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Sample records for reduces cocaine-seeking behavior

  1. Electrical stimulation of the lateral habenula produces enduring inhibitory effect on cocaine seeking behavior.

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    Friedman, Alexander; Lax, Elad; Dikshtein, Yahav; Abraham, Lital; Flaumenhaft, Yakov; Sudai, Einav; Ben-Tzion, Moshe; Ami-Ad, Lavi; Yaka, Rami; Yadid, Gal

    2010-11-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is critical for modulation of negative reinforcement, punishment and aversive responses. In light of the success of deep-brain-stimulation (DBS) in the treatment of neurological disorders, we explored the use of LHb DBS as a method of intervention in cocaine self-administration, extinction, and reinstatement in rats. An electrode was implanted into the LHb and rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (21 days; 0.25-1 mg/kg) until they achieved at least three days of stable performance (as measured by daily recordings of active lever presses in self-administration cages). Thereafter, rats received DBS in the presence or absence of cocaine. DBS reduced cocaine seeking behavior during both self-administration and extinction training. DBS also attenuated the rats' lever presses following cocaine reinstatement (5-20 mg/kg) in comparison to sham-operated rats. These results were also controlled by the assessment of physical performance as measured by water self-administration and an open field test, and by evaluation of depressive-like manifestations as measured by the swim and two-bottles-choice tests. In contrast, LHb lesioned rats demonstrated increased cocaine seeking behavior as demonstrated by a delayed extinction response. In the ventral tegmental area, cocaine self-administration elevated glutamatergic receptor subunits NR1 and GluR1 and scaffolding protein PSD95, but not GABA(A)β, protein levels. Following DBS treatment, levels of these subunits returned to control values. We postulate that the effect of both LHb modulation and LHb DBS on cocaine reinforcement may be via attenuation of the cocaine-induced increase in glutaminergic input to the VTA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of the agranular insular cortex in contextual control over cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

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    Arguello, Amy A; Wang, Rong; Lyons, Carey M; Higginbotham, Jessica A; Hodges, Matthew A; Fuchs, Rita A

    2017-08-01

    Environmental stimulus control over drug relapse requires the retrieval of context-response-cocaine associations, maintained in long-term memory through active reconsolidation processes. Identifying the neural substrates of these phenomena is important from a drug addiction treatment perspective. The present study evaluated whether the agranular insular cortex (AI) plays a role in drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior and cocaine memory reconsolidation. Rats were trained to lever press for cocaine infusions in a distinctive context, followed by extinction training in a different context. Rats in experiment 1 received bilateral microinfusions of vehicle or a GABA agonist cocktail (baclofen and muscimol (BM)) into the AI or the overlying somatosensory cortex (SSJ, anatomical control region) immediately before a test of drug-seeking behavior (i.e., non-reinforced lever presses) in the previously cocaine-paired context. The effects of these manipulations on locomotor activity were also assessed in a novel context. Rats in experiment 2 received vehicle or BM into the AI after a 15-min reexposure to the cocaine-paired context, intended to reactivate context-response-cocaine memories and initiate their reconsolidation. The effects of these manipulations on drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior were assessed 72 h later. BM-induced pharmacological inactivation of the AI, but not the SSJ, attenuated drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior without altering locomotor activity. Conversely, AI inactivation after memory reactivation failed to impair subsequent drug-seeking behavior and thus cocaine memory reconsolidation. These findings suggest that the AI is a critical element of the neural circuitry that mediates contextual control over cocaine-seeking behavior.

  3. Depleting adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis increases cocaine-seeking behavior.

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    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Revest, Jean-Michel; Fiancette, Jean-François; Balado, Eric; Koehl, Muriel; Grosjean, Noëlle; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo

    2018-03-05

    The hippocampus is the main locus for adult dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis. A number of studies have shown that aberrant DG neurogenesis correlates with many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Although clear causal relationships have been established between DG neurogenesis and memory dysfunction or mood-related disorders, evidence of the causal role of DG neurogenesis in drug-seeking behaviors has not been established. Here we assessed the role of new DG neurons in cocaine self-administration using an inducible transgenic approach that selectively depletes adult DG neurogenesis. Our results show that transgenic mice with decreased adult DG neurogenesis exhibit increased motivation to self-administer cocaine and a higher seeking response to cocaine-related cues. These results identify adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a key factor in vulnerability to cocaine addiction.

  4. The Effects of Excitatory and Inhibitory Social Cues on Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

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    Mark Andrew Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social partners influence the likelihood of using drugs, developing a substance use disorder, and relapse to drug use after a period of abstinence. Preclinical studies report that social cues influence the acquisition of cocaine use, the escalation of cocaine use over time, and the compulsive patterns of cocaine use that emerge during an extended binge. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social cues on the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior after a period of abstinence. Male rats were obtained at weaning, assigned to triads (3 rats/cage, reared to adulthood, and implanted with intravenous catheters. Rats from each triad were then assigned to one of three conditions: (1 test rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and were tested for reinstatement, (2 cocaine partners were trained to self-administer cocaine and were predictive of response-contingent cocaine delivery, and (3 abstinent partners were not given access to cocaine and were predictive of extinction. Test rats alternated social partners every 5 days for 20 days such that responding was reinforced with cocaine in the presence of the cocaine partner (S+ for 10 days and not reinforced with cocaine in the presence of the abstinent partner (S- for 10 days. Responding of the test rats was then extinguished over 7 days under isolated conditions. Tests of reinstatement were then conducted in the presence of the cocaine partner and abstinent partner under extinction conditions. Neither social partner reinstated responding relative to that observed on the final day of extinction; however, responding was greater in the presence of the cocaine partner (S+ than the abstinent partner (S- during the reinstatement test. These data fail to demonstrate that a social partner reinstates cocaine-seeking behavior after a period of abstinence, but they do indicate that social partners can serve as either excitatory or inhibitory discriminative stimuli to influence drug

  5. Contribution of a mesocorticolimbic subcircuit to drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

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    Lasseter, Heather C; Xie, Xiaohu; Arguello, Amy A; Wells, Audrey M; Hodges, Matthew A; Fuchs, Rita A

    2014-02-01

    Cocaine-seeking behavior triggered by drug-paired environmental context exposure is dependent on orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-basolateral amygdala (BLA) interactions. Here, we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to the OFC critically regulates these interactions. In experiment 1, we employed site-specific pharmacological manipulations to show that dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation in the OFC is required for drug context-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior following extinction training in an alternate context. Intra-OFC pretreatment with the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist, SCH23390, dose-dependently attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior in an anatomically selective manner, without altering motor performance. Furthermore, the effects of SCH23390 could be surmounted by co-administration of a sub-threshold dose of the D1-like receptor agonist, SKF81297. In experiment 2, we examined effects of D1-like receptor antagonism in the OFC on OFC-BLA interactions using a functional disconnection manipulation. Unilateral SCH23390 administration into the OFC plus GABA agonist-induced neural inactivation of the contralateral or ipsilateral BLA disrupted drug context-induced cocaine-seeking behavior relative to vehicle, while independent unilateral manipulations of these brain regions were without effect. Finally, in experiment 3, we used fluorescent retrograde tracers to demonstrate that the VTA, but not the substantia nigra, sends dense intra- and interhemispheric projections to the OFC, which in turn has reciprocal bi-hemispheric connections with the BLA. These findings support that dopaminergic input from the VTA, via dopamine D1-like receptor stimulation in the OFC, is required for OFC-BLA functional interactions. Thus, a VTA-OFC-BLA neural circuit promotes drug context-induced motivated behavior.

  6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reduces Cocaine Seeking and Alters Plasticity in the Extinction Network

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    Childs, Jessica E.; DeLeon, Jaime; Nickel, Emily; Kroener, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Drugs of abuse cause changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated regions that impair inhibitory control over drug-seeking. Breaking the contingencies between drug-associated cues and the delivery of the reward during extinction learning reduces rates of relapse. Here we used vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to induce targeted synaptic…

  7. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

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    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1 Mediates Cocaine-Seeking Behavior in the Posterior Paraventricular Nucleus of the Thalamus via Orexin/Hypocretin Receptor-2.

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    Matzeu, Alessandra; Kerr, Tony M; Weiss, Friedbert; Martin-Fardon, Rémi

    2016-11-01

    Orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) projections from the lateral hypothalamus to the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) are implicated in drug addiction. Specifically, the posterior section of the PVT (pPVT) innervates brain structures that modulate motivated behavior. This study investigated the role of pPVT-Orx/Hcrt transmission in cocaine-seeking behavior. Because the effects of Orx/Hcrt are mediated by two Orx/Hcrt receptors (Hcrt-r1 and Hcrt-r2), we examined the extent to which Hcrt-r1 and Hcrt-r2 are involved in Orx/Hcrt-induced cocaine seeking. Male Wistar rats were made cocaine dependent by self-administering cocaine 6 hours/day (long access) for 21 days. After self-administration training, the rats underwent daily extinction training, during which cocaine was withheld. After extinction, the rats were injected into the pPVT with Orx-A/Hcrt-1 (0-2 µg) alone or, using a single dose of 0.5 µg, in combination with an Hcrt-r1 antagonist (SB334867; 0-15 µg) or an Hcrt-r2 antagonist (TCSOX229; 0-15 µg). Orx-A/Hcrt-1 alone reinstated (primed) cocaine seeking. Unexpectedly, coadministration of Orx-A/Hcrt-1 with SB334867 did not have any effects on Orx-A/Hcrt-1-induced reinstatement, whereas when coadministered with Orx-A/Hcrt-1, TCSOX229 prevented cocaine-seeking behavior. These results indicate that Hcrt-r2 in the pPVT mediates the reinstating effect of Orx-A/Hcrt-1 in animals with a history of cocaine dependence and further identify Hcrt-r2 as a possible molecular target that can guide future therapeutic approaches for the prevention of drug-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Cocaine-seeking behavior in a genetic model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following adolescent methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatments*

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    Jordan, Chloe J.; Harvey, Roxann C.; Baskin, Britahny B.; Dwoskin, Linda P.; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with cocaine abuse. Controversy exists regarding long-term consequences of ADHD medications on cocaine abuse liability. Whereas childhood methylphenidate treatment may be preventative, methylphenidate in teens appears to further increase later cocaine abuse risk. In rodents, adolescent methylphenidate treatment further increases adult cocaine self-administration in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD, whereas adolescent atomoxetine treatment does not. Effects of ADHD medications on cocaine cue reactivity, a critical component of addiction, are unknown. Methods To investigate this, SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control) and Wistar (outbred control) rats received therapeutically relevant doses of methylphenidate (1.5 mg/kg, oral) and atomoxetine (0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), or respective vehicles from post-natal day 28–55. Cocaine seeking, reflecting cue reactivity, was measured in adulthood during self-administration maintenance and cue-induced reinstatement tests conducted under a second-order schedule. Results Compared to control strains, SHR earned more cocaine infusions, emitted more cocaine-seeking responses during maintenance and reinstatement testing, and required more sessions to reach the extinction criterion. Compared to vehicle, adolescent methylphenidate, but not atomoxetine, further increased cocaine intake during maintenance testing in SHR. Adolescent atomoxetine, but not methylphenidate, decreased cocaine seeking during reinstatement testing in SHR. Neither medication had effects on cocaine intake or cue reactivity in control strains. Conclusions The SHR successfully model ADHD and cocaine abuse comorbidity and show differential effects of adolescent ADHD medications on cocaine intake and cue reactivity during adulthood. Thus, SHR have heuristic value for assessing neurobiology underlying the ADHD phenotype and for evaluating pharmacotherapeutics for ADHD

  10. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations demonstrate that the motivation to contextually reinstate cocaine-seeking behavior does not necessarily involve a hedonic response.

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    Barker, David J; Bercovicz, Danielle; Servilio, Lisa C; Simmons, Steven J; Ma, Sisi; Root, David H; Pawlak, Anthony P; West, Mark O

    2014-09-01

    Human self-reports often indicate that changes in mood are a major contributor to drug relapse. Still, arguments have been made that instances of drug-seeking following abstinence in animal models (i.e. relapse/reinstatement) may be outside of hedonic control. Therefore, the present study utilized ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat in order to evaluate affect during cocaine self-administration and contextual reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in a pre-clinical model of drug relapse (abstinence-reinstatement model). Results show that while subjects effectively reinstated drug-seeking (lever pressing) following 30 days of abstinence, and spontaneously recovered/reinstated drug-seeking following 60 days of abstinence, ultrasonic vocalizations did not increase over baseline levels during either reinstatement session. These results are consistent with previous results from our laboratory and current theories of addiction suggesting that cues that are weakly associated with drug consumption can motivate drug-seeking behavior that is outside of hedonic processing. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone Attenuates Cocaine-Seeking Behaviour Independently of Corticosterone Fluctuations.

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    Maayan, R; Hirsh, L; Yadid, G; Weizman, A

    2015-11-01

    The neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is involved in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. We have previously shown that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour, and also that DHEA decreases corticosterone (CORT) levels in plasma and the prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have found that rats demonstrate cocaine-seeking behaviour only when the level of CORT reaches a minimum threshold. In the present study, we investigated whether the attenuating effect of DHEA on cocaine seeking is a result of it reducing CORT levels rather than a result of any unique neurosteroid properties. Rats received either daily DHEA injections (2 mg/kg, i.p.) alone, daily DHEA (2 mg/kg, i.p.) with CORT infusion (to maintain stable basal levels of CORT; 15 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (i.p.) as control, throughout self-administration training and extinction sessions. We found that both DHEA-treated and DHEA + CORT-treated groups showed a significantly lower number of active lever presses compared to controls throughout training and extinction sessions, as well as at cocaine-primed reinstatement. DHEA-treated rats showed lower CORT levels throughout the experimental phases compared to DHEA + CORT-treated and control rats. Additionally, we show that DHEA administered to cocaine-trained rats throughout extinction sessions, or immediately before reinstatement, attenuated cocaine seeking. These findings indicate that DHEA attenuates cocaine-seeking behaviour independently of fluctuations in CORT levels. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  12. Lack of increased immediate early gene expression in rats reinstating cocaine-seeking behavior to discrete sensory cues.

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    Matthew D Riedy

    Full Text Available Drug-seeking behavior elicited by drug-associated cues contributes to relapse in addiction; however, whether relapse elicited by drug-associated conditioned reinforcers (CR versus discriminative stimuli (DS involves distinct or overlapping neuronal populations is unknown. To address this question, we developed a novel cocaine self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement paradigm that exposed the same rats to distinct cocaine-associated CR and DS. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine in separate sessions. In one, a DS signaled cocaine availability; in the other, cocaine delivery was paired with a different CR. After extinction training and reinstatement testing, where both cues were presented in separate sessions, rats were sacrificed and processed for cellular analysis of temporal activity by fluorescent in situ hybridization (CatFISH for activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc mRNA and for radioactive in situ hybridization for Arc and zif268 mRNAs. CatFISH did not reveal significant changes in Arc mRNA expression. Similar results were obtained with radioactive in situ hybridization. We have shown that while rats reinstate drug seeking in response to temporally discrete presentations of distinct drug-associated cues, such reinstatement is not associated with increased transcriptional activation of Arc or zif268 mRNAs, suggesting that expression of these genes may not be necessary for cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

  13. Reduction of extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking by wheel running in female rats.

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    Zlebnik, Natalie E; Anker, Justin J; Gliddon, Luke A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2010-03-01

    Previous work has shown that wheel running reduced the maintenance of cocaine self-administration in rats. In the present study, the effect of wheel running on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking was examined. Female rats were trained to run in a wheel during 6-h sessions, and they were then catheterized and placed in an operant conditioning chamber where they did not have access to the wheel but were allowed to self-administer iv cocaine. Subsequently, rats were divided into four groups and were tested on the extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking while they had varying access to a wheel in an adjoining compartment. The four groups were assigned to the following wheel access conditions: (1) wheel running during extinction and reinstatement (WER), (2) wheel running during extinction and a locked wheel during reinstatement (WE), (3) locked wheel during extinction and wheel running during reinstatement (WR), and (4) locked wheel during extinction and reinstatement (WL). WE and WR were retested later to examine the effect of one session of wheel access on cocaine-primed reinstatement. There were no group differences in wheel revolutions, in rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration, or in responding during maintenance when there was no wheel access. However, during extinction, WE and WER responded less than WR and WL. WR and WER had lower cocaine-primed reinstatement than WE and WL. One session of wheel exposure in WE also suppressed cocaine-primed reinstatement. Wheel running immediately and effectively reduced cocaine-seeking behavior, but concurrent access to running was necessary. Thus, exercise is a useful and self-sustaining intervention to reduce cocaine-seeking behavior.

  14. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats.

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    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E; Reichel, Carmela M

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin's impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxytocin (1.0 mg/kg) attenuated cue-induced cocaine seeking following extinction. Cocaine increased baseline locomotor activity to a greater degree in females relative to males. Oxytocin (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) reduced cocaine-induced locomotor activity in females, but not significantly in males. These data illustrate sex similarities in oxytocin's attenuation of cocaine seeking, but sex differences in cocaine-induced locomotor effects. While reductions in cocaine seeking cannot be attributed to a reduction in locomotor activity in males, attenuation of locomotor function cannot be entirely ruled out as an explanation for a decrease in cocaine seeking in females suggesting that oxytocin's effect on cocaine seeking may be mediated by different mechanisms in male and females. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Relapse to cocaine seeking in an invertebrate.

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    Amaning-Kwarteng, Akua O; Asif-Malik, Aman; Pei, Yue; Canales, Juan J

    2017-06-01

    Addiction is characterised by cycles of compulsive drug taking, periods of abstinence and episodes of relapse. The extinction/reinstatement paradigm has been extensively used in rodents to model human relapse and explore underlying mechanisms and therapeutics. However, relapse to drug seeking behaviour has not been previously demonstrated in invertebrates. Here, we used a cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the flatworm, planarian, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug seeking. Once baseline preference was established for one of two distinctly textured environments (i.e. compartments with a coarse or smooth surface), planarian received pairings of cocaine (5μM) in the non-preferred, and vehicle in the most preferred, environment, and were tested for conditioning thereafter. Cocaine produced robust CPP, measured as a significant increase in the time spent in the cocaine-paired compartment. Subsequently, planarian underwent extinction training, reverting back to their original preference within three sessions. Brief exposure to cocaine (5μM) or methamphetamine (5μM) reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour. By contrast, the high affinity dopamine transporter inhibitor, (N-(n-butyl)-3α-[bis (4-fluorophenyl) methoxy]-tropane) (JHW007), which in rodents exhibits a neurochemical and behavioural profile distinct from cocaine, was ineffective. The present findings demonstrate for the first time reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in an invertebrate model and suggest that the long-term adaptations underlying drug conditioning and relapse are highly conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 17ß-Estradiol Is Necessary for Extinction of Cocaine Seeking in Female Rats

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    Twining, Robert C.; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Doncheck, Elizabeth M.; Frick, Karyn M.; Mueller, Devin

    2013-01-01

    Human and preclinical models of addiction demonstrate that gonadal hormones modulate acquisition of drug seeking. Little is known, however, about the effects of these hormones on extinction of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we investigated how 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) affects expression and extinction of cocaine seeking in female rats. Using a…

  17. Extinction of Cocaine Seeking Requires a Window of Infralimbic Pyramidal Neuron Activity after Unreinforced Lever Presses.

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    Gutman, Andrea L; Nett, Kelle E; Cosme, Caitlin V; Worth, Wensday R; Gupta, Subhash C; Wemmie, John A; LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2017-06-21

    The infralimbic cortex (IL) mediates extinction learning and the active suppression of cocaine-seeking behavior. However, the precise temporal relationship among IL activity, lever pressing, and extinction learning is unclear. To address this issue, we used activity-guided optogenetics in male Sprague Dawley rats to silence IL pyramidal neurons optically for 20 s immediately after unreinforced lever presses during early extinction training after cocaine self-administration. Optical inhibition of the IL increased active lever pressing during shortened extinction sessions, but did not alter the retention of the extinction learning as assessed in ensuing extinction sessions with no optical inhibition. During subsequent cued reinstatement sessions, rats that had previously received optical inhibition during the extinction sessions showed increased cocaine-seeking behavior. These findings appeared to be specific to inhibition during the post-lever press period because IL inhibition given in a noncontingent, pseudorandom manner during extinction sessions did not produce the same effects. Illumination alone (i.e., with no opsin expression) and food-seeking control experiments also failed to produce the same effects. In another experiment, IL inhibition after lever presses during cued reinstatement sessions increased cocaine seeking during those sessions. Finally, inhibition of the prelimbic cortex immediately after unreinforced lever presses during shortened extinction sessions decreased lever pressing during these sessions, but had no effect on subsequent reinstatement. These results indicate that IL activity immediately after unreinforced lever presses is necessary for normal extinction of cocaine seeking, suggesting that critical encoding of the new contingencies between a lever press and a cocaine reward occurs during that period. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The infralimbic cortex (IL) contributes to the extinction of cocaine-seeking behavior, but the precise relationship

  18. Adenosine A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens bi-directionally alter cocaine seeking in rats.

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    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, McKenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-04-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D(2) receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with D(2) receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D(2) receptor activity. Thus, A(2A) receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D(2) receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A(2A) receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A(2A) receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A(2A) receptor stimulation reduces, while A(2A) blockade

  19. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Bi-Directionally Alter Cocaine Seeking in Rats

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    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, Mckenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A2A receptors are colocalized with D2 receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D2 receptor activity. Thus, A2A receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b--ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A2A receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A2A receptor stimulation reduces, while A2A blockade amplifies, D2 receptor

  20. Sex differences in reinstatement of cocaine-seeking with combination treatments of progesterone and atomoxetine.

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    Swalve, Natashia; Smethells, John R; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2016-06-01

    Two repurposed medications have been proposed to treat cocaine abuse. Progesterone, a gonadal hormone, and atomoxetine, a medication commonly used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, have both been separately shown to reduce cocaine self-administration and reinstatement (i.e., relapse). The goal of the present study was to examine sex differences in the individual effects of PRO and ATO as well as the combination PRO+ATO treatment on cocaine (COC), caffeine (CAF), and/or cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Adult male and female Wistar rats lever-pressed under a FR 1 schedule for cocaine infusions (0.4mg/kg/inf). After 14 sessions of stable responding in daily 2-h sessions, rats underwent a 21-day extinction period when no drug or drug-related stimuli were present. Rats were then separated into four groups that received PRO (0.5mg/kg) alone (PRO+SAL), ATO (1.5mg/kg) alone (VEH+ATO), control (VEH+SAL) or combination (PRO+ATO) treatments prior to the reinstatement condition. Reinstatement of cocaine-seeking to cues and/or drug injections of cocaine or caffeine was tested after extinction. During maintenance, females self-administered more cocaine than males, but no sex differences were seen during extinction. Females showed greater cocaine-seeking than males after a CAF priming injection. Individual treatment with ATO did not decrease reinstatement under any priming condition; however, the combination treatment decreased cocaine-seeking under the COC+CUES priming condition in males, and both PRO alone and the combination treatment decreased cocaine-seeking in the CAF+CUES condition in females. Overall, PRO alone was only effective in reducing reinstatement in females, while the combination treatment was consistently effective in reducing reinstatement in both sexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MDMA reinstates cocaine-seeking behaviour in mice.

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    Trigo, José Manuel; Orejarena, Maria Juliana; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2009-06-01

    MDMA effects are mediated by monoaminergic systems, which seem to play a central role in cocaine craving and relapse. CD1 mice trained to self-administer cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) underwent an extinction procedure in which the cues contingent with drug self-administration remained present. Mice achieving extinction were injected with MDMA (10 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (1 and 2 mg/kg) or saline and tested for reinstatement. Acute MDMA, but not d-amphetamine or saline reinstated cocaine-seeking behaviour in mice in which cocaine self-administration and contingent cues were previously extinguished. Acute MDMA can reinstate cocaine-seeking behaviour in mice.

  2. Effects of inhibitory GABA-active neurosteroids on cocaine seeking and cocaine taking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoutz, Christopher D; Runyon, Scott P; Goeders, Nicholas E

    2014-09-01

    Several compounds that potentiate GABA-induced inhibitory currents also decrease stress, anxiety and addiction-related behaviors. Because of the well-established connection between stress and addiction, compounds that reduce stress-induced responses might be efficacious in treating addiction. Since endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone may function in a manner similar to benzodiazepines to reduce HPA axis activation and anxiety following stressful stimuli, we hypothesized that exogenously applied neurosteroids would reduce cocaine reinforcement in two animal models. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer cocaine and food under a concurrent alternating operant schedule of reinforcement. Two separate groups of rats were trained to self-administer cocaine or food pellets and were then exposed to similar cue-induced reinstatement paradigms. Both groups of rats were pretreated with various doses of neurosteroids. Allopregnanolone and 3α-hydroxy-3β-methyl-17β-nitro-5α-androstane (R6305-7, a synthetic neurosteroid) were ineffective in selectively decreasing cocaine relative to food self-administration. On the other hand, both allopregnanolone and R6305-7 significantly decreased the cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking, confirmed by one-way ANOVA. These results suggest that neurosteroids may be effective in reducing the relapse to cocaine use without affecting ongoing cocaine self-administration.

  3. Subchronic administration of atomoxetine causes an enduring reduction in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking without affecting impulsive decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broos, Nienke; Loonstra, Rhianne; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Pattij, Tommy; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has established a robust relationship between impulsivity and addiction, and revealed that impulsive decision making predisposes the vulnerability to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. An important next step is to assess whether elevated relapse vulnerability can be treated via the reduction of impulsive decision making. Therefore, this study explored whether subchronic atomoxetine treatment can reduce relapse vulnerability by reducing impulsive decision making. Rats were trained in the delayed reward task and were subjected to 3 weeks of cocaine self-administration. Following drug self-administration, animals were divided to different experimental groups and received the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drug atomoxetine or vehicle subchronically for 20 days. On days 1 and 10 after treatment cessation, a context-induced reinstatement test was performed. Throughout the entire experiment, changes in impulsive decision making were continuously monitored. Subchronic treatment with atomoxetine reduced context-induced reinstatement both 1 and 10 days after treatment cessation, only in animals receiving no extinction training. Interestingly, neither subchronic nor acute atomoxetine treatments affected impulsive decision making. Our data indicate that the enduring reduction in relapse sensitivity by atomoxetine occurred independent of a reduction in impulsive decision making. Nonetheless, repeated atomoxetine administration seems a promising pharmacotherapeutical strategy to prevent relapse to cocaine seeking in abstinent drug-dependent subjects. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Subchronic administration of atomoxetine causes an enduring reduction in context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking without affecting impulsive decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broos, N.; Loonstra, R.; van Mourik, Y.; Schetters, D.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.; Pattij, T.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has established a robust relationship between impulsivity and addiction, and revealed that impulsive decision making predisposes the vulnerability to cocaine-seeking behavior in rats. An important next step is to assess whether elevated relapse vulnerability can be treated via the

  5. Naloxone injections into CA3 disrupt pattern completion associated with relapse from cocaine seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ryan A.; Clark, Jascha K.; Moore, Angela; Keefe, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to assess the degree to which a pattern completion process operates in cue-induced relapse to cocaine-seeking behavior. Using a novel cue-preference version of the place preference task, rats were administered cocaine or saline, which resulted in a preference for the cocaine-paired cues. After 21 days of abstinence and prior to the preference test, for one group, PBS or naloxone was injected into the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and for a second group, saline or naloxone was injected systemically. The results indicated that infusions of naloxone into CA3 or systemic injections produced a marked disruption for one and two cues, but had minimal disruptive effect for three or four cues, suggesting that naloxone injections disrupt CA3 function and trigger a deficit in a pattern completion process. Thus, it appears that cue-based activation of the dorsal CA3 might be a critical trigger via a pattern completion process. Based on additional analyses it appears that there is a disruption primarily for object touches for one cue naloxone injections into the CA3 or systemic injections, but no effect on time (spatial context). PMID:26815290

  6. Oxytocin decreases cocaine taking, cocaine seeking, and locomotor activity in female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Zhou, Luyi; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin has been shown to decrease cocaine taking and seeking in male rats, suggesting potential treatment efficacy for drug addiction. In the present study, we extended these findings to the assessment of cocaine seeking and taking in female rats. Further, we made direct comparisons of oxytocin’s impact on cocaine induced locomotor activity in both males and females. In females, systemic oxytocin (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/kg) attenuated lever pressing for cocaine during self-administration and oxyt...

  7. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on cocaine reward and seeking behaviors in a rat model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębska, Joanna; Nowak, Ewa; Białko, Magdalena; Przegaliński, Edmund; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Depression and substance-abuse (e.g., cocaine) disorders are common concurrent diagnoses. In the present study, we combined bilateral olfactory bulbectomy (OBX) with a variety of procedures of intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement in rats. We also investigated the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on rewarding and seeking behaviors for cocaine in OBX rats and compared the drug's effects in sham-operated control animals (SHAM). The occurrence of depressive symptoms before introduction to cocaine self-administration enhanced subsequent cocaine-seeking behaviors but did not significantly influence cocaine's rewarding properties or extinction training. NAC (25-100mg/kg) given acutely or repeatedly did not alter the co-occurrence of cocaine reward and depression but effectively reduced the cocaine-seeking behavior observed in both phenotypes. Our results indicate that depression behavior is linked to more pronounced drug craving and a higher propensity to relapse in rats. We also show the lack of efficacy of repeated NAC treatment on SHAM or OBX animals in terms of cocaine self-administration, while the drug was an effective blocker of cocaine-seeking behavior in both studied phenotypes, with a more pronounced drug effect observed in OBX animals. The last finding demonstrates the potential clinical utility of NAC to reduce cocaine seeking enhanced by co-existing depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of the novel DA D3 receptor antagonist SR 21502 on cocaine reward, cocaine seeking and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaj, E; Ananthan, S; Saliba, M; Ranaldi, Robert

    2014-02-01

    There is a focus on developing D3 receptor antagonists as cocaine addiction treatments. We investigated the effects of a novel selective D3 receptor antagonist, SR 21502, on cocaine reward, cocaine-seeking, food reward, spontaneous locomotor activity and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats. In Experiment 1, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and tested with vehicle or one of three doses of SR 21502. In Experiment 2, animals were trained to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement followed by extinction of the response. Then, animals were tested with vehicle or one of the SR 21502 doses on cue-induced reinstatement of responding. In Experiment 3, animals were trained to lever press for food under a PR schedule and tested with vehicle or one dose of the compound. In Experiments 4 and 5, in separate groups of animals, the vehicle and three doses of SR 21502 were tested on spontaneous or cocaine (10 mg/kg, IP)-induced locomotor activity, respectively. SR 21502 produced significant, dose-related (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) reductions in breakpoint for cocaine self-administration, cue-induced reinstatement (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) and cocaine-induced locomotor activity (3.75, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg) but failed to reduce food self-administration and spontaneous locomotor activity. SR 21502 decreases cocaine reward, cocaine-seeking and locomotor activity at doses that have no effect on food reward or spontaneous locomotor activity. These data suggest SR 21502 may selectively inhibit cocaine's rewarding, incentive motivational and stimulant effects.

  9. Hippocampal Regulation of Contextual Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine-Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Alison L.; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Kantak, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Associations between cocaine and cues facilitate development and maintenance of addiction. We hypothesized that the ventral hippocampus is important for acquisition of these associations. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine, with or without pre-exposure to distinct sets of cocaine- and saline-paired contextual cues. Next, rats were conditioned for 3 days with the distinct sets of contextual cues paired with cocaine and saline along with distinct discrete cues. Vehicle or lidocaine wa...

  10. N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) reduces cocaine-induced reinstatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Joanna; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Filip, Malgorzata; Atlas, Daphne

    2016-09-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse changes glutamatergic transmission in human addicts and animal models. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a cysteine prodrug that indirectly activates cysteine-glutamate antiporters. In the extrasynaptic space, NAC restores basal glutamate levels during drug abstinence and normalizes increased glutamatergic tone in rats during reinstatement to drugs of abuse. In initial clinical trials, repeated NAC administration seems to be promising for reduced craving in cocaine addicts. In this study, NAC-amide, called AD4 or NACA, was examined in intravenous cocaine self-administration and extinction/reinstatement procedures in rats. We investigated the behavioral effects of AD4 in the olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats, considered an animal model of depression. Finally, we tested rats injected with AD4 or NAC during 10-daily extinction training sessions to examine subsequent cocaine seeking. AD4 (25-75 mg kg(-1)) given acutely did not alter the rewarding effects of cocaine in OBX rats and sham-operated controls. However, at 6.25-50 mg kg(-1), AD4 decreased dose-dependently cocaine seeking and relapse triggered by cocaine priming or drug-associated conditioned cues in both phenotypes. Furthermore, repeated treatment with AD4 (25 mg kg(-1)) or NAC (100 mg kg(-1)) during daily extinction trials reduced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in sham-operated controls. In the OBX rats only, AD4 effectively blocked cocaine-seeking behavior. Our results demonstrate that AD4 is effective at blocking cocaine-seeking behavior, highlighting its potential clinical use toward cocaine use disorder.

  11. Diverse Roads to Relapse: A Discriminative Cue Signaling Cocaine Availability Is More Effective in Renewing Cocaine Seeking in Goal Trackers Than Sign Trackers and Depends on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchers, Kyle K; Phillips, Kyra B; Jones, Jonte L; Robinson, Terry E; Sarter, Martin

    2017-07-26

    Stimuli associated with taking drugs are notorious instigators of relapse. There is, however, considerable variation in the motivational properties of such stimuli, both as a function of the individual and the nature of the stimulus. The behavior of some individuals (sign trackers, STs) is especially influenced by cues paired with reward delivery, perhaps because they are prone to process information via dopamine-dependent, cue-driven, incentive salience systems. Other individuals (goal trackers, GTs) are better able to incorporate higher-order contextual information, perhaps because of better executive/attentional control over behavior, which requires frontal cortical cholinergic activity. We hypothesized, therefore, that a cue that "sets the occasion" for drug taking (a discriminative stimulus, DS) would reinstate cocaine seeking more readily in GTs than STs and that this would require intact cholinergic neurotransmission. To test this, male STs and GTs were trained to self-administer cocaine using an intermittent access schedule with periods of cocaine availability and unavailability signaled by a DS + and a DS - , respectively. Thereafter, half of the rats received an immunotoxic lesion that destroyed 40-50% of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and later, after extinction training, were tested for the ability of noncontingent presentations of the DS + to reinstate cocaine seeking behavior. The DS + was much more effective in reinstating cocaine seeking in GTs than STs and this effect was abolished by cholinergic losses despite the fact that all rats continued to orient to the DS + We conclude that vulnerability to relapse involves interactions between individual cognitive-motivational biases and the form of the drug cue encountered. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The most predictable outcome of a diagnosis of addiction is a high chance for relapse. When addicts encounter cues previously associated with drug, their attention may be unduly attracted to such cues and

  12. Abstinence environment contributes to age differences in reinstatement of cocaine seeking between adolescent and adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Frantz, Kyle J

    2017-07-01

    Extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking after 60-days of forced abstinence are attenuated in male rats that self-administered cocaine during adolescence, compared with adults. Given that environmental enrichment during abstinence decreases reinstatement among adults, a possible explanation for attenuated reinstatement among adolescents is that standard pair-housing in prior studies creates a more stimulating environment for younger rats. Therefore, we tested whether standard pair-housing is necessary for the attenuated reinstatement among adolescents by determining whether an impoverished environment during abstinence would increase reinstatement among adolescents, up to adult levels. Conversely, we also tested whether environmental enrichment could further decrease reinstatement among adolescents, and whether we could replicate effects of environmental enrichment to decrease reinstatement among adults down to adolescent levels (positive controls). Adolescent and adult male Wistar rats self-administered cocaine intravenously for 12days (fixed ratio 1; 0.36mg/kg per infusion; 2h sessions). Rats were then moved into enriched (grouped, large cages, novel toys), standard (pair-housed, shoebox cages), or impoverished (isolated, hanging cages) housing conditions. After 60days, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking were tested, followed by drug-primed reinstatement (0, 5, 10mg/kg cocaine, i.p.). Consistent with previous results, extinction and cue-induced reinstatement were attenuated in adolescent-onset groups compared with adults; this age difference also extended to drug-primed reinstatement. In support of the present hypothesis, an impoverished environment during abstinence increased reinstatement among adolescents to levels that were not different from adult standard-housing levels. These data suggest that abstinence environment influences the enduring effects of cocaine among adolescents as well as adults

  13. Chronic restraint stress during withdrawal increases vulnerability to drug priming-induced cocaine seeking via a dopamine D1-like receptor-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kevin T; Stone, Eric; Best, Olivia; Collins, Tyler; Edson, Hunter; Hagan, Erin; Nardini, Salvatore; Neuciler, Phelan; Smolinsky, Michael; Tosh, Lindsay; Woodlen, Kristin

    2018-06-01

    A major obstacle in the treatment of individuals with cocaine addiction is their high propensity for relapse. Although the clinical scenario of acute stress-induced relapse has been well studied in animal models, few pre-clinical studies have investigated the role of chronic stress in relapse or the interaction between chronic stress and other relapse triggers. We tested the effect of chronic restraint stress on cocaine seeking in rats using both extinction- and abstinence-based animal relapse models. Rats were trained to press a lever for I.V. cocaine infusions (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) paired with a discrete tone + light cue in daily 3-h sessions. Following self-administration, rats were exposed to a chronic restraint stress procedure (3 h/day) or control procedure (unstressed) during the first seven days of a 13-day extinction period during which lever presses had no programmed consequences. This was followed by cue- and cocaine priming-induced drug seeking tests. In a separate group of rats, cocaine seeking was assessed during forced abstinence both before and after the same chronic stress procedure. A history of chronic restraint stress was associated with increased cocaine priming-induced drug seeking, an effect attenuated by co-administration of SCH-23390 (10.0 μg/kg; i.p.), a dopamine D 1 -like receptor antagonist, with daily restraint. Repeated SCH-23390 administration but not stress during extinction increased cue-induced reinstatement. Exposure to chronic stress during early withdrawal may confer lasting vulnerability to some types of relapse, and dopamine D 1 -like receptors appear to mediate both chronic stress effects on cocaine seeking and extinction of cocaine seeking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART signaling within the paraventricular thalamus modulates cocaine-seeking behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan H James

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART has been demonstrated to play a role in regulating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of various drugs of abuse. A recent study demonstrated that i.c.v. administration of CART negatively modulates reinstatement of alcohol seeking, however, the site(s of action remains unclear. We investigated the paraventricular thalamus (PVT as a potential site of relapse-relevant CART signaling, as this region is known to receive dense innervation from CART-containing hypothalamic cells and to project to a number of regions known to be involved in mediating reinstatement, including the nucleus accumbens (NAC, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and basolateral amygdala (BLA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Male rats were trained to self-administer cocaine before being extinguished to a set criterion. One day following extinction, animals received intra-PVT infusions of saline, tetrodotoxin (TTX; 2.5 ng, CART (0.625 µg or 2.5 µg or no injection, followed by a cocaine prime (10 mg/kg, i.p.. Animals were then tested under extinction conditions for one hour. Treatment with either TTX or CART resulted in a significant attenuation of drug-seeking behaviour following cocaine-prime, with the 2.5 µg dose of CART having the greatest effect. This effect was specific to the PVT region, as misplaced injections of both TTX and CART resulted in responding that was identical to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show for the first time that CART signaling within the PVT acts to inhibit drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking behaviour, presumably by negatively modulating PVT efferents that are important for drug seeking, including the NAC, mPFC and BLA. In this way, we identify a possible target for future pharmacological interventions designed to suppress drug seeking.

  15. Melatonin reduces motivation for cocaine self-administration and prevents relapse-like behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vengeliene, Valentina; Spanagel, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone involved in the entrainment of circadian rhythms, which appears dysregulated in drug users. Further, it has been demonstrated that melatonin can modulate the reinforcing effects of several drugs of abuse and may therefore play a role in drug addiction. Here, we investigated whether administration of melatonin reduces relapse-like behavior and the motivation to seek cocaine in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to long-term cocaine self-administration training. Thereafter, melatonin effects were assessed on: (1) the motivation to work for cocaine in the break point test, (2) the relapse-like behavior in the cue-induced reinstatement test, (3) the distance traveled in the open field test, and (4) sucrose preference in a two-bottle choice paradigm. Melatonin, 25 or 50 mg/kg, was injected 3-4 h after the dark phase onset, 30 min prior to each test. Both doses of melatonin decreased the number of active pokes in both break point and cue-induced reinstatement tests, demonstrating that melatonin can reduce the cocaine-seeking behavior and the motivation to work for cocaine. Administration of the higher dose of this hormone, however, significantly reduced the number of inactive pokes during the cue-induced reinstatement test and tended to reduce animals' locomotor activity in the open field test. Sucrose preference was unchanged in both vehicle- and melatonin-treated animal groups. Our data suggest that melatonin administration may lower the risk of relapse triggered by cues in cocaine-experienced animals.

  16. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-01

    seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. METHODS: Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding...... sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that M1/M4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests...

  17. Effects of muscarinic M1 and M4 acetylcholine receptor stimulation on extinction and reinstatement of cocaine seeking in male mice, independent of extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kevin; Hart, Rachel; Lindsley, Craig W; Thomsen, Morgane

    2018-03-01

    Stimulating muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptors can blunt reinforcing and other effects of cocaine. A hallmark of addiction is continued drug seeking/craving after abstinence and relapse. We tested whether stimulating M 1 and/or M 4 receptors could facilitate extinction of cocaine seeking, and whether this was mediated via memory consolidation. Experimentally naïve C57BL/6J mice were allowed to acquire self-administration of intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion) under a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. Then, saline was substituted for cocaine until responding extinguished to ≤30% of cocaine-reinforced responding. Immediately after each extinction session, mice received saline, the M 1 /M 4 receptor-preferring agonist xanomeline, the M 1 receptor-selective allosteric agonist VU0357017, the M 4 receptor-selective positive allosteric modulator VU0152100, or VU0357017 + VU0152100. In additional experiments, xanomeline was administered delayed after the session or in the home cage before extinction training began. In the latter group, reinstatement of responding by a 10-mg/kg cocaine injection was also tested. Stimulating M 1  + M 4 receptors significantly expedited extinction from 17.2 sessions to 8.3 using xanomeline or 7.8 using VU0357017 + VU0152100. VU0357017 alone and VU0152100 alone did not significantly modify rates of extinction (12.6 and 14.6 sessions). The effect of xanomeline was fully preserved when administered delayed after or unpaired from extinction sessions (7.5 and 6.4 sessions). Xanomeline-treated mice showed no cocaine-induced reinstatement. These findings show that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can decrease cocaine seeking in mice. The effect lasted beyond treatment duration and was not dependent upon extinction learning. This suggests that M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation modulated or reversed some neurochemical effects of cocaine exposure.

  18. Antagonism of GABA-B but not GABA-A receptors in the VTA prevents stress- and intra-VTA CRF-induced reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacktop, Jordan M; Vranjkovic, Oliver; Mayer, Matthieu; Van Hoof, Matthew; Baker, David A; Mantsch, John R

    2016-03-01

    Stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking requires corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) actions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However the mechanisms through which CRF regulates VTA function to promote cocaine use are not fully understood. Here we examined the role of GABAergic neurotransmission in the VTA mediated by GABA-A or GABA-B receptors in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine seeking by a stressor, uncontrollable intermittent footshock, or bilateral intra-VTA administration of CRF. Rats underwent repeated daily cocaine self-administration (1.0 mg/kg/ing; 14 × 6 h/day) and extinction and were tested for reinstatement in response to footshock (0.5 mA, 0.5" duration, average every 40 s; range 10-70 s) or intra-VTA CRF delivery (500 ng/side) following intra-VTA pretreatment with the GABA-A antagonist, bicuculline, the GABA-B antagonist, 2-hydroxysaclofen or vehicle. Intra-VTA bicuculline (1, 10 or 20 ng/side) failed to block footshock- or CRF-induced cocaine seeking at either dose tested. By contrast, 2-hydroxysaclofen (0.2 or 2 μg/side) prevented reinstatement by both footshock and intra-VTA CRF at a concentration that failed to attenuate food-reinforced lever pressing (45 mg sucrose-sweetened pellets; FR4 schedule) in a separate group of rats. These data suggest that GABA-B receptor-dependent CRF actions in the VTA mediate stress-induced cocaine seeking and that GABA-B receptor antagonists may have utility for the management of stress-induced relapse in cocaine addicts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxytocin Reduces Cocaine Cued Fos Activation in a Regionally Specific Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Kah-Chung; Freeman, Linnea R; Berini, Carole R; Ghee, Shannon M; See, Ronald E

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxytocin may be a possible treatment for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. Little is known about the site-specific effects of oxytocin on various drug addiction-related brain regions. Furthermore, sexually dimorphic effects of oxytocin on neural function in the addiction circuit have not been established. Here, we studied Fos expression following cocaine-cued reinstatement in both male and female rats. Methods Male and female rats underwent self-administration, extinction, and reinstatement tests. On test days, rats were given oxytocin or vehicle, and lever pressing was measured in response to conditioned cocaine cues. Rats were perfused and Fos staining measured in the central amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and subthalamic nucleus. Fos/oxytocin double labeling occurred in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Results Rats reinstated to cocaine cues relative to extinction responding and oxytocin reduced cocaine seeking. Oxytocin combined with contingent cue presentations increased Fos+ oxytocin cell bodies within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus relative to vehicle. Fos expression robustly increased in the central amygdala following oxytocin administration. Oxytocin reversed cue-induced Fos expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and subthalamic nucleus. Central oxytocin infusion also attenuated reinstated cocaine seeking. Conclusions Oxytocin decreased reinstated cocaine seeking, increased Fos activation in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and central amygdala, but normalized cue-induced Fos activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and subthalamic nucleus, thereby demonstrating regionally specific activation patterns. No sex differences were seen for the effects of oxytocin on cocaine seeking and Fos activation, indicating that oxytocin acts on similar central neural circuits critical to

  20. Interaction between the Basolateral Amygdala and Dorsal Hippocampus Is Critical for Cocaine Memory Reconsolidation and Subsequent Drug Context-Induced Cocaine-Seeking Behaviorin Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Audrey M.; Lasseter, Heather C.; Xie, Xiaohu; Cowhey, Kate E.; Reittinger, Andrew M.; Fuchs, Rita A.

    2011-01-01

    Contextual stimulus control over instrumental drug-seeking behavior relies on the reconsolidation of context-response-drug associative memories into long-term memory storage following retrieval-induced destabilization. According to previous studies, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampus (DH) regulate cocaine-related memory…

  1. Mere Recollection of Food Reduces Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura Yasuto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was twofold: Experiment 1 tested the possibility that the mere recollection of food aroused a state of hunger and that different types of food influenced the state of hunger differently; Experiment 2 tested the possibility that food cues affected altruistic behavior. In Experiment 1, 28 participants reported how hungry they felt before and after their recollection of certain foods (noodles and pudding. Results suggest that recollection of food increased hunger and that the type of food influenced the degree of hunger (F(2,54 = 31.88, p < .001, η2 = .54. In Experiment 2, 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of three recollection conditions: (1 noodles, (2 pudding, and (3 control. Participants in the two conditions described each food in detail; control group participants did not. Participants were then asked how much they would be willing to participate in an ostensible experiment. Results indicate that recollection-induced hunger reduced altruistic behavior (F(2, 60 = 4.11, p = .021, η2 = .12. Cue reactivity theory and the hierarchy of needs could explain these results.

  2. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  3. The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing aggression in patients with ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on ...

  4. Sexual behavior reduces hypothalamic androgen receptor immunoreactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Guasti, Alonso; Swaab, Dick; Rodríguez-Manzo, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    Male sexual behavior is regulated by limbic areas like the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN). Neurons in these brain areas are rich in androgen receptors (AR) and express

  5. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  6. Understanding Uranium Behavior in a Reduced Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot, N.; Lezama-Pacheco, J. S.; Williams, K. H.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Long, P. E.; Davis, J. A.; Fox, P. M.; Yang, L.; Giammar, D.; Cerrato, J. M.; Bargar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is a concern at several US Department of Energy sites, such Old Rifle, CO. Uranium transport in the environment is mainly controlled by its oxidation state, since oxidized U(VI) is relatively mobile, whereas U(IV) is relatively insoluble. Bio-remediation of contaminated aquifers aims at immobilizing uranium in a reduced form. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown that adding electron donor (lactate, acetate, ethanol) to groundwater stimulates the activity of metal- and sulfate-reducing bacteria, which promotes U(VI) reduction in contaminated aquifers. However, obtaining information on chemical and physical forms of U, Fe and S species for sediments biostimulated in the field, as well as kinetic parameters such as U(VI) reduction rate, is challenging due to the low concentration of uranium in the aquifers (typically bio-remediation experiment at the Old Rifle site, CO, from early iron-reducing conditions to the transition to sulfate-reducing conditions. Several in-well chromatographic columns packed with sediment were deployed and were sampled at different days after the start of bio-reduction. X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray microscopy were used to obtain information on Fe, S and U speciation and distribution. Chemical extractions of the reduced sediments have also been performed, to determine the rate of Fe(II) and U(IV) accumulation.

  7. Memantine reduces stealing behavior and impulsivity in kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2013-01-01

    Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing behavior and has been associated with deleterious unwanted outcomes including forensic contact and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Very few trials have been conducted to investigate pharmacological treatment options for this neglected...... was generally well tolerated. This study shows the effectiveness of memantine in reducing urges to shoplift and shoplifting behavior along with improving impulsivity, mood, anxiety, and psychosocial functioning....

  8. Longer treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement fails to reduce resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Rusty W; Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A

    2018-04-02

    Provision of alternative non-drug reinforcement is among the most effective methods for treating substance use disorders. However, when alternative reinforcers become unavailable during treatment interruptions or upon cessation of treatment, relapse often occurs. Relapse following the loss of alternative reinforcement is known as resurgence. One factor that could reduce resurgence is longer duration of treatment with alternative reinforcement, but the available data are mixed. Further, the effects of length of treatment have previously only been examined with food seeking. The present experiments directly examined if duration of treatment impacted the magnitude of resurgence of cocaine or alcohol seeking in rats. First, rats were trained to self-administer cocaine (Experiment 1) or alcohol (Experiment 2) by performing a target behavior. Second, target behavior was extinguished and performing an alternative behavior produced an alternative non-drug (i.e., food) reinforcer. Finally, resurgence was assessed following removal of alternative reinforcement after either 5 or 20 sessions of treatment. Treatment duration did not differentially affect resurgence of cocaine seeking in Experiment 1 or Alcohol seeking in Experiment 2. These results suggest that extended treatment with alternative non-drug reinforcement may not decrease propensity to relapse. Further, these results may have implications for treatment of substance use disorders and for theories of resurgence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy A. Steeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1–12 years. Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50% significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (−0.44 to −3.1 h/day and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  10. Reducing treatment of coppersmelting slag: Thermodynamic analysis of impurities behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkov, Alexey; Kamkin, Rostislav

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamic mathematical model, describing behavior of Pb, Zn, and As during reducing slag cleaning in the Vanyukov furnace has been developed. Using a developed model, the influence of different factors, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, the ratio of the formed phases on the behavior of impurities, was analyzed. It was found that arsenic can significantly move to the bottom phase, and zinc can be significantly vaporized under conditions in the Vanyukov furnace.

