral veins v. cerebri magna-Galeni, vv. cerebri internae). The importance of early diagnostic and non specificity of symptoms is presented in 3 clinical cases that are the part of this work. (author)

  16. Direct venous thrombolysis and venous angioplasty in the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, J.P.; Guenther, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Venous thromboses of stenoses in the upper extremity are often the result of a compression syndrome of the shoulder girdle, the Paget-von Schroetter syndrome, vascular surgery, space-occupying lesions in the mediastinum or the result of catheterisation. Direct venous thrombolysis and venous angioplasty were performed successfully in six patients. (orig.) [de

  17. Highly selective gas sensor arrays based on thermally reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Wilson, Peter; Sysoev, Victor; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been previously shown to be very sensitive to surface adsorbates, thus making rGO a very promising platform for highly sensitive gas sensors. However, poor selectivity of rGO-based gas sensors remains a major problem for their practical use. In this paper, we address the selectivity problem by employing an array of rGO-based integrated sensors instead of focusing on the performance of a single sensing element. Each rGO-based device in such an array has a unique sensor response due to the irregular structure of rGO films at different levels of organization, ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting rGO-based gas sensing system could reliably recognize analytes of nearly the same chemical nature. In our experiments rGO-based sensor arrays demonstrated a high selectivity that was sufficient to discriminate between different alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, at a 100% success rate. We also discuss a possible sensing mechanism that provides the basis for analyte differentiation.

  18. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K; Flury, S; Jayakumar, R; Fiener, P; Steger, K; Arya, V; Wilken, F; van Geldern, R; Premke, K

    2016-02-05

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km(2)) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  19. Invasive floating macrophytes reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a small tropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermeyer, K.; Flury, S.; Jayakumar, R.; Fiener, P.; Steger, K.; Arya, V.; Wilken, F.; van Geldern, R.; Premke, K.

    2016-02-01

    Floating macrophytes, including water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), are dominant invasive organisms in tropical aquatic systems, and they may play an important role in modifying the gas exchange between water and the atmosphere. However, these systems are underrepresented in global datasets of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study investigated the carbon (C) turnover and GHG emissions from a small (0.6 km2) water-harvesting lake in South India and analysed the effect of floating macrophytes on these emissions. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions with gas chambers in the field as well as water C mineralization rates and physicochemical variables in both the open water and in water within stands of water hyacinths. The CO2 and CH4 emissions from areas covered by water hyacinths were reduced by 57% compared with that of open water. However, the C mineralization rates were not significantly different in the water between the two areas. We conclude that the increased invasion of water hyacinths and other floating macrophytes has the potential to change GHG emissions, a process that might be relevant in regional C budgets.

  20. Chronic venous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Claire D; Waldorf, Heidi

    2009-11-01

    Identifying characteristic cutaneous findings is important in determining the appropriate management of certain venous diseases. The health care provider should be familiar with the classic description of patterns and distributions of skin manifestations, such as varicose veins, stasis dermatitis, palpable cord, petechiae, and telangiectasias. In addition to the gross appearance of the skin, a skin biopsy may help elucidate a diagnosis. General treatment and prevention of the underlying venous pathology is essential. Furthermore, specific management of skin findings should include therapy to ameliorate progression of disease and symptomatology when warranted.

  1. Central Venous Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, Arul; Warakaulle, Dinuke R.; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-01-01

    Central venous access plays an important role in the management of an ever-increasing population of patients ranging from those that are critically ill to patients with difficult clinical access. Interventional radiologists are key in delivering this service and should be familiar with the wide range of techniques and catheters now available to them. A comprehensive description of these catheters with regard to indications, technical aspects of catheterization, success rates, and associated early and late complications, as well as a review of various published guidelines on central venous catheter insertion are given in this article

  2. Local actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the context of national action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Municipalities can play a number of important roles to complement national actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions: (i) by facilitating comprehensive, city-wide building retrofit activities; (ii) by facilitating the development and/or expansion of community integrated energy systems involving district heating, district cooling, and cogeneration of electricity; and (iii) by promoting urban intensification to reduce the need to use the private automobile. Innovative institutional and financial mechanism are needed to overcome some of the persistent barriers to more efficient energy use in buildings and a number of concepts, which are currently being considered by the City of Toronto as part of its programme to reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% from the 1988 level by 2005, are discussed here. These concepts involve using public securitization funds to leverage private sector funds for energy efficiency retrofits and a number of measures to reduce financing and retrofit transaction costs. Even where surplus electricity generating capacity exists at the regional scale, reduced electricity demand can still result in avoided utility system costs if transmission bottlenecks and future transmission and transformer upgrade costs are reduced. Finally, given the need to replace or modify many of the existing commercial chillers due to the phase out of CFC's, a window of opportunity exists during the next few years to provide alternative, chlorocarbon-free district cooling systems based on absorption chillers using waste heat from electricity generation, with significant (30-65%) CO 2 emission savings. (au)

  3. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE Venous thromboembolism associated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-24

    Mar 24, 2017 ... It has been long recognized that reduced PS activity is a risk factor for venous .... individual had PS deficiency type I but was unavailable for DNA .... Influence of PROS1 gene mutations affecting protein S amino-acid 275 on ...

  5. Reducing gas flaring in Russia: Gloomy outlook in times of economic insecurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loe, Julia S.P.; Ladehaug, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Reducing Russia,s high levels of Associated Petroleum Gas (APG) flaring has been high on the Russian political agenda since 2007. In 2009 a decree requiring APG utilization of minimum 95 percent was adopted, valid from 1 January 2012. The oil industry has implemented various measures to reduce flaring, but not to a sufficiently large extent to make the 2012 deadline. This paper concludes that the utilization goal could be reached within 3–5 years if there is political will and the oil industry is given appropriate enabling measures. However, in a time of economic insecurity, domestically as well as in Russia’s primary export market in Europe, maintaining the status quo to ensure political stability is likely to be prioritized by the authorities at the expense of investments and structural reform which may be a premise for reaching the APG utilization goal. - Highlights: ► Russia's APG utilization goal will most likely not be reached within 3-5 years. ► The main reason for not reaching the 95 % target is lack of political will. ► Petroleum producers lack enabling measures for APG utilization. ► Reaching the target will most likely require structural gas sector reform. ► Reform is unlikely due to prioritization of political stability.

  6. Venous ulcers -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery to improve blood flow through your veins. Prevention If you are at risk for venous ulcers, take the steps listed above under Wound Care. ... weight if you are overweight. Manage your blood pressure and cholesterol levels. ... Venous leg ulcers - self-care; Venous insufficiency ulcers - self-care; Stasis ...

  7. Blueberry Phenolics Reduce Gastrointestinal Infection of Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis by Improving Depressant-Induced Autoimmune Disorder via miR-155-Mediated Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Meng, Hao; Liu, Tianyi; Feng, Yingli; Qi, Yuan; Zhang, Donghuan; Wang, Honglei

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) often causes human depression, whereas depression-induced low immunity makes the patients susceptible to gastrointestinal infection. Blueberry possesses antidepressant properties which may improve autoimmunity and reduce gastrointestinal infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) performs antidepressant function and can be regulated by miR-155, which may be affected by blueberry. To explore the possible molecular mechanism, blueberry compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Activity of compounds was tested by using HT22 cells. The present study tested 124 patients with CVT-induced mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale [CES-D] ≥16) and gastrointestinal infection. Patients were randomly assigned to blueberry extract group (BG, received 10 mg blueberry extract daily) and placebo group (PG, received 10 mg placebo daily). After 3 months, depression, gastrointestinal infection and lipid profiles were investigated. Serum miR-155 and BDNF were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and or Western Blot. Blueberry treatment improved depressive symptoms and lipid profiles, and also reduced gastrointestinal infection in the BG group (P blueberry extracts were the main phenolic acids with 0.18, 0.85, 0.26, 0.72, 0.66, 0.4,1, and 1.92 mg/g of gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, [2]-epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, p-anisic acid, and quercetin in blueberry extracts, respectively. Phenolics in blueberry are possible causal agents in improving antidepressant activity and reducing gastrointestinal infection. Administration of blueberry increased BDNF expression and miR-155. Blueberry cannot affect BDNF level when miR-155 is overexpressed or inhibited. Phenolics from blueberry reduced gastrointestinal infection of patients with CVT by improving antidepressant activity via upregulation of miR-155-mediated BDNF. PMID:29230173

  8. Cerebral venous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Tetsuji; Taguchi, Haruyoshi; Kamiya, Kazuko; Yano, Takashi; Nakajima, Reiko

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a 27-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as having cerebral venous angioma in the postero-temporal area by CT scan and cerebral angiography. The patient improved by removing angioma with electrocoagulation of medullary veins. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Arterial versus venous lactate: a measure of sepsis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaraweera, Sahan Asela; Gibbons, Berwyck; Gour, Anami; Sedgwick, Philip

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the agreement between arterial and venous blood lactate and pH levels in children with sepsis. This retrospective, three-year study involved 60 PICU patients, with data collected from electronic or paper patient records. The inclusion criteria comprised of children (≤17 years old) with sepsis and those who had a venous blood gas taken first with an arterial blood gas taken after within one hour. The lactate and pH values measured through each method were analysed. There is close agreement between venous and arterial lactate up to 2 mmol/L. As this value increases, this agreement becomes poor. The limits of agreement (LOA) are too large (±1.90 mmol/L) to allow venous and arterial lactate to be used interchangeably. The mean difference and LOA between both methods would be much smaller if derived using lactate values under 2.0 mmol/L. There is close agreement between arterial and venous pH (MD = -0.056, LOA ± 0.121). However, due to extreme variations in pH readings during sepsis, pH alone is an inadequate marker. A venous lactate ≤2 mmol/L can be used as a surrogate for arterial lactate during early management of sepsis in children. However, if the value exceeds 2 mmol/L, an arterial sample must confirm the venous result. What is known: • In children with septic shock, a blood gas is an important test to show the presence of acidosis and high lactic acid. Hyperlactataemia on admission is an early predictor of outcome and is associated with a greater mortality risk. • An arterial sample is the standard for lactate measurement, however getting a sample may be challenging in the emergency department or a general paediatric ward. Venous samples are quicker and easier to obtain. Adult studies generally advise caution in replacing venous lactate values for the arterial standard, whilst paediatric studies are limited in this area. What is new: • This is the first study assessing the agreement between arterial and peripheral venous

  10. Reduced sulfur compounds in gas from construction and demolition debris landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue; Xu, Qiyong; Booth, Matthew; Townsend, Timothy G; Chadik, Paul; Bitton, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    The biological conversion of sulfate from disposed gypsum drywall to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the anaerobic environment of a landfill results in odor problems and possible health concerns at many disposal facilities. To examine the extent and magnitude of such emissions, landfill gas samples from wells, soil vapor samples from the interface of the waste and cover soil, and ambient air samples, were collected from 10 construction and demolition (C&D) debris landfills in Florida and analyzed for H(2)S and other reduced sulfur compounds (RSC). H(2)S was detected in the well gas and soil vapor at all 10 sites. The concentrations in the ambient air above the surface of the landfill were much lower than those observed in the soil vapor, and no direct correlation was observed between the two sampling locations. Methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide were the most frequently observed other RSC, though they occurred at smaller concentrations than H(2)S. This research confirmed the presence of H(2)S at C&D debris landfills. High concentrations of H(2)S may be a concern for employees working on the landfill site. These results indicate that workers should use proper personal protection at C&D debris landfills when involved in excavation, landfill gas collection, or confined spaces. The results indicate that H(2)S is sufficiently diluted in the atmosphere to not commonly pose acute health impacts for these landfill workers in normal working conditions. H(2)S concentrations were extremely variable with measurements occurring over a very large range (from less than 3 ppbv to 12,000 ppmv in the soil vapor and from less than 3 ppbv to 50 ppmv in ambient air). Possible reasons for the large intra- and inter-site variability observed include waste and soil heterogeneities, impact of weather conditions, and different site management practices.

  11. Small molecule inhibition of cGAS reduces interferon expression in primary macrophages from autoimmune mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jessica; Adura, Carolina; Gao, Pu; Luz, Antonio; Lama, Lodoe; Asano, Yasutomi; Okamoto, Rei; Imaeda, Toshihiro; Aida, Jumpei; Rothamel, Katherine; Gogakos, Tasos; Steinberg, Joshua; Reasoner, Seth; Aso, Kazuyoshi; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J; Glickman, J Fraser; Ascano, Manuel

    2017-09-29

    Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is essential for innate immunity against infection and cellular damage, serving as a sensor of DNA from pathogens or mislocalized self-DNA. Upon binding double-stranded DNA, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase synthesizes a cyclic dinucleotide that initiates an inflammatory cellular response. Mouse studies that recapitulate causative mutations in the autoimmune disease Aicardi-Goutières syndrome demonstrate that ablating the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase gene abolishes the deleterious phenotype. Here, we report the discovery of a class of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase inhibitors identified by a high-throughput screen. These compounds possess defined structure-activity relationships and we present crystal structures of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, double-stranded DNA, and inhibitors within the enzymatic active site. We find that a chemically improved member, RU.521, is active and selective in cellular assays of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-mediated signaling and reduces constitutive expression of interferon in macrophages from a mouse model of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. RU.521 will be useful toward understanding the biological roles of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase and can serve as a molecular scaffold for development of future autoimmune therapies.Upon DNA binding cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) produces a cyclic dinucleotide, which leads to the upregulation of inflammatory genes. Here the authors develop small molecule cGAS inhibitors, functionally characterize them and present the inhibitor and DNA bound cGAS crystal structures, which will facilitate drug development.

  12. Models of the venous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac output is largely controlled by venous return, the driving force of which is the energy remaining at the postcapillary venous site. This force is influenced by forces acting close to the right atrium, and internally or externally upon the veins along their course. Analogue models of the v......Cardiac output is largely controlled by venous return, the driving force of which is the energy remaining at the postcapillary venous site. This force is influenced by forces acting close to the right atrium, and internally or externally upon the veins along their course. Analogue models...... of the venous system require at least three elements: a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor, with the latter being of more importance in the venous than in the arterial system. Non-linearities must be considered in pressure/flow relations in the small venules, during venous collapse, or low flow conditions...

  13. Numerical Study of the Working Process in the Reducing Gas Generator of the Upper Stage Oxygen - Methane Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Yagodnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problems of creating a reducing gas generator of the liquid rocket engine (LRE of upper stage using advanced fuel components, namely oxygen + liquid natural gas. Relevance of the work is justified by the need to create and develop of environmentally friendly missile systems for space applications using methane-based fuel (liquid natural gas. As compared to the currently used unsymmetrical dimethyl-hydrazine and kerosene, this fuel is environmentally safe, passive to corrosion, has better cooling properties and high energy characteristics in the re-generatively cooled chambers, as well as is advantageous for LRE of multiple start and use.The purpose of this work is a mathematical modeling, calculation of the working process efficiency, as well as study of gas-dynamic structure of the flow in the gas generator flow path. The object of study is the upper stage LRE gas generator, which uses the reducing scheme on the liquid propellants: oxygen + liquid methane. Research methods are based on numerical simulation.Computational studies allowed us to receive the velocity, temperatures, and concentrations of reactants and combustion products in the longitudinal section of gas generator. Analysis of the gas-dynamic structure of flow shows a complete equalization of the velocity field by 2/3 of the gas generator length. Thus, the same distance is not enough to equalize the temperature distribution of the gasification products and their concentrations in radius. Increasing the total excess oxidant ratio from 0.15 to 0.25 leads to a greater spread of the parameters at the exit of the gas generator by ~ 13 ÷ 17%. As a recommendation to reduce the size of the working area, is proposed a dual-zone gas generator-mixing scheme with fuel separately supplied to the first and second zones.

  14. Tunnel construction used as solution for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, Celso A.; Teixeira, Andre N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The construction of tunnels for pipeline routes has started being adopted as a solution for technical, environmental and safety issues in the oil and gas industry. Although it is not yet a common practice, PETROBRAS decided to use this type of construction on part of 178 extension kilometers of the main line for the Cabiunas-REDUC-3 Gas Pipeline located in the Gavioes mountains in the district of Cachoeiras de Macacu (RJ). The project implementation follows a growing trend of combining efficiency and environmental protection during its execution. Because the region is full of steep grades and is located in an environmentally sensitive area, the use of a tunnel connection removes some of the risks associated with that type of terrain. Among the many technical challenges involved in the project, one must include: access through dense forest, moving personnel, building material and equipment over step terrain and providing protection from corrosion. And as far as protecting the environment is concerned, the use of a pipeline results in a significant reduction in the loss of native vegetation and damage to the ecosystem. To increase these advantages, PETROBRAS seeks to adopt the kinds of construction methods that are most adequate for the challenge at hand, while producing the best results for the project. Whether using new or tried-and-true methods, the focus is always on perfecting the quality of service provided. (author)

  15. Reducibility of ceria-lanthana mixed oxides under temperature programmed hydrogen and inert gas flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, S.; Blanco, G.; Cifredo, G.; Perez-Omil, J.A.; Pintado, J.M.; Rodriguez-Izquierdo, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper deals with the preparation and characterization of La/Ce mixed oxides, with La molar contents of 20, 36 and 57%. We carry out the study of the structural, textural and redox properties of the mixed oxides, comparing our results with those for pure ceria. For this aim we use temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD), nitrogen physisorption at 77 K, X-ray diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. The mixed oxides are more easy to reduce in a flow of hydrogen than ceria. Moreover, in an inert gas flow they release oxygen in higher amounts and at lower temperatures than pure CeO 2 . The textural stability of the mixed oxides is also improved by incorporation of lanthana. All these properties make the ceria-lanthana mixed oxides interesting alternative candidates to substitute ceria in three-way catalyst formulations. (orig.)

  16. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in India. Financial mechanisms and opportunities for EU-India collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Nilsson Axberg, Goeran; Goel, Nitu; Kumar, Atul; Lazarus, Michael; Ostwald, Madelene; Polycarp, Clifford; Tollefsen, Petter; Torvanger, Asbjoern; Upadhyaya, Prabhat; Zetterberg, Lars

    2009-10-15

    This report illuminates potential areas for collaboration between the EU and India on actions that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in India. If human-induced climate change is to have any hope of being limited to 2 degrees, it is essential that ways are found to address rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions in India, as elsewhere. This is a challenging proposition: even though India's per capita emissions are very low, her 1.15 billion people are collectively a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. This fact, coupled with the immediate task of tackling widespread poverty, means that the international community must play a major role in providing financial and technological resources to support India's domestic efforts. As India's 2008 National Action Plan on Climate Change recognises, tackling the country's greenhouse gas emissions means not least finding ways to transform a rapidly growing energy sector. International financial mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Global Environment Facility have been unable to deliver the scale of transformative change needed to shift India's emissions trajectory. While the Indian government has already initiated some ambitious policy measures - particularly pertaining to solar energy and energy efficiency- the effectiveness of international finance mechanisms and other forms of international partnership will be crucial in determining the success of greenhouse gas mitigation efforts. The EU India Summit is held a month before COP15 negotiations in Copenhagen. While this provides challenges in terms of seeking concrete agreements on questions of finance, it is also an important opportunity to devise complementary efforts outside the UNFCCC process. Genuine, productive collaboration could not only be used to foster the sorts of transformative changes that are needed in India's growing economy but could also create a spirit of cooperation that spills over into UNFCCC

  17. Cost-effectiveness of feeding strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Dijkstra, J; Berentsen, P B M; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 3 feeding strategies to reduce enteric CH4 production in dairy cows by calculating the effect on labor income at the farm level and on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the chain level (i.e., from production of farm inputs to the farm gate). Strategies included were (1) dietary supplementation of an extruded linseed product (56% linseed; 1kg/cow per day in summer and 2kg/cow per day in winter), (2) dietary supplementation of a nitrate source (75% nitrate; 1% of dry matter intake), and (3) reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage (grazing at 1,400 instead of 1,700kg of dry matter/ha and harvesting at 3,000 instead of 3,500kg of dry matter/ha). A dairy farm linear programing model was used to define an average Dutch dairy farm on sandy soil without a predefined feeding strategy (reference situation). Subsequently, 1 of the 3 feeding strategies was implemented and the model was optimized again to determine the new economically optimal farm situation. Enteric CH4 production in the reference situation and after implementing the strategies was calculated based on a mechanistic model for enteric CH4 and empirical formulas explaining the effect of fat and nitrate supplementation on enteric CH4 production. Other GHG emissions along the chain were calculated using life cycle assessment. Total GHG emissions in the reference situation added up to 840kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) per t of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and yearly labor income of €42,605. Supplementation of the extruded linseed product reduced emissions by 9kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €16,041; supplementation of the dietary nitrate source reduced emissions by 32kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €5,463; reducing the maturity stage of grass and grass silage reduced emissions by 11kg of CO2e/t of FPCM and labor income by €463. Of the 3 strategies, reducing grass maturity was the most cost

  18. Cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can reduce global greenhouse gas emissions by sparing land from deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Avery S; Mosnier, Aline; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Herrero, Mario; Schmid, Erwin; O'Hare, Michael; Obersteiner, Michael

    2014-05-20

    This study examines whether policies to encourage cattle ranching intensification in Brazil can abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by sparing land from deforestation. We use an economic model of global land use to investigate, from 2010 to 2030, the global agricultural outcomes, land use changes, and GHG abatement resulting from two potential Brazilian policies: a tax on cattle from conventional pasture and a subsidy for cattle from semi-intensive pasture. We find that under either policy, Brazil could achieve considerable sparing of forests and abatement of GHGs, in line with its national policy targets. The land spared, particularly under the tax, is far less than proportional to the productivity increased. However, the tax, despite prompting less adoption of semi-intensive ranching, delivers slightly more forest sparing and GHG abatement than the subsidy. This difference is explained by increased deforestation associated with increased beef consumption under the subsidy and reduced deforestation associated with reduced beef consumption under the tax. Complementary policies to directly limit deforestation could help limit these effects. GHG abatement from either the tax or subsidy appears inexpensive but, over time, the tax would become cheaper than the subsidy. A revenue-neutral combination of the policies could be an element of a sustainable development strategy for Brazil and other emerging economies seeking to balance agricultural development and forest protection.

  19. Features of reducing the turbulent friction of a liquid on the channel wall by gas-saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evseev Aleksei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the results of an experimental study of the efficiency of reducing the local friction at gas saturation of the turbulent boundary layer (TBL in the input section of the channel at different gravitational orientation of the wall, and its dependence on the structure of gas-liquid flow. Profiles of gas concentration have a peak near the wall, which increases with the gas flow increase. The growth of concentration in the near-wall zone leads to rapid coalescence of bubbles, as a result of which the flow in TBL transits to the film-bubble regime with increasing the buoyancy effect of the gas phase, especially at low flow rates. It is shown that the key parameter of friction reduction by gas saturation is the gas phase concentration in the inner region of the boundary layer, whose magnitude is determined by the gas flow rate, the flow velocity, the distance downstream behind the gas generator, and the gravitational orientation of the wall.

  20. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  1. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO 2 emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the ''Negatep'' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the ''Negawatt'' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the ''cost of carbon avoided'' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by ''Save the Climate'' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  2. On general features of warm dark matter with reduced relativistic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito-Ricaldi, W. S.; vom Marttens, R. F.; Fabris, J. C.; Shapiro, I. L.; Casarini, L.

    2018-05-01

    Reduced relativistic gas (RRG) is a useful approach to describe the warm dark matter (WDM) or the warmness of baryonic matter in the approximation when the interaction between the particles is irrelevant. The use of Maxwell distribution leads to the complicated equation of state of the Jüttner model of relativistic ideal gas. The RRG enables one to reproduce the same physical situation but in a much simpler form. For this reason RRG can be a useful tool for the theories with some sort of a "new Physics". On the other hand, even without the qualitatively new physical implementations, the RRG can be useful to describe the general features of WDM in a model-independent way. In this sense one can see, in particular, to which extent the cosmological manifestations of WDM may be dependent on its Particle Physics background. In the present work RRG is used as a complementary approach to derive the main observational features for the WDM in a model-independent way. The only assumption concerns a non-negligible velocity v for dark matter particles which is parameterized by the warmness parameter b. The relatively high values of b ( b^2˜ 10^{-6}) erase the radiation (photons and neutrinos) dominated epoch and cause an early warm matter domination after inflation. Furthermore, RRG approach enables one to quantify the lack of power in linear matter spectrum at small scales and in particular, reproduces the relative transfer function commonly used in context of WDM with accuracy of ≲ 1%. A warmness with b^2≲ 10^{-6} (equivalent to v≲ 300 km/s) does not alter significantly the CMB power spectrum and is in agreement with the background observational tests.

  3. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Powers, Bill

    2013-01-01

    The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

  4. Potential of best practice to reduce impacts from oil and gas projects in the Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available The western Amazon continues to be an active and controversial zone of hydrocarbon exploration and production. We argue for the urgent need to implement best practices to reduce the negative environmental and social impacts associated with the sector. Here, we present a three-part study aimed at resolving the major obstacles impeding the advancement of best practice in the region. Our focus is on Loreto, Peru, one of the largest and most dynamic hydrocarbon zones in the Amazon. First, we develop a set of specific best practice guidelines to address the lack of clarity surrounding the issue. These guidelines incorporate both engineering-based criteria and key ecological and social factors. Second, we provide a detailed analysis of existing and planned hydrocarbon activities and infrastructure, overcoming the lack of information that typically hampers large-scale impact analysis. Third, we evaluate the planned activities and infrastructure with respect to the best practice guidelines. We show that Loreto is an extremely active hydrocarbon front, highlighted by a number of recent oil and gas discoveries and a sustained government push for increased exploration. Our analyses reveal that the use of technical best practice could minimize future impacts by greatly reducing the amount of required infrastructure such as drilling platforms and access roads. We also document a critical need to consider more fully the ecological and social factors, as the vast majority of planned infrastructure overlaps sensitive areas such as protected areas, indigenous territories, and key ecosystems and watersheds. Lastly, our cost analysis indicates that following best practice does not impose substantially greater costs than conventional practice, and may in fact reduce overall costs. Barriers to the widespread implementation of best practice in the Amazon clearly exist, but our findings show that there can be great benefits to its implementation.

  5. Venous and autonomic function in formerly pre-eclamptic women and BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, Wieteke M; van Drongelen, Joris; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Scholten, Ralph R

    2018-03-25

    Pre-pregnancy reduced plasma volume increases the risk on subsequent pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Reduced plasma volume is thought to reflect venous reserve capacity, especially when venous vasculature is constricted and sympathetic tone is elevated. As obesity might affect these variables and also relates to pre-eclampsia, increased body weight may underlie these observations. We hypothesized that the relationship between reduced venous reserve and preeclampsia is independent of body mass index (BMI). We compared the non-pregnant venous reserve capacity in 30 formerly pre-eclamptic women, equally divided in 3 BMI-classes (BMI 19.5-24.9, BMI 25-29.9, BMI ≥30) to 30 controls. Cases and controls were matched for BMI, age and parity. The venous reserve capacity was quantified by assessing plasma volume and venous compliance. The autonomic nervous system regulating the venous capacitance was evaluated with heart rate variability analysis in resting supine position and during positive head-up tilt (HUT). Formerly pre-eclamptic women had in supine position lower plasma volume than controls (1339 ± 79 vs 1547 ± 139 ml/m 2 (pBMI-matched controls, reduced venous reserve capacity. This is reflected by lower plasma volume and venous compliance, the autonomic balance is shifted towards sympathetic dominance and lower baroreceptor sensitivity. This suggests that not BMI, but underlying reduced venous reserve relates to pre-eclampsia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Algal biodiesel production from power plant exhaust and its potential to replace petrodiesel and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    K. Hundt; B.V. Reddy

    2011-01-01

    The production of biofuels and other products from algae is a technology that is rapidly developing. This paper presents an overview of algae, its benefits over other biofuel sources and the technology involved in producing algal biofuel. The case study in this report looks at the potential of algal biodiesel, produced using power plant exhaust, to replace our current petrodiesel supply and consequently reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results suggest that using 60% of all coal and gas po...

  7. Gas in the rectum tends to reduce during radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Mizuno, Norifumo; Endo, Haruna; Ogita, Mami; Kawamori, Jiro; Sekigucho, Kenji; Hatanaka, Shogo; Takahashi, Osamu; Tamaki, Seiichi; Shikama, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the time-course of gas accumulation in the rectum during treatment as guidance for the management of rectal volumes. We reviewed 2042 sets (35.2 sets per patient) of anteroposterior and right–left mega voltage (MV) images obtained for daily set-up from 58 patients who underwent radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer. The patients were instructed to take magnesium oxide tablets during radiotherapy. They were also encouraged to avoid foods that might cause intestinal gas during radiotherapy. Gas accumulation in the rectum was graded into three classes by the same radiation oncologist. If no gas was seen in the rectum, it was classified as grade 0. A small amount of gas was classified as grade 1, whereas a marked amount of gas that required removal was classified as grade 2. Of the 2042 sets of MV images, grades 1 and 2 gas accumulation were seen in 332 (16%) and 156 (8%), respectively. By the trend test, gas accumulation significantly decreased towards the end of treatment (P=0.02 for grade 1 or 2 and P=0.02 for grade 2). On multivariate analysis, we did not identify any significant independent predictors for either baseline gas accumulation or gas reduction. Gas accumulation tended to decrease until the end of treatment. This tendency should be reconfirmed by other institutions.

  8. Medical management of venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Luigi; Shortell, Cynthia K

    2015-03-01

    Venous disease is the most common cause of chronic leg ulceration and represents an advanced clinical manifestation of venous insufficiency. Due to their frequency and chronicity, venous ulcers have a high socioeconomic impact, with treatment costs accounting for 1% of the health care budget in Western countries. The evaluation of patients with venous ulcers should include a thorough medical history for prior deep venous thrombosis, assessment for an hypercoagulable state, and a physical examination. Use of the CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) Classification System and the revised Venous Clinical Severity Scoring System is strongly recommended to characterize disease severity and assess response to treatment. This venous condition requires lifestyle modification, with affected individuals performing daily intervals of leg elevation to control edema; use of elastic compression garments; and moderate physical activity, such as walking wearing below-knee elastic stockings. Meticulous skin care, treatment of dermatitis, and prompt treatment of cellulitis are important aspects of medical management. The pharmacology of chronic venous insufficiency and venous ulcers include essentially two medications: pentoxifylline and phlebotropic agents. The micronized purified flavonoid fraction is an effective adjunct to compression therapy in patients with large, chronic ulceration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Marco, Sonia; Abalos, Diego; Espejo, Rafael; Vallejo, Antonio; Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N_2O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N_2O and CH_4 emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N_2O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH_4 emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N_2O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH_4 oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al"3"+ toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N_2O and CH_4 emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH_4 emissions and, under CT, abate N_2O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N_2O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N_2O and CH_4 emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT. • NT and liming provide an opportunity for N_2O and CH_4 mitigation.

  10. No tillage and liming reduce greenhouse gas emissions from poorly drained agricultural soils in Mediterranean regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Marco, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.garcia@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abalos, Diego, E-mail: diego.abalosrodriguez@wur.nl [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Espejo, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.espejo@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vallejo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.vallejo@upm.es [Departamento de Química y Tecnología de los Alimentos, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mariscal-Sancho, Ignacio, E-mail: i.mariscal@upm.es [Departamento de Producción Agraria, E.T.S.I. Agronómica, Alimentaria y de Biosistemas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-01

    No tillage (NT) has been associated to increased N{sub 2}O emission from poorly drained agricultural soils. This is the case for soils with a low permeable Bt horizon, which generates a perched water layer after water addition (via rainfall or irrigation) over a long period of time. Moreover, these soils often have problems of acidity and require liming application to sustain crop productivity; changes in soil pH have large implications for the production and consumption of soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here, we assessed in a split-plot design the individual and interactive effects of tillage practices (conventional tillage (CT) vs. NT) and liming (Ca-amendment vs. not-amendment) on N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions from poorly drained acidic soils, over a field experiment with a rainfed triticale crop. Soil mineral N concentrations, pH, temperature, moisture, water soluble organic carbon, GHG fluxes and denitrification capacity were measured during the experiment. Tillage increased N{sub 2}O emissions by 68% compared to NT and generally led to higher CH{sub 4} emissions; both effects were due to the higher soil moisture content under CT plots. Under CT, liming reduced N{sub 2}O emissions by 61% whereas no effect was observed under NT. Under both CT and NT, CH{sub 4} oxidation was enhanced after liming application due to decreased Al{sup 3+} toxicity. Based on our results, NT should be promoted as a means to improve soil physical properties and concurrently reduce N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions. Raising the soil pH via liming has positive effects on crop yield; here we show that it may also serve to mitigate CH{sub 4} emissions and, under CT, abate N{sub 2}O emissions. - Highlights: • The effect of tillage and liming on GHG was studied in poorly drained acidic soils. • NT reduced N{sub 2}O emissions, global warming potential and greenhouse gases intensity. • Liming reduced N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emissions under CT; no effect was observed under NT

  11. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, S D; Wong, F G; Gordon, S R; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2006-01-01

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the waste package program has been the integrity of the container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion properties of specimens prepared using both types of welding techniques. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal (non-welded) to determine their relative corrosion behavior in simulated concentrated water (SCW) at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCl at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the same electrochemical behavior in the three tested electrolytes

  12. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas, energy use, and electricity use in the Greater Toronto area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-16

    The Clean Air Partnership (CAP) was interested in scanning and prioritizing energy efficiency opportunities to reduce energy use and the associated greenhouse gas emissions in the greater Toronto area (GTA). A study was conducted to scope out the most promising program directions for the GTA should government funding become available to launch the initiative, based on the relative technical potential of energy efficiency (and some fuel substitution) measures in the targeted sectors. A report to the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) focused on the residential and institutional sectors. These included new and existing residential buildings, condominiums and single-family homes, with special detail provided on appliances and central air conditioning; as well as municipal, university, school, and hospital buildings, with special attention towards measures to make street and traffic signal lighting more energy efficient. This letter provided a summary of findings. Next steps were also presented. It was recommended that three market transformation initiatives be designed and implemented to realize the technical potential for reductions in peak electricity and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. These three programs were discussed with reference to the energy efficient lighting collaborative; a green loan program for new homes and condominiums; and a community residential CDM program. A market transformation framework was also presented. It addressed the five key steps in the movement of a product from the manufacturer to the end user, namely availability; awareness; accessibility; affordability; and acceptance. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  13. Tidal Power in the UK and Worldwide to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Hammons

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of Tidal Power in the UK in fulfilling the UK's requirements for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Generating electricity from tidal range of the Severn Estuary has the potential to generate some 5% of UK electricity from a renewable indigenous resource. The paper focuses primarily on the proposed Severn Barrage considering potential benefits, conditions for sustainable development, energy policy context and compliance with environment legislation. UK tidal resource is reviewed: stream resource (that is KE contained in fast-flowing tidal currents, and tidal range resource (that refers to gravitation potential energy. The top tidal range and tidal stream sites in the UK with the resource (in TWh/year are indicated. A feasibility study for Tidal Range development in the Mersey Estuary is also summarised and other schemes including the Loughor Estuary (Wales, Duddon Estuary (located on the Cumbrian coast and the Thames Estuary proposals are reported. Also given is a strategic overview of the Severn Estuary resource, electric output and characteristics, carbon emissions (carbon payback and carbon reduction potential and physical implications of a barrage.

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Harvey, John; Kendall, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    On-road vehicle use is responsible for about a quarter of US annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Changes in vehicles, travel behavior and fuel are likely required to meet long-term climate change mitigation goals, but may require a long time horizon to deploy. This research examines a near-term opportunity: management of pavement network roughness. Maintenance and rehabilitation treatments can make pavements smoother and reduce vehicle rolling resistance. However, these treatments require material production and equipment operation, thus requiring a life cycle perspective for benefits analysis. They must also be considered in terms of their cost-effectiveness in comparison with other alternatives for affecting climate change. This letter describes a life cycle approach to assess changes in total GHG (measured in CO 2 -e) emissions from strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Roughness values for triggering treatments are developed to minimize GHG considering both treatment and use phase vehicle emission. With optimal triggering for GHG minimization, annualized reductions on the California state highway network over a 10-year analysis period are calculated to be 0.82, 0.57 and 1.38 million metric tons compared with historical trigger values, recently implemented values and no strategic intervention (reactive maintenance), respectively. Abatement costs calculated using $/metric-ton CO 2 -e are higher than those reported for other transportation sector abatement measures, however, without considering all benefits associated with pavement smoothness, such as vehicle life and maintenance, or the time needed for deployment. (paper)

  15. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten ARC Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Daniel Day; Frank M.G. Wong; Steven R. Gordon; Lana L. Wong; Raul B. Rebak

    2006-01-01

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the waste package program has been the integrity of the container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIC method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion properties of specimens prepared using both types of welding techniques. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal (non-welded) to determine their relative corrosion behavior in simulated concentrated water (SCW) at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCI at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the same electrochemical behavior in the three tested electrolytes

  16. Grazing reduces soil greenhouse gas fluxes in global grasslands: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shiming; Tian, Dashuan; Niu, Shuli

    2017-04-01

    Grazing causes a worldwide degradation in grassland and likely alters soil greenhouse gas fluxes (GHGs). However, the general patterns of grazing-induced changes in grassland soil GHGs and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we synthesized 63 independent experiments in global grasslands that examined grazing impacts on soil GHGs (CO2, CH4 and N2O). We found that grazing with light or moderate intensity did not significantly influence soil GHGs, but consistently depressed them under heavy grazing, reducing CO2 emission by 10.55%, CH4 uptake by 19.24% and N2O emission by 28.04%. The reduction in soil CO2 was mainly due to decreased activity in roots and microbes (soil respiration per unit root and microbial biomass), which was suppressed by less water availability due to higher soil temperature induced by lower community cover under heavy grazing. N2O emission decreased with grazing-caused decline in soil total N. The inhibitory effect on methanotroph activities by water stress is responsible for the decreased CH4 uptake. Furthermore, grazing duration and precipitation also influenced the direction and magnitude of responses in GHGs fluxes. Overall, our results indicate that the reduction in soil CO2 and N2O emission under heavy grazing is partially compensated by the decrease in CH4 uptake, which is mainly regulated by variations in soil moisture.

  17. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  18. Reducing the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plans by exhaust gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Elena

    2007-01-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other pollutants which result from burning fossil fuels has been identified as the major contributor to global warming and climate change. However, for the short term, at least for the next 10-20 years, the world will continue to rely on fossil fuels as the source of primary energy. The challenge for the fossil the fuel industry is to find cost-effective solutions that will reduce the release of CO 2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The focus of this paper is on the ability to treat the exhaust gas from fossil fuel power plants in order to capture and store the CO 2 and remove the other pollutants such as SO x and NO x which are released into the atmosphere. In summary, capture/separation costs represent the largest financial impediment for this type of plants. Hence, efficient, cost-effective capture/separation technologies need to be developed to allow their large-scale use. (author)

  19. Management of venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, R; Kakkar, V V; Kakkar, A K

    2007-01-01

    Venous Thromboembolism is an important healthcare problem the world over, resulting in significant morbidity, mortality and resource expenditure. The rationale for use of thromboprophylaxis is based on solid principles and scientific evidence. Indian perspective on this topic is lacking due to the non-availability of published Indian data. This document reviews the available International and Indian data and discusses the relevance of recommendations for prevention and management of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) in the Indian context. Meetings of various specialists from different Indian hospitals in the field of Gastrointestinal Surgery, General and Vascular Surgery, Hematology, Intensive Care, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oncology and Orthopedics were held in the months of August 2005 to January 2006. The guidelines published by American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), the International Union of Angiology (IUA), and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (RCOG), were discussed during these meetings. The relevance of these guidelines and the practical implications of following these in a developing country like India were also discussed. Any published data from India was collected from data base searches and the results, along with personal experiences of the participating specialists were discussed. The experiences and impressions of the experts during these meetings have been included in this document. Data from recent sources (International Union of Angiology and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Practice guidelines in Oncology on Venous thromboembolic disease) was subsequently also included in this document. The suggestions formulated in this document are practical, and would intend to serve as a useful practical reference. A number of unanswered questions remain in the field of thromboprophylaxis, and carefully designed research protocols may help answer some of these. Implementation of the suggestions outlined in the document

  20. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  1. New Hampshire Carbon Challenge: Reducing Residential Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Bartlett, D.; Blaha, D.; Skoglund, C.; Dundorf, J.; Froburg, E.; Pasinella, B.

    2007-12-01

    The New Hampshire Carbon Challenge is an initiative of the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space at the University of New Hampshire. Our goal is to educate New Hampshire residents about climate change and also encourage them to reduce their household greenhouse gas emissions by 10,000 pounds. The Northeast region is undergoing climate changes consistent with those expected due to increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere, while also contributing to climate change as the world's seventh largest source of CO2 emissions. In the USA, approximately 40 percent of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion come from residential energy consumption for space heating, electricity usage, and transportation. Homeowners typically are not aware that modest energy reductions can result in significant carbon savings. Most campaigns that raise awareness of climate change and residential energy usage disseminate information to consumers through newspaper articles, brochures, websites, or other traditional means of communication. These information-only campaigns have not been very effective in changing residential energy consumption. Bombarded with information in their daily lives, the public has become quite adept at tuning most of it out. When much of the information they receive about climate change is confusing and contradictory, residents have even less incentive to change their behavior. The Challenge is unique in that it couples accurate information about climate change with concrete actions homeowners can take to reduce their carbon emissions. Our strategy is to utilize the tools of Community Based Social Marketing, which has been shown to be effective in changing behavior, and also to leverage existing networks including the NH Department of Environmental Services, UNH Cooperative Extension, faith-based communities, municipal energy committees and Climate Project volunteers, to effectively reach residents throughout the state. The response to our program has

  2. Reduced gas seepages in serpentinized peridotite complexes: Evidences for multiple origins of the H2-CH4-N2 gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, E.; Vacquand, C.; Beaumont, V.; Francois, G.; Sissmann, O.; Pillot, D.; Arcilla, C. A.; Prinzhofer, A.

    2017-12-01

    A comparative study of reduced gas seepages associated to serpentinized ultrabasic rocks was conducted in the ophiolitic complexes of Oman, the Philippines, Turkey and New Caledonia. This study is based on analyzes of the gas chemical composition, noble gases contents, and stable isotopes of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. These gas seepages are mostly made of mixtures of three main components which are H2, CH4 and N2 in various proportions. The relative contents of the three main gas components show 4 distinct families of gas mixtures (H2-rich, N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4). These families are interpreted as reflecting different zones of gas generation within or below the ophiolitic complexes. In the H2-rich family associated noble gases display signatures close to the value of air. In addition to the atmospheric component, mantle and crustal contributions are present in the N2-rich, N2-H2-CH4 and H2-CH4 families. H2-bearing gases are either associated to ultra-basic (pH 10-12) spring waters or they seep directly in fracture systems from the ophiolitic rocks. In ophiolitic contexts, ultrabasic rocks provide an adequate environment with available Fe2+ and high pH conditions that favor H2 production. CH4 is produced either directly by reaction of dissolved CO2 with basic-ultrabasic rocks during the serpentinization process or in a second step by H2-CO2 interaction. H2 is present in the gas when no more carbon is available in the system to generate CH4 (conditions of strong carbon restriction). The N2-rich family is associated with relatively high contents of crustal 4He. In this family N2 is interpreted as issued mainly from sediments located below the ophiolitic units.

  3. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, A. [Univ. Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Brook, B.W. [Univ. of Tasmania, Hobart TAS (Australia); Meneley, D.A. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Misak, J. [UJV-Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Blees, T. [Science Council for Global Initiatives, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Van Erp, J.B. [Illinois Commission on Atomic Energy, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  4. Why nuclear energy is essential to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Brook, B.W.; Meneley, D.A.; Misak, J.; Blees, T.; Van Erp, J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions is advocated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. To achieve this target, countries have opted for renewable energy sources, primarily wind and solar. These renewables will be unable to supply the needed large quantities of energy to run industrial societies sustainably, economically and reliably because they are inherently intermittent, depending on flexible backup power or on energy storage for delivery of base-load quantities of electrical energy. The backup power is derived in most cases from combustion of natural gas. Intermittent energy sources, if used in this way, do not meet the requirements of sustainability, nor are they economically viable because they require redundant, under- utilized investment in capacity both for generation and for transmission. Because methane is a potent greenhouse gas, the equivalent carbon dioxide value of methane may cause gas-fired stations to emit more greenhouse gas than coal-fired plants of the same power for currently reported leakage rates of the natural gas. Likewise, intermittent wind/solar photovoltaic systems backed up by gas-fu:ed power plants also release substantial amounts of carbon-dioxide- equivalent greenhouse gas to make such a combination environmentally unacceptable. In the long term, nuclear fission technology is the only known energy source that is capable of delivering the needed large quantities of energy safely, economically, reliably and in a sustainable way, both environmentally and as regards the available resource-base. (author)

  5. Chronic Venous Disease under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W.I. Reeder (Suzan)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn chapter 1 we provide a general introduction of this thesis. Chronic venous disease (CVD) is a common medical condition that affects 2-64% of the worldwide population and leads to leg ulcers in 1% of the Western population. Venous leg ulceration (VLU) has an unfavorable prognosis with

  6. Talisman Energy Inc. progress on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Revised ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Talisman Energy Inc., as the largest independent Canadian oil and gas producer, is committed to supporting the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) Program. To this effect, voluntary measures have been implemented for achieving energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Some of those measures include a yearly electrical audit in each field, the establishment of facility design and equipment procurement practices, gas well deliverability testing, gas conservation and flare reduction, a new energy data management system, senior management monitoring of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and several others. Each of these measures was briefly described, and the base year quantification was included along with projections and target setting. Section 6 of the document introduced the measures to achieve targets, followed by section 7 containing results achieved. In section 8, the topic of education, training and awareness was discussed. A brief acknowledgements section was included at the end of the document. 10 tabs., 6 figs

  7. Analysis of Arterial and Venous Blood Gases in Healthy Gyr Falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) Under Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Raj; Middleton, Rachael; BSc, Rinshiya Ahamed; Arjunan, Raji; Caliendo, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    Arterial and venous blood gas analysis is useful in the assessment of tissue oxygenation and ventilation and in diagnosis of metabolic and respiratory derangements. It can be performed with a relatively small volume of blood in avian patients under emergency situations. Arterial and venous blood gas analysis was performed in 30 healthy gyr falcons ( Falco rusticolus ) under anaesthesia to establish temperature-corrected reference intervals for arterial blood gas values and to compare them to temperature-corrected venous blood gas values with a portable point-of-care blood gas analyzer (i-STAT 1, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA). Statistically significant differences were observed between the temperature-corrected values of pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) and the corresponding nontemperature-corrected values of these parameters in both arterial and venous blood. Values of temperature-corrected pH, temperature-corrected Pco2, bicarbonate concentrations, and base excess of extra cellular fluid did not differ significantly between arterial and venous blood, suggesting that, in anesthetized gyr falcons, venous blood gas analysis can be used in place of arterial blood gas analysis in clinical situations. Values for hematocrit, measured by the point-of-care analyzer, were significantly lower compared with those obtained by the microhematocrit method.

  8. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Used to Manufacture Gas Storage Tanks With Reduced Permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi G.; Johnston, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable research in the area of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This research has shown that the dispersion of small amounts of an organically modified layered silicate improves the polymer strength, modulus, thermal stability, and barrier properties. There have been several reports on the dispersion of layered silicates in an epoxy matrix. Potential enhancements to the barrier properties of epoxy/silicate nanocomposites make this material attractive for low permeability tankage. Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have several advantages for cryogenic storage tanks. They are lightweight, strong, and stiff; therefore, a smaller fraction of a vehicle's potential payload capacity is used for propellant storage. Unfortunately, the resins typically used to make PMC tanks have higher gas permeability than metals. This can lead to hydrogen loss through the body of the tank instead of just at welds and fittings. One approach to eliminate this problem is to build composite tanks with thin metal liners. However, although these tanks provide good permeability performance, they suffer from a substantial mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion, which can lead to failure of the bond between the liner and the body of the tank. Both problems could be addressed with polymersilicate nanocomposites, which exhibit reduced hydrogen permeability, making them potential candidates for linerless PMC tanks. Through collaboration with Northrop Grumman and Michigan State University, nanocomposite test tanks were manufactured for the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the helium permeability was measured. An organically modified silicate was prepared at Michigan State University and dispersed in an epoxy matrix (EPON 826/JeffamineD230). The epoxy/silicate nanocomposites contained either 0 or 5 wt% of the organically modified silicate. The tanks were made by filament winding carbon fibers with the nanocomposite resin. Helium permeability

  9. The capacity for integrated community energy solutions policies to reduce urban greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bataille, C.; Goldberg, S.; Sharp, J.; Melton, N.; Peters, J.; Wolinetz, M. [Quality Urban Energy Systems of Tomorrow, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miller, E. [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cavens, D. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-08-26

    The implementation of policies promoting integrated urban energy solutions (ICES) could allow a reduction in Canada's urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050. The concept and its related policies impact all urban sectors of the economy, such as residential, commercial, urban and inter-city personal transportation, freight transportation, waste and water. ICES policies are considered feasible and necessary, and many cities around the world, like Stockholm and Utrecht, have implemented them successfully. Sustainable land use policies should be the first to be developed since all urban form, transportation, and energy use decisions are made within the framework they generate. In the long term, moderate to aggressive ICES policies generate reductions of GHG emission and energy use but also an increase of 0.3-0.9% of the GDP. Aggressive ICES policies also allow a reduction in the structural unemployment and an increase of the number of jobs. While the effects of the implementation of targeted abatement policies such as the carbon tax or technology regulations are observed within a few years, ICES produce effects on a longer term. In the short term, they allow the release of money that could be spent by households to reduce the economic burden generated by abatement policies. In the longer term, they allow reductions to take over the effects of the short term policies, taking into consideration the increasing size of the population and the economy. Therefore, ICES policies seem to be an important part of comprehensive policy efforts intending to satisfy Canada's energy use and GHG emissions objectives. 218 refs., 49 tabs., 41 figs.

  10. A stochastic optimization approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karan, Ebrahim; Asadi, Somayeh; Ntaimo, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The magnitude of building- and transportation-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions makes the adoption of all-EVs (electric vehicles) powered with renewable power as one of the most effective strategies to reduce emission of GHGs. This paper formulates the problem of GHG mitigation strategy under uncertain conditions and optimizes the strategies in which EVs are powered by solar energy. Under a pre-specified budget, the objective is to determine the type of EV and power generation capacity of the solar system in such a way as to maximize GHG emissions reductions. The model supports the three primary solar systems: off-grid, grid-tied, and hybrid. First, a stochastic optimization model using probability distributions of stochastic variables and EV and solar system specifications is developed. The model is then validated by comparing the estimated values of the optimal strategies and actual values. It is found that the mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a hybrid solar system lead to the best cost-expected reduction of CO_2 emissions ratio. The results show an accuracy of about 4% for mitigation strategies in which EVs are powered by a grid-tied or hybrid solar system and 11% when applied to estimate the CO_2 emissions reductions of an off-grid system. - Highlights: • The problem of GHG mitigation is formulated as a stochastic optimization problem. • The objective is to maximize CO_2 emissions reductions within a specified budget. • The stochastic model is validated using actual data. • The results show an estimation accuracy of 4–11%.

  11. Effect of drag-reducing polymers on Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Veltin, J.; Turkenburg, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of drag reducing polymers on the Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) of vertical air-water flows at near atmospheric conditions. The effect of polymer concentration, liquid and gas flow rates on the pressure drop curve (Tubing Performance Curve) was investigated

  12. Exact Solution of Gas Dynamics Equations Through Reduced Differential Transform and Sumudu Transform Linked with Pades Approximants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, T. R. Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the analytical method based on reduced differential transform method coupled with sumudu transform through Pades approximants. The proposed method may be considered as alternative approach for finding exact solution of Gas dynamics equation in an effective manner. This method does not require any discretization, linearization and perturbation.

  13. Strategies for the Commercialization and Deployment of Greenhouse Gas Intensity-Reducing Technologies and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI)

    2009-01-01

    New technologies will be a critical component--perhaps the critical component--of our efforts to tackle the related challenges of energy security, climate change, and air pollution, all the while maintaining a strong economy. But just developing new technologies is not enough. Our ability to accelerate the market penetration of clean energy, enabling, and other climate-related technologies will have a determining impact on our ability to slow, stop, and reverse the growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Title XVI, Subtitle A, of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) directs the Administration to report on its strategy to promote the commercialization and deployment (C&D) of GHG intensity-reducing technologies and practices. The Act also requests the Administration to prepare an inventory of climate-friendly technologies suitable for deployment and to identify the barriers and commercial risks facing advanced technologies. Because these issues are related, they are integrated here within a single report that we, representing the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology Integration (CCCSTI), are pleased to provide the President, the Congress, and the public. Over the past eight years, the Administration of President George W. Bush has pursued a series of policies and measures aimed at encouraging the development and deployment of advanced technologies to reduce GHG emissions. This report highlights these policies and measures, discusses the barriers to each, and integrates them within a larger body of other extant policy. Taken together, more than 300 policies and measures described in this document may be viewed in conjunction with the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program's (CCTP's) Strategic Plan, published in September 2006, which focuses primarily on the role of advanced technology and associated research and development (R&D) for mitigating GHG emissions. The CCTP, a multi-agency technology planning and coordination program

  14. Different scenarios to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of thermal power stations in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabihian, F.; Fung, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potentials in the Canadian electricity generation sector through fuel switching and the adoption of advanced power generation systems. To achieve this purpose, six different scenarios were introduced. In the first scenario existing power stations' fuel was switched to natural gas. Existing power plants were replaced by natural gas combined cycle (NGCC), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), hybrid SOFC, and SOFC-IGCC hybrid power stations in scenarios number 2 to 6, respectively. (author)

  15. Deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome: invasive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerota, A J

    2015-03-01

    Invasive management of postthrombotic syndrome encompasses the two ends of the deep vein thrombosis spectrum, patients with acute iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis and those with chronic postthrombotic iliofemoral venous obstruction. Of all patients with acute deep vein thrombosis, those with involvement of the iliofemoral segments have the most severe chronic postthrombotic morbidity. Catheter-based techniques now permit percutaneous treatment to eliminate thrombus, restore patency, potentially maintain valvular function, and improve quality of life. Randomized trial data support an initial treatment strategy of thrombus removal. Failure to eliminate acute thrombus from the iliofemoral system leads to chronic postthrombotic obstruction of venous outflow. Debilitating chronic postthrombotic symptoms of the long-standing obstruction of venous outflow can be reduced by restoring unobstructed venous drainage from the profunda femoris vein to the vena cava. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Heat recovery from flue gas of coal fired installations with reduced pollutant emission - the Zittau process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H; Strauss, R; Hofmann, K -D; Suder, M; Hultsch, T; Wetzel, W; Gabrysch, H; Jung, J [Technische Hochschule, Zittau (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-01-01

    Explains the Zittau technology of combined flue gas heat recovery and flue gas desulfurization in small brown coal fired power plants. Steam generators to be equipped with this technology have 6.5 or 10 t/h steam capacity and are intended for combustion of low-grade brown coal (8.2 MJ/kg). An industrial 6.5 t/h prototype steam generator is in operation and it achieves 95% SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas with 5600 to 7800 mg SO{sub 2} per m{sup 3} of dry flue gas. The Zittau technology is available in 3 variants: with maximum waste heat recovery, with partial waste heat recovery or without waste heat recovery and only wet flue gas scrubbing. Two flowsheets of flue gas and suspension circulation are provided. The first variant recovers 25.7% of nominal heat capacity (1.1 thermal MW from a 4.2 MW steam generator with 6.5 t/h steam capacity), which amounts to economizing 2,400 t/a brown coal equivalent over 4,000 annual operating hours. The second variant recovers 6.5% of waste heat, requiring less investment by installing smaller heat exchangers than used in the first variant. All three variants have contact spray separators, suction units and suspension preparation equipment. Flue gas suspension scrubbing is carried out with fly ash produced by the steam generator. This ash is capable of absorbing 50 to 70% of flue gas SO{sub 2}. Supply of additional ash from other plants achieve a further 25% SO{sub 2} removal; a higher desulfurization degree is obtained by adding limestone to suspensions. 5 refs.

  17. A Reduced Order Model for Fast Production Prediction from an Oil Reservoir with a Gas Cap

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yichen

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum geosciences engineering Economic evaluations are essential inputs for oil and gas field development decisions. These evaluations are critically dependent on the unbiased assessment of uncertainty in the future oil and gas production from wells. However, many production prediction techniques come at significant computational costs as they often require a very large number of highly detailed grid based reservoir simulations. In this study, we present an alter...

  18. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  19. Proceedings of the Canadian Gas Association's western operations workshop : readiness : reduce the risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The natural gas industry is now facing a number of challenges related to energy infrastructure security and new regulations regarding pipeline and employee safety. Organized by the Canadian Gas Association (CGA), this workshop provided a forum for gas distribution companies, transmission companies, and service providers to discuss issues related to the delivery of natural gas in Canada. While the workshop also included tours and descriptions of specific natural gas facilities and operational centres, several of the breakout sessions during the workshop were used to discuss natural gas technologies and planning procedures related to safety and security. Planning process improvements using risk analysis for operations were discussed. Safety strategies for the 2010 Olympics relating to critical infrastructure protection were reviewed. Issues concerning emergency response preparedness were examined, as well as threats to energy infrastructure from acts of terrorism. Recent innovations in fire retardant clothing were presented. Technological innovations presented at the workshop included a cold weather technology line heater, and new technologies in underground pipe manufacturing. Human resources issues included new approaches to stress management and employee support and safety. The workshop featured 12 breakout sessions, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Theoretical Valuation of Multi-Channel Cyclone to Reduce Gas Flow Dustiness in Agressive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Contaminated gas cleaning from finely divided solids is carried out using a new generation of multi-channel design cyclones. The application of these devices are separated and precipitated particles with a minimum diameter up to 2 micrometers, reaching up to 95% cleaning efficiency. Cyclones of such constructions are usually used under usual conditions at elevated temperature and low humidity. Under aggressive conditions, these devices can be clogged, and their recovery is not possible. Further studies are research into the application of constructive solutions to adapt the cyclone gas cleaning of the particulate matter under aggressive conditions. This theoretical evaluation has described the characteristics change of gas flow and particulate matters at different aggressive environment. Such conditions were loudly describe the gas-flow high-temperature range of 50–200 °C and gas-vapor stream, the humidity reaches 70–100%. Estimated aggressive conditions on the gas flow dynamics forces – pressure, resistance and centrifugal, and particulate mechanical – gravitational and adhesion strength. All parameters are evaluated in comparison with the values under normal conditions.

  1. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  2. Managing of gas sensing characteristic of a reduced graphene oxide based gas sensor by the change in synthesis condition: A new approach for electronic nose design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Taher, E-mail: talizadeh@ut.ac.ir [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University College of Science, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14155-6455, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamedsoltani, Leyla [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Natural graphite was oxidized and exfoliated via two different methods, leading to two types of graphene oxide (GO) materials. The obtained materials were reduced by three different reducing agents including: hydrazine hydrate, ascorbic acid and sodium borohydride, giving thus six kinds of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) materials. The obtained materials were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The RGOs were then used to fabricate different gas sensors and their electrical resistances were recorded upon exposing to various volatile organic compounds vapors (VOCs). Gas sensing selectivity of each RGO was significantly affected by the synthesis condition. The RGO-based sensor array was fabricated and its capability for discrimination of seven kinds of VOCs was evaluated, utilizing principal component analysis and cluster analysis methods. Loading plot indicated that the presence of five RGO-based sensors could effectively discriminate the aimed vapors. The electronic nose, containing five kinds of RGOs, was used for the classification of seven kinds of VOCs at their different concentrations. - Highlights: • Two oxidation procedures and three reducing agents were utilized to produce six kinds of RGOs. • The synthesized different RGOs exhibited significantly different sensing behaviors. • Seven kinds of organic vapors were chosen for the evaluation of discrimination power of EN. • Using PCA, it was found that seven of six RFGOs were appropriate number to use in final EN. • The developed EN was capable of properly discrimination of tested vapors.

  3. Venous hemodynamic changes in lower limb venous disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Byung Boong; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Myers, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    ). Their aim was to confirm or dispel long-held hemodynamic principles and to provide a comprehensive review of venous hemodynamic concepts underlying the pathophysiology of lower limb venous disorders, their usefulness for investigating patients and the relevant hemodynamic changes associated with various...... forms of treatment. Chapter 1 is devoted to basic hemodynamic concepts and normal venous physiology. Chapter 2 presents the mechanism and magnitude of hemodynamic changes in acute deep vein thrombosis indicating their pathophysiological and clinical significance. Chapter 3 describes the hemodynamic...... changes that occur in different classes of chronic venous disease and their relation to the anatomic extent of disease in the macrocirculation and microcirculation. The next four chapters (Chapters 4-7) describe the hemodynamic changes resulting from treatment by compression using different materials...

  4. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  5. Multi-objective optimisation of wastewater treatment plant control to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetapple, Christine; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David

    2014-05-15

    This study investigates the potential of control strategy optimisation for the reduction of operational greenhouse gas emissions from wastewater treatment in a cost-effective manner, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be realised. A multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, NSGA-II, is used to derive sets of Pareto optimal operational and control parameter values for an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, with objectives including minimisation of greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs and effluent pollutant concentrations, subject to legislative compliance. Different problem formulations are explored, to identify the most effective approach to emissions reduction, and the sets of optimal solutions enable identification of trade-offs between conflicting objectives. It is found that multi-objective optimisation can facilitate a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions without the need for plant redesign or modification of the control strategy layout, but there are trade-offs to consider: most importantly, if operational costs are not to be increased, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is likely to incur an increase in effluent ammonia and total nitrogen concentrations. Design of control strategies for a high effluent quality and low costs alone is likely to result in an inadvertent increase in greenhouse gas emissions, so it is of key importance that effects on emissions are considered in control strategy development and optimisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    data are available revealed over 10,000 energy-related problems, resulting in 16% median whole-building energy savings in existing buildings and 13% in new construction, with payback time of 1.1 years and 4.2 years, respectively. In terms of other cost-benefit indicators, median benefit-cost ratios of 4.5 and 1.1, and cash-on-cash returns of 91% and 23% were attained for existing and new buildings, respectively. High-tech buildings were particularly cost-effective, and saved higher amounts of energy due to their energy-intensiveness. Projects with a comprehensive approach to commissioning attained nearly twice the overall median level of savings and five-times the savings of the least-thorough projects. It is noteworthy that virtually all existing building projects were cost-effective by each metric (0.4 years for the upper quartile and 2.4 years for the lower quartile), as were the majority of new-construction projects (1.5 years and 10.8 years, respectively). We also found high cost-effectiveness for each specific measure for which we have data. Contrary to a common perception, cost-effectiveness is often achieved even in smaller buildings. Thanks to energy savings valued more than the cost of the commissioning process, associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions come at 'negative' cost. In fact, the median cost of conserved carbon is negative - -$110 per tonne for existing buildings and -$25/tonne for new construction - as compared with market prices for carbon trading and offsets in the +$10 to +$30/tonne range. Further enhancing the value of commissioning, its non-energy benefits surpass those of most other energy-management practices. Significant first-cost savings (e.g., through right-sizing of heating and cooling equipment) routinely offset at least a portion of commissioning costs - fully in some cases. When accounting for these benefits, the net median commissioning project cost was reduced by 49% on average, while in many cases they exceeded

  7. Turbine exhaust diffuser with region of reduced flow area and outer boundary gas flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John

    2014-03-11

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine. The outer boundary may include a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inwardly toward the hub structure and may direct at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub structure. At least one gas jet is provided including a jet exit located on the outer boundary. The jet exit may discharge a flow of gas downstream substantially parallel to an inner surface of the outer boundary to direct a portion of the exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the outer boundary to effect a radially outward flow of at least a portion of the exhaust gas flow toward the outer boundary to balance an aerodynamic load between the outer and inner boundaries.

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, David C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, George M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  9. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A

    2010-12-16

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  10. Diagnosis and endovascular treatment of multiple cerebral venous and venous sinuses thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baomin; Zhang Ji; Yin Ling; Huang Xusheng; Jiang Jinli; Liu Jun; Lang Senyang; Zhou Dingbiao; Zhu Ke

    2000-01-01

    Objective: Eighty-five cases with multiple cerebral venous and venous sinuses thrombosis including the diagnosis and endovascular therapy were reported. Methods: The long T2 and short T1 signals in the related regions of multiple venous sinuses on MRI and prolonged blood circulation time of the brain with tortuous dilatation of vein in angiography were the important characteristics for the diagnosis. Of the 85 cases, the treatment procedures were consisted of injecting urokinase intermittently via common carotid artery and intra-sinus contact thrombolysis as well as warfarin intake orally. Results: Intracranial pressure of 80 cases reduced down between 230 and 300 mm H 2 O, and clinical deficits were markedly improved within 10 days. Re-angiography of 18 cases revealed recanalization partly in 5 cases and circulation time appeared near normal i 8 cases during one week after therapy. Conclusions: Combined intraarterial thrombolysis consecutively with general anticoagulation for the treatment of multiple thrombosis in cerebral venous sinuses may be one of the effective means

  11. Development of a Reduced-Order Model for Reacting Gas-Solids Flow using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Dwayne [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Dulikravich, George [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Cizmas, Paul [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks and accomplishments made during the three year duration of this research project. The report presents the results obtained by applying advanced computational techniques to develop reduced-order models (ROMs) in the case of reacting multiphase flows based on high fidelity numerical simulation of gas-solids flow structures in risers and vertical columns obtained by the Multiphase Flow with Interphase eXchanges (MFIX) software. The research includes a numerical investigation of reacting and non-reacting gas-solids flow systems and computational analysis that will involve model development to accelerate the scale-up process for the design of fluidization systems by providing accurate solutions that match the full-scale models. The computational work contributes to the development of a methodology for obtaining ROMs that is applicable to the system of gas-solid flows. Finally, the validity of the developed ROMs is evaluated by comparing the results against those obtained using the MFIX code. Additionally, the robustness of existing POD-based ROMs for multiphase flows is improved by avoiding non-physical solutions of the gas void fraction and ensuring that the reduced kinetics models used for reactive flows in fluidized beds are thermodynamically consistent.

  12. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, K. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: kristopher.novak@wsl.ch; Schaub, M. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture FAL, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Skelly, J.M. [Department of Plant Pathology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hug, C. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Landolt, W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Bleuler, P. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Kraeuchi, N. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2005-07-15

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures.

  13. Seasonal trends in reduced leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced foliar injury in three ozone sensitive woody plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, K.; Schaub, M.; Fuhrer, J.; Skelly, J.M.; Hug, C.; Landolt, W.; Bleuler, P.; Kraeuchi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal trends in leaf gas exchange and ozone-induced visible foliar injury were investigated for three ozone sensitive woody plant species. Seedlings of Populus nigra L., Viburnum lantana L., and Fraxinus excelsior L. were grown in charcoal-filtered chambers, non-filtered chambers and open plots. Injury assessments and leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted from June to October during 2002. All species developed typical ozone-induced foliar injury. For plants exposed to non-filtered air as compared to the charcoal-filtered air, mean net photosynthesis was reduced by 25%, 21%, and 18% and mean stomatal conductance was reduced by 25%, 16%, and 8% for P. nigra, V. lantana, and F. excelsior, respectively. The timing and severity of the reductions in leaf gas exchange were species specific and corresponded to the onset of visible foliar injury. - Reductions in leaf gas exchange corresponded to the onset of ozone-induced visible foliar injury for seedlings exposed to ambient ozone exposures

  14. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa, E-mail: jcft@cdtn.b, E-mail: masl@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SEPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Protecao Radiologica; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da, E-mail: ltcn@cdtn.b, E-mail: silvajb@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (SECPRA/ CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Secao de Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of {sup 18}FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  15. Manufacturing and test of a low cost polypropylene bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by a radiopharmaceutical production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Jose Carlos Freitas; Lacerda, Marco Aurelio de Sousa; Nascimento, Leonardo Tafas Constantino do; Silva, Juliana Batista da

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of a plastic gas storage bag to reduce the radioactive gas released by the chimney of a radiopharmaceutical production facility during the 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 FDG) synthesis. The studied facility was the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN) in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The bag was manufactured utilizing foils of polypropylene of 360 x 550 x 0.16 mm and disposable components of the cassette of the synthesizer. Two synthesis of 18 FDG were done using the same hot cell and synthesizer to evaluate the efficiency of the bag. The manufactured bag was put in the gas exit of the synthesizer and the activity reported by the online radiation monitoring system in the first synthesis. These results were compared to the activity released in a synthesis performed without the bag. We observed when the bag was used the amount released was about 0.2% in 270 minutes. The second synthesis was performed without the bag, about 7,1% of the input activity was released by the exhaust of the facility in the same time interval. The bag presented a very good efficiency in the reducing of the radioactive gas released by the chimney of the radiopharmaceutical production facility. (author)

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  17. Brownfield management opportunities to reduce the back pressure effects on the gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Dan-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas mature fields are associated with challenges to optimize the hydrocarbon flow from reservoir to the sales point in a cost effective manner due to declining well productivity. Laslau Mare field is a mature gas field in Transylvanian basin (Mures County developed in 1970s and is producing∼99% methane with low water-gas ratio. As any brown field, the state of depleted reservoir will generate several constraints for gas flow from formation to surface facilities and further to delivery point. During the exploitation has been observed that the operation conditions are facing with unstable pressure in the system due to low demand. Therefore, the back pressure effect will affect the wells in terms of inability to unload the bottomhole accumulated liquids and the reservoir will suffer a higher pressure drawdown. The best fit-for-purpose solution to overcome the above challenges is represented by installation of group compressor. Laslau Mare field has 3 group compressors running and shows positive results, especially when external pressure fluctuates continuously. This paper explain the challenges seen in 2016 in Laslau Mare field with back pressure effects and how the compression overcome them, and also other solutions that should be considered to optimize the well production.

  18. How to globally reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from sewage systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batz, S. de; Bonardet, P.; Trouve, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A reliable and exhaustive measurement of the global greenhouse gas emissions from a given sewage plant must be performed prior to the implementation of any abatement measure. The method presented in this paper takes into consideration both the direct emissions but also the indirect ones generated by the plant activity and identified using a life cycle-type approach. Three examples of projects or realizations are presented in this paper to illustrate the different means of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from a sewage plant in a global way. The first example concerns a project of abatement of the electricity consumption of a plant for sludges and fats digestion and biogas valorization. A 85% global abatement of CO 2 emissions is obtained thanks to the substitution of the aerobic digestion process by an anaerobic one. The second example presents an optimization of the greenhouse gas emissions of the municipal sewage plant of Valenton (Paris region) thanks to a valorization of sludges as fertilizers and fuels and to the recovery of the process heat. The last example concerns the Seine-aval sewage plant which gathers several projects of improvement: setting up of a second biogas turbine, redesign of the heat loop, use of river transport for a significant abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. (J.S.)

  19. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven C. Amstrup; Eric T. DeWeaver; David C. Douglas; Bruce G. Marcot; George M. Durner; Cecilia M. Bitz; David A. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible...

  20. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B.; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and

  1. Venous thromboembolism and arterial complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandoni, Paolo; Piovella, Chiara; Pesavento, Raffaele

    2012-04-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests the likelihood of a link between venous and arterial thrombosis. The two vascular complications share several risk factors, such as age, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, blood hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, there are many examples of conditions accounting for both venous and arterial thrombosis, such as the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, malignancies, infections, and the use of hormonal treatment. Finally, several recent studies have consistently shown that patients with venous thromboembolism are at a higher risk of arterial thrombotic complications than matched control individuals. We, therefore, speculate the two vascular complications are simultaneously triggered by biological stimuli responsible for activating coagulation and inflammatory pathways in both the arterial and the venous system. Future studies are needed to clarify the nature of this association, to assess its extent, and to evaluate its implications for clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pulmonary venous return, x-ray References Fraser CD, Kane LC. Congenital heart disease. In: Townsend CM Jr, ... 62. Review Date 10/17/2017 Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine, ...

  3. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N 2 O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability and suggested that feeding ratio should be considered when assessing the earthworms' effect on stabilisation and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zamboni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to analyze the actual scientific controversy on chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and its association with both neurodegenerative disorders and multiple sclerosis (MS. We revised all published studies on prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients, including ultrasound and catheter venography series. Furthermore, we take into consideration other publications dealing with the pathophysiologic consequences of CCSVI in the brain, as well as ecent data characterizing the pathology of the venous wall in course of CCSVI. Finally, safety and pilot data on effectiveness of endovascular CCSVI treatment were further updated. Studies of prevalence show a big variability in prevalence of CCSVI in MS patients assessed by established ultrasonographic criteria. This could be related to high operator dependency of ultrasound. However, 12 studies, by the means of more objective catheter venography, show a prevalence >90% of CCSVI in MS. Global hypo-hypoperfusion of the brain, and reduced cerebral spinal fluid dynamics in MS was shown to be related to CCSVI. Postmortem studies and histology corroborate the 2009 International Union of Phlebology (UIP Consensus decision to insert CCSVI among venous malformations. Finally, safety of balloon angioplasty of the extracranial veins was certainly demonstrated, while prospective data on the potential effectiveness of endovascular treatment of CCSVI support to increase the level of evidence by proceeding with a randomized control trial (RCT. Taking into account the current epidemiological data, including studies on catheter venography, the autoptic findings, and the relationship between CCSVI and both hypo-perfusion and cerebro-spinal fluid flow, we conclude that CCSVI can be definitively inserted among the medical entities. Research is still inconclusive in elucidating the CCSVI role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. The controversy between the vascular and the

  5. Improving venous leg ulcer management

    OpenAIRE

    Weller, Carolina Dragica

    2017-01-01

    This thesis reports several different methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions designed to improve venous leg ulcer management. Chronic venous leg ulcers (VLU) are the most common chronic wound problem in the community. Its health and economic burden is predicted to increase due to ageing of the community and increase in prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Although many patients seek health care for VLU, most do not receive the most effective management. Patients with this condi...

  6. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  7. Combined oral contraceptives: venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bastos, Marcos; Stegeman, Bernardine H; Rosendaal, Frits R; Van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-03-03

    Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use has been associated with venous thrombosis (VT) (i.e., deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism). The VT risk has been evaluated for many estrogen doses and progestagen types contained in COC but no comprehensive comparison involving commonly used COC is available. To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier and ScienceDirect) were searched in 22 April 2013 for eligible studies, without language restrictions. We selected studies including healthy women taking COC with VT as outcome. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported.Two independent reviewers extracted data from selected studies. 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 0.19 and 0.37 per 1 000 person years, in line with previously reported incidences of 0,16 per 1 000 person years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 μg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene

  8. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  9. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. The challenges of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution through energy sources: evidence from a panel of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmat, Ghulam; Zaman, Khalid; Shukui, Tan; Sajjad, Faiza; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Khan, Muhammad Zahir

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the long-run relationship between climatic factors (i.e., greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural methane emissions, and industrial nitrous oxide emission), air pollution (i.e., carbon dioxide emissions), and energy sources (i.e., nuclear energy; oil, gas, and coal energy; and fossil fuel energy) in the panel of 35 developed countries (including EU-15, new EU member states, G-7, and other countries) over a period of 1975-2012. In order to achieve this objective, the present study uses sophisticated panel econometric techniques including panel cointegration, panel fully modified OLS (FMOLS), and dynamic OLS (DOLS). The results show that there is a long-run relationship between the variables. Nuclear energy reduces greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the other emissions, i.e., agricultural methane emissions and industrial nitrous oxide, are still to increase during the study period. Electricity production from oil, gas, and coal sources increases the greenhouse gases and carbon emissions; however, the intensity to increase emissions is far less than the intensity to increase emissions through fossil fuel. Policies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases can simultaneously alter emissions of conventional pollutants that have deleterious effects on human health and the environment.

  11. Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

    2010-10-01

    As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

  12. Multiroller Traction Drive Speed Reducer. Evaluation for Automotive Gas Turbine Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    Speed is deLermined by a magnetic pickup on a toothed wheel . Gas turbine engine instrumunelLtiouu i -designed 1f0r measurement of specific fuel...buffer seal and the fluid--film bearing measured a maximum total runout of 0.038 mm (0.0015 in.) at low speed. At higher speeds, above 8000 rpm, the...maximum was 0.025 mm (0.001 in.) except near 10 000 rpm, where the oscilloscope indicated an excursion of 0.045 mm (0.0018 in.). This runout was within

  13. Increasing the efficiency of heating systems by reducing the flue gas temperature below the dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer, H.

    1981-06-01

    This paper deals with the fundamentals and technical possibilities of increasing the combustion efficiency of gas-fired heating units for domestic heating by cooling the flue gases below their water vapor saturation temperature. The improvement of the efficiency can be more than 15% in comparison even to modern warm water heating boilers. Important however is the availability of cooling fluids of sufficiently low temperatures which could be recirculated heating water, freshwater and air. Different possible applications of this method are discussed in detail.

  14. Hydrofluoroether electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: Reduced gas decomposition and nonflammable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Orendorff, Christopher J.