  11. Orofacial neuropathic pain reduces spontaneous burrowing behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deseure, K; Hans, G

    2018-07-01

    It was recently reported that spontaneous burrowing behavior is decreased after tibial nerve transection, spinal nerve transection and partial sciatic nerve ligation. It was proposed that spontaneous burrowing could be used as a measure of the impact of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. It has remained unclear whether the reduction in burrowing behavior is caused directly by pain or hypersensitivity in the affected limbs, making it more difficult to perform burrowing, or by a pain induced decrease in the general wellbeing, thus reducing the motivation to burrow. We studied burrowing behavior after infraorbital nerve injury, a model of orofacial neuropathic pain that does not affect the limbs. Burrowing behavior was significantly reduced after infraorbital nerve injury. Isolated face grooming and responsiveness to mechanical von Frey stimulation of the infraorbital nerve territory were significantly increased after infraorbital nerve injury, indicative, respectively, of spontaneous pain and mechanical allodynia. It is concluded that spontaneous burrowing may provide a measure of the global impact of pain on the animal's wellbeing after peripheral nerve injury and incorporation of this behavioral assay in preclinical drug testing may improve the predictive validity of currently used pain models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive Behavior Therapy Compare to Campaign Advertisement Programs in Reducing Aggressive Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ina Saraswati; Dyah T Indirasari; Dewi Maulina; Guritnaningsih A Santoso

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three intervention programs, i.e. CBT (Cognitive Behavior Therapy), humor appeal advertisements (positive ads), and fear appeal advertisements (negative ads) in reducing aggressive driving behavior. 196 young adults age between 18–35 years old, who are considered to be at risk in performing aggressive driving behavior had completed four self report inventories. The four inventories measures perception on traffic conditions, degree of fr...

  13. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dexmedetomidine reduces lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    Full Text Available Peripheral innate immune response may induce sickness behavior through activating microglia, excessive cytokines production, and neuroinflammation. Dexmedetomidine (Dex has anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the effects of Dex on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with Dex (50 ug/kg or vehicle. One hour later, the mice were injected (i.p. with Escherichia coli LPS (0.33 mg/kg or saline (n = 6 in each group. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the mice for 24h. We also determined microglia activation and cytokines expression in the brains of the mice. In vitro, we determine cytokines expression in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells with or without Dex treatment.In the Dex-pretreated mice, LPS-induced sickness behavior (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal were attenuated and microglial activation was lower than vehicle control. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO, caspase-3, and iNOS were increased in the brain of LPS-challenged mice, which were reduced by Dex but not vehicle.Dexmedetomidine diminished LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in sickness behavior.

  15. Reduced Order Models for Dynamic Behavior of Elastomer Damping Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, B.; Legay, A.; Deü, J.-F.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of passive damping, various mechanical systems from the space industry use elastomer components (shock absorbers, silent blocks, flexible joints...). The material of these devices has frequency, temperature and amplitude dependent characteristics. The associated numerical models, using viscoelastic and hyperelastic constitutive behaviour, may become computationally too expensive during a design process. The aim of this work is to propose efficient reduced viscoelastic models of rubber devices. The first step is to choose an accurate material model that represent the viscoelasticity. The second step is to reduce the rubber device finite element model to a super-element that keeps the frequency dependence. This reduced model is first built by taking into account the fact that the device's interfaces are much more rigid than the rubber core. To make use of this difference, kinematical constraints enforce the rigid body motion of these interfaces reducing the rubber device model to twelve dofs only on the interfaces (three rotations and three translations per face). Then, the superelement is built by using a component mode synthesis method. As an application, the dynamic behavior of a structure supported by four hourglass shaped rubber devices under harmonic loads is analysed to show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Conditional economic incentives for reducing HIV risk behaviors: integration of psychology and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; Gálarraga, Omar

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories and behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  18. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  19. Cognitive behavioral therapy to reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Li, Chun; Wang, Hong; Ou, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Song; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This 9-week study was designed to determine whether a commercial cognitive-behavioral training program could effectively reduce overt aggression behavior in Chinese young male violent offenders. Sixty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive routine intervention alone (control group) or routine intervention plus Williams LifeSkills Training (WLST group) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was change scores on the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) from baseline to one week following end of training. Secondary outcomes were change scores on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) and Cook-Medley Hostility Scale (CMHS). There were significant between-group differences in change of MOAS total score (P behavior in young male violent offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Theory of planned behavior interventions for reducing heterosexual risk behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Mandy; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S

    2014-12-01

    The meta-analysis reported here examined interventions informed by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) or theory of reasoned action (TRA) aimed at reducing heterosexual risk behaviors (prevention of STDs and unwanted pregnancy). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were either randomized control trials or quasi-experimental studies that compared the TPB-based intervention against a control group. Search strategy consisted of articles identified in previous reviews, keyword search through search engines, examination of key journals, and contacting key experts. Forty-seven intervention studies were included in the meta-analysis. Random effects models revealed that pooled effect sizes for TPB-based interventions had small but significant effects on behavior and other secondary outcomes (i.e., knowledge, attitudes, normative beliefs, perceived behavioral control, and intentions). Significant heterogeneity found between effect sizes was explored using metaregression. Larger effects were found for interventions that provided opportunities for social comparison. The TPB provides a valuable framework for designing interventions to change heterosexual risk behaviors. However, effect sizes varied quite substantially between studies, and further research is needed to explore the reasons why.

  1. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  2. Cocaine behavioral economics: From the naturalistic environment to the controlled laboratory setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Mark K.; Steinmiller, Caren L.

    2017-01-01

    Background We previously observed that behavioral economic factors predict naturalistic heroin seeking behavior that correlates with opioid seeking in the experimental laboratory. The present study sought to replicate and extend these prior findings with regular cocaine users. Methods Participants (N = 83) completed a semi-structured interview to establish income-generating and cocaine-purchasing/use repertoire during the past month. Questions addressed sources/amounts of income and expenditures; price (money and time) per purchase; and frequency/amounts of cocaine purchased and consumed. Naturalistic cocaine purchasing and use patterns were: (1) analyzed as a function of income quartile, (2) perturbed by hypothetical changes in cost factors to assess changes in purchasing/use habits, and (3) correlated with experimental cocaine seeking. Results Income was positively related to naturalistic cocaine seeking/use pattern (i.e., income elastic), and behaviors were cost-efficient and sensitive to supply chain. Income was unrelated to proportional expenditure on cocaine (≈55%) but inversely related to food expenditure. In all hypothetical scenarios (changes in income or dealer, loss of income assistance from government or family/friends, and increasing arrest risk when purchasing), the high-income group reported they would continue to use more cocaine daily than other groups. Number of laboratory cocaine choices significantly correlated with cocaine purchase time (positively) and purity of cocaine (negatively) in the naturalistic setting. Conclusions These results replicate and extend findings with regular heroin users, demonstrate the importance of income, cost-efficiency and supply-mindedness in cocaine seeking/use, and suggest that this interview-based approach has good external validity. PMID:24878248

  3. Manipulating parameters of reinforcement to reduce problem behavior without extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E; Samaha, Andrew L; Slocum, Timothy A; Clay, Casey J

    2018-04-01

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) most often includes extinction as a treatment component. However, extinction is not always feasible and it can be counter-therapeutic if implemented without optimal treatment integrity. Researchers have successfully implemented DRA without extinction by manipulating various parameters of reinforcement such that alternative behavior is favored. We extended previous research by assessing three participants' sensitivities to quality, magnitude, and immediacy using arbitrary responses and reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. The results were used to implement an intervention for problem behavior using DRA without extinction. Our findings indicate that arbitrary responses can be used to identify individual and relative sensitivity to parameters of reinforcement for reinforcers that maintain problem behavior. Treatment was effective for all participants when we manipulated parameters of reinforcement to which they were most sensitive, and, for two participants, the treatment was less effective when we manipulated parameters to which they were least sensitive. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paluch Rocco A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. Results The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. Conclusions These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00962247

  5. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-02-22

    Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participated in a nine-week field study to examine behavior and weight change as a function of reducing sedentary behavior. Children were studied in three 3-week phases, baseline, reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 25% and reduce targeted sedentary behaviors by 50%. The targeted sedentary behaviors included television, video game playing, video watching, and computer use. The reinforcing value of sedentary behavior but not physical activity, was correlated with weight change, as losing weight was associated with lower reinforcing value of sedentary behaviors. Reducing sedentary behavior was not associated with a significant change in objectively measured physical activity, suggesting the main way in which reducing sedentary behavior influenced weight change is by complementary changes in energy intake. Estimated energy intake supported the hypothesis that reducing sedentary behaviors influences weight by reducing energy intake. These data show that the motivation to be sedentary limits the effects of reducing sedentary behavior on weight change in obese children. © 2011 Epstein et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. A Brief Social Skills Intervention to Reduce Challenging Classroom Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Sara C.; Bruhn, Allison L.; Troughton, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Social skills instruction has been recommended as a way of improving behavioral and social outcomes for students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). A brief social skills intervention ("Stop and Think" (Knoff in "The stop & think social skills program," Sopris West, Longmont, CO, 2001) was used to extend the…

  7. Prone positioning reduces severe pushing behavior: three case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yuji; Amimoto, Kazu; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Fukata, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Masahide; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Makita, Shigeru

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] Pushing behavior is classically described as a disorder of body orientation in the coronal plane. Most interventions for pushing behavior have focused on correcting the deviation in vertical perception. However, pushing behavior seems to involve erroneous movements associated with excessive motor output by the non-paretic limbs and trunk. The present study aimed to inhibit muscular hyper-activity by placing the non-paretic limbs and trunk in the prone position. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of the present study were 3 acute stroke patients with severe pushing behavior. The study consisted of the following 3 phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. In addition to conventional therapy, patients received relaxation therapy in the prone position for 10 minutes a day over 2 days. The severity of pushing behavior was assessed using the scale for contraversive pushing, and truncal balance was evaluated using the trunk control test. These assessments were performed before and after the baseline phase, and after the intervention and follow-up phases. [Results] At the baseline phase, both scores were poor. Both scores improved after the intervention and follow-up phases, and all the patients could sit independently. [Conclusion] Relaxation therapy in the prone position might ameliorate pushing behavior and impaired truncal balance.

  8. Reducing Adolescent Rage Bullies: Study on Behavior Management Training Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Beirami

    2016-12-01

    for 9 sessions (45 minutes each were treated in a management training program, while the control group received no training. آزمودنی ها پس پایان جلسات آموزش مدیریت رفتار والدین ، مورد بررسی مجدد قرار گرفتند. Parent Management Training participants after the end of the session, were reviewed and followed a month later. داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار آماری18 SPSS و با استفاده از شاخص های توصیفی و آزمون تحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیری مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاکی از اثربخشی آموزش مدیریت رفتاری والدین بر کاهش خشم نوجوانان قلدر (05/0 P< بود. Data were analyzed by the SPSS version 18 statistical software using descriptive indicators and multivariate analysis. Results: The results indicated the effectiveness of Parent Management Training to Reduce Anger of the teen bullies (P <0.05, respectively.فقط در مولفه های ناکامی و پرخاشگری بدنی تفاوت معنی داری نبود و در مقایسه اثربخشی آموزش مدیریت رفتار به دختران و پسران گروه آزمایش، نتایج نشان داد که در بین دختران و پسران گروه آزمایش تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد این نشانگر این است که آموزش مدیریت رفتار به والدین درکاهش خشم نوجوانان قلدر، هردوگروه تاثیر مثبت داشته است. . نتایج درمرحله پیگیری نیز تفاوت معناداری (05/0 P< را بین گروه آزمایش وکنترل نشان داد. The results of the follow-up phase difference (P <0.05 between the test and control groups, respectively. Conclusion: The findings revealed that the behavioral management training had been effective in reducing anger bullying

  9. Towards a Persuasive Mobile Application to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dantzig, S.; Geleijnse, G.; Van Halteren, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is a potential health risk, not only for people with an inactive lifestyle, but also for those who do meet the recommended amount of physical activity. In this paper, we present two waysto promote the reduction of sedentary behavior. First, we report onan experiment in which office

  10. Reducing theft and embezzlement by encouraging ethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Medical practices are often faced with employee embezzlement and theft. To protect themselves and their practices, physicians should have in place policies and procedures for identifying and handling unethical behaviors by employees. This article will deal with the need to set guidelines for what is considered ethical and professional conduct in the office.

  11. Towards a Persuasive Mobile Application to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dantzig, S.; Geleijnse, G.; Van Halteren, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is a potential health risk, not only for people with an inactive lifestyle, but also for those who do meet the recommended amount of physical activity. In this paper, we present two waysto promote the reduction of sedentary behavior. First, we report onan experiment in which office workers (n = 40) received timely persuasive messages on their smartphones, advising them to take an active break whenever 30 minutes of almost uninterrupted computer activity was recorded. The mes...

  12. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J.; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J.

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we

  13. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  14. Authoritative feeding behaviors to reduce child BMI through online interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenn, Marilyn; Pruszynski, Jessica E; Felzer, Holly; Zhang, Jiannan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE.: The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility and initial efficacies of parent- and/or child-focused online interventions and variables correlated with child body mass index percentile change. DESIGN AND METHODS.: A feasibility and cluster randomized controlled pilot study was used. RESULTS.: Recruitment was more effective at parent-teacher conferences compared with when materials were sent home with fifth- to eighth-grade culturally diverse students. Retention was 90% for students and 62-74% for parents. Authoritative parent feeding behaviors were associated with lower child body mass index. A larger study is warranted. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.: Online approaches may provide a feasible option for childhood obesity prevention and amelioration. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. (-)-α-Bisabolol reduces orofacial nociceptive behavior in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luana Torres; Duailibe, Mariana Araújo Braz; Pessoa, Luciana Moura; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira; Vieira-Neto, Antonio Eufrásio; de Vasconcellos Abdon, Ana Paula; Campos, Adriana Rolim

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the anti-nociceptive effect of oral and topical administration of (-)-α-bisabolol (BISA) in rodent models of formalin- or cinnamaldehyde-induced orofacial pain and to explore the inhibitory mechanisms involved. Orofacial pain was induced by injecting 1.5% formalin into the upper lip of mice (20 μL) or into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of rats (50 μL). In another experiment, orofacial pain was induced with cinnamaldehyde (13.2 μg/lip). Nociceptive behavior was proxied by time (s) spent rubbing the injected area and by the incidence of head flinching. BISA (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg p.o. or 50, 100, or 200 mg/mL topical) or vehicle was administered 60 min before pain induction. The two formulations (lotion and syrup) were compared with regard to efficacy. The effect of BISA remained after incorporation into the formulations, and nociceptive behavior decreased significantly in all tests. The high binding affinity observed for BISA and TRPA1 in the molecular docking study was supported by in vivo experiments in which HC-030031 (a TRPA1 receptor antagonist) attenuated pain in a manner qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of BISA. Blockers of opioid receptors, NO synthesis, and K + ATP channels did not affect orofacial pain, nor inhibit the effect of BISA. In conclusion, BISA had a significant anti-nociceptive effect on orofacial pain. The effect may in part be due to TRPA1 antagonism. The fact that the effect of BISA remained after incorporation into oral and topical formulations suggests that the compound may be a useful adjuvant in the treatment of orofacial pain.

  16. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice: Midbrain in drug choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-03-28

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline), we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction.

  17. Oxytocin reduces amygdala activity, increases social interactions, and reduces anxiety-like behavior irrespective of NMDAR antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rosanna; Mihara, Takuma; Forrest, Alexandra; Featherstone, Robert E; Siegel, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    Standard dopamine therapies for schizophrenia are not efficacious for negative symptoms of the disease, including asociality. This reduced social behavior may be due to glutamatergic dysfunction within the amygdala, leading to increased fear and social anxiety. Several studies have demonstrated the prosocial effects of oxytocin in schizophrenia patients. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of subchronic oxytocin on EEG activity in amygdala of mice during performance of the three-chamber social choice and open field tests following acute ketamine as a model of glutamatergic dysfunction. Oxytocin did not restore social deficits introduced by ketamine but did significantly increase sociality in comparison to the control group. Ketamine had no effect on time spent in the center during the open field trials, whereas oxytocin increased overall center time across all groups, suggesting a reduction in anxiety. Amygdala activity was consistent across all drug groups during social and nonsocial behavioral trials. However, oxytocin reduced overall amygdala EEG power during the two behavioral tasks. Alternatively, ketamine did not significantly affect EEG power throughout the tasks. Decreased EEG power in the amygdala, as caused by oxytocin, may be related to both reduced anxiety and increased social behaviors. Data suggest that separate prosocial and social anxiety pathways may mediate social preference. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decreased with the intervention. Maintenance of skills over a 1-month period was demonstrated for all of the participants. The variable and inconsistent results of the research add to the current literature base in support of the use of Social Stories for some children with autism.

  19. Reducing the Noise in Behavioral Assays: Sex and Age in Adult Zebrafish Locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Philpott, Catelyn; Donack, Corey J.; Cousin, Margot A.; Pierret, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many assays are used in animal model systems to measure specific human disease-related behaviors. The use of both adult and larval zebrafish as a behavioral model is gaining popularity. As this work progresses and potentially translates into new treatments, we must do our best to improve the sensitivity of these assays by reducing confounding factors. Scientists who use the mouse model system have demonstrated that sex and age can influence a number of behaviors. As a community, they have mov...

  20. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, Florian E.; G?ntner, Amelie V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  1. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting c...

  2. Reducing threats in conversations about environmental behavior change: The positive impact of Motivational Interviewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klonek, F.E.; Güntner, A.V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation

  3. Transported Versus Homegrown Parenting Interventions for Reducing Disruptive Child Behavior : A Multilevel Meta-Regression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Melendez-Torres, G.J.; Knerr, W.; Gardner, F.

    OBJECTIVE: Children's disruptive behavior problems place children at high risk for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, and carry a high burden for individuals and society. Policy makers and service providers aiming to reduce children's disruptive behavior problems must often choose

  4. Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  5. Oxotremorine treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR T+ tf/J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio A. Amodeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6 mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.

  6. Reducing the Probability of Incidents Through Behavior-Based Safety -- An Anomaly or Not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, John A

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the probability of incidents through Behavior-Based Safety--an anomaly or not? Can a Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) process reduce the probability of an employee sustaining a work-related injury or illness? This presentation describes the actions taken to implement a sustainable BBS process and evaluates its effectiveness. The BBS process at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center used a pilot population of national laboratory employees to: Achieve employee and management support; Reduce the probability of employees' sustaining work-related injuries and illnesses; and Provide support for additional funding to expand within the laboratory

  7. Health risks, correlates, and interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Tremblay, Mark S; Marshall, Simon J; Hume, Clare

    2011-08-01

    Opportunities for young people to be sedentary have increased during leisure time, study time, and transportation time. This review paper focuses on sedentary behaviors among young people aged 2-18 years and includes evidence of the relationship between sedentary behavior and health risk indicators, an overview of public health recommendations, the prevalence of key sedentary behaviors, evidence of correlates of sedentary behavior and the effectiveness of interventions to reduce sedentary behaviors. Although this is a narrative style review and not systematic, where possible, findings from relevant review papers were summarized and a search of more recent literature was performed using computer-based databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsycINFO, Social Science Index, SportDiscus, and Health Reference Center - Academic. Young people spend 2-4 hours per day in screen-based behaviors and 5-10 hours per day sedentary. Ethnicity, sociodemographic status, having a TV set in the bedroom, and parental behavior appear to be the most consistent correlates of TV viewing time; however, few recent studies aiming to reduce TV viewing or sedentary time among young people have been successful. A growing body of evidence supports the development of public health recommendations to limit the time spent in screen-based behaviors. More research is needed to examine the prospective and experimental evidence of associations between overall sedentary time and health, determinants of sedentary behaviors other than screen-based behaviors, and interventions to reduce overall sedentary time or even alternative sedentary behaviors, such as transport- or education-related sitting time. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploiting Scanning Behavior for Predators Can Reduce Rice Damage Caused by Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is often damaged by birds, especially sparrows, in Asia. Bird nets are sometimes used as countermeasures; however this approach is expensive and labor intensive. For this reason, farmers generally eschew bird nets, even though no alternative countermeasures are available. This study focused on exploiting the bird behavior of scanning for predators to reduce crop damage. When birds forage for seeds on the ground they often stop pecking and briefly raise their heads, apparently to scan for predators. Low visibility habitats increase scanning behavior and increased scanning behavior reduces habitat quality from the bird’s perspective; therefore, this study tested the relationship between rice damage rate and visibility at the periphery of rice fields, where tree sparrows rest after feeding. Overall, low visibility reduced damage to rice. Because visibility was mainly affected by weeds, weed management techniques contribute to crop damage management. To reduce damage, weeding can be decreased; therefore, this technique is cost- and labor-efficient.

  9. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  10. Elimination of Kalrn Expression in POMC Cells Reduces Anxiety-Like Behavior and Contextual Fear Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A.; Mains, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. PMID:25014196

  11. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-06-01

    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  12. Elimination of Kalrn expression in POMC cells reduces anxiety-like behavior and contextual fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Yan, Yan; LaRese, Taylor; Eipper, Betty A; Mains, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    Kalirin, a Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor for Rac1 and RhoG, is known to play an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses and in the secretion of neuropeptides. Mice unable to express any of the isoforms of Kalrn in cells that produce POMC at any time during development (POMC cells) exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior and reduced acquisition of passive avoidance behavior, along with sex-specific alteration in the corticosterone response to restraint stress. Strikingly, lack of Kalrn expression in POMC cells closely mimicked the effects of global Kalrn knockout on anxiety-like behavior and passive avoidance conditioning without causing the other deficits noted in Kalrn knockout mice. Our data suggest that deficits in excitatory inputs onto POMC neurons are responsible for the behavioral phenotypes observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of reducing children's television and video game use on aggressive behavior: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T N; Wilde, M L; Navracruz, L C; Haydel, K F; Varady, A

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to aggression in the media and children's aggressive behavior is well documented. However, few potential solutions have been evaluated. To assess the effects of reducing television, videotape, and video game use on aggressive behavior and perceptions of a mean and scary world. Randomized, controlled, school-based trial. Two sociodemographically and scholastically matched public elementary schools in San Jose, Calif. Third- and fourth-grade students (mean age, 8.9 years) and their parents or guardians. Children in one elementary school received an 18-lesson, 6-month classroom curriculum to reduce television, videotape, and video game use. In September (preintervention) and April (postintervention) of a single school year, children rated their peers' aggressive behavior and reported their perceptions of the world as a mean and scary place. A 60% random sample of children were observed for physical and verbal aggression on the playground. Parents were interviewed by telephone and reported aggressive and delinquent behaviors on the child behavior checklist. The primary outcome measure was peer ratings of aggressive behavior. Compared with controls, children in the intervention group had statistically significant decreases in peer ratings of aggression (adjusted mean difference, -2.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.6 to -0.2; P =.03) and observed verbal aggression (adjusted mean difference, -0.10 act per minute per child; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.03; P =.01). Differences in observed physical aggression, parent reports of aggressive behavior, and perceptions of a mean and scary world were not statistically significant but favored the intervention group. An intervention to reduce television, videotape, and video game use decreases aggressive behavior in elementary schoolchildren. These findings support the causal influences of these media on aggression and the potential benefits of reducing children's media use.

  14. Adult neurogenesis is reduced in the dorsal hippocampus of rats displaying learned helplessness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y C; Wang, S

    2010-11-24

    Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the hippocampus has a role in the pathophysiology of major depression. In the learned helplessness (LH) animal model of depression after inescapable shocks (ISs) animals that display LH behavior have reduced cell proliferation in the hippocampus; this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment. Using this model, we compared rats that displayed LH behavior and rats that did not show LH behavior (NoLH) after ISs to determine whether reduced hippocampal cell proliferation is associated with the manifestation of LH behavior or is a general response to stress. Specifically, we examined cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and synaptic function in dorsal and ventral hippocampus of LH and NoLH animals and control rats that were not shocked. The LH rats had showed reduced cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and synaptic transmission in the dorsal hippocampus, whereas no changes were seen in the ventral hippocampus. These changes were not observed in the NoLH animals. In a group of NoLH rats that received the same amount of electrical shock as the LH rats to control for the unequal shocks received in these two groups, we observed changes in Ki-67(+) cells associated with acute stress. We conclude that reduced hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis are associated with the manifestation of LH behavior and that the dorsal hippocampus is the most affected area. Copyright © 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Erik Klonek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT, threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT, threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI—an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation—can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group. We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions. As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change. Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk. Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  16. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  17. 5HT2A receptor blockade in dorsomedial striatum reduces repetitive behaviors in BTBR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, D A; Rivera, E; Cook, E H; Sweeney, J A; Ragozzino, M E

    2017-03-01

    Restricted and repetitive behaviors are a defining feature of autism, which can be expressed as a cognitive flexibility deficit or stereotyped, motor behaviors. There is limited knowledge about the underlying neuropathophysiology contributing to these behaviors. Previous findings suggest that central 5HT 2A receptor activity is altered in autism, while recent work indicates that systemic 5HT 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic model of autism. 5HT 2A receptors are expressed in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. These two regions have been shown to be altered in autism. The present study investigated whether 5HT 2A receptor blockade in the dorsomedial striatum or orbitofrontal cortex in the BTBR mouse strain, an idiopathic model of autism, affects the phenotype related to restricted and repetitive behaviors. Microinfusion of the 5HT 2A receptor antagonist, M100907 into the dorsomedial striatum alleviated a reversal learning impairment and attenuated grooming behavior. M100907 infusion into the orbitofrontal cortex increased perseveration during reversal learning and potentiated grooming. These findings suggest that increased 5HT 2A receptor activity in the dorsomedial striatum may contribute to behavioral inflexibility and stereotyped behaviors in the BTBR mouse. 5HT 2A receptor signaling in the orbitofrontal cortex may be critical for inhibiting a previously learned response during reversal learning and expression of stereotyped behavior. The present results suggest which brain areas exhibit abnormalities underlying repetitive behaviors in an idiopathic mouse model of autism, as well as which brain areas systemic treatment with M100907 may principally act on in BTBR mice to attenuate repetitive behaviors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  18. The Token Economy: Reducing the Disruptive and Off-Task Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicole Taylor

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of a token economy as an intervention to reduce disruptive and off-task behavior of third grade students in an open concept setting. The intervention combines the use of a token reinforcement with a raffle style drawing. The students receive tokens on an intermittent reinforcement schedule for being on-task,…

  19. Reducing no-show behavior at a community mental health center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieren, Q van; Rijckmans, M.J.N.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether an easy to apply no-show policy can substantially reduce no-show behavior of 16–25-year-old clients undergoing individual outpatient treatment at a community mental health center. After introduction of the new no-show policy, the no-show percentage

  20. A Functional Approach to Reducing Runaway Behavior and Stabilizing Placements for Adolescents in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Hewitt B.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Geller, David; Cripe, Michael; Kenney, Terresa; Neff, Bryon; Dunlap, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Teenagers' running from foster placement is a significant problem in the field of child protection. This article describes a functional, behavior analytic approach to reducing running away through assessing the motivations for running, involving the youth in the assessment process, and implementing interventions to enhance the reinforcing value of…

  1. Understanding Reduced-Fat Milk Consumption among Male Adolescents Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Nada O.; Lee, Jerry W.

    2005-01-01

    This study identifies factors that influences reduced-fat milk consumption among 560 male students, ages 13-18 years, attending North Los Angeles County public high schools. Participants completed a group-administered Theory of Planned Behavior-based questionnaire. The majority of the participants, 94.8%, reported that they currently drank some…

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Suicidal Ideation in Schizophrenia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Katy; Hansen, Lars; Turkington, Douglas; Kingdon, David

    2007-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at high risk of suicide. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms in schizophrenia. This study examines whether CBT also changes the level of suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia compared to a control group. Ninety ambulatory patients with symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to…

  3. A Packaged Intervention To Reduce Disruptive Behaviors in General Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini-Scully, Diane; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of a packaged intervention designed to reduce disruptive behaviors in two 8-year-old female students. The intervention was delivered through a contingency contract and was comprised of precision requests, antecedent strategies, and the reductive technique of response costs. The intervention resulted in reduction of disruptive…

  4. Can brief behavioral health interventions reduce suicidal and self-harm ideation in primary care patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueweke, Aubrey R; Rojas, Sasha M; Anastasia, Elizabeth A; Bridges, Ana J

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether brief behavioral health visits reduced suicidal and self-harm ideation among primary care patients and compared the effectiveness of interventions that targeted ideation directly (i.e., safety planning) with those that targeted ideation indirectly through management of underlying mental illness (e.g., behavioral activation). We examined first- and last-visit data from 31 primary care patients with suicidal or self-harm ideation seen by behavioral health consultants. Patients reported significantly lower frequencies of suicidal and self-harm ideation at their final visit than at their initial visit. Patients whose ideation was targeted directly showed greater improvements than patients whose ideation was targeted indirectly. Although preliminary, results suggest mild to moderate suicidal ideation could be addressed in primary care through integration of behavioral health consultants into the medical team. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Efficient Use of Behavioral Tools to Reduce Electricity Demand of Domestic Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbaz Shimon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present study investigated the main literature on the subject of methods and policies for reducing the electricity demand of domestic consumers, in order to identify the place of behavioral tools. Methodology: We used secondary sources, performing a literature review, together with analysis and synthesis. Findings: Policy makers prefer to use tools offered by neoclassical economics, such as various forms of taxation, fines and financial incentives in order to make domestic electricity consumers save electricity, on the assumption that consumers will make rational decisions while maximizing their personal benefit. However, studies conducted in recent years in the field of behavioral economics, which are based on the assumption that consumers’ decisions are not rational and are affected by cognitive biases, showed that the use of behavioral tools, such as detailed online information (feedback,social comparison information, information on varying rates (dynamic pricing and general information (advertising campaign, are tools that are not less appropriate than the ones the neoclassical economics offers, mainly because electricity is an invisible product and consumers are unable to assess it by normal cognitive measures. Using an interdisciplinary combination of behavioral tools that come from a variety of approaches taken from a wide variety of different academic fields, it is possible to receive efficient results in the endeavor of reducing electricity demand. Implications: Although the neoclassical economics still remains the fundamental theory used by policymakers, it is recommended to consider behavioral economics as a complementary approach to the neoclassical economics, and combine behavioral tools in the policymakers’ toolbox, especially when those tools do not require a significant financial investment, thus efficiently maximizing the reduction of electricity demand among domestic consumers. These theoretical results will be

  6. A Review of Single-Case Studies Utilizing Self-Monitoring Interventions to Reduce Problem Classroom Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Kim; Waller, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Trying to manage the problem behaviors of one or two students in the classroom can take teachers away from valuable instructional time with all students. However, these problem behaviors can be reduced and student engagement increased by teachers implementing effective behavior management strategies. 2008). Because behavior management is only one…

  7. Does Integrated Behavioral Health Care Reduce Mental Health Disparities for Latinos? Initial Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Ana J.; Andrews, Arthur R.; Villalobos, Bianca T.; Pastrana, Freddie A.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Gomez, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Integrated behavioral health care (IBHC) is a model of mental health care service delivery that seeks to reduce stigma and service utilization barriers by embedding mental health professionals into the primary care team. This study explored whether IBHC service referrals, utilization, and outcomes were comparable for Latinos and non-Latino White primary care patients. Data for the current study were collected from 793 consecutive patients (63.8% Latino; M age = 29.02 years [SD = 17.96]; 35.1% under 18 years; 65.3% women; 54.3% uninsured) seen for behavioral health services in 2 primary care clinics during a 10.5 month period. The most common presenting concerns were depression (21.6%), anxiety (18.5%), adjustment disorder (13.0%), and externalizing behavior problems (9.8%). Results revealed that while Latino patients had significantly lower self-reported psychiatric distress, significantly higher clinician-assigned global assessment of functioning scores, and fewer received a psychiatric diagnosis at their initial visit compared to non-Latino White patients, both groups had comparable utilization rates, comparable and clinically significant improvements in symptoms (Cohen’s d values > .50), and expressed high satisfaction with integrated behavioral services. These data provide preliminary evidence suggesting integration of behavioral health services into primary care clinics may help reduce mental health disparities for Latinos. PMID:25309845

  8. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Reducing Autistic Children's Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills training on reducing the behavioral problems of children with autism and pseudo-experimental. The statistical population of all autistic children is Mashhad. In this research, a goal-based sampling method is used. 30 children were selected from among children with autism and randomly assigned to two experimental groups (15 people and control (n = 15. The Shelli & Sorkab Communication Skills Questionnaire (2004 and Rutter's Behavioral Disorder (1964 Then, independent variable, ie social skills training (ten sessions 60 minutes, was performed on the experimental group, while no intervention was performed on the control group. After collecting data, the data were analyzed using covariance analysis. The results showed that social skills training has a positive and significant effect on reducing the behavioral problems of communication skills improvement in autistic children. Conclusion: Social skills training is a suitable method for reducing behavioral problems and improving communication skills in autistic children. These results can be used by psychologists and counselors.

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cocaine use: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Alberto; Leggio, Lorenzo; Saladini, Marina; Ermani, Mario; Bonci, Antonello; Gallimberti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Recent animal studies demonstrate that compulsive cocaine seeking strongly reduces prelimbic frontal cortex activity, while optogenetic stimulation of this brain area significantly inhibits compulsive cocaine seeking, providing a strong rationale for applying brain stimulation to reduce cocaine consumption. Thus, we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), to test if dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation might prevent cocaine use in humans. Thirty-two cocaine-addicted patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (rTMS) on the left DLPFC, or to a control group (pharmacological agents) during a 29-day study (Stage 1). This was followed by a 63-day follow-up (Stage 2), during which all participants were offered rTMS treatment. Amongst the patients who completed Stage 1, 16 were in the rTMS group (100%) and 13 in the control group (81%). No significant adverse events were noted. During Stage 1, there were a significantly higher number of cocaine-free urine drug tests in the rTMS group compared to control (p=0.004). Craving for cocaine was also significantly lower in the rTMS group compared to the controls (p=0.038). Out of 13 patients who completed Stage 1 in the control group, 10 patients received rTMS treatment during Stage 2 and showed significant improvement with favorable outcomes becoming comparable to those of the rTMS group. The present preliminary findings support the safety of rTMS in cocaine-addicted patients, and suggest its potential therapeutic role for rTMS-driven PFC stimulation in reducing cocaine use, providing a strong rationale for developing larger placebo-controlled studies. Trial name: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in cocaine abusers, URL:〈http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15823943?q=&filters=&sort=&offset=8&totalResults=13530&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search〉, ISRCTN15823943. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Amylin receptor activation in the ventral tegmental area reduces motivated ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G; McGrath, Lauren E; Koch-Laskowski, Kieran; Krawczyk, Joanna; Reiner, David J; Pham, Tram; Nguyen, Chan Tran N; Turner, Christopher A; Olivos, Diana R; Wimmer, Mathieu E; Schmidt, Heath D; Hayes, Matthew R

    2017-09-01

    Amylin is produced in the pancreas and the brain, and acts centrally to reduce feeding and body weight. Recent data show that amylin can act in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to reduce palatable food intake and promote negative energy balance, but the behavioral mechanisms by which these effects occur are not fully understood. The ability of VTA amylin signaling to reduce intake of specific palatable macronutrients (fat or carbohydrate) was tested in rats in several paradigms, including one-bottle acceptance tests, two-bottle choice tests, and a free-choice diet. Data show that VTA amylin receptor activation with the amylin receptor agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) preferentially and potently reduces intake of fat, with more variable suppression of sucrose intake. Intake of a non-nutritive sweetener is also decreased by intra-VTA administration of sCT. As several feeding-related signals that act in the mesolimbic system also impact motivated behaviors besides feeding, we tested the hypothesis that the suppressive effects of amylin signaling in the VTA extend to other motivationally relevant stimuli. Results show that intra-VTA sCT reduces water intake in response to central administration of the dipsogenic peptide angiotensin II, but has no effect on ad libitum water intake in the absence of food. Importantly, open field and social interaction studies show that VTA amylin signaling does not produce anxiety-like behaviors. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel ability of VTA amylin receptor activation to alter palatable macronutrient intake, and also demonstrate a broader role of VTA amylin signaling for the control of motivated ingestive behaviors beyond feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vasopressin and Oxytocin Reduce Food Sharing Behavior in Male, but Not Female Marmosets in Family Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack H. Taylor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin (OT is critical for lactation and maternal care, but OT and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and OT on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings with intranasal vasopressin, OT, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. OT reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with OT. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and OT do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on both sex and parental status.

  13. The Effectiveness of Parents' Skills Training Program on Reducing Children's Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم نعمت‌اللهی

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of parents' skill training program on reducing children's behavioral problems. Method: In an experimental study (pre-post-test, 4 primary schools were randomly selected from schools of Tehran. Two schools were randomly allocated into experimental group and two into control group. Experimental group (mothers of children aged 7-9 years received parents' skill training program for 8 weeks, two hours sessions. Parents' reports participating in the training program (n=30 mothers were compared with parents' reports of non-trained control group (n=31 mothers. Data were gathered using Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and analyzed using covariance analyses. Results: There was a significant difference between the experimental and control group after the training. The experimental group reported a significant decrease in children's behavioral problems.

  14. Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, Margaret E; Foltz, Carol; Cavanagh, James F; Cullen, Margaret; Giese-Davis, Janine; Jennings, Patricia; Rosenberg, Erika L; Gillath, Omri; Shaver, Phillip R; Wallace, B Alan; Ekman, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Ethnic differences in problem perception: Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Patty; Raaijmakers, Maartje A J; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Matthys, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and whether lower levels of problem perception diminish parenting intervention effects to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our sample included 136 mothers of 3- to 8-year-olds (35% female) from the 3 largest ethnic groups in the Netherlands (43% Dutch; 35% Moroccan; 22% Turkish). Mothers reported on their child's externalizing and internalizing behavior and their perception of this behavior as problematic. They were then randomly assigned to the Incredible Years parenting intervention or a wait list control condition. We contrasted maternal reports of problem perception to teacher reports of the same children. Moroccan and Turkish mothers, compared with Dutch mothers, perceived similar levels of child behavior problems as less problematic, and as causing less impairment and burden. Teacher problem perception did not vary across children from different ethnic groups. Importantly, maternal problem perception did not affect parenting intervention effectiveness to reduce disruptive child behavior. Our findings suggest that ethnic differences in problem perception exist once families engage in treatment, but that lower levels of problem perception do not diminish treatment effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p'saffected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p'ssmokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    OpenAIRE

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat; Seyyed Jalal Younesi; Asghar Dadkhah; Mohammad Rostami

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: According to the prevalence of psychological problems, especially depression in people with visual impairment, this study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of group training of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing depression in visually impaired male students.  Methods: This study employed a quasi-experimental design, with pre-test and post-test and control group. The study population included 30 students with visual impairment from high school and pre-universit...

  18. The motivation to be sedentary predicts weight change when sedentary behaviors are reduced

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is correlated with a sedentary lifestyle, and the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with obesity. The present study tests the hypothesis that the motivation to be active or sedentary is correlated with weight change when children reduce their sedentary behavior. Methods The motivation to be active or sedentary, changes in weight, and accelerometer assessed physical activity were collected for 55 families with overweight/obese children who participa...

  19. The effects of reduced pH on decorator crab morphology, physiology and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Ashley Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Crabs in the family Majoidae camouflage by decorating their exoskeletons with organisms and debris from their environment. This form of camouflage, involving both the act of decorating and carrying of these decorations, is thought to be energetically costly, and may present a trade-off under stressful environmental conditions. The energetic cost of decoration behavior has been evinced by reduced organic content due to elevated metabolism. In the context of previous research demonstrating that...

  20. Reducing care-resistant behaviors during oral hygiene in persons with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonski Rita A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nursing home residents with dementia are often dependent on others for mouth care, yet will react with care-resistant behavior when receiving assistance. The oral health of these elders deteriorates in the absence of daily oral hygiene, predisposing them to harmful systemic problems such as pneumonia, hyperglycemia, cardiac disease, and cerebral vascular accidents. The purpose of this study is to determine whether care-resistant behaviors can be reduced, and oral health improved, through the application of an intervention based on the neurobiological principles of threat perception and fear response. The intervention, called Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction, combines best mouth care practices with a constellation of behavioral techniques that reduce threat perception and thereby prevent or de-escalate care-resistant behaviors. Methods/Design Using a randomized repeated measures design, 80 elders with dementia from 5 different nursing homes will be randomized at the individual level to the experimental group, which will receive the intervention, or to the control group, which will receive standard mouth care from research team members who receive training in the proper methods for providing mouth care but no training in resistance recognition or prevention/mediation. Oral health assessments and care-resistant behavior measurements will be obtained during a 7-day observation period and a 21-day intervention period. Individual growth models using multilevel analysis will be used to estimate the efficacy of the intervention for reducing care-resistant behaviors in persons with dementia, and to estimate the overall efficacy of the intervention using oral health outcomes. Activity-based costing methods will be used to determine the cost of the proposed intervention. Discussion At the conclusion of this study, the research team anticipates having a proven intervention that prevents and reduces care-resistant within the

  1. Load Sharing Behavior of Star Gearing Reducer for Geared Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Shuai; Zhang, Yidu; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Feiming; Matsumura, Shigeki; Houjoh, Haruo

    2017-07-01

    Load sharing behavior is very important for power-split gearing system, star gearing reducer as a new type and special transmission system can be used in many industry fields. However, there is few literature regarding the key multiple-split load sharing issue in main gearbox used in new type geared turbofan engine. Further mechanism analysis are made on load sharing behavior among star gears of star gearing reducer for geared turbofan engine. Comprehensive meshing error analysis are conducted on eccentricity error, gear thickness error, base pitch error, assembly error, and bearing error of star gearing reducer respectively. Floating meshing error resulting from meshing clearance variation caused by the simultaneous floating of sun gear and annular gear are taken into account. A refined mathematical model for load sharing coefficient calculation is established in consideration of different meshing stiffness and supporting stiffness for components. The regular curves of load sharing coefficient under the influence of interactions, single action and single variation of various component errors are obtained. The accurate sensitivity of load sharing coefficient toward different errors is mastered. The load sharing coefficient of star gearing reducer is 1.033 and the maximum meshing force in gear tooth is about 3010 N. This paper provides scientific theory evidences for optimal parameter design and proper tolerance distribution in advanced development and manufacturing process, so as to achieve optimal effects in economy and technology.

  2. Dietary interventions that reduce mTOR activity rescue autistic-like behavioral deficits in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Abbring, Suzanne; van der Horst, Hilma; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette; Kas, Martien; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Inhibition of the mTOR pathway improves behavior and neuropathology in mouse models of ASD containing mTOR-associated single gene mutations. The current study demonstrated that the amino acids histidine, lysine, threonine inhibited mTOR signaling and IgE-mediated mast cell activation, while the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, valine had no effect on mTOR signaling in BMMCs. Based on these results, we designed an mTOR-targeting amino acid diet (Active 1 diet) and assessed the effects of dietary interventions with the amino acid diet or a multi-nutrient supplementation diet (Active 2 diet) on autistic-like behavior and mTOR signaling in food allergic mice and in inbred BTBR T+Itpr3tf/J mice. Cow's milk allergic (CMA) or BTBR male mice were fed a Control, Active 1, or Active 2 diet for 7 consecutive weeks. CMA mice showed reduced social interaction and increased self-grooming behavior. Both diets reversed behavioral impairments and inhibited the mTOR activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of CMA mice. In BTBR mice, only Active 1 diet reduced repetitive self-grooming behavior and attenuated the mTOR activity in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices. The current results suggest that activated mTOR signaling pathway in the brain may be a convergent pathway in the pathogenesis of ASD bridging genetic background and environmental triggers (food allergy) and that mTOR over-activation could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The Application of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy to Reduce Stress among Mother with Leukemia Children

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A child who is diagnosed with Leukemia will undergo several procedures are long and painful action. During the process of hospitalization due to leukemia children and parents can experience a variety of events or actions handling according to various studies shown by the experience very traumatic and stressful (Supartini 2004 in Arif, SY, 2007. Some of the methods used to deal with anxiety is psikoprofilaksis, relaxation and imagination (Reeder et al., 2011. Rational-emotive behavior therapy by Albert Ellis in 1990 describes a unique man who is basically have a tendency to think rational and irrational. Methods: aim of this study is to explain the effect of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT for stress levels of mothers with children suffering from Leukemia. The study design used was a pre-experiment Quasy-post control group design. The sample was 10 mothers of children diagnosed with leukemia are treated in a child hematology ward Soetomo hospital. Variable in this study is the level of depression and anxiety mothers with children suffering from leukemia. Result: Based on the results obtained Wilcoxon statistical test p = 0.025 in the treatment group and p = 0.32 in the control group. Mann Whitney test results obtained p = 0.012. Conclution: Rational-emotive behavior therapy can reduce levels of depression and anxiety (stress mothers with children suffering from leukemia. It is expected that the application of rational -emotive behavior therapy can be done to reduce depression and anxiety in women with chronic disease cases while maintaining the effectiveness the goal of REBT. Keywords: stress, anxiety, depression, rational-emotive behavior

  4. Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M Kit; McDonald, Catherine C; Winston, Flaura K; Halpern, Scott D; Buttenheim, Alison M; Setubal, Claudia; Huang, Yanlan; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Lee, Yi-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The majority of U.S. teens admit to handheld cellphone use while driving, an increasingly common cause of crashes. Attitudes towards novel cellphone applications and settings that block use while driving are poorly understood, potentially limiting uptake. We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving would differ by self-reported frequency of texting while driving in the past 30 days (low [1-5 days] vs. high [6 or more days]. Most teens were willing or somewhat willing to give up reading texts (90%), sending texts (95%), and social media (99%) while driving. However they were not willing to give up navigation (59%) and music applications (43%). Those who engaged in high-frequency texting while driving were more likely to say they were not willing to give up navigation applications (73% vs. 44%, P distraction (86%). The predominant reason for not wanting to use this technology was not wanting parents to monitor their behavior (60%). Promising strategies for increasing acceptance of cellphone blocking technology among teen drivers include automated screen locking and permitting hands-free navigation and music combined with behavioral economic incentives to sustain engagement.

  5. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  6. Normal social seeking behavior, hypoactivity and reduced exploratory range in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter Lawrence T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angelman syndrome (AS is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe developmental delay with mental retardation, a generally happy disposition, ataxia and characteristic behaviors such as inappropriate laughter, social-seeking behavior and hyperactivity. The majority of AS cases are due to loss of the maternal copy of the UBE3A gene. Maternal Ube3a deficiency (Ube3am-/p+, as well as complete loss of Ube3a expression (Ube3am-/p-, have been reproduced in the mouse model used here. Results Here we asked if two characteristic AS phenotypes - social-seeking behavior and hyperactivity - are reproduced in the Ube3a deficient mouse model of AS. We quantified social-seeking behavior as time spent in close proximity to a stranger mouse and activity as total time spent moving during exploration, movement speed and total length of the exploratory path. Mice of all three genotypes (Ube3am+/p+, Ube3am-/p+, Ube3am-/p- were tested and found to spend the same amount of time in close proximity to the stranger, indicating that Ube3a deficiency in mice does not result in increased social seeking behavior or social dis-inhibition. Also, Ube3a deficient mice were hypoactive compared to their wild-type littermates as shown by significantly lower levels of activity, slower movement velocities, shorter exploratory paths and a reduced exploratory range. Conclusions Although hyperactivity and social-seeking behavior are characteristic phenotypes of Angelman Syndrome in humans, the Ube3a deficient mouse model does not reproduce these phenotypes in comparison to their wild-type littermates. These phenotypic differences may be explained by differences in the size of the genetic defect as ~70% of AS patients have a deletion that includes several other genes surrounding the UBE3A locus.

  7. Efficient local behavioral-change strategies to reduce the spread of epidemics in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yilei; Gregory, Steve; Mills, Harriet L.

    2013-10-01

    It has recently become established that the spread of infectious diseases between humans is affected not only by the pathogen itself but also by changes in behavior as the population becomes aware of the epidemic, for example, social distancing. It is also well known that community structure (the existence of relatively densely connected groups of vertices) in contact networks influences the spread of disease. We propose a set of local strategies for social distancing, based on community structure, that can be employed in the event of an epidemic to reduce the epidemic size. Unlike most social distancing methods, ours do not require individuals to know the disease state (infected or susceptible, etc.) of others, and we do not make the unrealistic assumption that the structure of the entire contact network is known. Instead, the recommended behavior change is based only on an individual's local view of the network. Each individual avoids contact with a fraction of his/her contacts, using knowledge of his/her local network to decide which contacts should be avoided. If the behavior change occurs only when an individual becomes ill or aware of the disease, these strategies can substantially reduce epidemic size with a relatively small cost, measured by the number of contacts avoided.

  8. Chronic corticosterone exposure reduces hippocampal glycogen level and induces depression-like behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-yu; Zhao, Yu-nan; Wang, Zhong-li; Huang, Yu-fang

    2015-01-01

    Long-term exposure to stress or high glucocorticoid levels leads to depression-like behavior in rodents; however, the cause remains unknown. Increasing evidence shows that astrocytes, the most abundant cells in the central nervous system (CNS), are important to the nervous system. Astrocytes nourish and protect the neurons, and serve as glycogen repositories for the brain. The metabolic process of glycogen, which is closely linked to neuronal activity, can supply sufficient energy substrates for neurons. The research team probed into the effects of chronic corticosterone (CORT) exposure on the glycogen level of astrocytes in the hippocampal tissues of male C57BL/6N mice in this study. The results showed that chronic CORT injection reduced hippocampal neurofilament light protein (NF-L) and synaptophysin (SYP) levels, induced depression-like behavior in male mice, reduced hippocampal glycogen level and glycogen synthase activity, and increased glycogen phosphorylase activity. The results suggested that the reduction of the hippocampal glycogen level may be the mechanism by which chronic CORT treatment damages hippocampal neurons and induces depression-like behavior in male mice.

  9. Memantine reduces stealing behavior and impulsivity in kleptomania: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Won Kim, Suck

    2013-03-01

    Kleptomania is characterized by repetitive stealing behavior and has been associated with deleterious unwanted outcomes including forensic contact and increased rates of suicidal behavior. Very few trials have been conducted to investigate pharmacological treatment options for this neglected condition. Memantine is an NMDA-receptor antagonist that has shown promising results in the treatment of other behavioral addictions and substance addictions. Twelve individuals with kleptomania received memantine (10 mg/day, titrated to 30 mg/day maximum depending on clinical response and tolerability) over the course of 8 weeks, in an open-label trial. The effects of treatment were quantified using well-validated measures and select neurocognitive tests (last observation carried forward analyses). Kleptomania disease severity scores decreased across all measures considered, and 11 (91.7%) of the participants met the responder criteria (35% improvement on the primary effectiveness measure plus CGI improved/very much improved; significant improvements were also observed in terms of mood, anxiety, and disability scores along with a significant improvement in stop-signal response inhibition. Memantine was generally well tolerated. This study shows the effectiveness of memantine in reducing urges to shoplift and shoplifting behavior along with improving impulsivity, mood, anxiety, and psychosocial functioning.