    2011-10-01

    The optimum combination of high energy density at the desired power sets lithium-ion battery technology apart from the other well known secondary battery chemistries. However, this is besieged by thermal instability of the electrolyte. This "Achilles heel" still remains a significant safety issue and unless this propensity is improved the promise of widespread adoption of Li-ion batteries for Transportation application may not be realized. With this in mind we launched a systematic study to evaluate fluoro solvents that are known to be nonflammable, for thermal and electrochemical performances. We investigated hydro-fluoro-ethers (HFE) (1) 2-trifluoromethyl-3-methoxyperfluoropentane {TMMP} and (2) 2-trifluoro-2-fluoro-3-difluoropropoxy-3-difluoro-4-fluoro-5-trifluoropentane {TPTP} in Sandia-built cells. Thermal properties under near abuse conditions that exist in thermal runaway environment and the electrochemical characteristics for these electrolytes were measured. In the thermal ramp (TR) measurement, EC:DEC:TPTP-1 M LiBETI (or TFSI or LiPF6) electrolytes exhibited no ignition/fire. Similar behavior was observed for the EC:DEC:TMMP-1 M LiBETI. Further, in ARC studies the HFE electrolytes generated less gas by 50% compared to the EC:EMC-1.2 M LiPF6 {CAR-1} electrolyte. Although in all cases the HFEs generated less gas, the onset of gas generation appears to depend on the salt. For the LiBETI and TFSI containing HFEs the onset is pushed out by ∼80 °C and for the LiPF6 the onset is comparable to that of the CAR-1. The solution ionic conductivity of these HFE electrolytes was lower (4-5 times) than that of the CAR-1 electrolyte however, the electrochemical performance was comparable. For example, full cells in 2032 type coin cells containing LiMN0.33Ni0.33Co0.33O2 cathode and carbon anode showed around 5 mA h capacity and the computed specific capacity was ∼154 mA h for all the electrolytes. In half-cells against lithium the cathode and anode gave specific

  15. Ultra Efficient CHHP Using a High Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahnke, Fred C. [Fuelcell Energy, Inc., Danbury, CT (United States)

    2015-06-30

    FuelCell Energy and ACuPowder investigated and demonstrated the use of waste anode exhaust gas from a high temperature fuel cell for replacing the reducing gas in a metal processing furnace. Currently companies purchase high pressure or liquefied gases for the reducing gas which requires substantial energy in production, compression/liquefaction, and transportation, all of which is eliminated by on-site use of anode exhaust gas as reducing gas. We performed research on the impact of the gas composition on product quality and then demonstrated at FuelCell Energy’s manufacturing facility in Torrington, Connecticut. This demonstration project continues to operate even though the research program is completed as it provides substantial benefits to the manufacturing facility by supplying power, heat, and hydrogen.

  16. Equipment to reduce the emission of noxious components in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsutomi, Y; Inoue, H

    1976-10-21

    The invention concerns an arrangement for the reduction of emission of noxious components in exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine with automatic drive. According to the invention, there is a further switch in parallel with the usual kickdown switch, which is actuated by a temperature sensor and/or choke. If the operating temperature of the engine is below a certain value, or if the choke is pulled out, then the switch is closed. This has the effect that the downstream valve is brought into the same position as that in which the closed kickdown switch would place it. The automatic drive therefore takes up that position, independently of the position of the accelerator pedal, which it would normally occupy only with the accelerator pedal fully pressed down. This guarantees that the engine is always kept at high speed during the hot running phase, which reduces the portion of the noxious gas components emitted.

  17. Hynol: An economic process for methanol production from biomass and natural gas with reduced CO2 emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M.; Dong, Yuanji

    1993-10-01

    The Hynol process is proposed to meet the demand for an economical process for methanol production with reduced CO2 emission. This new process consists of three reaction steps: (1) hydrogasification of biomass, (2) steam reforming of the produced gas with additional natural gas feedstock, and (3) methanol synthesis of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced during the previous two steps. The H2-rich gas remaining after methanol synthesis is recycled to gasify the biomass in an energy neutral reactor so that there is no need for an expensive oxygen plant as required by commercial steam gasifiers. Recycling gas allows the methanol synthesis reactor to perform at a relatively lower pressure than conventional while the plant still maintains high methanol yield. Energy recovery designed into the process minimizes heat loss and increases the process thermal efficiency. If the Hynol methanol is used as an alternative and more efficient automotive fuel, an overall 41% reduction in CO2 emission can be achieved compared to the use of conventional gasoline fuel. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the total capital investment for a Hynol plant is 40% lower than that for a conventional biomass gasification plant. The methanol production cost is $0.43/gal for a 1085 million gal/yr Hynol plant which is competitive with current U.S. methanol and equivalent gasoline prices. Process flowsheet and simulation data using biomass and natural gas as cofeedstocks are presented. The Hynol process can convert any condensed carbonaceous material, especially municipal solid waste (MSW), to produce methanol.

  18. Energy efficiency to reduce residential electricity and natural gas use under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Janet L; Chester, Mikhail V

    2017-05-15

    Climate change could significantly affect consumer demand for energy in buildings, as changing temperatures may alter heating and cooling loads. Warming climates could also lead to the increased adoption and use of cooling technologies in buildings. We assess residential electricity and natural gas demand in Los Angeles, California under multiple climate change projections and investigate the potential for energy efficiency to offset increased demand. We calibrate residential energy use against metered data, accounting for differences in building materials and appliances. Under temperature increases, we find that without policy intervention, residential electricity demand could increase by as much as 41-87% between 2020 and 2060. However, aggressive policies aimed at upgrading heating/cooling systems and appliances could result in electricity use increases as low as 28%, potentially avoiding the installation of new generation capacity. We therefore recommend aggressive energy efficiency, in combination with low-carbon generation sources, to offset projected increases in residential energy demand.

  19. Two-stage combustion for reducing pollutant emissions from gas turbine combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. M.; Lewis, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion and emission results are presented for a premix combustor fueled with admixtures of JP5 with neat H2 and of JP5 with simulated partial-oxidation product gas. The combustor was operated with inlet-air state conditions typical of cruise power for high performance aviation engines. Ultralow NOx, CO and HC emissions and extended lean burning limits were achieved simultaneously. Laboratory scale studies of the non-catalyzed rich-burning characteristics of several paraffin-series hydrocarbon fuels and of JP5 showed sooting limits at equivalence ratios of about 2.0 and that in order to achieve very rich sootless burning it is necessary to premix the reactants thoroughly and to use high levels of air preheat. The application of two-stage combustion for the reduction of fuel NOx was reviewed. An experimental combustor designed and constructed for two-stage combustion experiments is described.

  20. National plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki Dong Song

    1996-01-01

    The present and future Korean emission of greenhouse gases are discussed in view of the current status of and projections of the national energy consumption under fast economic growth. Present dependence on energy import is very high (94.7%) and will only marginally decrease after a maximum of 97.1% in 2010 to 95.1% in 2030 due to increased use of renewables. The annual CO 2 emissions will be three times higher in 2030 and amount to almost 200 Mtonnes. The national CO 2 /energy intensity will decrease from 0.75 in 1990 to 0.69 in 2030. Coal combustion will remain the main source of CO 2 , whereas give the largest contribution to lowering the CO 2 intensity. The strategy and the bodies created to implement the commitments made by Korea to lower greenhouse gas emissions are described. (author). 14 tabs

  1. Ethylene oxide gas sterilization does not reduce the osteoinductive potential of demineralized bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that different sterilization procedures of demineralized bone may influence its osteoinductive properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethylene oxide sterilization for 1, 3, and 6 hours on the osteoinductive potential of allogeneic demineralized bone...... implanted heterotopically in rats. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, A through D, and four demineralized bone chips (2.8 mg) were implanted in a pouch created between the right oblique abdominal muscles in each animal. In Group A, the demineralized bone was implanted...... without prior sterilization of the material, whereas the demineralized bone implanted in Groups B, C, and D had been sterilized in ethylene oxide gas for 1, 3, or 6 hours, respectively, and aerated for 48 hours. At 4 weeks postoperatively, bone formation was evaluated quantitatively by strontium 85 uptake...

  2. The Negotiation Process and the Suggestions on Developing Countries' Participation in Commitment of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.K. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    The advanced countries have insisted that the developing countries should participate in the commitment in order to achieve 'ultimate objective' of stabilizing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at safe levels. In the negotiating process of COP 3, there was the discussion if the article 10 of Protocol (the draft), in which the developing countries that voluntarily demand the commitment should submit their base year, the time schedule, and the aims of reducing greenhouse gas, would be included. This article was deleted because the developing countries opposed the discussion itself of the developing countries' commitment. USA also refused the ratification of Kyoto Protocol because 80% of countries over the world, including China and India, were not included in the implementation of the commitment, and the commitment would do harm to the economy of USA. According to Marrakesh Agreement, if Kyoto Protocol comes into effect with the proposal of Kazakhstan, which requests to add its name to Annex I, the proposal to amend the list of Annex I will be reported to COP. Korea, which is one of top 10 countries that emit greenhouse gas showing the highest increasing rate of CO{sub 2} among OECD countries, will have serious impacts on economic and social areas if the special reducing obligation of Kyoto Protocol is applied to Korea. Accordingly, Korea should make efforts to develop the reasonable commitment of the reducing obligation with considering the developing countries' characteristics, on the rapid developing phase. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Use of a dissolved-gas measurement system for reducing the dissolved oxygen at St. Lucie Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, D.T.; Coit, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    When the dissolved oxygen in the condensate at St. Lucie Unit 2 could not be reduced below the administrative limit of 10 ppB, EPRI cooperated with Florida Power and Light to find the cause and develop remedies. Two problems were identified with the assistance of a dissolved gas measurement system (DGMS) that can detect leaks into condensate when used with argon blanketing. Drain piping from the air ejection system had flooded which decreased its performance, and leaks were found at a strainer flange and a couple expansion joints. Initially the dissolved oxygen content was reduced to about 9 ppB; owever, the dissolved oxygen from Condenser A was consistently higher than that from condenser B. Injection of about 0.4 cubic per minute (CFM) of argon above the hotwell considerably improved the ventilation of Condenser A, reducing the dissolved oxygen about 30% to about 6 ppB. The use of nitrogen was equally effective. While inert gas injection is helpful, it may be better to have separate air ejectors for each condenser. Several recommendations for improving oxygen removal are given

  4. Methane, a greenhouse gas: measures to reduce and valorize anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This report first presents the greenhouse effect properties of methane (one of the six gases the emissions of which must be reduced according to the Kyoto protocol), comments the available data on methane emission assessment in the World, in Europe and in France, and outlines the possibilities of improvement of data and indicators on a short and middle term. It describes how methane can be captured and valorized, indicates the concerned quantities. Notably, it discussed the management of methane generating and spreading practices (from waste water treatment, from domestic wastes), how to reduce methane emissions in agriculture. It finally proposes elements aimed at elaborating a national and international policy regarding methane emission reductions

  5. Catalysts, systems and methods to reduce NOX in an exhaust gas stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Christopher R.; Moini, Ahmad; Koermer, Gerald S.; Furbeck, Howard

    2010-07-20

    Catalysts, systems and methods are described to reduce NO.sub.x emissions of an internal combustion engine. In one embodiment, an emissions treatment system for an exhaust stream is provided having an SCR catalyst comprising silver tungstate on an alumina support. The emissions treatment system may be used for the treatment of exhaust streams from diesel engines and lean burn gasoline engines. An emissions treatment system may further comprise an injection device operative to dispense a hydrocarbon reducing agent upstream of the catalyst.

  6. Uso de sangue arterial e venoso no exame do equilíbrio ácido-básico de novilhos normais ou com acidose metabólica Arterial and venous blood in the assessment of blood gas and acid-base status in healthy steers or steers with metabolic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Araripe Sucupira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Doze novilhos foram utilizados para comparar os resultados hemogasométricos de sangue arterial e venoso. Esses animais foram divididos em três grupos idênticos, recebendo: 1- dieta balanceada, proporcionando ganho de peso de 600g/d; 2- dieta de mantença em proteína e energia e 3- dieta com teores 20% abaixo da mantença. Amostras de sangue arterial (artéria auricular caudal e venoso (veia jugular foram colhidas por 11 quinzenas consecutivas, num total de 132 amostras. Ao término do experimento, os animais dos grupos 2 e principalmente 3 apresentaram acidose metabólica moderada. Maiores valores de pH e de pO2 foram constatados no sangue arterial enquanto os teores de bicarbonato, TCO2, BE e pCO2 foram superiores no sangue venoso. Existiram altas correlações entre os valores do sangue arterial e venoso para o pH (r = 0,81, bicarbonato e TCO2 (r = 0,94, sendo esta correlação média, mas significativa, no caso da pCO2 (r = 0,56 e inexistente na pO2 (r= -0,06. Quanto maiores foram os valores de pCO2 maiores foram os teores de bicarbonato (r = 0,54 e TCO2 (r =0,56. Apesar das discrepâncias de pH, das concentrações de bicarbonato, TCO2, e mesmo de pCO2 obtidos no sangue venoso e arterial, é possível estimar, adequadamente, a partir do primeiro esses valores nas amostras arteriais em novilhos normais e com moderado grau de acidose metabólica. Nos casos de alterações respiratórias, amostras de sangue arterial devem ser colhidas para determinação de pO2. A colheita de sangue venoso foi mais facilmente realizada que do sangue arterial.Twelve steers were used to compare the blood gas and acid-base status. The animals were randomly divided in three equal groups according to the following diets: 1- adequate, for gaining 600g/head/d ; 2- protein and energy levels to meet the maintenence; 3- protein and energy 20% below the maintenance levels. One hundred thirty-two arterial blood (caudal auricular artery or venous blood (jugular vein

  7. Impacts of the Grenelle de l'Environnement: must France reduce its greenhouse gas emissions of 30% by 2020?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    Within the international context (Copenhagen agreement), this text analyses efforts made by France to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, and compares them to those of other countries, notably the United States. Using the NEMESIS model, it also analyses the possible consequences of the present crisis for energy demand and CO 2 emissions. It proposes an assessment of additional efforts to be made to go from 20% to 30% of reduction of these emissions. It tries to assess impacts of investments foreseen by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' on activity, GNP, employment, and competitiveness

  8. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  9. Distillers by-product cattle diets enhance reduced sulfur gas fluxes from feedlot soils and manures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total reduced sulfur (TRS) emissions from animal feeding operations are a concern with increased feeding of high-sulfur distillers by-products. Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate feeding wet distillers grain plus solubles (WDGS) on TRS fluxes. Fresh manure was collected three times duri...

  10. Effect of hepatic venous sphincter contraction on transmission of central venous pressure to lobar and portal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautt, W W; Legare, D J; Greenway, C V

    1987-11-01

    In dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital, central vena caval pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP), and intrahepatic lobar venous pressure (proximal to the hepatic venous sphincters) were measured. The objective was to determine some characteristics of the intrahepatic vascular resistance sites (proximal and distal to the hepatic venous sphincters) including testing predictions made using a recent mathematical model of distensible hepatic venous resistance. The stimulus used was a brief rise in CVP produced by transient occlusion of the thoracic vena cava in control state and when vascular resistance was elevated by infusions of norepinephrine or histamine, or by nerve stimulation. The percent transmission of the downstream pressure rise to upstream sites past areas of vascular resistance was elevated. Even small increments in CVP are partially transmitted upstream. The data are incompatible with the vascular waterfall phenomenon which predicts that venous pressure increments are not transmitted upstream until a critical pressure is overcome and then further increments would be 100% transmitted. The hepatic sphincters show the following characteristics. First, small rises in CVP are transmitted less than large elevations; as the CVP rises, the sphincters passively distend and allow a greater percent transmission upstream, thus a large rise in CVP is more fully transmitted than a small rise in CVP. Second, the amount of pressure transmission upstream is determined by the vascular resistance across which the pressure is transmitted. As nerves, norepinephrine, or histamine cause the hepatic sphincters to contract, the percent transmission becomes less and the distensibility of the sphincters is reduced. Similar characteristics are shown for the "presinusoidal" vascular resistance and the hepatic venous sphincter resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  12. Pyrolysis Gas as a Renewable Reducing Agent for the Recycling of Zinc- and Lead-Bearing Residues: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, C.; Antrekowitsch, J.

    2017-04-01

    The topic "Zero Waste" has been in existence for several years in the industry, and the metallurgical industry has also made efforts to reduce the amounts of residues occurring and have started several investigations to cut down on metallurgical by-products which have to be landfilled. Especially, the additional costs for CO2 emissions in different metallurgical steps have led to investigations into alternative carbon carriers. Charcoal has been identified to serve as an ideal substitute due its CO2-neutrality. For the applications of this renewable carbon carrier in metallurgical processes, charcoal production by means of a carbonization process needs to be optimized. As a by-product during the heating of agricultural wastes or wood by excluding air, pyrolysis gas occurs. Due to the existence of combustible compounds in this gas, an application as a reduction agent instead of fossil carbon carriers in metallurgy is possible. Based on the prevention of dumping metallurgical by-products, an investigation has been developed to treat zinc- and lead-containing materials. To realize this, a dedicated process concept has been designed and developed. As the main focuses, the usage of the pyrolysis gas from charcoal production for the Waelz kiln process and the recycling of zinc- and lead-containing Waelz slag, resulting from the processing of steel mill dust in a vertical retort, have to be mentioned. Within this research, the process concept was executed from laboratory-scale up to pilot-scale testing, described in this article.

  13. Use green taxes and market instruments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, G.; Rheaume, G.; Coad, L.

    2008-01-01

    This briefing is part of the Conference Board of Canada's CanCompete program, which was designed to help leading decision makers advance Canada on a path of national competitiveness. Many members of the scientific community have concluded that anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are responsible for the current pace of global warming. It is widely believed that the changing climate will have a negative impact on the economy and the environment. This briefing considered a set of reforms to the Canadian tax system designed to ensure sustainable growth within a changing climate. The briefing was prepared in response to an earlier paper calling for a market-based policy on climate change. Tax incentives were examined, as well as price signalling systems to ensure successful climate change adjustment for Canadian businesses. It was concluded that a combination of efficient regulations, market forces, and tax measures will be needed to set accurate and effective prices for GHGs. Green taxes and tax credits will also be necessary in order to accelerate technological adaptation to a carbon pricing system, along with a complementary cap and trade system. 1 fig

  14. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  15. Factor XI Antisense Oligonucleotide for Prevention of Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Harry R.; Bethune, Claudette; Bhanot, Sanjay; Gailani, David; Monia, Brett P.; Raskob, Gary E.; Segers, Annelise; Verhamme, Peter; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Weitz, Jeffrey; Prins, Martin; Beenen, Ludo; Otten, Hans-Martin; Roos, Yvo; Slagboom, Ton; Vandenbriele, Christophe; Vanassche, Thomas; Dani, Vidhi; Schulz, Dan; Shapiro, Cara; Kwoh, Katherine; Jung, Bill; Gawinek-Samelczak, Agata; Kaemmer, Christina; Angelov, S.; Stavrev, V.; Kinov, P.; Dessouki, E.; Abuzgaya, F.; Baurovskis, A.; Peredistijs, A.; Petronis, S.; Danilyak, V.; Driagin, V.; Kuropatkin, G.; Parfeev, S.; Safronov, A.; Ankin, M.; Korzh, M.; Olinichenko, G.; Polivoda, A.; Shevchenko, V.; Sulyma, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Experimental data indicate that reducing factor XI levels attenuates thrombosis without causing bleeding, but the role of factor XI in the prevention of postoperative venous thrombosis in humans is unknown. FXI-ASO (ISIS 416858) is a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide that

  16. Venous abnormalities demonstrated by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukune, Y; Ashida, H; Tokuda, M; Oyama, Y [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-05-01

    CT is capable of demonstrating various venous changes. However, little have been described on this subject in the literature. Examples of various venous abnormalities such as obstructed jugular vein, superior and inferior vena cava (IVC), tumor invasion of IVC and renal vein and venous changes in portal hypertension were presented. It was stressed that noninvasive CT is a good tool in diagnosis of some of venous changes and may be able to eliminate angiography in such cases.

  17. Colorectal cancer with venous tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Otani; Soichiro Ishihara; Keisuke Hata; Koji Murono; Kazuhito Sasaki; Koji Yasuda; Takeshi Nishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Tomomichi Kiyomatsu; Kazushige Kawai; Hiroaki Nozawa; Hironori Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Watanabe

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Colorectal cancer is seldom accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis, and little is known about the features of venous tumor thrombosis in colorectal cancer. However, some reports show that colorectal cancer patients can develop venous tumor thrombosis and warn clinicians not to overlook this complication. In this report, we perform a review of 43 previously reported cases and investigate the characteristics of colorectal cancer accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis. The histological ...

  18. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content......, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds......, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N2O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability...

  19. New anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J McRae

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Simon J McRae, Jeffrey S GinsbergDepartment of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, CanadaAbstract: Anticoagulant therapy is effective at preventing the development of venous thromboembolism in high-risk patients, and reduces morbidity and mortality in individuals with established thromboembolic disease. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are currently the most commonly used anticoagulant drugs, but they have practical limitations. Therefore, new antithrombotic agents with predictable dose-responses (thereby decreasing the need for monitoring without compromising efficacy or safety, ideally available in an oral formulation and with a rapidly reversible anticoagulant effect, are needed. New drugs fulfilling some of the above criteria have been developed and have proven to be effective agents for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism.Keywords: venous thromboembolism, anticoagulants, antithrombotic

  20. High-sensitive nitrogen dioxide and ethanol gas sensor using a reduced graphene oxide-loaded double split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Azad, Prakrati; Akhtar, M. J.; Kar, Kamal K.

    2017-08-01

    A reduced graphene oxide (rGO) incorporated double split ring resonator (DSRR) portable microwave gas sensor is proposed in this work. The sensor is fabricated using two major steps: the DSRR is fabricated on the FR-4 substrate, which is excited by a high impedance microstrip line. The rGO is synthesized via a chemical route and coated inside the smaller ring of the DSRR. The SEM micrographs reveal crumpled sheets of rGO that provide a large surface area, and the XRD patterns of the as-synthesized rGO reveal the two-dimensional structure of the rGO nanosheets. The sensor performance is measured at room temperature using 100-400 ppm of ethanol and NO2 target gases. At 400 ppm, the sensor reveals a shift of 420 and 390 MHz in the S 21 frequency for NO2 and ethanol gases, respectively. The frequency shifts of 130 and 120 MHz in the S 21 resonance frequency are obtained for NO2 and ethanol gases, respectively, at a very low concentration of 100 ppm. The high sensitivity of the proposed rGO gas sensor is achieved due to the combined effect of the large surface area of the rGO responsible for accommodating more gas molecules, and its increased conductivity due to the transfer of the electron from the rGO. Moreover, an exceedingly short response time is observed for NO2 in comparison to ethanol, which allows the proposed sensor to be used for the selective detection of NO2 in a harsh environment. The overall approach used in this study is quite simple, and has great potential to enhance the gas detection behaviour of rGO.

  1. Observing and Reducing IFUs: INTEGRAL and PMAS—Properties of the Ionized Gas in HH 202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis López-Martín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of integral field spectroscopy (IFS data requires several stages and many repetitive operations to convert raw data into, typically, a large number of spectra. Instead there are several semiautomatic data reduction tools and here we present this data reduction process using some of the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF tasks devoted to reduce spectroscopic data. After explaining the whole process, we illustrate the power of this instrumental technique with some results obtained for the object HH202 in the Orion Nebula (Mesa-Delgado et al., 2009.

  2. Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Case Study of India’s Power Generation Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manish Gupta

    2006-01-01

    If India were to participate in any international effort towards mitigating CO2 emissions, the power sector which is one of the largest emitters of CO2 in the country would be required to play a major role. In this context the study estimates the marginal abatement costs, which correspond to the costs incurred by the power plants to reduce one unit of CO2 from the current level. The study uses an output distance function approach and its duality with the revenue function to derive these costs...

  3. Using biochar in animal farming to recycle nutrients and reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Wilson, Kelpie; Kammann, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal has been used to treat digestive disorder in animals since several thousand years. But only since about 2010 biochar has increasingly been used as regular feed additive in animal farming usually mixed with standard feed at approximately 1% of the daily feed intake. The use of biochar as feed additive has the potential to improve animal health, feed efficiency and the animal-stable environment; to reduce nutrient losses and GHG emissions; and to increase soil organic mater and thus soil fertility. The evaluation of more than 150 scientific papers on feeding (activated) biochar showed in most of the studies and for all investigated livestock species positive effects on parameters like toxin adsorption, digestion, blood values, feed use efficiency and livestock weight gain, meat quality and GHG emissions. The facilitation of direct electron transfers between different species of bacteria or microbial consortia via the biochar mediator in the animal digestion tract is hypothesized to be the main reason for a more energy efficient digestion and thus higher feed efficiency, for its selective probiotic effect, for reduced N-losses and eventually for less GHG emissions. While chicken, pigs, fish and other omnivore animals provoke GHG-emissions (mainly NH3, CH4, N2O) when their liquid and solid excretions decompose anaerobically, ruminants cause direct methane emissions through flatulence and burps (eructation). Preliminary studies demonstrated that feeding high temperature biochars might reduce ruminant CH4 emissions though more systematic research is needed. It is likely that microbial decomposition of manure containing digested biochar produces less ammonia, less methane and thus retain more nitrogen, as seen when manure was composted with and without biochar or when biochar is used as bedding or manure treatment additive. Laboratory adsorption trials estimated that using biochar for liquid manure treatment could safe 57,000 t NH4 and 4,600 t P2O5 fertilizer per

  4. Familial Clustering of Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindet-Pedersen, Caroline; Oestergaard, Louise Bruun; Gundlund, Anna

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is of utmost importance to improve current prophylactic regimes and treatment guidelines. The extent to which a family history contributes to the risk of VTE needs further exploration. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relative ...

  5. Venous thrombosis : a patient's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korlaar, Inez van

    2006-01-01

    The studies described in this thesis had two main aims: 1) To study the quality of life of patients with venous thrombosis and to examine the role of illness perceptions in explaining the quality of life of these patients. 2) To assess the psychological consequences of genetic testing for

  6. History of venous leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianfaldoni, S; Wollina, U; Lotti, J; Gianfaldoni, R; Lotti, T; Fioranelli, M; Roccia, M G

    To retrieve the history of venous ulcers and of skin lesions in general, we must go back to the appearance of human beings on earth. It is interesting to note that cutaneous injuries evolved parallel to human society. An essential first step in the pathogenesis of ulcers was represented by the transition of the quadruped man to Homo Erectus. This condition was characterized by a greater gravitational pressure on the lower limbs, with consequences on the peripheral venous system. Furthermore, human evolution was characterized by an increased risk of traumatic injuries, secondary to his natural need to create fire and hunt (e.g. stones, iron, fire, animal fighting). Humans then began to fight one another until they came to real wars, with increased frequency of wounds and infectious complications. The situation degraded with the introduction of horse riding, introduced by the Scites, who first tamed animals in the 7th century BC. This condition exhibited iliac veins at compression phenomena, favouring the venous stasis. With time, man continued to evolve until the modern age, which is characterized by increased risk factors for venous wounds such as poor physical activity and dietary errors (1, 2).

  7. Splanchnic venous thrombosis and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Nikhil A; Khanna, Sahil; Vege, Santhi Swaroop

    2013-08-01

    Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process with local and systemic manifestations. One such local manifestation is thrombosis in splanchnic venous circulation, predominantly of the splenic vein. The literature on this important complication is very sparse. This review offers an overview of mechanism of thrombosis, its pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management in the setting of acute as well as chronic pancreatitis.

  8. Serious Complication of Central Venous Catheterization Due to Hemothorax: Hemothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmügülsüm Gaygısız

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization may cause life-threatening complications including pneumothorax and hemothorax. We report a case of multiple trauma complicated with an incidence of hemothorax due to a misplaced central venous catheter. Firstly, the tip of the guide-wire was ruptured in subcutaneous tissue and, secondly, the catheter came out of the vessel and caused hemothorax. During left subclavian catheterization, in this 47-years-old male patient, we could not advance the guide wire forward easily in the first attempt and tried to draw it back. In the second attempt, we inserted a new catheter without any difficulty. The blood gas analyses through the catheter for verification of location revealed its venous nature. After the catheterization, 500 mL hemorrhagic fluid was drained through the ipsilateral chest tube. Control chest X-ray showed that the catheter was in the left hemithorax and a piece of the guide wire was present below the left clavicle. Thorax computerized tomography showed that the catheter entered the thoracic cavity and extended to the paramediastinal region. An emergency surgery was performed to remove the piece of the guide wire and the catheter extending out of the vessel. A common method to check the intravenous insertion of a central catheter into a vein is to verify that the easily drawn blood has the nature of venous blood. This method, however, does not exclude the extravascular placement of the catheter in the presence of ipsilateral hemothorax.

  9. Report on evaluation of research and development of direct steel-making using high-temperature reducing gas. Phase 1. Draft; Koon kangen gas riyo ni yoru chokusetsu seitetsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (daiikki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho (an)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-01-01

    Described herein is development of direct steel-making using high-temperature reducing gas. A light hydrocarbon fraction (boiling point: 230 degrees C or lower), produced by steam cracking of vacuum residua, is reformed into a reducing gas in the presence of steam, using heat to be supplied by a nuclear plant which produces high-temperature gases for various purposes. This reducing gas is then supplied to a plant for producing reduced iron. This project has established basic techniques for designing, constructing and operating a direct steel-making pilot plant, to be connected to a 50 MWt high-temperature gas test furnace. The closed iron-making system and greatly reduced SOx emissions to several fractions of the current level are some of the expected effects. The environmental impacts of the high-temperature gas furnace will be on a level with those associated with a light-water reactor. Cracking and gasification of vacuum residua, which has found limited purposes so far, should expand its applicable areas and reduce dependence on fossil resources, leading to diversification of energy sources. The overall thermal efficiency of the high-temperature gas furnace is expected to increase to at least 60%, because its high-temperature gases of around 1,000 degrees C can be used for heating processes, and the waste heat can be further used for generation of steam for power production. (NEDO)

  10. Macro-economic effects of two policy variants to reduce greenhouse gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vromans, M.W.A.M.

    1998-10-01

    The macro-economic effects of two variants for reducing CO2-emissions by yearly 2% in the period 2000-2020 have been calculated. Regulations as limiting the maximum speed to 90 km/h on motorways and lowering the standards of energy use of houses form an important part of variant 1. In the second variant the competitive market policy plays a more important role. An increase of the existing small-user energy tax to four times the current level and an introduction of tradeable reduction certificates are among the policy measures. In both variants, but in variant 2 more than in variant 1, backstop-options, e.g. import of biomass and carbon dioxide storage, are added to further reduce the emissions. The effects on energy and the environment and the costs of the policy packages have been calculated by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN). Those figures served as input for the CPB-calculations with the multi-sectoral model Athena. In variant 1 the volume of private consumption (an indicator for the material welfare loss) is, in 2020, 1.5% lower in comparison with the baseline scenario. GDP diminishes with 1 % and labour demand is 0.5% lower. As a consequence of the gradually increasing government subsidies to finance the extra costs of environmental investments and backstop-options the negative effects are increasing gradually too. This process will continue also after 2020 because the subsidies will be still growing after the scenario period. The negative effects of variant 2 in 2020 are about 50% higher than the results for variant 1. Private consumption decreases with 2.5%, GDP is 1.75% lower and employment diminishes with 0.75%. More subsidies for backstop-options, a higher increase of the small-user energy tax and a less positive effect because of less environmental investments, particularly less investments in dwellings, account for the more negative picture in comparison with the results for variant 1. The study ends with some points of discussion as

  11. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L

    2016-01-05

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results, [corrected] and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  12. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  13. Reducing the impurity incorporation from residual gas by ion bombardment during high vacuum magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Johanna; Widenkvist, Erika; Larsson, Karin; Kreissig, Ulrich; Mraz, Stanislav; Martinez, Carlos; Music, Denis; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of ion energy on the hydrogen incorporation has been investigated for alumina thin films, deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in an Ar/O 2 /H 2 O environment. Ar + with an average kinetic energy of ∼5 eV was determined to be the dominating species in the plasma. The films were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and elastic recoil detection analysis, demonstrating evidence for amorphous films with stoichiometric O/Al ratio. As the substrate bias potential was increased from -15 V (floating potential) to -100 V, the hydrogen content decreased by ∼70%, from 9.1 to 2.8 at. %. Based on ab initio calculations, these results may be understood by thermodynamic principles, where a supply of energy enables surface diffusion, H 2 formation, and desorption [Rosen et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 17, L137 (2005)]. These findings are of importance for the understanding of the correlation between ion energy and film composition and also show a pathway to reduce impurity incorporation during film growth in a high vacuum ambient

  14. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; McMichael, Anthony J; Smith, Kirk R; Roberts, Ian; Woodcock, James; Markandya, Anil; Armstrong, Ben G; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Dangour, Alan D; Davies, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Tonne, Cathryn; Barrett, Mark; Wilkinson, Paul

    2009-12-19

    This Series has examined the health implications of policies aimed at tackling climate change. Assessments of mitigation strategies in four domains-household energy, transport, food and agriculture, and electricity generation-suggest an important message: that actions to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions often, although not always, entail net benefits for health. In some cases, the potential benefits seem to be substantial. This evidence provides an additional and immediate rationale for reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions beyond that of climate change mitigation alone. Climate change is an increasing and evolving threat to the health of populations worldwide. At the same time, major public health burdens remain in many regions. Climate change therefore adds further urgency to the task of addressing international health priorities, such as the UN Millennium Development Goals. Recognition that mitigation strategies can have substantial benefits for both health and climate protection offers the possibility of policy choices that are potentially both more cost effective and socially attractive than are those that address these priorities independently. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sulfophenyl-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks on Electrospun 3D Scaffold for Ultrasensitive NO2 Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasensitive room temperature real-time NO2 sensors are highly desirable due to potential threats on environmental security and personal respiratory. Traditional NO2 gas sensors with highly operated temperatures (200–600 °C and limited reversibility are mainly constructed from semiconducting oxide-deposited ceramic tubes or inter-finger probes. Herein, we report the functionalized graphene network film sensors assembled on an electrospun three-dimensional (3D nanonetwork skeleton for ultrasensitive NO2 sensing. The functional 3D scaffold was prepared by electrospinning interconnected polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers onto a nylon window screen to provide a 3D nanonetwork skeleton. Then, the sulfophenyl-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (SFRGO was assembled on the electrospun 3D nanonetwork skeleton to form SFRGO network films. The assembled functionalized graphene network film sensors exhibit excellent NO2 sensing performance (10 ppb to 20 ppm at room temperature, reliable reversibility, good selectivity, and better sensing cycle stability. These improvements can be ascribed to the functionalization of graphene with electron-withdrawing sulfophenyl groups, the high surface-to-volume ratio, and the effective sensing channels from SFRGO wrapping onto the interconnected 3D scaffold. The SFRGO network-sensing film has the advantages of simple preparation, low cost, good processability, and ultrasensitive NO2 sensing, all advantages that can be utilized for potential integration into smart windows and wearable electronic devices for real-time household gas sensors.

  16. Sulfophenyl-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks on Electrospun 3D Scaffold for Ultrasensitive NO₂ Gas Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Shen, Nannan; Xiao, Anshan; Li, Mingjun; Zhu, Liang; Wan, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-12-19

    Ultrasensitive room temperature real-time NO₂ sensors are highly desirable due to potential threats on environmental security and personal respiratory. Traditional NO₂ gas sensors with highly operated temperatures (200-600 °C) and limited reversibility are mainly constructed from semiconducting oxide-deposited ceramic tubes or inter-finger probes. Herein, we report the functionalized graphene network film sensors assembled on an electrospun three-dimensional (3D) nanonetwork skeleton for ultrasensitive NO₂ sensing. The functional 3D scaffold was prepared by electrospinning interconnected polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers onto a nylon window screen to provide a 3D nanonetwork skeleton. Then, the sulfophenyl-functionalized reduced graphene oxide (SFRGO) was assembled on the electrospun 3D nanonetwork skeleton to form SFRGO network films. The assembled functionalized graphene network film sensors exhibit excellent NO₂ sensing performance (10 ppb to 20 ppm) at room temperature, reliable reversibility, good selectivity, and better sensing cycle stability. These improvements can be ascribed to the functionalization of graphene with electron-withdrawing sulfophenyl groups, the high surface-to-volume ratio, and the effective sensing channels from SFRGO wrapping onto the interconnected 3D scaffold. The SFRGO network-sensing film has the advantages of simple preparation, low cost, good processability, and ultrasensitive NO₂ sensing, all advantages that can be utilized for potential integration into smart windows and wearable electronic devices for real-time household gas sensors.

  17. Waste-to-energy incineration plants as greenhouse gas reducers: a case study of seven Japanese metropolises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Tomohiro

    2013-11-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter; however, if GHG reductions, achieved by accounting for waste-to-energy, exceed GHG emissions, incineration can be considered as a net GHG reducer. In Japan, only 24.5% of MSW incineration plants perform energy recovery despite 80% of MSW being incinerated; therefore, there is great potential to extract more energy from MSW. In this study, the factors that should be considered to achieve net GHG reductions from incineration were analysed from a life cycle perspective. These considerations were then applied to the energy supply requirements in seven Japanese metropolises. Firstly, the carbon footprints of approximately 1500 incineration plants in Japan were calculated. Then, the incineration plants with negative carbon footprint values were classified as net GHG reducers. Next, the processes that contribute to the carbon footprint were evaluated, and two processes-plastic burning and electricity savings-were found to have the greatest influence. Based on the results, the energy supply requirements were analysed and discussed for seven metropolises (Sapporo, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Kobe, Takamatsu and Fukuoka) taking into account the energy demands of households. In Kobe, 16.2% of the electricity demand and 25.0% of the hot water demand could be satisfied by incineration to realise a net GHG reducer, although urban design for energy utilisation would be required.

  18. Switching strategy between HP (high pressure)- and LPEGR (low pressure exhaust gas recirculation) systems for reduced fuel consumption and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luján, José Manuel; Guardiola, Carlos; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) plays a major role in current Diesel internal combustion engines as a cost-effective solution to reduce NO_x emissions. EGR systems will suffer a significant evolution with the introduction of NO_x after-treatment and the proliferation of more complex EGR architectures such as low pressure EGR or dual EGR. In this paper the combination of HPEGR (high pressure EGR) LPEGR (low pressure EGR) is presented as a method to minimise fuel consumption with reduced NO_x emissions. Particularly, the paper proposes to switch between HPEGR and LPEGR architectures depending on the engine operating conditions in order to exploit the potential of both systems. In this sense, given a driving cycle, in the case at hand the NEDC, the proposed strategy seeks the EGR layout to use at each instant of the cycle to minimise the fuel consumption such that NO_x emissions are kept below a certain limit. The experimental results obtained show that combining both EGR systems sequentially along the NEDC allows to keep NO_x emission below a much lower limit with minimum fuel consumption. - Highlights: • The combination of HP–LPEGR reduces the NO_x with a small impact on consumption. • The switching strategy between HP – LPEGR is derived from Optimal Control Theory. • The proposed strategy is validated experimentally.

  19. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled. (author)

  20. Venous sinus stenting for pseudotumour cerebri with venous sinus stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huairui; Bai Rulin; Wu Xiaojun; Qi Xiangqian; Mei Qiyong; Lu Yicheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relation between venous sinus stenosis and pseduotumour cerebri and to discuss the efficacy and strategy of venous sinus stenting for its treatment. Methods: Venous sinus stenting was performed in a total of 9 patients with pseudotumour cerebri accompanied by dural sinus stenosis. The clinical data, including the clinical presentations, intracranial pressure, angiographic findings, pressure of dural sinus,methods of treatment and the therapeutic results, were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Bilateral disc edema was seen in all patients. The pressure gradient in the lateral sinuses was obviously high before stenting (22.67±7.25)mmHg in all patients and a reduction in intra-sinus pressure and pressure gradient was also found (5.78±3.77)mmHg. The symptoms associated with intracranial hypertension were gradually improved or disappeared in two weeks after the placement of the stent in all cases, and the intracranial pressure dropped evidently (12.78±5.97)cm H 2 O. Vision was improved in 7 cases at three months, whereas it remained poor in 2 cases despite normalized intracranial pressure. There was no other permanent procedure-related morbidity. The patients were followed up for 3 months to 5 years, and no recurrence developed. Conclusion: Lateral sinus stenting is an effective method for the treatment of pseudotumour cerebri with dural sinus stenosis. (authors)

  1. Radiologically-placed venous ports in children under venous anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Joo Yeon; Jeon, Ung Bae; Choo, Ki Seok; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, Yun Jin; Nam, Sang Ool; Lim, Young Tak

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiologic venous port placement in children under venous anesthesia. Between April 2009 and July 2011, 44 ports were implanted in 41 children (24 boys, 17 girls). The age of patients ranged from 9 months to 19 years (mean, 6.5 years) and their body weights ranged from 6.8 kg to 56.3 kg (mean, 23.2 kg). Right internal jugular vein access was used in 42 ports, right subclavian vein in 1, and left subclavian in 1. Durability and complications of port implantation were reviewed. The technical success rate was 100%. The catheter life was 10-661 days (mean 246 days). Two patients died during the follow-up period, 21 and 6 ports were removed at the end of treatment or as a result of complications, respectively. One port was removed and replaced by a Hickmann catheter. Three ports were explanted due to port-related sepsis, one due to a catheter kink, and two for unexplained fever or insertion site pain. The overall port-related infection was 3 cases (6.8%, 0.28/1000 catheter days). Venous port placement by interventional radiologists in children under intravenous sedation is relatively safe, with a high rate of technical success and low rate of complications.

  2. Radiologically-placed venous ports in children under venous anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Joo Yeon; Jeon, Ung Bae; Choo, Ki Seok; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Yong Woo; Lee, Yun Jin; Nam, Sang Ool; Lim, Young Tak [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiologic venous port placement in children under venous anesthesia. Between April 2009 and July 2011, 44 ports were implanted in 41 children (24 boys, 17 girls). The age of patients ranged from 9 months to 19 years (mean, 6.5 years) and their body weights ranged from 6.8 kg to 56.3 kg (mean, 23.2 kg). Right internal jugular vein access was used in 42 ports, right subclavian vein in 1, and left subclavian in 1. Durability and complications of port implantation were reviewed. The technical success rate was 100%. The catheter life was 10-661 days (mean 246 days). Two patients died during the follow-up period, 21 and 6 ports were removed at the end of treatment or as a result of complications, respectively. One port was removed and replaced by a Hickmann catheter. Three ports were explanted due to port-related sepsis, one due to a catheter kink, and two for unexplained fever or insertion site pain. The overall port-related infection was 3 cases (6.8%, 0.28/1000 catheter days). Venous port placement by interventional radiologists in children under intravenous sedation is relatively safe, with a high rate of technical success and low rate of complications.

  3. How to characterize the efficiency of policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions? A method of analysis in an uncertain universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amant, Stephane

    2011-01-01

    For ADEME (the French Agence de l'Environnement et de la Maitrise de l'Energie), Carbone 4, a consulting firm, has developed several tools that apply a methodology for assessing the efficiency of policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This methodology is based on two criteria: the 'full cost per ton of avoided CO 2 equivalent' and the 'potential of avoided emissions'. It is original in that it compares measurements in quite different socioeconomic contexts and thus yields elements that are useful for making choices in an uncertain universe, as shall be increasingly necessary. This methodology brings to light the key factors determining a measure's efficiency and thus identifies the conditions for its success or failure. It is a precious tool for decision-making

  4. The cost-effectiveness of household photovoltaic systems in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: Linking subsidies with emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtt, D.; Dargusch, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Payback period for Australian household PV fell to four years in 2011 and 2012. • PV became attractive due to high feed-in tariffs and declining PV costs. • Cost was AU$200/t CO 2 e in 2010, expected to be AU$65 to AU$100/t CO 2 e by 2020. • PV resulted in greenhouse gas emissions reducing by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013. • PV expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8 million t CO 2 e in 2020. - Abstract: This paper examines the cost-effectiveness of subsidies (feed-in tariffs and renewable energy credits) paid for by electricity consumers to support the uptake of roof top photovoltaic (PV) systems by households in Australia. We estimate annual payback periods, and then regress these against the actual uptake of household PV and associated emission reductions, creating a relationship not apparent in other research. Sensitivity analysis reveals that the declining cost of PV panels had most impact on PV uptake followed by feed-in tariffs, renewable energy credits and the increasing cost of household electricity tariffs. Our modelling shows that feed-in tariffs were higher than necessary to achieve the resultant levels of PV uptake and that the low cost of PV panels and comparatively high electricity tariffs are likely to result in a continuing strong uptake of household PV in Australia. Our modelling shows that subsidies peaked in 2011 and 2012, with payback periods of three to four years, having since increased to five to six years. Emission reduction costs are expected to reduce from over AU$200 per t CO 2 e in 2013 to between AU$65 and AU$100 per t CO 2 e in 2020. Household PV reduced Australia’s emissions by 3.7 million t CO 2 e in 2013 (1.7% of Australia’s total emissions) and is expected to reach eight million tonnes (3.7% of Australia’s total emissions) by 2020

  5. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  6. Maximal venous outflow velocity: an index for iliac vein obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, T Matthew; Cassada, David C; Heidel, R Eric; Grandas, Oscar G; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Edmondson, James D; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2012-11-01

    Leg swelling is a common cause for vascular surgical evaluation, and iliocaval obstruction due to May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) can be difficult to diagnose. Physical examination and planar radiographic imaging give anatomic information but may miss the fundamental pathophysiology of MTS. Similarly, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the legs gives little information about central impedance of venous return above the inguinal ligament. We have modified the technique of duplex ultrasonography to evaluate the flow characteristics of the leg after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement, with the objective of revealing iliocaval obstruction characteristic of MTS. Twelve patients with signs and symptoms of MTS were compared with healthy control subjects for duplex-derived maximal venous outflow velocity (MVOV) after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement of the leg. The data for healthy control subjects were obtained from a previous study of asymptomatic volunteers using the same MVOV maneuvers. The tourniquet-induced venous engorgement mimics that caused during vigorous exercise. A right-to-left ratio of MVOV was generated for patient comparisons. Patients with clinical evidence of MTS had a mean right-to-left MVOV ratio of 2.0, asymptomatic control subjects had a mean ratio of 1.3, and MTS patients who had undergone endovascular treatment had a poststent mean ratio of 1.2 (P = 0.011). Interestingly, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging results, when available, were interpreted as positive in only 53% of the patients with MTS according to both our MVOV criteria and confirmatory venography. After intervention, the right-to-left MVOV ratio in the MTS patients was found to be reduced similar to asymptomatic control subjects, indicating a relief of central venous obstruction by stenting the compressive MTS anatomy. Duplex-derived MVOV measurements are helpful for detection of iliocaval venous obstruction, such as MTS. Right-to-left MVOV ratios and

  7. MRI in venous thromboembolic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sostman, H.D.; Debatin, J.F.; Spritzer, C.E.; Coleman, R.E.; Grist, T.M.; MacFall, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to detect deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). MR venography was performed on 217 patients suspected of having DVT. Cine-MR imaging of the pulmonary arteries was performed in 14 other patients who were thought to have PE based on other imaging studies. In a third group of 5 patients, MR pulmonary angiograms were performed in the sagittal and coronal planes with a multislice fast gradient recalled echo technique. All but one of the 217 MR venograms were technically adequate. In 72 patients with correlative imaging studies (venography and ultrasound) MR venography was 99% sensitive and 95% specific. On the basis of follow-up (mean 8.3 months), no false-negative MR venograms were detected in an additional 64 patients. In 11 other patients MR revealed a diagnosis other than DVT. Cine-MR showed PE in all 14 patients evaluated. MR pulmonary arteriography demonstrated filling defects consistent with acute PE in 2 of 3 patients with acute PE; in the third patient only a questionable filling defect was seen. Coarctations or webs were found in the pulmonary arteries of both patients with chronic PE. These preliminary data suggest that MR imaging may be able to evaluate both the peripheral venous and the pulmonary arterial component of venous thromboembolic disease. Further technical refinement and more extensive clinical experience will be required to establish the role of this method in diagnosing pulmonary embolism, but MR venography is now used routinely in our hospital for the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.)

  8. Significance of venous anastomosis in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yasunori; Doi, Kazuteru; Ikeda, Keisuke; Abe, Yukio; Dhawan, Vikas

    2003-03-01

    Adequate venous outflow is the most important factor for successful fingertip replantation. The authors have attempted venous anastomosis in all cases of fingertip replantation to overcome postoperative congestion. In this article, the significance of venous repair for fingertip replantation is described from the authors' results of 64 complete fingertip amputations in 55 consecutive patients, which were replanted from January of 1996 to June of 2001. The overall survival rate was 86 percent. Of the 44 replantations in zone I, 37 survived, and the success rate was 84 percent. Of the 20 replantations in zone II, 18 survived, and the success rate was 90 percent. Venous anastomosis was attempted in all cases, but it was possible in 39 zone I and in all zone II replantations. For arterial repair, vein grafts were necessary in 17 of the 44 zone I and in one of the 20 zone II replantations; for venous repair, they were necessary in six zone I replantations and one zone II replantation. Postoperative vascular complications occurred in 15 replantations. There were five cases of arterial thrombosis and 10 cases of venous congestion. Venous congestion occurred in nine zone I and one zone II replantations. In five of these 10 replantations, venous anastomosis was not possible. In another five replantations, venous outflow was established at the time of surgery, but occlusion occurred subsequently. Except for the five failures resulting from arterial thrombosis, successful venous repair was possible in 49 of 59 replantations (83 percent). Despite the demand for skillful microsurgical technique and longer operation time, the authors' results using venous anastomosis in successful fingertip replantations are encouraging. By performing venous anastomosis, external bleeding can be avoided and a higher survival rate can be achieved. Venous anastomosis for fingertip replantation is a reliable and worthwhile procedure.

  9. Cerebral sino-venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayama, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Tsunesaburo; Nakajima, Kenji

    1982-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral sino-venous thrombosis were reported. Repeated CT findings were studied and discussed on account of the treatments for those pathologic conditions. Those of studied cases are; a 22-year-old postpartum woman, a 42-year-old woman with irregular vaginal bleeding, and a 26-year-old man with severe reactive emesis after drinking alcohol. They were treated conservatively. Case 1 died in its acute stage. In the remaining ones, each had an uneventful recovery. CT scan findings of them manifested their exact clinical conditions. These findings were devided into two categories, one was direct signs expressed sino-venous occlusion, the other was indirect signs which appeared as a result of these occlusion. Direct signs cannot always get in every cases with sino-venous occlusion, but as for indirect signs, we can get various changes corresponding to the time taken CT photoes, and they are useful to decide appropriate treatments at that time. Considering suitable treatments for this disease, it is necessary to select most suitable ones according to their pathologic conditions, which may be precisely drawn with CT scans. (J.P.N.)

  10. How human-made greenhouse gas emissions can (really) be reduced; Comment (vraiment) reduire les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    To be efficient, any action undertaken in view of mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions requires that the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions not be confused with energy savings. Indeed, there is strict correlation between the two only if the energy savings achieved lead to fossil fuel savings. If a drastic reduction of greenhouse gas emissions were not mandatory, the conversion of our energy production and use would be less pressing, the known fossil fuel reserves being sufficient to supply humanity for at least one and a half centuries. Keeping these consideration in mind, under the control of its Scientific Council and with the help of partner organizations, STC has elaborated a set of proposals to reduce the economic activity's carbon content without affecting in any fundamental way the life style of the populations concerned while leaving room for economic growth in developing countries. In this sense, the 'Negatep' scenario put forward by STC is fundamentally different from the 'Negawatt' type scenarios. The options we recommend are ranked according to their economic efficiency. The index that is conventionally used to compare conceivable solutions is known as the 'cost of carbon avoided' for a given action. It consists in estimating the additional cost of the action considered in relation to the amount of carbon whose release to the atmosphere is avoided thanks to the action. The index is measured in Euros per metric ton of carbon avoided. Summary of the actions and recommendations put forward by 'Save the Climate' for energy production and energy efficiency are argued in further detail in this document. (A.L.B.)

  11. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum on Reducing Soluble Phosphorus in Successive Runoff Events from a Coastal Plain Bermudagrass Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the threat that pastures intensively managed with poultry litter (PL) pose to accelerating eutrophication is a major issue in the southeastern United States. Gypsum (CaSO) has been identified as a promising management tool for ameliorating litter P losses to runoff. Thus, research was conducted to elucidate gypsum's residual effects on P losses from a bermudagrass ( L.) pasture. Runoff events (60 min) were created using rainfall simulations. Treatments consisted of applying four flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum rates (0, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.9 Mg ha) to bermudagrass fertilized with 13.4 Mg ha PL plus a nonfertilized check (no litter or gypsum) and 8.9 Mg ha FGD gypsum only as controls. Rainfall simulations (∼ 85 mm h) were conducted immediately, 5 wk, and 6 mo (i.e., at the end of growing season) after PL application to determine gypsum's effectiveness at controlling P loss over successive runoff events. The greatest dissolved P (DP) in runoff occurred immediately after PL application. Gypsum effectively reduced cumulative DP concentration losses (54%) compared with PL alone in initial runoff events. Gypsum reduced DP concentrations in succeeding runoff events also regardless of timing, suggesting that its effect is persistent and will not diminish over a growing season. Generally, maximum DP reductions were achieved with 8.9 Mg ha. However, it was surmised from this study that optimal P reduction in a bermudagrass pasture can be achieved with 4.4 Mg ha. Information ascertained from this study may be useful in aiding land managers making prescriptions for management practices that reduce DP losses from agricultural fields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Early action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions before the commitment period of the Kyoto protocol: advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelowa, A; Rolfe, C

    2001-09-01

    Current "business as usual" projections suggest greenhouse gas emissions from industrialized nations will grow substantially over the next decade. However, if it comes into force, the Kyoto Protocol will require industrialized nations to reduce emissions to an average of 5% below 1990 levels in the 2008-2012 period. Taking early action to close this gap has a number of advantages. It reduces the risks of passing thresholds that trigger climate change "surprises." Early action also increases future generations' ability to choose greater levels of climate protection, and it leads to faster reductions of other pollutants. From an economic sense, early action is important because it allows shifts to less carbon-intensive technologies during the course of normal capital stock turnover. Moreover, many options for emission reduction have negative costs, and thus are economically worthwhile, because of paybacks in energy costs, healthcare costs, and other benefits. Finally, early emission reductions enhance the probability of successful ratification and lower the risk of noncompliance with the protocol. We discuss policy approaches for the period prior to 2008. Disadvantages of the current proposals for Credit for Early Action are the possibility of adverse selection due to problematic baseline calculation methods as well as the distributionary impacts of allocating a part of the emissions budget already before 2008. One simple policy without drawbacks is the so-called baseline protection, which removes the disincentive to early action due to the expectation that businesses may, in the future, receive emission rights in proportion to past emissions. It is particularly important to adopt policies that shift investment in long-lived capital stock towards less carbon-intensive technologies and to encourage innovation and technology development that will reduce future compliance costs.

  13. Applying data envelopment analysis approach to improve energy efficiency and reduce GHG (greenhouse gas) emission of wheat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Rafiee, Shahin; Omid, Mahmoud; Mousazadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In this study, DEA (data envelopment analysis) was applied to analyze the energy efficiency of wheat farms in order to separate efficient and inefficient growers and to calculate the wasteful uses of energy. Additionally, the degrees of TE (technical efficiency), PTE (pure technical efficiency) and SE (scale efficiency) were determined. Furthermore, the effect of energy optimization on GHG (greenhouse gas) emission was investigated and the total amount of GHG emission of efficient farms was compared with inefficient ones. Based on the results it was revealed that 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was calculated as 0.82. Based on the BCC (Banker–Charnes–Cooper) model 154 growers (59%) were identified efficient and the mean PTE of these farmers was found to be 0.99. Also, it was concluded that 2075.8 MJ ha −1 of energy inputs can be saved if the performance of inefficient farms rises to a high level. Additionally, it was observed that the total GHG emission from efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 , respectively. By energy optimization the total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq . ha −1 . - Highlights: • 18% of producers were technically efficient and the average of TE was 0.82. • An average 2075.8 MJ ha −1 from energy input could be saved without reducing the yield. • GHG emission of efficient and inefficient producers was 2713.3 and 2740.8 kg CO 2eq. ha −1 . • Total GHG emission can be reduced to the value of 2684.29 kg CO 2eq. ha −1

  14. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A; Madoff, David C

    2015-07-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. Analysis of the vertebral venous system in relation to cerebral venous drainage on MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Seung Kug; Sohn, Chul Ho; Kim, Gab Chul; Kim, Yong Sun

    2004-01-01

    In the supine position, cerebral venous drainage occurs primarily through the internal jugular veins, as seen on venous phase cerebral angiography. However, in the erect position, the vertebral venous system represents the major alternative pathway of cerebral venous drainage, while outflow through the internal jugular veins is absent or negligible. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vertebral venous system and its relationship between the surrounding venous structures using magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the case of subjects in the supine position. We retrospectively reviewed the results of 65 patients (M:F = 31: 34, mean age 61.6 years) who underwent multi-phase contrast-enhanced carotid MRA. The imaging studies were performed using a 3.0 T MR unit (TR: 5.2, TE: 1.1, FA: 20, 3.8 thickness, EC: 1). We analyzed the appearance and extent of the vertebral venous system (vertebral venous plexus and vertebral artery venous plexus) and the internal jugular vein on the venous phase images. We also evaluated the main drainage pattern of the cerebral venous drainage and the drainage pattern of the vertebral venous system. The visualized vertebral venous system was defined as either poor, vertebral venous plexus dominant, vertebral artery venous plexus dominant or mixed. In the vertebral venous system, the vertebral artery venous plexus was visualized in 54 cases (83%). The appearance of the visualized vertebral artery venous plexus was symmetrical in 39 cases (72%) and asymmetrical in 15 cases (28%). The extent of the visualized vertebral artery venous plexus was partial in 26 cases (48%) and complete in 28 cases (52%). The vertebral venous plexus was visualized in 62 cases (95%). The appearance of the visualized vertebral artery venous plexus was symmetrical in 43 cases (69%) and asymmetrical in 19 cases (31%). The extent of the visualized vertebral artery venous plexus was partial in 35 cases (56%) and complete in 27 cases (44%). The appearance of the

  16. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriëtte; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michaël A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective observational controlled study. Setting: Nonacademic university-affiliated

  17. Prevention of venous pain and phlebitis caused by epirubicin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masakazu; Matsui, Masateru; Harada, Masanori; Yamauchi, Yumiko; Moriyama, Nao; Andou, Kanae; Yamamoto, Makoto; Yamaoka, Hisayo; Ono, Chiemi; Ishikawa, Mami; Kamo, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Tadashi; Yamaoka, Keiko

    2009-06-01

    Many patients complain of venous pain or develop phlebitis following treatment with epirubicin hydrochloride(EPI). To ensure effective and safe treatment with this drug, it is essential to deal with the adverse events associated with it appropriately. At our hospital, EPI was previously administered by drip infusion(diluted with 50mL of physiological saline)over 15 minutes after pretreatment(EPI main route). With this method of treatment, venous pain and phlebitis developed in 14 of 15 cases. In 3 of these 14 cases, the regimen was modified. Following this experience, EPI administration was switched to drip infusion from the fully-opened side tube used for pretreatment(EPI sub-route). Switching to this route resulted in a sharp decrease in the incidence of venous pain and phlebitis, to only 1 of 15 cases. Stimulation of vascular tunica intima by EPI has been considered a factor principally responsible for the venous pain and phlebitis seen after EPI therapy. To prevent these adverse reactions, it is necessary to modify the method of administration so that strong or long-term exposure of blood vessels to EPI can be reduced. The results of this study suggest that the EPI sub-route we devised is useful in achieving this goal.

  18. Optimal distributed energy resources and the cost of reduced greenhouse gas emissions in a large retail shopping centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braslavsky, Julio H.; Wall, Josh R.; Reedman, Luke J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal options for distributed energy resources are analysed for a shopping centre. • A multiobjective optimisation model is formulated and solved using DER-CAM. • Cost and emission trade-offs are compared in four key optimal investment scenarios. • Moderate investment in DER technologies lowers emissions by 29.6% and costs by 8.5%. • Larger investment in DER technologies lowers emissions by 72% at 47% higher costs. - Abstract: This paper presents a case study on optimal options for distributed energy resource (DER) technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in a large retail shopping centre located in Sydney, Australia. Large retail shopping centres take the largest share of energy consumed by all commercial buildings, and present a strong case for adoption of DER technologies to reduce energy costs and emissions. However, the complexity of optimally designing and operating DER systems has hindered their widespread adoption in practice. This paper examines and demonstrates the value of DER in reducing the carbon footprint of the shopping centre by formulating and solving a multiobjective optimisation problem using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) tool. An economic model of the shopping centre is developed in DER-CAM using on-site-specific demand, tariffs, and performance data for each DER technology option available. Four key optimal DER technology investment scenarios are then analysed by comparing: (1) solution trade-offs of costs and emissions, (2) the cost of reduced emissions attained in each investment scenario, and (3) investment benefits with respect to the business-as-usual scenario. The analysis shows that a moderate investment in combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP) technology alone can reduce annual energy costs by 8.5% and carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions by 29.6%. A larger investment in CCHP technology, in conjunction with on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) generation, can deliver

  19. [Intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower extremity muscles in complex prophylactics of postoperative venous thromboses in elderly and senile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, N I; Openchenko, S V

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of frequency of venous thrombitic complications after different operations on 69 patients aged from 69 through 87 was made. The greatest number of venous thromboses was noted after amputations of the femur. Intermittent pneumatic compression of the lower extremities in addition to standard methods of prophylactics reduced the number of postoperative thromboses from 12.8% to 3.3%.

  20. Clinicoroentgenological diagnosis of chronic venous ovarian insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grakova, L.S.; Galkin, E.V.; Naumova, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is devoted to clinicoroentgenological correlations of venous renogonadal hemodynamics in 168 women of reproductive age (151 women with infertility, habitual abortion, disordered menstrual function and 17 patients without disorders of the reproductive tract). Clinicolaboratory investigation was followed by visceral and parietal flebography for the detection of a pathological venous reflux into the ovarian pampiniform plexus. Clinicoroentgenological semiotics of chronic venous ovarian insufficiency was analyzed. Infertility was shown to be the main clinical manifestation of ovarian varicocele

  1. Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide as a high sensitivity of gas sensor for NO2 detection at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhibin; Tan, Li; Yang, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tao, Jin; Zhang, Nan; Wen, Fusheng

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as one of the most serious air pollution is harmful to people's health, therefore high-performance gas sensors is critically needed. Here, Cu-modified carbon spheres/reduced graphene oxide (Cu@CS/RGO) composite have been prepared as NO2 gas sensor material. Carbon sphere in the interlayer of RGO can increase the specific surface area of RGO. Copper nanoparticles decorated on the surface of CS can effectively enhance the adsorption activity of RGO as supplier of free electrons. The experimental results showed that its particular structure improved the gas sensitivity of RGO at different NO2 concentrations at room temperature.

  2. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such

  3. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double

  4. Soil pH management without lime, a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Shahid; Bakken, Lars; Reent Köster, Jan; Tore Mørkved, Pål; Simon, Nina; Dörsch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For decades, agricultural scientists have searched for methods to reduce the climate forcing of food production by increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and reducing the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). The outcome of this research is depressingly meagre and the two targets appear incompatible: efforts to increase carbon sequestration appear to enhance the emissions of N2O. Currently there is a need to find alternative management strategies which may effectively reduce both the CO2 and N2O footprints of food production. Soil pH is a master variable in soil productivity and plays an important role in controlling the chemical and biological activity in soil. Recent investigations of the physiology of denitrification have provided compelling evidence that the emission of N2O declines with increasing pH within the range 5-7. Thus, by managing the soil pH at a near neutral level appears to be a feasible way to reduce N2O emissions. Such pH management has been a target in conventional agriculture for a long time, since a near-neutral pH is optimal for a majority of cultivated plants. The traditional way to counteract acidification of agricultural soils is to apply lime, which inevitably leads to emission of CO2. An alternative way to increase the soil pH is the use of mafic rock powders, which have been shown to counteract soil acidification, albeit with a slower reaction than lime. Here we report a newly established field trail in Norway, in which we compare the effects of lime and different mafic mineral and rock powders (olivine, different types of plagioclase) on CO2 and N2O emissions under natural agricultural conditions. Soil pH is measured on a monthly basis from all treatment plots. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements are carried out on a weekly basis using static chambers and an autonomous robot using fast box technique. Field results from the first winter (fallow) show immediate effect of lime on soil pH, and slower effects of the mafic rocks. The

  5. A lot left over: Reducing CO2 emissions in the United States’ electric power sector through the use of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafrancois, Becky A.

    2012-01-01

    As the leading contributor of greenhouse gas emissions, the electricity sector stands to be impacted by policies seeking to curtail emissions. Instead of increasing electricity from renewable resources or nuclear power facilities, an alternative approach to reducing emissions in the electric power sector is changing the dispatch order of fossil fuels. Important differences between fossil fuels, and in the technologies used to burn them, make it possible to substantially reduce emissions from the sector. On average, each gigawatt-year of electricity generation switched from coal to natural gas reduces CO 2 emissions by 59 percent. As a result of significant investments in natural gas fired power plants in the United States between 1998 and 2005, there is an opportunity for electricity producers to take advantage of underutilized capacity. This is the first study to closely examine the new capital additions and analyze the technical potential for reductions in emissions. The analysis finds that 188 GW of capacity may be available to replace coal-fired baseload electricity generation. Utilizing this excess gas-fired capacity will reduce the sector's CO 2 emissions by 23 to 42 percent and reduce overall U.S. CO 2 emissions between 9 percent and 17 percent. - Highlights: ► Utilizing recently built natural gas fired power plants can significantly reduce CO 2 emissions in the United States. ► CO 2 emissions from electricity production can be reduced by 23–42 percent. ► U.S. overall CO 2 emissions reduced by 9–17 percent.

  6. Cost Benefit Analysis of Using Clean Energy Supplies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Global Automotive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Automotive manufacturing is energy-intensive. The consumed energy contributes to the generation of significant amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by the automotive manufacturing industry. In this paper, a study is conducted on assessing the application potential of such clean energy power systems as solar PV, wind and fuel cells in reducing the GHG emissions of the global auto manufacturing industry. The study is conducted on the representative solar PV, wind and fuel cell clean energy systems available on the commercial market in six representative locations of GM’s global facilities, including the United States, Mexico, Brazil, China, Egypt and Germany. The results demonstrate that wind power is superior to other two clean energy technologies in the economic performance of the GHG mitigation effect. Among these six selected countries, the highest GHG emission mitigation potential is in China, through wind power supply. The maximum GHG reduction could be up to 60 tons per $1,000 economic investment on wind energy supply in China. The application of wind power systems in the United States and Germany could also obtain relatively high GHG reductions of between 40–50 tons per $1,000 economic input. When compared with wind energy, the use of solar and fuel cell power systems have much less potential for GHG mitigation in the six countries selected. The range of median GHG mitigation values resulting from solar and wind power supply are almost at the same level.

  7. Beneficial effect of compost utilization on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in a rice cultivation system through the overall management chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Tak; Kim, Gil Won; Hwang, Hyun Young; Kim, Pil Joo; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2018-02-01

    Livestock manure application can stimulate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, especially methane (CH 4 ) in rice paddy. The stabilized organic matter (OM) is recommended to suppress CH 4 emission without counting the additional GHG emission during the composting process. To evaluate the effect of compost utilization on the net global warming potential (GWP) of a rice cropping system, the fluxes of GHGs from composting to land application were calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA) method. The model framework was composed of GHG fluxes from industrial activities and biogenic GHG fluxes from the composting and rice cultivation processes. Fresh manure emitted 30MgCO 2 -eq.ha -1 , 90% and 10% of which were contributed by CH 4 and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes, respectively, during rice cultivation. Compost utilization decreased net GWP by 25% over that of the fresh manure during the whole process. The composting process increased the GWP of the industrial processes by 35%, but the 60% reduction in CH 4 emissions from the rice paddy mainly influenced the reduction of GWP during the overall process. Therefore, compost application could be a good management strategy to reduce GHG emissions from rice paddy systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Water availability drives gas exchange and growth of trees in northeastern US, not elevated CO2 and reduced acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2017-04-10

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) exhibit high uncertainty about how climate change, elevated atmospheric CO 2 (atm. CO 2 ) concentration, and atmospheric pollutants will impact carbon sequestration in forested ecosystems. Although the individual roles of these environmental factors on tree growth are understood, analyses examining their simultaneous effects are lacking. We used tree-ring isotopic data and structural equation modeling to examine the concurrent and interacting effects of water availability, atm. CO 2 concentration, and SO 4 and nitrogen deposition on two broadleaf tree species in a temperate mesic forest in the northeastern US. Water availability was the strongest driver of gas exchange and tree growth. Wetter conditions since the 1980s have enhanced stomatal conductance, photosynthetic assimilation rates and, to a lesser extent, tree radial growth. Increased water availability seemingly overrides responses to reduced acid deposition, CO 2 fertilization, and nitrogen deposition. Our results indicate that water availability as a driver of ecosystem productivity in mesic temperate forests is not adequately represented in DGVMs, while CO 2 fertilization is likely overrepresented. This study emphasizes the importance to simultaneously consider interacting climatic and biogeochemical drivers when assessing forest responses to global environmental changes.

  9. Use of screening techniques to reduce uncertainty in risk assessment at a former manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, C.M.; Walden, R.H.; Baker, S.R.; Pekar, Z.; LaKind, J.S.; MacFarlane, I.D.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of risks from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site revealed six media associated with potential exposure pathways: soils, air, surface water, groundwater, estuarine sediments, and aquatic biota. Contaminants of concern (COCs) include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic hydrocarbons, metals, cyanide, and PCBs. Available chemical data, including site-specific measurements and existing data from other sources (e.g., agency monitoring programs, Chesapeake Bay Program), were evaluated for potential utility in risk assessment. Where sufficient data existed, risk calculations were performed using central tendency and reasonable maximum exposure estimates. Where site-specific data were not available, risks were estimated using conservatively high default assumptions for dose and/or exposure duration. Because of the large number of potential exposure pathways and COCs, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine which information most influences risk assessment outcome so that any additional data collection to reduce uncertainty can be cost-effectively targeted. The sensitivity analysis utilized two types of information: (1) the impact that uncertainty in risk input values has on output risk estimates, and (2) the potential improvement in key risk input values, and consequently output values, if better site-specific data were available. A decision matrix using both quantitative and qualitative information was developed to prioritize sampling strategies to minimize uncertainty in the final risk assessment

  10. Gas Supersaturation May Reduce the Survival of Yearling Chinook Salmon in the Lower Columbia River and Ocean Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Ian; Welch, David; Scott, Melinda Jacobs

    2015-01-01

    Unusually high flows in the Columbia River in 2011 raised total dissolved gas (TDG) levels in the river above the 120 percent legal limit imposed to prevent harmful impacts to aquatic organisms. This provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the effect on smolt survival. In-river (IR) migrating juvenile yearling Chinook released at Bonneville Dam with acoustic tags during periods when TDG exceeded 120 percent received estimated maximum exposures of 134 TDG. Subsequent daily survival rates in the lower river and plume were reduced by 0.06 per day (SE equals 0.01) and 0.15 per day (SE equals 0.05) relative to IR migrant fish released when TDG was less than 120 percent. Transported smolts (T) released 10-13 kilometers below Bonneville Dam had lower maximum exposure levels (126 percent) and experienced no difference in daily survival rates relative to unexposed smolts. River temperature levels and trends in turbidity and disease prevalence between releases of high and low exposure smolts were not consistent with the observed effects on survival rates. We conclude that smolts may suffer from chronic effects of elevated TDG exposure while migrating through the Columbia River and plume. Consideration should be given to measuring these survival losses in an explicit experimental framework that isolates possible confounding factors.

  11. Reference values for venous and capillary S100B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil; Lanke, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The current management guidelines for pediatric mild head injury (MHI) liberally recommend computed tomography (CT) and frequent admission. Serum protein S100B, currently used in management of adult head injury, has recently shown potential for reducing unnecessary CT scans after pediatric mild h...... head injury. Capillary sampling in children is commonly used when venous sampling fails or is inappropriate. We present reference values for both venous and capillary samples of protein S100B in children....

  12. Hyperthyroidism and cerebral venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouton, S; Nighoghossian, N; Berruyer, M; Derex, L; Philippeau, F; Cakmak, S; Honnorat, J; Hermier, M; Trouillas, P

    2005-01-01

    The demonstration of an underlying prothrombotic condition in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may have important practical consequences in terms of prevention. Thyrotoxicosis through a hypercoagulable state may be a predisposing factor for CVT. The authors present the cases of 4 patients who developed CVT and hyperthyroidism. At the acute stage, hyperthyroidism was associated with an increase in factor VIII (FVIII). At follow-up, FVIII level remained increased in 2 patients. Hyperthyroidism may have an impact on FVIII level. Accordingly in patients with hyperthyroidism and neurological symptoms, the diagnosis of CVT should be considered and an exhaustive coagulation screening may be appropriate. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The effect of ankle joint immobilization on lower limb venous flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Johnathan D; Clark, Amanda; Hendry, James; Sott, Andrea H; Hamilton, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Below-knee cast immobilization is associated with an increased risk of developing deep vein thrombosis secondary to venous stasis. We investigated the effect of weight-bearing in a below-knee cast or pneumatic walking boot on lower limb venous blood flow. Duplex ultrasonography was used to measure venous blood flow in the popliteal vein of 10 healthy volunteers. Venous blood flow was measured while at rest, ambulating non-weight-bearing, partial weight-bearing, and full weight-bearing. Measurements were performed without ankle joint immobilization, with the ankle immobilized in a neutral cast, and with the ankle immobilized in a pneumatic walking boot in both neutral and equinus. There was no significant reduction in venous blood flow measurements between full weight-bearing without ankle joint immobilization and full weight-bearing in a neutral cast or neutral pneumatic walking boot. However, venous blood flow was reduced when partial weight-bearing (50%) and when full weight-bearing in a pneumatic walking boot in equinus. These results demonstrate that venous blood flow returned to normal levels when the subjects were permitted to fully bear weight in below-knee casts or walking boots, provided that the ankle joint was not in equinus. Weight-bearing status and ankle joint position should be appreciated during decisions for the provision of chemical thromboprophylaxis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Sharp boron spikes in silicon grown at reduced and atmospheric pressure by fast-gas-switching CVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A.T.; Roksnoer, P.J.; Maes, J.W.F.M.; Vriezema, C.J.; IJzendoorn, van L.J.; Zalm, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Boron doping spikes in Si were grown by fast-gas-switching CVD at 800 and 850°C using Si2H6 and B2H6 in 0.03, 0.1 and 1 atm H2 as the carrier gas. The B2H6 doping gas was added for 2 s by two methods, namely during growth or as a flush while the Si2H6 flow was interrupted. High-resolution SIMS

  15. Use of a Tantalum Liner to Reduce Bore Erosion and Increase Muzzle Velocity in Two-Stage Light Gas Guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Muzzle velocities and gun erosion predicted by earlier numerical simulations of two stage light gas guns with steel gun tubes were in good agreement with experimental values. In a subsequent study, simulations of high performance shots were repeated with rhenium (Re) gun tubes. Large increases in muzzle velocity (2 - 4 km/sec) were predicted for Re tubes. In addition, the hydrogen-produced gun tube erosion was, in general, predicted to be zero with Re tubes. Tantalum (Ta) has some mechanical properties superior to those of Re. Tantalum has a lower modulus of elasticity than Re for better force transmission from the refractory metal liner to an underlying thick wall steel tube. Tantalum also has greater ductility than Re for better survivability during severe stress/strain cycles. Also, tantalum has been used as a coating or liner in military powder guns with encouraging results. Tantalum has, however, somewhat inferior thermal properties to those of rhenium, with a lower melting point and lower density and thermal conductivity. The present study was undertaken to see to what degree the muzzle velocity gains of rhenium gun tubes (over steel tubes) could be achieved with tantalum gun tubes. Nine high performance shots were modeled with a new version of our CFD gun code for steel, rhenium and tantalum gun tubes. For all except the highest velocity shot, the results with Ta tubes were nearly identical with those for Re tubes. Even for the highest velocity shot, the muzzle velocity gain over a steel tube using Ta was 82% of the gain obtained using Re. Thus, the somewhat inferior thermal properties of Ta (when compared to those of Re) translate into only very slightly poorer overall muzzle velocity performance. When this fact is combined with the superior mechanical properties of Ta and the encouraging performance of Ta liners/coatings in military powder guns, tantalum is to be preferred over Re as a liner/coating material for two stage light gas guns to increase muzzle

  16. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  17. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the U.S. (U.S. EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the U.S. This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then

  18. Opportunities to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the US pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nathan; Anglani, N.; Einstein, D.; Khrushch, M.; Worrell, E.; Price, L.K.