  10. Decreasing sedentary behavior by 30 minutes per day reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Zyad T; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia; Bailey, Alison L; Novak, Michael J; Biddle, Martha; Khalil, Amani A; Darawad, Muhammad; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity has been associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, a decrease in the amount of time spent during the remainder of the day in sedentary behavior may be equally important. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a decrease in sedentary behavior on CVD risk factors among 205 individuals living in rural Appalachia. All participants received a comprehensive CVD risk reduction life-style intervention and measurement of major CVD risk factors and physical activity levels. Participants were divided into: 1) Adopters: those who decreased their sedentary behavior by 30 min or more per day post-intervention and 2) Non-adopters: those who did not. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant group by time interaction showing that Adopters had a greater reduction in body weight and BMI than Non-adopters. These findings demonstrate that decreasing sedentary behavior is important for achieving optimal body weight. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  12. Growth and chemosensory behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxygen-sulfide gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Andrea M.; Wieland, Andrea Eschemann; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Growth and chemotactic behavior in oxic–anoxic gradients were studied with two freshwater and four marine strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria related to the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium or Desulfobulbus. Cells were grown in oxygen–sulfide counter-gradients within tubes filled with agar...... chemotactically to lactate, nitrate, sulfate and thiosulfate, and even sulfide functioned as an attractant. In oxic–anoxic gradients the bacteria moved away from high oxygen concentrations and formed bands at the outer edge of the oxic zone at low oxygen concentration (... to actively change the extension and slope of the gradients by oxygen reduction with lactate or even sulfide as electron donor. Generally, the chemotactic behavior was in agreement with a defense strategy that re-establishes anoxic conditions, thus promoting anaerobic growth and, in a natural community...

  13. A Hybrid Online Intervention for Reducing Sedentary Behavior in Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie M Adams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. While exercise is known to reduce these risks, reducing SB through increases in non-structured PA and breaks from sitting may appeal to obese women who have lower self-efficacy for PA. This study examined effects of a combined face-to-face and online intervention to reduce SB in overweight and obese women. A two-group quasi-experimental study was used with measures taken pre and post. Female volunteers (M age=58.5, SD=12.5 yrs were enrolled in the intervention (n=40 or waitlisted (n=24. The intervention, based on the Social Cognitive Theory, combined group sessions with email messages over 6 weeks. Individualized feedback to support mastery and peer models of active behaviors were included in the emails. Participants self-monitored PA with a pedometer. Baseline and post measures of PA and SB were assessed by accelerometer and self-report. Standard measures of height, weight and waist circumference were conducted. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for analyses. Self-reported SB and light PA in the intervention group (I changed significantly over time [SB, F(1,2= 3.81, p=.03, light PA, F(1,2=3.39, p=.04]. Significant Group x Time interactions were found for light PA, F(1,63=5.22, p=.03, moderate PA, F(1, 63=3.90, p=.05, and for waist circumference, F(1,63=16.0, p=.001. The I group decreased significantly while the comparison group was unchanged. Hybrid computer interventions to reduce SB may provide a non-exercise alternative for increasing daily PA and potentially reduce waist circumference, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Consumer-grade accelerometers may aide improvements to PA and SB and should be tested as part of future interventions.

  14. Development of molecular tools based on the dopamine D3 receptor ligand FAUC 329 showing inhibiting effects on drug and food maintained behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stößel, Anne; Brox, Regine; Purkayastha, Nirupam; Hübner, Harald; Hocke, Carsten; Prante, Olaf; Gmeiner, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Dopamine D 3 receptor-mediated networks have been associated with a wide range of neuropsychiatric diseases, drug addiction and food maintained behavior, which makes D 3 a highly promising biological target. The previously described dopamine D 3 receptor ligand FAUC 329 (1) showed protective effects against dopamine depletion in a MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease. We used the radioligand [ 18 F]2, a [ 18 F]fluoroethoxy substituted analog of the lead compound 1 as a molecular tool for visualization of D 3 -rich brain regions including the islands of Calleja. Furthermore, structural modifications are reported leading to the pyrimidylpiperazine derivatives 3 and 9 displaying superior subtype selectivity and preference over serotonergic receptors. Evaluation of the lead compound 1 on cocaine-seeking behavior in non-human primates showed a substantial reduction in cocaine self-administration behavior and food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on migration behavior of radionuclides under reducing conditions in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, A.; Sato, H.

    2002-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has performed extensive researches and developments to investigate the geochemistry and radionuclide migration in buffer materials and geosphere. Experimental and modeling studies have been carried out related to the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) as a link in the chair of a follow-up of the second progress report, which has explained in the technical feasibility of HLW geological disposal in Japan. In this paper, three experimental studies on solubility, sorption and diffusion of radionuclides under reducing conditions for assuring the reliability and for improving the quality of the databases are introduced. Solubility and sorption behavior of neptunium (Np) have been studied under reducing conditions in carbonate media. For the solubility study, thermodynamic equilibrium constants of carbonatohydroxo complexes of Np(IV) have been determined from a solubility measurement in alkaline solutions. For the sorption study, distribution coefficient (K d ) of Np onto smectite has been determined in weak alkaline solutions under reducing conditions in carbonate media. For the diffusion study, apparent diffusivity (D a ) of selenium (Se) in compacted bentonite have been determined under reducing conditions as a function of silica sand content and temperature

  16. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonpharmacological Interventions to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Martini de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD are defined as a group of symptoms of disturbed perceptive thought content, mood, or behavior that include agitation, depression, apathy, repetitive questioning, psychosis, aggression, sleep problems, and wandering. Care of patients with BPSD involves pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions. We reviewed studies of nonpharmacological interventions published in the last 10 years. Methods. We performed a systematic review in Medline and Embase databases, in the last 10 years, until June 2015. Key words used were (1 non-pharmacological interventions, (2 behavioral symptoms, (3 psychological symptoms, and (4 dementia. Results. We included 20 studies published in this period. Among these studies, program activities were more frequent (five studies and the symptoms more responsive to the interventions were agitation. Discussion. Studies are heterogeneous in many aspects, including size sample, intervention, and instruments of measures. Conclusion. Nonpharmacological interventions are able to provide positive results in reducing symptoms of BPSD. Most studies have shown that these interventions have important and significant efficacy.

  18. Combination Social Protection for Reducing HIV-Risk Behavior Among Adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie D; Orkin, F Mark; Yakubovich, Alexa R; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-05-01

    Social protection (ie, cash transfers, free schools, parental support) has potential for adolescent HIV prevention. We aimed to identify which social protection interventions are most effective and whether combined social protection has greater effects in South Africa. In this prospective longitudinal study, we interviewed 3516 adolescents aged 10-18 between 2009 and 2012. We sampled all homes with a resident adolescent in randomly selected census areas in 4 urban and rural sites in 2 South African provinces. We measured household receipt of 14 social protection interventions and incidence of HIV-risk behaviors. Using gender-disaggregated multivariate logistic regression and marginal effects analyses, we assessed respective contributions of interventions and potential combination effects. Child-focused grants, free schooling, school feeding, teacher support, and parental monitoring were independently associated with reduced HIV-risk behavior incidence (odds ratio: 0.10-0.69). Strong effects of combination social protection were shown, with cumulative reductions in HIV-risk behaviors. For example, girls' predicted past-year incidence of economically driven sex dropped from 11% with no interventions to 2% among those with a child grant, free school, and good parental monitoring. Similarly, girls' incidence of unprotected/casual sex or multiple partners dropped from 15% with no interventions to 10% with either parental monitoring or school feeding, and to 7% with both interventions. In real world, high-epidemic conditions, "combination social protection," shows strong HIV prevention effects for adolescents and may maximize prevention efforts.

  19. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  20. Influence of Prior Fatigue Cycling on Creep Behavior of Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aritra; Vijayanand, V. D.; Parameswaran, P.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Mathew, M. D.; Jayakumar, T.; Rajendra Kumar, E.

    2014-06-01

    Creep tests were carried out at 823 K (550 °C) and 210 MPa on Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic (RAFM) steel which was subjected to different extents of prior fatigue exposure at 823 K at a strain amplitude of ±0.6 pct to assess the effect of prior fatigue exposure on creep behavior. Extensive cyclic softening that characterized the fatigue damage was found to be immensely deleterious for creep strength of the tempered martensitic steel. Creep rupture life was reduced to 60 pct of that of the virgin steel when the steel was exposed to as low as 1 pct of fatigue life. However, creep life saturated after fatigue exposure of 40 pct. Increase in minimum creep rate and decrease in creep rupture ductility with a saturating trend were observed with prior fatigue exposures. To substantiate these findings, detailed transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on the steel. With fatigue exposures, extensive recovery of martensitic-lath structure was distinctly observed which supported the cyclic softening behavior that was introduced due to prior fatigue. Consequently, prior fatigue exposures were considered responsible for decrease in creep ductility and associated reduction in the creep rupture strength.

  1. Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P<0.01 reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.. When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose produced an inhibition (P<0.05 of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  2. Do Patients With Parkinson’s Disease Exhibit Reduced Cheating Behavior? A Neuropsychological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhito Abe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as “honest,” indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system. Thirty-two PD patients without dementia and 20 healthy controls (HC completed an incentivized prediction task where participants were rewarded based on their self-reported accuracy, affording them the opportunity to behave dishonestly. Compared with HC, PD patients showed significantly lower accuracy in the prediction task. Furthermore, the mean accuracy of PD patients was virtually equivalent to the chance level. These results indicate that PD patients exhibit reduced cheating behavior when confronted with opportunities for dishonest gain.

  3. Do marmosets care to share? Oxytocin treatment reduces prosocial behavior toward strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustoe, Aaryn C; Cavanaugh, Jon; Harnisch, April M; Thompson, Breanna E; French, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    Cooperatively-breeding and socially-monogamous primates, like marmosets and humans, exhibit high levels of social tolerance and prosociality toward others. Oxytocin (OXT) generally facilitates prosocial behavior, but there is growing recognition that OXT modulation of prosocial behavior is shaped by the context of social interactions and by other motivational states such as arousal or anxiety. To determine whether prosociality varies based on social context, we evaluated whether marmoset donors (Callithrix penicillata) preferentially rewarded pairmates versus opposite-sex strangers in a prosocial food-sharing task. To examine potential links among OXT, stress systems, and prosociality, we evaluated whether pretrial cortisol levels in marmosets altered the impact of OXT on prosocial responses. Marmosets exhibited spontaneous prosociality toward others, but they did so preferentially toward strangers compared to their pairmates. When donor marmosets were treated with marmoset-specific Pro(8)-OXT, they exhibited reduced prosociality toward strangers compared to marmosets treated with saline or consensus-mammalian Leu(8)-OXT. When pretrial cortisol levels were lower, marmosets exhibited higher prosociality toward strangers. These findings demonstrate that while marmosets show spontaneous prosocial responses toward others, they do so preferentially toward opposite-sex strangers. Cooperative breeding may be associated with the expression of prosociality, but the existence of a pair-bond between marmoset partners appears to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the expression of spontaneous prosocial responses. Furthermore, high prosociality toward strangers is significantly reduced in marmosets treated with Pro(8)-OXT, suggesting that OXT does not universally enhance prosociality, but, rather OXT modulation of prosocial behavior varies depending on social context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival and Locomotory Behavior of Earwigs After Exposure to Reduced-Risk Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Catarina D; Gontijo, Lessando M; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Chediak, Mateus

    2017-08-01

    The conservation of natural enemies is an important tactic to promote biological control of arthropod pests. The earwig Doru luteipes (Sccuder) is the most important predator of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) in corn fields. One way of conserving these predators in the field is by using only selective insecticides when the pest population reaches the economic threshold. Some recent insecticides such as azadirachtin, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron have been claimed to pose reduced risk for natural enemies. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of information regarding the selectivity of these insecticides upon earwigs in specific. In this study, we carried out a series of laboratory assays to examine the survivorship and locomotory behavior of D. luteipes after exposure to fresh dry residue of azadirachtin, chlorantraniliprole, and novaluron. Our results show a significant survival reduction for D. luteipes nymphs exposed to fresh residues of chlorantraniliprole and novaluron. In the behavioral studies, adults of D. luteipes stopped more often, spent more time resting (inactive), and moved more slowly immediately after exposure to chlorantraniliprole residue. These results suggest that chlorantraniliprole may mediate an impaired movement and a behavior arrestment of earwigs after contact with this insecticide fresh residue. This could translate into reduced foraging efficiency, and increase exposure and insecticide uptake. Although chlorantraniliprole and novaluron showed a potential to undermine the biological control provided by earwigs, it is yet essential to conduct field trials in order to confirm our laboratory results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Feasibility of retrofitting a university library with active workstations to reduce sedentary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hotaka; Quartiroli, Alessandro; Vos, Paul W; Carr, Lucas J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2014-05-01

    Libraries are an inherently sedentary environment, but are an understudied setting for sedentary behavior interventions. To investigate the feasibility of incorporating portable pedal machines in a university library to reduce sedentary behaviors. The 11-week intervention targeted students at a university library. Thirteen portable pedal machines were placed in the library. Four forms of prompts (e-mail, library website, advertisement monitors, and poster) encouraging pedal machine use were employed during the first 4 weeks. Pedal machine use was measured via automatic timers on each machine and momentary time sampling. Daily library visits were measured using a gate counter. Individualized data were measured by survey. Data were collected in fall 2012 and analyzed in 2013. Mean (SD) cumulative pedal time per day was 95.5 (66.1) minutes. One or more pedal machines were observed being used 15% of the time (N=589). Pedal machines were used at least once by 7% of students (n=527). Controlled for gate count, no linear change of pedal machine use across days was found (b=-0.1 minutes, p=0.75) and the presence of the prompts did not change daily pedal time (p=0.63). Seven of eight items that assessed attitudes toward the intervention supported intervention feasibility (plibrary with pedal machines to reduce sedentary behavior seems feasible, but improvement of its effectiveness is needed. This study could inform future studies aimed at reshaping traditionally sedentary settings to improve public health. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conspicuous by Their Absence: Studies Comparing and Combining Risperidone and Applied Behavior Analysis to Reduce Challenging Behavior in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Marc; Ehrhardt, Kristal; Poling, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Both risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic drug, and function-based behavior-analytic interventions are popular and empirically validated treatments for reducing challenging behavior in children with autism. The kind of research that supports their effectiveness differs, however, and no published study has directly compared their effects or…

  7. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  8. Communication impairments in mice lacking Shank1: reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wöhr

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1(-/- null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1(-/- mice as compared to wildtype Shank1(+/+ littermate controls. Shank1(-/- pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1(+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1(-/- males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1(+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1(+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1(-/- mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1(-/- males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1(-/- mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism.

  9. Communication Impairments in Mice Lacking Shank1: Reduced Levels of Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Scent Marking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Roullet, Florence I.; Hung, Albert Y.; Sheng, Morgan; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. Core symptoms are abnormal reciprocal social interactions, qualitative impairments in communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior with restricted interests. Candidate genes for autism include the SHANK gene family, as mutations in SHANK2 and SHANK3 have been detected in several autistic individuals. SHANK genes code for a family of scaffolding proteins located in the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses. To test the hypothesis that a mutation in SHANK1 contributes to the symptoms of autism, we evaluated Shank1 −/− null mutant mice for behavioral phenotypes with relevance to autism, focusing on social communication. Ultrasonic vocalizations and the deposition of scent marks appear to be two major modes of mouse communication. Our findings revealed evidence for low levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marks in Shank1 −/− mice as compared to wildtype Shank1 +/+ littermate controls. Shank1 −/− pups emitted fewer vocalizations than Shank1+/+ pups when isolated from mother and littermates. In adulthood, genotype affected scent marking behavior in the presence of female urinary pheromones. Adult Shank1 −/− males deposited fewer scent marks in proximity to female urine than Shank1+/+ males. Call emission in response to female urinary pheromones also differed between genotypes. Shank1+/+ mice changed their calling pattern dependent on previous female interactions, while Shank1 −/− mice were unaffected, indicating a failure of Shank1 −/− males to learn from a social experience. The reduced levels of ultrasonic vocalizations and scent marking behavior in Shank1 −/− mice are consistent with a phenotype relevant to social communication deficits in autism. PMID:21695253

  10. Behavioral interventions to reduce nickel exposure in a nickel processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumchev, Krassi; Brown, Helen; Wheeler, Amanda; Pereira, Gavin; Spickett, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    Nickel is a widely-used material in many industries. Although there is enough evidence that occupational exposure to nickel may cause respiratory illnesses, allergies, and even cancer, it is not possible to stop the use of nickel in occupational settings. Nickel exposure, however, can be controlled and reduced significantly in workplaces. The main objective of this study was to assess if educational intervention of hygiene behavior could reduce nickel exposure among Indonesian nickel smelter workers. Participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (n = 99). Group one (n = 35) received only an educational booklet about nickel, related potential health effects and preventive measures, group two (n = 35) attended a presentation in addition to the booklet, and group three (n = 29) received personal feedback on their biomarker results in addition to the booklet and presentations. Pre- and post-intervention air sampling was conducted to measure concentrations of dust and nickel in air along with worker's blood and urine nickel concentrations. The study did not measure significant differences in particles and nickel concentrations in the air between pre- and post-interventions. However, we achieved significant reductions in the post intervention urine and blood nickel concentrations which can be attributed to changes in personal hygiene behavior. The median urinary nickel concentration in the pre-intervention period for group one was 52.3 µg/L, for group two 57.4 µg/L, and group three 43.2 µg/L which were significantly higher (pnickel with significantly (p nickel levels of 0.1 µg/L for all groups. The study showed that educational interventions can significantly reduce personal exposure levels to nickel among Indonesian nickel smelter workers.

  11. Reducing prefrontal gamma-aminobutyric acid activity induces cognitive, behavioral, and dopaminergic abnormalities that resemble schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Takeshi; Tse, Maric T; Floresco, Stan B

    2011-03-01

    Perturbations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-related markers have been reported in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenic patients. However, a preclinical assessment of how suppression of prefrontal cortex GABA activity may reflect behavioral and cognitive pathologies observed in schizophrenia is forthcoming. We assessed the effects of pharmacologic blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors in rats on executive functions and other behaviors related to schizophrenia, as well as neural activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Blockade of prefrontal cortex GABA(A) receptors with bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) did not affect working memory accuracy but did increase response latencies, resembling speed of processing deficits observed in schizophrenia. Prefrontal cortex GABA(A) blockade did not impede simple discrimination or reversal learning but did impair set-shifting in a manner dependent on when these treatments were given. Reducing GABA activity before the set-shift impaired the ability to acquire a novel strategy, whereas treatment before the initial discrimination increased perseveration during the shift. Latent inhibition was unaffected by bicuculline infusions before the preexposure/conditioning phases, suggesting that reduced prefrontal cortex GABA activity does not impair "learned irrelevance." GABA(A) blockade increased locomotor activity and showed synergic effects with a subthreshold dose of amphetamine. Furthermore, reducing medial prefrontal cortex GABA activity selectively increased phasic burst firing of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, without altering the their overall population activity. These results suggest that prefrontal cortex GABA hypofunction may be a key contributing factor to deficits in speed of processing, cognitive flexibility, and enhanced phasic dopamine activity observed in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extinction Can Reduce the Impact of Reward Cues on Reward-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovibond, Peter F; Satkunarajah, Michelle; Colagiuri, Ben

    2015-07-01

    Reward-associated cues are thought to promote relapse after treatment of appetitive disorders such as drug-taking, binge eating, and gambling. This process has been modelled in the laboratory using a Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) design in which Pavlovian cues facilitate instrumental reward-directed action. Attempts to reduce facilitation by cue exposure (extinction) have produced mixed results. We tested the effect of extinction in a recently developed PIT procedure using a natural reward, chocolate, in human participants. Facilitation of instrumental responding was only observed in participants who were aware of the Pavlovian contingencies. Pavlovian extinction successfully reduced, but did not completely eliminate, expectancy of reward and facilitation of instrumental responding. The results indicate that exposure can reduce the ability of cues to promote reward-directed behavior in the laboratory. However, the residual potency of extinguished cues means that additional active strategies may be needed in clinical practice to train patients to resist the impact of these cues in their environment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Reducing Maladaptive Behaviors in Preschool-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Črnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  14. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth eFulton; Elizabeth eFulton; Valsamma eEapen; Valsamma eEapen; Rudi eČrnčec; Amelia eWalter; Amelia eWalter; Sally eRogers

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an ...

  15. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Chastin, Sebastien F. M.; Fitzpatrick, Nicole; Andrews, Michelle; DiCroce, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in ...

  16. A Program to Reduce Disruptive Behavior in a School Based Upon a Practical Application of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Carl G.

    This practicum report describes a program to aid in reducing the incidence of disruptive behavior of students through the use of the Adlerian Theory of Psychology. The report contains a general definition of the problem, which was the reduction of the disruptive student behavior, and the objectives to be achieved from the program. There is a…

  17. USING THE DELPHI TECHNIQUE TO DEVELOP EFFECTIVENESS INDICATORS FOR SOCIAL MARKETING COMMUNICATION TO REDUCE HEALTH-RISK BEHAVIORS AMONG YOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantamay, Nottakrit

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to develop effectiveness indicators for social marketing communication to reduce health-risk behaviors among Thai youth by using the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a research approach used to gain consensus through a series of two or more rounds of questionnaire surveys where information and results are fed back to panel members between each round and it has been extensively used to generate many indicators relevant to health behaviors. The Delphi technique was conducted in 3 rounds by consulting a panel of 15 experts in the field of social marketing communication for public health campaigns in Thailand. We found forty-nine effectiveness indicators in eight core components reached consensus. These components were: 1) attitude about health-risk behavior reduction, 2) subjective norms, 3) perceived behavioral control, 4) intention to reduce health-risk behaviors, 5) practices for reducing health-risk behaviors, 6) knowledge about the dangers and impact of health-risk behaviors, 7) campaign brand equity, and 8) communication networks. These effectiveness indicators could be applied by health promotion organizations for evaluating the effectiveness of social marketing communication to effectively reduce health-risk behaviors among youth.

  18. Life Is Precious: Views of Adolescents and Their Mothers on Methods to Reduce Suicidal Behavior in Latinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humensky, Jennifer L.; Gil, Rosa M.; Mazzula, Silvia; Diaz, Samantha; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Life is Precious (LIP) was developed to help reduce suicidal behavior in Latina adolescents. As part of an external evaluation of the LIP program, we conducted focus groups with adolescent participants and mothers to learn whether participants and families believe that the activities of LIP address risks for suicidal behavior. Four focus groups…

  19. Friction reducing behavior of stearic acid film on a textured aluminum substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Quan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wan, Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Li, Yang; Yang, Shuyan [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, Qingdao 266033 (China); Yao, Wenqing [Analysis Center of Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-09-01

    A simple two-step process was developed to render the aluminum hydrophobicity with lower friction. The textured aluminum substrate was firstly fabricated by immersed in a sodium hydroxide solution at 100 °C for 1 h. Stearic acid film was then deposited to acquire high hydrophobicity. Scanning electron microscopy, IR spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the morphological features, chemical structure and hydrophobicity of prepared samples, respectively. Moreover, the friction reducing behavior of the organic–inorganic composite film on aluminum sliding against steel was evaluated in a ball-on-plate configuration. It was found that the stearic acid film on the textured aluminum led to decreased friction with significantly extended life.

  20. Strain-rate behavior in tension of the tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Dotta, Matteo; Forni, Daniele [University of Applied Sciences of Southern Switzerland, P.O. Box 105, CH-6952 Canobbio (Switzerland); Spaetig, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.spatig@psi.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-07-31

    The tensile properties of the high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on cylindrical specimens. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electro-mechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a JRC-split Hopkinson tensile bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. This tempered martensitic stainless steel showed significant strain-rate sensitivity. The constitutive behavior was investigated within a framework of dislocations dynamics model using Kock's approach. The parameters of the model were determined and then used to predict the deformation range of the tensile deformation stability. A very good agreement between the experimental results and predictions of the model was found.

  1. Strain-rate behavior in tension of the tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadoni, Ezio; Dotta, Matteo; Forni, Daniele; Spaetig, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    The tensile properties of the high-chromium tempered martensitic reduced activation steel Eurofer97 were determined from tests carried out over a wide range of strain-rates on cylindrical specimens. The quasi-static tests were performed with a universal electro-mechanical machine, whereas a hydro-pneumatic machine and a JRC-split Hopkinson tensile bar apparatus were used for medium and high strain-rates respectively. This tempered martensitic stainless steel showed significant strain-rate sensitivity. The constitutive behavior was investigated within a framework of dislocations dynamics model using Kock's approach. The parameters of the model were determined and then used to predict the deformation range of the tensile deformation stability. A very good agreement between the experimental results and predictions of the model was found.

  2. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior of reduced activation ferrite/martensite stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, C.; Rodrian, D.

    2002-01-01

    The thermo-mechanical cycling fatigue (TMCF) behavior of reduced activation ferrite/martensite stainless steels is examined. The test rig consists of a stiff load frame, which is directly heated by the digitally controlled ohmic heating device. Cylindrical specimens are used with a wall thickness of 0.4 mm. Variable strain rates are applied at TMCF test mode, due to the constant heating rate of 5.8 K/s and variable temperature changes. TMCF results of as received EUROFER 97 in the temperature range between 100 and 500-600 deg. C show a reduction in life time (a factor of 2) compared to F82H mod. and OPTIFER IV. TMCF-experiments with hold times of 100 and 1000 s show dramatic reduction in life time for all three materials

  3. Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shujaat; Bang, Jae Hun; Han, Manhyung; Ahmed, Muhammad Idris; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung; Nugent, Chris; McClean, Sally; Scotney, Bryan; Parr, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today's world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user's activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends. PMID:25420151

  4. Behavior Life Style Analysis for Mobile Sensory Data in Cloud Computing through MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujaat Hussain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has revolutionized healthcare in today’s world as it can be seamlessly integrated into a mobile application and sensor devices. The sensory data is then transferred from these devices to the public and private clouds. In this paper, a hybrid and distributed environment is built which is capable of collecting data from the mobile phone application and store it in the cloud. We developed an activity recognition application and transfer the data to the cloud for further processing. Big data technology Hadoop MapReduce is employed to analyze the data and create user timeline of user’s activities. These activities are visualized to find useful health analytics and trends. In this paper a big data solution is proposed to analyze the sensory data and give insights into user behavior and lifestyle trends.

  5. A Mobile Multimedia Reminiscence Therapy Application to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Persons with Alzheimer's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Danish; Khan, Arshia; Seelye, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) that occur in individuals with Alzheimer's. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer's currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.

  6. Setting Priorities in Behavioral Interventions: An Application to Reducing Phishing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Casey Inez; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2018-04-01

    Phishing risk is a growing area of concern for corporations, governments, and individuals. Given the evidence that users vary widely in their vulnerability to phishing attacks, we demonstrate an approach for assessing the benefits and costs of interventions that target the most vulnerable users. Our approach uses Monte Carlo simulation to (1) identify which users were most vulnerable, in signal detection theory terms; (2) assess the proportion of system-level risk attributable to the most vulnerable users; (3) estimate the monetary benefit and cost of behavioral interventions targeting different vulnerability levels; and (4) evaluate the sensitivity of these results to whether the attacks involve random or spear phishing. Using parameter estimates from previous research, we find that the most vulnerable users were less cautious and less able to distinguish between phishing and legitimate emails (positive response bias and low sensitivity, in signal detection theory terms). They also accounted for a large share of phishing risk for both random and spear phishing attacks. Under these conditions, our analysis estimates much greater net benefit for behavioral interventions that target these vulnerable users. Within the range of the model's assumptions, there was generally net benefit even for the least vulnerable users. However, the differences in the return on investment for interventions with users with different degrees of vulnerability indicate the importance of measuring that performance, and letting it guide interventions. This study suggests that interventions to reduce response bias, rather than to increase sensitivity, have greater net benefit. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Applying the concept of culture to reduce health disparities through health behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa Singer, Marjorie

    2012-11-01

    Culture is often cited as an underlying cause of the undue burden of disease borne by communities of color along the entire life cycle. However, culture is rarely defined or appropriately measured. Scientifically, culture is a complex, integrated, and dynamic conceptual framework that is incongruent with the way it is operationalized in health behavior theories: as a unidimensional, static, and immutable character element of a homogeneous population group. This paper lays out this contradiction and proposes a more scientifically grounded approach to the use of culture. The premise is that if the concept of culture were better operationalized, results from studies of diverse population groups would produce findings that are more scientifically valid and relevant to the community. Practitioners could then use these findings to develop more effective strategies to reduce health disparities and improve the health of all population groups. Six steps are proposed to increase our ability to achieve greater clarity on what culture is and to identify how it impacts health behavior and ultimately health outcomes, enabling researchers to build a stronger science of cultural diversity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Chemiluminescence behavior of the carbon dots and the reduced state carbon dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Ping [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Xie, Jianxin [College of Resources and Environment, Yuxi Normal University, Yuxi, Yunnan 653100 (China); Long, Yijuan; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xiliang; Liang, Liping [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Huang, Yuming, E-mail: ymhuang@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zheng, Huzhi, E-mail: zhenghz@swu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory on Luminescence and Real-Time Analysis, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) can react with two different carbon nanoparticles, i.e., carbon dots (CDs) and reduced state carbon dots (r-CDs), in a strong acid medium to generate chemiluminescence (CL). Furthermore, the different CL intensities and CL behaviors due to the different surface groups on these two kinds of carbon nanoparticles were confirmed. CL spectra, fluorescence spectra, UV–vis absorption spectra, and electron paramagnanetic resonance spectra were applied to investigate the CL mechanism. The main reaction pathways were proposed as follows: for the CL reaction between CDs and KMnO{sub 4}, the excited states of CDs (CDs{sup ⁎}) and Mn(II) (Mn(II){sup ⁎}) emerged as KMnO{sub 4} could inject holes into CDs, then, the CDs{sup ⁎} and Mn(II){sup ⁎} acted as luminophors to yield CL; in the r-CDs-KMnO{sub 4} system, r-CDs were oxidized by KMnO{sub 4} directly, and CDs{sup ⁎} and Mn(II){sup ⁎} were produced, at the same time, CL occurred. What is more interesting is that the CL intensity of the r-CD system is stronger than that of the CD system, which confirms that functional groups have strong effect on the CL behavior. It inspired us that new carbon nanoparticles with excellent luminous performance can be designed by tuning their surface groups. -- Highlights: • Carbon dots (CDs) and reduced state carbon dots (r-CDs) can react with potassium permanganate (KMnO{sub 4}) in a strong acid to generate chemiluminescence (CL). • With different surface groups, the CL intensity of r-CDs-KMnO{sub 4} system is different from that of CDs-KMnO{sub 4} system. • The CL mechanisms of the two systems were investigated.

  9. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing self-stigma in Japanese psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Horikawa, Naoshi; Emura, Rina; Ishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Ayako; Ogata, Akiko; Hiejima, Shigeto; Hosomi, Jun

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that the stigma surrounding mental illness may be greater in Japan than elsewhere. However, few Japanese studies have focused on self-stigma (the internalization of social stigma), and few interventions to reduce self-stigma exist. To remedy this deficiency, we evaluated the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in reducing self-stigma and examined the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. We administered a 10-session group CBT program to 46 Japanese outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms (36 men, 10 women; mean age=38.57 years, SD=8.33; 20 diagnosed with mood disorders; 24 with neurotic, stress-related, or somatoform disorders; and 2 with other disorders). A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the relationship between cognitive restructuring and self-stigma. Outcomes were measured using the Japanese versions of the Devaluation-Discrimination Scale, Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State-Form, and Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale. Participants exhibited significant improvements in depression, anxiety, and maladjusted cognitive bias and reductions in self-stigma. Cognitive bias was significantly correlated with self-stigma. Group CBT is effective in improving both emotional symptoms and self-stigma in outpatients with anxiety and depressive symptoms. Reduction in self-stigma plays a mediating role in alleviating emotional symptoms and improving cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of factors that increase and reduce the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior among juveniles (a review of foreign literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova N.G.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an overview of foreign researches about factors that increase the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior among juveniles and reduce the risk of such behavior. Such definitions as risk factor, protective factor (defensive, aggression and violence were examined. It is shown how the methods of assessment for both social and negative consequences of unlawful behavior, including aggressive one, have been developed, starting from discretionary approach based on unstructured clinical statement and ending with a method of structured risk assessment. The article contains the descriptions of researches about prognostic structured risk assessment of aggressive criminal behavior among adolescents. The results of contemporary foreign researches that were aimed at identifying factors that either increase or reduce the risk of aggressive unlawful behavior in childhood and adolescence, were outlined.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Risky Sexual Behavior and Decrease Sexually Transmitted Infections in Latinas Living in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. A computer-assisted motivational social network intervention to reduce alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors among Housing First residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Chan Osilla, Karen; Maksabedian, Ervant; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S

    2016-03-15

    Individuals transitioning from homelessness to housing face challenges to reducing alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors. To aid in this transition, this study developed and will test a computer-assisted intervention that delivers personalized social network feedback by an intervention facilitator trained in motivational interviewing (MI). The intervention goal is to enhance motivation to reduce high risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and reduce HIV risk behaviors. In this Stage 1b pilot trial, 60 individuals that are transitioning from homelessness to housing will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. The intervention condition consists of four biweekly social network sessions conducted using MI. AOD use and HIV risk behaviors will be monitored prior to and immediately following the intervention and compared to control participants' behaviors to explore whether the intervention was associated with any systematic changes in AOD use or HIV risk behaviors. Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02140359.

  13. Suspending in School Suspension?: Is ISS a Valid Means of Disciplinary Action to Reduce Negative Student Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahynes, Leron M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored whether or not In School Suspensions (ISS) is effective in reducing student behavioral problems. Research was conducted with 6-8th grade students in a rural middle school in the upstate of South Carolina for the purposes of determining if ISS, in its current design a viable and effective method to reduce negative student…

  14. Stages of Behavioral Change for Reducing Sodium Intake in Korean Consumers: Comparison of Characteristics Based on Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Hyun; Kwon, Jong Sook; Kim, Kyungmin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2017-07-27

    High sodium intake increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Given the importance of behavioral changes to reducing sodium intake, this study aims to investigate the stages of change and the differences in cognitive and behavioral characteristics by stage in Korean consumers. Adult participants ( N = 3892) completed a questionnaire on the stages of behavioral change, recognition of social efforts, outcome expectancy, barriers to practice, nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviors, and self-efficiency related to reduced sodium intake. The numbers of participants in each stage of behavioral change for reducing sodium intake was 29.5% in the maintenance stage, 19.5% in the action stage, and 51.0% in the preaction stage that included the precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Multiple logistic regression showed that the factors differentiating the three stages were recognizing a supportive social environment, perceived barriers to the practice of reducing sodium intake, and self-efficacy to be conscious of sodium content and to request less salt when eating out. Purchasing experience of sodium-reduced products for salty foods, knowledge of the recommended intake of salt and the difference between sodium and salt, and improving dietary habits of eating salted fish, processed food, and salty snacks were factors for being in the action stage versus the preaction stage. These findings suggest that tailored intervention according to the characteristics of each stage is helpful in reducing sodium intake.

  15. Behavior of plutonium interacting with bentonite and sulfate-reducing anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.; Zheng, J.; Cayer, I.; Fujikawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M.

    1997-01-01

    The interactions between sulfate reducing anaerobic bacteria and plutonium, with or without bentonite present, were investigated using distribution coefficients [Kd (ml/g)] as an index of the radionuclide behavior. Plutonium Kds for living bacteria varied within a large range, from 1,804 to 112,952, depending on the pH, while the Kds ranged from 1,180 to 5,931 for dead bacteria. In general, living bacteria had higher plutonium Kds than dead bacteria. Furthermore, the higher Kd values of 39,677 to 106,915 for living bacteria were obtained for a pH range between 6.83 and 8.25, while no visible pH effect was observed for dead bacteria. These Kd values were obtained using tracers for both 236 Pu and 239 Pu, which can check the experimental procedures and mass balance. Another comparison was conducted for plutonium Kd values of mixtures of living bacteria with bentonite and sterilized bacteria with bentonite. The range of Kd values for the non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite were 1,194 to 83,648 while Kd values for the sterilized bacteria with bentonite were from 624 to 17,236. Again, the Kd values for the living bacteria with bentonite were higher than those of sterilized bacteria with bentonite. In other words, the presence of living anaerobic bacteria with bentonite increased, by roughly 50 times, the Kd values of 239 Pu when compared to the mixture of dead bacteria with bentonite. The results indicate that the effects of anaerobic bacteria within the engineered barrier system (in this case bentonite) will play a significant role in the behavior of plutonium in geologic repositories

  16. Gestational or acute restraint in adulthood reduces levels of 5α-reduced testosterone metabolites in the hippocampus and produces behavioral inhibition of adult male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia A Walf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors, during early life or adulthood, can alter steroid-sensitive behaviors, such as exploration, anxiety, and/or cognitive processes. We investigated if exposure to acute stressors in adulthood may alter behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of male rats that were exposed to gestational stress or not. We hypothesized that rats exposed to gestational and acute stress may show behavioral inhibition, increased corticosterone, and altered androgen levels in the hippocampus. Subjects were adult, male offspring of rat dams that were restrained daily on gestational days 14-20, or did not experience this manipulation. Immediately before testing, rats were restraint-stressed for 20 minutes or not. During week 1, rats were tested in a battery of tasks, including the open field, elevated plus maze, social interaction, tailflick, pawlick, and defensive burying tasks. During week 2, rats were trained and tested 24 hours later in the inhibitory avoidance task. Plasma corticosterone and androgen levels, and hippocampal androgen levels, were measured in all subjects. Gestational and acute restraint stress increased plasma levels of corticosterone, and reduced levels of testosterone’s 5α-reduced metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol, but not the aromatized metabolite, estradiol, in plasma or the hippocampus. Gestational and acute restraint stress reduced central entries made in the open field, and latencies to enter the shock-associated side of the inhibitory avoidance chamber during testing. Gestational stress reduced time spent interacting with a conspecific. These data suggest that gestational and acute restraint stress can have actions to produce behavioral inhibition coincident with increased corticosterone and decreased 5α-reduced androgens of adult male rats. Thus, gestational stress altered neural circuits involved in the neuroendocrine response to acute stress in early adulthood.

  17. Attentional scope is reduced by Internet use: A behavior and ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Peng

    Full Text Available As a crucial living environment, the Internet shapes cognition. The Internet provides massive information that can be accessed quickly via hyperlinks, but the information is typically fragmentary and concrete rather than integrative. According to construal level theory, the processing of this concrete and fragmentary information, should reduce attentional scope. Two experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, three groups of participants were asked to shop online, read magazines or have a rest respectively, and a divided attention Navon-letter task was employed to measure the attentional scope before and after the assigned activity. It was found that the difference between reaction times in response to local vs. global targets was decreased only after Internet use, while there was no decrease in either the reading or resting group. In Experiment 2, the same procedure was used, and EEG/ERP methods were used to record both behavioral response and neural activity. Results showed that before the assigned activity, there was no significant difference in N2 amplitude in response to local vs. global targets in any of the three groups; during the activity, the lower-alpha activity induced by Internet use was significantly lower than that induced by reading or resting; after the activity, correspondingly, a more negative N2 wave was induced by the global than local targets only in the Internet group, while there were no significant differences in the other groups. Consistent with construal level theory, the results suggest that when surfing the Internet, attentional scope is reduced, and this effect might continue after Internet activity.

  18. Deuterium retention and desorption behavior in an advanced reduced-activation alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, S.J., E-mail: sjnoh@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S.; Byeon, W.J.; Shin, H.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Dankook University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol Eui [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.K. [Nuclear Fusion Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    We present the first experimental results of the deuterium retention and desorption behavior in an advanced reduced-activation alloy (ARAA) under development in Korea. For the in-situ measurement of desorbed gases from samples immediately after irradiation, a thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) system clustered with an inductively coupled plasma ion source has been built. Samples were and were not irradiated with helium ions at energies of 1.4, 3.5, and 5.0 keV and then continuously irradiated with 1.7-keV deuterium ions. TDS measurements were performed in situ immediately after deuterium irradiation and after exposure to air for one week. The amount of desorbed deuterium is the largest for the sample without helium irradiation from the TDS results measured in situ immediately after irradiation. Further, the amount of desorbed deuterium is significantly lowered when the helium energy is increased to 3.5 keV with no significant changes thereafter, indicating that the layer formed by implanted helium at near or deeper than the stopping range for 1.7-keV deuterium ions effectively acts as a barrier against deuterium diffusion into the depth. Because of the strong diffusivity of deuterium into the ambient atmosphere, the amounts of desorbed deuterium are greatly reduced for the samples without helium irradiation and with 1.4-keV helium irradiation after exposure to air for one week. In addition, our deuterium results for the ARAA are also compared with the results for F82H by other authors. - Highlights: •The first result of the deuterium retention and desorption in an ARAA is presented. •The ARAA was irradiated with helium and then continuously irradiated with deuterium. •TDS measurements were performed in situ immediately after deuterium irradiation. •TDS measurements were performed after exposure to air for one week. •The effects of helium irradiation and exposure to air were investigated.

  19. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: A controlled analog analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, M.F.; Fragale, C.; Gainey, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Koch, H.; Shubert, J.; El Zein, F.; Longino, D.; Chung, M.; Xu, Z.W.; White, P.J.; Lang, R.B.; Davis, T.; Rispoli, M.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Healy, O.; Kagohara, D.; Meer, L. van der; Sigafoos, J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. individual

  20. Fatigue life assessment based on crack growth behavior in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Sato, Yuki; Hasegawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Crack growth behavior under low cycle fatigue in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H IEA-heat (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), was investigated to improve the fatigue life assessment method of fusion reactor structural material. Low cycle fatigue test was carried out at room temperature in air at a total strain range of 0.4-1.5% using an hourglass-type miniature fatigue specimen. The relationship between the surface crack length and life fraction was described using one equation independent of the total strain range. Therefore, the fatigue life and residual life could be estimated using the surface crack length. Moreover, the microcrack initiation life could be estimated using the total strain range if there was a one-to-one correspondence between the total strain range and number of cycles to failure. The crack growth rate could be estimated using the total strain range and surface crack length by introducing the concept of the normalized crack growth rate. (author)

  1. Motivators and Barriers to Reducing Sedentary Behavior Among Overweight and Obese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Hickman, Mikael Anne; Renz, Anne; Rosenberg, Dori E

    2016-08-01

    To explore individual, social, environmental, and program-related motivators, barriers, and impacts of sedentary behavior (SB) reduction among a group of overweight and obese older adults aged 60 and older. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 participants following a SB reduction intervention. Transcripts from these interviews were iteratively coded by a team, and key themes were defined and refined guided by the social-ecological framework. Motivators included the desire to improve health, newly acquired awareness of SB, the ease of incorporating SB reduction into current lifestyle, an adaptable environment, and the use of reminders. Barriers included existing health conditions, enjoyment of sedentary activities, unadaptable environments, fatigue, and difficulty understanding SB reduction as distinct from physical activity (PA). Participants reported impacts on physical and mental health and changes in awareness, exercise, and daily activity. Although in many ways motivators and barriers to reducing SB are similar to those of PA, SB interventions have special considerations and may ultimately be easier for some individuals to incorporate into their lifestyle. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The efficacy of methadone maintenance interventions in reducing illicit opiate use, HIV risk behavior and criminality: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, L A

    1998-04-01

    To provide empirically based evaluation data regarding the efficacy of psychopharmacological interventions in opiate substance abuse, the present study employed meta-analytic statistical procedures to determine the effectiveness of methadone hydrochloride as a pharmacotherapeutic agent. Empirical research findings from 11 studies investigating the effect of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) on illicit opiate use, and eight and 24 studies investigating the effect of MMT on HIV risk behaviors and criminal activities, respectively, by individuals in such treatment were addressed. Results demonstrate a consistent, statistically significant relationship between MMT and the reduction of illicit opiate use, HIV risk behaviors and drug and property-related criminal behaviors. The effectiveness of MMT is most apparent in its ability to reduce drug-related criminal behaviors. MMT had a moderate effect in reducing illicit opiate use and drug and property-related criminal behaviors, and a small to moderate effect in reducing HIV risk behaviors. Results clarify discrepancies in the literature and are useful in predicting the outcomes of individuals in treatment. The treatment's effectiveness is evident among opiate-dependent individuals across a variety of contexts, cultural and ethnic groups, and study designs.

  3. Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone reduces sexual motivation but not lordosis behavior in female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piekarski, David J; Zhao, Sheng; Jennings, Kimberly J

    2013-01-01

    with GnIH or saline. The effect of GnIH on sexual motivation, vaginal scent marking, and lordosis was examined. Following mating, FOS activation was quantified in brain regions implicated in the regulation of female sexual behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of GnIH reduced sexual motivation...... and vaginal scent marking, but not lordosis behavior. GnIH administration altered FOS expression in key neural loci implicated in female reproductive behavior, including the medial preoptic area, medial amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, independent of changes in circulating gonadal steroids...

  4. Experiential exposure to texting and walking in virtual reality: A randomized trial to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Porter, Bryan E

    2017-05-01

    Distracted pedestrian behavior is a significant public health concern, as research suggests distracted pedestrians have significantly higher risk of injury compared to fully attentive pedestrians. Despite this, efforts to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior are scant. Using a repeated measures experimental research design, we implemented a behavioral intervention to reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the high-risk environment of an urban college campus and simultaneously monitored behavior on a control urban college campus not exposed to the intervention. We had two primary aims: reduce perceived vulnerability to injury among individual pedestrians and reduce distracted pedestrian behavior in the environment through a change in community-based norms. The hallmark of the behavioral intervention was a week-long opportunity for community members to experience personally the risks of distracted pedestrian behavior by attempting to cross a virtual pedestrian environment street while text-messaging. This was supplemented by traditional and social marketing and publicity through various campus partners. A sample of 219 individuals completed self-report surveys about perceived vulnerability to distracted pedestrian injury before experiencing the distracted virtual street-crossing and again after 2 weeks and 5 months. Observational assessment of distracted pedestrian behavior was conducted at a busy intersection on the campus as well as at a control campus not exposed to the intervention at baseline, post-intervention, 10 weeks, and 6 months. The intervention achieved mixed results. Individuals exposed to texting within a simulated pedestrian environment reported changes in their intentions to cross streets while distracted and in perceived vulnerability to risk while crossing streets, but we did not witness evidence of changed community norms based on observed rates of distracted pedestrian behavior before and after the intervention compared to a control campus not

  5. Motivation to Reduce Risk Behaviors While in Prison: Qualitative Analysis of Interviews with Current and Formerly Incarcerated Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Neetu; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Fogel, Catherine I

    2013-10-01

    Prison is an environment in which programs can be implemented to change harmful behaviors among high-risk populations. Incarcerated women experience high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), yet little research has examined women's motivation to reduce risky behaviors during incarceration. In-depth individual interviews were conducted with former and current women prisoners in two North Carolina correctional facilities and analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators of behavior change while in prison. Analyses revealed key motivators of behavior change: Viewing prison as a place to recover from past trauma, removing oneself from negative social networks, gaining access to needed mental and physical health services, and engaging in self-care and self-reflection. Barriers to behavior change include fear of recidivism, stigma of being in prison, and return to undesirable social networks post-release. Moreover, women noted that the provision of mental health services, educational enhancement and housing assistance could help them reduce engagement in high-risk behaviors after their incarceration. These findings can be incorporated into HIV/STD risk reduction interventions to facilitate positive behavior change among incarcerated women prisoners. Prison itself is a tremendous education in the need for patience and perseverance. It is above all a test of one's commitment.-Nelson Mandela, 1995.

  6. Modal behavior of a reduced scale pump-turbine impeller. Part 1: Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaler, X; Huetter, J K; Egusquiza, E; Farhat, M; Avellan, F

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to quantify the effects of surrounding fluid on the modal behavior of a reduced scale pump-turbine impeller. The modal properties of the fluid-structure system have been obtained by Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) with the impeller suspended in air and inside a water reservoir. The impeller has been excited with an instrumented hammer and the response has been measured by means of miniature accelerometers. The Frequency Response Functions (FRF's) have been obtained from a large number of impacting positions in order to ensure the identification of the main mode shapes. As a result, the main modes of vibration have been well characterized both in air and in water in terms of natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shape. The first mode is the 2 Nodal Diameter (ND), the second one is the 0ND and the following ones are the 3ND coupled with the 1ND. The visual observation of the animated mode shapes and the level of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) have permitted to correlate the homologous modes of vibration of the fluid-structure system in air and in water. From this comparison the added mass effect on the natural frequencies and the fluid effect on the damping ratios have been quantified for the most significant modes. With the surrounding water, the natural frequencies decrease in average by 10%. On the other hand, the damping ratios increase in average by 0.5%. In any case, the damping ratio appears to decrease with the frequency value of the mode.

  7. Programs to reduce teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and associated sexual risk behaviors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright

  8. Compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in Reducing Depression in Mothers of Children with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Depression is on the top list of mental disorders which account for about 25 percent of patients referred to health centers in your world. So, is presented in different ways to treat it. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy in reducing depression in mothers of children with disabilities Materials and Methods: This study is quasi-experimental and consists of experimental and control groups. This study population was mothers referred to mobility, occupational therapy and physiotherapy centers who had depressive symptoms. 8 patients in each group were selected by convenience sampling. The research instrument were the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders and the revised Beck Depression Inventory form (1996. Dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy groups were instructured for 2 months (8 sessions of 2 to 2.5 hours. But the control group did not receive intervention. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group with control group (p<0.001. Also, there is a significant difference between the mean depression scores of dialectical behavior therapy with cognitive therapy (p<0.001. Conclusion: In the area of treatment and working with depressed people and those who are in crisis mode, it seems that dialectical behavior therapy and cognitive therapy group in view of its nature is very efficient and promising.

  9. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien F. M. Chastin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in a group of community dwelling older women (N = 11, age 65 and over. Older women expressed the view that their sedentary behavior is mostly determined by pain which acts both as an incentive to sit and a motivator to stand up, lack of energy in the afternoon, pressure from direct social circle to sit and rest, societal and environmental typecasting that older adult are meant to sit, lack of environmental facilities to allow activity pacing. This qualitative investigation highlighted some factors that older adults consider determinants of their sedentary behavior. Some are identical to those affecting physical activity (self-efficacy, functional limitations, ageist stereotyping but some appear specific to sedentary behavior (locus of control, pain and should be further investigated and considered during intervention design. Tailored interventions that pay attention to the pattern of sedentary behavior of individuals appear to be supported by the views of older women on their sedentary behavior.

  10. Evidence-Based Practices to Reduce Challenging Behaviors of Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Hanna, Alexajo; Lewellen, Traysha

    2017-01-01

    Challenging behaviors refer to those behaviors that decrease the child's ability to engage and participate in classroom routines (Dunlap, Wilson, Strain, & Lee, 2013), and therefore, the dilemma in the scenario above is common to early childhood and early childhood special education teachers due to an increase in children experiencing autism…

  11. When Do Financial Incentives Reduce Intrinsic Motivation? Comparing Behaviors Studied in Psychological and Economic Literatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or “crowd out” intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. Method: We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. Results: In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. Conclusion: The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PMID:24001245

  12. Utilization of Superheroes Social Skills to Reduce Disruptive and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Handley, Roderick D.; Radley, Keith C.; Cavell, Hannah J.

    2016-01-01

    The current pilot study investigated the effectiveness of the Superheroes Social Skills program in decreasing disruptive and aggressive behavior of elementary-age students with high-incidence disabilities. Six students in a self-contained classroom, identified as displaying high rates of disruptive and aggressive behavior toward peers, were…

  13. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  14. When do financial incentives reduce intrinsic motivation? comparing behaviors studied in psychological and economic literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promberger, Marianne; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-09-01

    To review existing evidence on the potential of incentives to undermine or "crowd out" intrinsic motivation, in order to establish whether and when it predicts financial incentives to crowd out motivation for health-related behaviors. We conducted a conceptual analysis to compare definitions and operationalizations of the effect, and reviewed existing evidence to identify potential moderators of the effect. In the psychological literature, we find strong evidence for an undermining effect of tangible rewards on intrinsic motivation for simple tasks when motivation manifest in behavior is initially high. In the economic literature, evidence for undermining effects exists for a broader variety of behaviors, in settings that involve a conflict of interest between parties. By contrast, for health related behaviors, baseline levels of incentivized behaviors are usually low, and only a subset involve an interpersonal conflict of interest. Correspondingly, we find no evidence for crowding out of incentivized health behaviors. The existing evidence does not warrant a priori predictions that an undermining effect would be found for health-related behaviors. Health-related behaviors and incentives schemes differ greatly in moderating characteristics, which should be the focus of future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Reducing Covert Self-Injurious Behavior Maintained by Automatic Reinforcement through a Variable Momentary DRO Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Covert self-injurious behavior (i.e., behavior that occurs in the absence of other people) can be difficult to treat. Traditional treatments typically have involved sophisticated methods of observation and often have employed positive punishment procedures. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a variable momentary differential…

  16. Developing a Model of Health Behavior Change to Reduce Parasitic Disease in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suni; Do, Trina; Shaw, Christy; Brake, Kaile

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide more deaths occur due to conditions that can be ameliorated by behavior change. Changing health behaviors using models popularized in non-western countries has not proven particularly successful. The purpose of this study was to test variables elicited during qualitative interviews and cultural conversations to develop a model of health…

  17. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality.

  18. Effects of Coaching on the Implementation of Functional Assessment-Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Challenging Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Angel; Schultz, Tia R.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of coaching on the implementation of functional assessment--based parent intervention in reducing children's challenging behaviors. A multiple baseline across participants design was used with three parent-child dyads with children between the ages of 2 and 5 years. The intervention consisted of training and delayed…

  19. A Study of the Efficacy of Computerized Skill Building for Adolescents: Reducing Aggression and Increasing Pro-Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Robin; Repa, J. Theodore

    This article describes a pilot study that evaluated the efficacy of a computer-based, behavioral skill-building program in reducing aggression and improving academic performance among middle school students. The program is Ripple Effects'"Relate for Teens," a media rich, interactive application based on combining a proprietary learning…

  20. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  1. Use of Peer Tutoring, Cooperative Learning, and Collaborative Learning: Implications for Reducing Anti-Social Behavior of Schooling Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Obiyo, N.; Obidoa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the use of peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and collaborative learning as strategies to reduce anti-social behavior among schooling adolescents. The study is a descriptive survey study. The area of study was Nsukka education zone in Enugu State of Nigeria. The sample of the study was 200 teachers randomly sampled from…

  2. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for PTSD and Depression Symptoms Reduces Risk for Future Intimate Partner Violence among Interpersonal Trauma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Resick, Patricia A.; Suvak, Michael K.; Smith, Kamala F.; Monson, Candice M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women who develop symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression subsequent to interpersonal trauma are at heightened risk for future intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms, yet limited research has investigated the…

  3. Pre-Crisis Intervention Strategies for Reducing Unacceptable Behaviors by Exceptional Students in a Public Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine-Brown, Linda S.

    This report describes the implementation of a data-based program to reduce unacceptable student behaviors and decrease the number of administrative interventions with 21 students with severe emotional disturbances. A computerized database was developed to track classroom and transportation discipline infractions. Students met monthly to review…

  4. Reducing Behavior Problems Among Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Coaching Teachers in a Mixed-Reality Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Johnson, Stacy R; Larson, Kristine E; Brandenburg, Linda; Church, Robin; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2016-12-01

    Most approaches aiming to reduce behavior problems among youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on individual students; however, school personnel also need professional development to better support students. This study targeted teachers' skill development to promote positive outcomes for students with ASD. The sample included 19 teachers in two non-public special education settings serving students with moderate to severe ASD. Participating teachers received professional development and coaching in classroom management, with guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator. Repeated-measures ANOVAs examining externally-conducted classroom observations revealed statistically significant improvements in teacher management and student behavior over time. Findings suggest that coaching and guided practice in a mixed-reality simulator is perceived as acceptable and may reduce behavior problems among students with ASD.

  5. Acute fasting inhibits central caspase-1 activity reducing anxiety-like behavior and increasing novel object and object location recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Albert E; Oelschlager, Maci L; Patel, Jay; Gainey, Stephen J; McCusker, Robert H; Freund, Gregory G

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation within the central nervous system (CNS) is frequently comorbid with anxiety. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine most commonly associated with anxiety is IL-1β. The bioavailability and activity of IL-1β are regulated by caspase-1-dependent proteolysis vis-a-vis the inflammasome. Thus, interventions regulating the activation or activity of caspase-1 should reduce anxiety especially in states that foster IL-1β maturation. Male C57BL/6j, C57BL/6j mice treated with the capase-1 inhibitor biotin-YVAD-cmk, caspase-1 knockout (KO) mice and IL-1R1 KO mice were fasted for 24h or allowed ad libitum access to food. Immediately after fasting, caspase-1 activity was measured in brain region homogenates while activated caspase-1 was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Mouse anxiety-like behavior and cognition were tested using the elevated zero maze and novel object/object location tasks, respectively. A 24h fast in mice reduced the activity of caspase-1 in whole brain and in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus by 35%, 25%, 40%, 40%, and 40% respectively. A 24h fast also reduced anxiety-like behavior by 40% and increased novel object and object location recognition by 21% and 31%, respectively. IL-1β protein, however, was not reduced in the brain by fasting. ICV administration of YVAD decreased caspase-1 activity in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala by 55%, respectively leading to a 64% reduction in anxiety like behavior. Importantly, when caspase-1 KO or IL1-R1 KO mice are fasted, no fasting-dependent reduction in anxiety-like behavior was observed. Results indicate that fasting decrease anxiety-like behavior and improves memory by a mechanism tied to reducing caspase-1 activity throughout the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder using the early start denver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Elizabeth; Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia; Rogers, Sally

    2014-01-01

    The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation-based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention) over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children's maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children's overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen scales of early learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions, and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD.

  7. Reducing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorder using the Early Start Denver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eFulton

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of maladaptive behaviors in young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD can significantly limit engagement in treatment programs, as well as compromise future educational and vocational opportunities. This study aimed to explore whether the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM treatment approach reduced maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children with ASD in a community-based long day care setting. The level of maladaptive behavior of 38 children with ASD was rated using an observation based measure on three occasions during the intervention: on entry, 12 weeks post-entry, and on exit (post-intervention over an average treatment duration of 11.8 months. Significant reductions were found in children’s maladaptive behaviors over the course of the intervention, with 68% of children showing a treatment response by 12 weeks and 79% on exit. This change was accompanied by improvement in children’s overall developmental level as assessed by the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, but not by significant changes on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II or Social Communication Questionnaire. Replication with a larger sample, control conditions and additional measures of maladaptive behavior is necessary in order to determine the specific factors underlying these improvements; however, the findings of the present study suggest that the ESDM program may be effective in improving not only core developmental domains, but also decreasing maladaptive behaviors in preschool-aged children.

  8. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Liang Ruan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014–2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children’s primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children’s autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age.

  9. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Li; Strodl, Esben; Fan, Li-Jun; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Deng-Li; Xian, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014-2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children's primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children's autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age.

  10. Reducing Children Behavior Problems: A Pilot Study of Tuning in to Kids in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Aghaie Meybodi

    2017-09-01

    Discussion: The Tuning in to Kids program appears to be a promising parenting intervention for mothers and children with disruptive behavior problems, offering a useful addition to usual programs used in Iran.

  11. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  12. Using communication to reduce challenging behaviors in individuals with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the relationship between expressive communication impairments and common challenging behaviors in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. The communication challenges of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder/Intellectual Disability are described and several evidence-based intervention strategies are proposed to support communication so as to decrease challenging behaviors. Recommendations for practice are offered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D.; Colwill, Ruth M.; Créton, Robbert

    2013-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide that is widely used in agriculture and is found ubiquitously in the environment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure on anxiety-related behavior during development using zebrafish larvae. We found that sub-chronic exposure to 0.01 or 0.1 μM chlorpyrifos during development induces specific behavioral defects in 7-day-old zebrafish larvae. The larvae displayed decreases in swim speed and thigmotaxis, yet no changes in avoidance behavior were seen. Exposure to 0.001 μM chlorpyrifos did not affect swimming, thigmotaxis, or avoidance behavior and exposure to 1 μM chlorpyrifos induced behavioral defects, but also induced defects in larval morphology. Since thigmotaxis, a preference for the edge, is an anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae, we propose that sub-chronic chlorpyrifos exposure interferes with the development of anxiety-related behaviors. The results of this study provide a good starting point for examination of the molecular, cellular, developmental, and neural mechanisms that are affected by environmentally relevant concentrations of organophosphate pesticides. A more detailed understanding of these mechanisms is important for the development of predictive models and refined health policies to prevent toxicant-induced neurobehavioral disorders. PMID:22579535

  14. Reducing developmental risk for emotional/behavioral problems: a randomized controlled trial examining the Tools for Getting Along curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunic, Ann P; Smith, Stephen W; Garvan, Cynthia W; Barber, Brian R; Becker, Mallory K; Peters, Christine D; Taylor, Gregory G; Van Loan, Christopher L; Li, Wei; Naranjo, Arlene H

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have demonstrated that cognitive-behavioral intervention strategies - such as social problem solving - provided in school settings can help ameliorate the developmental risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties. In this study, we report the results of a randomized controlled trial of Tools for Getting Along (TFGA), a social problem-solving universally delivered curriculum designed to reduce the developmental risk for serious emotional or behavioral problems among upper elementary grade students. We analyzed pre-intervention and post-intervention teacher-report and student self-report data from 14 schools, 87 classrooms, and a total of 1296 students using multilevel modeling. Results (effect sizes calculated using Hedges' g) indicated that students who were taught TFGA had a more positive approach to problem solving (g=.11) and a more rational problem-solving style (g=.16). Treated students with relatively poor baseline scores benefited from TFGA on (a) problem-solving knowledge (g=1.54); (b) teacher-rated executive functioning (g=.35 for Behavior Regulation and .32 for Metacognition), and proactive aggression (g=.20); and (c) self-reported trait anger (g=.17) and anger expression (g=.21). Thus, TFGA may reduce risk for emotional and behavioral difficulties by improving students' cognitive and emotional self-regulation and increasing their pro-social choices. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT in Reducing Worry, Anxiety and Panic Attacks Mitral Valve Prolapse Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Jamshidzehi ShahBakhsh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The mitral valve prolapse is a heart syndrome that is characterized by considerable physical and psychological consequences for affected patients. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing worrying, generalized anxiety and panic attacks in patients with mitral valve prolapse. Methods: This study is quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest and control group. 16 patients with mitral valve prolapse divided into to two groups: experimental (n = 8 and control (n = 8 groups. CBT was used during 10 sessions twice a week with a focus on cognitive restructuring, modification of cognitive distortions and training of behavioral techniques for the experimental group. For participants health  concerns spot and doush (HCQ, Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD- 7 and Albania panic scales as pre-test, post-test. Results: Data were analyzed by covariance analysis. The results showed that worrying, anxiety, and panic attacks significantly reduced in the experimental group. Discussion: Cognitive behavioral therapy is remarkably effective for reducing fear, anxiety and panic patients with mitral valve prolapse. Therefore, it is recommended for the patients with mitral valve prolapse that cognitive behavioral therapy can be used as a complementary therapy.

  16. Effects of novelty-reducing preparation on exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in a science museum setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Carole A.; Olstad, Roger G.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between (a) novelty and exploratory behavior, (b) novelty and cognitive learning, and (c) exploratory behavior and cognitive learning in science museums. Sixty-four sixth-grade public school students participated in a posttest-only control group design. The control group received a treatment designed to decrease the novelty of a field trip setting through a vicarious exposure while the placebo group received an informative but not novelty-reducing treatment. Both groups then visited the field site where they were videotaped. Statistical analyses were conducted on both dependent variables with socioeconomic status and academic achievement as covariates, novelty-reducing preparation as the independent variable, and gender as moderator variable. Exploratory behavior was shown to be positively correlated with cognitive learning. Significant differences were detected for exploratory behavior. For both dependent variables, gender by treatment group interaction was significant with novelty-reducing preparation shown to be highly effective on boys but having no effect on girls.

  17. Specific behavioral and cellular adaptations induced by chronic morphine are reduced by dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Hakimian

    Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and

  18. Reducing racial disparities in obesity: simulating the effects of improved education and social network influence on diet behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Mark G; Galea, Sandro; Riddle, Matt; Kaplan, George A

    2014-08-01

    Understanding how to mitigate the present black-white obesity disparity in the United States is a complex issue, stemming from a multitude of intertwined causes. An appropriate but underused approach to guiding policy approaches to this problem is to account for this complexity using simulation modeling. We explored the efficacy of a policy that improved the quality of neighborhood schools in reducing racial disparities in obesity-related behavior and the dependence of this effect on social network influence and norms. We used an empirically grounded agent-based model to generate simulation experiments. We used a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design that represented the presence or absence of improved neighborhood school quality, the presence or absence of social influence, and the type of social norm (healthy or unhealthy). Analyses focused on time trends in sociodemographic variables and diet quality. First, the quality of schools and social network influence had independent and interactive effects on diet behavior. Second, the black-white disparity in diet behavior was considerably reduced under some conditions, but never completely eliminated. Third, the degree to which the disparity in diet behavior was reduced was a function of the type of social norm that was in place; the reduction was the smallest when the type of social norm was healthy. Improving school quality can reduce, but not eliminate racial disparities in obesity-related behavior, and the degree to which this is true depends partly on social network effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Deficiency Causes Reduced Exploratory Behavior in Mice Under Approach-Avoidance Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlu; Yan, Yixiu; Cheng, Jingjing; Xiao, Gang; Gu, Jueqing; Zhang, Luqi; Yuan, Siyu; Wang, Junlu; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal approach-avoidance behavior has been linked to deficits in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system of the brain. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an important pattern-recognition receptor in the innate immune system, can be directly activated by substances of abuse, resulting in an increase of the extracellular DA level in the nucleus accumbens. We thus hypothesized that TLR4-dependent signaling might regulate approach-avoidance behavior. To test this hypothesis, we compared the novelty-seeking and social interaction behaviors of TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) and wild-type (WT) mice in an approach-avoidance conflict situation in which the positive motivation to explore a novel object or interact with an unfamiliar mouse was counteracted by the negative motivation to hide in exposed, large spaces. We found that TLR4(-/-) mice exhibited reduced novelty-seeking and social interaction in the large open spaces. In less stressful test apparatuses similar in size to the mouse cage, however, TLR4(-/-) mice performed normally in both novelty-seeking and social interaction tests. The reduced exploratory behaviors under approach-avoidance conflict were not due to a high anxiety level or an enhanced fear response in the TLR4(-/-) mice, as these mice showed normal anxiety and fear responses in the open field and passive avoidance tests, respectively. Importantly, the novelty-seeking behavior in the large open field induced a higher level of c-Fos activation in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in TLR4(-/-) mice than in WT mice. Partially inactivating the NAcSh via infusion of GABA receptor agonists restored the novelty-seeking behavior of TLR4(-/-) mice. These data suggested that TLR4 is crucial for positive motivational behavior under approach-avoidance conflict. TLR4-dependent activation of neurons in the NAcSh may contribute to this phenomenon.

  20. Treatment with CRH-1 antagonist antalarmin reduces behavioral and endocrine responses to social stressors in marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jeffrey A; Fite, Jeffrey E; Jensen, Heather; Oparowski, Katie; Rukstalis, Michael R; Fix, Holly; Jones, Brenda; Maxwell, Heather; Pacer, Molly; Power, Michael L; Schulkin, Jay

    2007-08-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has multiple roles in coordinating the behavioral and endocrine responses to a host of environmental challenges, including social stressors. In the present study we evaluated the role of CRH in mediating responses to a moderate social stressor in Wied's black tufted-eared marmosets (Callithrix kuhlii). Male and female marmosets (n=14) were administered antalarmin (a selective CRH-1 receptor antagonist; 50 microg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle in a blind, counterbalanced, crossover design. One hr after treatment, marmosets were separated from long-term pairmates and then housed alone in a novel enclosure for 7 hr. Behavior was recorded during separation and upon reunion with the partner, and urine samples for cortisol assay collected before, during, and after the intervention. Separation from partners elevated urinary cortisol concentrations over baseline for both conditions, but antalarmin treatment reduced the magnitude of the elevation. Antalarmin also lowered rates of behavioral patterns associated with arousal (alarm and "e-e" vocalizations, object manipulate/chew), but had no effect on contact calls, locomotory activity or alertness. Although most patterns of social behavior upon reunion with the partner were not affected by antalarmin, antalarmin-treated marmosets displayed more sexual behavior (mounts and copulations) upon reunion. These data indicate that antagonism of the CRH-1 receptor acts to reduce the magnitude of both endocrine and behavioral responses to a moderate social stressor without causing any overall reduction in alertness or general activity. This supports the hypothesis that CRH, acting through its type 1 receptor, is involved in coordinating the responses to anxiety-producing events. These results further suggest that the marmoset is a useful model for exploration of the role of CRH in mediating the behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stressors, particularly in the context of heterosexual

  1. Reducing Children’s Behavior Problems through Social Capital: A Causal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Turley, Ruth N.; Gamoran, Adam; McCarty, Alyn Turner; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Behavior problems among young children have serious detrimental effects on short and long-term educational outcomes. An especially promising prevention strategy may be one that focuses on strengthening the relationships among families in schools, or social capital. However, empirical research on social capital has been constrained by conceptual and causal ambiguity. This study attempts to construct a more focused conceptualization of social capital and aims to determine the causal effects of social capital on children’s behavior. Using data from a cluster randomized trial of 52 elementary schools, we apply several multilevel models to assess the causal relationship, including intent to treat and treatment on the treated analyses. Taken together, these analyses provide stronger evidence than previous studies that social capital improves children’s behavioral outcomes and that these improvements are not simply a result of selection into social relations but result from the social relations themselves. PMID:27886729

  2. The Use of Intercessory Prayer to Reduce Disruptive Behaviors of Patients With Dementia: A Pilot Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Ann Riesselman; Lu, Der-Fa; Hart, Laura K; Keller, Theresa

    2016-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal design was used to identify the feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of 12 weeks of intercessory prayer to reduce the disruptive behaviors of six late-stage dementia patients. One group of Catholic nuns offered the Lord's Prayer for assigned patients twice a day. Intercessory prayer for the entire subject group was also offered, by a second group of nuns, via a Latria (modality) called "Perpetual Adoration." Disruptions were documented from 3 weeks preintervention to 3 weeks postintervention. Consents were received for two thirds of invited patients. Retention was reduced by the death of two patients. Fidelity, assessed by retrospective report, was maintained throughout the study. Use of off-label antipsychotic medications was reduced or discontinued in four patients during the trial. The repeated measures analysis of variance, while indicative of a trend, did not reach a level of significance, likely due to small sample size. However, the average effect on behavior resulted in a reduction of disruptive incidents, for the group, in approximately 27 behavior categories/week. This study suggests that it is feasible to improve the life quality of patients in the terminal phase of their illness through prayer reducing their need to respond to life in a disturbed manner. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Evaluation of a Theory-Based Intervention Aimed at Reducing Intention to Use Restrictive Dietary Behaviors Among Adolescent Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Catherine; Drapeau, Vicky; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Jacob, Raphaëlle; Provencher, Véronique; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to reduce the intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among adolescent female athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Aesthetic sport teams of adolescent female athletes aged 12-17 years. Two teams (n = 37 athletes) in the intervention group and 3 teams (n = 33) in the comparison group. The 2 groups received nutrition education during 3 weekly 60-minute sessions. The intervention group was further exposed to a theory-based intervention targeting the specific determinant of intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight, namely attitude. Difference over time between groups in intention to use restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight and in nutrition knowledge. Mixed models for repeated measures. The theory-based intervention contributed to maintaining a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight over time in the intervention group compared with the comparison group (P theory-based behavior change intervention may help maintain a low intention of using restrictive dietary behaviors for losing weight among female high school athletes involved in aesthetic sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Reducing domestic heating demand: Managing the impact of behavior-changing feedback devices via marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thorben; Chappin, Émile J L

    2017-07-15

    Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices. We did this by adapting an agent-based model to simulate the roll-out of a novel feedback technology and heating behavior within households in a virtual city. The most promising marketing strategies were simulated and their impacts were analyzed. We found it particularly effective to lend out feedback devices to consumers, followed by leveraging the social influence of well-connected individuals, and giving away the first few feedback devices for free. Making households aware of the possibility of purchasing feedback devices was found to be least effective. However, making households aware proved to be most cost-efficient. This study shows that actively managing the roll-out of feedback devices can increase their impacts on energy-conservation both effectively and cost-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Training in Reducing Depression in Visually Impaired Male Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Soleimani Sefat

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: The findings demonstrated that cognitive behavioral therapy was significantly effective in improving depression of male students with visual impairment in experimental group. The group training needs to be adopted by medical practitioners on a cohort for validating its effectiveness on a larger scale.

  6. Nurses' Behaviors and Visual Scanning Patterns May Reduce Patient Identification Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.; He, Ze; Jo, Junghee; Fisher, Donald L.; Henneman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Patient identification (ID) errors occurring during the medication administration process can be fatal. The aim of this study is to determine whether differences in nurses' behaviors and visual scanning patterns during the medication administration process influence their capacities to identify patient ID errors. Nurse participants (n = 20)…

  7. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  8. Discrimination Training Reduces High Rate Social Approach Behaviors in Angelman Syndrome: Proof of Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, M.; Allen, D.; Villa, D.; Oliver, C.

    2013-01-01

    This proof of principle study was designed to evaluate whether excessively high rates of social approach behaviors in children with Angelman syndrome (AS) can be modified using a multiple schedule design. Four children with AS were exposed to a multiple schedule arrangement, in which social reinforcement and extinction, cued using a novel…

  9. The Effect of Branding to Promote Healthy Behavior: Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vallone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15–21. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between brand equity and the likelihood of reporting past 30-day smoking over a 12-month period. Respondents who reported positive brand equity were significantly less likely to report past 30-day smoking 12 months later (OR = 0.66, p < 0.05, controlling for covariates known to influence tobacco use behavior. Findings also translate the effect size difference to a population estimate of more than 300,000 youth and young adults having been prevented from current smoking over the course of a year. Building brand equity is a strategic process for health promotion campaigns, not only to improve message recall and salience but also to influence behavioral outcomes.

  10. The Effect of Branding to Promote Healthy Behavior: Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna; Greenberg, Marisa; Xiao, Haijun; Bennett, Morgane; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15–21. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between brand equity and the likelihood of reporting past 30-day smoking over a 12-month period. Respondents who reported positive brand equity were significantly less likely to report past 30-day smoking 12 months later (OR = 0.66, p < 0.05), controlling for covariates known to influence tobacco use behavior. Findings also translate the effect size difference to a population estimate of more than 300,000 youth and young adults having been prevented from current smoking over the course of a year. Building brand equity is a strategic process for health promotion campaigns, not only to improve message recall and salience but also to influence behavioral outcomes. PMID:29215555

  11. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AGAINST DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: IS IT POSSIBLE TO PREVENT AND REDUCE DEVIANCES WITH SPORT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Al. Dimitrova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses physical activity and sport as a good way to overcome deviant behavior in children. A number of characteristics of sporting activity are identified, which define it as useful not only for the physical but also for the psychological, emotional and overall development of the personality. Organized extracurricular sports activities are mentioned as a good means of organizing the leisure time of the students. Of course, sport is not a universal remedy for the problems of society and the deviant behavior of children. But it is one of the working options for prevention and overcoming deviant behavior, especially if it is a result mainly of the child's personal characteristics such as aggression, temperamental behavior or adrenal dependence. Affiliation to the team gives the child certainty that they area member of a community where they give and receive permanent support. The pursuit of personal achievement reflects the development of the child and directs his or her energy in a positive direction. Achieved success boosts self-confidence and self-esteem that are so necessary to young people especially in teen years. Driving into discipline in sport will lead to compliance with social norms and public laws.

  12. Ethnic differences in problem perception : Immigrant mothers in a parenting intervention to reduce disruptive child behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, P.; Raaijmakers, M.A.J.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Matthys, W.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care—a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less

  13. Testing Selected Behaviors to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution Exposure in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, B. R.; Mathee, A.; Krieger, L.; Shafritz, L.; Favin, M.; Sherburne, L.

    2004-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is responsible for the deaths and illness of millions of young children in developing countries. This study investigated the acceptability (willingness to try) and feasibility (ability to perform) of four indoor air pollution reduction behaviors (improve stove maintenance practices, child location practices, ventilation…

  14. Dietary interventions that reduce mTOR activity rescue autistic-like behavioral deficits in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Jiangbo; de Theije, Caroline G M; da Silva, Sofia Lopes; Abbring, Suzanne; van der Horst, Hilma; Broersen, Laus M; Willemsen, Linette; Kas, Martien; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    Enhanced mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the brain has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Inhibition of the mTOR pathway improves behavior and neuropathology in mouse models of ASD containing mTOR-associated single gene mutations. The current

  15. Reducing Preschoolers' Disruptive Behavior in Public with a Brief Parent Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R.; Turner, Karen M. T.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a brief 2-h discussion group for parents of preschool children that show disruptive behavior on shopping trips. Forty-six parents with children aged 2-6 years were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition or a waitlist control group. Significant intervention effects were found for measures of…

  16. Conditioned Contribution of Peripheral Cocaine Actions to Cocaine Reward and Cocaine-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bin; You, Zhi-Bing; Oleson, Erik B; Cheer, Joseph F; Myal, Stephanie; Wise, Roy A

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine has actions in the peripheral nervous system that reliably precede—and thus predict—its soon-to-follow central rewarding effects. In cocaine-experienced animals, the peripheral cocaine signal is relayed to the central nervous system, triggering excitatory input to the ventral tegmental origin of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, the system that mediates the rewarding effects of the drug. We used cocaine methiodide, a cocaine analog that does not cross the blood–brain barrier, to ...

  17. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Thomas; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects’ self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes. PMID:20395264

  18. Impaired insight in cocaine addiction: laboratory evidence and effects on cocaine-seeking behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-04-15

    Neuropsychiatric disorders are often characterized by impaired insight into behaviour. Such an insight deficit has been suggested, but never directly tested, in drug addiction. Here we tested for the first time this impaired insight hypothesis in drug addiction, and examined its potential association with drug-seeking behaviour. We also tested potential modulation of these effects by cocaine urine status, an individual difference known to impact underlying cognitive functions and prognosis. Sixteen cocaine addicted individuals testing positive for cocaine in urine, 26 cocaine addicted individuals testing negative for cocaine in urine, and 23 healthy controls completed a probabilistic choice task that assessed objective preference for viewing four types of pictures (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine). This choice task concluded by asking subjects to report their most selected picture type; correspondence between subjects self-reports with their objective choice behaviour provided our index of behavioural insight. Results showed that the urine positive cocaine subjects exhibited impaired insight into their own choice behaviour compared with healthy controls; this same study group also selected the most cocaine pictures (and fewest pleasant pictures) for viewing. Importantly, however, it was the urine negative cocaine subjects whose behaviour was most influenced by insight, such that impaired insight in this subgroup only was associated with higher cocaine-related choice on the task and more severe actual cocaine use. These findings suggest that interventions to enhance insight may decrease drug-seeking behaviour, especially in urine negative cocaine subjects, potentially to improve their longer-term clinical outcomes.

  19. Interactive "Video doctor" counseling reduces drug and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive patients in diverse outpatient settings

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, P; Ciccarone, D; Gansky, SA; Bangsberg, DR; Clanon, K; McPhee, SJ; Calderón, SH; Bogetz, A; Gerbert, B

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide “prevention with positives” in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based...

  20. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barwais, Faisal A.; Cuddihy, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™) was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years) were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed duri...

  1. Behavioral response to a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) to reduce sedentary behavior in obese adults: Implications for JITAI optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J Graham; Bond, Dale S

    2015-12-01

    Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) use mobile computers, sensors, and software analytics to automatically detect behavior and deliver tailored treatment. However, little is known about how JITAIs influence patterns of behavior or how best to design JITAIs for maximum effect. This study examined prompts and behavioral response to the B-MOBILE JITAI for reducing sedentary behavior (SB) in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty participants (83% women; 67% White, mean ± SD body mass index = 36.2 kg/m2) tested 3 conditions presented in a randomized counterbalanced order involving smartphone-based prompts for walking breaks of (a) 3 min after 30 SB min, (b) 6 min after 60 SB min, and (c) 12 min after 120 SB min. Participants carried the smartphone an average of 6.90 days during each 7-day condition, for an average of 14.94 hr per day. The 3- and 6-min conditions resulted in the greatest number of prompts, walking breaks, the best adherence to prompts, the greatest amount of daily time spent in walking breaks, and fastest adherence to prompts (ps < .01). Small but statistically significant decreases in the number of daily walking breaks, adherence to prompts, and minutes per day spent in walking breaks were observed as a function of the number of days spent in a condition (ps < .05). The B-MOBILE JITAI was effective in prompting breaks in sedentary behavior when it was most clinically relevant. Frequent prompts for small change may be an optimal strategy for shaping sedentary behavior, although more research is needed to determine how best to promote long-term adherence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The Meaningful Roles Intervention: An Evolutionary Approach to Reducing Bullying and Increasing Prosocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Volk, Anthony A; Gonzalez, Jose-Michael; Embry, Dennis D

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is a problem that affects adolescents worldwide. Efforts to prevent bullying have been moderately successful at best, or iatrogenic at worst. We offer an explanation for this limited success by employing an evolutionary-psychological perspective to analyze antibullying interventions. We argue that bullying is a goal-directed behavior that is sensitive to benefits as well as costs, and that interventions must address these benefits. This perspective led us to develop a novel antibullying intervention, Meaningful Roles, which offers bullies prosocial alternatives-meaningful roles and responsibilities implemented through a school jobs program and reinforced through peer-to-peer praise notes-that effectively meet the same status goals as bullying behavior. We describe this new intervention and how its theoretical evolutionary roots may be applicable to other intervention programs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  3. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Development of new treatments for drug addiction will depend on high-throughput screening in animal models. However, an addiction biomarker fit for rapid testing, and useful in both humans and animals, is not currently available. Economic models are promising candidates. They offer a structured quantitative approach to modeling behavior that is mathematically identical across species, and accruing evidence indicates economic-based descriptors of human behavior may be particularly useful biomarkers of addiction severity. However, economic demand has not yet been established as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in animals, an essential final step in linking animal and human studies of addiction through economic models. We recently developed a mathematical approach for rapidly modeling economic demand in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. We show here that economic demand, as both a spontaneous trait and induced state, predicts addiction-like behavior, including relapse propensity, drug seeking in abstinence, and compulsive (punished) drug taking. These findings confirm economic demand as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in rats. They also support the view that excessive motivation plays an important role in addiction while extending the idea that drug dependence represents a shift from initially recreational to compulsive drug use. Finally, we found that economic demand for cocaine predicted the efficacy of a promising pharmacotherapy (oxytocin) in attenuating cocaine-seeking behaviors across individuals, demonstrating that economic measures may be used to rapidly identify the clinical utility of prospective addiction treatments. PMID:25071176

  4. Physical education in early education: An intervention program for reducing aggressive and social insecure behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Mouratidou, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effect of a physical education program on the reduction of aggressive and social insecure behavior of young children. The sample comprised of 194 children, aged 4-5 years. The experimental group consisted of 99 children, while the rest 95 children formed the control group. The experimental group participated in an 8-week physical education program, based on physical activities and kinetic theatrical playing, while the control group was engaged in free-pl...

  5. Reducing sexual risk behavior among high-risk couples in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Bagga, Rashmi; Nehra, Ritu; Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Walia, Kamini; Kumar, Mahendra; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Lopez, Maria; Weiss, Stephen M

    2013-09-01

    With a population of 1.1 billion, India is considered to be a country in which effective prevention interventions could contain the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Heterosexual transmission accounts for 85 % of the extant HIV infections. This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a group, culturally tailored behavioral intervention and its impact on sexual barrier use, self-efficacy, knowledge, conflict resolution, and coping among high-risk heterosexual couples in Northern India. This pilot study was conducted at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India from February 2008 to January 2009. Thirty sexually active high-risk couples were drawn from a convenience sample of PGIMER patients attending infectious disease and family planning clinics. Couples participated in 1 month of three weekly gender-concordant behavioral intervention groups and were individually administered assessments preintervention and post-intervention. The intervention was tailored to the Northern Indian context and addressed sexual barrier use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection transmission, and cognitive behavioral skill building focusing on sexual negotiation and communication. The participants had a mean age of 32 years (men) and 29 years (women), and the majority had at least 10 years of education. At baseline, the majority reported inconsistent condom use (knowledge, and women increased their use of positive coping tactics. The results highlight the potential to successfully utilize a group intervention to discuss sensitive issues such as sexual risk behavior among both men and women. Strategies to improve condom use and communication without increasing intimate partner violence in high-risk couples may be an important adjunct to preventing the development of a generalized epidemic in India.

  6. Reduced sympathetic activity in idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Gertrud Laura; Mehlsen, Jesper; Jennum, Poul

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) will develop Parkinson's disease or Lewy body dementia. In a previous study, we found attenuated heart rate responses in iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients during sleep. The current study aimed to evaluate heart rate...... variability further in order to identify possible changes in these components during wakefulness and sleep in patients with iRBD and Parkinson's disease....

  7. Social Integration and Reduced Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: The Role of Lifestyle Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Glymour, Maria; Cornelis, Marilyn; Walter, Stefan; Rimm, Eric B; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-06-09

    Higher social integration is associated with lower cardiovascular mortality; however, whether it is associated with incident coronary heart disease (CHD), especially in women, and whether associations differ by case fatality are unclear. This study sought to examine the associations between social integration and risk of incident CHD in a large female prospective cohort. Seventy-six thousand three hundred and sixty-two women in the Nurses' Health Study, free of CHD and stroke at baseline (1992), were followed until 2014. Social integration was assessed by a simplified Berkman-Syme Social Network Index every 4 years. End points included nonfatal myocardial infarction and fatal CHD. Two thousand three hundred and seventy-two incident CHD events occurred throughout follow-up. Adjusting for demographic, health/medical risk factors, and depressive symptoms, being socially integrated was significantly associated with lower CHD risk, particularly fatal CHD. The most socially integrated women had a hazard ratio of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.73) of developing fatal CHD compared with those least socially integrated ( P for trend social integration and nonfatal myocardial infarction risk were largely explained by health-promoting behaviors, particularly through differences in cigarette smoking; however, the association with fatal CHD risk remained after accounting for these behaviors and, thus, may involve more direct biological mechanisms. Social integration is inversely associated with CHD incidence in women, but is largely explained by lifestyle/behavioral pathways. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The Effect of Branding to Promote Healthy Behavior: Reducing Tobacco Use among Youth and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Donna; Greenberg, Marisa; Xiao, Haijun; Bennett, Morgane; Cantrell, Jennifer; Rath, Jessica; Hair, Elizabeth

    2017-12-07

    Policy interventions such as public health mass media campaigns disseminate messages in order to improve health-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors at the population level. Only more recently have campaigns that promote health-related behaviors adopted branding, a well-established marketing strategy, to influence how consumers think and feel about a message. This study examines whether positive brand equity for the national truth ® campaign is associated with lower likelihood of cigarette use over time using the nationally representative Truth Longitudinal Cohort of youth and young adults, aged 15-21. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between brand equity and the likelihood of reporting past 30-day smoking over a 12-month period. Respondents who reported positive brand equity were significantly less likely to report past 30-day smoking 12 months later (OR = 0.66, p brand equity is a strategic process for health promotion campaigns, not only to improve message recall and salience but also to influence behavioral outcomes.

  9. BDNF-Deficient Mice Show Reduced Psychosis-Related Behaviors Following Chronic Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Elizabeth E; Halberstadt, Adam L; van den Buuse, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    One of the most devastating consequences of methamphetamine abuse is increased risk of psychosis. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor has been implicated in both psychosis and neuronal responses to methamphetamine. We therefore examined persistent psychosis-like behavioral effects of methamphetamine in brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. Mice were chronically treated with methamphetamine from 6 to 9 weeks of age, and locomotor hyperactivity to an acute D-amphetamine challenge was tested in photocell cages after a 2-week withdrawal period. Methamphetamine-treated wild-type mice, but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, showed locomotor sensitization to acute 3mg/kg D-amphetamine. Qualitative analysis of exploration revealed tolerance to D-amphetamine effects on entropy in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, but not wild-type mice. Chronic methamphetamine exposure induces contrasting profiles of behavioral changes in wild-type and brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice, with attenuation of behaviors relevant to psychosis in methamphetamine-treated brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice. This suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor signalling changes may contribute to development of psychosis in methamphetamine users. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  10. Behavioral measures to reduce non-adherence in renal transplant recipients: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Márcia Fátima Faraldo Martinez; Bravin, Ariane Moyses; Garcia, Paula Dalsoglio; Contti, Mariana Moraes; Nga, Hong Si; Takase, Henrique Mochida; de Andrade, Luis Gustavo Modelli

    2015-11-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients present a high rate of non-adherence to drug treatment. Few interventional studies have included approaches aimed at increasing adherence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of an educational and behavioral strategy on treatment adherence of kidney transplant recipients. In a randomized prospective study, incident renal transplant patients (n = 111) were divided into two groups: control group (received usual transplant patient education) and treatment group (usual transplant patient education plus ten additional weekly 30-min education/counseling sessions about immunosuppressive drugs and behavioral changes). Treatment adherence was assessed using ITAS adherence questionnaire after 3 months. Renal function at 3, 6, and 12 months, and the incidence of transplant rejection were evaluated. The non-adherence rates were 46.4 and 14.5 % in the control and treatment groups (p = 0.001), respectively. The relative risk for non-adherence was 2.59 times (CI 1.38-4.88) higher in the control group. Multivariate analysis demonstrated a 5.84 times (CI 1.8-18.8, p = 0.003) higher risk of non-adherence in the control group. There were no differences in renal function and rejection rates between groups. A behavioral and educational strategy addressing the patient's perceptions and knowledge about the anti-rejection drugs significantly improved the short-term adherence to immunosuppressive therapy.

  11. One or many? Which and how many parenting variables should be targeted in interventions to reduce children's externalizing behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loop, Laurie; Mouton, Bénédicte; Stievenart, Marie; Roskam, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    This research compared the efficacy of two parenting interventions that vary according to the number and the nature of variables in reducing preschoolers' externalizing behavior (EB). The goal was to identify which parenting intervention format (one-variable versus two-variable) caused higher behavioral adjustment in children. The first was a one-variable intervention manipulating parental self-efficacy beliefs. The second was a two-variable intervention manipulating both parents' self-efficacy beliefs and emotion coaching practices. The two interventions shared exactly the same design, consisting of eight parent group sessions. Effect on children's EB and observed behaviors were evaluated through a multi-method assessment at three points (pre-test, post-test and follow-up). The results highlighted that compared to the waitlist condition, the two intervention formats tended to cause a significant reduction in children's EB reported by their parent. However, the one-variable intervention was found to lead to a greater decrease in children's EB at follow-up. The opposite was reported for children's observed behavior, which was improved to a greater extent in the two-variable intervention at post-test and follow-up. The results illustrated that interventions' format cannot be considered as purely interchangeable since their impact on children's behavior modification is different. The results are discussed for their research and clinical implications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  13. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  14. STUDY ON REDUCING AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF MILL SCALE/PETROLEUM COKE BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  15. Oxytocin facilitates fidelity in well-established marmoset pairs by reducing sociosexual behavior toward opposite-sex strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Jon; Mustoe, Aaryn C; Taylor, Jack H; French, Jeffrey A

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral strategies that facilitate the maintenance of social bonds are critical for the preservation of high-quality social relationships. Central oxytocin (OT) activity modulates the behavioral features of socially monogamous relationships in a number of mammalian species (including marmoset monkeys), and plays a vital role in the behavioral maintenance of long-term social relationships. Two distinct variants of OT have been identified in some New World primates (including marmosets; Lee et al., 2011). The marmoset variant of the oxytocin ligand (Pro(8)-OT) is structurally distinct from the consensus mammalian variant of the oxytocin ligand (Leu(8)-OT), due to a proline substitution at the 8th amino-acid position. The goal of the present study was to determine if treating marmosets with Pro(8)-OT, relative to treatments with Leu(8)-OT, control saline, or an OT antagonist, had modulatory effects on the behavioral maintenance of long-term social relationships in marmosets. Treatment with the Pro(8) variant, but not the Leu(8) variant, of OT facilitated fidelity with a long-term partner by reducing time spent in close proximity with an opposite-sex stranger. However, this facilitative effect of Pro(8)-OT on proximity behavior manifested itself differently in male and female marmosets, such that females preferred to interact socially with their partner rather than a stranger when treated with Pro(8)-OT, while males spent less time in close proximity with both their partner and a stranger when treated with Pro(8)-OT. Furthermore, treatment with Pro(8)-OT, but not Leu(8)-OT, significantly delayed the expression of sexual solicitation behavior toward an opposite-sex stranger in both male and female marmosets, but had no effect on sociosexual behavior directed toward a long-term partner. These results suggest that the OT system is highly involved in reducing fidelity-threatening behaviors in well-established marmoset pairs, and that the effects were only produced by

  16. Reducing Information's Speed Improves Verbal Cognition and Behavior in Autism: A 2-Cases Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Latzko, Laura; Arciszewski, Thomas; Gepner, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    According to the temporal theory of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), audiovisual changes in environment, particularly those linked to facial and verbal language, are often too fast to be faced, perceived, and/or interpreted online by many children with ASD, which could help explain their facial, verbal, and/or socioemotional interaction impairments. Our goal here was to test for the first time the impact of slowed-down audiovisual information on verbal cognition and behavior in 2 boys with ASD and verbal delay. Using 15 experimental sessions during 4 months, both boys were presented with various stimuli (eg, pictures, words, sentences, cartoons) and were then asked questions or given instructions regarding stimuli. The audiovisual stimuli and instructions/questions were presented on a computer's screen and were always displayed twice: at real-time speed (RTS) and at slowed-down speed (SDS) using the software Logiral. We scored the boys' verbal cognition performance (ie, ability to understand questions/instructions and answer them verbally/nonverbally) and their behavioral reactions (ie, attention, verbal/nonverbal communication, social reciprocity), and analyzed the effects of speed and order of the stimuli presentation on these factors. According to the results, both participants exhibited significant improvements in verbal cognition performance with SDS presentation compared with RTS presentation, and they scored better with RTS presentation when having SDS presentation before rather than after RTS presentation. Behavioral reactions were also improved in SDS conditions compared with RTS conditions. This initial evidence of a positive impact of slowed-down audiovisual information on verbal cognition should be tested in a large cohort of children with ASD and associated speech/language impairments. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Loss of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone markedly reduces anxiety behaviors in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Asai, Masato; Mahoney, Carrie E; Joachim, Maria; Shen, Yuan; Gunner, Georgia; Majzoub, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    A long-standing paradigm posits that hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) regulates neuroendocrine functions such as adrenal glucocorticoid release, while extra-hypothalamic CRH plays a key role in stressor-triggered behaviors. Here we report that hypothalamus-specific Crh knockout mice (Sim1CrhKO mice, created by crossing Crhflox with Sim1Cre mice) have absent Crh mRNA and peptide mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) but preserved Crh expression in other brain regions including amygdala and cerebral cortex. As expected, Sim1CrhKO mice exhibit adrenal atrophy as well as decreased basal, diurnal and stressor-stimulated plasma corticosterone secretion and basal plasma ACTH, but surprisingly, have a profound anxiolytic phenotype when evaluated using multiple stressors including open field, elevated plus maze, holeboard, light-dark box, and novel object recognition task. Restoring plasma corticosterone did not reverse the anxiolytic phenotype of Sim1CrhKO mice. Crh-Cre driver mice revealed that PVHCrh fibers project abundantly to cingulate cortex and the nucleus accumbens shell, and moderately to medial amygdala, locus coeruleus, and solitary tract, consistent with the existence of PVHCrh-dependent behavioral pathways. Although previous, nonselective attenuation of CRH production or action, genetically in mice and pharmacologically in humans, respectively, has not produced the anticipated anxiolytic effects, our data show that targeted interference specifically with hypothalamic Crh expression results in anxiolysis. Our data identify neurons that express both Sim1 and Crh as a cellular entry point into the study of CRH-mediated, anxiety-like behaviors and their therapeutic attenuation. PMID:27595593

  18. Supersensitive Kappa Opioid Receptors Promotes Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Behaviors and Reduce Dopamine Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Chen, Rong; Gioia, Dominic; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C; McCool, Brian A; Jones, Sara R

    2016-05-01

    Chronic ethanol exposure reduces dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, which may contribute to the negative affective symptoms associated with ethanol withdrawal. Kappa opioid receptors have been implicated in withdrawal-induced excessive drinking and anxiety-like behaviors and are known to inhibit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. The effects of chronic ethanol exposure on kappa opioid receptor-mediated changes in dopamine transmission at the level of the dopamine terminal and withdrawal-related behaviors were examined. Five weeks of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in male C57BL/6 mice were used to examine the role of kappa opioid receptors in chronic ethanol-induced increases in ethanol intake and marble burying, a measure of anxiety/compulsive-like behavior. Drinking and marble burying were evaluated before and after chronic intermittent ethanol exposure, with and without kappa opioid receptor blockade by nor-binaltorphimine (10mg/kg i.p.). Functional alterations in kappa opioid receptors were assessed using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens. Chronic intermittent ethanol-exposed mice showed increased ethanol drinking and marble burying compared with controls, which was attenuated with kappa opioid receptor blockade. Chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increases in behavior were replicated with kappa opioid receptor activation in naïve mice. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry revealed that chronic intermittent ethanol reduced accumbal dopamine release and increased uptake rates, promoting a hypodopaminergic state of this region. Kappa opioid receptor activation with U50,488H concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in both groups; however, this effect was greater in chronic intermittent ethanol-treated mice, indicating kappa opioid receptor supersensitivity in this group. These data suggest that the chronic intermittent ethanol-induced increase in ethanol intake and anxiety

  19. Amygdala Lesions Reduce Anxiety-like Behavior in a Human Benzodiazepine-Sensitive Approach-Avoidance Conflict Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Vunder, Johanna; Miró, Júlia; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Hurlemann, Rene; Bach, Dominik R

    2017-10-01

    Rodent approach-avoidance conflict tests are common preclinical models of human anxiety disorder. Their translational validity mainly rests on the observation that anxiolytic drugs reduce rodent anxiety-like behavior. Here, we capitalized on a recently developed approach-avoidance conflict computer game to investigate the impact of benzodiazepines and of amygdala lesions on putative human anxiety-like behavior. In successive epochs of this game, participants collect monetary tokens on a spatial grid while under threat of virtual predation. In a preregistered, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we tested the effect of a single dose (1 mg) of lorazepam (n = 59). We then compared 2 patients with bilateral amygdala lesions due to Urbach-Wiethe syndrome with age- and gender-matched control participants (n = 17). Based on a previous report, the primary outcome measure was the effect of intra-epoch time (i.e., an adaptation to increasing potential loss) on presence in the safe quadrant of the spatial grid. We hypothesized reduced loss adaptation in this measure under lorazepam and in patients with amygdala lesions. Lorazepam and amygdala lesions reduced loss adaptation in the primary outcome measure. We found similar results in several secondary outcome measures. The relative reduction of anxiety-like behavior in patients with amygdala lesions was qualitatively and quantitatively indistinguishable from an impact of anterior hippocampus lesions found in a previous report. Our results establish the translational validity of human approach-avoidance conflict tests in terms of anxiolytic drug action. We identified the amygdala, in addition to the hippocampus, as a critical structure in human anxiety-like behavior. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent Protective Behavior to Reduce Drug and Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Harm and Interpersonal Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary; Chapman, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Typically adolescents' friends are considered a risk factor for adolescent engagement in risk-taking. This study took a more novel approach, by examining adolescent friendship as a protective factor. In particular it investigated friends' potential to intervene to reduce risk-taking. Five-hundred-forty adolescents (mean age 13.47 years) were asked…

  1. Reduced fatalism and increased prevention behavior after two high-profile lung cancer events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B; Leach, Corinne R; Kaufman, Annette R; Moser, Richard P; Alfano, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    The positive impact of media coverage of high-profile cancer events on cancer prevention behaviors is well-established. However, less work has focused on potential adverse psychological reactions to such events, such as fatalism. Conducting 3 studies, the authors explored how the lung cancer death of Peter Jennings and diagnosis of Dana Reeve in 2005 related to fatalism. Analysis of a national media sample in Study 1 found that media coverage of these events often focused on reiterating the typical profile of those diagnosed with lung cancer; 38% of the media mentioned at least 1 known risk factor for lung cancer, most often smoking. Data from a nationally representative survey in Study 2 found that respondents reported lower lung cancer fatalism, after, compared with before, the events (OR = 0.16, 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]). A sustained increase in call volume to the national tobacco Quitline after these events was found in Study 3. These results suggest that there is a temporal association between high-profile cancer events, the subsequent media coverage, psychological outcomes, and cancer prevention behaviors. These results suggest that high-profile cancer events could be leveraged as an opportunity for large-scale public heath communication campaigns through the dissemination of cancer prevention messages and services.

  2. A metacognitive strategy for reducing disruptive behavior in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: GoFAR pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; Taddeo, Elles; Strickland, Dorothy C

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are often characterized by disruptive behavior problems and there are few effective interventions available. GoFAR is a novel, 3-part intervention designed to improve self-regulation and adaptive living skills of children with FASD by improving metacognitive control of emotions and arousal. The intervention has 3 components: (i) GoFAR: a "serious game" designed to teach a metacognitive control strategy in a computer game environment; (ii) parent training on child behavioral regulation; and (iii) Behavior Analog Therapy (BAT) sessions, a practical application of the metacognitive learning methodology by parent and child in the context of learning adaptive skills. The learning strategy (FAR) teaches the child to Focus and make a plan, Act out the plan, and Reflect back on the plan. Thirty families were randomized to 3 groups: (i) GoFAR (n = 10); (ii) FACELAND (n = 10); or (iii) CONTROL (n = 10). The 2 intervention groups, GoFAR and FACELAND, used computer games to instruct children. Both groups also received 5 sessions of parent training followed by 5 sessions of joint parent/child therapy (BAT). Assessment of disruptive behavior, including frequency of temper tantrums, frustration tolerance, impulsivity, destructiveness, aggression, and maintaining attention were carried out before enrollment at Mid-Treatment, when game play and parent training were completed, and finally, after completing the BAT sessions. Parental report of disruptive behavior overall was significantly reduced in the GoFAR group after the first components, game play and parent training, and after the BAT sessions in the FACELAND group with no changes in the CONTROL group over time. The GoFAR(®) game was well received by children and effective in teaching the required skills. Mastering the FAR metacognitive strategy was associated with a reduction in disruptive behaviors in children with FASD suggesting that effective interventions can improve outcomes for

  3. Incensole acetate reduces depressive-like behavior and modulates hippocampal BDNF and CRF expression of submissive animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Gross, Moshe; Nesher, Elimelech; Tikhonov, Tatiana; Yadid, Gal; Pinhasov, Albert

    2012-12-01

    Incensole acetate (IA), a constituent of Boswellia resin ('frankincense'), was previously demonstrated to exhibit an antidepressive-like effect in the Forced Swim Test (FST) in mice following single dose administration (50 mg/kg). Here, we show that acute administration of considerably lower dose (10 mg/kg) IA to selectively bred mice, showing prominent submissive behavior, exerted significant antidepressant-like effects in the FST. Furthermore, chronic administration of 1 or 5 mg/kg per day of IA for three consecutive weeks dose- and time-dependently reduced the submissiveness of the mice in the Dominant-Submissive Relationship test, developed to screen the chronic effect of antidepressants. This behavioral effect was concomitant to reduced serum corticosterone levels, dose-dependent down-regulation of corticotropin releasing factor and up-regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor transcripts IV and VI expression in the hippocampus. These data suggest that IA modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and influences hippocampal gene expression, leading to beneficial behavioral effects supporting its potential as a novel treatment of depressive-like disorders.