    2000-07-01

    The pulp and paper industry accounts for over 12% of total manufacturing energy use in the US (US EIA 1997a), contributing 9% to total manufacturing carbon dioxide emissions. In the last twenty-five years primary energy intensity in the pulp and paper industry has declined by an average of 1% per year. However, opportunities still exist to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the manufacture of paper in the US This report analyzes the pulp and paper industry (Standard Industrial Code (SIC) 26) and includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of paper, providing typical energy use in each process step. We identify over 45 commercially available state-of-the-art technologies and measures to reduce energy use and calculate potential energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions reductions. Given the importance of paper recycling, our analysis examines two cases. Case A identifies potential primary energy savings without accounting for an increase in recycling, while Case B includes increasing paper recycling. In Case B the production volume of pulp is reduced to account for additional pulp recovered from recycling. We use a discount rate of 30% throughout our analysis to reflect the investment decisions taken in a business context. Our Case A results indicate that a total technical potential primary energy savings of 31% (1013 PJ) exists. For case A we identified a cost-effective savings potential of 16% (533 PJ). Carbon dioxide emission reductions from the energy savings in Case A are 25% (7.6 MtC) and 14% (4.4 MtC) for technical and cost-effective potential, respectively. When recycling is included in Case B, overall technical potential energy savings increase to 37% (1215 PJ) while cost-effective energy savings potential is 16%. Increasing paper recycling to high levels (Case B) is nearly cost-effective assuming a cut-off for cost-effectiveness of a simple payback period of 3 years. If this measure is included, then the

  19. Early thrombus removal strategies for acute deep venous thrombosis: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Mark H; Gloviczki, Peter; Comerota, Anthony J; Dalsing, Michael C; Eklof, Bo G; Gillespie, David L; Lohr, Joann M; McLafferty, Robert B; Murad, M Hassan; Padberg, Frank; Pappas, Peter; Raffetto, Joseph D; Wakefield, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    The anticoagulant treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT) has been historically directed toward the prevention of recurrent venous thromboembolism. However, such treatment imperfectly protects against late manifestations of the postthrombotic syndrome. By restoring venous patency and preserving valvular function, early thrombus removal strategies can potentially decrease postthrombotic morbidity. A committee of experts in venous disease was charged by the Society for Vascular Surgery and the American Venous Forum to develop evidence-based practice guidelines for early thrombus removal strategies, including catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis, pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and surgical thrombectomy. Evidence-based recommendations are based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relevant literature, supplemented when necessary by less rigorous data. Recommendations are made according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, incorporating the strength of the recommendation (strong: 1; weak: 2) and an evaluation of the level of the evidence (A to C). On the basis of the best evidence currently available, we recommend against routine use of the term "proximal venous thrombosis" in favor of more precise characterization of thrombi as involving the iliofemoral or femoropopliteal venous segments (Grade 1A). We further suggest the use of early thrombus removal strategies in ambulatory patients with good functional capacity and a first episode of iliofemoral DVT of venous outflow obstruction (Grade 1A). We suggest pharmacomechanical strategies over catheter-directed pharmacologic thrombolysis alone if resources are available and that surgical thrombectomy be considered if thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated (Grade 2C). Most data regarding early thrombus removal strategies are of low quality but do suggest patient-important benefits with respect to reducing postthrombotic morbidity. We

  20. Pulmonary venous abnormalities encountered on pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) elegantly renders pulmonary venous anatomy. With increasing numbers of radiofrequency ablation procedures being performed, there is now a greater emphasis on pre-procedure imaging to delineate this anatomy. Pulmonary venous mapping studies can be performed with or ...

  1. Sex-specific aspects of venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roach, Rachel Elizabeth Jo

    2014-01-01

    Venous thrombosis is a disease that occurs in 1-2 per 1000 people per year. At the time of their first venous thrombosis, approximately 50% of women are exposed to reproductive risk factors (oral contraception, postmenopausal hormone therapy, pregnancy and the puerperium). In this thesis, we showed

  2. Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Thrombocytopenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jens Kristian; Ellingsen Moe, Espen; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent and potentially lethal condition. Venous thrombi are mainly constituted of fibrin and red blood cells, but platelets also play an important role in VTE formation. Information about VTE in patients with thrombocytopenia is, however, missing. O...... having thrombocytopenia with VTE seem to be safely treated with anticoagulants without increased occurrence of bleeding....

  3. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  4. A BMPy Road for Venous Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lauren M; Kahn, Mark L

    2017-09-11

    Detailed molecular pathways for the specific growth of arteries and lymphatic vessels have been identified, but the mechanisms controlling venous vessel growth have been obscure. Tischfield and colleagues (2017) shed new light on this problem by identifying a role for BMP signaling in development of the cerebral venous system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrasound as a Screening Tool for Central Venous Catheter Positioning and Exclusion of Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Rabia; Knio, Ziyad O; Mahmood, Feroze; Oren-Grinberg, Achikam; Leibowitz, Akiva; Bose, Ruma; Shaefi, Shahzad; Mitchell, John D; Ahmed, Muneeb; Bardia, Amit; Talmor, Daniel; Matyal, Robina

    2017-07-01

    Although real-time ultrasound guidance during central venous catheter insertion has become a standard of care, postinsertion chest radiograph remains the gold standard to confirm central venous catheter tip position and rule out associated lung complications like pneumothorax. We hypothesize that a combination of transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound is noninferior to chest radiograph when used to accurately assess central venous catheter positioning and screen for pneumothorax. All operating rooms and surgical and trauma ICUs at the institution. Single-center, prospective noninferiority study. Patients receiving ultrasound-guided subclavian or internal jugular central venous catheters. During ultrasound-guided central venous catheter placement, correct positioning of central venous catheter was accomplished by real-time visualization of the guide wire and positive right atrial swirl sign using the subcostal four-chamber view. After insertion, pneumothorax was ruled out by the presence of lung sliding and seashore sign on M-mode. Data analysis was done for 137 patients. Chest radiograph ruled out pneumothorax in 137 of 137 patients (100%). Lung ultrasound was performed in 123 of 137 patients and successfully screened for pneumothorax in 123 of 123 (100%). Chest radiograph approximated accurate catheter tip position in 136 of 137 patients (99.3%). Adequate subcostal four-chamber views could not be obtained in 13 patients. Accurate positioning of central venous catheter with ultrasound was then confirmed in 121 of 124 patients (97.6%) as described previously. Transthoracic echocardiography and lung ultrasound are noninferior to chest x-ray for screening of pneumothorax and accurate central venous catheter positioning. Thus, the point of care use of ultrasound can reduce central venous catheter insertion to use time, exposure to radiation, and improve patient safety.

  6. Reduction of carboxyhaemoglobin levels in the venous blood of cigarette smokers following the administration of carbogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Graham; Kondor, Natalie; Yousefi, Vandad; Green, Alex; Wong, Frances; Aquino-Parsons, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have high carboxyhaemoglobin levels which can promote tumour radioresistance. Inhalation of carbogen gas shortens the half-life of carboxyhaemoglobin, increasing tumour radiosensitivity in animal models. Breathing 2.5% carbogen for 30 min results in a greater reduction in venous blood COHb levels than breathing 5% carbogen for 7 min

  7. Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    Based on a literature search, an overview is presented of the pathophysiology of venous and arterial gas embolism in the experimental and clinical environment, as well as the relevance and aims of diagnostics and treatment of gas embolism. The review starts with a few historical observations and

  8. Evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a feedlot surface amendment to reduce ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas emissions from beef feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from concentrated feeding operations are a concern. The poultry industry has successfully used aluminum sulfate (Alum) as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 emissions from poultry barns. Alum has not been eval­uated for similar uses on cattle feedlot su...

  9. Methods to determine the relative value of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; de Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Current decisions on breeding in dairy farming are mainly based on economic values of heritable traits, as earning an income is a primary objective of farmers. Recent literature, however, shows that breeding also has potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this paper was to compare 2 methods to determine GHG values of genetic traits. Method 1 calculates GHG values using the current strategy (i.e., maximizing labor income), whereas method 2 is based on minimizing GHG per kilogram of milk and shows what can be achieved if the breeding results are fully directed at minimizing GHG emissions. A whole-farm optimization model was used to determine results before and after 1 genetic standard deviation improvement (i.e., unit change) of milk yield and longevity. The objective function of the model differed between method 1 and 2. Method 1 maximizes labor income; method 2 minimizes GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and total milk production at least at the level before the change in trait. Results show that the full potential of the traits to reduce GHG emissions given the boundaries that were set for income and milk production (453 and 441kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively) is about twice as high as the reduction based on maximizing labor income (247 and 210kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively). The GHG value of milk yield is higher than that of longevity, especially when the focus is on maximizing labor income. Based on a sensitivity analysis, it was shown that including emissions from land use change and using different methods for handling the interaction between milk and meat production can change results, generally in favor of milk yield. Results can be used by breeding organizations that want to include GHG values in their breeding goal. To verify GHG values, the effect of prices and emissions

  10. Induced venous pooling and cardiorespiratory responses to exercise after bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Sandler, H.; Webb, P.; Annis, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Venous pooling induced by a specially constructed garment is investigated as a possible means for reversing the reduction in maximal oxygen uptake regularly observed following bed rest. Experiments involved a 15-day period of bed rest during which four healthy male subjects, while remaining recumbent in bed, received daily 210-min venous pooling treatments from a reverse gradient garment supplying counterpressure to the torso. Results of exercise testing indicate that while maximal oxygen uptake endurance time and plasma volume were reduced and maximal heart rate increased after bed rest in the control group, those parameters remained essentially unchanged for the group undergoing venous pooling treatment. Results demonstrate the importance of fluid shifts and venous pooling within the cardiovascular system in addition to physical activity to the maintenance of cardiovascular conditioning.

  11. Rivaroxaban vs Warfarin and Risk of Post-Thrombotic Syndrome among Patients with Venous Thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mette; Nielsen, Peter Brønnum; Skjøth, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of rivaroxaban to reduce post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with venous thromboembolism is largely unknown. We compared rates of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients given rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a cohort of routine clinical care patients with incident venous...... thromboembolism. METHODS: We linked Danish nationwide registries to identify all patients with incident venous thromboembolism who were new users of rivaroxaban or warfarin and compared rates of post-thrombotic syndrome using an inverse probability of treatment weighting approach to account for baseline...... confounding. RESULTS: We identified 19,939 oral anticoagulation naive patients with incident venous thromboembolism treated with warfarin or rivaroxaban (mean age 64 years, 48% females, 45.5% with pulmonary embolism). The propensity-weighted rate of post-thrombotic syndrome at 3 years follow-up was 0...

  12. Management of Cavoatrial Deep Venous Thrombosis: Incorporating New Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Mohamed A.; De Silva, Gayan S.; Ramaswamy, Raja S.; Sanchez, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Cavoatrial deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is diagnosed with increasing prevalence. It can be managed medically with anticoagulation or with directed interventions aimed to efficiently reduce the thrombus burden within the target venous segment. The type of management chosen depends greatly on the etiology and chronicity of the thrombosis, existing patient comorbidities, and the patient's tolerance to anticoagulants and thrombolytic agents. In addition to traditional percutaneous catheter-based pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, other catheter-based suction thrombectomy techniques have emerged in recent years. Each therapeutic modality requires operator expertise and a coordinated care paradigm to facilitate successful outcomes. Open surgical thrombectomy is alternatively reserved for specific patient conditions, including intolerance of anticoagulation, failed catheter-based interventions, or acute emergencies. PMID:28265127

  13. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the commercial and industrial sectors in British Columbia: Technical/economic potential, market barriers, and strategies for success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, K.

    2000-05-01

    According to current forecasts, greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption by the commercial and industrial sector will increase from 11,000 kilotonnes to 16,000 kilotons between 1990 and 2015. During the same period electricity generated in British Columbia from fossil fuel combustion will have increased from five per cent to 26 per cent. Therefore, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions it will be imperative to find ways of significantly reducing the consumption of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products in both the commercial and industrial sectors. Increased application of energy conservation practices, energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching and the increased use of renewable energy sources come to mind as the most appropriate strategies to be considered, despite formidable barriers to implementation. Despite the existence of barriers, some progress is being made as indicated by codes and standards, financial incentives, educational and public awareness campaigns, and research and development programs. This report examines the barriers, the measures that have already been implemented to combat greenhouse gas emissions and the economic and environmental benefits that will accrue from these and other measures currently under development. The beneficial impact of increased investment in greenhouse gas emission reduction technologies on employment is emphasized. 24 refs., tabs., figs

  14. [Venous catheter-related infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Carmen; Almirante, Benito

    2014-02-01

    Venous catheter-related infections are a problem of particular importance, due to their frequency, morbidity and mortality, and because they are potentially preventable clinical processes. At present, the majority of hospitalized patients and a considerable number of outpatients are carriers of these devices. There has been a remarkable growth of knowledge of the epidemiology of these infections, the most appropriate methodology for diagnosis, the therapeutic and, in particular, the preventive strategies. Multimodal strategies, including educational programs directed at staff and a bundle of simple measures for implementation, applied to high-risk patients have demonstrated great effectiveness for their prevention. In this review the epidemiology, the diagnosis, and the therapeutic and preventive aspects of these infections are updated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  16. [Injection Pressure Evaluation of the New Venous Catheter with Side Holes for Contrast-enhanced CT/MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Junya; Arai, Keisuke; Miyazawa, Hitomi; Kobayashi, Kyouko; Nakamura, Junpei; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2018-01-01

    The simulation study was conducted for the new venous catheter with side holes of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the infusion pressure on four contrast media and several injection speeds. All infusion pressure of the new venous catheter with side holes were less than 15 kg/cm 2 as limitation of extension tube and also reduced the infusion pressure by 15% at the maximum compared to the catheter with single hole. The results suggest that the new venous catheter with side holes can reduce the infusion pressure by power injection of contrast-enhanced CT and MRI.

  17. Characterization of Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO-Loaded SnO2 Nanocomposite and Applications in C2H2 Gas Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Jin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylene (C2H2 gas sensors were developed by synthesizing a reduced graphene oxide (rGO-loaded SnO2 hybrid nanocomposite via a facile two-step hydrothermal method. Morphological characterizations showed the formation of well-dispersed SnO2 nanoparticles loaded on the rGO sheets with excellent transparency and obvious fold boundary. Structural analysis revealed good agreement with the standard crystalline phases of SnO2 and rGO. Gas sensing characteristics of the synthesized materials were carried out in a temperature range of 100–300 °C with various concentrations of C2H2 gas. At 180 °C, the SnO2–rGO hybrid showed preferable detection of C2H2 with high sensor response (12.4 toward 50 ppm, fast response-recovery time (54 s and 23 s, limit of detection (LOD of 1.3 ppm and good linearity, with good selectivity and long-term stability. Furthermore, the possible gas sensing mechanism of the SnO2–rGO nanocomposites for C2H2 gas were summarized and discussed in detail. Our work indicates that the addition of rGO would be effective in enhancing the sensing properties of metal oxide-based gas sensors for C2H2 and may make a contribution to the development of an excellent ppm-level gas sensor for on-line monitoring of dissolved C2H2 gas in transformer oil.

  18. Thermal and Evolved Gas Analysis of Calcite Under Reduced Operating Pressures: Implications for the 2011 MSL Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V. Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is scheduled for launch in 2011. The science objectives for MSL are to assess the past or present biological potential, to characterize the geology, and to investigate other planetary processes that influence habitability at the landing site. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) is a key instrument on the MSL payload that will explore the potential habitability at the landing site [1]. In addition to searching for organic compounds, SAM will have the capability to characterized evolved gases as a function of increasing temperature and provide information on the mineralogy of volatile-bearing phases such as carbonates, sulfates, phyllosilicates, and Fe-oxyhydroxides. The operating conditions in SAM ovens will be maintained at 30 mb pressure with a He carrier gas flowing at 1 sccm. We have previously characterized the thermal and evolved gas behaviors of volatile-bearing species under reduced pressure conditions that simulated operating conditions of the Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) that was onboard the 2007 Mars Phoenix Scout Mission [e.g., 2-8]. TEGA ovens operated at 12 mb pressure with a N2 carrier gas flowing at 0.04 sccm. Another key difference between SAM and TEGA is that TEGA was able to perform differential scanning calorimetry whereas SAM only has a pyrolysis oven. The operating conditions for TEGA and SAM have several key parameter differences including operating pressure (12 vs 30 mb), carrier gas (N2 vs. He), and carrier gas flow rate (0.04 vs 1 sccm). The objectives of this study are to characterize the thermal and evolved gas analysis of calcite under SAM operating conditions and then compare it to calcite thermal and evolved gas analysis under TEGA operating conditions.

  19. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E; Rosendahl, S; Huhmann, C; Weinheimer, C; Kettling, H

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring trace amounts of krypton in xenon using a cold trap with a residual gas analyzer has been developed, which achieves an increased sensitivity by temporarily reducing the pumping speed while expending a minimal amount of xenon. By partially closing a custom built butterfly valve between the measurement chamber and the turbomolecular pump, a sensitivity of 40 ppt has been reached. This method has been tested on an ultra-pure gas sample from Air Liquide with an unknown intrinsic krypton concentration, yielding a krypton concentration of 330±200 ppt.

  20. Bilateral catheter-directed thrombolysis in a patient with deep venous thrombosis caused by a hypoplastic inferior vena cava

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, S.; Van Nierop, J.; Kootstra, J. J.; Wittens, C.; Fritschy, W. M.

    Introduction Deep venous thrombosis treatment using catheter-directed thrombolysis is advocated over systemic thrombolysis because it reduces bleeding complications. With the development of a catheter that combines ultrasound vibrations and the local delivering of thrombolytics, new and safer

  1. Central venous catheters: the role of radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.L.; Gibson, M.

    2006-01-01

    The insertion and management of long-term venous catheters have long been the province of anaesthetists, intensive care physicians and surgeons. Radiologists are taking an increasing role in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) because of their familiarity with the imaging equipment and their ability to manipulate catheters and guide-wires. The radiological management of the complications of CVCs has also expanded as a result. This article reviews the role of radiology in central venous access, covering the detection and management of their complications

  2. [Sequelae of unilateral deep venous thrombosis in plethysmography of the calf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicot, M; Depairon, M

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four patients suffering from unilateral venous disturbances revealed by Doppler and secondary to a deep venous thrombosis were examined. The calf venous haemodynamics was analyzed by use of a strain-jauge plethysmograph. We determined the increase in venous volume due to the inflation of a thigh pneumatic cuff (pressure at 20, 40 and 60 mm Hg; delta V20, delta V40, delta V60). The maximal venous output (Vout) was measured after a quick release of the 60 mm Hg pressure. The maximal venous drainage (VMM) was assessed during a rhythmic exercise (tiptoeing) while standing; delta V20, delta V40 and delta V60 were nearly constantly reduced on the abnormal side (t of Student respectively 3.49; 6.09 and 5.07). Vout dropped proportionaly to delta V60. Some abnormalities due to valvular insufficiency were frequently present in the beginning of the inflation curve at the level of the abnormal limbs. VMM was nearly always largely decreased on the affected side (t = 5.43). The unilateral flow disturbances displayed by the Doppler were regularly going with abnormalities of the capacitive system, well demonstrated by comparison with the non-affected limbs.

  3. Effects of abdominal pressure on venous return: abdominal vascular zone conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, M; Wise, R A; Robotham, J L

    1990-12-01

    The effects of changes in abdominal pressure (Pab) on inferior vena cava (IVC) venous return were analyzed using a model of the IVC circulation based on a concept of abdominal vascular zone conditions analogous to pulmonary vascular zone conditions. We hypothesized that an increase in Pab would increase IVC venous return when the IVC pressure at the level of the diaphragm (Pivc) exceeds the sum of Pab and the critical closing transmural pressure (Pc), i.e., zone 3 conditions, but reduce IVC venous return when Pivc is below the sum of Pab and Pc, i.e., zone 2 conditions. The validity of the model was tested in 12 canine experiments with an open-chest IVC bypass. An increase in Pab produced by phrenic stimulation increased the IVC venous return when Pivc-Pab was positive but decreased the IVC venous return when Pivc - Pab was negative. The value of Pivc - Pab that separated net increases from decreases in venous return was 1.00 +/- 0.72 (SE) mmHg (n = 6). An increase in Pivc did not influence the femoral venous pressure when Pivc was lower than the sum of Pab and a constant, 0.96 +/- 0.70 mmHg (n = 6), consistent with presence of a waterfall. These results agreed closely with the predictions of the model and its computer simulation. The abdominal venous compartment appears to function with changes in Pab either as a capacitor in zone 3 conditions or as a collapsible Starling resistor with little wall tone in zone 2 conditions.

  4. Combination of phlebography and sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.

    1988-01-01

    Phlebographic visualisation offers the highest spatial resolution of all imaging methods both in respect of veins of the leg and pelvis and of the abdomen. Phlebography offers optimal conditions for assessing morphological changes at the veins and in their direct neighbourhood. No quantitative information is available via phlebography if haemodynamics are disturbed; qualitative information is yielded merely to a restricted extent (by assessing flow velocity and collaterals). Direct sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure is particularly suitable for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of disturbed haemodynamic conditions; in this respect it stands out among the function tests based on the employment of apparatures. If it is combined with phlebography, it is possible not only to optimise the diagnostic yield in the hands of one investigator, but also to reduce the invasiveness of both methods to one single puncture, since the puncture needle is at the same time also an instrument to measure the pressure. The article points out the possibilities and limitations of combining a) ascending phlebography of the leg and pelvis with peripheral venous pressure measurement (phlebodynamometry) and b) visualisation of the veins of the pelvis and vena cava inferior with central sanguinous venous pressure measurement (CP). Indicatious and technical execution are described. (orig.) [de

  5. Sagittal venous sinus thrombosis after cesarean section: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Keypour

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT is uncommon after cesarean section. Although it can be a leading cause of maternal mortality. CVT may occur during pregnancy because of hypercoagulable states such as preeclampsia, thrombophilias, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and sepsis.Case presentation: A 31 years old woman G2 Ab1 at 37 weeks gestational age with  premature rupture of membrane underwent cesarean section because breech presentation and preeclampsia. Spinal anesthesia was done for emergent cesarean section. On the second day after cesarean section, she developed headache, vomiting, focal neurologic deficits, paresthesia, blurred vision. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed thrombosis in anterior half of superior sagittal sinus. Treatment consisted of anticoagulation.  Conclusion: Thrombophilias, pregnancy-related hypertension and cesarean section are the predisposing factors for thromboembolism. Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWs are effective drugs for thromboprophylaxis. It is vital to prevent venous thrombosis to reduce mortality during both intrapartum and postpartum periods. Consideration of cerebral venous thrombosis in similar cases is recommended.

  6. Deep venous thrombosis after orthopedic surgery in adult cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P P; Graham, D; Hann, L E; Boland, P J; Healey, J H

    1998-05-01

    Patients with cancer and patients undergoing major orthopedic procedures are two groups at risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The objective was to determine the rate of venous thromboembolic disease in patients with a malignant neoplasm and major orthopaedic surgery of the lower limb. The study included 169 patients. All patients were given knee-high intermittent pneumatic compression devices for prophylaxis. Postoperative surveillance for thrombosis was performed on all patients with venous duplex doppler ultrasonography. Proximal DVT occurred in 24 of 169 patients (14.2%). One patient (0.6%) developed a symptomatic, nonfatal pulmonary embolus (PE). The development of DVT was not associated with age, sex, type of surgery, type of neoplasm, location, or pathologic fracture. The addition of anticoagulant medication such as warfarin did not significantly reduce the rate of DVT in a subset of 54 patients. In three patients, the DVT occurred only in the contralateral limb, and in four patients, there were bilateral DVTs. When intermittent compression boots were used for prophylaxis in conjunction with ultrasound screening, the risk of proximal DVT was substantial (14.2%), but the rate of symptomatic PE was low (0.6%).

  7. The Need of Slanted Side Holes for Venous Cannulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Yull Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed cannulae must allow good flow rate and minimize nonphysiologic load. Venous cannulae generally have side holes to prevent the rupture of blood vessel during perfusion. Optimizing side hole angle will yield more efficient and safe venous cannulae. A numerical modeling was used to study the effect of the angle (0°–45° and number (0–12 of side holes on the performance of cannulae. By only slanting the side holes, it increases the flow rate up to 6% (in our models. In addition, it was found that increasing the number of side holes reduces the shear rate up to 12% (in our models. A new parameter called “penetration depth” was introduced to describe the interfering effect of stream jets from side holes, and the result showed that the 45°-slanted side holes caused minimum interfering for the flow in cannula. Our quantitative hemodynamic analysis study provides important guidelines for venous cannulae design.

  8. Intracranial developmental venous anomaly: is it asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán

    2018-03-16

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLISM PROPHYLAXIS – THE OTHER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Background: There are no local guidelines for prophylaxis against Venous Thrombo-Embolism (VTE). .... of leg ulceration in the age matched general population. (9.6% to ... number of deaths and its cause amongst these patients.

  10. Imaging of head and neck venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flis, Christine M.; Connor, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are non proliferative lesions that consist of dysplastic venous channels. The aim of imaging is to characterise the lesion and define its anatomic extent. We will describe the plain film, ultrasound (US) (including colour and duplex Doppler), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), conventional angiographic and direct phlebographic appearances of venous malformations. They will be illustrated at a number of head and neck locations, including orbit, oral cavity, superficial and deep facial space, supraglottic and intramuscular. An understanding of the classification of such vascular anomalies is required to define the correct therapeutic procedure to employ. Image-guided sclerotherapy alone or in combination with surgery is now the first line treatment option in many cases of head and neck venous malformations, so the radiologist is now an integral part of the multidisciplinary management team. (orig.)

  11. [Venous thromboembolic disease: presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Pérez-Monje, A

    2013-01-01

    Venous thromboembolic disease in its clinical spectrum includes both deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism, which is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It is a relatively common disease with significant morbidity and requires an accurate diagnosis. They are numerous risk factors for venous thromboembolism, and there is evidence that the risk of thromboembolic disease increases proportionally to the number of predisposing risk factors present. The primary care physician should know the risk factors and suspect the presence of venous thromboembolic disease when there is a compatible clnical picture. The treatment for this pathology is anticoagulation. We report a patient with cardiovascular risk factors who was seen with pain in the right leg and shortness of breath and referred to the hospital with suspected venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and pleural effusion. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrogen gas production is associated with reduced interleukin-1β mRNA in peripheral blood after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamasawa, Atsuko; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Hariya, Natsuyo; Saito, Miyoko; Ishida, Hidenori; Doguchi, Satako; Yanagiya, Syoko; Osonoi, Takeshi

    2015-09-05

    Acarbose, an α-glucosidase inhibitor, leads to the production of hydrogen gas, which reduces oxidative stress. In this study, we examined the effects of a single dose of acarbose immediately before a test meal on postprandial hydrogen gas in breath and peripheral blood interleukin (IL)-1β mRNA expression in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Sixteen Japanese patients (14 men, 2 women) participated in this study. The mean±standard deviation age, hemoglobin A1c and body mass index were 52.1±15.4 years, 10.2±2.0%, and 27.7±8.0kg/m(2), respectively. The patients were admitted into our hospital for 2 days and underwent test meals at breakfast without (day 1) or with acarbose (day 2). We performed continuous glucose monitoring and measured hydrogen gas levels in breath, and peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels before (0min) and after the test meal (hydrogen gas: 60, 120, 180, and 300min; IL-1β: 180min). The induction of hydrogen gas production and the reduction in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA after the test meal were not significant between days 1 (without acarbose) and 2 (with acarbose). However, the changes in total hydrogen gas production from day 1 to day 2 were closely and inversely associated with the changes in peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA levels. Our results suggest that an increase in hydrogen gas production is inversely associated with a reduction of the peripheral blood IL-1β mRNA level after a single dose of acarbose in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proposal and design of a natural gas liquefaction process recovering the energy obtained from the pressure reducing stations of high-pressure pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbo; Zhao, Qingxuan; Sun, Nannan; Li, Yanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Taking advantage of the refrigerating effect in the expansion at an appropriate temperature, a fraction of high-pressure natural gas transported by pipelines could be liquefied in a city gate station through a well-organized pressure reducing process without consuming any extra energy. The authors proposed such a new process, which mainly consists of a turbo-expander driven booster, throttle valves, multi-stream heat exchangers and separators, to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid light hydrocarbons (LLHs) utilizing the high-pressure of the pipelines. Based on the assessment of the effects of several key parameters on the system performance by a steady-state simulation in Aspen HYSYS, an optimal design condition of the proposed process was determined. The results showed that the new process is more appropriate to be applied in a pressure reducing station (PRS) for the pipelines with higher pressure. For the feed gas at the pressure of 10 MPa, the maximum total liquefaction rate (ytot) of 15.4% and the maximum exergy utilizing rate (EUR) of 21.7% could be reached at the optimal condition. The present process could be used as a small-scale natural gas liquefying and peak-shaving plant at a city gate station.

  14. The Performance of Chrome-Coated Copper as Metallic Catalytic Converter to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warju; Harto, S. P.; Soenarto

    2018-01-01

    One of the automotive technologies to reduce exhaust gas emissions from the spark-ignition engine (SIE) is by using a catalytic converter. The aims of this research are firstly to conduct a metallic catalytic converter, secondly to find out to what extend chrome-coated copper plate (Cu+Cr) as a catalyst is efficient. To measure the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) on the frame there are two conditions required. First is when the standard condition, and second is when Cu+Cr metallic catalytic converter is applied using exhaust gas analyzer. Exhaust gas emissions from SIE are measured by using SNI 19-7118.1-2005. The testing of CO and HC emissions were conducted with variable speed to find the trend of exhaust gas emissions from idle speed to high speed. This experiment results in the fact that the use of Cu+Cr metallic catalytic converter can reduce the production of CO and HC of a four-stroke gasoline engine. The reduction of CO and HC emission are 95,35% and 79,28%. Using active metal catalyst in form of metallic catalytic converter, it is gained an optimum effective surface of a catalyst which finally is able to decrease the amount of CO and HC emission significantly in every spinning happened in the engine. Finally, this technology can be applied to the spark ignition engine both car and motorcycle to support blue sky program in Indonesia.

  15. Venous trauma in the Lebanon War--2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitecki, Samy S; Karram, Tony; Hoffman, Aaron; Bass, Arie

    2007-10-01

    Reports on venous trauma are relatively sparse. Severe venous trauma is manifested by hemorrhage, not ischemia. Bleeding may be internal or external and rarely may lead to hypovolemic shock. Repair of major extremity veins has been a subject of controversy and the current teaching is to avoid venous repair in an unstable or multi-trauma patient. The aim of the current paper is to present our recent experience in major venous trauma during the Lebanon conflict, means of diagnosis and treatment in a level I trauma center. All cases of major venous trauma, either isolated or combined with arterial injury, admitted to the emergency room during the 33-day conflict were reviewed. Out of 511 wounded soldiers and civilians who were admitted to our service over this period, 12 (2.3%) sustained a penetrating venous injury either isolated (5) or combined with arterial injury (7). All injuries were secondary to high velocity penetrating missiles or from multiple pellets stored in long-range missiles. All injuries were accompanied by additional insult to soft tissue, bone and viscera. The mean injury severity score was 15. Severe external bleeding was the presenting symptom in three cases of isolated venous injury (jugular, popliteal and femoral). The diagnosis of a major venous injury was made by a CTA scan in five cases, angiography in one and during surgical exploration in six cases. All injured veins were repaired: three by venous interposition grafts, four by end to end anastomosis, three by lateral suture and two by endovascular techniques. None of the injuries was treated by ligation of a major named vein. Immediate postoperative course was uneventful in all patients and the 30-day follow-up (by clinical assessment and duplex scan) has demonstrated a patent repair with no evidence of thrombosis. Without contradicting the wisdom of ligating major veins in the setup of multi-trauma or an unstable patient, our experience indicates that a routine repair of venous trauma can

  16. Fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chan, Fuan Chiang; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Yu-Te; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2013-03-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertips is a technical challenge, as many salvage procedures fail because no suitable vein in the fingertip is available for anastomosis. In this study, we examined our experience in fingertip replantation in cases without venous anastomosis with our established fingertip replantation treatment protocol. Between August 2002 and August 2010, a retrospective study examined all patients who had undergone fingertip replantation at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. All the patients (n = 24) suffered from complete digital amputations at or distal to the interphalangeal joint of the thumb, or distal to distal interphalangeal joint of the fingers. A total of 30 fingertips that were salvaged by microsurgical anastomosis of the digital arteries but not of digital veins were included in this study. On satisfactory arterial anastomosis, a 2-mm incision was made over the fingertip with a number 11 Scalpel blade, and 0.1 to 0.2 mL heparin (5000 IU/mL) was injected subcutaneously around the incision immediately and once per day thereafter to ensure continuous blood drainage from the replanted fingertip. None of the replanted nail plate was removed, and no medical leeches were used. The perfusion of the replanted digits and patient's hemoglobin level were closely monitored. The wound bleeding was maintained until physiologic venous outflow was restored. Of 30 fingertips, 27 (90%) replanted fingertips survived. The average length needed for maintaining external bleeding by chemical leech was 6.8 days (range, 5-10 days). Twelve patients (including a 2-year-old child) received blood transfusions. The average amount of blood transfusion in the 23 adults was 4.0 units (range, 0-16 units) for each patient or 3.29 units (range, 0-14 units) for each digit. A 2-year-old child received 100 mL blood transfusion or 50 mL for each digit. This study showed that a protocol that promotes controlled bleeding from the fingertip is essential to achieve consistent high

  17. A Technique for Autologous Priming of the Veno-Venous Bypass Circuit during Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Shackelford, Anthony G.; Hodge, Ashley B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.; Baliga, Prabhakar K.

    2011-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) have been associated with significant blood loss and hemodilution, necessitating significant homologous blood component replacement. Increasing administration of homologous blood products has been found to be inversely related to patient and graft survival. Various methods to reduce the amount of blood products patients receive during OLT, such as antifibrinolytic therapy, thromboelastography-guided transfusion, phlebotomy, reduced central venous pressu...

  18. A reduced mechanism for predicting the ignition timing of a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane in HCCI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlouli, Keyvan; Atikol, Ugur; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Mohammadi, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms. • The mechanisms are combined to develop a reaction mechanism for a fuel blend. • The genetic algorithm is used for optimization of reaction constants. • The developed reduced mechanism can be used to predict the ignition timing in HCCI engine for a fuel blend. - Abstract: One of the main challenges associated with homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion engine application is the lack of direct control on ignition timing. One of the solutions to this problem is mixing two fuels with various properties at a variety of ratios on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In the current study, a reduced mechanism for a fuel blend of natural-gas and n-heptane is proposed. The approach is validated for the prediction of ignition timing in the HCCI combustion engine. A single-zone combustion model is used to simulate the HCCI engine. A two-stage reduction process is used to produce two reduced mechanisms of existing semi-detailed GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism that contains 53 species and 325 reactions and Golovichev’s mechanism consisting of 57 species and 290 reactions for natural gas and n-heptane fuels, respectively. Firstly, the unimportant species and related reactions are identified by employing the directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP) reduction method and then, to extend reduction, the principal component analysis (PCA) method is utilized. To evaluate the validity of the reduced mechanism, representative engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, maximum heat release, and CA50 are used. The reduced mechanism of GRI-Mech. 3.0 mechanism, containing 19 species and 39 reactions, and the reduced mechanism of Golovichev’s mechanism, consisting of 40 species and 95 reactions, provide good prediction for the mentioned parameters in comparison with those of detailed mechanisms. The combination of the generated reduced mechanisms is used to develop a

  19. MR findings of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Myung Kwan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Choong Gom [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To describe MR findings of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. We reviewed 11 MR images of six patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The MR images were retrospectively analyzed in terms of location and signal intensity of the thrombi, parenchymal lesions such as hemorrhage and edema, and changes in follow up study obtained in 4 patients. The thrombus in venous sinus was visualized on MRI in all six patients. The most frequently involved sites were superior sagittal sinus(n=4) and left transverse sinus(n=4). Signal intensity of the thrombus was isointense or hyperintense on both T1- and T2-weighted images with loss of normal signal void of the sinus on all sequences in all patients. Parenchymal lesion was patients in five of six cases, manifested as local hemorrhage in three and edema in three cases(one case overlapped). Local edema seen in three patients was completely resolved on follow up study of seven to 29 days intervals. It is concluded that iso- or high signal intensity with loss of signal void in venous sinus is virtually diagnostic of venous sinus thrombosis. If there are local parenchymal lesions such as hemorrhage and/or edema of unknown causes, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis should be included in differential diagnosis.

  20. Corrosion by sulfate-reducing bacteria in a HP gas line under a detached weld cladding; Korrosion durch sulfatreduzierende Bakterien an einer Hochdruckgasleitung unter abgeloester Schweissnahtnachumhuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bette, Ulrich [Technische Akademie Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Intelligent pig measurements detected several points of corrosion in a HP gas pipeline in northern Germany. Corrosion occurred in a pipe section buried in clay soil, under detached weld claddings. It was not detected in regular measurements and additional intensive measurements. When the pipes were dug up, sulfate-reducing bacteria were found as the cause of corrosion. Due to the location of the corrosion processes, cathodic protection was impossible, and IFO measurements were ineffective in the low-ohmic soil.

  1. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasatkin, A. A.; Nigmatullina, A. R.; Urakov, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures

  2. Venous catheterization with ultrasound navigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasatkin, A. A., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru; Nigmatullina, A. R. [Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation); Urakov, A. L., E-mail: ant-kasatkin@yandex.ru [Institute of Mechanics Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, T.Baramzinoy street 34, Izhevsk, Russia, 426067, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Izhevsk State Medical Academy, Kommunarov street, 281, Izhevsk, Russia, 426034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    By ultrasound scanning it was determined that respiratory movements made by chest of healthy and sick person are accompanied by respiratory chest rise of internal jugular veins. During the exhalation of an individual diameter of his veins increases and during the breath it decreases down to the complete disappearing if their lumen. Change of the diameter of internal jugular veins in different phases can influence significantly the results of vein puncture and cauterization in patients. The purpose of this research is development of the method increasing the efficiency and safety of cannulation of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound visualization. We suggested the method of catheterization of internal jugular veins by the ultrasound navigation during the execution of which the puncture of venous wall by puncture needle and the following conduction of J-guide is carried out at the moment of patient’s exhalation. This method decreases the risk of complications development during catheterization of internal jugular vein due to exclusion of perforating wound of vein and subjacent tissues and anatomical structures.

  3. In situ measurements of krypton in xenon gas with a quadrupole mass spectrometer following a cold-trap at a temporarily reduced pumping speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Ethan; Rosendahl, Stephan; Huhmann, Christian; Kettling, Hans; Schlak, Martin; Weinheimer, Christian [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2013-07-01

    Liquid xenon detectors have risen to be extremely competitive for dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. In order to achieve the required sensitivity, backgrounds must be reduced substantially. One important background is the beta-decay of {sup 85}Kr, which constitutes a uniform internal background in liquid xenon detectors. Cryogenic distillation can be used to reduce the krypton concentration to acceptable levels, but gas diagnostics become incredibly difficult at these ultra-pure levels. A new method for measuring the concentration of krypton in xenon has been developed, expanding on the existing technique of a cold trap and a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). By using a liquid nitrogen cold trap, one can take advantage of the difference in vapor pressures of krypton in xenon to freeze most of the xenon gas while allowing the krypton to pass to the measurement chamber. Here, only a few milliliters of xenon is expended in the measurement, while achieving a sensitivity of sub ppb (parts per billion). The key change is the use of a butterfly valve to partially close the opening in front of the turbomolecular pump, thereby reducing the effective pumping speed and enhancing the RGA signal.

  4. Venous, Arterialized-Venous, or Capillary Glucose Reference Measurements for the Accuracy Assessment of a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropff, Jort; van Steen, Sigrid C; deGraaff, Peter; Chan, Man W; van Amstel, Rombout B E; DeVries, J Hans

    2017-11-01

    Different reference methods are used for the accuracy assessment of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. The effect of using venous, arterialized-venous, or capillary reference measurements on CGM accuracy is unclear. We evaluated 21 individuals with type 1 diabetes using a capillary calibrated CGM system. Venous or arterialized-venous reference glucose samples were taken every 15 min at two separate visits and assessed per YSI 2300 STAT Plus. Arterialization was achieved by heated-hand technique. Capillary samples were collected hourly during the venous reference visit. The investigation sequence (venous or arterialized-venous) was randomized. Effectiveness of arterialization was measured by comparing free venous oxygen pressure (PO2) of both visit days. Primary endpoint was the median absolute relative difference (ARD). Median ARD using arterialized-venous reference samples was not different from venous samples (point estimated difference 0.52%, P = 0.181). When comparing the three reference methods, median ARD was also not different over the full glycemic range (venous 9.0% [n = 681], arterialized-venous 8.3% [n = 684], and capillary 8.1% [n = 205], P = 0.216), nor over the separate glucose ranges. Arterialization was successful (PO2 venous 5.4 kPa vs. arterialized-venous 8.9 kPa, P reference measurements did not significantly impact CGM accuracy. Venous reference seems preferable due to its ease of operation.

  5. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sulfophenyl-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Networks on Electrospun 3D Scaffold for Ultrasensitive NO2 Gas Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Shen, Nannan; Xiao, Anshan; Li, Mingjun; Zhu, Liang; Wan, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoming

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasensitive room temperature real-time NO2 sensors are highly desirable due to potential threats on environmental security and personal respiratory. Traditional NO2 gas sensors with highly operated temperatures (200–600 °C) and limited reversibility are mainly constructed from semiconducting oxide-deposited ceramic tubes or inter-finger probes. Herein, we report the functionalized graphene network film sensors assembled on an electrospun three-dimensional (3D) nanonetwork skeleton for ultr...

  7. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated

  8. Prevalence of lower extremity venous duplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson William

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This retrospective study was performed to determine the prevalence of lower extremity venous duplication using duplex ultrasound in the patient population of a large urban medical center. Materials and Methods: The reports of all lower extremity venous ultrasound examinations performed at our institution between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 were reviewed. Ultrasound examinations that were performed for purposes other than the detection of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis were excluded. The prevalence of duplication and its specific location were recorded. In addition, the prevalence of thrombus and its specific location were also recorded. Results: A total of 3118 exams were performed in 2664 patients. Of the 2664 patients, 2311 had only one examination performed during the study period; 353 patients had more than one examination performed. We found that 10.1% of patients (270/2664 had at least one venous segment duplicated and 5.4% of patients (143/2664 had a thrombus in at least one venous segment. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of both duplication and thrombus with a change in venous segment. Only 0.4% of patients (11/2664 had thrombus within a duplicated segment. Of those who had more than one examination performed, 15.3% (54/353 had the same venous segment(s seen on one examination but not another. Conclusion: Lower extremity venous duplication is a frequent anatomic variant that is seen in 10.1% of patients, but it may not be as common as is generally believed. It can result in a false negative result for deep vein thrombosis.

  9. Two divergent paths: compression vs. non-compression in deep venous thrombosis and post thrombotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Simões Da Matta

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of compression therapy to reduce the incidence of postthrombotic syndrome among patients with deep venous thrombosis is a controversial subject and there is no consensus on use of elastic versus inelastic compression, or on the levels and duration of compression. Inelastic devices with a higher static stiffness index, combine relatively small and comfortable pressure at rest with pressure while standing strong enough to restore the “valve mechanism” generated by plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. Since the static stiffness index is dependent on the rigidity of the compression system and the muscle strength within the bandaged area, improvement of muscle mass with muscle-strengthening programs and endurance training should be encouraged. Therefore, in the acute phase of deep venous thrombosis events, anticoagulation combined with inelastic compression therapy can reduce the extension of the thrombus. Notwithstanding, prospective studies evaluating the effectiveness of inelastic therapy in deep venous thrombosis and post-thrombotic syndrome are needed.

  10. Preventive, reducing and compensation actions for environmental impacts of Coari-Manaus gas pipeline; Medidas preventivas, mitigadoras e compensatorias de impactos socioambientais do Projeto Gasoduto Coari-Manaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannarino, Ronaldo P. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rangel, Antonio Carlos F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Projetos Especiais da Area de Gas e Energia

    2004-07-01

    The estimated reserve of natural gas of 124,5 billions m3 existent in the Solimoes basin it's the big thermometrical market existent on the Manaus city, actually supplied with liquid fuels, they had become economically viable the construction of a gas pipeline establishing connection it offers of the demand. However, given the complexity of the Amazonian landscape, the ambient aspects need to be studied with use of tools and methodologies integrators, also contemplating the social aspects. A multi discipline group of researches, led for Centro de Ciencias Ambientais from Universidade Federal do Amazonas - CCA/UFAM they had carried through diagnosis of the influences area of Coari-Manaus gas pipeline had as base research developed for PIATAM (Potenciais Impactos e Riscos Ambientais do Transporte de Petroleo e Gas no Amazonas) project during 24 months in the region enclosed for the tracing considered. During the study of UFAM and in the Official Audiences of the licence process had done consultation for the involved communities, and the results served of base for proposal to the prevention of negative impacts, reduce and compensation of inevitable impacts. The legal and institutional requisites are argued and are considered a way to consolidate the existing regulation on the subject having as basic premise the compatibility of the local and regional interests with the necessity of economic development of the country. (author)

  11. Racial differences in venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, N A; McClure, L A

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of venous thrombosis (VTE) varies by race, with African-Americans having over 5-fold greater incidence than Asian-ancestry populations, and an intermediate risk for European and Hispanic populations. Known racial differences in genetic polymorphisms associated with thrombosis do not account for this gradient of risk, nor do known racial variations in environmental risk factors. Data on the incidence of and risk factors for VTE outside of Europe and North America and in non-European ancestry populations are sparse. Common genetic polymorphisms in European-Ancestry populations, such as factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, and environmental risk factors, such as obesity, may account for some of the increased risk in European populations, and high factor VIII, high von Willebrand factor and low protein C levels and increased prevalence of obesity may explain some of the increased risk in African-Americans. The low rates in Asian populations may be partially explained by low clinical suspicion in a perceived low-risk population and lack of access to healthcare in other populations. As risk factors for thrombosis, such as surgery and treatment for cancer, are applicable to more people, as obesity increases in prevalence in the developing world, and as surveillance systems for VTE improve, VTE may increase in previously low-risk populations. While differences in VTE by race due to genetic predisposition will probably always be present, understanding the reasons for racial differences in VTE will help providers develop strategies to minimize VTE in all populations. © 2011 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Electrical foot stimulation and implications for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E; Czyrny, James J; Fung, Tat S; Unsworth, John D; Hirsh, Jack

    2002-08-01

    Venous stasis caused by immobility is an important risk factor for deep vein thrombosis following surgery and lower limb trauma, in bed-ridden medical patients, and in high-risk long distance air travelers. A safe and convenient method for reducing venous stasis would be useful in patients while in hospital and after discharge during their rehabilitation. 49 healthy subjects aged 51-76 were seated for 4 hours during which they received mild electrical stimulation of the calf, or sole of the foot (plantar muscles). Popliteal and femoral venous blood flow velocities were measured via doppler ultrasound. The non-stimulated lower extremity served as the simultaneous control. Subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their acceptance and tolerance of the electrical stimulation. There was a significant increase in venous femoral and popliteal blood flow for both calf (p < 0.035, p < 0.003), and plantar muscles (p < 0.0001, p < 0.009) on the stimulated side compared to the unstimulated side. The magnitude of the effect was similar for calf and plantar muscle stimulation. Subjects did not find the experience uncomfortable, and would use an electrical stimulator if told by their physician that they were at risk for developing blood clots. Mild electrical stimulation of the feet, as well as the calf, is a safe effective and convenient method for counteracting venous stasis and therefore has the potential to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for subjects who are immobilized.

  13. Role of Catheter-directed Thrombolysis in Management of Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James X; Sudheendra, Deepak; Stavropoulos, S William; Nadolski, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The treatment for iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is challenging, as the use of anticoagulation alone can be insufficient for restoring venous patency and thus lead to prolongation of acute symptoms and an increased risk of chronic complications, including venous insufficiency and postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). In these cases, earlier and more complete thrombus removal can ameliorate acute symptoms and reduce long-term sequelae. Endovascular therapies involving the use of pharmacologic, mechanical, and combined pharmacomechanical modalities have been developed to achieve these goals. The most frequently used of these techniques, catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT), involves the infusion of a thrombolytic agent through a multiple-side-hole catheter placed within the thrombosed vein to achieve high local doses and thereby break down the clot while minimizing systemic thrombolytic agent exposure. Randomized controlled trial results have indicated decreased PTS rates and improved venous patency rates in patients treated with CDT compared with these rates in patients treated with anticoagulation. The use of newer pharmacomechanical techniques, as compared with conventional CDT, reduces procedural times and thrombolytic agent doses and is the subject of ongoing investigations. Endovascular thrombus removal techniques offer a means to improve venous valvular function and decrease the risk of debilitating long-term complications such as PTS and are a promising option for treating patients with iliofemoral DVT. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  15. Developing wood construction in France in order to enhance energy independence, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and develop employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-05-01

    In France, forests represent a third of the surface of the whole country, whereas the national commercial balance on transformed wood shows a large deficit. A well designed development of wood production and transformation for the construction sector could induce many beneficial effects: diminution of greenhouse gas (CO_2) emissions related to the production of construction materials (cement, steel); substitution of a part of space heating fuels by wood collection and transformation by-products and wastes; and decrease of imports of hydrocarbons (through fuel substitution) and transformed woods (through a better transformation in France of timbers grown in French forests). Some recommendations concerning the development of the wood construction sector are given

  16. Venous injury in abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K. [Nemours A. I. duPont Hospital for Children, Department of Radiology, Wilmington, DE (United States); Bradford, Ray; Thamburaj, K.; Boal, Danielle K.B. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Dias, Mark S. [Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of serious brain injury in infants and young children who have characteristic clinical and imaging findings that are discordant with the clinical history provided. Recent attention has focused on abnormalities of the cranial venous sinuses and cortical veins, both on MRI and at autopsy. Although many have interpreted these to be secondary to the AHT, some have recently argued that these venous abnormalities represent primary cortical sinus and venous thrombosis that leads secondarily to subdural hemorrhage and secondary brain injury. Direct trauma to the veins and sinuses has been reported at autopsy in AHT, but there has been no systematic study of venous abnormalities in cases of AHT. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of venous and sinus abnormalities in AHT. We included all children <36 months of age who were diagnosed with abusive head trauma between 2001 and 2012 and who had MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) venography as part of their diagnostic workup. We analyzed age, gender and clinical findings. MRI and MR venography were analyzed independently by two neuroradiologists with a focus on abnormalities involving the intracranial veins and venous sinuses. A total of 45 children were included. The median age was 3 months (range 15 days to 31 months) and 28 were boys (62%). Clinical findings included retinal hemorrhage in 71% and extracranial fractures in 55%. CT or MRI demonstrated subdural hemorrhage in 41 (91%); none had subdural effusions. In 31 cases (69%) MR venography demonstrated mass effect on the venous sinuses or cortical draining veins, with either displacement or partial or complete effacement of the venous structures from an adjacent subdural hematoma or brain swelling. We also describe the lollipop sign, which represents direct trauma to the cortical bridging veins and was present in 20/45 (44%) children. Evidence of displacement or compression of cortical veins

  17. Venous injury in abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, Arabinda K.; Bradford, Ray; Thamburaj, K.; Boal, Danielle K.B.; Dias, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of serious brain injury in infants and young children who have characteristic clinical and imaging findings that are discordant with the clinical history provided. Recent attention has focused on abnormalities of the cranial venous sinuses and cortical veins, both on MRI and at autopsy. Although many have interpreted these to be secondary to the AHT, some have recently argued that these venous abnormalities represent primary cortical sinus and venous thrombosis that leads secondarily to subdural hemorrhage and secondary brain injury. Direct trauma to the veins and sinuses has been reported at autopsy in AHT, but there has been no systematic study of venous abnormalities in cases of AHT. The purpose of this study was to define the incidence and characteristics of venous and sinus abnormalities in AHT. We included all children <36 months of age who were diagnosed with abusive head trauma between 2001 and 2012 and who had MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) venography as part of their diagnostic workup. We analyzed age, gender and clinical findings. MRI and MR venography were analyzed independently by two neuroradiologists with a focus on abnormalities involving the intracranial veins and venous sinuses. A total of 45 children were included. The median age was 3 months (range 15 days to 31 months) and 28 were boys (62%). Clinical findings included retinal hemorrhage in 71% and extracranial fractures in 55%. CT or MRI demonstrated subdural hemorrhage in 41 (91%); none had subdural effusions. In 31 cases (69%) MR venography demonstrated mass effect on the venous sinuses or cortical draining veins, with either displacement or partial or complete effacement of the venous structures from an adjacent subdural hematoma or brain swelling. We also describe the lollipop sign, which represents direct trauma to the cortical bridging veins and was present in 20/45 (44%) children. Evidence of displacement or compression of cortical veins

  18. I-129, Kr-85, C-14 and NO/sub x/ removal from spent fuel dissolver off-gas at atmospheric pressure and at reduced off-gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrich, E.; Huefner, R.

    1981-01-01

    A dissolver off-gas (DOG) system suitable for a LWR, FBR or HTR spent fuel reprocessing plant is described, incorporating the following features: (1) the DOG flow is reduced to a reasonably small volume, using fumeless dissolution conditions, by maintaining high concentrations, the retention procedures are simplified and accompanied by an economic reduction of the equipment size; (2) all process operations are conducted at atmospheric or subatmospheric pressure, including noble gas removal by selective absorption, without using high temperature processes; (3) all processes, except HEPA filtering, are continuous and do not accumulate large amounts of waste nuclides, the DOG process sequence is mutually compatible with itself and with processing in the headend, showing on-line redundancy for the removal of the most radiotoxic nuclides; and (4) the DOG system only deviates slightly from proven technology. The stage of development and relevant results are given both for a lab. scale and a pilot plant scale

  19. Nursing problems of patients undergoing venous-venous ECMO therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Krupa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ECMO (Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation is an extracorporeal gas exchange method that, despite many, carries the risk of many complications. ECMO is a modern intensive care method which in many cases is the last resort for the patient. Care and supervision are provided by a multidisciplinary team of specialists: physicians, perfusionists, nurses. The aim of the article was to present ECMO nursing care and the principles of care and care during and after ECMO therapy

  20. Modelling of energy / technology actions and measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial sector (the industry challenge)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.J.; Sadownik, B.

    2001-01-01

    The potential in Canadian industry for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is assessed in this report. The analysis is aimed at providing a comprehensive and integrated evaluation of a wide spectrum of technology and energy actions available to the industrial sector in Canada, providing estimates of greenhouse gas emissions reductions, costs and cost effectiveness for different actions by 2010, and simulating industry response to defined measures approved by representatives of the industry sector sub-table. The impacts of a set of measures was determined using in-house models. Four measures were tested against several actions including primary fossil and electricity consumption, using regionally specific energy prices, a discount rate approximating 40 per cent and growth rates derived from the Analysis and Modelling Group. Enhancement of voluntary initiatives, enhanced cogeneration, financial incentives for capital investment to improve efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a set of cost-of-carbon-dioxide simulations were the measures tested. Total energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions by sector and in aggregate are provided as well as the costs. An indication of the total cost of reduction per tonne, some sense of the cost of the permit and the quantity of a subsidy required to induce decision-makers to purchase the more efficient technology are also provided. 9 refs., tabs

  1. Extraction and analysis of reducing alteration information of oil-gas in Bashibulake uranium ore district based on ASTER remote sensing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Fawang; Liu Dechang; Zhao Yingjun; Yang Xu

    2008-01-01

    Beginning with the analysis of the spectral characteristics of sandstone with reducing alteration of oil-gas in Bashibulake ore district, the extract technology of reducing alteration information based on ASTER data is presented. Several remote sensing anomaly zones of reducing alteration information similar with that in uranium deposit are interpreted in study area. On the basis of above study, these alteration anomaly information are further classified by using the advantage of ASTER data with multi-band in SWIR, the geological significance for alteration anomaly information is respectively discussed. As a result, alteration anomalies good for uranium prospecting are really selected, which provides some important information for uranium exploration in outland of Bashibulake uranium ore area. (authors)

  2. Central venous obstruction in the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, G.; Jones, R.G.; Willis, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Central venous stenosis and occlusion can occur secondary to a spectrum of conditions ranging from aggressive malignancy to benign extrinsic anatomical compression in otherwise healthy individuals. Irrespective of aetiology, significant morbidity in the acute setting and long term can occur unless prompt accurate diagnosis and appropriate management is initiated, the radiologist being central to both. The present review will provide radiologists with a thorough illustration and explanation of the range of central venous conditions in the thorax (including deep vein thrombosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, haemodialysis, and malignancy related causes), the salient imaging findings and interventional management using case examples from the authors' practice. - Highlights: • We show a range of causes of central venous disease in the thorax. • We provide information about different imaging and management strategies. • We show several cases with successes and complications of endovascular management

  3. The Essentials of Parathyroid Hormone Venous Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taslakian, Bedros, E-mail: btaslakian@gmail.com [NYU Langone Medical Center, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine (United States); Trerotola, Scott O., E-mail: streroto@uphs.upenn.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology (United States); Sacks, Barry, E-mail: bsacks@bidmc.harvard.edu [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Oklu, Rahmi, E-mail: oklu.rahmi@mayo.edu [Mayo Clinic, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Deipolyi, Amy, E-mail: deipolya@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Hyperparathyroidism is an excess of parathyroid hormone in the blood due to over-activity of one or more parathyroid gland. Localization of abnormal glands with noninvasive imaging modalities, such as technetium sestamibi scan and cross-sectional imaging, has a high success rate. Parathyroid venous sampling is performed for patients with persistent or recurrent disease after previous parathyroid surgery, when repeat noninvasive imaging studies are negative or discordant. The success of invasive localization studies and results interpretation is dependent on the interventional radiologist’s understanding of the normal and ectopic anatomic locations of parathyroid glands, as well as their blood supply and venous drainage. Anatomic and technical considerations for selective parathyroid venous sampling are reviewed.

  4. Complications of central venous stenosis due to permanent central venous catheters in children on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinat, Choni; Ben-Shalom, Efrat; Becker-Cohen, Rachel; Feinstein, Sofia; Frishberg, Yaacov

    2014-11-01

    Central venous catheters are frequently used as access for hemodialysis (HD) in children. One of the known complications is central venous stenosis. Although this complication is not rare, it is often asymptomatic and therefore unacknowledged. Superior vena cava (SVC) stenosis is obviously suspected in the presence of upper body edema, but several other signs and symptoms are often unrecognized as being part of this syndrome. We describe four patients with various manifestations of central venous stenosis and SVC syndrome. These sometimes life- or organ-threatening conditions include obstructive sleep apnea, unresolving stridor, increased intracranial pressure, increased intraocular pressure, right-sided pleural effusion, protein-losing enteropathy and lymphadenopathy. The temporal relationship of these complications associated with the use of central venous catheters and documentation of venous stenosis, together with their resolution after alleviation of high venous pressure, points to a causal role. We suggest pathophysiological mechanisms for the formation of each of these complications. In patients with occlusion of the SVC, various unexpected clinical entities can be caused by high central venous pressure. As often the etiology is not obvious, a high index of suspicion is needed as in some cases prompt alleviation of the high pressure is mandatory.

  5. Fabrication of SnO2-Reduced Graphite Oxide Monolayer-Ordered Porous Film Gas Sensor with Tunable Sensitivity through Ultra-Violet Light Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shipu; Sun, Fengqiang; Yang, Shumin; Pan, Zizhao; Long, Jinfeng; Gu, Fenglong

    2015-01-01

    A new graphene-based composite structure, monolayer-ordered macroporous film composed of a layer of orderly arranged macropores, was reported. As an example, SnO2-reduced graphite oxide monolayer-ordered macroporous film was fabricated on a ceramic tube substrate under the irradiation of ultra-violet light (UV), by taking the latex microsphere two-dimensional colloid crystal as a template. Graphite oxide sheets dispersed in SnSO4 aqueous solution exhibited excellent affinity with template microspheres and were in situ incorporated into the pore walls during UV-induced growth of SnO2. The growing and the as-formed SnO2, just like other photocatalytic semiconductor, could be excited to produce electrons and holes under UV irradiation. Electrons reduced GO and holes adsorbed corresponding negative ions, which changed the properties of the composite film. This film was directly used as gas-sensor and was able to display high sensitivity in detecting ethanol gas. More interestingly, on the basis of SnO2-induced photochemical behaviours, this sensor demonstrated tunable sensitivity when UV irradiation time was controlled during the fabrication process and post in water, respectively. This study provides efficient ways of conducting the in situ fabrication of a semiconductor-reduced graphite oxide film device with uniform surface structure and controllable properties. PMID:25758292

  6. Management of Orbital and Periorbital Venous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara A. Benoiton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo review our management of common venous malformation (VM affecting the orbit and/or periorbital area.MethodsConsecutive patients with orbital and/or periorbital VM were identified from our vascular anomalies database. Demographic details of the patients, anatomic site(s affected, symptoms and signs, presence of a family history of VM, and types of treatment(s were collected, supplemented by chart review.ResultsA total of 24 patients’ age 1–68 (mean, 30 years with orbital and/or periorbital VM presented with cosmetic concerns (n = 17, 71%, distensibility (n = 15, 63%, pain (n = 9, 38%, diplopia (n = 4, 17%, and spontaneous thrombosis (n = 1, 8%. The VM caused globe dystopia (n = 13, 54%, enophthalmos (n = 6, 25%, proptosis (n = 3, 12%, exotropia (n = 3, 12%, and pseudoptosis with visual obstruction (n = 3, 13%. A total of 11 (46% patients were managed conservatively. 13 (54% patients underwent active treatment. Ethanol sclerotherapy (ES was performed in six patients with extensive facial VM associated with orbital/periorbital involvement, resulting in symptomatic improvement in five patients, one of whom developed skin necrosis and another patient developed reduced infraorbital nerve sensation. Surgery was performed for localized lesion (n = 3, 23%, for extensive lesions (n = 4, 31% and as an adjunct to ES (n = 6, 46% resulting in symptomatic improvement in all patients. One patient required correction of lower lid ectropion.ConclusionOrbital and/or periorbital VMs are heterogeneous, and management needs to be individualized. Surgery is used for localized lesions aiming for complete excision, as a debulking procedure for extensive orbital/periorbital VM when ES was not possible, or following ES for extensive facial VM with orbital and/or periorbital involvement.

  7. [Superficial venous thrombosis. A state of art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    For a long time superficial thrombophlebitis has been thought to be a rather benign condition. Recently, when duplex ultrasound technique is used for the diagnosis more and more often, the disease is proved to be more dangerous than anticipated. Thrombosis propagates to the deep veins in 6-44% and pulmonary embolism was observed on the patients in 1,5-33%. We can calculate venous thromboembolic complications on every fourth patient. Diagnosis is clinical, but duplex ultrasound examination is mandatory, for estimation of the thrombus extent, for exclusion of the deep venous thrombosis and for follow up. Both legs should be checked with ultrasound, because simultaneous deep venous thrombosis can develop on the contralateral limb. Two different forms can be distinguished: superficial venous thrombosis with, or without varicose veins. In cases of spontaneous, non varicous form, especially when the process is migrating or recurrent, a careful clinical examination is necessery for exclusion of malignant diseases and thrombophilia. The treatment options are summarised on the basis of recent international consensus statements. The American and German guidelines are similar. Compression and mobilisation are cornerstones of the therapy. For a short segment thrombosis non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are effective. For longer segments low molecular-weight heparins are preferred. Information on the effect of the novel oral anticoagulants for the therapy is lacking but they may appear to be effective in the future for this indication. When thrombus is close to the sapheno-femoral or sapheno-popliteal junction crossectomy (high ligation), or low molecular-weight heparin in therapeutic doses are indicated. The term superficial thrombophlebitis should be discouraged, because inflammation and infection is not the primary pathology. It should be called correctly superficial venous thrombosis in order to avoid the unnecessary administration of antibiotics and the misconception

  8. Attempts at estimating mixed venous carbon dioxide tension by the single-breath method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Takatani, O; Matsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The single-breath method was originally proposed by Kim et al. [1] for estimating the blood carbon dioxide tension and cardiac output. Its reliability has not been proven. The present study was undertaken, using dogs, to compare the mixed venous carbon dioxide tension (PVCO2) calculated by the single-breath method with the PVCO2 measured in mixed venous blood, and to evaluate the influence of variations in the exhalation duration and the volume of expired air usually discarded from computations as the deadspace. Among the exhalation durations of 15, 30 and 45 s tested, the 15 s duration was found to be too short to obtain an analyzable O2-CO2 curve, but at either 30 or 45 s, the calculated values of PVCO2 were comparable to the measured PVCO2. A significant agreement between calculated and measured PVCO2 was obtained when the expired gas with PCO2 less than 22 Torr was considered as deadspace gas.

  9. Conservative approach to Hepatic Portal Venous Gas: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Ginesu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: This case underscores the role of conservative management, highlighting how the severity of the prognosis of HPVG should be related to the underlying pathology, and not influenced by the presence of HPVG itself.

  10. Management of Peripheral and Truncal Venous Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafillos G. Giannakopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Civilian injuries are increasing according to the World Health Organization, and this is attributed mainly to road traffic accidents and urban interpersonal violence. Vascular injuries are common in these scenarios and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Associated peripheral venous trauma is less likely to lead to death and controversy remains whether ligation or repair should be the primary approach. Conversely, non-compressible truncal venous insult can be lethal due to exsanguination, thus a high index of suspicion is crucial. Operative management is demanding with fair results but recent endovascular adjuncts demonstrate promising results and seem to be the way forward for these serious conditions.

  11. Assessment of Venous Thrombosis in Animal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Steven P; Evans, Colin E; Patel, Ashish S; Modarai, Bijan; Saha, Prakash; Smith, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis and common complications, including pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome, represent a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Experimental models of venous thrombosis have provided considerable insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate thrombus formation and subsequent resolution. Here, we critically appraise the ex vivo and in vivo techniques used to assess venous thrombosis in these models. Particular attention is paid to imaging modalities, including magnetic resonance imaging, micro-computed tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound that facilitate longitudinal assessment of thrombus size and composition. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Admission Hyperglycemia and Clinical Outcome in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; Hiltunen, Sini; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Peters, Guusje M.; Silvis, Suzanne M.; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kruyt, Nyika D.; Putaala, Jukka; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Admission hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcome in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Admission hyperglycemia has not been investigated in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis. Methods-Consecutive adult patients with cerebral venous thrombosis were included

  13. Gas-shell-encapsulation of activated carbon to reduce fouling and increase the efficacy of volatile organic compound removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, A.T.; van Rijn, C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A method to encapsulate activated carbon particles is presented that reduces fouling of these particles with Natural Organic Matter (NOM) to preserve their adsorption capacity for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from water in the presence of NOM. The encapsulation method uses an oil-in-water

  14. Gas-shell-encapsulation of Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling and Increase the Efficacy of Volatile Organic Compound Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Albert T.; Rijn, van Cees J.M.

    2017-01-01

    A method to encapsulate activated carbon particles is presented that reduces fouling of these particles with Natural Organic Matter (NOM) to preserve their adsorption capacity for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from water in the presence of NOM. The encapsulation method uses an oil-in-water

  15. Vermicomposting as a technology for reducing nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions from small-scale composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuijper, Thomas; Bruun, Sander; Neergaard, de Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic composting produces a significant amount of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of vermicomposting to reduce nitrogen losses and greenhouse gases emissions compared to thermophilic composting, and (ii) to determine the effect of

  16. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K

    2004-01-01

    Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture...... and during a Valsalva manoeuvre in both body positions, correlate highly with model simulation of the jugular cross-sectional area (R(2) = 0.97). The results suggest that the cerebral venous flow distribution depends on posture and CVP: in supine humans the internal jugular veins are the primary pathway...

  17. Splenic artery aneurysm: a diagnostic challenge in the setting of extensive portal venous collaterals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Grace S.; Vo, Nghia J.; Ishak, Gisele E.; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Otto, Randolph K. [University of Washington, Seattle Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    We present a 16-year-old boy with autoimmune liver disease and longstanding portal hypertension in whom a CT arteriogram demonstrated a large aneurysm arising from the distal, extra-parenchymal portion of the splenic artery. Because of its location adjacent to multiple venous collaterals, the aneurysm was indistinguishable from splenic varices on initial imaging with Doppler sonography and on portal venous-phase CT. There is an increased risk of rupture of splenic artery aneurysms in the post-liver transplant period, with high associated mortality, and therefore diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm prior to liver transplantation is clinically important. It is quite possible that the diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm in this case would have been missed in the absence of dedicated arterial-phase imaging. As radiologists strive to reduce radiation exposure in children, this case highlights a potential diagnostic pitfall of both Doppler sonography and venous or single-acquisition arterial/venous-phase CT angiogram in children with venous collaterals and an undiagnosed splenic artery aneurysm. (orig.)

  18. Splenic artery aneurysm: a diagnostic challenge in the setting of extensive portal venous collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Grace S.; Vo, Nghia J.; Ishak, Gisele E.; Swanson, Jonathan O.; Otto, Randolph K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a 16-year-old boy with autoimmune liver disease and longstanding portal hypertension in whom a CT arteriogram demonstrated a large aneurysm arising from the distal, extra-parenchymal portion of the splenic artery. Because of its location adjacent to multiple venous collaterals, the aneurysm was indistinguishable from splenic varices on initial imaging with Doppler sonography and on portal venous-phase CT. There is an increased risk of rupture of splenic artery aneurysms in the post-liver transplant period, with high associated mortality, and therefore diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm prior to liver transplantation is clinically important. It is quite possible that the diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm in this case would have been missed in the absence of dedicated arterial-phase imaging. As radiologists strive to reduce radiation exposure in children, this case highlights a potential diagnostic pitfall of both Doppler sonography and venous or single-acquisition arterial/venous-phase CT angiogram in children with venous collaterals and an undiagnosed splenic artery aneurysm. (orig.)

  19. Body fat does not affect venous bubble formation after air dives of moderate severity: theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; van Rees Vellinga, Tjeerd P.; van Hulst, Rob A.

    2013-01-01

    For over a century, studies on body fat (BF) in decompression sickness and venous gas embolism of divers have been inconsistent. A major problem is that age, BF, and maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) show high multicollinearity. Using the Bühlmann model with eight parallel compartments, preceded

  20. An audit of pressure sores caused by intermittent compression devices used to prevent venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Joanna; Thomas, Sunil

    2011-12-01

    When intermittent compression devices (ICDs) are used to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) they can cause pressure sores in a selected group of women, undergoing long operations. A prospective audit pre and post intervention showed a reduced risk with an alternative device, without increasing the risk of VTE.

  1. Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism and risk of occult cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Veres, Katalin; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2017-01-01

    The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected. An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk.......The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected. An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk....

  2. Extraordinary improvement of gas-sensing performances in SnO2 nanofibers due to creation of local p-n heterojunctions by loading reduced graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyoung; Katoch, Akash; Choi, Sun-Woo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Hyoun Woo; Kim, Sang Sub

    2015-02-11

    We propose a novel approach to improve the gas-sensing properties of n-type nanofibers (NFs) that involves creation of local p-n heterojunctions with p-type reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets (NSs). This work investigates the sensing behaviors of n-SnO2 NFs loaded with p-RGO NSs as a model system. n-SnO2 NFs demonstrated greatly improved gas-sensing performances when loaded with an optimized amount of p-RGO NSs. Loading an optimized amount of RGOs resulted in a 20-fold higher sensor response than that of pristine SnO2 NFs. The sensing mechanism of monolithic SnO2 NFs is based on the joint effects of modulation of the potential barrier at nanograin boundaries and radial modulation of the electron-depletion layer. In addition to the sensing mechanisms described above, enhanced sensing was obtained for p-RGO NS-loaded SnO2 NFs due to creation of local p-n heterojunctions, which not only provided a potential barrier, but also functioned as a local electron absorption reservoir. These mechanisms markedly increased the resistance of SnO2 NFs, and were the origin of intensified resistance modulation during interaction of analyte gases with preadsorbed oxygen species or with the surfaces and grain boundaries of NFs. The approach used in this work can be used to fabricate sensitive gas sensors based on n-type NFs.

  3. Finely Tuned SnO2 Nanoparticles for Efficient Detection of Reducing and Oxidizing Gases: The Influence of Alkali Metal Cation on Gas-Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Szu-Hsuan; Galstyan, Vardan; Ponzoni, Andrea; Gonzalo-Juan, Isabel; Riedel, Ralf; Dourges, Marie-Anne; Nicolas, Yohann; Toupance, Thierry

    2018-03-28

    Tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles were straightforwardly synthesized using an easily scaled-up liquid route that involves the hydrothermal treatment, either under acidic or basic conditions, of a commercial tin dioxide particle suspension including potassium counterions. After further thermal post-treatment, the nanomaterials have been thoroughly characterized by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nitrogen sorption porosimetry. Varying pH conditions and temperature of the thermal treatment provided cassiterite SnO 2 nanoparticles with crystallite sizes ranging from 7.3 to 9.7 nm and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas ranging from 61 to 106 m 2 ·g -1 , acidic conditions favoring potassium cation removal. Upon exposure to a reducing gas (H 2 , CO, and volatile organic compounds such as ethanol and acetone) or oxidizing gas (NO 2 ), layers of these SnO 2 nanoparticles led to highly sensitive, reversible, and reproducible responses. The sensing results were discussed in regard to the crystallite size, specific area, valence band energy, Debye length, and chemical composition. Results highlight the impact of the counterion residuals, which affect the gas-sensing performance to an extent much higher than that of size and surface area effects. Tin dioxide nanoparticles prepared under acidic conditions and calcined in air showed the best sensing performances because of lower amount of potassium cations and higher crystallinity, despite the lower surface area.

  4. Fast response of carbon monoxide gas sensors using a highly porous network of ZnO nanoparticles decorated on 3D reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Nguyen Hai; Thinh, Dao Duc; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Phuong, Nguyen Huy; Thach, Phan Duy; Hong, Hoang Si

    2018-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles loaded onto 3D reduced graphene oxide (3D-RGO) for carbon monoxide (CO) sensing were synthesized using hydrothermal method. The highly porous ZnO/3D-RGO configuration was stable without collapsing and was deposited on the micro-heater of the CO gas sensor. The resulting CO gas sensor displayed high sensitivity, fast response/recovery, and good linearity. The sensor achieved a response value of 85.2% for 1000 ppm CO at a working temperature of 200 °C. The response and recovery times of the sensor were 7 and 9 s for 1000 ppm CO at 200 °C. Similarly, the response value, response time, and recovery time of the sensor at room temperature were 27.5%, 14 s, and 15 s, respectively. The sensor demonstrated a distinct response to various CO concentrations in the range of 1-1000 ppm and good selectivity toward CO gas. In addition, the sensor exhibited good repeatability in multi-cycle and long-term stability.

  5. Intervention radiology for venous thrombosis: early thrombus removal using invasive methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanegra, Ana I; McBane, Robert D; Bjarnason, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    The post thrombotic syndrome is one of the most dreaded complications of proximal deep vein thrombosis. This syndrome leads to pain and suffering with leg swelling, recalcitrant ulceration and venous claudication which greatly impairs mobility and quality of life. The prevalence can be high in patients with iliofemoral venous involvement particularly in the setting of a proximal venous stenosis, such as occurs in May Thurner syndrome. Anticoagulation alone does not reduce the likelihood of this outcome. Compression therapy may be effective but garment discomfort limits its implementation. Pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, which combines catheter-directed thrombolysis with mechanical thrombus dissolution, provides an attractive treatment strategy for such patients. The rationale and delivery of pharmacomechanical thrombectomy, including patient selection and adjunctive antithrombotic therapy, will be reviewed in addition to tips and tricks for managing difficult patient scenarios. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Endovascular Interventions for Acute and Chronic Lower Extremity Deep Venous Disease: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, Akhilesh K.; Vedantham, Suresh; Kaufman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The societal and individual burden caused by acute and chronic lower extremity venous disease is considerable. In the past several decades, minimally invasive endovascular interventions have been developed to reduce thrombus burden in the setting of acute deep venous thrombosis to prevent both short- and long-term morbidity and to recanalize chronically occluded or stenosed postthrombotic or nonthrombotic veins in symptomatic patients. This state-of-the-art review provides an overview of the techniques and challenges, rationale, patient selection criteria, complications, postinterventional care, and outcomes data for endovascular intervention in the setting of acute and chronic lower extremity deep venous disease. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:26101920

  7. Vasopressin and nitroglycerin decrease portal and hepatic venous pressure and hepato-splanchnic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisén, E; Svennerholm, K; Bown, L S; Houltz, E; Rizell, M; Lundin, S; Ricksten, S-E

    2018-03-26

    Various methods are used to reduce venous blood pressure in the hepato-splanchnic circulation, and hence minimise blood loss during liver surgery. Previous studies show that combination of vasopressin and nitroglycerin reduces portal pressure and flow in patients with portal hypertension, and in this study we investigated this combination in patients with normal portal pressure. In all, 13 patients were studied. Measurements were made twice to confirm baseline (C1 and BL), during vasopressin infusion 4.8 U/h (V), and during vasopressin infusion combined with nitroglycerin infusion (V + N). Portal venous pressure (PVP), hepatic venous pressure (HVP), central haemodynamics and arterial and venous blood gases were obtained at each measuring point, and portal (splanchnic) and hepato-splanchnic blood flow changes were calculated. Vasopressin alone did not affect PVP, whereas HVP increased slightly. In combination with nitroglycerin, PVP decreased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 8.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (P HVP decreased from 7.9 ± 1.9 to 6.2 ± 1.3 mmHg (P = 0.001). Vasopressin reduced portal blood flow by 47 ± 19% and hepatic venous flow by 11 ± 18%, respectively. Addition of nitroglycerin further reduced portal- and hepatic flow by 55 ± 13% and 30 ± 13%, respectively. Vasopressin alone had minor effects on central haemodynamics, whereas addition of nitroglycerin reduced cardiac index (3.2 ± 0.7 to 2.7 ± 0.5; P < 0.0001). The arterial-portal vein lactate gradient was unaffected. The combination of vasopressin and nitroglycerin decreases portal pressure and hepato-splanchnic blood flow, and could be a potential treatment to reduce bleeding in liver resection surgery. © 2018 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by inducing energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electric utility customer charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Harris, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the increased greenhouse gas emissions and negative effect on energy conservation (or 'efficiency penalty') due to electric rate structures that employ an unavoidable customer charge. First, the extent of customer charges was determined from a nationwide survey of US electric tariffs. To eliminate the customer charge nationally while maintaining a fixed sum for electric companies for a given amount of electricity, an increase of 7.12% in the residential electrical rate was found to be necessary. If enacted, this increase in the electric rate would result in a 6.4% reduction in overall electricity consumption, conserving 73 billion kW h, eliminating 44.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, and saving the entire US residential sector over $8 billion per year. As shown here, these reductions would come from increased avoidable costs, thus leveraging an increased rate of return on investments in energy efficiency, energy conservation behavior, distributed energy generation, and fuel choices. Finally, limitations of this study and analysis are discussed and conclusions are drawn for proposed energy policy changes

  9. Using Market Forces to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Product-Level Life Cycle Analysis and Eco-Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, J. F.; Davis, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Established protocols allow entity-level accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The information contained within GHG inventories is used by entities to manage their carbon footprint and to anticipate future exposure to compulsory GHG markets or taxes. The efficacy of such inventories, as experienced by the consumer, can be improved upon by product-level GHG inventories applying the methods of traditional life cycle analysis (LCA). A voluntary product-level assessment of this type, coupled with an eco-label, would 1) empower consumers with information about the total embodied GHG content of a product, 2) allow companies to understand and manage GHG emissions outside the narrow scope of their entities, and 3) drive reduction of GHG emissions throughout product value chains. The Climate Conservancy (TCC) is a non-profit organization founded to help companies calculate their GHG emissions at the level of individual product units, and to inform consumers about the GHG intensity of the products they choose to purchase. With the assistance of economists, policy experts and scientists, TCC has developed a useful metric for reporting product-level GHG emissions that allows for a normalized comparison of a product's GHG intensity irrespective of industry sector or competitors, where GHG data are often unavailable or incomplete. Using this metric, we envision our Climate Conscious label becoming an important arbiter of choice for consumers seeking ways to mitigate their climate impacts without the need for governmental regulation.