  4. State reduced order models for the modelling of the thermal behavior of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menezo, Christophe; Bouia, Hassan; Roux, Jean-Jacques; Depecker, Patrick [Institute National de Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne Cedex, (France). Centre de Thermique de Lyon (CETHIL). Equipe Thermique du Batiment]. E-mail: menezo@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; bouia@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; roux@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr; depecker@insa-cethil-etb.insa-lyon.fr

    2000-07-01

    This work is devoted to the field of building physics and related to the reduction of heat conduction models. The aim is to enlarge the model libraries of heat and mass transfer codes through limiting the considerable dimensions reached by the numerical systems during the modelling process of a multizone building. We show that the balanced realization technique, specifically adapted to the coupling of reduced order models with the other thermal phenomena, turns out to be very efficient. (author)

  5. Behavior of Eurofer97 reduced activation martensitic steel upon heating and continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, A.; Alamo, A.

    2002-01-01

    The phase transformation behavior of the Eurofer97 steel (Fe9Cr1WVTa) has been investigated. The transformation temperatures upon heating and cooling were determined by dilatometry for different rates in the range 0.0028-100 deg. C/s. The prior austenitic grain size of Eurofer97, measured as a function of the austenitization temperature, does not change appreciably up to 1050 deg. C and then increases with increasing austenite temperature from 1050 up to 1200 deg. C. Continuous cooling transformation diagrams were determined for the austenitization temperatures of 980, 1060 and 1140 deg. C. They show a well-known form with two main phase fields, martensite and ferrite. Values of the critical cooling rates and ferrite start temperatures depend on the austenitization temperature. After thermal cycles samples were further characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermoelectric power measurements

  6. Reducing Societal Obesity: Establishing a Separate Exercise Model through Studies of Group Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterbaugh, J S

    2016-01-01

    The past 50 years has brought attention to high and increasing levels of human obesity in most of the industrialized world. The medical profession has noticed, has evaluated, and has developed models for studying, preventing, and reversing obesity. The current model prescribes activity in specific quantities such as days, minutes, heart rates, and footfalls. Although decreased levels of activity have come from changes revolving around built environments and social networks, the existing medical model to lower body weights by increasing activity remains individually prescriptive. It is not working. The study of societal obesity precludes the individual and must involve group behavioral studies. Such studies necessitate acquiring separate tools and, therefore, require a significant change in the evaluation and treatment of obesity. Finding groups with common activities and lower levels of obesity would allow the development of new models of land use and encourage active lifestyles through shared interests.

  7. The vulnerability to suicidal behavior is associated with reduced connectivity strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn eBijttebier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior constitutes a major public health problem. Based on the stress–diathesis model, biological correlates of a diathesis might help to predict risk after stressor-exposure. Structural changes in cortical and subcortical areas and their connections have increasingly been linked with the diathesis. The current study identified structural network changes associated with a diathesis using a whole-brain approach by examining the structural connectivity between regions in euthymic suicide attempters. In addition, the association between connectivity measures, clinical and genetic characteristics was investigated. We hypothesized that suicide attempters showed lower connectivity strength, associated with an increased severity of general clinical characteristics and an elevated expression of short alleles in serotonin polymorphisms.Thirteen euthymic suicide attempters (SA were compared with fifteen euthymic non-attempters and seventeen healthy controls. Clinical characteristics and three serotonin-related genetic polymorphisms were assessed. Diffusion MRI together with anatomical scans were administered. Preprocessing was performed using Explore DTI. Whole brain tractography of the diffusion-weighted images was followed by a number of streamlines-weighted network analysis using NBS.The network analysis revealed decreased connectivity strength in SA in the connections between the left olfactory cortex and left anterior cingulate gyrus. Furthermore, SA had increased suicidal ideation, hopelessness and self-reported depression, but did not show any differences for the genetic polymorphisms. Finally, lower connectivity strength between the right calcarine fissure and the left middle occipital gyrus was associated with increased trait anxiety severity (rs=-0.78, p<0.01 and hopelessness (rs=-0.76, p<0.01.SA showed differences in white matter network connectivity strength associated with clinical characteristics. Together, these variables could

  8. Effect of tungsten and tantalum on the low cycle fatigue behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Vani, E-mail: vani@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India); Mariappan, K.; Nagesha, A.; Prasad Reddy, G.V.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M.D.; Jayakumar, T. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603102 (India)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of tungsten and tantalum on low cycle fatigue behavior of RAFM steels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both alloying elements W and Ta improved fatigue life. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in Ta content improved fatigue life more than W. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of W content at 1.4 wt.%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Softening behavior closely related to W and Ta content. - Abstract: Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are candidate materials for the test blanket modules of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Several degradation mechanisms such as thermal fatigue, low cycle fatigue, creep fatigue interaction, creep, irradiation hardening, swelling and phase instability associated irradiation embrittlement must be understood in order to estimate the component lifetime and issues concerning the structural integrity of components. The current work focuses on the effect of tungsten and tantalum on the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of RAFM steels. Both alloying elements tungsten and tantalum improved the fatigue life. Influence of Ta on increasing fatigue life was an order of magnitude higher than the influence of W on improving the fatigue life. Based on the present study, the W content was optimized at 1.4 wt.%. Softening behavior of RAFM steels showed a strong dependence on W and Ta content in RAFM steels.

  9. Randomized controlled clinical trial of behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement to reduce excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Brannen, Anna; McHugh, Angelica; Hagobian, Todd A; Schaffner, Andrew; Jelalian, Elissa; Hart, Chantelle N; Scholl, Theresa O; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Yin, Elaine; Phipps, Maureen G; Keadle, Sarah; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Behavioral lifestyle interventions during pregnancy can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with normal weight; however, effective interventions to reduce GWG in ethnically diverse women with obesity are lacking. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test whether a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement reduces GWG rate in Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with overweight or obesity relative to enhanced usual care. Participants (n = 257) were recruited in San Luis Obispo, California, and Providence, Rhode Island, between November 2012 and May 2016. Participants were pregnant (mean ± SD: 13.6 ± 1.8 wk of gestation) with overweight or obesity and had a mean age of 30.3 y; 41.6% of participants were Hispanic. Women were randomly assigned within site and by ethnicity to enhanced usual care (n = 128) or to a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement (n = 129). The primary outcome was GWG per week of observation. Secondary outcomes were proportions exceeding Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for total GWG, changes in weight-control behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk factors, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Study retention was 99.6% (256 of 257). The intervention compared with usual care resulted in less mean ± SD weekly GWG (0.33 ± 0.25 compared with 0.39 ± 0.23 kg/wk; P = 0.02) and total GWG (9.4 ± 6.9 compared with 11.2 ± 7.0 kg; P = 0.03) and reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines for total GWG (41.1% compared with 53.9%; P = 0.03). No significant group × time × demographic subgroup (ethnicity, BMI, age, parity, and income) interactions were observed. Among intervention participants, greater meal replacement intake was related to reduced GWG rate (β = -0.07; 95% CI:-0.12, -0.03; P = 0.002). The intervention compared with usual care increased weight-control strategies (P meal replacement significantly reduced GWG in Hispanic

  10. [Development and Effects of a Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Based Program in Reducing Internalized Stigma in Patients with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Jun, Seong Sook

    2016-06-01

    This study was done to develop a internalized stigma reducing program based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and appropriate for patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate its effectiveness. The study design was a mixed method research. Qualitative study, 13 patients with schizophrenia who had experience in overcoming stigma were purposively chosen for interviews and data were analyzed using Giorgi method. Quantitative study, 64 patients with schizophrenia (experimental group=32, control group=32) were recruited. The cognitive-behavioral therapy-based program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia was provided for 8 weeks (12 sessions). Data were collected from June. 20, 2013 to Feb. 14, 2014. Quantitative data were analyzed using χ²-test, t-test, repeated measures ANOVA with the SPSS program. Qualitative results, from the experience of coping with stigma in patients with schizophrenia seventeen themes and five themes-clusters were drawn up. Quantitative results showed that internalized stigma, self-esteem, mental health recovery and quality of life were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. Study findings indicate that this program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia is effective and can be recommended as a rehabilitation program intervention to help patients with schizophrenia to cope with internalized stigma.

  11. Do nonphysical punishments reduce antisocial behavior more than spanking? a comparison using the strongest previous causal evidence against spanking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Ronald B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strongest causal evidence that customary spanking increases antisocial behavior is based on prospective studies that control statistically for initial antisocial differences. None of those studies have investigated alternative disciplinary tactics that parents could use instead of spanking, however. Further, the small effects in those studies could be artifactual due to residual confounding, reflecting child effects on the frequency of all disciplinary tactics. This study re-analyzes the strongest causal evidence against customary spanking and uses these same methods to determine whether alternative disciplinary tactics are more effective in reducing antisocial behavior. Methods This study re-analyzed a study by Straus et al.1 on spanking and antisocial behavior using a sample of 785 children who were 6 to 9 years old in the 1988 cohort of the American National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The comprehensiveness and reliability of the covariate measure of initial antisocial behavior were varied to test for residual confounding. All analyses were repeated for grounding, privilege removal, and sending children to their room, and for psychotherapy. To account for covarying use of disciplinary tactics, the analyses were redone first for the 73% who had reported using at least one discipline tactic and second by controlling for usage of other disciplinary tactics and psychotherapy. Results The apparently adverse effect of spanking on antisocial behavior was replicated using the original trichotomous covariate for initial antisocial behavior. A similar pattern of adverse effects was shown for grounding and psychotherapy and partially for the other two disciplinary tactics. All of these effects became non-significant after controlling for latent comprehensive measures of externalizing behavior problems. Conclusions These results are consistent with residual confounding, a statistical artifact that makes all corrective actions by

  12. Which Type of Sedentary Behavior Intervention is More Effective at Reducing Body Mass Index in Children? A Meta-Analytic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Yue; Liao, Jingjing; Durand, Casey P.; Dunton, Genevieve F

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is emerging as an independent risk factor for pediatric obesity. Some evidence suggests that limiting sedentary behavior alone could be effective in reducing body mass index (BMI) in children. However, whether adding physical activity and diet-focused components to sedentary behavior reduction interventions could lead to an additive effect is unclear. This meta-analysis aims to assess the overall effect size of sedentary behavior interventions on BMI reduction, and to compa...

  13. Efficacy of behavioral intervention in reducing anxiety and depression among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Velayudhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a days, college students frequently have more complex problems than they used to have over a decade ago - greater difficulties in relationships; and more severe problems, such as depression, anxiety and thoughts of suicide. Counseling helps students to understand themselves and the world around them, and to adjust themselves more efficiently and appropriately to other fellow beings. Aim: To determine as to what extent the medical students were able to cope up with their anxiety and depression with the help of counseling. Materials and Methods: In the experimental design ′Before-and -after with control design′, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to 120 medical students who were randomly selected from a private medical college, comprising of 30 males and 30 females in each of the two groups, viz., the experimental group and the control group. Statistical analysis: Means, standard deviations, t test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: Anxiety and depression among the students were found to be reduced after counseling. Male and female students in the experimental group showed decrease in the levels of anxiety and depression; whereas the control group, which did not get the benefit of counseling, continued to have the same levels of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Counseling is helpful in building self-confidence and the capacity to adjust, by reducing anxiety and depression among medical college students.

  14. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S; Sieving, Renee E; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, B R Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-09-02

    Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of TeensTalkHealth, an interactive sexual health website designed to promote condom use and other healthy decision making in the context of romantic and sexual relationships. Evaluation data were obtained from 147 adolescents who participated in a feasibility and acceptability study. Video vignettes, teen-friendly articles, and other content served as conversation catalysts between adolescents and health educators on message boards. Adolescents' perceptions that the website encouraged condom use across a variety of relationship situations were very high. Almost 60% (54/92, 59%) of intervention participants completed two-thirds or more of requested tasks across the 4-month intervention. Adolescents reported high levels of comfort, perceived privacy, ease of website access and use, and perceived credibility of health educators. Potential strategies to enhance engagement and completion of intervention tasks during future implementations of TeensTalkHealth are discussed, including tailoring of content, periodic website chats with health educators and anonymous peers, and greater incorporation of features from popular social networking websites. TeensTalkHealth is a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to complement and enhance existing services for youth.

  15. Can power and anaerobic capacity reduce according to disordered eating behaviors in cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=3.92; p=0.13. Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=36.43; p=0.01. The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=46.03; p=0.01. It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP.

  16. Damage behavior in helium-irradiated reduced-activation martensitic steels at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fengfeng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Guo, Liping, E-mail: guolp@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Jihong; Li, Tiecheng; Zheng, Zhongcheng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education, Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston K7L 3N6, ON (Canada); Suo, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Mould Technology, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Dislocation loops induced by helium irradiation at elevated temperatures in reduced-activation martensitic steels were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Steels were irradiated with 100 keV helium ions to 0.8 dpa between 300 K and 723 K. At irradiation temperatures T{sub irr} ⩽ 573 K, small defects with both Burger vectors b = 1/2〈1 1 1〉 and b = 〈1 0 0〉 were observed, while at T{sub irr} ⩾ 623 K, the microstructure was dominated by large convoluted interstitial dislocation loops with b = 〈1 0 0〉. Only small cavities were found in the steels irradiated at 723 K.

  17. Acute Stressors Reduce Neural and Behavioral Inhibition to Food Cues among Binge Eating Disorder Symptomatic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyong Lyu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Stressors can trigger binge-eating but researchers have yet to consider their effects on both neural responses to food cues and food consumption among those at risk. In this experiment, we examined the impact of acute stressors on neural activation to food images and subsequent food consumption within binge-eating disorder (BED and non-eating disordered control groups. Eighteen women meeting DSM-IV BED criteria and 26 women serving as non-eating disordered controls were randomly assigned to unpleasant stressor (painful cold pressor test followed by negative performance feedback or less unpleasant stressor (non-painful sensory discrimination task followed by positive performance feedback conditions. Subsequently, they were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing food and neutral images. After the scans, participants completed a self-report battery in an environment conducive to snacking. During exposure to food images, BED-symptomatic women in the unpleasant stressor condition reported more liking of high calorie food images and showed less activation in one inhibitory area, the hippocampus, compared to controls in this condition. BED-symptomatic women exposed to unpleasant stressors also consumed more chocolate than any other group during the post-scan questionnaire completion. Crucially, reduced hippocampal activation to high calorie food images predicted more chocolate consumption following fMRI scans within the entire sample. This experiment provides initial evidence suggesting unpleasant acute stressors contribute to reduced inhibitory region responsiveness in relation to external food cues and later food consumption among BED-symptomatic women.

  18. Intragastric preloads of l-tryptophan reduce ingestive behavior via oxytocinergic neural mechanisms in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Sarah N; Aidney, Fraser; Klockars, Anica; Prosser, Colin; Carpenter, Elizabeth A; Isgrove, Kiriana; Levine, Allen S; Olszewski, Pawel K

    2018-06-01

    Human and laboratory animal studies suggest that dietary supplementation of a free essential amino acid, l-tryptophan (TRP), reduces food intake. It is unclear whether an acute gastric preload of TRP decreases consumption and whether central mechanisms underlie TRP-driven hypophagia. We examined the effect of TRP administered via intragastric gavage on energy- and palatability-induced feeding in mice. We sought to identify central mechanisms through which TRP suppresses appetite. Effects of TRP on consumption of energy-dense and energy-dilute tastants were established in mice stimulated to eat by energy deprivation or palatability. A conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was used to assess whether hypophagia is unrelated to sickness. c-Fos immunohistochemistry was employed to detect TRP-induced activation of feeding-related brain sites and of oxytocin (OT) neurons, a crucial component of satiety circuits. Also, expression of OT mRNA was assessed with real-time PCR. The functional importance of OT in mediating TRP-driven hypophagia was substantiated by showing the ability of OT receptor blockade to abolish TRP-induced decrease in feeding. TRP reduced intake of energy-dense standard chow in deprived animals and energy-dense palatable chow in sated mice. Anorexigenic doses of TRP did not cause a CTA. TRP failed to affect intake of palatable yet calorie-dilute or noncaloric solutions (10% sucrose, 4.1% Intralipid or 0.1% saccharin) even for TRP doses that decreased water intake in thirsty mice. Fos analysis revealed that TRP increases activation of several key feeding-related brain areas, especially in the brain stem and hypothalamus. TRP activated hypothalamic OT neurons and increased OT mRNA levels, whereas pretreatment with an OT antagonist abolished TRP-driven hypophagia. We conclude that intragastric TRP decreases food and water intake, and TRP-induced hypophagia is partially mediated via central circuits that encompass OT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  19. An Interactive Website to Reduce Sexual Risk Behavior: Process Evaluation of TeensTalkHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieving, Renee E; Terveen, Loren G; Rosser, BR Simon; Kodet, Amy J; Rothberg, Vienna D

    2015-01-01

    Background Different theoretical frameworks support the use of interactive websites to promote sexual health. Although several Web-based interventions have been developed to address sexual risk taking among young people, no evaluated interventions have attempted to foster behavior change through moderated interaction among a virtual network of adolescents (who remain anonymous to one another) and health professionals. Objective The objective was to conduct a summative process evaluation of TeensTalkHealth, an interactive sexual health website designed to promote condom use and other healthy decision making in the context of romantic and sexual relationships. Methods Evaluation data were obtained from 147 adolescents who participated in a feasibility and acceptability study. Video vignettes, teen-friendly articles, and other content served as conversation catalysts between adolescents and health educators on message boards. Results Adolescents’ perceptions that the website encouraged condom use across a variety of relationship situations were very high. Almost 60% (54/92, 59%) of intervention participants completed two-thirds or more of requested tasks across the 4-month intervention. Adolescents reported high levels of comfort, perceived privacy, ease of website access and use, and perceived credibility of health educators. Potential strategies to enhance engagement and completion of intervention tasks during future implementations of TeensTalkHealth are discussed, including tailoring of content, periodic website chats with health educators and anonymous peers, and greater incorporation of features from popular social networking websites. Conclusions TeensTalkHealth is a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to complement and enhance existing services for youth. PMID:26336157

  20. The clinical effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy and an alternative medicine approach in reducing symptoms of depression in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhandeh, Mansoureh; Talib, Mansor Abu; Hunt, Caroline Jane

    2016-05-30

    The main aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two psychotherapeutic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and a complementary medicine method Reiki, in reducing depression scores in adolescents. We recruited 188 adolescent patients who were 12-17 years old. Participants were randomly assigned to CBT, Reiki or wait-list. Depression scores were assessed before and after the 12 week interventions or wait-list. CBT showed a significantly greater decrease in Child Depression Inventory (CDI) scores across treatment than both Reiki (peffect for Reiki than did female participants. Both CBT and Reiki were effective in reducing the symptoms of depression over the treatment period, with effect for CBT greater than Reiki. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for treatment of depression using both cognitive and complementary medicine approaches. However, research that tests complementary therapies over a follow-up period and against a placebo treatment is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Chase

    Full Text Available Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  2. Electromechanical Behavior of Chemically Reduced Graphene Oxide and Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchirouf, Abderrahmane; Müller, Christian; Kanoun, Olfa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose strain-sensitive thin films based on chemically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) without adding any further surfactants. In spite of the insulating properties of the thin-film-based GO due to the presence functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, and carbonyl groups in its atomic structure, a significant enhancement of the film conductivity was reached by chemical reduction with hydro-iodic acid. By optimizing the MWCNT content, a significant improvement of electrical and mechanical thin film sensitivity is realized. The optical properties and the morphology of the prepared thin films were studied using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis spectra showed the ability to tune the band gap of the GO by changing the MWCNT content, whereas the SEM indicated that the MWCNTs were well dissolved and coated by the GO. Investigations of the piezoresistive properties of the hybrid nanocomposite material under mechanical load show a linear trend between the electrical resistance and the applied strain. A relatively high gauge factor of 8.5 is reached compared to the commercial metallic strain gauges. The self-assembled hybrid films exhibit outstanding properties in electric conductivity, mechanical strength, and strain sensitivity, which provide a high potential for use in strain-sensing applications.

  3. Investigation of the behavior of connection of reduced-beam-section steel beam to reinforced concrete column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Babaeenezhad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After recent earthquakes that caused major damages in beam-column connections, scientists and engineers proposed new types of connections to postpone such brittle failures. One of these new connections is the connection of steel beam to concrete column and connection of reduced- beam-section to steel column. However, these new connections have some defects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the combination of RCS and RBS connection and assess the behavior of new combined connection. In this type of connection, a beam with reduced section at the end is connected to a concrete column. In such a detail, the main defect of RCS and RBS connection disappears. The connection was modeled using Abaqus finite element package and the effect of cut of the flange, cover-plate thickness and stiffener thickness in the new system were investigated and compared with those in RCS connection.  The results show that cut of flange has a great influence on compressive damage and tensile damage. Furthermore, cut of flange decreases the stress in the cover-plate, stiffener and reinforcements. Increasing the thickness of cover-plate, reduces stress in cover-plate. The use of reduced-beam-section instead of ordinary connection improves the connection overall performance.

  4. Minor corral changes and adoption of good handling practices can improve the behavior and reduce cortisol release in Nellore cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria Lúcia Pereira; Negrão, João Alberto; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Grandin, Temple

    2018-03-01

    Inadequate corral facilities and improper handling are major causes of stress in beef cattle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of minor changes in the corral and adoption of good handling practices on the behavior, cortisol release, and time spent taking blood samples in Nellore cows. Minor corral changes included obstructing the cow's vision when the handler walked deep into the animal's flight zone and the elimination of bright objects, color contrasts, puddles, shadows, and darkness in the corral. Handling was improved by eliminating dogs, electric goads (prods), and yelling, as well as adopting a calm behavior. A total of 141 Nellore cows from two typical extensive livestock farms were studied. The cows were evaluated individually before and after the corral changes. Blood samples were collected in the restraint device for cortisol measurement. The minor corral changes and the adoption of good handling practices result in better results for all variables studied. The results showed differences in the interactions between treatment and ranch for chute score (P = 0.0091) and exit score (P good handling practices were effective in improving cow behavior in the chute and in reducing exit velocity, cortisol released, and the time spent taking blood samples.

  5. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of RNG105 (Caprin1) heterozygous mice: Reduced social interaction and attenuated response to novelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Rie; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Shiina, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    RNG105 (also known as Caprin1) is a major RNA-binding protein in neuronal RNA granules, and is responsible for mRNA transport to dendrites and neuronal network formation. A recent study reported that a heterozygous mutation in the Rng105 gene was found in an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, but it remains unclear whether there is a causal relation between RNG105 deficiency and ASD. Here, we subjected Rng105+/− mice to a comprehensive behavioral test battery, and revealed the influence of RNG105 deficiency on mouse behavior. Rng105+/− mice exhibited a reduced sociality in a home cage and a weak preference for social novelty. Consistently, the Rng105+/− mice also showed a weak preference for novel objects and novel place patterns. Furthermore, although the Rng105+/− mice exhibited normal memory acquisition, they tended to have relative difficulty in reversal learning in the spatial reference tasks. These findings suggest that the RNG105 heterozygous knockout leads to a reduction in sociality, response to novelty and flexibility in learning, which are implicated in ASD-like behavior. PMID:26865403

  6. Gradual training of alpacas to the confinement of metabolism pens reduces stress when normal excretion behavior is accommodated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kirrin E; Maloney, Shane K; Milton, John T B; Blache, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Confinement in metabolism pens may provoke a stress response in alpacas that will reduce the welfare of the animal and jeopardize the validity of scientific results obtained in such pens. In this study, we tested a protocol designed to successfully train alpacas to be held in a specially designed metabolism pen so that the animals' confinement would not jeopardize their welfare. We hypothesized that the alpacas would show fewer behaviors associated with a response to stress as training gradually progressed, and that they would adapt to being in the confinement of the metabolism pen. The training protocol was successful at introducing alpacas to the metabolism pens, and it did reduce the incidence of behavioral responses to stress as the training progressed. The success of the training protocol may be attributed to the progressive nature of the training, the tailoring of the protocol to suit alpacas, and the use of positive reinforcement. This study demonstrated that both animal welfare and the validity of the scientific outcomes could be maximized by the gradual training of experimental animals, thereby minimizing the stress imposed on the animals during experimental procedures.

  7. Domestic food practices: A study of food management behaviors and the role of food preparation planning in reducing waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Simona; Grappi, Silvia; Bagozzi, Richard P; Barone, Ada Maria

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1; N = 514) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2; N = 456) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste. Lastly, findings from a field experiment (Study 3; N = 210) suggest that a specific educational intervention, directed at increasing consumers' perceived skills related to food preparation planning behaviors, reduces domestic food waste. Implications of the research for policy makers and the food industry are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Working memory in schizophrenia: behavioral and neural evidence for reduced susceptibility to item-specific proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, Christoph P; Loosli, Sandra V; Rahm, Benjamin; Gössel, Astrid; Schieting, Stephan; Hornig, Tobias; Hennig, Jürgen; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Weiller, Cornelius; Katzev, Michael

    2014-09-15

    Susceptibility to item-specific proactive interference (PI) contributes to interindividual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and complex cognition relying on WM. Although WM deficits are a well-recognized impairment in schizophrenia, the underlying pathophysiological effects on specific WM control functions, such as the ability to resist item-specific PI, remain unknown. Moreover, opposing hypotheses on increased versus reduced PI susceptibility in schizophrenia are both justifiable by the extant literature. To provide first insights into the behavioral and neural correlates of PI-related WM control in schizophrenia, a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment was conducted in a sample of 20 patients and 20 well-matched control subjects. Demands on item-specific PI were experimentally manipulated in a recent-probes task (three runs, 64 trials each) requiring subjects to encode and maintain a set of four target items per trial. Compared with healthy control subjects, schizophrenia patients showed a significantly reduced PI susceptibility in both accuracy and latency measures. Notably, reduced PI susceptibility in schizophrenia was not associated with overall WM impairments and thus constituted an independent phenomenon. In addition, PI-related activations in inferior frontal gyrus and anterior insula, typically assumed to support PI resistance, were reduced in schizophrenia, thus ruling out increased neural efforts as a potential cause of the patients' reduced PI susceptibility. The present study provides first evidence for a diminished vulnerability of schizophrenia patients to item-specific PI, which is presumably a consequence of the patients' more efficient clearing of previously relevant WM traces and the accordingly reduced likelihood for item-specific PI to occur. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dim light at night provokes depression-like behaviors and reduces CA1 dendritic spine density in female hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Haim, Abraham; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of major depression has increased in recent decades; however, the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain unspecified. One environmental change that has coincided with elevated rates of depression is increased exposure to artificial light at night. Shift workers and others chronically exposed to light at night are at increased risk of mood disorders, suggesting that nighttime illumination may influence brain mechanisms mediating affect. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to dim light at night may impact affective responses and alter morphology of hippocampal neurons. Ovariectomized adult female Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were housed for 8 weeks in either a light/dark cycle (LD) or a light/dim light cycle (DM), and then behavior was assayed. DM-hamsters displayed more depression-like responses in the forced swim and the sucrose anhedonia tests compared with LD-hamsters. Conversely, in the elevated plus maze DM-hamsters reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Brains from the same animals were processed using the Golgi-Cox method and hippocampal neurons within CA1, CA3, and the dentate gyrus were analyzed for morphological characteristics. In CA1, DM-hamsters significantly reduced dendritic spine density on both apical and basilar dendrites, an effect which was not mediated by baseline cortisol, as concentrations were equivalent between groups. These results demonstrate dim light at night is sufficient to reduce synaptic spine connections to CA1. Importantly, the present results suggest that night-time low level illumination, comparable to levels that are pervasive in North America and Europe, may contribute to the increasing prevalence of mood disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in the behavior of 233Pa, 237Np and 239 Pu in bentonite contaminated by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, A.; Fujikawa, Y.; Takigami, H.; Zheng, J.; Asano, H.; Arai, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ito, M.

    1998-01-01

    The behaviors of 233 Pa, 237 Np and 239 Pu in high level radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing were investigated by a laboratory experiment. Radioactive wastes are glassified and disposed of in geological repositories encased in bentonite as an additional artificial barrier to protect the environment. There is, however, the possibility that some anaerobic bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria, may flourish within the bentonite during the long disposal period (more than a century). The effects of sulfate-reducing bacteria on the behavior of the radionuclides within bentonite were investigated using the distribution coefficient (Kd) of 233 Pa, 237 Np and 239 Pu. The Kd was obtained with a 0.22 m membrane filter separating radionuclide contents in solid and liquid phases. The anaerobic bacteria, including sulfate-reducing bacteria, used for this investigation originated from the anaerobic treatment of pulp and paper waste and operated for more than one year at Eh around -85 mV. The bentonite used for this study was produced in Japan. The active anaerobic bacteria clearly accumulates considerable amounts of 233 Pa and 239 Pu by producing high Kd values of nearly 100,000, while Kds of 233 Pa and 239 Pu for the sterilized anaerobic bacteria were less than 10,000. In other words, live anaerobic bacteria can hold considerably higher amounts of the radionuclides compared to dead bacteria. Furthermore, high Kd values were obtained for anaerobic bacteria at pH 5-9. In contrast, Kd values for the radionuclide 237 Np were not influenced by the anaerobic bacteria but were controlled by chemical environmental conditions such as like pH. Another comparison was conducted for the radionuclides for mixtures of non-sterilized bacteria with bentonite. (author)

  11. The effects of varied extinction procedures on contingent cue-induced reinstatement in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalari, Deanne M; Feltenstein, Matthew W; See, Ronald E

    2013-11-01

    Cue exposure therapy, which attempts to limit relapse by reducing reactivity to cocaine-paired cues through repeated exposures, has had limited success. The current experiments examined cocaine cue-induced anxiogenesis and investigated whether a model of cue exposure therapy would reduce reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats with a history of cocaine self-administration. Male rats experienced daily intravenous cocaine self-administration. Rats then experienced exposure to either the self-administration context or the context plus noncontingent presentations of cocaine-paired cues. Immediately following exposure, anxiety-like behavior was measured using elevated plus maze and defensive burying tests. In a second group of rats, self-administration was followed by 7 days of exposure to the context, context + noncontingent cue exposure, lever extinction, or cue + lever extinction. All animals then underwent two contingent cue-induced reinstatement tests separated by 7 days of lever extinction. Exposure to noncontingent cocaine-paired cues in the self-administration context increased anxiety-like behavior on the defensive burying test. Animals that experienced lever + cue extinction displayed the least cocaine seeking on the first reinstatement test, and lever extinction reduced cocaine seeking below context exposure or context + noncontingent cue exposure. All animals had similar levels of cocaine seeking on the second reinstatement test. Noncontingent cue exposure causes anxiety, and noncontingent cue and context exposure are less effective at reducing contingent cue-induced reinstatement than lever or lever + cue extinction. These data indicate that active extinction of the drug-taking response may be critical for reduction of relapse proclivity in former cocaine users.

  12. Influence of calcareous deposit on corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel with sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Jiangwei; Xu, Weichen; Duan, Jizhou; Chen, Shougang; Hou, Baorong

    2017-12-01

    Cathodic protection is a very effective method to protect metals, which can form calcareous deposits on metal surface. Research on the interrelationship between fouling organism and calcareous deposits is very important but very limited, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB is a kind of very important fouling organism that causes microbial corrosion of metals. A study of the influence of calcareous deposit on corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel in SRB-containing culture medium was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface spectroscopy (EDS). The calcareous deposit was formed with good crystallinity and smooth surface under the gradient current density of -30 μA cm-2 in natural seawater for 72 h. Our results can help elucidate the formation of calcareous deposits and reveal the interrelationship between SRB and calcareous deposits under cathodic protection. The results indicate that the corrosion tendency of carbon steel was obviously affected by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria (SRB) metabolic activity and the calcareous deposit formed on the surface of carbon steel under cathodic protection was favourable to reduce the corrosion rate. Calcareous deposits can promote bacterial adhesion before biofilm formation. The results revealed the interaction between biofouling and calcareous deposits, and the anti-corrosion ability was enhanced by a kind of inorganic and organic composite membranes formed by biofilm and calcareous deposits.

  13. Treatment of supragastric belching with cognitive behavioral therapy improves quality of life and reduces acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasinovic, E; Wynter, E; Arguero, J; Ooi, J; Nakagawa, K; Yazaki, E; Hajek, P; Psych, C Clin; Woodland, P; Sifrim, D

    2018-04-01

    Excessive supragastric belching (SGB) manifests as troublesome belching, and can be associated with reflux and significant impact on quality of life (QOL). In some GERD patients, SGB-associated reflux contributes to up to 1/3 of the total esophageal acid exposure. We hypothesized that a cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBT) might reduce SGB, improve QOL, and reduce acid gastroesophageal reflux (GOR). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of CBT in patients with pathological SGB. Patients with SGB were recruited at the Royal London Hospital. Patients attended CBT sessions focused on recognition of warning signals and preventative exercises. Objective outcomes were the number of SGBs, esophageal acid exposure time (AET), and proportion of AET related to SGBs. Subjective evaluation was by patient-reported questionnaires. Of 51 patients who started treatment, 39 completed the protocol, of whom 31 had a follow-up MII-pH study. The mean number of SGBs decreased significantly after CBT (before: 116 (47-323) vs. after 45 (22-139), P50%. In patients with increased AET at baseline, AET after CBT was decreased: 9.0-6.1% (P=0.005). Mean visual analog scale severity scores decreased after CBT (before: 260 (210-320) mm vs. after: 140 (80-210) mm, Pacid reflux predominantly driven by SGB. In these patients, CBT can reduce esophageal acid exposure.

  14. Evaluation of Two Interventions to Reduce Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior in First and Second Graders in a Resource-Poor Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Martinez, Jose William; Le, Brenda; Rojas, Carlos; Duque, Adriana; Tovar, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 2491) to evaluate a teacher delivered intervention to reduce aggressive and antisocial behavior and increase prosocial behavior in the classroom. A second aim of this trial was to establish whether combining this intervention with an intervention for parents was better than the…

  15. Effectiveness of a Program Using a Vehicle Tracking System, Incentives, and Disincentives to Reduce the Speeding Behavior of Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Paula T.; Porter, Bryan E.; Ball, J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this article, the authors investigated the effectiveness of a behavior modification program using global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking devices with contingency incentives and disincentives to reduce the speeding behavior of drivers with ADHD. Method: Using an AB multiple-baseline design, six participants drove a 5-mile…

  16. Effect of W and Ta on creep–fatigue interaction behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, Vani, E-mail: vani@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad 382428 (India); Mariappan, K.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.; Kumar, E. Rajendra [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Institute for Plasma Research, Ahmedabad 382428 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • SR correlated with deformation under CFI in RAFM steels. • Stress relaxation directly related to plastic strain accumulated, inversely to CFI life. • Optimum combination of W and Ta best for CFI life. • RAFM steels demonstrated compressive dwell sensitivity. • SR tends toward constant value at long hold. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to understand the effect of varying tungsten and tantalum contents on creep–fatigue interaction (CFI) behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels. Increase in W improved CFI life. Effect of changing Ta and W upon the resultant CFI life seems to be interrelated and an optimum combination of both W and Ta works out to be the best for CFI life. Stress relaxation obtained during application of hold can be a useful parameter to relate deformation and damage in the RAFM steels.

  17. Effect of W and Ta on creep–fatigue interaction behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, Vani; Mariappan, K.; Sandhya, R.; Laha, K.; Jayakumar, T.; Kumar, E. Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SR correlated with deformation under CFI in RAFM steels. • Stress relaxation directly related to plastic strain accumulated, inversely to CFI life. • Optimum combination of W and Ta best for CFI life. • RAFM steels demonstrated compressive dwell sensitivity. • SR tends toward constant value at long hold. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to understand the effect of varying tungsten and tantalum contents on creep–fatigue interaction (CFI) behavior of reduced activation ferritic–martensitic (RAFM) steels. Increase in W improved CFI life. Effect of changing Ta and W upon the resultant CFI life seems to be interrelated and an optimum combination of both W and Ta works out to be the best for CFI life. Stress relaxation obtained during application of hold can be a useful parameter to relate deformation and damage in the RAFM steels.

  18. Impact of Heterogeneity in Sexual Behavior on Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Transmission with Test-and-Treat Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganna Rozhnova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The WHO's early-release guideline for antiretroviral treatment (ART of HIV infection based on a recent trial conducted in 34 countries recommends starting treatment immediately upon an HIV diagnosis. Therefore, the test-and-treat strategy may become more widely used in an effort to scale up HIV treatment and curb further transmission. Here we examine behavioural determinants of HIV transmission and how heterogeneity in sexual behaviour influences the outcomes of this strategy. Using a deterministic model, we perform a systematic investigation into the effects of various mixing patterns in a population of men who have sex with men (MSM, stratified by partner change rates, on the elimination threshold and endemic HIV prevalence. We find that both the level of overdispersion in the distribution of the number of sexual partners and mixing between population subgroups have a large influence on endemic prevalence before introduction of ART and on possible long term effectiveness of ART. Increasing heterogeneity in risk behavior may lead to lower endemic prevalence levels, but requires higher coverage levels of ART for elimination. Elimination is only feasible for populations with a rather low degree of assortativeness of mixing and requires treatment coverage of almost 80% if rates of testing and treatment uptake by all population subgroups are equal. In this case, for fully assortative mixing and 80% coverage endemic prevalence is reduced by 57%. In the presence of heterogeneity in ART uptake, elimination is easier to achieve when the subpopulation with highest risk behavior is tested and treated more often than the rest of the population, and vice versa when it is less. The developed framework can be used to extract information on behavioral heterogeneity from existing data which is otherwise hard to determine from population surveys.

  19. Behavioral interventions to reduce risk for sexual transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wayne D; Diaz, Rafael M; Flanders, William D; Goodman, Michael; Hill, Andrew N; Holtgrave, David; Malow, Robert; McClellan, William M

    2008-07-16

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at great risk for HIV infection. Program planners and policy makers need descriptions of interventions and quantitative estimates of intervention effects to make informed decisions concerning prevention funding and research. The number of intervention strategies for MSM that have been examined with strong research designs has increased substantially in the past few years. 1. To locate and describe outcome studies evaluating the effects of behavioral HIV prevention interventions for MSM.2. To summarize the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing unprotected anal sex.3. To identify study characteristics associated with effectiveness.4. To identify gaps and indicate future research, policy, and practice needs. We searched electronic databases, current journals, manuscripts submitted by researchers, bibliographies of relevant articles, conference proceedings, and other reviews for published and unpublished reports from 1988 through December 2007. We also asked researchers working in HIV prevention about new and ongoing studies. Studies were considered in scope if they examined the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing risk for HIV or STD transmission among MSM. We reviewed studies in scope for criteria of outcome relevance (measurement of at least one of a list of behavioral or biologic outcomes, e.g., unprotected sex or incidence of HIV infections) and methodologic rigor (randomized controlled trials or certain strong quasi-experimental designs with comparison groups). We used fixed and random effects models to summarize rate ratios (RR) comparing intervention and control groups with respect to count outcomes (number of occasions of or partners for unprotected anal sex), and corresponding prevalence ratios (PR) for dichotomous outcomes (any unprotected anal sex vs. none). We used published formulas to convert effect sizes and their variances for count and dichotomous outcomes where necessary. We accounted

  20. Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy Reduces Stress and Improves the Quality of Life in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadinia, Anousha; Meyer, Antonia; Bruegger, Viviane; Hatz, Florian; Nowak, Karolina; Taub, Ethan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Fuhr, Peter; Gschwandtner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to compare a cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBT) with a health enhancement program (HEP) for stress reduction and the impact on quality of life (QoL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method : Thirty patients with PD participated in the study: 16 received CBT including stress-reducing elements and 14 took part in a HEP. The two groups did not differ significantly in their baseline demographic characteristics. The patients in both groups underwent weekly sessions of 2 h duration for 9 weeks. The Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire with 39 items (PDQ-39), the Burden Questionnaire for Parkinson's Disease (translated from the original German: Belastungsfragebogen für Parkinsonpatienten (BELA) and the Disease-Related Questionnaire [ Fragebogen zur krankheitsbezogenen Kommunikation (FKK)] were used for assessment. Ratings were completed at baseline and after 9 weeks (immediately after the last treatment session). Results : The patients in the CBT group achieved significantly better BELA, FKK and PDQ-39 scores ( p Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy appears to be an effective way for patients with PD to lessen stress and improve their quality of life.

  1. A Mobile Multimedia Reminiscence Therapy Application to Reduce Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Persons with Alzheimer’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Imtiaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project is to develop a novel and innovative mobile solution to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD that occur in individuals with Alzheimer’s. BPSD can include agitation, restlessness, aggression, apathy, obsessive-compulsive and repetitive behaviors, hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and wandering. Alzheimer’s currently affects 5.4 million adults in the United States and that number is projected to increase to 14 million by 2050. Almost 90% of all affected with AD experience BPSD, resulting in increased healthcare costs, heavier burden on caregivers, poor patient outcomes, early nursing home placement, long-term hospitalizations, and misuse of medications. Pharmacological support may have undesirable side effects such as sedation. Nonpharmacological interventions are alternative solutions that have shown to be effective without undesirable side effects. Music therapy has been found to lower BPSD symptoms significantly. Our study is based on combination of the reminiscence and the music therapies where past memorable events are recalled using prompts such as photos, videos, and music. We are proposing a mobile multimedia solution, a technical version of the combined reminiscence, and music therapies to prevent the occurrence of BPSD, especially for the rural population who have reduced access to dementia care services.

  2. [Effect of an intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity in preschool children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; González-Unzaga, Marco A; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca

    Preschool age is a critical stage for health promotion and prevention of obesity, which is an emerging public health problem in children. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention based on child-care centers to reduce risk behaviors for obesity among preschool children. A 12-month cluster-randomized community trial was conducted in 16 Mexican Institute of Social Security child-care centers in Mexico City. Children between 2 and 4 years of age enrolled in the selected child-care centers participated in the study. Intervention comprised 12 weekly curriculum sessions for the children, and six family workshops. Changes in children's dietary and physical activity, food availability at home, and maternal feeding styles were determined after 6 and 12 months. Changes within groups among stages, and between groups by stage were analyzed through χ 2 test. The intervention showed decrease of home availability for some non-recommended foods and increase in physical activity in the intervention group compared to the usual care group. Improvement in physical activity can be effective in the long term; innovative strategies aimed to modify family dietary risk behaviors are required. Copyright © 2016 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Infusions of muscimol into the lateral septum do not reduce rats' defensive behaviors toward a cat odor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San A; Patel, Ronak; Menard, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40 ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat collar that had been previously worn by a cat or to a control (cat odor free) collar. Rats exposed to the cat odor collar displayed more head-out postures, while intra-LS application of muscimol reduced the number of head-out postures. However, this reduction was also present in rats exposed to a control (cat odor free) collar. This latter finding suggests that despite its involvement in other defensive behaviors (e.g., open arm avoidance in the elevated plus maze), the LS does not selectively regulate rats' receptor defensive responding to the olfactory cues present in our cat odor stimulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of sulphate-reducing bacteria on environmental parameters and marine corrosion behavior of Q235 steel in aerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yi; Zhang Dun; Liu Huaiqun; Li Yongjuan; Hou Baorong

    2010-01-01

    The growth cycle of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), Desulfovibrio caledoniensis, and the effect of SRB on the environmental parameters and corrosion behavior of Q235 steel during a growth cycle in aerobic (air- and O 2 -saturated culture solutions) and anaerobic (N 2 - saturated culture solutions) conditions were investigated. Oxygen dissolved in the culture solutions induced slow growth and fast decay of SRB. The growth process of SRB under anaerobic and aerobic conditions influenced sulphide anion concentration (C s 2- ), pH, and conductivity (κ). The values of C s 2- and κ under aerobic conditions were lower than those under anaerobic conditions, and the pH values increased from O 2 - to air- to N 2 -saturated culture solutions. Aerobic conditions induced the open circuit potential (E OC ) to shift in the positive direction after the stationary phase of SRB growth. The charge transfer resistance (R ct ) increased quickly during the exponential growth phase, almost maintained stability during the stationary phase, and decreased after the stationary phase in all three conditions, and the impedance magnitude decreased from O 2 - to air- to N 2 -saturated culture solutions. The biofilms induced by SRB were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed in abiotic and SRB-containing systems to distinguish the corrosion products. The reasons for the effects of SRB on the environmental parameters and corrosion behavior of carbon steel are discussed.

  5. Gestational Exposure to the Synthetic Cathinone Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Results in Reduced Maternal Care and Behavioral Alterations in Mouse Pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László I. Gerecsei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The member of synthetic cathinone family, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV, is a frequently used psychoactive drug of abuse. The objective of our study was to determine the effect of MDPV (administered from the 8th to the 14th day of gestation on the behavior of neonatal and adolescent mice, as well as its effect on maternal care. We measured maternal care (pup retrieval test, nest building, locomotor activity (open field test, and motor coordination (grip strength test of dams, whereas on pups we examined locomotor activity at postnatal day 7 and day 21 (open field test and motor coordination on day 21 (grip strength test. On fresh-frozen brain samples of the dams we examined the expression of two important peptides implicated in the regulation of maternal behavior and lactation: tuberoinfundibular peptide 39 (TIP39 mRNA in the thalamic posterior intralaminar complex, and amylin mRNA in the medial preoptic nucleus. We detected decreased birth rate and survival of offspring, and reduced maternal care in the drug-treated animals, whereas there was no difference between the motility of treated and control mothers. Locomotor activity of the pups was increased in the MDPV treated group both at 7 and 21 days of age, while motor coordination was unaffected by MDPV treatment. TIP39 and amylin were detected in their typical location but failed to show a significant difference of expression between the drug-treated and control groups. The results suggest that chronic systemic administration of the cathinone agent MDPV to pregnant mice can reduce birth rate and maternal care, and it also enhances motility (without impairment of motor coordination of the offspring.

  6. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A; O'Reilly, Michelle A; Clayden, Jonathan D; Seunarine, Kiran K; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A; Dattani, Mehul T

    2013-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years) underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years) underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex) was performed. Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (pchildren with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, pchildren with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic radiations of children with mild to moderate or no visual impairment raises questions as to the pathogenesis of these changes which will need to be addressed by future studies.

  7. Selenium exposure results in reduced reproduction in an invasive ant species and altered competitive behavior for a native ant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Riva, Deborah G.; Trumble, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Competitive ability and numerical dominance are important factors contributing to the ability of invasive ant species to establish and expand their ranges in new habitats. However, few studies have investigated the impact of environmental contamination on competitive behavior in ants as a potential factor influencing dynamics between invasive and native ant species. Here we investigated the widespread contaminant selenium to investigate its potential influence on invasion by the exotic Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, through effects on reproduction and competitive behavior. For the fecundity experiment, treatments were provided to Argentine ant colonies via to sugar water solutions containing one of three concentrations of selenium (0, 5 and 10 μg Se mL −1 ) that fall within the range found in soil and plants growing in contaminated areas. Competition experiments included both the Argentine ant and the native Dorymyrmex bicolor to determine the impact of selenium exposure (0 or 15 μg Se mL −1 ) on exploitation- and interference-competition between ant species. The results of the fecundity experiment revealed that selenium negatively impacted queen survival and brood production of Argentine ants. Viability of the developing brood was also affected in that offspring reached adulthood only in colonies that were not given selenium, whereas those in treated colonies died in their larval stages. Selenium exposure did not alter direct competitive behaviors for either species, but selenium exposure contributed to an increased bait discovery time for D. bicolor. Our results suggest that environmental toxins may not only pose problems for native ant species, but may also serve as a potential obstacle for establishment among exotic species. - Highlights: • Argentine ant colonies exposed to selenium had reduced fecundity compared to unexposed colonies. • Viability of offspring was negatively impacted by selenium. • Queen survival was reduced in colonies

  8. A Comparative Study of Group Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Therapy in Reducing Subsyndromal Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Soleimani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.

  9. Passive immunization reduces behavioral and neuropathological deficits in an alpha-synuclein transgenic model of Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliah, Eliezer; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Crews, Leslie; Spencer, Brian; Adame, Anthony; Patrick, Christina; Trejo, Margarita; Ubhi, Kiren; Rohn, Troy T; Mueller-Steiner, Sarah; Seubert, Peter; Barbour, Robin; McConlogue, Lisa; Buttini, Manuel; Games, Dora; Schenk, Dale

    2011-04-29

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are common causes of motor and cognitive deficits and are associated with the abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). This study investigated whether passive immunization with a novel monoclonal α-syn antibody (9E4) against the C-terminus (CT) of α-syn was able to cross into the CNS and ameliorate the deficits associated with α-syn accumulation. In this study we demonstrate that 9E4 was effective at reducing behavioral deficits in the water maze, moreover, immunization with 9E4 reduced the accumulation of calpain-cleaved α-syn in axons and synapses and the associated neurodegenerative deficits. In vivo studies demonstrated that 9E4 traffics into the CNS, binds to cells that display α-syn accumulation and promotes α-syn clearance via the lysosomal pathway. These results suggest that passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against the CT of α-syn may be of therapeutic relevance in patients with PD and DLB.

  10. Systematic cultural adaptation of cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Martino, Steve; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Adina, Japheth O; Nafula, Tobista; Owino-Ong'or, Willis D; Bryant, Kendall J; Carroll, Kathleen M; Goulet, Joseph L; Justice, Amy C; Maisto, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Two-thirds of those with HIV worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Alcohol use is associated with the HIV epidemic through risky sex and suboptimal ARV adherence. In western Kenya, hazardous drinking was reported by HIV (53%) and general medicine (68%) outpatients. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) has demonstrated strong efficacy to reduce alcohol use. This article reports on a systematic cultural adaptation and pilot feasibility study of group paraprofessional-delivered CBT to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Following adaptation and counselor training, five pilot groups were run (n = 27). Overall attendance was 77%. Percent days abstinent from alcohol (PDA) before session 1 was 52-100% (women) and 21-36% (men), and by session 6 was 96-100% (women) and 89-100% (men). PDA effect sizes (Cohen's d) between first and last CBT session were 2.32 (women) and 2.64 (men). Participants reported treatment satisfaction. Results indicate feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy for CBT in Kenya.

  11. Cocaine craving during protracted withdrawal requires PKCε priming within vmPFC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bailey W; Wroten, Melissa G; Sacramento, Arianne D; Silva, Hannah E; Shin, Christina B; Vieira, Philip A; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Kippin, Tod E; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2017-05-01

    In individuals with a history of drug taking, the capacity of drug-associated cues to elicit indices of drug craving intensifies or incubates with the passage of time during drug abstinence. This incubation of cocaine craving, as well as difficulties with learning to suppress drug-seeking behavior during protracted withdrawal, are associated with a time-dependent deregulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) function. As the molecular bases for cocaine-related vmPFC deregulation remain elusive, the present study assayed the consequences of extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 hours/day; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 day) on the activational state of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε), an enzyme highly implicated in drug-induced neuroplasticity. The opportunity to engage in cocaine seeking during cocaine abstinence time-dependently altered PKCε phosphorylation within vmPFC, with reduced and increased p-PKCε expression observed in early (3 days) and protracted (30 days) withdrawal, respectively. This effect was more robust within the ventromedial versus dorsomedial PFC, was not observed in comparable cocaine-experienced rats not tested for drug-seeking behavior and was distinct from the rise in phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase observed in cocaine-seeking rats. Further, the impact of inhibiting PKCε translocation within the vmPFC using TAT infusion proteins upon cue-elicited responding was determined and inhibition coinciding with the period of testing attenuated cocaine-seeking behavior, with an effect also apparent the next day. In contrast, inhibitor pretreatment prior to testing during early withdrawal was without effect. Thus, a history of excessive cocaine taking influences the cue reactivity of important intracellular signaling molecules within the vmPFC, with PKCε playing a critical role in the manifestation of cue-elicited cocaine seeking during protracted drug withdrawal. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Reduced ventral cingulum integrity and increased behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma A Webb

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of behavioral problems in children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia, mild to moderate or no visual impairment, and no developmental delay. To identify white matter abnormalities that may provide neural correlates for any behavioral abnormalities identified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eleven children with isolated optic nerve hypoplasia (mean age 5.9 years underwent behavioral assessment and brain diffusion tensor imaging, Twenty four controls with isolated short stature (mean age 6.4 years underwent MRI, 11 of whom also completed behavioral assessments. Fractional anisotropy images were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Partial correlation between ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy, and child behavioral checklist scores (controlled for age at scan and sex was performed. RESULTS: Children with optic nerve hypoplasia had significantly higher scores on the child behavioral checklist (p<0.05 than controls (4 had scores in the clinically significant range. Ventral cingulum, corpus callosum and optic radiation fractional anisotropy were significantly reduced in children with optic nerve hypoplasia. Right ventral cingulum fractional anisotropy correlated with total and externalising child behavioral checklist scores (r = -0.52, p<0.02, r = -0.46, p<0.049 respectively. There were no significant correlations between left ventral cingulum, corpus callosum or optic radiation fractional anisotropy and behavioral scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that children with optic nerve hypoplasia and mild to moderate or no visual impairment require behavioral assessment to determine the presence of clinically significant behavioral problems. Reduced structural integrity of the ventral cingulum correlated with behavioral scores, suggesting that these white matter abnormalities may be clinically significant. The presence of reduced fractional anisotropy in the optic

  13. Familias Unidas: a family-centered ecodevelopmental intervention to reduce risk for problem behavior among Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes the theoretical and empirical foundations of Familias Unidas, a multilevel, family-centered intervention designed to prevent problem behavior in Hispanic adolescents. The main theoretical tenets for the intervention model; an ecological-developmental perspective, the centrality of ethnic and cultural themes, application of empowerment principles, and a family focus are reviewed. The literature on the risk and protective factors that provided the justification for the intervention's targeted mediators and the core clinical applications that are intended to alter them are discussed. Familias Unidas engages Hispanic immigrant parents into an empowerment process in which they first build a strong parent-support network and then use the network to increase knowledge of culturally relevant parenting, strengthen parenting skills, and then apply these new skills in a series of activities designed to reduce risks frequently found in poor, urban environments. The available evidence supporting the efficacy of Familias Unidas is summarized, as are future goals and a current, second-generation application of the intervention.

  14. Empowering Sedentary Adults to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Increase Physical Activity Levels and Energy Expenditure: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal A. Barwais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 4-week intervention in which an online personal activity monitor (Gruve-Technologies™ was used to reduce sedentary behavior among sedentary adults. Method: Eighteen, sedentary adult volunteers (12 men, six women, mean age 29 ± 4.0 years were recruited to participate in the study. Time spent in sedentary activities and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed during waking hours using the monitor and the 7-day SLIPA Log at both baseline and post-intervention. Results: A significant decrease of 33% (3.1 h/day; p < 0.001 was found between the time spent in sedentary activities measured at baseline (9.4 ± 1.1 h/day and at the end of the 4-week intervention (6.3 ± 0.8 h/day. Consequent to the changes in sedentary time, significant increases were found in the amount of time spent in light- (45% (2.6 h/day, p < 0.001, moderate- (33% (1 h/day p < 0.001, vigorous-intensity physical activity (39% (0.16 h/day, p < 0.001, and energy expenditure (47% (216.7 kcal/day, p < 0.001. Conclusion: This monitor contributes to a meaningful reduction in time spent in sedentary activities and has a large effect on energy expenditure and physical activity patterns.

  15. Thermal annealing behavior of niobium-implanted {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under reducing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianer, Zeng; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Mingle, Gan; Takeshita, Hidefumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Thermal annealing behavior is studied in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} implanted with {sup 93}Nb{sup +} using RBS/channeling technique and optical absorption spectrometry. The samples with <0001> and <112-bar0> orientations are implanted with 300 keV and 400 keV {sup 93}Nb{sup +} ions. Thermal annealing under reducing environment (Ar+3%H{sub 2}) is employed in the temperature range from 600 to 1000degC to explore unusual materials phase. The annealing up to 1000degC for an hour does not show any essential change in RBS/channeling spectra in two kinds of samples but the significant decrease in the visible region is observed in optical absorption spectra. After annealing at 1000degC for 10 hours, the recovery of the lattice damage is detected by RBS/channeling analysis especially in (112-bar0) sample. In the optical absorption spectra, new absorption envelope appears in the ultraviolet region. The results are related to the formation of niobium metal fine particles, and the sharp distribution is realized especially in (0001) sample. (author)

  16. Nest-building behavior of Monk Parakeets and insights into potential mechanisms for reducing damage to utility poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Burgio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Monk Parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus commonly uses utility poles as a substrate for building large, bulky nests. These nests often cause fires and electric power outages, creating public safety risks and increasing liability and maintenance costs for electric companies. Previous research has focused on lethal methods and chemical contraception to prevent nesting on utility poles and electrical substations. However, implementation of lethal methods has led to public protests and lawsuits, while chemical contraception may affect other than the targeted species, and must be continually reapplied for effectiveness. One non-lethal alternative, nest removal, is costly and may not be a sustainable measure if Monk Parakeet populations continue to grow. In order to identify cost-effective non-lethal solutions to problems caused by Monk Parakeet nesting, we studied their behavior as they built nests on utility poles. Monk Parakeets initiate nests by attaching sticks at the intersection of the pole and electric lines. We found that parakeets use the electric lines exclusively to gain access to the intersection of lines and pole during nest initiation, and continue to use the lines intensively throughout construction. Monk Parakeets also have more difficulty attaching sticks during the early stages of nest construction than when the nest is nearing completion. These findings suggest that intervention during the earlier stages of nest building, by excluding Monk Parakeets from electric lines adjacent to poles, may be an effective, non-lethal method of reducing or eliminating parakeets nesting on, and damaging, utility poles.

  17. THE BENEFITS OF CUSTOMIZED DNA DIRECTED NUTRITION TO BALANCE THE BRAIN REWARD CIRCUITRY AND REDUCE ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Downs, B.W.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R.; Fried, Lyle; Waite, Roger; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA Customization of nutraceutical products is here. In the truest sense, “Gene Guided Precision Nutrition™” and KB220 variants (a complex mixture of amino–acids, trace metals, and herbals) are the pioneers and standard-bearers for a state of the art DNA customization. Findings by both, Kenneth Blum, Ph.D. and Ernest Noble, Ph.D. concerning the role of genes in shaping cravings and pleasure- seeking, opened the doors to comprehension of how genetics control our actions and effect our mental and physical health. Moreover, technology that is related to KB220 variants in order to reduce or eradicate excessive cravings by influencing gene expression is a cornerstone in the pioneering of the practical applications of nutrigenomics. Continuing discoveries have been an important catalyst for the evolution, expansion, and scientific recognition of the significance of nutrigenomics and its remarkable contributions to human health. Neuro-Nutrigenomics is now a very important field of scientific investigation that offers great promise to improving the human condition. In the forefront is the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™), which unlike 23andMe, has predictive value for the severity of drug and alcohol abuse as well as other non-substance related addictive behaviors. While customization of neuronutrients has not yet been commercialized, there is emerging evidence that in the future, the concept will be developed and could have a significant impact in addiction medicine. PMID:28066828

  18. Reducing Child Problem Behaviors and Improving Teacher-Child Interactions and Relationships: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Best in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.; Algina, James; Ladwig, Crystal; Jesse, Gabriel; Gyure, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Research has consistently linked early problem behavior with later adjustment problems, including antisocial behavior, learning problems and risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). Researchers have focused upon developing effective intervention programs for young children who arrive in preschool exhibiting chronic…

  19. Behavioral intervention to reduce opioid overdose among high-risk persons with opioid use disorder: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Oliver Coffin

    Full Text Available The United States is amidst an opioid epidemic, including synthetic opioids that may result in rapid death, leaving minimal opportunity for bystander rescue. We pilot tested a behavioral intervention to reduce the occurrence of opioid overdose among opioid dependent persons at high-risk for subsequent overdose.We conducted a single-blinded randomized-controlled trial of a repeated dose motivational interviewing intervention (REBOOT to reduce overdose versus treatment as usual, defined as information and referrals, over 16 months at the San Francisco Department of Public Health from 2014-2016. Participants were 18-65 years of age, had opioid use disorder by Structured Clinical Interview, active opioid use, opioid overdose within 5 years, and prior receipt of naloxone kits. The intervention was administered at months 0, 4, 8, and 12, preceded by the assessment which was also administered at month 16. Dual primary outcomes were any overdose event and number of events, collected by computer-assisted personal interview, as well as any fatal overdose events per vital records.A total of 78 persons were screened and 63 enrolled. Mean age was 43 years, 67% were born male, 65% White, 17% African-American, and 14% Latino. Ninety-two percent of visits and 93% of counseling sessions were completed. At baseline, 33.3% of participants had experienced an overdose in the past four months, with a similar mean number of overdoses in both arms (p = 0.95; 29% overdosed during follow-up. By intention-to-treat, participants assigned to REBOOT were less likely to experience any overdose (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.62 [95%CI 0.41-0.92, p = 0.019 and experienced fewer overdose events (IRR 0.46, 95%CI 0.24-0.90, p = 0.023, findings that were robust to sensitivity analyses. There were no differences between arms in days of opioid use, substance use treatment, or naloxone carriage.REBOOT reduced the occurrence of any opioid overdose and the number of overdoses

  20. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  1. The Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP) Improves Child Behavior by Reducing Negative Parenting: Analysis of Mediating Processes in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…

  2. Behavioral tolerance to lysergic acid diethylamide is associated with reduced serotonin-2A receptor signaling in rat cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresch, Paul J; Smith, Randy L; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2005-09-01

    Tolerance is defined as a decrease in responsiveness to a drug after repeated administration. Tolerance to the behavioral effects of hallucinogens occurs in humans and animals. In this study, we used drug discrimination to establish a behavioral model of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) tolerance and examined whether tolerance to the stimulus properties of LSD is related to altered serotonin receptor signaling. Rats were trained to discriminate 60 microg/kg LSD from saline in a two-lever drug discrimination paradigm. Two groups of animals were assigned to either chronic saline treatment or chronic LSD treatment. For chronic treatment, rats from each group were injected once per day with either 130 microg/kg LSD or saline for 5 days. Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate either saline or 60 microg/kg LSD, 24 h after the last chronic injection. Rats receiving chronic LSD showed a 44% reduction in LSD lever selection, while rats receiving chronic vehicle showed no change in percent choice on the LSD lever. In another group of rats receiving the identical chronic LSD treatment, LSD-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding, an index of G-protein coupling, was measured in the rat brain by autoradiography. After chronic LSD, a significant reduction in LSD-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, chronic LSD produced a significant reduction in 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in medial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which was blocked by MDL 100907, a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, but not SB206553, a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, indicating a reduction in 5-HT2A receptor signaling. 125I-LSD binding to 5-HT2A receptors was reduced in cortical regions, demonstrating a reduction in 5-HT2A receptor density. Taken together, these results indicate that adaptive changes in LSD-stimulated serotonin receptor signaling may mediate tolerance

  3. Interactive "Video Doctor" counseling reduces drug and sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive patients in diverse outpatient settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Gilbert

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Reducing substance use and unprotected sex by HIV-positive persons improves individual health status while decreasing the risk of HIV transmission. Despite recommendations that health care providers screen and counsel their HIV-positive patients for ongoing behavioral risks, it is unknown how to best provide "prevention with positives" in clinical settings. Positive Choice, an interactive, patient-tailored computer program, was developed in the United States to improve clinic-based assessment and counseling for risky behaviors.We conducted a parallel groups randomized controlled trial (December 2003-September 2006 at 5 San Francisco area outpatient HIV clinics. Eligible patients (HIV-positive English-speaking adults completed an in-depth computerized risk assessment. Participants reporting substance use or sexual risks (n = 476 were randomized in stratified blocks. The intervention group received tailored risk-reduction counseling from a "Video Doctor" via laptop computer and a printed Educational Worksheet; providers received a Cueing Sheet on reported risks. Compared with control, fewer intervention participants reported continuing illicit drug use (RR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.689, 0.957, p = 0.014 at 3 months; and RR 0.65, 95% CI: 0.540, 0.785, p<0.001 at 6 months and unprotected sex (RR 0.88, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.993, p = 0.039 at 3 months; and RR 0.80, 95% CI: 0.686, 0.941, p = 0.007 at 6 months. Intervention participants reported fewer mean days of ongoing illicit drug use (-4.0 days vs. -1.3 days, p = 0.346, at 3 months; and -4.7 days vs. -0.7 days, p = 0.130, at 6 months than did controls, and had fewer casual sex partners at (-2.3 vs. -1.4, p = 0.461, at 3 months; and -2.7 vs. -0.6, p = 0.042, at 6 months.The Positive Choice intervention achieved significant cessation of illicit drug use and unprotected sex at the group-level, and modest individual-level reductions in days of ongoing drug use and number of casual sex partners compared with the

  4. Ethical issues in a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral therapy feasibility study and trial to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Bryant, Kendall J; Meslin, Eric M; Sidle, John E

    2012-07-01

    Epidemics of both HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse in sub-Saharan Africa have spurred the conduct of local behavioral therapy trials for these problems, but the ethical issues involved in these trials have not been fully examined. In this paper, we discuss ethical issues that emerged during the conduct of a behavioral intervention adaptation and trial using cognitive-behavioral therapy to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. The study was performed within our multinational collaboration, the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare Partnership. We discuss relevant ethical considerations and how we addressed them.

  5. Fatherhood reduces the survival of adult-generated cells and affects various types of behaviors in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Yue; Jia, Xixi; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Motherhood has profound effects on physiology, neuronal plasticity, and behavior. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, affects brain plasticity (such as cell proliferation and survival) and various behaviors in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult males were housed with their same-sex cage mate (control), single-housed (isolation), or housed with a receptive female to mate and produce offspring (father) for 6 weeks. Fatherhood significantly reduced cell survival (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling), but not cell proliferation (assessed by Ki67 labeling), in the amygdala, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and ventromedial hypothalamus, suggesting that fatherhood affects brain plasticity. In Experiment 2, neither acute (20 min) nor chronic (20 min daily for 10 consecutive days) pup exposure altered cell proliferation or survival in the brain, but chronic pup exposure increased circulating corticosterone levels. These data suggest that reduced cell survival in the brain of prairie vole fathers was unlikely to be due to the level of pup exposure and display of paternal behavior, and may not be mediated by circulating corticosterone. The effects of fatherhood on various behaviors (including anxiety-like, depression-like, and social behaviors) were examined in Experiment 3. The data indicated that fatherhood increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as altered aggression and social recognition memory in male prairie voles. These results warrant further investigation of a possible link between brain plasticity and behavioral changes observed due to fatherhood. PMID:23899240

  6. Power of Peer Support to Change Health Behavior to Reduce Risks for Heart Disease and Stroke for African American Men in a Faith-Based Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sohye; Schorr, Erica; Hadidi, Niloufar Niakosari; Kelley, Robin; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Lindquist, Ruth

    2018-02-01

    Peer support has powerful potential to improve outcomes in a program of health behavior change; yet, how peer support is perceived by participants, its role, and how it contributes to intervention efficacy is not known, especially among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to identify the subjectively perceived experience and potential contributions of peer support to the outcomes of a peer group behavioral intervention designed to change health behavior to reduce risks for heart disease and stroke in African American men in a faith-based community. A peer support group intervention was implemented to increase health knowledge and to improve health behaviors in line with the American Heart Association's Life Simple 7 domains (get active, control cholesterol, eat better, manage blood pressure, lose weight, reduce blood sugar, and stop smoking). Fourteen peer group sessions and eight follow-up interviews with program participants were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Seven key themes emerged, including (1) enhancing access to health behavior information and resources, (2) practicing and applying problem-solving skills with group feedback and support, (3) discussing health behavior challenges and barriers, (4) sharing health behavior changes, (5) sharing perceived health outcome improvements and benefits, (6) feelings of belonging and being cared for, and (7) addressing health of family and community. Qualitative findings revealed a positive perception of peer support and greater understanding of potential reasons why it may be an effective strategy for African American men.

  7. The corrosion rate and the hydrogen absorption behavior of titanium under reducing condition-III. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Taniguchi, N.; Kawakami, S.

    2005-03-01

    Titanium is one of the candidate materials for overpacks as a high corrosion resistance metal. At the initial stage of repository, oxidizing condition will be given around the overpack because oxygen will be brought from the ground. The oxygen will be consumed by the reaction with impurities in buffer material or corrosion of overpack, and reducing condition will be achieved around the overpack. With the changing of redox condition, the water reduction becomes to dominate the cathodic reaction accompanying hydrogen generation. Crevice corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement are main causes of the damage of long term integrity of titanium overpack. However, it is not known about the corrosion resistance and hydrogen absorption behavior of titanium under reduction condition. In this study, the completely sealed ampoule test and the immersion test of titanium in aqueous solution and bentonite was carried out. In order to obtain reliable data about the hydrogen generation rate and the ratio of hydrogen absorption in titanium. From the result of 3 years immersion tests, corrosion rate of titanium were estimated to be in the order of 10 -2 ∼10 -1 μm/y in the aqueous solution, and 10 -3 ∼10 -2 μm/y in bentonite. This value is almost the same as the last report. Almost all the hydrogen generated by corrosion was absorbed in titanium in the immersion tests in completely sealed ampoule. In the examination that changed each parameter, it was suggested that the amount of the hydrogen absorption become 2∼3 times in 1M HCO 3- and pH13. (author)

  8. Hericium erinaceus Extract Reduces Anxiety and Depressive Behaviors by Promoting Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Adult Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sun; Kim, Hyoun Geun; Kim, Joo Youn; Kim, Seong Yun; Cho, Kyung-Ok

    2018-02-01

    Versatile biological activities of Hericium erinaceus (HE) have been reported in many brain diseases. However, roles of HE in major psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety remain to be investigated. Therefore, we evaluated whether HE could reduce anxiety and depressive behaviors in the adult mouse and its underlying mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered HE (20 or 60 mg/kg, p.o.) or saline once a day for 4 weeks. Open field and tail suspension tests were performed 30 min after the last administration of HE, followed by forced swim test 2 days later. We found that chronic administration of HE showed anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects. To elucidate possible mechanisms, proliferative activity of the hippocampal progenitor cells was assessed by immunohistochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki67. Moreover, to evaluate neuronal survival in the dentate gyrus, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (120 mg/kg, i.p.) was given at the first day of HE administration, followed by isolation of the brains 4 weeks later. HE (60 mg/kg) increased the number of PCNA- and Ki67-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, indicating increased proliferation of hippocampal progenitors. In addition, BrdU- and BrdU/NeuN-positive cells in the dentate gyrus were significantly increased when treated with HE (60 mg/kg) compared with the saline-treated group, demonstrating enhanced neurogenesis by HE treatment. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic HE administration can exert anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects, possibly by enhancing adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

  9. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing eGao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed.

  10. Neural plasticity in hypocretin neurons: the basis of hypocretinergic regulation of physiological and behavioral functions in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; Hermes, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal system that resides in the perifornical and lateral hypothalamus (Pf/LH) and synthesizes the neuropeptide hypocretin/orexin participates in critical brain functions across species from fish to human. The hypocretin system regulates neural activity responsible for daily functions (such as sleep/wake homeostasis, energy balance, appetite, etc.) and long-term behavioral changes (such as reward seeking and addiction, stress response, etc.) in animals. The most recent evidence suggests that the hypocretin system undergoes substantial plastic changes in response to both daily fluctuations (such as food intake and sleep-wake regulation) and long-term changes (such as cocaine seeking) in neuronal activity in the brain. The understanding of these changes in the hypocretin system is essential in addressing the role of the hypocretin system in normal physiological functions and pathological conditions in animals and humans. In this review, the evidence demonstrating that neural plasticity occurs in hypocretin-containing neurons in the Pf/LH will be presented and possible physiological, behavioral, and mental health implications of these findings will be discussed. PMID:26539086

  11. The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin reduces nicotine self-administration, discrimination, and reinstatement: relationship to feeding behavior and impulse control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; Rossmann, Anne; Rizos, Zoe; Noble, Kevin; Soko, Ashlie D; Fletcher, Paul J

    2012-04-01

    Lorcaserin ((1R)-8-chloro-1-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine HCl) is a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist with clinical efficacy in phase-III obesity trials. Based on evidence that this drug class also affects behaviors motivated by drug reinforcement, we compared the effect of lorcaserin on behavior maintained by food and nicotine reinforcement, as well as the stimulant and discriminative stimulus properties of nicotine in the rat. Acutely administered lorcaserin (0.3-3 mg/kg, subcutaneous (SC)) dose dependently reduced feeding induced by 22-h food deprivation or palatability. Effects up to 1 mg/kg were consistent with a specific effect on feeding motivation. Lorcaserin (0.6-1 mg/kg, SC) reduced operant responding for food on progressive and fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. In this dose range lorcaserin also reversed the motor stimulant effect of nicotine, reduced intravenous self-administration of nicotine, and attenuated the nicotine cue in rats trained to discriminate nicotine from saline. Lorcaserin also reduced the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior elicited by a compound cue comprising a nicotine prime and conditioned stimulus previously paired with nicotine reinforcement. Lorcaserin did not reinstate nicotine-seeking behavior or substitute for a nicotine cue. Finally, lorcaserin (0.3-1 mg/kg) reduced nicotine-induced increases in anticipatory responding, a measure of impulsive action, in rats performing the five-choice serial reaction time task. Importantly, these results indicate that lorcaserin, and likely other selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists, similarly affect both food- and nicotine-motivated behaviors, and nicotine-induced impulsivity. Collectively, these findings highlight a therapeutic potential for 5-HT(2C) agonists such as lorcaserin beyond obesity into addictive behaviors, such as nicotine dependence.

  12. Promising Behavior Change Techniques in a Multicomponent Intervention to Reduce Concerns about Falls in Old Age: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestjens, Lotte; Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Crutzen, Rik; Kok, Gerjo; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    2015-01-01

    Complex behavior change interventions need evidence regarding the effectiveness of individual components to understand how these interventions work. The objective of this study was to identify the least and most promising behavior change techniques (BCTs) within the Dutch intervention "A Matter of Balance" (AMB-NL) aimed at concerns…

  13. Reducing inflammation and rescuing FTD-related behavioral deficits in progranulin-deficient mice with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, S Sakura; Shen, Vivian; Le, David; Krabbe, Grietje; Asgarov, Rustam; Perez-Celajes, Liberty; Lee, Chih-Hung; Li, Jinhe; Donnelly-Roberts, Diana; Gan, Li

    2015-10-15

    Mutations in the progranulin gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease that involves atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes and affects personality, behavior, and language. Progranulin-deficient mouse models of FTD exhibit deficits in compulsive and social behaviors reminiscent of patients with FTD, and develop excessive microgliosis and increased release of inflammatory cytokines. Activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) by nicotine or specific α7 nAChR agonists reduces neuroinflammation. Here, we investigated whether activation of nAChRs by nicotine or α7 agonists improved the excessive inflammatory and behavioral phenotypes of a progranulin-deficient FTD mouse model. We found that treatment with selective α7 agonists, PHA-568487 or ABT-107, strongly suppressed the activation of NF-κB in progranulin-deficient cells. Treatment with ABT-107 also reduced microgliosis, decreased TNFα levels, and reduced compulsive behavior in progranulin-deficient mice. Collectively, these data suggest that targeting activation of the α7 nAChR pathway may be beneficial in decreasing neuroinflammation and reversing some of the behavioral deficits observed in progranulin-deficient FTD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Virginia A

    2013-08-06

    Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care to reduce alcohol misuse. The USPSTF reviewed new evidence on the effectiveness of screening for alcohol misuse for improving health outcomes, the accuracy of various screening approaches, the effectiveness of various behavioral counseling interventions for improving intermediate or long-term health outcomes, the harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions, and influences from the health care system that promote or detract from effective screening and counseling interventions for alcohol misuse. These recommendations apply to adolescents aged 12 to 17 years and adults aged 18 years or older. These recommendations do not apply to persons who are actively seeking evaluation or treatment of alcohol misuse. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians screen adults aged 18 years or older for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking with brief behavioral counseling interventions to reduce alcohol misuse. (Grade B recommendation)The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening and behavioral counseling interventions in primary care settings to reduce alcohol misuse in adolescents. (I statement)

  15. School-Based HIV/AIDS Education Is Associated with Reduced Risky Sexual Behaviors and Better Grades with Gender and Race/Ethnicity Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools…

  16. Effectiveness of a Selective Advising Program in Reducing the Degree of Compulsive Buying Behavior among Umm Al-Qura Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyouni, Sawzan S.

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of a selective advising program in reducing the degree of Compulsive Buying Behavior among female students, Faculty of Education at Umm al-Qura University. The sample consisted of (200) female students to verify the validity and reliability of the tool. The quasi-experimental method…

  17. Choosing an Appropriate Physical Exercise to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Non-Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, C. Y. Andy; Pang, C. L.; Lee, Paul H.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable evidence has shown that physical exercise could be an effective treatment in reducing stereotypical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) behaviors in children. The present study seeks to examine the underlying mechanism by considering the theoretical operant nature of stereotypy. Children with ASD (n = 30) who exhibited hand-flapping and…

  18. The Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies Is Related to Reduced Risk in Heavy Drinking College Students with Poorer Mental and Physical Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating role of health status (physical, mental, and social health) and the relationships between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., avoiding drinking games, setting consumption limits, or having a designated driver) and alcohol use and negative consequences in a sample…

  19. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  20. Addressing the issue of falls off playground equipment: an empirically-based intervention to reduce fall-risk behaviors on playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Matheis, Shawn

    2007-08-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of an intervention to reduce fall-risk behaviors on playgrounds among children 6-11 years of age. Children completed posters indicating risky playground behaviors they would and would not do. In the intervention group, video and audio presentations were used to expose children to injury occurrences so that injury vulnerability was communicated in a fear-evoking way. In the control group, children only completed the pre- and post-intervention measures. Significant decreases in intentions to risk-take were obtained in the intervention, but not the control group. Effectiveness did not vary with children's age or sex, but was greater for those scoring high in sensation-seeking. A fear-appeals approach proved successful to reduce intended fall-risk behaviors, particularly for children high in sensation-seeking whose risk-taking is motivated by affect arousal.

  1. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby C King

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data

  2. Oxytocin in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex reduces anxiety-like behavior in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabihi, Sara; Durosko, Nicole E; Dong, Shirley M; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) is anxiolytic in rodents and humans. However, the specific brain regions where OT acts to regulate anxiety requires further investigation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown to play a role in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior. In addition, the mPFC contains OT-sensitive neurons, expresses OT receptors, and receives long range axonal projections from OT-producing neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting that the mPFC may be a target where OT acts to diminish anxiety. To investigate this possibility, female rats were administered OT bilaterally into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC and anxiety-like behavior assessed. In addition, to determine if the effects of OT on anxiety-like behavior are sex dependent and to evaluate the specificity of OT, male and female anxiety-like behavior was tested following delivery of either OT or the closely related neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the PL mPFC. Finally, the importance of endogenous OT in the regulation of anxiety-like behavior was examined in male and female rats that received PL infusions of an OT receptor antagonist (OTR-A). Overall, even though males and females showed some differences in their baseline levels of anxiety-like behavior, OT in the PL region of the mPFC decreased anxiety regardless of sex. In contrast, neither AVP nor an OTR-A affected anxiety-like behavior in males or females. Together, these findings suggest that although endogenous OT in the PL region of the mPFC does not influence anxiety, the PL mPFC is a site where exogenous OT may act to attenuate anxiety-related behavior independent of sex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Raphe serotonin neuron-specific oxytocin receptor knockout reduces aggression without affecting anxiety-like behavior in male mice only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, J H; Williams Avram, S K; Cui, Z; Song, J; Mezey, É; Senerth, J M; Baumann, M H; Young, W S

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin and oxytocin influence aggressive and anxiety-like behaviors, though it is unclear how the two may interact. That the oxytocin receptor is expressed in the serotonergic raphe nuclei suggests a mechanism by which the two neurotransmitters may cooperatively influence behavior. We hypothesized that oxytocin acts on raphe neurons to influence serotonergically mediated anxiety-like, aggressive and parental care behaviors. We eliminated expression of the oxytocin receptor in raphe neurons by crossing mice expressing Cre recombinase under control of the serotonin transporter promoter (Slc6a4) with our conditional oxytocin receptor knockout line. The knockout mice generated by this cross are normal across a range of behavioral measures: there are no effects for either sex on locomotion in an open-field, olfactory habituation/dishabituation or, surprisingly, anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated O and plus mazes. There was a profound deficit in male aggression: only one of 11 raphe oxytocin receptor knockouts showed any aggressive behavior, compared to 8 of 11 wildtypes. In contrast, female knockouts displayed no deficits in maternal behavior or aggression. Our results show that oxytocin, via its effects on raphe neurons, is a key regulator of resident-intruder aggression in males but not maternal aggression. Furthermore, this reduction in male aggression is quite different from the effects reported previously after forebrain or total elimination of oxytocin receptors. Finally, we conclude that when constitutively eliminated, oxytocin receptors expressed by serotonin cells do not contribute to baseline anxiety-like behaviors or maternal care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Fettig; Michaelene M. Ostrosky

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to ex...

  5. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group.Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons.These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to statistically indistinguishable reductions in risk

  6. Break in Sedentary Behavior Reduces the Risk of Noncommunicable Diseases and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors among Workers in a Petroleum Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Jalayondeja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although prolonged sitting appears as a novel risk factor related to health outcomes for all ages, its association needs to be replicated in occupational conditions. This study explored the associations between sedentary behavior and four noncommunicable diseases (NCDs as well as two cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs among workers in a petroleum company, Thailand. All workers were invited to complete the online self-report questionnaire. Sedentary behavior was measured as the amount of time sitting at work, during recreation, and while commuting. Out of 3365 workers contacted, 1133 (34% participated. Prevalence of NCDs and CMRFs was 36% and was positively associated with sedentary behavior. After adjusting for age, BMI, and exercise, the risk of NCDs and CMRFs for sedentary office work was 40% greater compared with more active field work. Those who took a break without sitting more than twice a day and commuted by walking or cycling had less risk of NCDs and CMRFs. The total duration of sedentary behavior was 10 h/day, and two-thirds of that total was workplace sitting. This was significantly associated with NCDs and CMRFs (p < 0.001. Day-and-night rotating shiftwork was negatively associated with NCDs and CMRFs (p < 0.001. Sedentary behavior should be considered a health risk among workers. Hence, to promote a healthy lifestyle and safe workplace, organizations should encourage standing activities during break and physically active commutes, and have workers avoid prolonged sitting.

  7. Fatherhood reduces the survival of adult-generated cells and affects various types of behavior in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberwirth, Claudia; Wang, Yue; Jia, Xixi; Liu, Yan; Wang, Zuoxin

    2013-11-01

    Motherhood has profound effects on physiology, neuronal plasticity, and behavior. We conducted a series of experiments to test the hypothesis that fatherhood, similarly to motherhood, affects brain plasticity (such as cell proliferation and survival) and various behaviors in the highly social prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). In Experiment 1, adult males were housed with their same-sex cage mate (control), single-housed (isolation), or housed with a receptive female to mate and produce offspring (father) for 6 weeks. Fatherhood significantly reduced cell survival (assessed by bromodeoxyuridine labeling), but not cell proliferation (assessed by Ki67-labeling), in the amygdala, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and ventromedial hypothalamus, suggesting that fatherhood affects brain plasticity. In Experiment 2, neither acute (20 min) nor chronic (20 min daily for 10 consecutive days) pup exposure altered cell proliferation or survival in the brain, but chronic pup exposure increased circulating corticosterone levels. These data suggest that reduced cell survival in the brain of prairie vole fathers was unlikely to be due to the level of pup exposure and display of paternal behavior, and may not be mediated by circulating corticosterone. The effects of fatherhood on various behaviors (including anxiety-like, depression-like, and social behaviors) were examined in Experiment 3. The data indicated that fatherhood increased anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as altered aggression and social recognition memory in male prairie voles. These results warrant further investigation of a possible link between brain plasticity and behavioral changes observed due to fatherhood. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Brief Prenatal Intervention of Behavioral Change to Reduce the Risk of Maternal Cytomegalovirus: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Brenna L; Gans, Kim M; Raker, Christina; Hipolito, Evelyn R; Rouse, Dwight J

    2017-10-01

    To estimate the effects of a brief prenatal behavioral intervention on risk behaviors for maternal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Women were screened with CMV serology during prenatal care before 20 weeks of gestation and followed for at least 10 weeks. Women without serologic evidence of primary CMV infection were approached. Participants were apprised of serostatus and then randomized 2:1 to either a brief behavioral intervention during their prenatal care visit or to standard care (a brochure). The 7- to 10-minute in-office intervention included a video and hygiene education using motivational interviewing. Participants were then given a reminder calendar to take home and weekly text message reminders. The primary outcome was change in behavioral compliance score on a scale of 0-100. Secondary outcomes included process evaluation and domains of behavior change. A sample size of 180 participants was planned to compare the behavioral compliance score change of at least 15% between intervention and control groups with 80% power and 2.5% two-sided α. From April 2013 to October 2014, 197 women were randomized. One hundred eighty-seven (96%) had outcome data available. Mean gestational age at screening and randomization was 9 4/7 and 13 6/7 weeks of gestation, respectively. Primary outcome assessment occurred at a mean of 28 4/7 weeks of gestation. Baseline behavioral compliance scores increased modestly in the intervention group (mean: 7-point increase from 80.7 to 87.7, 95% CI 2.4-5.9) compared with the comparison group (mean: 4-point increase from 79.7 to 84.1, 95% CI 5.9-8.4; mean difference in change score: 3.0, 95% CI, 0.8-5.2; P=.007). Those in the intervention group reported change in risk perception related to perceived severity and susceptibility, self-efficacy, and perceived norms (Pbehavioral intervention delivered in the prenatal care setting was modestly effective at changing behaviors related to CMV infection risk. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01819519.

  9. Souvenaid reduces behavioral deficits and improves social cognition skills in frontotemporal dementia: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Matteo; Serrati, Carlo; Guida, Silvia; Mattei, Chiara; Abate, Lucia; Massucco, Davide; Sassos, Davide; Amore, Mario; Krueger, Frank; Cocito, Leonardo; Emberti Gialloreti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Souvenaid™ is a nutraceutical compound thought to positively enhance synaptic function. In line with this mechanism of action, Souvenaid™ has been shown to improve cognitive function in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease in randomized clinical trials. To date, however, the potential of Souvenaid™ to improve cognitive functioning in subjects with other neurodegenerative conditions also characterized by synaptic loss has not been explored. To evaluate the impact of Souvenaid™ on executive functions, social cognition and behavioral disturbances in subjects with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bv-FTD). Twenty-six subjects with bv-FTD were enrolled in the study and randomized to Souvenaid™ (125 ml/day) or placebo groups. After 12 weeks, subjects were switched between the two groups. All subjects, blinded to treatment, underwent clinical and cognitive evaluations at enrollment, after 12 weeks and after 24 weeks. Treatment with Souvenaid™ was associated with a significant reduction of behavioral symptoms and an increase in Theory of Mind skills compared to placebo, which both returned to baseline when Souvenaid™ was discontinued. Souvenaid™ did not have an effect on executive functions. Our results provide evidence of the potential of Souvenaid™ therapy for the treatment of behavioral disturbances and social cognition skills in FTD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  11. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  12. Does Distraction Reduce the Alcohol-Aggression Relation? A Cognitive and Behavioral Test of the Attention-Allocation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kathryn E.; Parrott, Dominic J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study provided the first direct test of the cognitive underpinnings of the attention-allocation model and attempted to replicate and extend past behavioral findings for this model as an explanation for alcohol-related aggression. Method: A diverse community sample (55% African American) of men (N = 159) between 21 and 35 years of…

  13. Number of Psychosocial Strengths Predicts Reduced HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Above and Beyond Syndemic Problems Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted

    2017-10-01

    Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.

  14. The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing Turnover Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…

  15. Neurosteroids reduce social isolation-induced behavioral deficits: a proposed link with neurosteroid-mediated upregulation of BDNF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Schüler Nin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological action of SSRI antidepressants may include a normalization of the decreased brain levels of neurosteroids such as that of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone and that of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which are decreased in patients with depression and PTSD. Allopregnanolone and BDNF decrease in these patients is associated with behavioral symptom severity. Antidepressant treatment upregulates both allopregnanolone levels and the expression of BDNF in a manner that significantly correlates with improved symptomatology, which suggests that neurosteroid biosynthesis and BDNF expression may be interrelated. Preclinical studies using the socially isolated mouse as an animal model of behavioral deficits that resemble some of the symptoms observed in PTSD patients have shown that fluoxetine and derivatives improve anxiety-like behavior, fear responses, and aggressive behavior by elevating the corticolimbic levels of allopregnanolone and BDNF mRNA expression. These actions appeared to be independent and more selective from the action of these drugs on 5-HT reuptake inhibition.Hence, this review addresses the hypothesis that in PTSD or depressed patients brain allopregnanolone levels and BDNF expression upregulation may be part of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial actions of antidepressants or other selective brain steroidogenic stimulant (SBSS molecules.

  16. Reduced anxiety-like behavior and altered hippocampal morphology in female p75NTR exon IV-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe ePuschban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR in adult basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, precursor cells in the subventricular cell layer and the subgranular cell layer of the hippocampus has been linked to alterations in learning as well as anxiety- and depression- related behaviors. In contrast to previous studies performed in a p75NTR exonIII-/- model still expressing the short isoform of the p75NTR, we focused on locomotor and anxiety–associated behavior in p75NTR exonIV-/- mice lacking both p75NTR isoforms. Comparing p75NTR exonIV-/- and wildtype mice for both male and female animals showed an anxiolytic-like behavior as evidenced by increased central activities in the open field paradigm and flex field activity system as well as higher numbers of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze test in female p75NTR knockout mice.Morphometrical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampus revealed a reduction of width of the dentate gyrus and the granular cell layer in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus in male and female p75NTR exonIV -/- mice. We conclude that germ-line deletion of p75NTR seems to differentially affect morphometry of dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus and that p75NTR may play a role in anxiety-like behavior, specifically in female mice.

  17. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy plus Amitriptyline for Children and Adolescents with Chronic Migraine Reduces Headache Days to ≤4 Per Month.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, John W; Hershey, Andrew D; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita M; LeCates, Susan L; Allen, Janelle R; Slater, Shalonda K; Zafar, Marium; Kabbouche, Marielle A; O'Brien, Hope L; Shenk, Chad E; Rausch, Joseph R; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Powers, Scott W

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis of results from a previously published trial (Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00389038) in chronic migraine in children and adolescents was to examine if participants who received cognitive behavioral therapy and amitriptyline reached a greater level of reduction in headache frequency that no longer indicated a recommendation for preventive treatment as compared to those who received headache education and amitriptyline. Chronic migraine negatively affects children's home, school, and social activities. Preventive medication therapy is suggested for 5 or more headaches per month. Reduction to one headache day per week or less may suggest that preventive treatment is no longer indicated and provide a clinically relevant outcome for treatment efficacy and patient care. Randomized study participants (N = 135) kept a daily record of their headache frequency during 20 weeks of treatment and during a 1 year follow-up period. Baseline headache frequency was determined at the end of a 28 day screening period. Post treatment frequency was determined at 20 weeks (N = 128 completed) and post treatment follow-up was measured 12 months later (N = 124 completed). A chi-square test of independence was conducted by treatment group and by time point to determine group differences in the proportion of headache days experienced. At 20 weeks (post treatment), 47% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤4 headache days per month compared to 20% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group, (P = .0011), and 32% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤3 headache days per month at 20 weeks compared to 16% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group, (P = .0304). At the month 12 follow-up, 72% of the cognitive behavioral therapy plus amitriptyline group had ≤4 headache days per month compared to 52% of the headache education plus amitriptyline group

  18. Understanding the failure of a behavior change intervention to reduce risk behaviors for avian influenza transmission among backyard poultry raisers in rural Bangladesh: a focused ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ali Rimi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers’ awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention. Methods During 2009–10, a research team implemented the study in two rural villages in two districts of Bangladesh. The team used a focused ethnographic approach for data collection, including informal interviews and observations to provide detailed contextual information about community response to a newly emerging disease. They collected pre-intervention qualitative data for one month. Then another team disseminated preventive messages focused on safe slaughtering methods, through courtyard meetings and affixed posters in every household. After dissemination, the research team collected post-intervention data for one month. Results More villagers reported hearing about ‘bird flu’ after the intervention compared to before the intervention. After the intervention, villagers commonly recalled changes in the color of combs and shanks of poultry as signs of avian influenza, and perceived zoonotic transmission of avian influenza through direct contact and through inhalation. Consequently the villagers valued covering the nose and mouth while handling sick and dead poultry as a preventive measure. Nevertheless, the team did not observe noticeable change in villagers’ behavior after the intervention. Villagers reported not following the recommended behaviors because of the perceived absence of avian influenza in their flocks, low risk of avian

  19. Understanding the failure of a behavior change intervention to reduce risk behaviors for avian influenza transmission among backyard poultry raisers in rural Bangladesh: a focused ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Md Zahidur; Hasin, Marufa; Islam, M Saiful; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Nahar, Nazmun; Gurley, Emily S; Luby, Stephen P

    2016-08-24

    The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers' awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention. During 2009-10, a research team implemented the study in two rural villages in two districts of Bangladesh. The team used a focused ethnographic approach for data collection, including informal interviews and observations to provide detailed contextual information about community response to a newly emerging disease. They collected pre-intervention qualitative data for one month. Then another team disseminated preventive messages focused on safe slaughtering methods, through courtyard meetings and affixed posters in every household. After dissemination, the research team collected post-intervention data for one month. More villagers reported hearing about 'bird flu' after the intervention compared to before the intervention. After the intervention, villagers commonly recalled changes in the color of combs and shanks of poultry as signs of avian influenza, and perceived zoonotic transmission of avian influenza through direct contact and through inhalation. Consequently the villagers valued covering the nose and mouth while handling sick and dead poultry as a preventive measure. Nevertheless, the team did not observe noticeable change in villagers' behavior after the intervention. Villagers reported not following the recommended behaviors because of the perceived absence of avian influenza in their flocks, low risk of avian influenza, cost, inconvenience, personal discomfort, fear of being

  20. Comparing the efficacy of combined Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Traditional Cognitive Behavior Therapy in reducing dysfunctional attitudes of patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah omidi

    2014-02-01

    Results: Dysfunctional attitudes scores and depression symptoms significantly decreased in combined MBCT with CBT group, while in the TAU group, there was no significant difference between pre-test and post-test. Conclusion: MBCT combined with CBT has similar effects to classic CBT and it can lead to reducing dysfunctional attitudes and depression symptoms.

  1. Large-distance and long-time asymptotic behavior of the reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2010-12-15

    Starting from the form factor expansion in finite volume, we derive the multidimensional generalization of the so-called Natte series for the zero-temperature, time and distance dependent reduced density matrix in the non-linear Schroedinger model. This representation allows one to read-off straightforwardly the long-time/large-distance asymptotic behavior of this correlator. Our method of analysis reduces the complexity of the computation of the asymptotic behavior of correlation functions in the so-called interacting integrable models, to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We compute explicitly the first few terms appearing in the asymptotic expansion. Part of these terms stems from excitations lying away from the Fermi boundary, and hence go beyond what can be obtained by using the CFT/Luttinger liquid based predictions. (orig.)

  2. Use of the Tailored Activities Program to reduce neuropsychiatric behaviors in dementia: an Australian protocol for a randomized trial to evaluate its effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, C M; Clemson, L; Brodaty, H; Jeon, Y H; Mioshi, E; Gitlin, L N

    2014-05-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are often considered to be the greatest challenge in dementia care, leading to increased healthcare costs, caregiver burden, and placement into care facilities. With potential for pharmacological intervention to exacerbate behaviors or even lead to mortality, the development and rigorous testing of non-pharmacological interventions is vital. A pilot of the Tailored Activities Program (TAP) for reducing problem behaviors in people with dementia was conducted in the United States with promising results. This randomized trial will investigate the effectiveness of TAP for reducing the burden of BPSD on persons with dementia and family caregivers within an Australian population. This trial will also examine the cost-effectiveness and willingness to pay for TAP compared with a control group. This randomized trial aims to recruit 180 participant dyads of a person with dementia and their caregivers. Participants will have a diagnosis of dementia, exhibit behaviors as scored by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the caregiver must have at least 7 h per week contact. Participants will be randomly allocated to intervention (TAP) or control (phone-based education sessions) groups, both provided by a trained occupational therapist. Primary outcome measure will be the revised Neuropsychiatric Inventory - Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) to measure BPSD exhibited by the person with dementia. This trial investigates the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TAP within an Australian population. Results will address a significant gap in the current Australian community-support base for people living with dementia and their caregivers.

  3. Intervention induced changes on parenting practices, youth self-pride and sexual norms to reduce HIV-related behaviors among rural African American youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Chen, Yi-Fu; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2011-09-01

    AIDS is the leading killer of African Americans between the ages of 25 and 44, many of whom became infected when they were teenagers or young adults. The disparity in HIV infection rate among African Americans youth residing in rural Southern regions of the United States suggests that there is an urgent need to identify ways to promote early preventive intervention to reduce HIV-related risk behavior. The Strong African American Families (SAAF) program, a preventive intervention for rural African American parents and their 11-year-olds, was specially designed to deter early sexual onset and the initiation and escalation of alcohol and drug use among rural African American preadolescents. A clustered-randomized prevention trial was conducted, contrasting families who took part in SAAF with control families. The trial, which included 332 families, indicated that intervention-induced changes occurred in intervention-targeted parenting, which in turn facilitated changes in youths' internal protective processes and positive sexual norms. Long-term follow up assessments when youth were 17 years old revealed that intervention-induced changes in parenting practices mediated the effect of intervention-group influences on changes in the onset and escalation of risky sexual behaviors over 65 months through its positive influence on adolescents' self-pride and their sexual norms. The findings underscore the powerful effects of parenting practices among rural African American families that over time serve a protective role in reducing youth's risk behavior, including HIV vulnerable behaviors.

  4. On the Effectiveness of Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Logotherapy in Reducing Depression and Increasing Life Expectancy in Drug Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khaledian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and logotherapy therapy in Reducing Depression and Increasing Life Expectancy in Drug Addicts. Method: This was an experimental study along with pretest/posttest and control group. All the addicts referring to one of the methadone addiction treatment centers in Qorveh City (Naikoo Salamat Center in 2013 constituted the population of the study. Initially, 60 students were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 30 participants were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group based on their scores on Beck Depression Inventory and Snyder’s Life Expectancy Test. One of the experimental groups received 10 logotherapy sessions and the second experimental group received 13 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. This is so while the control group received no intervention. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference between group cognitive behavioral therapy and logotherapy in reducing depression. However, group cognitive behavioral therapy was found to be more effective in increased life expectancy than logotherapy. Conclusion: The results contain practical implications.

  5. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  6. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  7. The Effectiveness of Combined Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Calcium Supplementation Plus Vitamin D on Reducing the Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS consists of repetitious physical and psychological symptoms that occurs in luteal phase of menstrual period and will be over when menstrual period starts. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of calcium therapy plus vitamin D and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT on the parameters of PMS symptoms in women suffering from PMS. Materials and Methods: This study has an experimental plan of pretest and post-test of the control group. The statistical society is 250 female staff of Tehran Universities in academic year 2013-2014. Premenstrual syndrome screening tool (PSST questionnaire was used as an evaluation tool. The collected data were analyzed using the indexes of the descriptive statistics and covariance analysis (p<0.05. Results: The minimum age of the statistical society was 24, 52.5 % of them held a master's degree and 60% were single. Cognitive behavioral therapy method, calcium and vitamin D therapy were significant in improving the parameters of symptoms at p<0.05 level of significance. Conclusion: Combining cognitive behavioral therapy and calcium supplementation and vitamin D is significantly effective in improving components of PMS sympotoms and applying these methods is recommended by the consultants and gynecologists.

  8. Reduced gamma frequency in the medial frontal cortex of aged rats during behavior and rest: implications for age-related behavioral slowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Patron, Lilian A; Hoang, Lan T; Nematollahi, Saman; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A

    2012-11-14

    Age-related cognitive and behavioral slowing may be caused by changes in the speed of neural signaling or by changes in the number of signaling steps necessary to achieve a given function. In the mammalian cortex, neural communication is organized by a 30-100 Hz "gamma" oscillation. There is a putative link between the gamma frequency and the speed of processing in a neural network: the dynamics of pyramidal neuron membrane time constants suggest that synaptic integration is framed by the gamma cycle, and pharmacological slowing of gamma also slows reaction times on behavioral tasks. The present experiments identify reductions in a robust 40-70 Hz gamma oscillation in the aged rat medial frontal cortex. The reductions were observed in the form of local field potentials, later peaks in fast-spiking neuron autocorrelations, and delays in the spiking of inhibitory neurons following local excitatory signals. Gamma frequency did not vary with movement speed, but rats with slower gamma also moved more slowly. Gamma frequency age differences were not observed in hippocampus. Hippocampal CA1 fast-spiking neurons exhibited interspike intervals consistent with a fast (70-100 Hz) gamma frequency, a pattern maintained across theta phases and theta frequencies independent of fluctuations in the average firing rates of the neurons. We propose that an average lengthening of the cortical 15-25 ms gamma cycle is one factor contributing to age-related slowing and that future attempts to offset cognitive declines will find a target in the response of fast-spiking inhibitory neurons to excitatory inputs.