  10. How wireless remote technology reduces cost, boosts productivity and improves safety in upstream oil and gas operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wommack, K. [Viatran, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    This article demonstrated how wireless communications can help oil and gas producers obtain the most current information on the status of their operations to help optimize operations and protect workers and equipment. Wireless communication can provide benefits at nearly every phase of upstream production. When combined with pressure, temperature, flow, level and other sensing devices, wireless communications provide an effective and economical way to deliver data on well or pipeline operations to site managers; optimize well-production, minimize workovers and prevent blowdowns at the wellhead; track oil and water production; measure differential pressure, line pressure and line temperature; and monitor the motorized choke and control valve position. Wireless technology offers significant savings through improved maintenance efficiency. With wireless systems in remote locations, there are seldom problems in the transmission path. Wireless technology makes it much easier and affordable to manage well operations from a safe distance. By eliminating the need for wires in a fracing operation, wireless can help fracing companies maintain a safe operating distance from their target wells, and move operations from well to well with ease. A wireless communication system for transmitting process data from field sensors to a field processing device consists of radio transmitters, a communications gateway and a user interface. The communications hub receives encrypted messages from the remote devices and transmits them to a flow computer, SCADA system, or Distributed Control System. Data is then transmitted to a central office. 1 fig.

  11. Presenting a Multi Objective Model for Supplier Selection in Order to Reduce Green House Gas Emission under Uncertion Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Mohamadi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention has been given to Stochastic demand due to uncertainty in the real -world. In the literature, decision-making models and suppliers' selection do not often consider inventory management as part of shopping problems. On the other hand, the environmental sustainability of a supply chain depends on the shopping strategy of the supply chain members. The supplier selection plays an important role in the green chain. In this paper, a multi-objective nonlinear integer programming model for selecting a set of supplier considering Stochastic demand is proposed. while the cost of purchasing include the total cost, holding and stock out costs, rejected units, units have been delivered sooner, and total green house gas emissions are minimized, while the obtained total score from the supplier assessment process is maximized. It is assumed, the purchaser provides the different products from the number predetermined supplier to a with Stochastic demand and the uniform probability distribution function. The product price depends on the order quantity for each product line is intended. Multi-objective models using known methods, such as Lp-metric has become an objective function and then uses genetic algorithms and simulated annealing meta-heuristic is solved.

  12. Industrial strategies for improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Examples from the Climate Wise program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhsmer, K.; Nelson, H.; Wayman, A.; Winkelman, S.; Milmoe, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Climate Wise is a partnership initiative between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and industry designed to stimulate the voluntary reduction of greenhouse gas emissions among participating manufacturing companies. Climate Wise works with the manufacturing sector, which comprises 25 to 30 percent of the total US energy consumption, to promote the continued and increased implementation of energy efficiency and other pollution prevention measures. This paper reviews the energy use and CO 2 emissions profiles of the following three energy intensive industries: cement, petroleum, and iron and steel. The paper also identifies what a typical Action Plan for a company from each of these industries might look like and the types of savings (energy, CO 2 emissions, and energy costs) which might be achieved. The measures featured in these Action Plans are widely applicable and are likely to offer relatively short payback times. In addition, the paper describes other measures and existing or emerging technologies that may be available to these industries

  13. Congenital absence of infrarenal IVC and iliac venous system : Unusual collateral Pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Joo; Lee, Byung Hee; Kim, Kie Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Chin, Soo Yil

    1994-01-01

    We present a case with congenital absence of the infrarenal portion of inferior vena cava and iliac venous system, showing unusual venous collaterals including the left ovarian venous collateral via parametrial venous complex, and a mesenteric-periureteric venous connection. The venous collateral pathways were demonstrated by computed tomography and venography

  14. Mechanochemical endovenous ablation and new frontiers in venous intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, D

    2017-01-01

    Venous insufficiency of the lower extremities is a common condition and related to various symptoms, including venous ulcers. The effect of venous insufficiency on patients’ health-related quality of life is substantial and comparable with other chronic diseases such as arthritis, diabetes, and

  15. Erythrocytes and von Willebrand factor in venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, M.W.J.

    2018-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism represents the third leading vascular disease after myocardial infarction and stroke. Erythrocytes, the most abundant cells in venous thrombi, were thought to be innocent bystanders that become tangled up in the fibrin mesh of venous thrombi. However, this thesis describes

  16. Contribution of MRI in supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, B.; Germain, P.; Gangi, A.; Klinkert, A.; Dietemann, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.; Livolsi, A.; Willard, D.

    1992-01-01

    A case of supracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage (TAPVD) in an infant aged 2 1/2 months is presented. Diagnosis was established non invasively by magnetic resonance image (MRI). Not only did MRI precisely depict the anomalous venous pathway but it moreover securely excluded pulmonary venous obstruction. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostics of defeats of venous collectors of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, T.V.; Polunina, I.S.; Shcherbakova, E.Ya.; Kuldakova, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Comparative data of transcranial ultrasonic dopplerography (170 patients) and radionuclidous antroscintigraphy (124), received during diagnostics of defects of venous collectors of brain are analyzed. Five variants of defeats of venous collectors (cross, sigmoid, internal of jugular of jugular vein), but also unpaired sine (direct, confluent) are described. Received results permit to reveal interrelation of infringements of venous outflow and increase of intracranial pressure

  18. Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Presenting as Jugular Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Cheriyan Modayil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jugular venous thrombosis is unusual and is associated with central venous catheterisation, intravenous drug abuse and head and neck sepsis. It is rarely associated with malignancy. We report a case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary in a forty year old female which presented with jugular venous thrombosis. The discussion includes investigation and treatment options for this condition.

  19. A Novel Stretch Sensor to Measure Venous Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrpailyne Wankhar

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic venous insufficiency is a debilitating condition causing varicose veins and venous ulcers. The pathophysiology includes reflux and venous obstruction. The diagnosis is often made by clinical examination and confirmed by Venous Doppler studies. Plethysmography helps to quantitatively examine the reflux and diagnose the burden of deep venous pathology to better understand venous hemodynamics, which is not elicited by venous duplex examination alone. However, most of these tests are qualitative, expensive, and not easily available. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential use of a novel stretch sensor in the assessment of venous hemodynamics during different maneuvers by measuring the change in calf circumference. We designed the stretch sensor by using semiconductor strain gauges pasted onto a small metal bar to form a load cell. The elastic and Velcro material attached to the load cell form a belt. It converts the change in limb circumference to a proportional tension (force of distension when placed around the calf muscle. We recorded the change in limb circumference from arrays of stretch sensors by using an in-house data acquisition system. We calculated the venous volume (VV, venous filling index (VFI, ejection fraction (EF and residual venous volume (RVV on two normal subjects and on two patients to assess venous hemodynamics. The values (VV > 60 ml, VFI 60%, RVV 2ml/s, EF 35% in patients were comparable to those reported in the literature.

  20. Gaseous microemboli in a pediatric bypass circuit with an unprimed venous line: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudacko, Andrea; Sievert, Alicia; Sistino, Joseph

    2009-09-01

    Miniaturizing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuits to reduce hemodilution and allogenic blood product administration is common in cardiac surgery. One major concern associated with smaller CPB circuits is a possible increase in gaseous microemboli (GME) sent to the cerebral vasculature, which is exacerbated by vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD). The use of VAVD has increased with smaller venous line diameter and venous cannulae. This study examines the effects of CPB initiation with an unprimed venous line and VAVD in a pediatric circuit. A CPB circuit was set up with reservoir, oxygenator, and arterial filter with a bag reservoir to simulate the patient. All trials were done in vitro, and GME were measured using the EDAC Quantifier by Luna Innovations. EDAC sensors were placed proximal and distal to the oxygenator and distal to the arterial filter. Group 1 was the control group with no VAVD and a primed venous line. Groups 2, 3, and 4 used an unprimed venous line and VAVD of -40, -20, and -10 mmHg, respectively. Total microemboli counts and total embolic load in micrometers were measured at each sensor. Groups 2 (12,379.00 +/- 3180.37) and 3 (8296.67 +/- 2818.76) had significantly more microemboli than group 1 (923.33 +/- 796.08, p sensor. Group 2 (57.33 +/- 25.01, p sensor. No other findings were statistically significant. The results suggest that, if an oxygenator and arterial filter with sufficient air handling capabilities are used, this method to reduce prime volume may not increase GME in the arterial line distal to the arterial filter.

  1. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in plasminogen activator inhibitor type-2 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, S A; Chabasse, C; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hoofnagle, M H; Strickland, D K; Sarkar, R; Antalis, T M

    2014-10-01

    The resolution of deep vein thrombosis requires an inflammatory response and mobilization of proteases, such as urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), to degrade the thrombus and remodel the injured vein wall. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) with unique immunosuppressive and cell survival properties that was originally identified as an inhibitor of uPA. To investigate the role of PAI-2 in venous thrombus formation and resolution. Venous thrombus resolution was compared in wild-type C57BL/6, PAI-2(-/-) , and PAI-1(-/-) mice using the stasis model of deep vein thrombosis. Formed thrombi were harvested, thrombus weights were recorded, and tissue was analyzed for uPA and MMP activities, PAI-1 expression, and the nature of inflammatory cell infiltration. We found that the absence of PAI-2 enhanced venous thrombus resolution, while thrombus formation was unaffected. Enhanced venous thrombus resolution in PAI-2(-/-) mice was associated with increased uPA activity and reduced levels of PAI-1, with no significant effect on MMP-2 and -9 activities. PAI-1 deficiency resulted in an increase in thrombus resolution similar to PAI-2 deficiency, but additionally reduced venous thrombus formation and altered MMP activity. PAI-2-deficient thrombi had increased levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL2, which was associated with early enhanced neutrophil recruitment. These data identify PAI-2 as a novel regulator of venous thrombus resolution, which modulates several pathways involving both inflammatory and uPA activity mechanisms, distinct from PAI-1. Further examination of these pathways may lead to potential therapeutic prospects in accelerating thrombus resolution. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. Reducing errors in aircraft atmospheric inversion estimates of point-source emissions: the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak as a natural tracer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, S. M.; Yadav, V.; Karion, A.; Mueller, K. L.; Conley, S.; Ryerson, T.; Nehrkorn, T.; Kort, E. A.

    2018-04-01

    Urban greenhouse gas (GHG) flux estimation with atmospheric measurements and modeling, i.e. the ‘top-down’ approach, can potentially support GHG emission reduction policies by assessing trends in surface fluxes and detecting anomalies from bottom-up inventories. Aircraft-collected GHG observations also have the potential to help quantify point-source emissions that may not be adequately sampled by fixed surface tower-based atmospheric observing systems. Here, we estimate CH4 emissions from a known point source, the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak in Los Angeles, CA from October 2015–February 2016, using atmospheric inverse models with airborne CH4 observations from twelve flights ≈4 km downwind of the leak and surface sensitivities from a mesoscale atmospheric transport model. This leak event has been well-quantified previously using various methods by the California Air Resources Board, thereby providing high confidence in the mass-balance leak rate estimates of (Conley et al 2016), used here for comparison to inversion results. Inversions with an optimal setup are shown to provide estimates of the leak magnitude, on average, within a third of the mass balance values, with remaining errors in estimated leak rates predominantly explained by modeled wind speed errors of up to 10 m s‑1, quantified by comparing airborne meteorological observations with modeled values along the flight track. An inversion setup using scaled observational wind speed errors in the model-data mismatch covariance matrix is shown to significantly reduce the influence of transport model errors on spatial patterns and estimated leak rates from the inversions. In sum, this study takes advantage of a natural tracer release experiment (i.e. the Aliso Canyon natural gas leak) to identify effective approaches for reducing the influence of transport model error on atmospheric inversions of point-source emissions, while suggesting future potential for integrating surface tower and

  3. Effect of Multi-layer Compression Bandage Systems on Leg Ulcers Associated with Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kuplay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Venous leg ulcer is a major health problem in terms of high prevalence and high cost for treatment. Multi-layer compression bandage systems for venous leg ulcers are supposed to be the gold standard for the treatment of venous ulcers. The aim of the current study is to investigate the effectiveness of multi-layer compression bandage systems for the treatment of venous leg ulcers.Patients and Methods: Nineteen consecutive patients diagnosed to have leg ulcers were evaluated and four patients were excluded from the study due to the peripheral arterial disease. Fifteen patients, enrolled in the study, were classified according to CEAP classification and belonged to the same class. Betaven® multi-layer compression bandage was applied to patients. Patients were followed-up in terms of wound healing and reduction in wound diameter.Results: Twelve male and three female patients underwent multi-layer bandage system. Mean age of patients was 38.2 ± 4.2 years. Ulcer size was measured planimetrically and baseline ulcer size was 4-10 cm². The location of ulcer was on medial malloelus in seven patients, lateral malleolus in three patients, anterior surface of the leg in four patients and lateral side of the leg in one patient. Patients had chronic venous insuuficiency for a mean of 5.1 ± 2.1 years. CEAP classifications were C6, Ep, As2,3-p18, Pr2,3, 18. Each bandage was changed five days after application along with wound care. Mean duration of treatment was 6 ± 2 weeks. Complete healing of the venous ulcers occurred in all patients except for one. This patient was referred to plastic surgery clinic for reconstruction.Conclusion: Multi-layer compression bandage system is an effective method of treatment for venous leg ulcers associated with chronic venous insufficiency by reducing venous return and increasing intertitial tissue pressure. This effect occurred in the shortrun as well as with a low cost and prevented loss of labor.

  4. Ulcer due to chronic venous disease: a sociodemographic study in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edson Marques; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti; de Melo, Valdinaldo Aragão; Aragão, José Aderval; de Oliveira, Luiz Augusto Bitencurt

    2013-07-01

    Venous ulcers account for 70% of chronic leg ulcers and affect about 2-7% of the population, causing much socioeconomic impact and reducing patients' quality of life. In this study we aimed to describe the clinical features of venous ulcers and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with ulcers due to chronic venous disease (CVD). This cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at the Vascular Surgery Service, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, in northeastern Brazil. The study included a consecutive series of 154 patients with active venous ulcers (CEAP C6) in the lower limb due to CVD. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race, monthly income, education, occupation, and caregiver) and clinical data (affected limb, ulcer site, etiopathogenesis, recurrence, and time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer) were collected. A possible correlation of time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer and number of recurrences with primary or secondary etiology was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test. Of the 154 patients analyzed, 79% were female, 94% were ethnically black or brown, 90% had a monthly income less than or equal to minimum wage, 47% were illiterate, 35% had not completed elementary school, 50% had informal jobs, 19.5% were retired, and 18.2% received sick pay from the social security system. The mean age was 53.7 years. Both limbs were affected similarly, and venous ulcers were located predominantly on the medial aspect of the leg (84%). The median time elapsed since the first episode of ulcer was 36 months, being significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P < 0.0003). The prevalence of recurrence was also significantly higher in patients with venous ulcers of secondary etiology (P < 0.001). According to CEAP classification, 65% of ulcers were primary (Ep), 94.1% demonstrated reflux involving the superficial system (As), 92% had incompetent perforators (Ap), 35% demonstrated reflux involving the deep system

  5. Investigation of cerebral venous outflow in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, A; Gadda, G; Gambaccini, M; Menegatti, E; Sisini, F; Zamboni, P

    2017-10-31

    The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return, and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling, in the absence of gravity, for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of a crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment. Such venous function has been characterized by means of a novel application of strain-gauge plethysmography which uses a capacitive sensor. In this contribution, preliminary results of our investigation have been presented. In particular, comparison of plethysmography data confirmed that long duration spaceflights lead to a redistribution of venous blood volume, and showed interesting differences in the amplitude of cardiac oscillations measured at the level of the neck veins. The success of the experiment has also demonstrated that thanks to its easy portability, non-invasiveness, and non-operator dependence, the proposed device can be considered as a novel tool for use aboard the ISS. Further trials are now under way to complete the investigation on the drainage function of the neck veins in microgravity.

  6. Pediatric central venous access devices: nursing interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy EA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Duffy, Kathryn N Nelson Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: A central venous catheter (CVC is an indwelling catheter that provides permanent or temporary stable venous access for both acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. These catheters provide stable venous access that can be used for a variety of medical purposes including drawing blood, hemodynamic monitoring, infusion of intravenous medications, infusion of intravenous fluids, chemotherapy, blood products, and parenteral nutrition. Each day, nurses access and care for CVCs in infants, children, and adolescents; the precision of this care can prevent life-threatening complications. The purpose of this review and the case study is to highlight the importance and components of evidence-based nursing practice in pediatric CVC care. A historical perspective of CVC care is provided in conjunction with current national initiatives to improve patient outcomes for children with CVCs. Infection prevention, clinical practice guidelines, quality improvement, and evidence-based care bundles are discussed. Keywords: pediatric nursing, central venous catheters, central line-associated bloodstream infection, care bundles, pediatric case study 

  7. Thermodilution-determined Internal Jugular Venous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Widmer, Mario; Hilty, Matthias P

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) increases ~20% during whole body exercise although a Kety-Schmidt-determined CBF is reported to remain stable; a discrepancy that could reflect evaluation of arterial vs. internal jugular venous (IJV) flow and/or that CBF is influenced by posture. Here we test...

  8. Global public awareness of venous thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendelboe, A. M.; McCumber, M.; Hylek, E. M.; Buller, H.; Weitz, J. I.; Raskob, G.; Angchaisuksiri, P.; Blanco, A. N.; Hunt, B. J.; Kakkar, A.; Konstantinides, S. V.; McLintock, C.; Ozaki, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Data on public awareness about thrombosis in general and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in particular are limited. We aimed to measure the global awareness of thrombosis to address this gap. With Ipsos-Reid, from 22 July to 5 August 2014, we surveyed 800 respondents in their native language from each

  9. Central Venous Occlusion in the Hemodialysis Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Vinay Narasimha; Eason, Joseph B; Allon, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Central venous stenosis (CVS) is encountered frequently among hemodialysis patients. Prior ipsilateral central venous catheterization and cardiac rhythm device insertions are common risk factors, but CVS can also occur in the absence of this history. Chronic CVS can cause thrombosis with partial or complete occlusion of the central vein at the site of stenosis. CVS is frequently asymptomatic and identified as an incidental finding during imaging studies. Symptomatic CVS presents most commonly as an upper- or lower-extremity edema ipsilateral to the CVS. Previously unsuspected CVS may become symptomatic after placement of an ipsilateral vascular access. The likelihood of symptomatic CVS may be affected by the central venous catheter (CVC) location; CVC side; duration of CVC dependence; type, location, and blood flow of the ipsilateral access; and extent of collateral veins. Venous angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement can improve the stenosis and alleviate symptoms, but CVS typically recurs frequently, requiring repeated interventions. Refractory symptomatic CVS may require ligation of the ipsilateral vascular access. Because no available treatment option is curative, the goal should be to prevent CVS by minimizing catheters and central vein instrumentation in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Travel and venous thrombosis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, S.; Schreijer, A. J. M.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Bueller, H. R.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Middeldorp, S.

    2007-01-01

    In the past decade, numerous publications on the association between venous thrombosis (VT) and travel have been published. Relative and absolute risks of VT after travel, and particularly after travel by air, have been studied in case-control and observational follow-up studies, whereas the effect

  11. Venous thromboembolism: Risk profile and management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This study aims to describe the venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk profile of women undergoing elective gynaecological surgery in a tertiary hospital and to audit the VTE prophylaxis prescribed. Methods. One hundred and nine women who underwent elective gynaecological surgery at Kalafong Provincial ...

  12. Urethro-venous intravasation during urethrography

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.M. Ratkal

    Abstract. Retrograde urethrography is a procedure used to evaluate urethral strictures. Urethro-venous intravasation, rarely seen during retrograde urethrography, can result in bacteremia, adverse reactions to contrast agents, renal failure and even pulmonary embolism. We report one such case of a male patient who ...

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice of venous thromboembolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    We aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of prophylaxis in venous thromboembolism among medical doctors in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital,. Sokoto, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: The knowledge, attitude and practice of VTE prophylaxis among medical doctors was assessed using ...

  14. TEMPO DE VIABILIDADE DE AMOSTRAS DE SANGUE VENOSO BOVINO DESTINADAS AO EXAME HEMOGASOMÉTRICO, QUANDO MANTIDAS SOB CONSERVAÇÃO EM ÁGUA GELADA VIABILITY TIME OF BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS IN BOVINE VENOUS BLOOD SAMPLES STORED IN ICE WATER BATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Augusto Naylor Lisbôa

    2001-04-01

    adequadamente conservadas em banho de água gelada, mantendo, assim, o seu valor diagnóstico.In order to verify the viability of blood gas analysis in bovine venous blood stored on ice water bath, two samples (10ml each were taken from the jugular vein of 14 healthy animals (7 males and 7 females, 1- to 5-year-old, using plastic syringes and attached needles filled with sodium heparin (1,000IU. The blood samples were obtained anaerobically, the air bubbles observed were immediately removed, and the needle was maintened capped with a rubber stopper. Each syringe of the pair was distinctally stored at room temperature (23-30ºC or in ice water bath (0-4ºC during the experimental period. Values of pH, carbon dioxide (PvCO2 and oxigen (PvO2 tensions, bicarbonate (HCO3-, total carbon dioxide (TCO2, base excess (BE, standard bicarbonate (StB, oxigen saturation (SatO2, and oxigen content (O2 were determined soon after sampling and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. According to the type of storage temperature, the results were analysed through repeated measurements ANOVA, considering the contrast between the mean value of each time and the initial one. On the storage at room temperature, the in vitro changes were characterized from continuous decreases in pH, PvO2, BE, StB, SatO2, and O2 values, and gradual increase in PvCO2, starting at 2- or 3-hour after the collection. In the samples stored at 0-4ºC, on the other hand, the changes in pH occurred only at the 4th hour, and the stability of the PvCO2, BE, and StB values were maintened for up to the 6th hour. These results indicated that the diagnostic utility of blood gas analysis is conserved in bovine venous blood samples adequately stored up to 6 hours in ice water bath, at 0-4ºC.

  15. Venous infraction of developmental venous anomaly: A case report with perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Youn; Kim, Hye Jeong; Hyun, Su Jeong; Kim, Hee Yeong; Kim, Han Myun; Hwang, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Yang, Ik [Dept. of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is a common congenital venous malformation characterized by dilated medullary veins in caput medusa configuration and a draining vein. Despite the high incidence of DVAs, they are benign anatomic variations and rarely cause symptoms. Here, we report computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings with perfusion images of acute infarction from underlying DVA in a 63-year-old female patient who presented with acute onset of neurologic symptoms and recovered without any neurologic deficit.

  16. Brightness of venous blood in South American camelids: implications for jugular catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Nicola; Dugdale, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To compare the brightness of South American camelid venous blood to that of Equidae. Prospective clinical evaluation. Twelve South American camelids (eight llamas, four alpacas), eight horses and ponies (control group). Appropriately sized catheters were placed in the jugular vein of each animal under local anaesthesia. The blood spilt before the catheter was capped was caught on a white tile. A sample of blood was drawn for blood-gas analysis. The brightness of the blood (both on the tile and in the syringe) was matched to a colour chart (1 = darkest red, 8 = brightest red) by a single observer under bright light conditions. Packed cell volume (PCV) and partial pressure of oxygen (PvO(2)) in the blood were also measured on the syringe blood. Normally distributed data were compared using a two tailed t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Significance was set at p Camelid venous blood was significantly brighter red than that of horses and ponies both on the white tile (p = 0.0003) and in the syringe (p = 0.0001). PCV was significantly lower in camelids (32 +/- 4%) compared with horses (37 +/- 5%). Partial pressure of oxygen values were similar between groups. Jugular venous blood in alpacas and llamas is significantly brighter red than that of horses. Colour should not be used as a sole determinant of venous or arterial catheterization in this species.

  17. Retinal venous blood carbon monoxide response to bright light in male pigs: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Dan A; Duda, Magdalena; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Romerowicz-Misielak, Maria; Koziorowska, Anna; Sołek, Przemysław; Nowak, Sławomir; Kulpa, Magdalena; Koziorowski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The physical mechanism by which light is absorbed in the eye and has antidepressant and energizing effects in Seasonal Affective Disorder and other forms of psychiatric major depression is of scientific interest. This study was designed to explore one specific aspect of a proposed humoral phototransduction mechanism, namely that carbon monoxide (CO) levels increase in retinal venous blood in response to bright light. Eleven mature male pigs approximately six months of age were kept for 7days in darkness and fasted for 12h prior to surgery. Following mild sedation, anesthesia was induced. Silastic catheters were inserted into the dorsal nasal vein through the angular vein of the eye to reach the ophthalmic sinus, from which venous blood outflowing from the eye area was collected. The animals were exposed to 5000lx of fluorescent-generated white light. CO levels in the blood were analyzed by gas chromatography before and after 80min of light exposure. At baseline, mean CO levels in the retinal venous blood were 0.43±0.05(SE)nmol/ml. After bright light, mean CO levels increased to 0.54±0.06nmol/ml (two-tailed t-test plight exposure raises carbon monoxide levels in ophthalmic venous blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The national-economic cost of reduction of greenhouse gases emission. Comparison of investments aimed towards a reduced greenhouse gas emission in power industry, agriculture, transportation sector and other essential greenhouse gas sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    For a number of years the cost of reducing CO 2 emissions in the energy sector in Denmark has been investigated in detail. The same has not been the case what concerns the cost of reducing other greenhouse gases (CH 4 and N 2 O) and especially not what concerns the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gases in other sectors in the Danish economy, i.e. agriculture, transport, industry, domestic waste and forestry. Thus, the objective of this project was twofold: 1) To calculate the national economic costs related to a number of options for reducing Danish greenhouse gas emissions (CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O) by using the same methodology for all important sectors in the economy and 2) To compare the cost efficiency of these options not only wihtin the individual sectors but also across the sectoral boundaries to achieve an overall view of the reduction possibilities in society and the associated costs. (au) 80 refs.; Prepared by Forskningscenter Risoe and Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser. Afdeling for Systemanalyse

  19. CT findings of posterior fossa venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Toru; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Nishimoto, Akira; Nishimoto, Ken.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of posterior fossa venous angiomas were reported, with some comments on the CT findings. Case 1: A 53-year-old woman was admitted for the further examination of a viral meningitis which had appeared three months before. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Vertebral angiography, however, demonstrated numerous fine medullary veins, with an enlarged intraparenchymal draining vein, in the right cerebellum; they drained into the petrosal vein, which was characteristic of venous angioma. On the plain CT, part of the draining vein was identified as a slightly high-density node. A curvilinear draining vein was demonstrated by the enhanced CT. Case 2: A 29-year-old man was admitted complaining of headache, vomiting, and atxia. Neurological examination disclosed truncal ataxia. The enhanced CT demonstrated two distinct nodules on the anterior border of the hematoma in the deep median cerebellum, probably corresponding to the draining veins. On the angiogram, a venous angioma was found in the bilateral cerebellum; it drained into the precentral cerebellar veins and ultimately joined the straight sinus via the precentro-vermo-rectal vein. Case 3: A 4-year-old boy was admitted suffering from headache, vomiting, and ataxia. Neurological examination disclosed a co-ordination disturbance of the left side. The enhanced CT demonstrated a curvilinear structure inside the hematoma. Angiography showed a venous angioma in the left cerebellum which drained into the petrosal vein. Computerized angiotomography delineated the characteristic venous structure on the angiogram as many fine, high-density lines (medullary veins) converging to a large intraparenchymal linear structure (central medullary vein) and then to a superficial cortical vein. In all cases, large intraparenchymal draining veins were identified by the conventional CT. (J.P.N.)

  20. Anticoagulation period in idiopathic venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farraj, Rami S.

    2004-01-01

    The period of anticoagulation of a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism has been 6 months. It is unclear if such patients would benefit from longer treatment, as there appears to be an increased risk of recurrence after anticoagulation is stopped. In a randomized prospective study of 64 patients admitted to King Hussein Medical city, Amman, Jordan, who developed a first episode of venous thromboembolism, 32 patients were given warfarin for 24-months, while 32 patients stopped anticoagulation after completion of 6-months of therapy. Our goal was to determine the effects of extended anticoagulation on rates of recurrence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism and bleeding. The patients were followed for 12-months after stopping anticoagulation. After 24-months, 7 of the 32 patients (21%) who had standard anticoagulation for 6-months had a recurrent episode of thromboembolism compared to one of the 32 patients who received anticoagulation for 24 months (3%). Extended warfarin therapy for 24-months has resulted in an absolute risk reduction of 0.1% (p<0.05). This translates into 8 patients having to be treated for 24-months to avoid one recurrence without increasing the risk of major bleeding. Two patients in each group (6%) had major nonfatal bleeding, all 4 bleeding episodes occurring within the first 3-months of anticoagulation. After 36-months of follow up, the recurrence rate of extended warfarin therapy was only 3 patients (9%), which is a 43% relative reduction in recurrence of thromboembolism compared to standard therapy for 6-months. Patients with first episodes of idiopathic venous thromboembolism have an increased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism and should be treated with oral anticoagulants for longer than 6-months, probably 24-months. (author)

  1. A quasi moment description of the evolution of an electron gas towards a state dominated by a reduced transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeien, A.H.

    1980-09-01

    For electrons in electric and magnetic fields which collide elastically with neutral atoms or molecules a minute evolution study is made using the multiple time scale method. In this study a set of quasi moment equations is used which is derived from the Boltzmann equation by taking appropriate quasi moments, i.e. velocity moments where the integration is performed only over velocity angles. In a systematic way the evolution in a transient regime is revealed where processes take place on time scales related to the electron-atom collision frequency and electron cyclotron frequency and how the evolution enters a regime where it is governed by a reduced transport equation is shown. This work has relevance to the theory of evolution of gases of charged particles in general and to non-neutral plasmas and partially ionized gases in particular. (Auth.)

  2. Potential of aeration flow rate and bio-char addition to reduce greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during manure composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    -char on GHG and NH3 emissions from composting cattle slurry and hen manure in small-scale laboratory composters. Depending on treatment, cumulative C losses via CO2 and CH4 emissions accounted for 11.4-22.5% and 0.004-0.2% of initial total carbon, while N losses as N2O and NH3 emissions comprised 0.......05-0.1% and 0.8-26.5% of initial total nitrogen, respectively. Decreasing the flow rate reduced cumulative NH3 losses non-significantly (by 88%) but significantly increased CH4 losses (by 51%) from composting of cattle slurry with barley straw. Among the hen manure treatments evaluated, bio-char addition...

  3. Fabrication of highly oriented reduced graphene oxide microbelts array for massive production of sensitive ammonia gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Rongfu; Wang, Xiaona; Feng, Wei; Hu, PingAn; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William

    2013-01-01

    Patterning oriented reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into functional structures is significant for its application in electronics and sensors. A large array of highly oriented rGO microbelts are prepared by a soft lithography process. These rGO microbelts have a uniform structure that enables the massive production of graphene electronics using a simple mask shielding process. A high performance NH 3 sensor array which was fabricated from rGO microbelts exhibits a reproducible performance with the relative resistance response (ΔR/R 0 ) reaching 0.35, whilst offering a large concentration range response of 10 ppm ∼38%, showing these sensors to be both highly sensitive and responsive. The impact of working temperature on the response to NH 3 in low and high concentration ranges of NH 3 is also discussed. (paper)

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sabbie A.; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Ostertag, Claudia P.

    2015-11-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO2-eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California.

  5. Biochar helps enhance maize productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions under balanced fertilization in a rainfed low fertility inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengxiao; Pan, Genxing; Wu, Gang; Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Zheng, Jufeng; Cheng, Kun; Joseph, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Maize production plays an important role in global food security, especially in arid and poor-soil regions. Its production is also increasing in China in terms of both planting area and yield. However, maize productivity in rainfed croplands is constrained by low soil fertility and moisture insufficiency. To increase the maize yield, local farmers use NPK fertilizer. However, the fertilization regime (CF) they practice is unbalanced with too much nitrogen in proportion to both phosphorus and potassium, which has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and excessive greenhouse gases emissions. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether a high yielding but low greenhouse gases emission system could be developed by the combination of balanced fertilization (BF) and biochar amendment in a rainfed farmland located in the Northern region of China. Biochar was applied at rates of 0, 20, and 40 t/ha. Results show that BF and biochar increased maize yield and partial nutrient productivity and decreased nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Under BF the maize yield was 23.7% greater than under CF. N2O emissions under BF were less than half that under CF due to a reduced N fertilizer application rate. Biochar amendment decreased N2O by more than 31% under CF, while it had no effect on N2O emissions under BF. Thus BF was effective at maintaining a high maize yield and reducing greenhouse gases emissions. If combined with biochar amendment, BF would be a good way of sustaining low carbon agriculture in rainfed areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from concrete can be reduced by using mix proportions, geometric aspects, and age as design factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Sabbie A; Horvath, Arpad; Monteiro, Paulo J M; Ostertag, Claudia P

    2015-01-01

    With increased awareness of the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the significant contribution from the cement industry, research efforts are being advanced to reduce the impacts associated with concrete production and consumption. A variety of methods have been proposed, one of the most common being the replacement of cement as a binder in concrete with supplementary cementitious materials, such as fly ash (FA), which can have lower environmental effects. The use of FA can change the kinetics of the hydration reactions and, consequently, modify the evolution of the concrete strength over time. Yet the influence of designing structural elements to obtain the required strength at later ages has not been examined in terms of their influence on global warming potential (GWP) of concrete. This research investigates the influence of design age, in addition to mix proportions and geometric aspects, on the GWP associated with making beams, columns, and a concrete building frame. Findings suggest that while the GWP for beams is not highly dependent on concrete mixture strength, the GWP for columns is dependent on strength, thus the influence of required strength at later ages influences GWP of making columns more so than beams. For the concrete frame analyzed, a potential 45% reduction in GWP, depending on mix proportions and design age, was found. Using the findings from this research, the GWP associated with production of concrete in California could be reduced by approximately 1.8 million metric tons of CO 2 -eq emissions, equivalent to approximately 2% of all industrial GHG emissions in California. (letter)

  7. Computed tomographic manifestations of abdominal and pelvic venous collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, J.J.; Thomas, J.L.; Bernardino, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Obstruction of blood flow through the inferior vena cava and portal vein may produce venous collaterals. These include the paravertebral venous system and its communications with the ascending lumbar veins and azygous/hemiazygous system; gonadal, periureteric, and other retroperitoneal veins; abdominal wall veins; hemorrhoidal venous plexus; and the portal venous system. The anatomic location of these vessels is discussed. Computed tomography demonstrates them as round or tubular structures that are isodens when compared with other venous structures following contrast material administration. Techniques of examination and methods of differentiation of these vascular structures from other abnormalities, especially lymphadenopathy, are discussed

  8. Multiple versus single lumen umbilical venous catheters for newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabra, N S; Kumar, M; Shah, S S

    2005-07-20

    Multiple lumen umbilical venous catheters (ML-UVCs) instead of single lumen UVCs (SL-UVCs) may decrease the need for additional venous lines. Although it seems self-evident that ML-UVCs would reduce the need of additional venous lines, the rates of associated complications might be different. To compare the effectiveness and the safety of ML-UVCs versus SL-UVCs in terms of need of additional vascular access, rates of complications, morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials were identified by searching the MEDLINE (1966 - February 2005), EMBASE (1980- February 2005), CINAHL (1982 - February 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2004) and Science Direct (subject area: medicine, journal and abstract database; 1967 to February 2005). Literature search also included a manual search of the abstracts of scientific meetings published in Pediatric Research (1990-2004). Additional citations were sought using references in articles retrieved from searches. Subject experts were contacted to identify the unpublished and ongoing studies. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials comparing safety and efficacy of multiple versus single lumen umbilical venous catheter in neonates (both term and preterm) who were in need of umbilical venous catheter insertion for vascular access in first four weeks of life. Each review author performed data extraction independently and differences were resolved by discussion. The following outcomes were determined: total number of additional peripheral intravenous lines per baby in first week and first four weeks of life, total number of additional percutaneously and surgically placed central venous lines per baby in first four weeks of life, and other safety and efficacy measures. The treatment effect estimators used were RR, RD, and WMD when appropriate along with their 95% CI. If RD was statistically significant, then number

  9. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  10. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Central venous oxygenation: when physiology explains apparent discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squara, Pierre

    2014-11-10

    Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) >70% or mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) >65% is recommended for both septic and non-septic patients. Although it is the task of experts to suggest clear and simple guidelines, there is a risk of reducing critical care to these simple recommendations. This article reviews the basic physiological and pathological features as well as the metrological issues that provide clear evidence that SvO2 and ScvO2 are adaptative variables with large inter-patient variability. This variability is exemplified in a modeled population of 1,000 standard ICU patients and in a real population of 100 patients including 15,860 measurements. In these populations, it can be seen how optimizing one to three of the four S(c)vO2 components homogenized the patients and yields a clear dependency with the fourth one. This explains the discordant results observed in large studies where cardiac output was increased up to predetermined S(c)vO2 thresholds following arterial oxygen hemoglobin saturation, total body oxygen consumption needs and hemoglobin optimization. Although a systematic S(c)vO2 goal-oriented protocol can be statistically profitable before ICU admission, appropriate intensive care mandates determination of the best compromise between S(c)vO2 and its four components, taking into account the specific constraints of each individual patient.