  9. Reduced epidermal thickness, nerve degeneration and increased pain-related behavior in rats with diabetes type 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boric, Matija; Skopljanac, Ivan; Ferhatovic, Lejla; Jelicic Kadic, Antonia; Banozic, Adriana; Puljak, Livia

    2013-11-01

    To examine the mechanisms contributing to pain genesis in diabetic neuropathy, we investigated epidermal thickness and number of intraepidermal nerve fibers in rat foot pad of the animal model of diabetes type 1 and type 2 in relation to pain-related behavior. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes type 1 was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and diabetes type 2 was induced with a combination of STZ and high-fat diet. Control group for diabetes type 1 was fed with regular laboratory chow, while control group for diabetes type 2 received high-fat diet. Body weights and blood glucose levels were monitored to confirm induction of diabetes. Pain-related behavior was analyzed using thermal (hot, cold) and mechanical stimuli (von Frey fibers, number of hyperalgesic responses). Two months after induction of diabetes, glabrous skin samples from plantar surface of the both hind paws were collected. Epidermal thickness was evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Intraepidermal nerve fibers quantification was performed after staining skin with polyclonal antiserum against protein gene product 9.5. We found that induction of diabetes type 1 and type 2 causes significant epidermal thinning and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in a rat model, and both changes were more pronounced in diabetes type 1 model. Significant increase of pain-related behavior two months after induction of diabetes was observed only in a model of diabetes type 1. In conclusion, animal models of diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2 could be used in pharmacological studies, where cutaneous changes could be used as outcome measures for predegenerative markers of neuropathies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Social crowding in the night-time reduces an anxiety-like behavior and increases social interaction in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ota, Yuki; Kitamoto, Mari; Imoto, Emina; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-08-15

    Rearing in crowded conditions is a psychosocial stressor that affects biological functions. The effects of continuous crowding for many days have been studied, but those of crowding over a limited time have not. In this study, we examined the effects of night-time or daytime crowding over 2 weeks on behavior in adolescent and adult mice. Crowding (20 mice/cage) in either the night-time or daytime did not affect locomotor activity in the open field test or cognitive function in the fear conditioning test. In contrast, night-time crowding, but not daytime crowding, had an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test and increased social interaction in adolescent mice, but not in adult mice. The first night-time, but not daytime, crowding increased plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent mice, although night-time crowding over 2 weeks did not affect the corticosterone levels. Furthermore, no significant effects of the first crowding were observed in adult mice. In a second crowding condition (six mice/small cage), the anxiolytic-like effects of night-time crowding and the change in plasma corticosterone levels were not observed, suggesting that the density of mice is not important for the behavioral consequences of crowding. Night-time crowding did not affect neurotrophic/growth factor levels and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent mice. These findings suggest that night-time crowding leads to anxiolytic-like behaviors in adolescent mice, and imply that night-time crowding stress in adolescence may be beneficial to brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Tele-Behavioral Health Intervention to Reduce Depression, Anxiety, and Stress and Improve Diabetes Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Vue, Lee; Luka, Andi; Peters, Aimee; Pande, Reena L

    2016-08-01

    Depression is prevalent among individuals with diabetes and associated with suboptimal self-management. Little is known about the feasibility and potential impact of tele-behavioral therapy to improve depressive symptoms and self-management among diabetes patients. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive graduates enrolled in a national 8-week diabetes behavioral telehealth program between August 1, 2014, and January 31, 2015 (N = 466; mean age 56.8 ± 5.0 years; 56% female). Participant characteristics (demographics, comorbidities) were obtained by standardized questionnaire. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms (DASS; validated Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 survey), and glucose self-testing frequency and values (point-of-care monitor) were measured at program start and completion. Changes in DASS severity and glucose self-testing frequency were assessed by chi-square tests. Changes in DASS and blood glucose levels were evaluated by paired t-tests. At baseline, approximately one in three participants had elevated depression (32%), anxiety (33%), or stress (31%) scores. Significant reductions in average DASS, depression (-8.8), anxiety (-6.9), and stress (-9.9), scores were observed at graduation among those with elevated baseline scores (p depression, anxiety, or stress categories. Improved glucose self-testing frequency (69% vs. 60% tested ≥once per week; p = 0.0005) and significant reductions in mean morning glucose levels (-12.3 mg/dL; p = 0.0002) were observed from baseline to graduation. Participants with normal versus non-normal depression scores were more likely to have lower (depression, anxiety, stress, and glucose levels, as well as increased frequency of glucose self-testing, among participants in a diabetes behavioral telehealth program.

  12. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Li; Strodl, Esben; Fan, Li-Jun; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Deng-Li; Xian, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014–2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal...

  13. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  14. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, Ellen; De Craemer, Marieke; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Verbestel, Vera; Duvinage, Kristin; Iotova, Violeta; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Wildgruber, Andreas; Mouratidou, Theodora; Manios, Yannis; Cardon, Greet

    2014-02-19

    High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers' sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with the inclusion of parental involvement. The

  15. Evaluation of an mHealth intervention aiming to improve health-related behavior and sleep and reduce fatigue among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drongelen, Alwin; Boot, Cécile Rl; Hlobil, Hynek; Twisk, Jos Wr; Smid, Tjabe; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an mHealth intervention (intervention using mobile technology) consisting of tailored advice regarding exposure to daylight, sleep, physical activity, and nutrition, and aiming to improve health-related behavior, thereby reducing sleep problems and fatigue and improving health perception of airline pilots. A randomized controlled trial was conducted among 502 airline pilots. The intervention group was given access to both the MORE Energy mobile application (app) with tailored advice and a website with background information. The control group was directed to a website with standard information about fatigue. Health-related behavior, fatigue, sleep, and health perception outcomes were measured through online questionnaires at baseline and at three and six months after baseline. The effectiveness of the intervention was determined using linear and Poisson mixed model analyses. After six months, compared to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant improvement on fatigue (β= -3.76, P<0.001), sleep quality (β= -0.59, P=0.007), strenuous physical activity (β=0.17, P=0.028), and snacking behavior (β= -0.81, P<0.001). No significant effects were found for other outcome measures. The MORE Energy mHealth intervention reduced self-reported fatigue compared to a minimal intervention. Some aspects of health-related behavior (physical activity and snacking behavior) and sleep (sleep quality) improved as well, but most did not. The results show offering tailored advice through an mHealth intervention is an effective means to support employees who have to cope with irregular flight schedules and circadian disruption. This kind of intervention might therefore also be beneficial for other working populations with irregular working hours.

  16. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early prenatal androgen exposure reduces testes size and sperm concentration in sheep without altering neuroendocrine differentiation and masculine sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C M; Estill, C T; Amodei, R; McKune, A; Gribbin, K P; Meaker, M; Stormshak, F; Roselli, C E

    2018-01-01

    Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) postpubertal scrotal circumference and sperm concentration. Prenatal T exposure did not alter ejaculate volume, sperm motility and morphology or testis morphology. There was, however, a trend for more T-exposed rams than controls to be classified as unsatisfactory potential breeders during breeding soundness examinations. Postnatal serum T concentrations were not affected by prenatal T exposure, nor was the expression of key testicular genes essential for spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. Basal serum LH did not differ between treatment groups, nor did pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. T-exposed rams, like control males, exhibited vigorous libido and were sexually attracted to estrous females. In summary, these results suggest that exposure to exogenous T during the first trimester of gestation can negatively impact spermatogenesis and compromise the reproductive fitness of rams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Aura interruption: the Andrews/Reiter behavioral intervention may reduce seizures and improve quality of life - a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, S M; Gregory, W L; White, G; Navarro, G; Salinsky, M C; Andrews, D J

    2011-12-01

    Patients with epilepsy frequently experience depression and emotional stress and these may function as seizure triggers in epileptogenic frontotemporal cortex, which serves in emotional processing. Eight patients enrolled in a pilot trial of a 6-month epilepsy-specific behavioral approach comprising counseling and relaxation to recognize and eliminate emotional seizure triggers. Potential participants with psychogenic seizures were excluded by long-term EEG and/or the MMPI profile. One participant became seizure free, another had an approximately 90% reduction in seizures, and two additional participants achieved a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency (total responder rate=50%), stable during 6 months of observation after the intervention. All completers showed marked and stable improvement of quality of life (Quality of Life in Epilepsy-89 inventory) and temporary improvement in the Profile of Mood States. An adequately powered randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm our findings, which suggest that behavioral approaches may hold promise for motivated patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding the developing brain: Juvenile rats fed diet rich in prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions exhibit reduced anxiety-related behavior and modified gene expression in emotion circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Agnieszka; Gaffney, Michelle; Roller, Rachel; Hills, Abigail; Bouchet, Courtney A; Hulen, Kristina A; Thompson, Robert S; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Fleshner, Monika

    2018-01-30

    Early life nutrition is critical for brain development. Dietary prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions support brain development by increasing plasticity and altering activity in brain regions important for cognition and emotion regulation, perhaps through the gut-microbiome-brain axis. Here we examined the impact of a diet containing prebiotics, lactoferrin, and milk fat globule membrane (test diet) on beneficial gut bacteria, basal gene expression for activity and plasticity markers within brain circuits important for cognition and anxiety, and anxiety-related behavior in the open field. Juvenile male F344 rats were fed the test diet or a calorically matched control diet beginning postnatal day 24. After 4 weeks on diets, rats were sacrificed and brains were removed. Test diet significantly increased mRNA expression for cfos, brain derived neurotropic factor, and the GluN1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the prefrontal cortex and reduced cfos mRNA within the amygdala. Diet-induced increases in fecal Lactobacillus spp., measured using selective bacterial culture, positively correlated with altered gene expression for cfos and serotonin receptors within multiple brain regions. In a separate cohort of juvenile rats, 4 weeks of the test diet increased time spent in the center of the open field, a behavior indicative of reduced anxiety. These data demonstrate that early life diets containing prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions can adaptively alter genes in neural circuits underlying emotion regulation and decrease anxiety-related behavior. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Can Facebook Reduce Perceived Anxiety Among College Students? Randomized Controlled Exercise Trial Using the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul

    2017-12-08

    Recent studies suggest social media may be an attractive strategy to promote mental health and wellness. There remains a need to examine the utility for individually tailored wellness messages posted to social media sites such as Facebook to facilitate positive psychological outcomes. Our aim was to extend the growing body of evidence supporting the potential for social media to enhance mental health. We evaluated the influence of an 8-week social media intervention on anxiety in college students and examined the impact of dynamic (active) versus static (passive) Facebook content on physical activity behaviors. Participants in the static group (n=21) accessed a Facebook page featuring 96 statuses. Statuses were intended to engage cognitive processes followed by behavioral processes of change per the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Content posted on the static Facebook page was identical to the dynamic page; however, the static group viewed all 96 statuses on the first day of the study, while the dynamic group received only 1 to 2 of these status updates per day throughout the intervention. Anxiety was measured using the Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale (OASIS). Time spent engaging in physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The OASIS change score for the dynamic Facebook group was statistically significant (P=.003), whereas the change score for the static group was not (P=.48). A statistically significant group-by-time interaction was observed (P=.03). The total IPAQ group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant (P=.06). We observed a decrease in anxiety and increase in total physical activity for the dynamic group only. Dynamic social networking sites, featuring regularly updated content, may be more advantageous than websites that retain static content over time. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03363737; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03363737 (Archived by WebCite at http

  2. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions to Reduce Condomless Sex and Increase HIV Testing for Latino MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ashley; Santamaria, E Karina; Operario, Don

    2017-12-15

    Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV, and there have been calls to improve availability of culturally sensitive HIV prevention programs for this population. This article provides a systematic review of intervention programs to reduce condomless sex and/or increase HIV testing among Latino MSM. We searched four electronic databases using a systematic review protocol, screened 1777 unique records, and identified ten interventions analyzing data from 2871 Latino MSM. Four studies reported reductions in condomless anal intercourse, and one reported reductions in number of sexual partners. All studies incorporated surface structure cultural features such as bilingual study recruitment, but the incorporation of deep structure cultural features, such as machismo and sexual silence, was lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed interventions that incorporate deep structure cultural features in order to reduce HIV among Latino MSM.

  3. Neonatal pain and reduced maternal care: Early-life stressors interacting to impact brain and behavioral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney-Leber, Sean M; Brummelte, Susanne

    2017-02-07

    Advances in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have drastically increased the survival chances of preterm infants. However, preterm infants are still exposed to a wide range of stressors during their stay in the NICU, which include painful procedures and reduced maternal contact. The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, in response to these stressors during this critical period of brain development, has been associated with many acute and long-term adverse biobehavioral outcomes. Recent research has shown that Kangaroo care, a non-pharmacological analgesic based on increased skin-to-skin contact between the neonate and the mother, negates the adverse outcomes associated with neonatal pain and reduced maternal care, however the biological mechanism remains widely unknown. This review summarizes findings from both human and rodent literature investigating neonatal pain and reduced maternal care independently, primarily focusing on the role of the HPA axis and biobehavioral outcomes. The physiological and positive outcomes of Kangaroo care will also be discussed in terms of how dampening of the HPA axis response to neonatal pain and increased maternal care may account for positive outcomes associated with Kangaroo care. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. "We're Changing Our Ways": Women's Coping Strategies for Obesity Risk-reducing Behaviors in American Indian Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors.

  5. Reduced self-control leads to disregard of an unfamiliar behavioral option: an experimental approach to the study of neuroenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Wanja; Baumgarten, Franz; Brand, Ralf

    2013-12-06

    Neuroenhancement (NE), the use of psychoactive substances in order to enhance a healthy individual's cognitive functioning from a proficient to an even higher level, is prevalent in student populations. According to the strength model of self-control, people fail to self-regulate and fall back on their dominant behavioral response when finite self-control resources are depleted. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that ego-depletion will prevent students who are unfamiliar with NE from trying it. 130 undergraduates, who denied having tried NE before (43% female, mean age = 22.76 ± 4.15 years old), were randomly assigned to either an ego-depletion or a control condition. The dependent variable was taking an "energy-stick" (a legal nutritional supplement, containing low doses of caffeine, taurine and vitamin B), offered as a potential means of enhancing performance on the bogus concentration task that followed. Logistic regression analysis showed that ego-depleted participants were three times less likely to take the substance, OR = 0.37, p = .01. This experiment found that trying NE for the first time was more likely if an individual's cognitive capacities were not depleted. This means that mental exhaustion is not predictive for NE in students for whom NE is not the dominant response. Trying NE for the first time is therefore more likely to occur as a thoughtful attempt at self-regulation than as an automatic behavioral response in stressful situations. We therefore recommend targeting interventions at this inter-individual difference. Students without previous reinforcing NE experience should be provided with information about the possible negative health outcomes of NE. Reconfiguring structural aspects in the academic environment (e.g. lessening workloads) might help to deter current users.

  6. Prototypical anxiolytics do not reduce anxiety-like behavior in the open field in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trey; Grabowski-Boase, Laura; Tarantino, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Understanding and effectively treating anxiety disorders are a challenge for both scientists and clinicians. Despite a variety of available therapies, the efficacy of current treatments is still not optimal and adverse side effects can result in non-compliance. Animal models have been useful for studying the underlying biology of anxiety and assessing the anxiolytic properties of potential therapeutics. The open field (OF) is a commonly used assay of anxiety-like behavior. The OF was developed and validated in rats and then transferred to use in the mouse with only limited validation. The present study tests the efficacy of prototypical benzodiazepine anxiolytics, chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and diazepam (DZ), for increasing center time in the OF in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Multiple doses of CDP and DZ did not change time spent in the center of the OF. Increasing illumination in the OF did not alter these results. The non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic, buspirone (BUSP) also failed to increase center time in the OF while the anxiogenic meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) increased center time. Additional inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ (BALB) and DBA/2J (D2) did not show any change in center time in response to CDP. Moreover, evaluation of CDP in B6 mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM), elevated zero maze (EZM) and light dark assay (LD) did not reveal changes in anxiety-like behavior while stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was decreased by DZ. Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies suggest that adequate CDP is present to induce anxiolysis. We conclude that the measure of center time in the OF does not show predictive validity for anxiolysis in these inbred mouse strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced levels of NR1 and NR2A with depression-like behavior in different brain regions in prenatally stressed juvenile offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Sun

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes. Juvenile rats repeatedly exposed to prenatal stress (PS exhibit behavioral features often observed in neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. However, to date the underlying neurological mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, juvenile offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to PS were evaluated for depression-related behaviors in open field and sucrose preference test. NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum were assayed by western blotting. The results indicated that PS resulted in several behavioral anomalies in the OFT and sucrose preference test. Moreover, reduced levels of NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, and NR1 in prefrontal cortex and striatum of prenatally stressed juvenile offspring were found. Treatment with MK-801 to pregnant dams could prevent all those changes in the juvenile offspring. Collectivity, these data support the argument that PS to pregnant dams could induce depression-like behavior, which may be involved with abnormal expression of NR1 and NR2A in specific brain regions, and MK-801 may have antidepressant-like effects on the juvenile offspring.

  8. No evidence that environmental enrichment during rearing protects against cocaine behavioral effects but as an intervention reduces an already established cocaine conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaj, E; Shukur, A; Manuszak, M; Newman, K; Ranaldi, R

    2017-05-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) produces differential effects on psychostimulant-related behaviors. Therefore, we investigated whether the timing of EE exposure - during rearing and before cocaine exposure versus in adulthood and after cocaine exposure might be a determining factor. In Experiment 1, rats reared with EE or not (non-EE) were conditioned with cocaine (5, 10 or 20mg/kg) in one compartment of a CPP apparatus and saline in the other, and later tested for cocaine CPP. In Experiment 2, locomotor activity in response to repeated injections of saline or cocaine was measured in rats raised with EE or non-EE. In Experiment 3 we measured the effects of EE or non-EE during rearing on food-based conditioned approach learning. In Experiment 4, rats were exposed to cocaine CPP conditioning then underwent 60days of EE or non-EE treatment after which they were tested for cocaine CPP. Our results show that rearing in EE did not reduce cocaine CPP or cocaine-induced locomotor activity (Experiments 1 and 2) but significantly facilitated conditioned approach learning (Experiment 3). On the other hand, EE treatment introduced after cocaine conditioning significantly reduced the expression of cocaine CPP (Experiment 4). These findings suggest that EE does not protect against cocaine's rewarding and stimulant effects but can reduce already established cocaine effects, suggesting that EE might be an effective treatment for cocaine addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. On the behavior of reduced graphene oxide based electrodes coated with dispersed platinum by alternate current methods in the electrochemical degradation of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río, A I; García, C; Molina, J; Fernández, J; Bonastre, J; Cases, F

    2017-09-01

    The electrochemical behavior of different carbon-based electrodes with and without nanoparticles of platinum electrochemically dispersed on their surface has been studied. Among others, reduced graphene oxide based electrodes was used to determine the best conditions for the decolorization/degradation of the reactive dye C.I. Reactive Orange 4 in sulfuric medium. Firstly, the electrochemical behavior was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. Secondly, different electrolyses were performed using two cell configurations: cell with anodic and cathodic compartments separated (divided configuration) and without any separation (undivided configuration). The best results were obtained when reduced graphene oxide based anodes were used. The degree of decolorization was monitored by spectroscopic methods and high performance liquid chromatography. It was found that all of them followed pseudo-first order kinetics. When reduced graphene oxide-based electrodes coated with dispersed platinum by alternate current methods electrodes were used, the lowest energy consumption and the higher decolorization kinetics rate were obtained. Scanning Electronic Microscopy was used to observe the morphological surface differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Watershed Models and Human Behavioral Analyses to identify Management Options to Reduce Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Wilson, R. S.; Aloysius, N.; Kalcic, M. M.; Roe, B.; Howard, G.; Irwin, E.; Zhang, W.; Liu, H.

    2017-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, a key question is what management options should be pursued to reach the 40% reduction. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. This information was then used to guide another round of watershed modeling analysis to evaluate scenarios that represented more realistic scenarios based on potential levels of management adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, and that some of these greater adoption levels are possible based on likely adoption rates. Increasing the perceived efficacy of the practices is one method that will support greater voluntary rates of adoption.

  11. Influence of PCMs on thermal behavior of building walls: experimental study using the walls of a reduced scale room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gounni Ayoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Phase-Change Materials (PCM for lightweight building applications can increase equivalent thermal mass and provide energy savings. In the present experimental work, the heat transfer performance testing of some building walls, with or without PCM, is carried out using a reduced-scale cubic room (the test-cell. The cubic cell is heated by an incandescent bulb placed on its centre, and it is housed in an air-conditioned large-scale room that allows to control the ambient air temperature. The effect of the double PCM layer and of its location relatively to the outside surface of the wall is tested and discussed in terms of overall transmitted heat flux and in terms of reduction of the inside and outside surface temperatures. Findings shows that the additional inertia introduced by the PCM leads to a reduced overall heat flux transmission by the wall and to a lesser daily temperature amplitude on the surface of the wall that enhances the thermal comfort inside the building. In the next step of this work, the case of sandwich walls with air gap, and with wood and PCM layers will be considered.

  12. A brief facial morphing intervention to reduce skin cancer risk behaviors: Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J; Rooney, Benjamin M; Luberto, Christina M; Gonzales, Manuel; Grogan, Sarah

    2018-04-20

    The current study was designed to test the efficacy of an appearance-based facial morphing program to reduce intentional UV exposure among individuals at risk for skin cancer. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was employed (N = 219) comparing facial morphing + health information to: (1) mindfulness + health information; and (2) health information only. Participants were young adults with a history of recent intentional tanning and future intentions to tan. Primary outcomes were indoor and outdoor tanning frequency and tanning intentions, with secondary outcomes of tanning attitudes, body image, and affect. Facial morphing participants reported less frequent tanning, compared to mindfulness and control participants at 1-month follow-up. Facial morphing participants also generally reported lower intentions to tan at immediate follow-up, although the magnitude of these effects weakened at 1-month follow-up. Facial morphing programs may offer a brief, efficacious, and scalable augmentation to standard of care in reducing intentional UV exposure. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03237013). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of PCMs on thermal behavior of building walls: experimental study using the walls of a reduced scale room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gounni, Ayoub; Tahar Mabrouk, Mohamed; Kheiri, Abdelhamid; El alami, Mustapha

    2017-11-01

    Using Phase-Change Materials (PCM) for lightweight building applications can increase equivalent thermal mass and provide energy savings. In the present experimental work, the heat transfer performance testing of some building walls, with or without PCM, is carried out using a reduced-scale cubic room (the test-cell). The cubic cell is heated by an incandescent bulb placed on its centre, and it is housed in an air-conditioned large-scale room that allows to control the ambient air temperature. The effect of the double PCM layer and of its location relatively to the outside surface of the wall is tested and discussed in terms of overall transmitted heat flux and in terms of reduction of the inside and outside surface temperatures. Findings shows that the additional inertia introduced by the PCM leads to a reduced overall heat flux transmission by the wall and to a lesser daily temperature amplitude on the surface of the wall that enhances the thermal comfort inside the building. In the next step of this work, the case of sandwich walls with air gap, and with wood and PCM layers will be considered.

  14. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD)-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Megha; Beaulieu-Abdelahad, David; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Li, Rena; Crawford, Fiona; Mullan, Michael; Paris, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe) of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  15. Chronic Anatabine Treatment Reduces Alzheimer's Disease (AD-Like Pathology and Improves Socio-Behavioral Deficits in a Transgenic Mouse Model of AD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Verma

    Full Text Available Anatabine is a minor tobacco alkaloid, which is also found in plants of the Solanaceae family and displays a chemical structure similarity with nicotine. We have shown previously that anatabine displays some anti-inflammatory properties and reduces microgliosis and tau phosphorylation in a pure mouse model of tauopathy. We therefore investigated the effects of a chronic oral treatment with anatabine in a transgenic mouse model (Tg PS1/APPswe of Alzheimer's disease (AD which displays pathological Aβ deposits, neuroinflammation and behavioral deficits. In the elevated plus maze, Tg PS1/APPswe mice exhibited hyperactivity and disinhibition compared to wild-type mice. Six and a half months of chronic oral anatabine treatment, suppressed hyperactivity and disinhibition in Tg PS1/APPswe mice compared to Tg PS1/APPswe receiving regular drinking water. Tg PS1/APPswe mice also elicited profound social interaction and social memory deficits, which were both alleviated by the anatabine treatment. We found that anatabine reduces the activation of STAT3 and NFκB in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in Tg PS1/APPswe mice resulting in a reduction of the expression of some of their target genes including Bace1, iNOS and Cox-2. In addition, a significant reduction in microgliosis and pathological deposition of Aβ was observed in the brain of Tg PS1/APPswe mice treated with anatabine. This is the first study to investigate the impact of chronic anatabine treatment on AD-like pathology and behavior in a transgenic mouse model of AD. Overall, our data show that anatabine reduces β-amyloidosis, neuroinflammation and alleviates some behavioral deficits in Tg PS1/APPswe, supporting further exploration of anatabine as a possible disease modifying agent for the treatment of AD.

  16. Effects of GABA(B) receptor agents on cocaine priming, discrete contextual cue and food induced relapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Małgorzata; Frankowska, Małgorzata

    2007-10-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist (2S)-(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), the agonists baclofen and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acid (SKF 97541), and the allosteric positive modulator 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy-beta,beta-dimethylbenzenepropanol (CGP 7930) on cocaine seeking behavior. The effects of the above drugs on the reinstatement of responding induced by natural reinforcer (food) were also studied. Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer either cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion) or food (sweet milk) and responding on the reinforcer-paired lever was extinguished. Reinstatement of responding was induced by a noncontingent presentation of the self-administered reinforcer (10 mg/kg cocaine, i.p.), a discrete contextual cue, or a contingent presentation of food. SCH 50911 (3-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently attenuated responding on the previously cocaine-paired lever during both reinstatement conditions, with slightly greater efficacy at reducing conditioned cue reinstatement. At the same time, it failed to alter reinstatement of food-seeking behavior. Baclofen (1.25-5 mg/kg) and SKF 97541 (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) attenuated cocaine- or food-seeking behavior; the effect of the drug appeared more effective for cocaine-seeking than food-seeking. CGP 7930 (10-30 mg/kg) reduced cocaine seeking without affecting food-induced reinstatement on reward seeking. Our results indicate that tonic activation of GABA(B) receptors is required for cocaine seeking behavior in rats. Moreover, the GABA(B) receptor antagonist SCH 50911 was effective in reducing relapse to cocaine at doses that failed to alter reinstatement of food-seeking behavior (present study), basal locomotor activity, cocaine and food self-administration (Filip et al., submitted for publication), suggesting its selective effects on motivated drug-seeking behavior. The potent inhibitory responses on cocaine seeking behavior were also seen

  17. Review of interventions to reduce ultraviolet tanning: Need for treatments targeting excessive tanning, an emerging addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Manne, Sharon L

    2017-12-01

    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive-behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation reduces food-craving and measures of hyperphagia behavior in participants with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gabriela L; Poje, Albert B; Perissinotti, Iago; Marcondes, Bianca F; Villamar, Mauricio F; Manzardo, Ann M; Luque, Laura; LePage, Jean F; Stafford, Diane; Fregni, Felipe; Butler, Merlin G

    2016-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disabilities and insatiable appetite with compulsive eating leading to severe obesity with detrimental health consequences. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to modulate decision-making and cue-induced food craving in healthy adults. We conducted a pilot double blind, sham-controlled, multicenter study of tDCS modulation of food drive and craving in 10 adult PWS participants, 11 adult obese (OB) and 11 adult healthy-weight control (HWC) subjects. PWS and OB subjects received five consecutive daily sessions of active or sham tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while HWC received a single sham and active tDCS in a crossover design. Standardized psychometric instruments assessed food craving, drive and hyperphagia by self-report and caregiver assessment over 30 days. Robust baseline differences were observed in severity scores for the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Dykens Hyperphagia Questionnaire (DHQ) for PWS compared to HWC while obese participants were more similar to HWC. Active tDCS stimulation in PWS was associated with a significant change from baseline in TFEQ Disinhibition (Factor II) (Ƶ = 1.9, P food drive and behaviors impacting hyperphagia in PWS. Transcranial direct current stimulation may represent a straight-forward, low risk and low cost method to improve care, management and quality of life in PWS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Maternal neglect with reduced depressive-like behavior and blunted c-fos activation in Brattleboro mothers, the role of central vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Anna; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Balazsfi, Diana; Kovacs, Krisztina B; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2012-09-01

    Early mother-infant relationships exert important long-term effects in offspring and are disturbed by factors such as postpartum depression. We aimed to clarify if lack of vasopressin influences maternal behavior paralleled by the development of a depressive-like phenotype. We compared vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro mothers with heterozygous and homozygous normal ones. The following parameters were measured: maternal behavior (undisturbed and separation-induced); anxiety by the elevated plus maze; sucrose and saccharin preference and forced swim behavior. Underlying brain areas were examined by c-fos immunocytochemistry among rest and after swim-stress. In another group of rats, vasopressin 2 receptor agonist was used peripherally to exclude secondary changes due to diabetes insipidus. Results showed that vasopressin-deficient rats spend less time licking-grooming their pups through a centrally driven mechanism. There was no difference between genotypes during the pup retrieval test. Vasopressin-deficient mothers tended to explore more the open arms of the plus maze, showed more preference for sucrose and saccharin and struggled more in the forced swim test, suggesting that they act as less depressive. Under basal conditions, vasopressin-deficient mothers had more c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area, shell of nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala, but not in other structures. In these areas the swim-stress-induced activation was smaller. In conclusion, vasopressin-deficiency resulted in maternal neglect due to a central effect and was protective against depressive-like behavior probably as a consequence of reduced activation of some stress-related brain structures. The conflicting behavioral data underscores the need for more sex specific studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A mathematical model for the interactive behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogens during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammad, S Ziauddin; Gomes, James; Sreekrishnan, T R

    2011-09-01

    Anaerobic degradation of waste involves different classes of microorganisms, and there are different types of interactions among them for substrates, terminal electron acceptors, and so on. A mathematical model is developed based on the mass balance of different substrates, products, and microbes present in the system to study the interaction between methanogens and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The performance of major microbial consortia present in the system, such as propionate-utilizing acetogens, butyrate-utilizing acetogens, acetoclastic methanogens, hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, and SRB were considered and analyzed in the model. Different substrates consumed and products formed during the process also were considered in the model. The experimental observations and model predictions showed very good prediction capabilities of the model. Model prediction was validated statistically. It was observed that the model-predicted values matched the experimental data very closely, with an average error of 3.9%.

  1. Fisetin Reduces the Impact of Aging on Behavior and Physiology in the Rapidly Aging SAMP8 Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, Antonio; Farrokhi, Catherine; Dargusch, Richard; Armando, Aaron; Quehenberger, Oswald; Schubert, David; Maher, Pamela

    2018-03-02

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rarely addressed in the context of aging even though there is an overlap in pathology. We previously used a phenotypic screening platform based on old age-associated brain toxicities to identify the flavonol fisetin as a potential therapeutic for AD and other age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Based on earlier results with fisetin in transgenic AD mice, we hypothesized that fisetin would be effective against brain aging and cognitive dysfunction in rapidly aging senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a model for sporadic AD and dementia. An integrative approach was used to correlate protein expression and metabolite levels in the brain with cognition. It was found that fisetin reduced cognitive deficits in old SAMP8 mice while restoring multiple markers associated with impaired synaptic function, stress, and inflammation. These results provide further evidence for the potential benefits of fisetin for the treatment of age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Mechanisms controlling temperature dependent mechanical and electrical behavior of SiH4 reduced chemically vapor deposited W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.V.; Prasad, V.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Yu, M.; Norcott, M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of deposition temperature on growth, composition, structure, adhesion properties, stress, and resistivity of chemically vapor deposited W deposited purely by SiH 4 reduction of WF 6 are discussed. At lower deposition temperatures, due to incomplete Si reduction reaction, a small amount of Si is incorporated in the film. This elemental Si in W is responsible for the observed high stresses and high resistivities over a wide temperature range. With the increase in the deposition temperature, the conversion of incorporated Si as well as the initial Si reduction are taking place, stimulating increased grain growth and thereby relieving stress and reducing resistivity. The optimum values for stress and resistivity are achieved around 500 degree C, as Si content is at its minimum. At higher temperatures the reaction between residual Si and W, is the prime cause of resistivity increase

  3. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Brigitte E; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. Sulforaphane increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase I and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days before an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS, and mRNA was quantified in liver and brain at 24 hours. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. In addition, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adding liquid feed to a total mixed ration reduces feed sorting behavior and improves productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, T J; Gill, R M

    2012-05-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a total mixed ration (TMR) on the feed sorting behavior and production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (88.2±19.5 DIM) were exposed, in a crossover design with 21-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control TMR and 2) control TMR with 4.1% dietary dry matter LF added. Dry matter intake (DMI), sorting, and milk yield were recorded for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis for the last 3 d of each treatment period; these data were used to calculate 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk yield. Sorting was determined by subjecting fresh feed and orts samples to particle separation and expressing the actual intake of each particle fraction as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Addition of LF did not noticeably change the nutrient composition of the ration, with the exception of an expected increase in dietary sugar concentration (from 4.0 to 5.4%). Liquid feed supplementation affected the particle size distribution of the ration, resulting in a lesser amount of short and a greater amount of fine particles. Cows sorted against the longest ration particles on both treatment diets; the extent of this sorting was greater on the control diet (55.0 vs. 68.8%). Dry matter intake was 1.4 kg/d higher when cows were fed the LF diet as compared with the control diet, resulting in higher acid-detergent fiber, neutral-detergent fiber, and sugar intakes. As a result of the increased DMI, cows tended to produce 1.9 kg/d more milk and produced 3.1 and 3.2 kg/d more 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk, respectively, on the LF diet. As a result, cows tended to produce more milk fat (0.13 kg/d) and produced more milk protein (0.09 kg/d) on the LF diet. No difference between treatments was observed in the efficiency of milk production. Overall, adding a molasses

  5. Effect of heat treatment and irradiation temperature on impact behavior of irradiated reduced-activation ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Charpy tests were conducted on eight normalized-and-tempered reduced-activation ferritic steels irradiated in two different normalized conditions. Irradiation was conducted in the Fast Flux Test Facility at 393 C to ∼14 dpa on steels with 2.25, 5, 9, and 12% Cr (0.1% C) with varying amounts of W, V, and Ta. The different normalization treatments involved changing the cooling rate after austenitization. The faster cooling rate produced 100% bainite in the 2.25 Cr steels, compared to duplex structures of bainite and polygonal ferrite for the slower cooling rate. For both cooling rates, martensite formed in the 5 and 9% Cr steels, and martensite with ∼25% δ-ferrite formed in the 12% Cr steel. Irradiation caused an increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and a decrease in the upper-shelf energy. The difference in microstructure in the low-chromium steels due to the different heat treatments had little effect on properties. For the high-chromium martensitic steels, only the 5 Cr steel was affected by heat treatment. When the results at 393 C were compared with previous results at 365 C, all but a 5 Cr and a 9 Cr steel showed the expected decrease in the shift in DBTT with increasing temperature

  6. Retrieval practice after multiple context changes, but not long retention intervals, reduces the impact of a final context change on instrumental behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Sydney; Bouton, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Recent evidence from this laboratory suggests that a context switch after operant learning consistently results in a decrement in responding. One way to reduce this decrement is to train the response in multiple contexts. One interpretation of this result, rooted in stimulus sampling theory, is that conditioning of a greater number of common stimulus elements arising from more contexts causes better generalization to new contexts. An alternative explanation is that each change of context causes more effortful retrieval, and practice involving effortful retrieval results in learning that is better able to transfer to new situations. The current experiments were designed to differentiate between these two explanations for the first time in an animal learning and memory task. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the detrimental impact of a context change on an instrumental nose-poking response can be reduced by training the response in multiple contexts. Experiment 2 then found that a training procedure which inserted extended retention intervals between successive training sessions did not reduce the detrimental impact of a final context change. This occurred even though the inserted retention intervals had a detrimental impact on responding (and, thus, presumably retrieval) similar to the effect that context switches had in Experiment 1. Together, the results suggest that effortful retrieval practice may not be sufficient to reduce the negative impact of a context change on instrumental behavior. A common elements explanation which supposes that physical and temporal contextual cues do not overlap may account for the findings more readily.

  7. Effects of a Minimal Workplace Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behaviors and Improve Perceived Wellness in Middle-Aged Women Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urda, Joyan L; Lynn, Jeffrey S; Gorman, Andrea; Larouere, Beth

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an alert to get up once per hour while at work would reduce sitting time, increase sit-to-stand transitions, and improve perceived wellness in women with sedentary jobs. Female university staff and administrators (48 ± 10 years) were randomly assigned to control-control (CC) (n = 22) or control-intervention (CI) (n = 22) groups. Both used a thigh-worn postural-based activity monitor for 2 weeks. The CC group maintained normal behaviors, whereas the CI group maintained behaviors during control week, but received hourly alerts on their computer during work hours in the intervention week. Time sitting and sit-to-stand transitions during an 8.5-hour workday were examined. A perceived wellness survey was completed at baseline and after the control and intervention weeks. Among all participants (N = 44) during the control week, 68% of the workday was spent sitting and 41 sit-to-stand transitions occurred. An analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences in variables over time (P > .05). There was a significant increase in perceived wellness from baseline in both groups (P ≤ .05). Perceived wellness showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The intervention had no statistically significant effect on sitting time or sit-to-stand transitions. Participation improved perceived wellness in the absence of behavior change.

  8. N-Acetylcysteine reduces cocaine-cue attentional bias and differentially alters cocaine self-administration based on dosing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi Bolin, B; Alcorn, Joseph L; Lile, Joshua A; Rush, Craig R; Rayapati, Abner O; Hays, Lon R; Stoops, William W

    2017-09-01

    Disrupted glutamate homeostasis is thought to contribute to cocaine-use disorder, in particular, by enhancing the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli. n-Acetylcysteine might be useful in cocaine-use disorder by normalizing glutamate function. In prior studies, n-acetylcysteine blocked the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory animals and reduced the salience of cocaine stimuli and delayed relapse in humans. The present study determined the ability of maintenance on n-acetylcysteine (0 or 2400mg/day, counterbalanced) to reduce the incentive salience of cocaine stimuli, as measured by an attentional bias task, and attenuate intranasal cocaine self-administration (0, 30, and 60mg). Fourteen individuals (N=14) who met criteria for cocaine abuse or dependence completed this within-subjects, double-blind, crossover-design study. Cocaine-cue attentional bias was greatest following administration of 0mg cocaine during placebo maintenance, and was attenuated by n-acetylcysteine. Cocaine maintained responding during placebo and n-acetylcysteine maintenance, but the reinforcing effects of cocaine were significantly attenuated across both maintenance conditions in participants maintained on n-acetylcysteine first compared to participants maintained on placebo first. These results collectively suggest that a reduction in the incentive salience of cocaine-related stimuli during n-acetylcysteine maintenance may be accompanied by reductions in cocaine self-administration. These results are in agreement with, and link, prior preclinical and clinical trial results suggesting that n-acetylcysteine might be useful for preventing cocaine relapse by attenuating the incentive salience of cocaine cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of helium on ductile brittle transition behavior of reduced activation ferritic steels after high concentration he implantation at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, A.; Ejiri, M.; Nogami, S.; Ishiga, M.; Abe, K. [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Quantum Science and Energy Engr, Sendai (Japan); Kasada, R.; Kimura, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan); Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Influence of Helium (He) on fracture behavior of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels including Oxide Dispersion Strengthening (ODS) steels and F82H were examined. To study the He effects on fracture behavior of these steels after He bubble formation conditions, higher concentration of He implantation at around 550 C were performed and examined the relationship between microstructure evolution and fracture behavior of the steels. The 1.5CVN mini size Charpy specimens were used to evaluate impact test behavior. Reduced activation ferritic ODS steels, 9Cr-ODS and 12Cr-ODS steels were examine. F82H was also examined as reference material. Helium implantation was performed by a cyclotron of Tohoku University with a beam of 50 MeV {alpha}-particles at temperature around 550 C. A tandem-type energy degrader system was used to implant He into the specimen from the irradiated surface to the range of 50 MeV {alpha}-particles, that was about 380 {mu}m in iron. Implanted He concentration were about 1000 appm. Charpy impact test was performed using a instrumented impact test apparatus in Oarai branch of IMR, Tohoku University. Analyses of absorbed energy change and fracture surface were carried out. Vickers hardness test was also carried out on He implanted area of the 1.5CVN specimen to estimate irradiation hardening. Microstructural observation was performed by TEM. In the case of F82H, DBTT increased by the 1000 appm He implantation condition was about 80 C and grain boundary fracture surface was only observed in the He implanted area of all the ruptured specimens in brittle manner. On the other hand, DBTT shift and fracture mode change of He implanted 9Cr-ODS steel was not observed after He implantation. Microstructural observation showed that He bubble formation on the lath boundaries and grain boundaries were significant in F82H, but the bubble segregation on grain boundary in ODS steel was not apparent. The bubble formation

  10. Superwellness Program: a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based group intervention to reduce weight gain in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Magni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention (Superwellness Program on weight gain compared with a treatment-as-usual (TAU approach in patients treated with antipsychotics, and to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI variation and clinical variables. Method: Eighty-five patients treated with antipsychotics were allocated across two groups, experimental (n=59 and control (n=26. The Superwellness Program (experimental group consisted of 32 twice-weekly 1-hour sessions, conducted by a psychologist and a nutritionist/nurse, concurrently with moderate food intake and moderate physical activity plans. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological variables were collected at baseline, at the end of intervention (16 weeks, and after 6 months. Results: BMI change from baseline differed significantly between the experimental and control groups, with a larger decrease in the experimental group (F = 5.5, p = 0.021. Duration of illness moderated the effect of treatment on BMI (p = 0.026. No significant (p = 0.499 effect of intervention during the follow-up period was found. Interestingly, the intervention indirectly induced a significant (p = 0.024 reduction in metabolic risk by reducing BMI. Conclusion: A cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention could be useful in reducing weight in a clinical population taking antipsychotics, with consequent benefit to physical and mental health.

  11. Do food provisions packaged in single-servings reduce energy intake at breakfast during a brief behavioral weight-loss intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Niemeier, Heather; Butryn, Meghan L; Wing, Rena R

    2009-11-01

    Larger portion sizes increase energy intake, yet it is unclear whether single-serving packages can reduce intake. This study examined the effects of providing breakfast foods in single-serving packages and nonportioned packages on energy intake of these foods during an 8-week behavioral weight-loss program. In fall 2005, 19 adults (mean body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)]=31.8+/-4.0) were randomized to conditions that provided foods in single-serving packages (Single-Serving) or in nonportioned packages (Standard). Overall amounts and types of foods provided were consistent across conditions: cereal and peaches (weeks 1, 3, 5, and 7) and applesauce and cheese (weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8). Participants were instructed to eat one serving of each food for breakfast and not to consume the provided foods at other times. Mean daily energy intake of the provided foods was the primary dependent variable. The Single-Serving group ate less energy from the combined pairs of foods provided together as compared to Standard (cereal and peaches, 117.0+/-3.2 kcal/day vs 143.5+/-39.3 kcal/day; P0.10). This suggests that single-serving packages may help reduce energy intake at breakfast within the context of a behavioral weight-control program.

  12. TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite with reduced graphene oxide through facile blending and its photocatalytic behavior for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Fuyun; Liu, Yingliang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shengping; Xu, Shengang, E-mail: xusg@zzu.edu.cn; Cao, Shaokui, E-mail: caoshaokui@zzu.edu.cn

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TRG-COOH nanocomposite as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution is prepared. • The reduction of graphene oxide reconstructs a part of conjugated structure. • The band gap is red-shifted due to the reconstruction of conjugated structure. • RG-COOH covered and anchored by P25 blocks the aggregation and the stacking. • The photocatalytic efficiency of TRG-COOH was increased under 500 W Xenon lamp. - Abstract: TRG-COOH nanocomposite is prepared as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution by blending TiO{sub 2} with reduced graphene oxide (RG-COOH). TRG-COOH is characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscope (AFM), and photoluminescent spectra. XPS result shows the reduction of monolayer graphene oxide (GO). The band gap is red-shifted from 3.25 eV for P25, which consists of 20% rutile and 80% anatase, to 2.95 eV for TGO and then to 2.80 eV for TRG-COOH due to the introduction of GO and the reconstruction of conjugated structure. TEM image illustrates that RG-COOH in TRG-COOH is covered and anchored by P25, which blocks the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and the stacking of monolayer graphene. This allows RG-COOH to take a good role of electron-sink and electron-transporting bridge. The photocatalytic efficiency of TRG-COOH is respectively increased under Xenon lamp about 8.9 and 2.7 times compared to P25 and TGO.

  13. Escitalopram or novel herbal mixture treatments during or following exposure to stress reduce anxiety-like behavior through corticosterone and BDNF modifications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravid Doron

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a major public health concern worldwide. Studies indicate that repeated exposure to adverse experiences early in life can lead to anxiety disorders in adulthood. Current treatments for anxiety disorders are characterized by a low success rate and are associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of a novel herbal treatment, in comparison to treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram. We recently demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of these treatments in BALB mice previously exposed to one week of stress. In the present study, ICR mice were exposed to post natal maternal separation and to 4 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress in adolescence, and treated during or following exposure to stress with the novel herbal treatment or with escitalopram. Anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in the elevated plus maze. Blood corticosterone levels were evaluated using radioimmunoassay. Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that (1 exposure to stress in childhood and adolescence increased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood; (2 the herbal treatment reduced anxiety-like behavior, both when treated during or following exposure to stress; (3 blood corticosterone levels were reduced following treatment with the herbal treatment or escitalopram, when treated during or following exposure to stress; (4 brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in the hippocampus of mice treated with the herbal treatment or escitalopram were increased, when treated either during or following exposure to stress. This study expands our previous findings and further points to the proposed herbal compound's potential to be highly efficacious in treating anxiety disorders in humans.

  14. Treatment outcomes of a Stage 1 cognitive-behavioral trial to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K.; Sidle, John E.; Gakinya, Benson N.; Baliddawa, Joyce B.; Martino, Steve; Mwaniki, Michael M.; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E.; Kamanda, Allan M.; Ayuku, David O.; Ojwang, Claris; Owino-Ong’or, Willis D.; Harrington, Magdalena; Bryant, Kendall J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Justice, Amy C.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Dual epidemics of HIV and alcohol use disorders, and a dearth of professional resources for behavioral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, suggest the need for development of culturally relevant and feasible interventions. The purpose of this study was to test the preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted 6-session gender-stratified group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention delivered by paraprofessionals to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected outpatients in Eldoret, Kenya. Design Randomized clinical trial comparing CBT against a usual care assessment only control Setting A large HIV outpatient clinic in Eldoret, Kenya, part of the Academic Model for Providing Access to Healthcare collaboration Participants 75 HIV-infected outpatients who were antiretroviral (ARV)-initiated or ARV-eligible and who reported hazardous or binge drinking Measurements Percent drinking days (PDD) and mean drinks per drinking days (DDD) measured continuously using the Timeline Followback Findings There were 299 ineligible and 102 eligible outpatients with 12 refusals. Effect sizes of the change in alcohol use since baseline between the two conditions at the 30-day follow-up were large (d=.95, p=.0002, mean difference=24.93 (95% CI: 12.43, 37.43) PDD; d=.76, p=.002, mean difference=2.88 (95% CI: 1.05, 4.70) DDD). Randomized participants attended 93% of the 6 CBT sessions offered. Reported alcohol abstinence at the 90-day follow-up was 69.4% (CBT) and 37.5% (usual care). Paraprofessional counselors achieved independent ratings of adherence and competence equivalent to college-educated therapists in the U.S. Treatment effect sizes were comparable to alcohol intervention studies conducted in the U.S. Conclusions Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be successfully adapted to group paraprofessional delivery in Kenya and may be effective in reducing alcohol use among HIV-infected Kenyan outpatients. PMID:21631622

  15. Reducing and preventing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, E M; Northam, E; Lee, K J; Scratch, S E; Cameron, F

    2015-11-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental health problems, which in turn are associated with poor glycemic control, diabetes-related complications, and long-term psychiatric morbidity. We tested the efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in reducing or preventing mental health problems and improving glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Diabetes Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and randomized to Triple P or standard diabetes care. The primary outcome was child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 3 and 12 months postrandomization. Secondary outcomes were glycemic control, parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning at 3 and 12 months, and glycemic control at 24 months. A total of 76 participants were randomized (38 to intervention and 38 to control), 60 completed 3-month, and 57 completed 12-month assessments. Benefits of Triple P were evident at 3 months for parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning (p externalizing behavior problems indicated greater improvements in child mental health, parent mental health, parenting skills, and diabetes family conflict (p parenting self-efficacy at 3 months. Improvements in parent mental health and parenting competency associated with Triple P were sustained to 12 months for children with pre-existing mental health problems. This study provides some support for the efficacy of Triple P in improving parent and family outcomes, and reducing child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems primarily in children who have pre-existing mental health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Depression-like behavior and mechanical allodynia are reduced by bis selenide treatment in mice with chronic constriction injury: a comparison with fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Cristiano R; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2010-12-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with significant co-morbidities, including depression, which impact considerably on the overall patient experience. Pain co-morbidity symptoms are rarely assessed in animal models of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is characterized by hyperexcitability within nociceptive pathways and remains difficult to treat with standard analgesics. The present study determined the effect of bis selenide and conventional antidepressants (fluoxetine, amitriptyline, and bupropion) on neuropathic pain using mechanical allodynic and on depressive-like behavior. Male mice were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) or sham surgery and were assessed on day 14 after operation. Mice received oral treatment with bis selenide (1-5 mg/kg), fluoxetine, amitriptyline, or bupropion (10-30 mg/kg). The response frequency to mechanical allodynia in mice was measured with von Frey hairs. Mice were evaluated in the forced swimming test (FST) test for depression-like behavior. The CCI procedure produced mechanical allodynia and increased depressive-like behavior in the FST. All of the drugs produced antiallodynic effects in CCI mice and produced antidepressant effects in control mice without altering locomotor activity. In CCI animals, however, only the amitriptyline and bis selenide treatments significantly reduced immobility in the FST. These data demonstrate an important dissociation between the antiallodynic and antidepressant effects in mice when tested in a model of neuropathic pain. Depressive behavior in CCI mice was reversed by bis selenide and amitriptyline but not by the conventional antidepressants fluoxetine and buproprion. Bis selenide was more potent than the other drugs tested for antidepressant-like and antiallodynic effects in mice.

  17. Activation of the GLP-1 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract reduces food reward behavior and targets the mesolimbic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Richard

    Full Text Available The gut/brain peptide, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1, suppresses food intake by acting on receptors located in key energy balance regulating CNS areas, the hypothalamus or the hindbrain. Moreover, GLP-1 can reduce reward derived from food and motivation to obtain food by acting on its mesolimbic receptors. Together these data suggest a neuroanatomical segregation between homeostatic and reward effects of GLP-1. Here we aim to challenge this view and hypothesize that GLP-1 can regulate food reward behavior by acting directly on the hindbrain, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R. Using two models of food reward, sucrose progressive ratio operant conditioning and conditioned place preference for food in rats, we show that intra-NTS microinjections of GLP-1 or Exendin-4, a stable analogue of GLP-1, inhibit food reward behavior. When the rats were given a choice between palatable food and chow, intra-NTS Exendin-4 treatment preferentially reduced intake of palatable food but not chow. However, chow intake and body weight were reduced by the NTS GLP-1R activation if chow was offered alone. The NTS GLP-1 activation did not alter general locomotor activity and did not induce nausea, measured by PICA. We further show that GLP-1 fibers are in close apposition to the NTS noradrenergic neurons, which were previously shown to provide a monosynaptic connection between the NTS and the mesolimbic system. Central GLP-1R activation also increased NTS expression of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in noradrenaline synthesis, indicating a biological link between these two systems. Moreover, NTS GLP-1R activation altered the expression of dopamine-related genes in the ventral tegmental area. These data reveal a food reward-suppressing role of the NTS GLP-1R and indicate that the neurobiological targets underlying food reward control are not limited to the mesolimbic system, instead they are distributed throughout the CNS.