  12. Deep venous thrombus characterization: ultrasonography, elastography and scattering operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Berthomier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A thrombus or a blood clot is the result of blood coagulation which is a natural process to prevent bleeding. An inappropriate formation of a thrombus in a deep vein is known as Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT. The main complication of a DVT is a Pulmonary Embolism (PE which occurs when a thrombus breaks loose and travels to the lungs. DVT, PE, or both are also known as Venous thromboembolism (VTE. It affects an estimated 300,000–600,000 Individuals just in the United States per year and can cause considerable morbidity and mortality. This multifactorial disease related to advanced age, immobility, surgery or obesity is an important public health issue. Our project is looking to link the VTE epidemiology (risk factors, patient history, PE to the thrombus structure. To reach our goals, we are collecting ultrasonography (echogenicity and elastography (stiffness of human thrombus. This manuscript describes our approach to create and preprocess a database using Toshiba Aplio 500. Our approaches to characterize the thrombus structure with ultrasound images are also described. The feature extraction is made with the scattering operator. Obtained features are then reduced using Principal Component Analysis and are analyzed to evaluate our approach.

  13. Stratifying the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism in Otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Hu, Hsou Mei; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Bradford, Carol R.; Bahl, Vinita

    2015-01-01

    Objective The consequences of perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) are devastating; identifying patients at risk is an essential step in reducing morbidity and mortality. The utility of perioperative VTE risk assessment in otolaryngology is unknown. This study was designed to risk-stratify a diverse population of otolaryngology patients for VTE events. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Single-institution academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Adult patients presenting for otolaryngologic surgery requiring hospital admission from 2003 to 2010 who did not receive VTE chemoprophylaxis were included. The Caprini risk assessment was retrospectively scored via a validated method of electronic chart abstraction. Primary study variables were Caprini risk scores and the incidence of perioperative venous thromboembolic outcomes. Results A total of 2016 patients were identified. The overall 30-day rate of VTE was 1.3%. The incidence of VTE in patients with a Caprini risk score of 6 or less was 0.5%. For patients with scores of 7 or 8, the incidence was 2.4%. Patients with a Caprini risk score greater than 8 had an 18.3% incidence of VTE and were significantly more likely to develop a VTE when compared to patients with a Caprini risk score less than 8 (P otolaryngology patients for 30-day VTE events and allows otolaryngologists to identify patient subgroups who have a higher risk of VTE in the absence of chemoprophylaxis. PMID:22261490

  14. Epidemiology and diagnostics of venous disease in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Curyło

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in Poland. The percentage of people who die from cardiovascular disease is decreasing year by year, but adequate patient education and access to specialist physicians are still required. Chronic venous disease is one of the disorders of this system, whose probability of occurrence increases with age. Other risk factors include gender, type of occupation, obesity, eating habits and constipation, pregnancy, and genetic factor. The symptoms of the disease include: pain, lower limb edema, fatigue / leg pain, tingling, enlargement of the small blood vessels, enlargement and constriction of the subcutaneous veins, skin lesions, skin discolouration, itching of the skin of the legs, congestive dermatitis, ulcers. The degree of disease is determined using the CEAP scale. Prophylactic and early detection of disease results in shorter treatment times and reduced costs. Unfortunately, a large number of primary care physicians are skipping the physical examination of the lower limb, thus prolonging the diagnosis process and the patient being treated for a more advanced disease. Studies show that there is a difference in the incidence of chronic venous disease and the severity of the disease, depending on the province that has been affected. This may indicate the need to standardize nationwide training methods for doctors. The most common method of treatment is the combination of pharmacotherapy and compression therapy.

  15. Mutagenicity of diesel engine exhaust is eliminated in the gas phase by an oxidation catalyst but only slightly reduced in the particle phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-06-05

    Concerns about adverse health effects of diesel engine emissions prompted strong efforts to minimize this hazard, including exhaust treatment by diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC). The effectiveness of such measures is usually assessed by the analysis of the legally regulated exhaust components. In recent years additional analytical and toxicological tests were included in the test panel with the aim to fill possible analytical gaps, for example, mutagenic potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitrated derivatives (nPAH). This investigation focuses on the effect of a DOC on health hazards from combustion of four different fuels: rapeseed methyl ester (RME), common mineral diesel fuel (DF), SHELL V-Power Diesel (V-Power), and ARAL Ultimate Diesel containing 5% RME (B5ULT). We applied the European Stationary Cycle (ESC) to a 6.4 L turbo-charged heavy load engine fulfilling the EURO III standard. The engine was operated with and without DOC. Besides regulated emissions we measured particle size and number distributions, determined the soluble and solid fractions of the particles and characterized the bacterial mutagenicity in the gas phase and the particles of the exhaust. The effectiveness of the DOC differed strongly in regard to the different exhaust constituents: Total hydrocarbons were reduced up to 90% and carbon monoxide up to 98%, whereas nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) remained almost unaffected. Total particle mass (TPM) was reduced by 50% with DOC in common petrol diesel fuel and by 30% in the other fuels. This effect was mainly due to a reduction of the soluble organic particle fraction. The DOC caused an increase of the water-soluble fraction in the exhaust of RME, V-Power, and B5ULT, as well as a pronounced increase of nitrate in all exhausts. A high proportion of ultrafine particles (10-30 nm) in RME exhaust could be ascribed to vaporizable particles. Mutagenicity of the exhaust was low compared to previous investigations. The DOC reduced

  16. Fiscal 1997 survey report on technology to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emitted from automobiles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (jidosha kara no onshitsu koka gas haishutsuryo teigen gijutsu no chosa). 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As to intelligent transport systems (ITS), the paper views the outline of the R and D and diffusion in Europe, the U.S. and Japan and trially estimated the effect of reduction in greenhouse gas, and worked out visions/scenario for diffusion of ITS. As developmental fields contributing to reduction in greenhouse gas, the following were taken up: 1) AVCS (advanced vehicle control system), 2) automatic rates receiving system, 3) traffic management, 4) plans of operation management/allocation of commercial cars, 5) modal shift of the material flow, and 6) public traffic in passenger transportation. As effects by developmental field, 1) and 5) are especially effective. 4) is promising because of its easiness in introduction, and 2) is also a promising technology as a tool to introduce an electronic road pricing system on general roads in future in addition to the effect of reducing heavy traffic by its introduction to expressways. However, the higher the service level on the facility side becomes, the more the traffic demand amount becomes. By how to introduce ITS, it possibly occurs that improvement of the situation will not be made at all on the future vehicle traffic system. 38 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  17. Método bundle na redução de infecção de corrente sanguínea relacionada a cateteres centrais: revisão integrativa Método bundle en la redución de infecciones relacionadas a catéteres centrales: una revisión integrativa Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Dane Pereira Brachine

    2012-12-01

    éter con su retirada inmediata cuando posible. La mayoría de los estudios analizados mostraron una reducción significante de infección sanguínea relacionadas o asociadas con catéteres intravenosos centrales.This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  18. Evaluation of hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity with doppler ultrasonography during the puerperium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekindil, Goekhan [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Varol, Fuesun G. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Ali Yuece, M. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Yardim, Turgut [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Trakya University School of Medicine, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    1999-03-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate pregnancy-induced changes of hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity in the puerperium and to determine if these changes disappeared by the end of the puerperium. Methods and material: Healthy normal volunteers (90) were examined on the 2nd and 7th days of puerperium and between the 6th and 8th weeks postpartum. Doppler waveform patterns were obtained in the middle hepatic vein and main portal vein. The hepatic venous pulsatility was named as normal, damped or flat. Results: On the 2nd day postpartum, the hepatic vein pulsatility was shown as normal in 8 (26%), damped in 11 (37%) and flat in 11 (37%) cases. On the 7th day postpartum, 15 (50%) cases had normal, 9 (30%) cases had dampened, and 6 (20%) cases had still flat pattern. The majority of the cases (60%) displayed normal hepatic venous pulsatility in the 6th and 8th weeks of puerperium, whereas 23% had still dampened and 17% had flat patterns. There was a trend toward normal pulsatility with increasing puerperal age. The mean portal venous velocity was still higher than the non-pregnant levels and did not showed significant alterations during puerperium. Conclusion: This study emphasised that, since pregnancy-induced alterations in hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity had not completely returned to normal in most cases until the end of the puerperium, these physiological changes should be considered whenever hepatic and portal systems are interpreted with Doppler sonography during the puerperal period.

  19. Evaluation of hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity with doppler ultrasonography during the puerperium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekindil, Goekhan; Varol, Fuesun G.; Ali Yuece, M.; Yardim, Turgut

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate pregnancy-induced changes of hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity in the puerperium and to determine if these changes disappeared by the end of the puerperium. Methods and material: Healthy normal volunteers (90) were examined on the 2nd and 7th days of puerperium and between the 6th and 8th weeks postpartum. Doppler waveform patterns were obtained in the middle hepatic vein and main portal vein. The hepatic venous pulsatility was named as normal, damped or flat. Results: On the 2nd day postpartum, the hepatic vein pulsatility was shown as normal in 8 (26%), damped in 11 (37%) and flat in 11 (37%) cases. On the 7th day postpartum, 15 (50%) cases had normal, 9 (30%) cases had dampened, and 6 (20%) cases had still flat pattern. The majority of the cases (60%) displayed normal hepatic venous pulsatility in the 6th and 8th weeks of puerperium, whereas 23% had still dampened and 17% had flat patterns. There was a trend toward normal pulsatility with increasing puerperal age. The mean portal venous velocity was still higher than the non-pregnant levels and did not showed significant alterations during puerperium. Conclusion: This study emphasised that, since pregnancy-induced alterations in hepatic venous pulsatility and portal venous velocity had not completely returned to normal in most cases until the end of the puerperium, these physiological changes should be considered whenever hepatic and portal systems are interpreted with Doppler sonography during the puerperal period

  20. Farming for a Better Climate by Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (FarmClim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Barbara; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Schröck, Andrea; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Kasper, Martina; Sigmund, Elisabeth; Schaller, Lena; Moser, Tobias; Baumgarten, Andreas; Dersch, Georg; Zethner, Gerhard; Anderl, Michael; Kitzler, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    The project FarmClim (Farming for a better climate) assesses impacts of agriculture on N and GHG fluxes in Austria and proposes measures for improving N efficiency and mitigating emissions, including their economic assessment. This paper focuses on animal husbandry and crop production measures, and on N2O emissions from soils. FarmClim applies national inventory reporting methods to assess Austrian NH3 and GHG fluxes in order to develop flux estimates with implementation of mitigation measures. Based on scientific literature and on the outcome of the Austrian working group agriculture and climate protection a list of potential mitigation measures has been produced: phase feeding, dairy cattle diet, biogas production. Data cover resulting production levels as well as GHG mitigation. In crop production, an optimisation potential remains with respect to N fertilization and nutrient uptake efficiency. Projected regional yield data and information on the N content of arable crops have been delivered from field experiments. These data complement official statistics and allow assessing the effect of increasing proportions of legume crops in crop rotations and reducing fertilizer input on a regional scale. Economic efficiency of measures is a crucial factor for their future implementation on commercial farms. The economic model evaluates investment costs as well as changes in direct costs, labour costs and economic yield. Biophysical modelling with Landscape DNDC allows establishing a framework to move from the current approach of applying the IPCC default emission factor for N2O emissions from soils. We select two Austrian model regions to calculate N fluxes taking into account region and management practices. Hot spots and hot moments as well as mitigation strategies are identified. Two test regions have been identified for soil emission modelling. The Marchfeld is an intensively used agricultural area in North-East Austria with very fertile soils and dry climate. The

  1. Laminar burning velocity and Markstein length of nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures at normal, reduced and elevated pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Haiyan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China); Institute of High Performance Computing, A-star (Singapore); Ji, Min; Jiao, Qi; Huang, Qian; Huang, Zuohua [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, School of Energy and Power Eng., Xi' an Jiaotong University (China)

    2009-04-15

    Flame propagation of premixed nitrogen diluted natural gas/hydrogen/air mixtures was studied in a constant volume combustion bomb under various initial pressures. Laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths were obtained for the diluted stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures with different hydrogen fractions and diluent ratios under various initial pressures. The results showed that both unstretched flame speed and unstretched burning velocity are reduced with the increase in initial pressure (except when the hydrogen fraction is 80%) as well as diluent ratio. The velocity reduction rate due to diluent addition is determined mainly by hydrogen fraction and diluent ratio, and the effect of initial pressure is negligible. Flame stability was studied by analyzing Markstein length. It was found that the increase of initial pressure and hydrogen fraction decreases flame stability and the flame tends to be more stable with the addition of diluent gas. Generally speaking, Markstein length of a fuel with low hydrogen fraction is more sensitive to the change of initial pressure than that of a one with high hydrogen fraction. (author)

  2. How to achieve ultrasound-guided femoral venous access: the new standard of care in the electrophysiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Benedict M; Child, Nicholas; Roberts, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Bedside vascular ultrasound machines are increasingly available. They are used to facilitate safer vascular access across a number of different specialties. In the electrophysiology laboratory however, where patients are frequently anticoagulated and require the insertion of multiple venous sheaths, anatomical landmark techniques predominate. Despite the high number of vascular complications associated with electrophysiological procedures and the increasing evidence to support its use in electrophysiology, ultrasound remains underutilised. A new standard of care is required. A comprehensive technical report, providing a detailed explanation of this important technique, will provide other electrophysiology centres with the knowledge and justification for adopting ultrasound guidance as their standard practice. We review the increasing body of evidence which demonstrates that routine ultrasound usage can substantially improve the safety of femoral venous access in the electrophysiology laboratory. We offer a comprehensive technical report to guide operators through the process of ultrasound-guided venous access, with a specific focus on the electrophysiology laboratory. Additionally, we detail a novel technique which utilises real-time colour Doppler ultrasound to accurately identify needle tip location during venous puncture. The use of vascular ultrasound to guide femoral venous cannulation is rapid, inexpensive and easily learnt. Ultrasound is readily available and offers the potential to significantly reduce vascular complications in the unique setting of the electrophysiology laboratory. Ultrasound guidance to achieve femoral venous access should be the new standard of care in electrophysiology.

  3. FY 2000 report on the basic study/survey on the policy mix for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions; 2000 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu sakugen no policy mix ni kansuru kisoteki kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the survey on policies for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions. For Japan to meet the emission reduction targets stated in the Kyoto Protocol, it is necessary to examine in detail what the most desirable policy measures should be for each sector. In this context, it is also essential to determine particular features of the various policies that may include action plans, environment taxes, and emission trading in addition to conventional regulations and subsidy measures, and to assess their anticipated effects and problems. After examining the policies adopted by various countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this study has attempted to identify the merits and demerits of the various emission reduction policies and to present a systematic account of progress achieved in Japan during basic investigations into this issue. This reports provides a systematic overview of the action plans adopted by the other major countries to prevent global warming and makes a comparative study of the contents of the policies that have been introduced by these countries; identifies the arguments raised in the overseas debates on the effects and problems of global warming prevention policies, and attempts to put the arguments into some systematic order; examines the statuses of the current progress made by various countries with regard to methane and N{sub 2}O emission reduction policies, and discusses the related problems; gives a systematic account of how the policy options are being scrutinized by the government as the base for studying the policy mix for Japan; and examines statuses of the current progress made by Japan with regard to methane and N{sub 2}O emission reduction policies. (NEDO)

  4. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis and Venous Infarction: Case Report of a Rare Initial Presentation of Smoker’s Polycythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Raval

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis is a rare initial presentation of polycythemia. If diagnosed early, treatment can reduce mortality and morbidity significantly. Often it may present with headache as the only complaint, and thus the diagnosis is likely to be missed. Case Presentation: A medically stable 31-year-old male, a chronic smoker with a ∼17 pack-year history of smoking, was admitted to the emergency room with a 2-week history of gradually worsening, severe, throbbing headache in the occipital region sensitive to light. Initial neurological examination was positive only for some involuntary motor tics of the left leg. Initial laboratory workup showed hemoglobin of 20 g/dl and hematocrit of 56.5%. The carboxyhemoglobin level was normal, but the oxygen dissociation curve was shifted to the left. Further evaluation by MRI and MRA of the brain suggested extensive and complete thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus and right sigmoid sinus with a small venous infarct in the right parafrontal region. Given that the patient first presented with a thrombotic event, workup for primary polycythemia and hypercoagulable disorders was carried out, including JAK2 mutation evaluation, which was negative. This left us with smoking as the only risk factor and possible cause for secondary polycythemia. He improved significantly with phlebotomy and anticoagulation treatment. Conclusion: This case illustrates a rare but severe complication of secondary polycythemia stressing the importance of being aware of the risk of developing cerebral thrombosis in patients with chronic smoking exposure.

  5. Lower extremity arterial and venous ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieggreen, Mary

    2005-06-01

    The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the general population is high, but the awareness of primary care providers of the disease process is low. The disease is not recognized by primary care providers. Early recognition and treatment of venous diseases that progress to postphlebotic syndrome, such as after a deep vein thrombosis, will prevent venous ulcers that add considerable expense to the health care system. Vascular assessment, including routine ABI measurement of patients who are in risk categories for vascular disease will identify those patients so that prevention programs can be put into place early. Major contributions to the understanding and management of leg ulcers and wound healing have been made in the last decade. However, there is still confusion as to the exact mechanism behind ulcer development and the best method to manage, cure,and prevent these ulcers has yet to be found.

  6. Epidural venous stasis in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.C.; Capesius, P.; Poos, D.; Gratia, G.; Roilgen, A.; Sandt, G.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography permits reliable demonstration of the spinal canal and its contents. Measurements of the sagittal diameter of the bony canal do not take into consideration size, shape and state of intraspinal soft tissue structures, i.e. the thecal sac and its own contents, epidural fat and blood circulation pattern. Three particularly illustrative cases were selected in which obvious epidural venous engorgement was visualized in association with spinal stenosis. The authors think that epidural venous stasis occuring in segmental spinal stenosis is a CT sign of clinically significant narrowing of the neural canal. Accurate recognition of the type of lumbar stenosis together with epidural blood flow alterations permits a better understanding of the existing lesions. Thus, a more precise and specific surgical approach is possible. (orig.)

  7. Deep venous thrombophlebitis following aortoiliac reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.K.; McCabe, C.J.; Abbott, W.M.; Brewster, D.C.; Moncure, A.C.; Reidy, N.C.; Darling, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred patients undergoing elective aortic surgery were scanned prospectively for development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The incidence of DVT in this population was 13%. Eleven patients showed only calf vein thrombosis on venography, whereas two had occlusive iliofemoral thrombus. The correlation between venous Doppler ultrasound and venography was 80%. More importantly, Doppler examination correctly identified both patients with occlusive thrombus. Fibrinogen scanning was associated with a false-positive rate of 31%. Only one patient suffered a nonfatal pulmonary embolus. Fibrinogen scanning has an unacceptably high false-positive rate; however, Doppler ultrasound will identify significant occlusive thrombus without a high false-positive rate. The low incidence of pulmonary emboli does not warrant such definitive measures as prophylactic vena caval interruption

  8. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with sildenafil intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda Hernández, José Luis; Fernández Cué, Leda; Garzón Cutiño, Lisbel; Gómez Viera, Nelson; Pérez Esquivel, Lianet

    2016-01-01

    A 59 year-old male patient with a history of hypertension and regular consumption of sildenafil entered the service because of acute stroke and headache seizure. Physical examination detected left hemiplegia. By skull nuclear gadolinium magnetic resonance, an expansive lesion is observed which caught heterogeneously contrast. Possible diagnosis of high-grade brain glioma was raised. Right frontoparietal craniotomy was performed and a tumor lesion was not visualized. After ruling out the presence of high-grade glioma, the diagnosis of hemorrhagic venous infarction was assessed. CT angiography and clotting was made to rule out prothrombotic states to justify this disease entity. Special hematology studies were within normal values. The case was concluded as a venous sinus thrombosis associated with the use of sildenafil. (author)

  9. Epidemiology of cancer-related venous thromboembolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wun, Ted; White, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have better defined the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in cancer patients. The incidence is highest in patients who have metastatic disease at the time of presentation and who have fast growing, biologically aggressive cancers associated with a poor prognosis. The incidence is also high in patients with haematological cancers. Other specific risk factors that affect the incidence of VTE include undergoing invasive neurosurgery, the number of underlying chronic co-...

  10. Bilateral Pneumothoraces Following Central Venous Cannulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pazos, F.; Masterson, K.; Inan, C.; Robert, J.; Walder, B.

    2009-01-01

    We report the occurrence of a bilateral pneumothoraces after unilateral central venous catheterization of the right subclavian vein in a 70-year-old patient. The patient had no history of pulmonary or pleural disease and no history of cardiothoracic surgery. Two days earlier, she had a median laparotomy under general and epidural anaesthesia. Prior to the procedure, the patient was hemodynamically stable and her transcutaneous oxygen saturation was 97% in room air. We punctured the right ...

  11. Parenchymal abnormalities associated with developmental venous anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Millan Ruiz, Diego; Gailloud, Philippe [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Delavelle, Jacqueline [Geneva University Hospital, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Geneva (Switzerland); Yilmaz, Hasan; Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospital, Section of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland); Piovan, Enrico; Bertramello, Alberto; Pizzini, Francesca [Verona City Hospital, Service of Neuroradiology, Verona (Italy)

    2007-12-15

    To report a retrospective series of 84 cerebral developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), focusing on associated parenchymal abnormalities within the drainage territory of the DVA. DVAs were identified during routine diagnostic radiological work-up based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (60 cases), computed tomography (CT) (62 cases) or both (36 cases). Regional parenchymal modifications within the drainage territory of the DVA, such as cortical or subcortical atrophy, white matter density or signal alterations, dystrophic calcifications, presence of haemorrhage or a cavernous-like vascular malformation (CVM), were noted. A stenosis of the collecting vein of the DVA was also sought for. Brain abnormalities within the drainage territory of a DVA were encountered in 65.4% of the cases. Locoregional brain atrophy occurred in 29.7% of the cases, followed by white matter lesions in 28.3% of MRI investigations and 19.3% of CT investigations, CVMs in 13.3% of MRI investigations and dystrophic calcification in 9.6% of CT investigations. An intracranial haemorrhage possibly related to a DVA occurred in 2.4% cases, and a stenosis on the collecting vein was documented in 13.1% of cases. Parenchymal abnormalities were identified for all DVA sizes. Brain parenchymal abnormalities were associated with DVAs in close to two thirds of the cases evaluated. These abnormalities are thought to occur secondarily, likely during post-natal life, as a result of chronic venous hypertension. Outflow obstruction, progressive thickening of the walls of the DVA and their morphological organization into a venous convergence zone are thought to contribute to the development of venous hypertension in DVA. (orig.)

  12. Congenital pseudoarthrosis associated with venous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hadidy, A.; Haroun, A.; Al-Ryalat, N.; Hamamy, H.; Al-Hadidi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Congenital pseudoarthrosis is a pathologic entity that may be isolated, or may be associated with neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 3-year-old female with congenital pseudoarthrosis involving the right tibia and fibula. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and complementary magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) revealed a lobulated mass with vivid enhancement, which led to the diagnosis of venous malformation. This is the first report of congenital pseudoarthrosis caused by the presence of a vascular malformation. (orig.)

  13. Congenital pseudoarthrosis associated with venous malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hadidy, A.; Haroun, A.; Al-Ryalat, N. [Jordan University Hospital, Radiology Department, P.O. Box 340621, Amman (Jordan); Hamamy, H. [Endocrinology and Genetics, National Center for Diabetes, Amman (Jordan); Al-Hadidi, S. [Jordan University Hospital, Departments of Orthopedics, Amman (Jordan)

    2007-06-15

    Congenital pseudoarthrosis is a pathologic entity that may be isolated, or may be associated with neurofibromatosis. We report the case of a 3-year-old female with congenital pseudoarthrosis involving the right tibia and fibula. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and complementary magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) revealed a lobulated mass with vivid enhancement, which led to the diagnosis of venous malformation. This is the first report of congenital pseudoarthrosis caused by the presence of a vascular malformation. (orig.)

  14. Inflammation and peripheral venous disease. The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, M; Callas, P W; Allison, M A; Criqui, M H

    2014-09-02

    The inflammatory response to healing in venous thrombosis might cause vein damage and post-thrombotic syndrome. Inflammation may also be involved in venous insufficiency apart from deep-vein thrombosis. We studied the association of inflammation markers with venous insufficiency in a general population sample. We characterised 2,404 men and women in a general population cohort for peripheral venous disease and its severity using physical exam, symptom assessment, and venous ultrasound. Inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) were compared in 352 case participants with peripheral venous disease and 352 controls with no venous abnormalities frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. Associations were also evaluated including a subset of 108 cases of severe venous disease, as previously defined. Odds ratios (95% CI), for peripheral venous disease for biomarkers in the top quartile (adjusting for age, race, sex, body mass index and history of venous thrombosis) were 1.8 (1.1-3.0), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 1.5 (0.9-2.3) for CRP, fibrinogen and IL-10, respectively. Associations were larger considering cases of severe venous disease, with odds ratios for these three analytes of 2.6 (1.2-5.9), 3.1 (1.3-7.3) and 2.2 (1.1-4.4), and for IL-8: 2.4 (1.1-5.2). There was no association of IL-1-beta, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1 or VEGF with overall cases or severe venous disease. In conclusion, a subset of inflammation markers were associated with increased risk of peripheral venous disease, suggesting potential therapeutic targets for treatment.

  15. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, U. E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Garniek, A.; Galili, Y.; Golan, G.; Bensaid, P.; Morag, B

    2004-12-01

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur.

  16. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimon, U.; Garniek, A.; Galili, Y.; Golan, G.; Bensaid, P.; Morag, B.

    2004-01-01

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur

  17. Endovascular treatment of intracranial venous sinus thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shubin; Liang Zhihui; Cui Jinguo; Tian Huiqin; Li Liang; Chen Feng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment for intracranial venous sinus thrombosis. Methods: Ten patients with intracranial venous sinus thrombosis, confirmed by CT, MRI, MRV and / or DSA and encountered during the period of Aug. 2005-Aug. 2007, were treated with endovascular management after they failed to respond to anticoagulant therapy. Of ten patients, intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombus maceration were carried out in 6, while intravenous thrombolysis, mechanical thrombus maceration together with intra-arterial thrombolysis were employed in 4. After the treatment, the anticoagulant therapy continued for 6 months. The patients were followed up for 12-29 months (mean 21 months). Results: After the treatment, the clinical symptoms and signs were completely or partially relieved in eight patients, including disappearance of headache (n=6) and relive of headache (n=2). No obvious improvement was found in one patient and linguistic function disturbance was seen in the remaining one. Lumbar puncture showed that the cerebrospinal fluid pressure returned to normal in all patients. Neither recurrence of thrombosis nor new symptom of neuralgic dysfunction was observed. No procedure-related intracranial or systemic hemorrhagic complications occurred both during and after the operation. Conclusion: Endovascular treatment is an effective and safe procedure for the potentially catastrophic intracranial venous thrombosis. (authors)

  18. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsch, S.; Govaert, P.; Cowan, F.M.; Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de; Lequin, M.H.; Saliou, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  19. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, S. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Neonatology, Berlin (Germany); Govaert, P. [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cowan, F.M. [Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Benders, M.J.N.L.; Groenendaal, F.; Vries, L.S. de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lequin, M.H. [Erasmus MC/Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Saliou, G. [University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    2014-07-15

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age. (orig.)

  20. Venous access: options, approaches and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asch, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Venous access is an essential part of medical practice. It is needed to obtain blood samples to make the diagnosis and to administer fluids or medicines as part of treatment. Although relatively new in the history of medicine, the placement and maintenance of the various venous access devices now occupies a significant portion of many vascular and interventional radiology practices. Thus, it is important to have a thorough understanding of these devices and their uses. The first long-term venous access devices were used in 1973. These were placed via a surgical cut-down on the subclavian vein. In 1982, the first subcutaneous implantable ports were described. These procedures were initially performed by surgeons, but over the last 5-10 years, both the insertion and management of these devices has shifted to interventional radiologists. Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines have almost completely supplanted the use of standard central lines (Fig. 1). A number of factors have facilitated this - namely, ready and less expensive room access, outpatient procedure and radiologists' accessibility and familiarity with image-guidance procedures and catheters and guide wires. (author)

  1. Human cerebral venous outflow pathway depends on posture and central venous pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gisolf, J; van Lieshout, J J; van Heusden, K

    2004-01-01

    and central venous pressure (CVP) on the distribution of cerebral outflow over the internal jugular veins and the vertebral plexus, using a mathematical model. Input to the model was a data set of beat-to-beat cerebral blood flow velocity and CVP measurements in 10 healthy subjects, during baseline rest......Internal jugular veins are the major cerebral venous outflow pathway in supine humans. In upright humans the positioning of these veins above heart level causes them to collapse. An alternative cerebral outflow pathway is the vertebral venous plexus. We set out to determine the effect of posture...... and a Valsalva manoeuvre in the supine and standing position. The model, consisting of 2 jugular veins, each a chain of 10 units containing nonlinear resistances and capacitors, and a vertebral plexus containing a resistance, showed blood flow mainly through the internal jugular veins in the supine position...

  2. Areas on which to focus when seeking to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of commercial waste management. A case study of a hypermarket, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupponen, M; Grönman, K; Horttanainen, M

    2018-03-22

    This study focuses on commercial waste, which has received less attention than household waste in regards to greenhouse gas emission research. First, the global warming potential (GWP) of commercial waste management was calculated. Second, the impacts of different waste fractions and the processes of waste management were recognised. Third, the key areas on which to focus when aiming to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of commercial waste management were determined. This study was conducted on the waste generated by a real hypermarket in South-East Finland and included eight different waste fractions. The waste treatment plants were selected based on the actual situation. Three different scenarios were employed to evaluate the environmental impact of managing mixed waste: landfilling, combustion and more accurate source separation. The GaBi software and impact assessment methodology CML 2001 were used to perform a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts associated with the waste management. The results indicated that the total GWP of commercial waste management could be reduced by 93% by directing the mixed waste to combustion instead of landfill. A further 5% GWP reduction could be achieved by more accurate source separation of the mixed waste. Utilisation of energy waste had the most significant influence (41-52%) on the total GWP (-880 to -860 kgCO 2 -eq./t), followed by landfilling of mixed waste (influence 15-23% on the total GWP, 430 kgCO 2 -eq./t), recycling polyethylene (PE) plastic (influence 18-21% on the total GWP, -1800 kgCO 2 -eq./t) and recycling cardboard (influence 11-13% on the total GWP, 51 kgCO 2 -eq./t). A key focus should be placed on treatment processes and substitutions, especially in terms of substitutions of energy waste and PE plastic. This study also clarified the importance of sorting PE plastic, even though the share of this waste fraction was not substantial. The results of this paper were compared to those of

  3. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  4. Compression therapy in mixed ulcers increases venous output and arterial perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosti, Giovanni; Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Partsch, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to define bandage pressures that are safe and effective in treating leg ulcers of mixed arterial-venous etiology. In 25 patients with mixed-etiology leg ulcers who received inelastic bandages applied with pressures from 20 to 30, 31 to 40, and 41 to 50 mm Hg, the following measurements were performed before and after bandage application to ensure patient safety throughout the investigation: laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) close to the ulcer under the bandage and at the great toe, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPo(2)) on the dorsum of the foot, and toe pressure. Ejection fraction (EF) of the venous pump was performed to assess efficacy on venous hemodynamics. LDF values under the bandages increased by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17-48; P pressure ranges applied. At toe level, a significant decrease in flux of -20% (95% CI, -48 to 9; P bandage pressure >41 mm Hg. Toe pressure values and TcPo(2) showed a moderate increase, excluding a restriction to arterial perfusion induced by the bandages. Inelastic bandages were highly efficient in improving venous pumping function, increasing the reduced ejection fraction by 72% (95% CI, 50%-95%; P pressure of 21 to 30 mm Hg and by 103% (95% CI, 70%-128%; P ulceration, an ankle-brachial pressure index >0.5 and an absolute ankle pressure of >60 mm Hg, inelastic compression of up to 40 mm Hg does not impede arterial perfusion but may lead to a normalization of the highly reduced venous pumping function. Such bandages are therefore recommended in combination with walking exercises as the basic conservative management for patients with mixed leg ulcers. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Core content for training in venous and lymphatic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, Steven E; Min, Robert J; Comerota, Anthony J; Meissner, Mark H; Carman, Teresa L; Rathbun, Suman W; Jaff, Michael R; Wakefield, Thomas W; Feied, Craig F

    2014-10-01

    The major venous societies in the United States share a common mission to improve the standards of medical practitioners, the educational goals for teaching and training programs in venous disease, and the quality of patient care related to the treatment of venous disorders. With these important goals in mind, a task force made up of experts from the specialties of dermatology, interventional radiology, phlebology, vascular medicine, and vascular surgery was formed to develop a consensus document describing the Core Content for venous and lymphatic medicine and to develop a core educational content outline for training. This outline describes the areas of knowledge considered essential for practice in the field, which encompasses the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with acute and chronic venous and lymphatic disorders. The American Venous Forum and the American College of Phlebology have endorsed the Core Content. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Compression therapies for chronic venous leg ulcers: interventions and adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latz CA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Christopher A Latz,1 Kellie R Brown,2 Ruth L Bush11Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Bryan, TX, USA; 2Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USAAbstract: Compression therapy has been the mainstay for the treatment of lower extremity edema, venous insufficiency, and particularly, venous ulcerative disease. Though modern surgical treatments exist, none are completely effective without good compressive options to allow for decreased swelling and better oxygenation of damaged tissues. This review article will describe the pathophysiology and presentation of lower extremity venous ulcerations, as well as current options for compression therapy. The benefits, along with the major pitfall of nonadherence, will also be discussed.Keywords: venous disease, chronic venous insufficiency, venous ulceration

  7. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Venous Return and Clinical Hemodynamics: How the Body Works during Acute Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Baker, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Venous return is a major determinant of cardiac output. Adjustments within the venous system are critical for maintaining venous pressure during loss in circulating volume. This article reviews two factors that are thought to enable the venous system to compensate during acute hemorrhage: 1) changes in venous elastance and 2) mobilization of…

  9. Extracorporeal gas exchange with the DeltaStream rotary blood pump in experimental lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kopp, Rüdger; Henzler, Dietrich; Hochhausen, Nadine; Oslender, Nicole; Max, Martin; Rossaint, Rolf; Kuhlen, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    In most severe cases of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to facilitate gas exchange. However, the clinical use is limited due to the size and the concomitant risk of severe adverse events of conventionally-used centrifugal blood pumps with high extracorporeal blood volumes. The DeltaStream blood pump is a small-sized rotary blood pump that may reduce extracorporeal blood volume, foreign surfaces, contact activation of the coagulation system, and blood trauma. The aim of the present study was to test the safety and efficacy of the DeltaStream pump for ECMO in animals with normal lung function and experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, veno-venous ECMO was performed for 6 hours in mechanically ventilated pigs with normal lung function (n=6) and with ALI induced by repeated lung lavage (n=6) with a blood flow of 30% of the cardiac output. Gas flow with a FiO2 of 1.0 was set to equal blood flow. With a mean activated clotting time of 121 +/- 22 s, no circulatory impairment or thrombus formation was revealed during ECMO. Furthermore, free plasma Hb did not increase. In controls, hemodynamics and gas exchange remained unchanged. In animals with ALI, hemodynamics remained stable and gas transfer across the extracorporeal oxygenators was optimal, but only in 2 animals was a marked increase in PaO2 observed. CO2 removal was efficacious in all animals. We concluded that the DeltaStream blood pump may be used for veno-venous ECMO without major blood damage or hemodynamic impairment.

  10. Does the real-time ultrasound guidance provide safer venipuncture in implantable venous port implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlknur; Tütüncü, Ayşe Çiğdem; Bademler, Süleyman; Özgür, İlker; Demiray, Mukaddes; Karanlık, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether the real-time ultrasound-guided venipuncture for implantable venous port placement is safer than the traditional venipuncture. The study analyzed the results of 2153 venous ports placed consecutively from January 2009 to January 2016. A total of 922 patients in group 1 and 1231 patients in group 2 were admitted with venous port placed using the traditional landmark subclavian approach and real-time ultrasound-guided axillary approach, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics of patients, early (pneumothorax, pinch-off syndrome, arterial puncture, hematoma, and malposition arrhythmia) and late (deep vein thrombosis, obstruction, infection, erosion-dehiscence, and rotation of the port chamber) complications and the association of these complications with the implantation method were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The overall and early complications in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1. Pinch-off syndrome only developed in group 1. Seven patients and two patients had pneumothorax in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Puncture number was significantly associated with the development of the overall complications. The ultrasound-guided axillary approach may be preferred as a method to reduce the risk of both early and late complications. Large, randomized, controlled prospective trials will be helpful in determining a safer implantable venous port implantation technique.

  11. Towards an agro-ecological village at the Flora Community : reducing greenhouse gas emissions through organic based farming and energy self reliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Mulkins, L. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada); Amongo, L.; Yap, E. [MASIPAG, Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines); Mendoza, T. [Univ. of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna (Philippines). Dept of Agronomy

    2000-07-01

    A former haciendero owned sugarcane plantation in Negros Occidental, Philippines was transformed into a diversified, self-reliant, agro-ecological village, and its transition is documented in this paper. In 1995, through the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program, the Philippine Government awarded 87 hectares of land to 76 hacienda workers. Community organizing, farm planning, training in organic farming, and loan support from a number of social welfare agencies were all areas where the community received assistance. The sugarcane production has been reduced at Flora since the land transition, and the community diversified into the growing of organic rice, corn and vegetables. Through its transition into an agro-ecological village, the Flora community has become more self-reliant in the areas of food and energy. Most individual farms and communally farmed areas have adopted organic based farming practices. The main products sold off the farm are sugarcane and high value vegetables. The MASIPAG rice farming system is being adhered to in the production of rice, the community's staple food. Nitrogen fixed during straw decomposition and the use of azolla, a nitrogen-fixing plant, represent some of the sources of nitrogen for the rice production. Other nutrient sources used are the mudpress from sugarcane processing and rice hull ash. To encourage nitrogen fixation and soil carbon accumulation from cane litter, a system of continuous trash farming was implemented for the production of sugarcane. In excess of 140 water buffaloes (carabaos) are employed for tillage and on-farm hauling, which minimizes the requirements for fossil fuels. Liquid propane gas (LPG), kerosene and wood fuel use in home cooking are being minimized by the efficient rice hull cookers. The local environmental impacts and greenhouse gas emissions are minimized, and the Flora community largely meets its requirements in terms of food security, on-farm energy and income. refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  12. An unusual cause of hydrocephalus: aqueductal developmental venous anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagmurlu, Banu; Fitoz, Suat; Atasoy, Cetin; Erden, ilhan [Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Deda, Gulhis; Unal, Ozlem [Ankara University School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Ankara (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    Vascular malformations are infrequent causes of aqueductal stenoses, developmental venous anomaly (DVA) being the rarest among them. DVAs, also known as venous angiomas, are congenital in origin and characterized by dilatation of vessels in the superficial and deep venous system. Although they are usually clinically silent, they can be complicated by hemorrhage, seizures and neurologic deficits. Herein, we report MR imaging findings of a 7-year-old girl whose hydrocephalus was due to an abnormal vein coursing through the aqueduct. (orig.)