  18. Activation of the GLP-1 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract reduces food reward behavior and targets the mesolimbic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; Anderberg, Rozita H; Göteson, Andreas; Gribble, Fiona M; Reimann, Frank; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2015-01-01

    The gut/brain peptide, glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1), suppresses food intake by acting on receptors located in key energy balance regulating CNS areas, the hypothalamus or the hindbrain. Moreover, GLP-1 can reduce reward derived from food and motivation to obtain food by acting on its mesolimbic receptors. Together these data suggest a neuroanatomical segregation between homeostatic and reward effects of GLP-1. Here we aim to challenge this view and hypothesize that GLP-1 can regulate food reward behavior by acting directly on the hindbrain, the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Using two models of food reward, sucrose progressive ratio operant conditioning and conditioned place preference for food in rats, we show that intra-NTS microinjections of GLP-1 or Exendin-4, a stable analogue of GLP-1, inhibit food reward behavior. When the rats were given a choice between palatable food and chow, intra-NTS Exendin-4 treatment preferentially reduced intake of palatable food but not chow. However, chow intake and body weight were reduced by the NTS GLP-1R activation if chow was offered alone. The NTS GLP-1 activation did not alter general locomotor activity and did not induce nausea, measured by PICA. We further show that GLP-1 fibers are in close apposition to the NTS noradrenergic neurons, which were previously shown to provide a monosynaptic connection between the NTS and the mesolimbic system. Central GLP-1R activation also increased NTS expression of dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in noradrenaline synthesis, indicating a biological link between these two systems. Moreover, NTS GLP-1R activation altered the expression of dopamine-related genes in the ventral tegmental area. These data reveal a food reward-suppressing role of the NTS GLP-1R and indicate that the neurobiological targets underlying food reward control are not limited to the mesolimbic system, instead they are distributed throughout the CNS.

  19. An empirical study on the effect of speech therapy with cognitive behavior therapy on reducing the severity of stuttering and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Ansari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of speech therapy with Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT on reducing the severity of stuttering & anxiety for adults who stutter in the city of Isfahan, Iran. The study used a semi-experimental design with pre-test/post-test control groups and it was conducted among 24 clients. The sample was selected through available sampling method among the clients suffering from stuttering and attended public speech therapy clinics of Isfahan. The measurement instruments were Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI4 and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI. After doing the pretest, clients were placed into one experimental group of speech therapy with CBT and one control group. Speech therapy for this research included ten 45-minutes sessions accomplished for each individual subject and CBT included ten 90-minutes group sessions. After finishing the therapy sessions, the posttest was executed on both groups. For statistical analysis of data, Analysis of Covariance was carried out. The research findings indicated that speech therapy with CBT reduced the severity of Stuttering and Anxiety. Speech therapy with CBT is effective in reducing Stuttering & Anxiety.

  20. Hypocretin-1 receptors regulate the reinforcing and reward-enhancing effects of cocaine: Pharmacological and behavioral genetics evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eHollander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence suggests that transmission at hypocretin-1 (orexin-1 receptors (Hcrt-R1 plays an important role in the reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behaviors in rodents. However, far less is known about the role for hypocretin transmission in regulating ongoing cocaine-taking behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective Hcrt-R1 antagonist SB-334867 on cocaine intake, as measured by intravenous (IV cocaine self-administration in rats. The stimulatory effects of cocaine on brain reward systems contribute to the establishment and maintenance of cocaine-taking behaviors. Therefore, we also assessed the effects of SB-334867 on the reward-enhancing properties of cocaine, as measured by cocaine-induced lowering of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS thresholds. Finally, to definitively establish a role for Hcrt-R1 in regulating cocaine intake, we assessed IV cocaine self-administration in Hcrt-R1 knockout mice. We found that SB-334867 (1-4 mg/kg dose-dependently decreased cocaine (0.5 mg/kg/infusion self-administration in rats but did not alter responding for food rewards under the same schedule of reinforcement. This suggests that SB-334867 decreased cocaine reinforcement without negatively impacting operant performance. SB-334867 (1-4 mg/kg also dose-dependently attenuated the stimulatory effects of cocaine (10 mg/kg on brain reward systems, as measured by reversal of cocaine-induced lowering of ICSS thresholds in rats. Finally, we found that Hcrt-R1 knockout mice self-administered far less cocaine than wildtype mice across the entire dose-response function. These data demonstrate that Hcrt-R1 play an important role in regulating the reinforcing and reward-enhancing properties of cocaine, and suggest that hypocretin transmission is likely essential for establishing and maintaining the cocaine habit in human addicts.

  1. Chronic wheel running-induced reduction of extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats is associated with reduced number of periaqueductal gray dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieraj, Jeffery C; Kim, Airee; Fannon, McKenzie J; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2016-01-01

    Exercise (physical activity) has been proposed as a treatment for drug addiction. In rodents, voluntary wheel running reduces cocaine and nicotine seeking during extinction, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking triggered by drug-cues. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of chronic wheel running during withdrawal and protracted abstinence on extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats, and to determine a potential neurobiological correlate underlying the effects. Rats were given extended access to methamphetamine (0.05 mg/kg, 6 h/day) for 22 sessions. Rats were withdrawn and were given access to running wheels (wheel runners) or no wheels (sedentary) for 3 weeks after which they experienced extinction and reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Extended access to methamphetamine self-administration produced escalation in methamphetamine intake. Methamphetamine experience reduced running output, and conversely, access to wheel running during withdrawal reduced responding during extinction and, context- and cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue demonstrated that wheel running during withdrawal did not regulate markers of methamphetamine neurotoxicity (neurogenesis, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, vesicular monoamine transporter-2) and cellular activation (c-Fos) in brain regions involved in relapse to drug seeking. However, reduced methamphetamine seeking was associated with running-induced reduction (and normalization) of the number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG). The present study provides evidence that dopamine neurons of the PAG region show adaptive biochemical changes during methamphetamine seeking in methamphetamine dependent rats and wheel running abolishes these effects. Given that the PAG dopamine neurons project onto the structures of the extended amygdala, the present findings also

  2. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A de Souza Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dopamine (DA, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA, nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [123I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor.Methods: Rats were administered intranasal application of 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH, with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [123I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT two hours following administration of the radioligand. Results: 1 After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered dopamine had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration. 2 DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant

  3. Intranasal Dopamine Reduces In Vivo [(123)I]FP-CIT Binding to Striatal Dopamine Transporter: Correlation with Behavioral Changes and Evidence for Pavlovian Conditioned Dopamine Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Silva, Maria A; Mattern, Claudia; Decheva, Cvetana; Huston, Joseph P; Sadile, Adolfo G; Beu, Markus; Müller, H-W; Nikolaus, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We hypothesized that, based on the finding of increased extracellular DA in the striatum induced by application of IN-DA, binding of [(123)I]FP-CIT to the DAT should be decreased due to competition at the receptor. Rats were administered 3 mg/kg IN-DA and vehicle (VEH), with IN-DA injection either preceding or following VEH. Then motor and exploratory behaviors (traveled distance, velocity, center time, sitting, rearing, head-shoulder motility, grooming) were assessed for 30 min in an open field prior to administration of [(123)I]FP-CIT. DAT binding after IN-DA and VEH was measured with small animal SPECT 2 h following administration of the radioligand. (1) After IN-DA application, striatal DAT binding was significantly lower as compared to VEH, indicating that the nasally delivered DA had central action and increased DA levels comparable to that found previously with L-DOPA administration; and (2) DAT binding in response to intranasal VEH was lower when IN-DA application preceded VEH treatment. This finding is suggestive of Pavlovian conditioning of DA at the level of the DAT, since the DA treatment modified (decreased) the binding in response to the subsequent VEH treatment. VEH treatment also reduced motor and exploratory behaviors more when applied before, as compared to when it followed IN-DA application, also indicative of behavioral Pavlovian conditioning akin to that found upon application of various psychostimulant drugs. (a) demonstrate a direct central action of intranasally

  4. Evaluation of an in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) to reduce risky driving behaviors in commercial drivers: Comparison of in-cab warning lights and supervisory coaching with videos of driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jennifer L; Taylor, Matthew A; Chen, Guang-Xiang; Kirk, Rachel D; Leatherman, Erin R

    2017-02-01

    Roadway incidents are the leading cause of work-related death in the United States. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether two types of feedback from a commercially available in-vehicle monitoring system (IVMS) would reduce the incidence of risky driving behaviors in drivers from two companies. IVMS were installed in 315 vehicles representing the industries of local truck transportation and oil and gas support operations, and data were collected over an approximate two-year period in intervention and control groups. In one period, intervention group drivers were given feedback from in-cab warning lights from an IVMS that indicated occurrence of harsh vehicle maneuvers. In another period, intervention group drivers viewed video recordings of their risky driving behaviors with supervisors, and were coached by supervisors on safe driving practices. Risky driving behaviors declined significantly more during the period with coaching plus instant feedback with lights in comparison to the period with lights-only feedback (ORadj=0.61 95% CI 0.43-0.86; Holm-adjusted p=0.035) and the control group (ORadj=0.52 95% CI 0.33-0.82; Holm-adjusted p=0.032). Lights-only feedback was not found to be significantly different than the control group's decline from baseline (ORadj=0.86 95% CI 0.51-1.43; Holm-adjusted p>0.05). The largest decline in the rate of risky driving behaviors occurred when feedback included both supervisory coaching and lights. Supervisory coaching is an effective form of feedback to improve driving habits in the workplace. The potential advantages and limitations of this IVMS-based intervention program are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Mediation in Improving Family Functioning and Reducing Adolescent Problem Behavior: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Huang, Wenjing

    2017-03-01

    Parent-child mediation programs are intended to resolve or manage disputes and improve family functioning, but rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness are lacking. Families referred to a community-based mediation program (N = 111) were randomized to an intervention or wait-list control group, and completed three surveys over a 12-week period. With the exception of parent-reported child delinquency (which decreased more in the intervention group), this evaluation provides little support for the short-term effectiveness of parent-child mediation for improving family functioning and reducing child problem behaviors in general. Given that this is the first randomized controlled trial of a parent-child mediation program, additional evaluations involving larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of this intervention.

  6. Effectiveness of Parent-Child Mediation in Improving Family Functioning and Reducing Adolescent Problem Behavior: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Huang, Wenjing

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child mediation programs are intended to resolve or manage disputes and improve family functioning, but rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness are lacking. Families referred to a community-based mediation program (N=111) were randomized to an intervention or wait-list control group, and completed three surveys over a 12-week period. With the exception of parent-reported child delinquency (which decreased more in the intervention group), this evaluation provides little support for the short-term effectiveness of parent-child mediation for improving family functioning and reducing child problem behaviors in general. Given that this is the first randomized controlled trial of a parent-child mediation program, additional evaluations involving larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the effectiveness of this intervention. PMID:26762375

  7. The Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group Vs. Cognitive Therapy Group on Reducing Depression and Suicide Attempts for Borderline Personality Disorder in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Jen; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei; Oei, Tian Po; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2018-03-12

    Effectiveness of the condensed Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Training Group (DBTSTG) was compared to the Cognitive Therapy Group (CTG) in reducing depression and suicide reattempt, and modifying emotion regulation strategies among those with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eighty-two depressed BPD college students with a suicidal history within the past six-months were randomly allocated to DBTSTG or CTG. Both groups had similar reductions in suicide reattempts and depression after the intervention and 6-month follow-ups. However, the CTG showed improvements in cognitive errors, but the DBTSTG revealed increases in acceptance and decreases in suppression scores. Both groups were effective in decreasing depression and suicide reattempt in BPD college students, probably through increasing adaptive antecedent-focused or response-focused strategies of emotion regulation, respectively.

  8. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets

  9. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wencai [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu Normal University, Jinan 250013 (China); Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Ma, Houyi, E-mail: hyma@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Colloid and Interface Chemistry of State Education Ministry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1–65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N = 3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. - Highlights: • The 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. • Electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE was investigated. • The electrochemical sensor exhibited a low detection limit and good selectivity. • This sensor was applied to the detection of acetaminophen in commercial tablets.

  10. Pain-mediated affect regulation is reduced after dialectical behavior therapy in borderline personality disorder: a longitudinal fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedtfeld, Inga; Schmitt, Ruth; Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2017-05-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by affective instability, but self-injurious behavior appears to have an emotion-regulating effect. We investigated whether pain-mediated affect regulation can be altered at the neural level by residential Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), providing adaptive emotion regulation techniques. Likewise, we investigated whether pain thresholds or the appraisal of pain change after psychotherapy. We investigated 28 patients with BPD undergoing DBT (self-referral), 15 patients with treatment as usual and 23 healthy control subjects at two time points 12 weeks apart. We conducted an fMRI experiment eliciting negative emotions with picture stimuli and induced heat pain to investigate the role of pain in emotion regulation. Additionally, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds.At first measurement, patients with BPD showed amygdala deactivation in response to painful stimulation, as well as altered connectivity between left amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. These effects were reduced after DBT, as compared with patients with treatment as usual. Pain thresholds did not differ between the patient groups. We replicated the role of pain as a means of affect regulation in BPD, indicated by increased amygdala coupling. For the first time, we could demonstrate that pain-mediated affect regulation can be changed by DBT. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Do students use contextual protective behaviors to reduce alcohol-related sexual risk? Examination of a dual-process decision-making model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglione, Nichole M; Hultgren, Brittney A; Reavy, Racheal; Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Sell, Nichole M

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies suggest drinking protective behaviors (DPBs) and contextual protective behaviors (CPBs) can uniquely reduce alcohol-related sexual risk in college students. Few studies have examined CPBs independently, and even fewer have utilized theory to examine modifiable psychosocial predictors of students' decisions to use CPBs. The current study used a prospective design to examine (a) rational and reactive pathways and psychosocial constructs predictive of CPB use and (b) how gender might moderate these influences in a sample of college students. Students (n = 508) completed Web-based baseline (mid-Spring semester) and 1- and 6-month follow-up assessments of CPB use; psychosocial constructs (expectancies, normative beliefs, attitudes, and self-concept); and rational and reactive pathways (intentions and willingness). Regression was used to examine rational and reactive influences as proximal predictors of CPB use at the 6-month follow-up. Subsequent path analyses examined the effects of psychosocial constructs, as distal predictors of CPB use, mediated through the rational and reactive pathways. Both rational (intentions to use CPB) and reactive (willingness to use CPB) influences were significantly associated with increased CPB use. The examined distal predictors were found to effect CPB use differentially through the rational and reactive pathways. Gender did not significantly moderate any relationships within in the model. Findings suggest potential entry points for increasing CPB use that include both rational and reactive pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates the mechanisms underlying how to increase the use of CPBs in programs designed to reduce alcohol-related sexual consequences and victimization. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004–11) of the ITC Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers’ perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Methods Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Results Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Conclusions Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires. PMID:24359292

  13. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  14. Treatment outcomes of a stage 1 cognitive-behavioral trial to reduce alcohol use among human immunodeficiency virus-infected out-patients in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Gakinya, Benson N; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Martino, Steve; Mwaniki, Michael M; Songole, Rogers; Omolo, Otieno E; Kamanda, Allan M; Ayuku, David O; Ojwang, Claris; Owino-Ong'or, Willis D; Harrington, Magdalena; Bryant, Kendall J; Carroll, Kathleen M; Justice, Amy C; Hogan, Joseph W; Maisto, Stephen A

    2011-12-01

    Dual epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and alcohol use disorders, and a dearth of professional resources for behavioral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa, suggest the need for development of culturally relevant and feasible interventions. The purpose of this study was to test the preliminary efficacy of a culturally adapted six-session gender-stratified group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention delivered by paraprofessionals to reduce alcohol use among HIV-infected out-patients in Eldoret, Kenya. Randomized clinical trial comparing CBT against a usual care assessment-only control. A large HIV out-patient clinic in Eldoret, Kenya, part of the Academic Model for Providing Access to Healthcare collaboration. Seventy-five HIV-infected out-patients who were antiretroviral (ARV)-initiated or ARV-eligible and who reported hazardous or binge drinking. Percentage of drinking days (PDD) and mean drinks per drinking days (DDD) measured continuously using the Time line Follow back method. There were 299 ineligible and 102 eligible out-patients with 12 refusals. Effect sizes of the change in alcohol use since baseline between the two conditions at the 30-day follow-up were large [d=0.95, P=0.0002, mean difference=24.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 12.43, 37.43 PDD; d=0.76, P=0.002, mean difference=2.88, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.70 DDD]. Randomized participants attended 93% of the six CBT sessions offered. Reported alcohol abstinence at the 90-day follow-up was 69% (CBT) and 38% (usual care). Paraprofessional counselors achieved independent ratings of adherence and competence equivalent to college-educated therapists in the United States. Treatment effect sizes were comparable to alcohol intervention studies conducted in the United States. Cognitive-behavioral therapy can be adapted successfully to group paraprofessional delivery in Kenya and may be effective in reducing alcohol use among HIV-infected Kenyan out-patients. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011

  15. Babies Living Safe & Smokefree: randomized controlled trial of a multilevel multimodal behavioral intervention to reduce low-income children’s tobacco smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley N. Collins

    2017-03-01

    -focused telephone counseling, mobile app, and multimedia text messages about improving nutrition. The control condition also receives a referral to the state smoking cessation quitline. Discussion This study tests an innovative community-based, multilevel and integrated multimodal approach to reducing child TSE in a vulnerable, low-income population. The approach is sustainable and has potential for wide reach because WIC can integrate the tobacco intervention prompts into routine workflow and refer smokers to free evidence-based behavioral counseling interventions, such as state quitlines. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02602288 . Registered 9 November 2015.

  16. Dietary DHA supplementation in an APP/PS1 transgenic rat model of AD reduces behavioral and Aβ pathology and modulates Aβ oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Edmond; Taylor, Karen; Bilousova, Tina; Weiland, David; Pham, Thaidan; Zuo, Xiaohong; Yang, Fusheng; Chen, Ping-Ping; Glabe, Charles G; Takacs, Alison; Hoffman, Dennis R; Frautschy, Sally A; Cole, Gregory M

    2015-10-01

    Increased dietary consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with decreased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). These effects have been postulated to arise from DHA's pleiotropic effects on AD pathophysiology, including its effects on β-amyloid (Aβ) production, aggregation, and toxicity. While in vitro studies suggest that DHA may inhibit and reverse the formation of toxic Aβ oligomers, it remains uncertain whether these mechanisms operate in vivo at the physiological concentrations of DHA attainable through dietary supplementation. We sought to clarify the effects of dietary DHA supplementation on Aβ indices in a transgenic APP/PS1 rat model of AD. Animals maintained on a DHA-supplemented diet exhibited reductions in hippocampal Aβ plaque density and modest improvements on behavioral testing relative to those maintained on a DHA-depleted diet. However, DHA supplementation also increased overall soluble Aβ oligomer levels in the hippocampus. Further quantification of specific conformational populations of Aβ oligomers indicated that DHA supplementation increased fibrillar (i.e. putatively less toxic) Aβ oligomers and decreased prefibrillar (i.e. putatively more toxic) Aβ oligomers. These results provide in vivo evidence suggesting that DHA can modulate Aβ aggregation by stabilizing soluble fibrillar Aβ oligomers and thus reduce the formation of both Aβ plaques and prefibrillar Aβ oligomers. However, since fibrillar Aβ oligomers still retain inherent neurotoxicity, DHA may need to be combined with other interventions that can additionally reduce fibrillar Aβ oligomer levels for more effective prevention of AD in clinical settings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Changing the Context Is Important and Necessary, but Not Sufficient, for Reducing Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Reply to Steinberg (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Angela D; Gillman, Arielle S; Hansen, Natasha S

    2016-07-01

    Starting school later, keeping adolescents busy with structured programming, and making free condoms available, as Steinberg (2015) suggests, are important and necessary steps, but they are simply not sufficient if the goal is reducing sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. We agree that the current state of affairs, which in many schools involves sexuality education using programs that are not empirically supported, is unacceptable. However, abandoning sexuality education entirely would leave adolescents ill equipped to protect themselves. Despite the fact that current intervention technology is neither perfect nor optimally effective, there are empirically supported, school-based sexual risk reduction interventions that teach these skills and are readily available. In addition, even though we agree that structured afternoon programs for school-aged adolescents would reduce the opportunity for sexual risk behavior during the school years, such programs would not address the demographic reality of sexual risk that continues for adolescents and emerging adults far past the end of traditional secondary education. We believe Steinberg's suggestions are an excellent start and ought to be implemented. But complementary to this approach should be the use of existing empirically supported sexual risk reduction interventions and research into the development of even more effective interventions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Arecoline Alters Taste Bud Cell Morphology, Reduces Body Weight, and Induces Behavioral Preference Changes in Gustatory Discrimination in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Hau; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Kung, Hsiu-Ni

    2016-01-01

    Arecoline, a major alkaloid in areca nuts, is involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases. Mammalian taste buds are the structural unit for detecting taste stimuli in the oral cavity. The effects of arecoline on taste bud morphology are poorly understood. Arecoline was injected intraperitoneally (IP) into C57BL/6 mice twice daily for 1-4 weeks. After arecoline treatment, the vallate papillae were processed for electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry analysis of taste receptor proteins (T1R2, T1R3, T1R1, and T2R) and taste associated proteins (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, and SNAP25). Body weight, food intake and water consumption were recorded. A 2-bottle preference test was also performed. The results demonstrated that 1) arecoline treatment didn't change the number and size of the taste buds or taste bud cells, 2) electron microscopy revealed the change of organelles and the accumulation of autophagosomes in type II cells, 3) immunohistochemistry demonstrated a decrease of taste receptor T1R2- and T1R3-expressing cells, 4) the body weight and food intake were markedly reduced, and 5) the sweet preference behavior was reduced. We concluded that the long-term injection of arecoline alters the morphology of type II taste bud cells, retards the growth of mice, and affects discrimination competencies for sweet tastants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A novel herbal treatment reduces depressive-like behaviors and increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the brain of type 2 diabetic rats

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    Luo C

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chun Luo,1,* Yuting Ke,1,* Yanyan Yuan,1 Ming Zhao,1 Fuyan Wang,1 Yisheng Zhang,2 Shizhong Bu1 1Runliang Diabetes Laboratory, Diabetes Research Center, Ningbo University, 2Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Ningbo Medical Center, Li Huili Eastern Hospital, Ningbo, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit have been demonstrated to treat diabetes. They offer potential benefits for preventing depression in diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of Radix Puerariae and hawthorn fruit (CRPHF could prevent depression in a diabetic rat model generated by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods: The CRPHF was provided by the Shanghai Chinese Traditional Medical University. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, normal-given-CRPHF (NC, diabetic control, and diabetic-given-CRPHF (DC groups. The type 2 diabetic model was created by feeding the rats with a high-fat diet for 4 weeks followed by injection of 25 mg/kg STZ. CRPHF was given at 2 g/kg/d to the rats of NC and DC groups by intragastric gavage daily for 4 weeks after the type 2 diabetic model was successfully created. Body weight, random blood glucose (RBG, oral glucose tolerance test, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were measured during the study. Depressive-like behavior was evaluated at the end of the treatment by using the open field test (OFT, the elevated plus-maze test (EPMT, locomotor activity test (LAT, and forced swimming test (FST. Levels of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the prefrontal cortex were evaluated by using Western blot. Results: 1 CRPHF reduced RBG and improved glucose tolerance in diabetic rats

  20. A Relationship between Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Shell and Enhanced Lateral Hypothalamic Orexin Neuronal Activation in Long-Term Fructose Bingeing Behavior

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    Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Stratford, Jennifer M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM) display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R) numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day) exposure to the IAM, rats given 8–12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR). This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx) neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF), a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day) access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p.) equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  1. A relationship between reduced nucleus accumbens shell and enhanced lateral hypothalamic orexin neuronal activation in long-term fructose bingeing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacki M Rorabaugh

    Full Text Available Fructose accounts for 10% of daily calories in the American diet. Fructose, but not glucose, given intracerebroventricularly stimulates homeostatic feeding mechanisms within the hypothalamus; however, little is known about how fructose affects hedonic feeding centers. Repeated ingestion of sucrose, a disaccharide of fructose and glucose, increases neuronal activity in hedonic centers, the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell and core, but not the hypothalamus. Rats given glucose in the intermittent access model (IAM display signatures of hedonic feeding including bingeing and altered DA receptor (R numbers within the NAc. Here we examined whether substituting fructose for glucose in this IAM produces bingeing behavior, alters DA Rs and activates hedonic and homeostatic feeding centers. Following long-term (21-day exposure to the IAM, rats given 8-12% fructose solutions displayed fructose bingeing but unaltered DA D1R or D2R number. Fructose bingeing rats, as compared to chow bingeing controls, exhibited reduced NAc shell neuron activation, as determined by c-Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR. This activation was negatively correlated with orexin (Orx neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area (LH/PeF, a brain region linking homeostatic to hedonic feeding centers. Following short-term (2-day access to the IAM, rats exhibited bingeing but unchanged Fos-IR, suggesting only long-term fructose bingeing increases Orx release. In long-term fructose bingeing rats, pretreatment with the Ox1R antagonist SB-334867 (30 mg/kg; i.p. equally reduced fructose bingeing and chow intake, resulting in a 50% reduction in calories. Similarly, in control rats, SB-334867 reduced chow/caloric intake by 60%. Thus, in the IAM, Ox1Rs appear to regulate feeding based on caloric content rather than palatability. Overall, our results, in combination with the literature, suggest individual monosaccharides activate distinct neuronal circuits to promote feeding behavior

  2. Potential Impacts of Modifiable Behavioral and Environmental Exposures on Reducing Burden of Under-five Mortality Associated with Household Air Pollution in Nepal.

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    Naz, Sabrina; Page, Andrew; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Household air pollution (HAP) is one of the leading causes of respiratory illness and deaths among young children in low and lower-middle income countries. This study examines for the first time trends in the association between HAP from cooking fuel and under-five mortality and measures the potential impact of interventions to reduce HAP using Nepal Demographic and Health Survey datasets (2001-2011). Methods A total of 17,780 living children across four age-groups (neonatal 0-28 days, post-neonatal 1-11 months, child 12-59 months and under-five 0-59 months) were included and multi-level logistic regression models were used for analyses. Population attributable fractions of key risk factors and potential impact fractions assessing the impact of previous interventions to reduce exposure prevalence were also calculated. Results Use of cooking fuel was associated with total under-five mortality (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.37-3.51, P = 0.001) in Nepal, with stronger associations evident for sub-group analyses of neonatal mortality (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.47-4.82, P = 0.001). Higher association was found in rural areas and for households without a separate kitchen using polluting fuel for cooking, and in women who had never breastfed for all age-groups of children. PIF estimates, assuming a 63% of reduction of HAP based on previously published interventions in Nepal, suggested that a burden of 40% of neonatal and 33% of under-five mortality cases associated with an indoor kitchen using polluting fuel could be avoidable. Conclusion Improved infrastructure and behavioral interventions could help reduce the pollution from cooking fuel in the household resulting in further reduction in under-five mortality in Nepal.

  3. The effectiveness of home-based HIV counseling and testing on reducing stigma and risky sexual behavior among adults and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

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    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu; Lockwood, Craig; Munn, Zachary

    2015-07-17

    Human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing is a critical and essential gateway to Human immunodeficiency virus prevention, treatment, care and support services. Though some primary studies indicate that home-based counselling and testing is more effective than facility based counselling and testing to reduce stigma and risky sexual behavior, to the best of the author's knowledge, no systematic review has tried to establish consistency in the findings across populations. The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of home-based Human immunodeficiency virus counselling and testing in reducing Human immunodeficiency virus-related stigma and risky sexual behavior among adults and adolescents. All adults and adolescents aged 13 years or above. TYPE OF INTERVENTION: This review considered any studies that evaluated home-based Human immunodeficiency virus counseling and testing as an intervention. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered quantitative (experimental and observational) studies. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that included the following outcome measures: stigma, violence, sexual behavior and clinical outcomes. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies reported in English Language from 2001 to 2014 in MEDLINE, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus and CINAHL. The search for unpublished studies included: WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Clinicaltrials.gov, Mednar, Google Scholar, AIDSinfo and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database. Papers selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data were extracted from papers included in the review using the standardized data extraction tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Quantitative data were pooled using the meta

  4. Impact of a Mobile Phone Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in a Community Sample of Adults: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation.

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    Kendzor, Darla E; Shuval, Kerem; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Businelle, Michael S; Ma, Ping; High, Robin R; Cuate, Erica L; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Rios, Debra M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Swartz, Michael D; Wetter, David W

    2016-01-25

    Greater time spent sedentary is linked with increased risk of breast, colorectal, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate cancers. Given steadily increasing rates of mobile phone ownership, mobile phone interventions may have the potential to broadly influence sedentary behavior across settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term impact of a mobile phone intervention that targeted sedentary time in a diverse community sample. Adults participated in a quasi-experimental evaluation of a mobile phone intervention designed to reduce sedentary time through prompts to interrupt periods of sitting. Participants carried mobile phones and wore accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. Intervention participants additionally received mobile phone prompts during self-reported sitting and information about the negative health impact of prolonged sedentariness. The study was conducted from December 2012 to November 2013 in Dallas, Texas. Linear mixed model regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of the intervention on daily accelerometer-determined estimates of sedentary and active time. Participants (N=215) were predominantly female (67.9%, 146/215) and nonwhite (black: 50.7%, 109/215; Latino: 12.1%, 26/215; other: 5.6%, 12/215). Analyses revealed that participants who received the mobile phone intervention had significantly fewer daily minutes of sedentary time (B=-22.09, P=.045) and more daily active minutes (B=23.01, P=.04) than control participants. A simple mobile phone intervention was associated with engaging in less sedentary time and more physical activity. Findings underscore the potential impact of mobile phone interventions to positively influence sedentary behavior and physical activity.

  5. Reduced risk for metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance associated with ovo-lacto-vegetarian behavior in female Buddhists: a case-control study.

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    Chiang, Jui-Kun; Lin, Ying-Lung; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ouyang, Chung-Mei; Wu, Ying-Tai; Chi, Yu-Chiao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2013-01-01

    The association of vegetarian status with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is not clear. In Asia, Buddhists often have vegetarian behavior for religious rather than for health reasons. We hypothesize that the vegetarian in Buddhism is associated with better metabolic profiles, lower risk for the MetS and insulin resistance (IR). We enrolled 391 female vegetarians (~80% lacto-ovo-vegetarians) and 315 non-vegetarians from health-checkup clinics at a Buddhist hospital in Taiwan. The vegetarian status was associated with lower body mass index, smaller waist circumference, lower total cholesterol, lower low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and lower HDL-C in multivariate linear regression analyses. Despite having lower HDL-C level, the vegetarians had significantly lower total cholesterol/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios. After adjusting the other covariates, the risks for the MetS were lower for ovo-lacto-vegetarians of 1-11 years and >11 years respectively by 54% (odds ratio [OR] =0.46, 95%C.I.:0.26-0.79) and 57% (OR=0.43, 95%C.I.:0.23-0.76) compared to non-vegetarians by the IDF criteria. Likewise, they were lower respectively by 45% (OR=0.55, 95%C.I.:0.32-0.92) and 42% (OR=0.58, 95%C.I.:0.33-0.997), for the MetS by the modified NCEP criteria. In the subgroup of non-diabetic subjects, the vegetarians also had lower risk for IR by HOMA compared to the non-vegetarians (OR=0.71, 95%C.I.:0.48-1.06). The vegetarian behavior, mainly lacto-ovo-vegetarian, related to Buddhism, although not meant for its health effects, is associated with reduced risk for the MetS and IR and may potentially provide metabolic and cardiovascular protective effects in women.

  6. Using Culturally Sensitive Media Messages to Reduce HIV-associated Sexual Behavior in High-risk African-American Adolescents: Results from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Hennessy, Michael; Brown, Larry K.; Valois, Robert F.; Stanton, Bonita F.; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClemente, Ralph; Farber, Naomi; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To test the long-term effects of a mass media intervention that used culturally and developmentally appropriate messages to enhance HIV-preventive beliefs and behavior of high-risk African-American adolescents. Methods Television and radio messages were delivered over three years in two cities (Syracuse, NY and Macon, GA) that were randomly selected within each of two regionally matched city pairs with the other cities (Providence, RI and Columbia, SC) serving as controls. African American adolescents ages 14 to 17 (N = 1710), recruited in the four cities over a 16-month period, completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at recruitment and again at 3, 6, 12 and 18-months post-recruitment to assess the long-term effects of the media program. To identify the unique effects of the media intervention, youth who completed at least one follow-up and who did not test positive for any of three sexually transmitted infections at recruitment or at 6 and 12-month follow-up were retained for analysis (N=1346). Results The media intervention reached virtually all of the adolescents in the trial and produced a range of effects including improved normative condom-use negotiation expectancies and increased sex refusal self-efficacy. Most importantly, older adolescents (ages 16-17) exposed to the media program exhibited a less risky age trajectory of unprotected sex than those in the non-media cities. Conclusions Culturally tailored mass media messages delivered consistently over time have the potential to reach a large audience of high-risk adolescents, to support changes in HIV-preventive beliefs, and to reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors among older youth. PMID:21856515

  7. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

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    Ball Kylie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity (PA is associated with positive cardio-metabolic health and emerging evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB may be detrimental to children's health independent of PA. The primary aim of the Transform-Us! study is to determine whether an 18-month, behavioral and environmental intervention in the school and family settings results in higher levels of PA and lower rates of SB among 8-9 year old children compared with usual practice (post-intervention and 12-months follow-up. The secondary aims are to determine the independent and combined effects of PA and SB on children's cardio-metabolic health risk factors; identify the factors that mediate the success of the intervention; and determine whether the intervention is cost-effective. Methods/design A four-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT with a 2 × 2 factorial design, with schools as the unit of randomization. Twenty schools will be allocated to one of four intervention groups, sedentary behavior (SB-I, physical activity (PA-I, combined SB and PA (SB+PA-I or current practice control (C, which will be evaluated among approximately 600 children aged 8-9 years in school year 3 living in Melbourne, Australia. All children in year 3 at intervention schools in 2010 (8-9 years will receive the intervention over an 18-month period with a maintenance 'booster' delivered in 2012 and children at all schools will be invited to participate in the evaluation assessments. To maximize the sample and to capture new students arriving at intervention and control schools, recruitment will be on-going up to the post-intervention time point. Primary outcomes are time spent sitting and in PA assessed via accelerometers and inclinometers and survey. Discussion To our knowledge, Transform-Us! is the first RCT to examine the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing children's overall sedentary time, promoting PA and optimizing health outcomes. The integration

  8. Psychosocial interventions for reducing vocal challenging behavior in persons with autistic disorder: a multilevel meta-analysis of single-case experiments.

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    Vanderkerken, Lien; Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Vocal challenging behavior (VCB) forms a common problem in individuals with autistic disorder. Since VCB is associated with negative outcomes for the individual and his or her environment, it is important to know how to manage this type of CB. To evaluate the effectiveness of several psychosocial interventions applied to decrease VCB in individuals with autistic disorder, we conducted a meta-analysis of single-case experiments (SCEs). Fifty-two SCEs, including 74 participants, were combined using a multilevel meta-analysis. The overall treatment effect was large and statistically significant. However, the effect varied significantly over the included studies and participants. Examining this variance, evidence was found for a moderator effect of VCB type and intervention type, with, on average, the largest effects for interventions used to reduce VCB including stereotypical VCB and for interventions containing both antecedent and consequence components. Age, gender, primary treatment setting, publication year, and study quality did not significantly moderate the intervention effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemical behavior and voltammetric determination of acetaminophen based on glassy carbon electrodes modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencai; Huang, Hui; Gao, Xiaochun; Ma, Houyi

    2014-12-01

    Poly(4-aminobenzoic acid)/electrochemically reduced graphene oxide composite film modified glassy carbon electrodes (4-ABA/ERGO/GCEs) were fabricated by a two-step electrochemical method. The electrochemical behavior of acetaminophen at the modified electrode was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The results indicated that 4-ABA/ERGO composite films possessed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of acetaminophen. The electrochemical reaction of acetaminophen at 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE is proved to be a surface-controlled process involving the same number of protons and electrons. The voltammetric determination of acetaminophen performed with the 4-ABA/ERGO modified electrode presents a good linearity in the range of 0.1-65 μM with a low detection limit of 0.01 μM (S/N=3). In the case of using the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE, acetaminophen and dopamine can be simultaneously determined without mutual interference. Furthermore, the 4-ABA/ERGO/GCE has good reproducibility and stability, and can be used to determine acetaminophen in tablets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Can We Selectively Reduce Appetite for Energy-Dense Foods? An Overview of Pharmacological Strategies for Modification of Food Preference Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanowska, Ewa; Ciosek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Excessive intake of food, especially palatable and energy-dense carbohydrates and fats, is largely responsible for the growing incidence of obesity worldwide. Although there are a number of candidate antiobesity drugs, only a few of them have been proven able to inhibit appetite for palatable foods without the concurrent reduction in regular food consumption. In this review, we discuss the interrelationships between homeostatic and hedonic food intake control mechanisms in promoting overeating with palatable foods and assess the potential usefulness of systemically administered pharmaceuticals that impinge on the endogenous cannabinoid, opioid, aminergic, cholinergic, and peptidergic systems in the modification of food preference behavior. Also, certain dietary supplements with the potency to reduce specifically palatable food intake are presented. Based on human and animal studies, we indicate the most promising therapies and agents that influence the effectiveness of appetite-modifying drugs. It should be stressed, however, that most of the data included in our review come from preclinical studies; therefore, further investigations aimed at confirming the effectiveness and safety of the aforementioned medications in the treatment of obese humans are necessary.

  11. An Approach for Measuring the Sorptive Behavior of Odorants Using a Multifunction Thermal Desorber Unit: Preliminary Tests on Reduced Sulfur Compounds

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    Sang-Woo Joo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sorptive behavior of reduced sulfur compounds (RSC was investigated using a combination of thermal desorber (TD unit and gas chromatography (GC. To examine the sorptive properties of RSC on textile materials, two types of experiments were conducted under experimental conditions favorable for sorptive processes. In all the experiments, gaseous standards of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were supplied to initiate the adsorption processes on textile pieces. The textile pieces were then forced to release those adsorbed RSC under a fixed condition. It was found that the extent of adsorption, if evaluated quantitatively, occurred at approximately 1/1000 to 1/100 of the level of RSC standards supplied originally to induce adsorption. It also indicated that RSC adsorption was affected very sensitively by the initial exposure durations to induce RSC adsorption with an exponential decrease in relative recovery (RR values with increasing exposure time. The relative sorptive patterns, when compared between different RSCs, were affected most sensitively by such factors as molecular weight and/or physical contact conditions.

  12. Use of a Self-Monitoring Application to Reduce Stereotypic Behavior in Adolescents with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation of I-Connect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Stephen A.; Mason, Rose A.; Chambers, Angela; Wills, Howard P.; Mason, Benjamin A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students with autism engage in a variety of complex stereotypic behaviors, impacting task completion and interfering with social opportunities. Self-monitoring is an intervention with empirical support for individuals with ASD to increase behavioral repertoires and decrease behaviors that are incompatible with successful outcomes. However,…

  13. Adolescent D-amphetamine treatment in a rodent model of ADHD: Pro-cognitive effects in adolescence without an impact on cocaine cue reactivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chloe J; Taylor, Danielle M; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2016-01-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with cocaine abuse. Whereas initiating ADHD medication in childhood does not alter later cocaine abuse risk, initiating medication during adolescence may increase risk. Preclinical work in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) model of ADHD found that adolescent methylphenidate increased cocaine self-administration in adulthood, suggesting a need to identify alternatively efficacious medications for teens with ADHD. We examined effects of adolescent d-amphetamine treatment on strategy set shifting performance during adolescence and on cocaine self-administration and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior (cue reactivity) during adulthood in male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (inbred control), and Wistar (outbred control) rats. During the set shift phase, adolescent SHR needed more trials and had a longer latency to reach criterion, made more regressive errors and trial omissions, and exhibited slower and more variable lever press reaction times. d-Amphetamine improved performance only in SHR by increasing choice accuracy and decreasing errors and latency to criterion. In adulthood, SHR self-administered more cocaine, made more cocaine-seeking responses, and took longer to extinguish lever responding than control strains. Adolescent d-amphetamine did not alter cocaine self-administration in adult rats of any strain, but reduced cocaine seeking during the first of seven reinstatement test sessions in adult SHR. These findings highlight utility of SHR in modeling cognitive dysfunction and comorbid cocaine abuse in ADHD. Unlike methylphenidate, d-amphetamine improved several aspects of flexible learning in adolescent SHR and did not increase cocaine intake or cue reactivity in adult SHR. Thus, adolescent d-amphetamine was superior to methylphenidate in this ADHD model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Recruitment and retention of low-income minority women in a behavioral intervention to reduce smoking, depression, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy

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    Murray Kennan B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have frequently encountered difficulties in the recruitment and retention of minorities resulting in their under-representation in clinical trials. This report describes the successful strategies of recruitment and retention of African Americans and Latinos in a randomized clinical trial to reduce smoking, depression and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk profiles of retained vs. non-retained women and lost to follow-up vs. dropped-out women are presented. In addition, subgroups of pregnant women who are less (more likely to be retained are identified. Methods Pregnant African American women and Latinas who were Washington, DC residents, aged 18 years or more, and of 28 weeks gestational age or less were recruited at six prenatal care clinics. Potentially eligible women were screened for socio-demographic eligibility and the presence of the selected behavioral and psychological risks using an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. Eligible women who consented to participate completed a baseline telephone evaluation after which they were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to either the intervention or the usual care group. Results Of the 1,398 eligible women, 1,191 (85% agreed to participate in the study. Of the 1,191 women agreeing to participate, 1,070 completed the baseline evaluation and were enrolled in the study and randomized, for a recruitment rate of 90%. Of those enrolled, 1,044 were African American women. A total of 849 women completed the study, for a retention rate of 79%. Five percent dropped out and 12% were lost-to-follow up. Women retained in the study and those not retained were not statistically different with regard to socio-demographic characteristics and the targeted risks. Retention strategies included financial and other incentives, regular updates of contact information which was tracked and monitored by a computerized data

  15. The effect of a nurse-directed intervention to reduce pain and improve behavioral and physical outcomes in patients with critically colonized/infected chronic leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelechi, Teresa J; Mueller, Martina; Spencer, Cam; Rinard, Bobbie; Loftis, Greg

    2014-01-01

    We compared a WOC nurse-directed, patient-centered intervention called MECALF (motivational enhancement and conditioning activity for leg function) compared to conditioning activities for lower leg function (CALF) alone. Outcomes were study feasibility, pain, motivation, self-efficacy, physical activity, leg strength, and range of motion. Comparative study. The sample was drawn from 2 wound centers in the Southeastern United States. Twenty-one patients (n = 12 MECALF site A and n = 9 CALF site B) with painful lower legs and critically colonized/infected wounds participated in the study. All patients received usual wound care per center protocol. The MECALF intervention was delivered by WOC nurses for 6 weeks at site A and a handout of CALF depicting the conditioning activities was provided by site staff (not WOC nurses) to patients at site B. We assessed study feasibility with postsurvey questionnaires given to WOC nurses (training usefulness, ease of use of ME with patients) and subjects (able to perform activities, use logs). Pre- and postintervention outcome data were collected by study staff using pain, motivation, and self-efficacy scales, functional measures of physical activity, and physical measures of strength and range of motion. The study was found to be somewhat feasible by the WOC nurses and patients. WOC nurses had time management problems using MECALF during usual patient care. Patients reported that they were able to perform CALF. Overall pain was statistically significantly reduced (P = .046) in both groups of patients with painful critically colonized/infected leg ulcers measured at week 8, 2 weeks after the study period. The CALF group experienced a slightly greater reduction in pain intensity than did the MECALF group. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed in behavioral outcomes for motivation (P = .641) and self-efficacy (P = .643), or for physical outcomes including overall ankle strength (P = .609) and

  16. Case study: videogame distraction reduces behavioral distress in a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated burn dressing changes: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Burns, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    This single-subject design study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of passive and interactive videogame distraction on behavioral distress for a preschool-aged child receiving repeated burn dressing changes. A 4-year-old girl underwent 3 baseline and 10 videogame distraction sessions (5 passive and 5 interactive) using a restricted alternating treatments design. Observed behavioral distress was coded, and parents and nurses rated the child's distress and cooperative behavior. Relative to baseline, behavioral distress decreased and cooperative behavior increased immediately after the onset of videogame distraction. Single Case Randomization Tests revealed significantly lower behavioral distress and greater cooperation during interactive videogame distraction relative to passive videogame distraction. Interactive videogame distraction appears to be a feasible and effective pain management strategy for a preschool-aged child undergoing repeated painful medical procedures.

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents’ substance use and problem behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Bortes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2013, around 40 % of the schools in Sweden had structured programs to prevent tobacco and alcohol debut in compulsory school. There has unfortunately been a lack of scientific evidence to support most of the prevention methods focusing on primary prevention in schools in Sweden. The aim and purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Non-Governmental Organization SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of youth substance use and other problem behaviors amongst Swedish adolescents. Methods Students from five schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were surveyed in three waves from 7th to 9th grade of compulsory school. We used General Linear Model (GLM repeated-measures ANOVA to test if the outcome measures smoking, use of snus and alcohol, drunkenness, delinquency, and bullying significantly changed different amounts over time in groups that had participated in the SMART program for long time, a short time, sporadically- or not at all. Groups were compared on demographic background variables, and outcome measures were assessed on all measurement occasions by a one-way ANOVA. The magnitude of group differences at the end of the study was estimated according to Cohen’s d. Results Number of years with a contract has an effect on the levels of self-reported youth problems in 9th grade. We found small to medium-sized differences in measured outcomes between students who participated in the program for the longest period of time, 5 years, and who participated for the shortest time, 0–2 years. Conclusion Findings suggests that the SMART program has preventive effects on adolescent substance use.

  18. Structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than behavioral therapy in reducing metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya; Legorreta-Legorreta, Jennifer; Rodríguez-Cano, Ameyalli; Mier-Cabrera, Jennifer; Aguilera-Pérez, Jesús Rafael

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of a lifestyle intervention using a behavioral therapy (BT) approach with the effects of a cardioprotective structured hypocaloric diet on metabolic syndrome in Mexican postmenopausal women. This study is a randomized clinical trial (2006-2009) of Mexican postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (Adult Treatment Panel III criteria) who were recruited from the Postmenopause Clinic of the National Institute of Perinatology in Mexico City. Women were assigned to one of two groups--group 1 (structured hypocaloric diet; n = 63): energy restriction (-300 to -500 kcal/d) emphasizing cardioprotective dietary changes; and group 2 (BT; n = 55): goal setting, problem-solving, and stimulus control to achieve cardioprotective dietary and lifestyle recommendations. Metabolic syndrome prevalence, as well as weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting biochemical markers (glucose and lipid profile), were measured at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 months after the intervention. Metabolic syndrome risk (relative risk and absolute risk reduction), mean differences between groups, and logistic regression were evaluated using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software, version 17.0. A total of 118 women were studied (mean [SD] age, 53.81 [6.43] y). No baseline differences were observed between groups. At the end of the study, a higher reduction in metabolic syndrome prevalence was observed in group 1 (-38.1%) compared with group 2 (-12.7%; relative risk, 0.237; 95% CI, 0.092-0.608; P = 0.003). The effect was maintained even when adjusted by age, hormone therapy and antihypertensive drug use. A cardioprotective structured hypocaloric diet is more effective than the BT approach in reducing metabolic syndrome after 6 months of intervention. Both strategies have positive effects on different individual cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. Intra-articular administration of an antibody against CSF-1 receptor reduces pain-related behaviors and inflammation in CFA-induced knee arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Vazquez, P A; Morado-Urbina, C E; Castañeda-Corral, G; Acosta-Gonzalez, R I; Kitaura, H; Kimura, K; Takano-Yamamoto, T; Jiménez-Andrade, J M

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that blockade of colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) or its receptor (CSF-1R) inhibits disease progression in rodent models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the role of the CSF-1/CSF-1R pathway in RA-induced pain and functional deficits has not been studied. Thus, we examined the effect of chronic intra-articular administration of a monoclonal anti-CSF-1R antibody (AFS98) on spontaneous pain, knee edema and functional disabilities in mice with arthritis. Unilateral arthritis was produced by multiple injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the right knee joint of adult male ICR mice. CFA-injected mice were then treated twice weekly from day 10 until day 25 with anti-CSF-1R antibody (3 and 10 μg/5 μL per joint), isotype control (rat IgG 10 μg/5 μL per joint) or PBS (5 μl/joint). Knee edema, spontaneous flinching, vertical rearing and horizontal exploratory activity were assessed at different days. Additionally, counts of peripheral leukocytes and body weight were measured to evaluate general health status. Intra-articular treatment with anti-CSF-1R antibody significantly increased horizontal exploratory activity and vertical rearing as well as reduced spontaneous flinching behavior and knee edema as compared to CFA-induced arthritis mice treated with PBS. Treatment with this antibody neither significantly affect mouse body weight nor the number of peripheral leukocytes. These results suggest that blockade of CSF-1R at the initial injury site (joint) could represent a therapeutic alternative for improving the functional disabilities and attenuating pain and inflammation in patients with RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Rational Emotive Behavioral Approach to Improve Anger Management and Reduce Office Referrals in Middle School Children: A Formative Investigation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Shannon R.

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen seventh and eighth graders previously identified as having behavioral problems earned significantly higher post-test scores on a test of REBT concepts immediately after participation in a Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) training program, and this knowledge was retained after an 8-week follow-up period (p less than 0.01).…

  1. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  2. Intranasal dopamine reduces in vivo [123I]FP-CIT binding to striatal dopamine transporter: correlation with behavioral changes and evidence for Pavlovian conditioned dopamine response

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A de Souza Silva; C. eMattern; C. eMattern; C.I. eDecheva; Joseph P. Huston; A. eSadile; M. eBeu; H.W. eMüller; Susanne eNikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dopamine (DA), which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, has central and behavioral effects when administered via the nasal route. Neither the mechanisms of central action of intranasal dopamine (IN-DA), nor its mechanisms of diffusion and transport into the brain are well understood. We here examined whether IN-DA application influences dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in the dorsal striatum and assessed the extent of binding in relation to motor and exploratory behaviors. We ...

  3. Application of behavior-based ergonomics therapies to improve quality of life and reduce medication usage for Alzheimer's/dementia residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowrey, Corinne; Parikh, Pratik J; Bharwani, Govind; Bharwani, Meena

    2013-02-01

    Behavior-based ergonomics therapy (BBET) has been proposed in the past as a viable individualized non-pharmacological intervention to manage challenging behaviors and promote engagement among long-term care residents diagnosed with Alzheimer's/dementia. We evaluate the effect of BBET on quality of life and behavioral medication usage in an 18-bed dementia care unit at a not-for-profit continuing care retirement community in West Central Ohio. Comparing a target cohort during the 6-month pre-implementation period with the 6-month post-implementation period, our study indicates that BBET appears to have a positive impact on the resident's quality of life and also appears to correlate with behavioral medical reduction. For instance, the number of days with behavioral episodes decreased by 53%, the total Minimum Data Set (MDS) mood counts decreased by 70%, and the total MDS behavior counts decreased by 65%. From a medication usage standpoint, the number of pro re nata (PRN) Ativan doses decreased by 57%.

  4. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  5. Activation of pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex enhances food seeking behavior while reducing impulsivity in the absence of an effect on food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McAllister Warthen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and ta